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Sample records for endotoxin tolerance mouse

  1. Duration of in vivo endotoxin tolerance in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Susan J; Jacobs, Carrie C; Cook, Vanessa L; Gandy, Jeffery C; Hauptman, Joseph G; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Endotoxemia models are used to study mechanisms and treatments of early sepsis. Repeated endotoxin exposures induce periods of endotoxin tolerance, characterized by diminished proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Repeated measure designs using equine endotoxemia models are rarely performed, despite the advantages associated with reduced variability, because the altered responsiveness would confound study results and because the duration of equine endotoxin tolerance is unknown. We determined the interval of endotoxin tolerance, in vivo, in horses based on physical, clinicopathologic, and proinflammatory gene expression responses to repeated endotoxin exposures. Six horses received 30 ng/kg LPS in saline infused over 30 min. Behavior pain scores, physical examination parameters, and blood for complete blood count and proinflammatory gene expression were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24h. Horses received a total of 3 endotoxin exposures. The first exposure was LPS 1, followed 7 days later by LPS 7 or 14-21 days later by LPS 14-21. Lipopolysaccharide exposures were allocated in a randomized, crossover design. Lipopolysaccharide produced clinical and clinicopathologic signs of endotoxemia and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, PHorses exhibited evidence of endotoxin tolerance following LPS 7 but not following LPS 14-21. Horses had significantly lower pain scores, heart rates, respiratory rates and duration of fever, after LPS 7 compared to LPS 1 and LPS 14-21, Phorses after LPS 7, P=0.05. Clinical parameters and TNFα gene expression were similar or slightly increased in horses following LPS 14-21 compared to measurements made in horses following LPS 1, suggesting that endotoxin tolerance had subsided. A minimum of 3 weeks between experiments is warranted if repeated measures designs are used to assess in vivo response to endotoxin in

  2. The emerging role of microRNA in regulation of endotoxin tolerance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel M

    2012-05-01

    Endotoxin tolerance is a phenomenon where cells show reduced responsiveness toward repeated endotoxin stimulation. Regulation of tolerance occurs at multiple levels of the cell signaling cascade, and many of these levels are potentially regulated by miRNA, which are a class of small RNA that bind to mRNA to down-regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Roles have been identified for miR-146a, miR-221, miR-579, miR-125b, miR-155, let-7e, and miR-98 in regulating the TLR4 signaling pathway during the development of endotoxin tolerance at receptor, signaling pathway, and gene transcription and translational levels. miRNA represent exciting, new potential targets in attempts to exogenously modulate development of endotoxin tolerance.

  3. An Endotoxin Tolerance Signature Predicts Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction at Initial Clinical Presentation

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    Olga M. Pena

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation: Our data support an updated model of sepsis pathogenesis in which endotoxin tolerance-mediated immune dysfunction (cellular reprogramming is present throughout the clinical course of disease and related to disease severity. Thus endotoxin tolerance might offer new insights guiding the development of new therapies and diagnostics for early sepsis.

  4. Network topologies and dynamics leading to endotoxin tolerance and priming in innate immune cells.

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    Yan Fu

    Full Text Available The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence. These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance.

  5. Mapping the areas sensitive to long-term endotoxin tolerance in the rat brain: a c-fos mRNA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2005-06-01

    We have recently found that a single endotoxin administration to rats reduced the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to another endotoxin administration 4 weeks later, which may be an example of the well-known phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance. However, the time elapsed between the two doses of endotoxin was long enough to consider the above results as an example of late tolerance, whose mechanisms are poorly characterized. To know if the brain plays a role in this phenomenon and to characterize the putative areas involved, we compared the c-fos mRNA response after a final dose of endotoxin in animals given vehicle or endotoxin 4 weeks before. Endotoxin caused a widespread induction of c-fos mRNA in the brain, similar to that previously reported by other laboratories. Whereas most of the brain areas were not sensitive to the previous experience with endotoxin, a few showed a reduced response in endotoxin-pretreated rats: the parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the central amygdala, the lateral division of the bed nucleus and the locus coeruleus. We hypothesize that late tolerance to endotoxin may involve plastic changes in the brain, likely to be located in the central amygdala. The reduced activation of the central amygdala in rats previously treated with endotoxin may, in turn, reduce the activation of other brain areas, including the hypothalamic paraventicular nucleus.

  6. Mitochondrial DAMPs induce endotoxin tolerance in human monocytes: an observation in patients with myocardial infarction.

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    Irene Fernández-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Monocyte exposure to mitochondrial Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, induces a transient state in which these cells are refractory to further endotoxin stimulation. In this context, IRAK-M up-regulation and impaired p65 activity were observed. This phenomenon, termed endotoxin tolerance (ET, is characterized by decreased production of cytokines in response to the pro-inflammatory stimulus. We also show that monocytes isolated from patients with myocardial infarction (MI exhibited high levels of circulating mtDNA, which correlated with ET status. Moreover, a significant incidence of infection was observed in those patients with a strong tolerant phenotype. The present data extend our current understanding of the implications of endotoxin tolerance. Furthermore, our data suggest that the levels of mitochondrial antigens in plasma, such as plasma mtDNA, should be useful as a marker of increased risk of susceptibility to nosocomial infections in MI and in other pathologies involving tissue damage.

  7. Tolerance of monocytes and macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin

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    Ewelina Wiśnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes belong to myeloid effector cells, which constitute the first line of defense against pathogens, also called the nonspecific immune system and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In response to stimulation, monocytes differentiate into macrophages capable of microorganism phagocytosis and secrete factors that play a key role in the regulation of immune responses. However excessive exposure of monocytes/macrophages to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Gram negative bacteria leads to the acquisition of immune tolerance by these cells. Such state results from disruption of different biological processes, for example intracellular signaling pathways and is accompanied by a number of disease states (immune, inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. Regulation of monocytes/macrophages activity is controlled by miRNAs, which are involved in the modulation of immune tolerance acquired by these cells. Moreover, the tolerance to endotoxin is conditioned by the posttranscriptional processes and posttranslational epigenetic modifications leading to the impairment of normal immune response for example by alterations in the expression of many genes encoding immune signaling mediators. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview existing knowledge on the modulation of activity of monocytes/macrophages in response to bacterial endotoxin and impaired immune responses.

  8. Inhibiting TNF-α signaling does not attenuate induction of endotoxin tolerance

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    Loosbroock C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Loosbroock, Kenneth W Hunter Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is a central mediator of inflammatory responses elicited by Toll-like receptor agonists, such as the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS. TNF-α is responsible for altering vascular permeability and activating infiltrating inflammatory cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils. Interestingly, TNF-α has also demonstrated the ability to induce tolerance to subsequent challenges with TNF-α or LPS in monocyte and macrophage cell populations. Tolerance is characterized by the inability to mount a typical inflammatory response during subsequent challenges following the initial exposure to an inflammatory mediator such as LPS. The ability of TNF-α to induce a tolerant-like state with regard to LPS is most likely a regulatory mechanism to prevent excessive inflammation. We hypothesized that the induction of tolerance or the degree of tolerance is dependent upon the production of TNF-α during the primary response to LPS. To investigate TNF-α-dependent tolerance, human monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with TNF-α-neutralizing antibodies or antagonistic TNF-α receptor antibodies before primary LPS stimulation and then monitored for the production of TNF-α during the primary and challenge stimulation. During the primary stimulation, anti-TNF-α treatment effectively attenuated the production of TNF-α and interleukin-1β; however, this reduced production did not impact the induction of endotoxin tolerance. These results demonstrate that interfering with TNF-α signaling attenuates production of inflammatory cytokines without affecting the induction of tolerance. Keywords: endotoxin tolerance, lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, THP-1 cells

  9. Effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by lipopolysaccharides derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli.

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    Ying Sun

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a bacterially induced chronic inflammatory disease. Exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulations, termed endotoxin tolerance. Aging has a profound effect on immune response to bacteria challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Escherichia coli (E. coli LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages.We studied the cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-10 and Toll-like receptor 2, 4 (TLR2, 4 gene and protein expressions in peritoneal macrophages from young (2-month-old and middle-aged (12-month-old ICR mice following single or repeated P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS stimulation. Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS resulted in a reduction in TNF-α production and an increase in IL-10 production upon secondary stimulation (p<0.05, and the markedly lower levels of TNF-α and higher levels of IL-10 were observed in macrophages from young mice compared with those from middle-aged mice (p<0.05. In addition, LPS restimulations also led to the significantly lower expression levels of TLR2, 4 mRNA and protein in macrophages from young mice (p<0.05.Repeated LPS stimulations triggered endotoxin tolerance in peritoneal macrophages and the ability to develop tolerance in young mice was more excellent. The impaired ability to develop endotoxin tolerance resulted from aging might be related to TLR2, 4 and might lead to the incontrollable periodontal inflammation in older adults.

  10. Mechanisms of interleukin-2-induced hydrothoraxy in mice: protective effect of endotoxin tolerance and dexamethasone and possible role of reactive oxygen intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioni, R; Allavena, P; Cantoni, L; Carelli, M; Demitri, M T; Delgado, R; Gatti, S; Gnocchi, P; Isetta, A M; Paganin, C

    1994-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-2 is known to induce vascular leak syndrome (VLS), which was suggested to be mediated by immune system-derived cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). To characterize the role of TNF in IL-2 toxicity in C3H/HeN mice, we used two approaches to downregulate TNF production in vivo: treatment with dexamethasone (DEX) and induction of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) (LPS) tolerance by a 4-day pretreatment with LPS (35 micrograms/mouse/day). Mice were then treated with IL-2 for 5 days (1.8 x 10(5) IU/mouse, twice daily). Both DEX and LPS tolerance blocked development of hydrothorax in IL-2-treated mice and inhibited TNF induction. DEX and LPS tolerance also ameliorated IL-2 toxicity in terms of decrease in food intake and inhibited the increase of the acute-phase protein, serum amyloid A (SAA). The IL-2 activation of splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity was also diminished by DEX and, to a lesser extent, by LPS-tolerance. Treatment with IL-2 also caused induction of the superoxide-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) in tissues and serum and induced bacterial translocation in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). These data suggest that multiple mechanisms, including NK cell activity, cytokines, and reactive oxygen intermediates, might be important in the vascular toxicity of IL-2.

  11. Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia

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    Tatyana A. Kuznetsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6, as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS.

  12. General effect of endotoxin on glucocorticoid receptors in mammalian tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stith, R.D.; McCallum, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Considering the ubiquitous nature of glucocorticoid actions and the fact that endotoxin inhibits glucocorticoid action in the liver, we proposed to examine whether endotoxin affected extrahepatic actions of glucocorticoids. Fasted C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with endotoxin (LD50) at 0800 and were killed 6 h later. Control mice were injected with an equal volume of saline. 3 H-dexamethasone binding, measured by a new cytosol exchange assay utilizing molybdate plus dithiothreitol, in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, lung, and heart tissue was significantly lower in treated than in control mice. The equilibrium dissociation constants were not significantly different, but the number of available binding sites in each tissue was reduced by endotoxin treatment. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was significantly reduced in liver but not in kidney. Endotoxin treatment lowered glycogen content in liver but not in skeletal muscle. The reduction observed in the a form of liver glycogen synthase due to endotoxin was not seen in skeletal muscle glycogen synthase a. These data support the proposal that endotoxin or a mediator of its action inhibits systemic glucocorticoid action. The results also emphasize the central role of the liver in the metabolic disturbances of the endotoxin-treated mouse

  13. Global analysis of glycoproteins identifies markers of endotoxin tolerant monocytes and GPR84 as a modulator of TNFα expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mario M; Lehmann, Roland; Klassert, Tilman E; Reifenstein, Stella; Conrad, Theresia; Moore, Christoph; Kuhn, Anna; Behnert, Andrea; Guthke, Reinhard; Driesch, Dominik; Slevogt, Hortense

    2017-04-12

    Exposure of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a temporary insensitivity to subsequent LPS challenges, a cellular state called endotoxin tolerance. In this study, we investigated the LPS-induced global glycoprotein expression changes of tolerant human monocytes and THP-1 cells to identify markers and glycoprotein targets capable to modulate the immunosuppressive state. Using hydrazide chemistry and LC-MS/MS analysis, we analyzed glycoprotein expression changes during a 48 h LPS time course. The cellular snapshots at different time points identified 1491 glycoproteins expressed by monocytes and THP-1 cells. Label-free quantitative analysis revealed transient or long-lasting LPS-induced expression changes of secreted or membrane-anchored glycoproteins derived from intracellular membrane coated organelles or from the plasma membrane. Monocytes and THP-1 cells demonstrated marked differences in glycoproteins differentially expressed in the tolerant state. Among the shared differentially expressed glycoproteins G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) was identified as being capable of modulating pro-inflammatory TNFα mRNA expression in the tolerant cell state when activated with its ligand Decanoic acid.

  14. Mitochondrial Sirtuin 4 Resolves Immune Tolerance in Monocytes by Rebalancing Glycolysis and Glucose Oxidation Homeostasis

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    Jie Tao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation was to define the molecular mechanism underlying physiologic conversion of immune tolerance to resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is unknown. An example of this knowledge gap and its clinical importance is the broad-based energy deficit and immunometabolic paralysis in blood monocytes from non-survivors of human and mouse sepsis that precludes sepsis resolution. This immunometabolic dysregulation is biomarked by ex vivo endotoxin tolerance to increased glycolysis and TNF-α expression. To investigate how tolerance switches to resolution, we adapted our previously documented models associated with acute inflammatory, immune, and metabolic reprogramming that induces endotoxin tolerance as a model of sepsis in human monocytes. We report here that mitochondrial sirtuin 4 (SIRT4 physiologically breaks tolerance and resolves acute inflammation in human monocytes by coordinately reprogramming of metabolism and bioenergetics. We find that increased SIRT4 mRNA and protein expression during immune tolerance counters the increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1 and SIRT1 that promote tolerance by switching glucose-dependent support of immune resistance to fatty acid oxidation support of immune tolerance. By decreasing PDK1, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reactivation rebalances mitochondrial respiration, and by decreasing SIRT1, SIRT4 represses fatty acid oxidation. The precise mechanism for the mitochondrial SIRT4 nuclear feedback is unclear. Our findings are consistent with a new concept in which mitochondrial SIRT4 directs the axis that controls anabolic and catabolic energy sources.

  15. Super-low dose endotoxin pre-conditioning exacerbates sepsis mortality.

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    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditionings with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in opposite to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  16. Super-low Dose Endotoxin Pre-conditioning Exacerbates Sepsis Mortality

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    Keqiang Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditioning with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP. This is in contrast to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expression plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. 180.1154 Section 180.1154 Protection of Environment... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1154 CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of... plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus...

  18. Hypo-responsiveness of interleukin-8 production in human embryonic epithelial intestine 407 cells independent of NF-κB pathway: New lessons from endotoxin and ribotoxic deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Yuseok; Yang, Hyun; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Mucosal epithelium senses external toxic insults and transmits the danger signals into the epithelial cells in order to activate a broad range of inflammatory responses. However, pre-exposure to the commensal endotoxins can induce inflammatory tolerance and maintain the homeostasis without excessive immune responses. We recently reported that ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives elicited the pro-inflammatory response as the mucosal insults in human epithelial cells. Taking the knowledge into consideration, we tested the hypothesis that endotoxin pre-exposure can attenuate ribotoxin-induced epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) production via a tolerance mechanism. Pre-exposure to endotoxin repressed IL-8 release and its gene expression. However, inflammatory tolerance was not mediated by the attenuated NF-κB activation which has been generally recognized as the major mediator of LPS-mediated toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. Instead, pre-exposure to endotoxin was observed to trigger the delayed induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) which contributed to the diminished IL-8 production in the human epithelial cells. Moreover, endogenous PPAR-γ agonist suppressed toxicant-mediated interleukin-8 production and IL-8 mRNA stability. Taken together, endotoxin induced hypo-production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in the human epithelial cells, which was associated with the delayed activation of PPAR-γ expression by pre-existing endotoxin

  19. Experiments on prevention of the endotoxin-abortifacient effect by radiodetoxified endotoxin pretreatment in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csordas, T; Bertok, L; Csapo, Z

    1978-01-01

    Endotoxemia has been induced in pregnant rats by intravenous injection of 1 mg Escherichia coli endotoxin which resulted in intrauterine death and abortion of fetuses in 24 h. The abortifacient effect of endotoxin, injected intravenously 24 h earlier. The authors suppose that the radiodetoxified endotoxin can be a good tool also in the prevention of human septic (endotoxin) shock in pregnancy.

  20. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Letourneau, Valerie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual ...

  1. Liver Transplantation in the Mouse: Insights Into Liver Immunobiology, Tissue Injury and Allograft Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2016-01-01

    The surgically-demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved a powerful research tool for investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, since the mouse genome is well-characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically-modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice has provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immuno- and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/ immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. Conclusion: Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in liver and other diseases. PMID:26709949

  2. Measurement of endotoxin. I. Fundamental studies on radioimmunoassay of endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-08-01

    A method for estimating endotoxin by radioimmunoassay was recently introduced. The present paper describes improvements in the speed and sensitivity on this endotoxin measurement. Antigen was purified from E. coli 0111: B4(B) lipopolysaccharide by centrifugation and dialysis. Purified anti-endotoxin antibody was prepared from immunized rabbit serum. A radioimmunoassay system was established with the antigen and antibody. Dextran-coated charcoal was used to separate the antibody-bound antigen from free antigen. Experimental studies were also performed on possible factors related to the antigen-antibody reaction. Accurate measurements on quantitites as low as 100 pg/ml (10 ng/ml in the plasma) were performed by the dextran-coated charcoal method, and the reaction time was reduced to 2 hr at 4/sup 0/C. This new method does not require strict sterilization or aseptic handling, and therefore is quite practical for quantitative measurements of endotoxin.

  3. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  4. Eicosanoids, endotoxins and liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.T. Ouwendijk (Rob)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractEndotoxins are cell wall lipopolysacharides of gram negative bacteria. The gut contains large numbers of bacteria and is generally accepted to be a large reservoir of endotoxins. In the normal state absorbed endotoxins are rapidly removed from the portal blood by especially the

  5. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  6. Protective effects of bacterial endotoxin in reconstruction of hematopoiesis after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzhong, Zhao; Renqian, Zhong [Second Military medical Coll., Shanghai, SH (China). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    1989-06-01

    The mechanism of protective effects of bacterial endotoxin (ET) in reconstruction of hemopoiesis post-irradiation has been studied. The results showed that (1) in normal men, dogs, rabbits and rats, after im injection of typhobacterial endotoxin (ETt), the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) increased in number remarkably; (2) the injection of microdoses of ETt into hypothalamus of the rabbits and rats caused no obvious change in number of PBL, suggesting that there was neither regulation on the granulomacrophagopoiesis of the vegetative nervous center in hypothalamus nor the regulative effect of the hypothalamo-pituitary endocrine system. The curves of the stimulating factor (CSF) levels in serum after injection of bacillus coli endotoxin (ETc) were compared between the mouse bone marrow cell (BMC) membrane {sup 3}H-galactose incorporation method and the agar cellular colony culture technique. It was shown that they had obvious relationships with the dose-response curve of purified CSF-1. There was no effect on the incorporation value and colony number when ETc was added to culture well directly. The protective effects of the ETc-serum on the 8 Gy irradiated mice was realized by inducing GM-CSF and promoting the reconstruction of hematopoiesis.

  7. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

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    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is...

  9. Enhancement of intrinsic antitumor activity in spore-endotoxin mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis by exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamola, B; Karminski-Zamola, G; Fuks, Z; Kubovic, M [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia); Wrishcer, M [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1985-03-01

    Irradiation of spore-endotoxin mixtures from Bacillus thuringiensis cultures at 254 nm (60 ..mu..W cm/sup -2/) enhances their intrinsic antitumor potency as well as that of either component. The extent of enhancement depends on the length of exposure (optimum: 35 min) and may thus be due to photochemical changes of the endotoxin protein or/and to photoproduction of additional compounds with antitumor activity. Antitumor effects, expressed as survival rates of C57BL/6 mice inoculated with Lewis' mouse lung carcinoma and subjected to treatments 24 h later, depended on the number of doses of preparations administered (mixture, separated components).

  10. Endotoxins in portal blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deventer, S. J.; Knepper, A.; Landsman, J.; Lawson, J.; ten Cate, J. W.; Buller, H. R.; Sturk, A.; Pauw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Endotoxemia may complicate diseases of the bowel and liver, and is associated with the occurrence of renal failure, coagulation disorders and death. The bowel contains a large quantity of endotoxins. According to the classical hypothesis, endotoxins continuously transmigrate through the bowel

  11. A System Dynamics Model to Predict the Human Monocyte Response to Endotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Álvarez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics is a powerful tool that allows modeling of complex and highly networked systems such as those found in the human immune system. We have developed a model that reproduces how the exposure of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs induces an inflammatory state characterized by high production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, which is rapidly modulated to enter into a tolerant state, known as endotoxin tolerance (ET. The model contains two subsystems with a total of six states, seven flows, two auxiliary variables, and 14 parameters that interact through six differential and nine algebraic equations. The parameters were estimated and optimized to obtain a model that fits the experimental data obtained from human monocytes treated with various LPS doses. In contrast to publications on other animal models, stimulation of human monocytes with super-low-dose LPSs did not alter the response to a second LPSs challenge, neither inducing ET, nor enhancing the inflammatory response. Moreover, the model confirms the low production of TNFα and increased levels of C–C motif ligand 2 when monocytes exhibit a tolerant state similar to that of patients with sepsis. At present, the model can help us better understand the ET response and might offer new insights on sepsis diagnostics and prognosis by examining the monocyte response to endotoxins in patients with sepsis.

  12. Binding of 125I-labeled endotoxin to bovine, canine, and equine platelets and endotoxin-induced agglutination of canine platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, K.M.; Boehme, M.; Inbar, O.

    1982-01-01

    Endotoxin from Escherichia coli O127:B8, Salmonella abortus-equi and S minnesota induced clumping of some canine platelets (PLT) at a final endotoxin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Endotoxin-induced clumping of canine PLT was independent of PLT energy-requiring processes, because clumping was observed with canine PLT incubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and antimycin A. The PLT responded to adenosine diphosphate before, but not after, incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. Endotoxin induced a slight and inconsistant clumping of bovine and equine PLT at high (mg/ml) endotoxin concentration. High-affinity binding sites could not be demonstrated on canine, bovine, and equine PLT, using 125 I-labeled E coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Nonspecific binding was observed and appeared to be due primarily to an extraneous coat on the PLT surface that was removed by gel filtration. The endotoxin that was bound to PLT did not appear to modify PLT function. An attempt to identify plasma proteins that bound physiologically relevant amounts of endotoxin was not successful. The significance of the endotoxin-induced clumping or lack of it on the pathophysiology of endotoxemia is discussed

  13. Immuno-therapy with anti-CTLA4 antibodies in tolerized and non-tolerized mouse tumor models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Persson

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4 are a novel form of cancer immunotherapy. While preclinical studies in mouse tumor models have shown anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CTLA4 injection or expression, anti-CTLA4 treatment in patients with advanced cancers had disappointing therapeutic benefit. These discrepancies have to be addressed in more adequate pre-clinical models. We employed two tumor models. The first model is based on C57Bl/6 mice and syngeneic TC-1 tumors expressing HPV16 E6/E7. In this model, the HPV antigens are neo-antigens, against which no central tolerance exists. The second model involves mice transgenic for the proto-oncogen neu and syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC cells. In this model tolerance to Neu involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Anti-CTLA4 delivery as a protein or expression from gene-modified tumor cells were therapeutically efficacious in the non-tolerized TC-1 tumor model, but had no effect in the MMC-model. We also used the two tumor models to test an immuno-gene therapy approach for anti-CTLA4. Recently, we used an approach based on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to deliver the relaxin gene to tumors and showed that this approach facilitates pre-existing anti-tumor T-cells to control tumor growth in the MMC tumor model. However, unexpectedly, when used for anti-CTLA4 gene delivery in this study, the HSC-based approach was therapeutically detrimental in both the TC-1 and MMC models. Anti-CTLA4 expression in these models resulted in an increase in the number of intratumoral CD1d+ NKT cells and in the expression of TGF-β1. At the same time, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which potentially can support anti-tumor T-cell responses, were lower in tumors of mice that received anti-CTLA4-HSC therapy. The differences in outcomes between the tolerized and non-tolerized models also provide a potential explanation for the low efficacy

  14. Haematologic effect and Shwartzman reactivity of radiodetoxified endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, T; Csernyanszky, H; Gazdy, E [Debreceni Orvostudomanyi Egyetem (Hungary); Bertok, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1978-01-01

    Comparative experiments were made in rabbits with Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin and endotoxin detoxified by ionizing radiation (/sup 60/Co-gamma, 5 Mrad). Radiation significantly weakened the leukopenia and thrombocytopenia provoking effect of endotoxin. Radiodetoxified endotoxin decreased the fibrinogen level only slightly and caused insignificant changes in reptilase time. The complement level was decreased less by the detoxified than by the parent endotoxin. Even the local Shwartzman phenomenon inducing capacity of radiodetoxified endotoxin significantly, particularly when it was used for preparation and provocation, too.

  15. Haematologic effect and Shwartzman reactivity of radiodetoxified endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, T.; Csernyanszky, H.; Gazdy, E.; Bertok, L.

    1978-01-01

    Comparative experiments were made in rabbits with Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin and endotoxin detoxified by ionizing radiation ( 60 Co-gamma, 5 Mrad). Radiation significantly weakened the leukopenia and thrombocytopenia provoking effect of endotoxin. Radiodetoxified endotoxin decreased the fibrinogen level only slightly and caused insignificant changes in reptilase time. The complement level was decreased less by the detoxified than by the parent endotoxin. Even the local Shwartzman phenomenon inducing capacity of radiodetoxified endotoxin significantly, particularly when it was used for preparation and provocation, too. (author)

  16. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled endotoxin to bovine, canine, and equine platelets and endotoxin-induced agglutination of canine platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, K.M.; Boehme, M.; Inbar, O.

    1982-10-01

    Endotoxin from Escherichia coli O127:B8, Salmonella abortus-equi and S minnesota induced clumping of some canine platelets (PLT) at a final endotoxin concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Endotoxin-induced clumping of canine PLT was independent of PLT energy-requiring processes, because clumping was observed with canine PLT incubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose and antimycin A. The PLT responded to adenosine diphosphate before, but not after, incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. Endotoxin induced a slight and inconsistant clumping of bovine and equine PLT at high (mg/ml) endotoxin concentration. High-affinity binding sites could not be demonstrated on canine, bovine, and equine PLT, using /sup 125/I-labeled E coli O127:B8 endotoxin. Nonspecific binding was observed and appeared to be due primarily to an extraneous coat on the PLT surface that was removed by gel filtration. The endotoxin that was bound to PLT did not appear to modify PLT function. An attempt to identify plasma proteins that bound physiologically relevant amounts of endotoxin was not successful. The significance of the endotoxin-induced clumping or lack of it on the pathophysiology of endotoxemia is discussed.

  17. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  18. Endotoxin dosage in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endotoxin, a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of septic shock and multiple organ failure (MOF. Its entry into the bloodstream stimulates monocytes/macrophages which once activated produce and release cytokines, nitric oxide and other mediators that induce systemic inflammation, endothelial damage, organ dysfunction, hypotension (shock and MOF.The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a quantitative test for the dosage of endotoxin to determine the risk of severe Gram-negative sepsis. Materials and methods. In the period January 2009 - June 2011 we performed 897 tests for 765 patients, mostly coming from the emergency room and intensive care, of which 328 (43% women (mean age 53 and 437 (57% male (mean age 49. Fifty-nine patients, no statistically significant difference in sex, were monitored by an average of two determinations of EA.All patients had procalcitonin values significantly altered.The kit used was EAA (Endotoxin Activity Assay Estor Company, Milan, which has three ranges of endotoxin activity (EA: low risk of sepsis if <0.40 units, medium if between 0.40 and 0.59; high if 0.60. Results. 78 out of 765 patients (10% had a low risk, 447 (58% a medium risk and 240 (32% a high risk.The dosage of EA, combined with that of procalcitonin, has allowed a more targeted antibiotic therapy. Six patients in serious clinical conditions were treated by direct hemoperfusion with Toraymyxin, a device comprising a housing containing a fiber polypropylene and polystyrene with surface-bound polymyxin B, an antibiotic that removes bacterial endotoxins from the blood. Conclusions.The test is useful in risk stratification as well as Gram negative sepsis, to set and monitor targeted therapies, also based on the neutralization of endotoxin.

  19. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endotoxin content in endodontically involved teeth. 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Benjamin; Schilder, Herbert

    2006-04-01

    Fluid was aspirated from the root canals of 40 endodontically involved teeth. This fluid was assayed for endotoxin with the limulus lysate test. Pulpless teeth contained greater concentrations of endotoxin than those with vital pulps. Symptomatic teeth also contained more endotoxin than asymptomatic teeth.

  1. Airborne endotoxin in woodworking (joinery) shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms such as shortness of breath and cough have been noted in woodworking facilities even where wood dust itself is well-controlled. Suspicion has fallen on other possible contaminants in the workplace atmosphere, including bacterial endotoxin. A few studies have indicated potentially high endotoxin exposure with exposure to fresh wood in sawmills and in the production of fiberboard and chipboard, but fewer studies have been carried out on exposure to endotoxin in dry wood work, for example in joineries. A study of the endotoxin content of airborne wood dust samples from US woodworking facilities is presented, from the re-analysis of samples which previously had been taken to establish mass collection relationships between the IOM sampler, the closed-face 37 mm plastic cassette (CFC) sampler and the Button sampler. Endotoxin was strongly correlated with total dust, but the endotoxin content of a few fresh wood samples was found to be up to ten times higher per unit of wood dust than for dried-wood samples, and this difference was significant. No long-term time-weighted average sample exceeded the recommended limit value of 50 EU m(-3) (EU, endotoxin units)used in the Netherlands, although a number of the IOM samples came close (seven samples or 44% exceeded 20 EU m(-3)) and one short-term (48 minute) sample registered a high value of 73 EU m(-3). The geometric mean concentration from the IOM samples (11 EU m(-3)) is within the range of geometric means found from Australian joineries (3.7-60, combined: 24 EU m(-3)). In contrast, the corresponding values from the CFC (3.6 EU m(-3)), and the Button sampler (2.1 EU m(-3)) were much lower and no samples exceeded 20 EU m(-3). Endotoxin is likely only to be a significant problem in working with dried woods when associated with very high dust levels, where the wood dust itself is likely to be a cause for concern. The results from the few samples in this study where fresh wood was being worked were similar to results

  2. Effect of endotoxin on radiation syndrome - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlouskova, D; Zak, M

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of studies on the effect of endotoxin on postirradiation syndrome. Recent knowledge is summed up on the compositions of endotoxins and on their general biological effects. Endotoxins of different bacteria are discussed such as are utilized for favourably affecting the postirradiation syndrome. For each bacterium the classification is shown in the microbe system. This, however, is not standard in the literature. General assessment is made of studies published so far on radiation protection of organisms with endotoxins.

  3. Quality-control analytical methods: endotoxins: essential testing for pyrogens in the compounding laboratory, part 3: a simplified endotoxin test method for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James F

    2011-01-01

    The first two parts of the IJPC series on endotoxin testing explained the nature of pyrogenic contamination and described various Limulus amebocyte lysate methods for detecting and measuring endotoxin levels with the bacterial endotoxin test described in the United States Pharmacopeia. This third article in that series describes the endotoxin test that is simplest to permorm for pharmacists who prefer to conduct an endotoxin assa at the time of compounding in the pharmacy setting.

  4. Detection of endotoxins in radiopharmaceutical preparations--I. Comparison of rabbit hyperthermia after intravenous or intrathecal administration of reference endotoxin preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, L; Bruneau, J; Cohen, Y; Michaud, T

    1986-01-01

    The rise of the rabbit internal temperature after endotoxin injection is related to the route of administration. A rise of 1.71 +/- 0.411/sup 0/C is obtained after i.v. injection of 1 ng/kg Escherichia coli 0111.B.4 endotoxin. An increase of 1.93 +/- 0.236/sup 0/C is obtained after suboccipital intrathecal injection of 0.1 ng/kg of the same endotoxin; with the intrathecal route, the hyperthermia is induced by E. coli endotoxin after a dose ten times lower than with i.v. injection as shown by statistical analysis.

  5. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Rydengård, Victoria; Malmsten, Martin; Albiger, Barbara; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they interfere with coagulation by modulating contact activation and tissue factor-mediated clotting in vitro, leading to normalization of coagulation responses in vivo, a previously unknown function of host defense peptides. In a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, the peptide GKY25, while mediating a modest antimicrobial effect, significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory response, decreased fibrin deposition and leakage in the lungs, as well as reduced mortality. Taken together, the capacity of such thrombin-derived peptides to simultaneously modulate bacterial levels, pro-inflammatory responses, and coagulation, renders them attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of invasive infections and sepsis.

  6. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kalle

    Full Text Available Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they interfere with coagulation by modulating contact activation and tissue factor-mediated clotting in vitro, leading to normalization of coagulation responses in vivo, a previously unknown function of host defense peptides. In a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, the peptide GKY25, while mediating a modest antimicrobial effect, significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory response, decreased fibrin deposition and leakage in the lungs, as well as reduced mortality. Taken together, the capacity of such thrombin-derived peptides to simultaneously modulate bacterial levels, pro-inflammatory responses, and coagulation, renders them attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of invasive infections and sepsis.

  7. Risks associated with endotoxins in feed additives produced by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R John; Gropp, Jürgen; Dierick, Noël; Costa, Lucio G; Martelli, Giovanna; Brantom, Paul G; Bampidis, Vasileios; Renshaw, Derek W; Leng, Lubomir

    2016-01-15

    Increasingly, feed additives for livestock, such as amino acids and vitamins, are being produced by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. The potential therefore exists for animals, consumers and workers to be exposed to possibly harmful amounts of endotoxin from these products. The aim of this review was to assess the extent of the risk from endotoxins in feed additives and to calculate how such risk can be assessed from the properties of the additive. Livestock are frequently exposed to a relatively high content of endotoxin in the diet: no additional hazard to livestock would be anticipated if the endotoxin concentration of the feed additive falls in the same range as feedstuffs. Consumer exposure will be unaffected by the consumption of food derived from animals receiving endotoxin-containing feed, because the small concentrations of endotoxin absorbed do not accumulate in edible tissues. In contrast, workers processing a dusty additive may be exposed to hazardous amounts of endotoxin even if the endotoxin concentration of the product is low. A calculation method is proposed to compare the potential risk to the worker, based on the dusting potential, the endotoxin concentration and technical guidance of the European Food Safety Authority, with national exposure limits.

  8. Procoagulant activity of leukocytes pretreated with radiodetoxified endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, T; Csernyanszky, H; Gazdy, E [Debreceni Orvostudomanyi Egyetem (Hungary); Bertok, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1980-09-30

    Rabbits were treated with Escherichia coli 089 endotoxin detoxified by ionizing irradiation (/sup 60/Co-gamma). The leukocytes (PMNs in 90%) obtained from rabbits treated with the mother endotoxin elicited a well defined activity; those obtained from rabbits pretreated with detoxified endotoxin elicited a less pronounced, procoagulant activity. It is suggested that the procoagulant effect may play a part in the mechanism of the local Shwartzman phenomenon.

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia coli Endotoxin by Soft Hydrothermal Processing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toru; Okano, Shinya; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are a fever-producing by-product of gram-negative bacteria commonly known as pyrogens. It is essential to remove endotoxins from parenteral preparations since they have multiple injurious biological activities. Because of their strong heat resistance (e.g., requiring dry-heat sterilization at 250°C for 30 min) and the formation of various supramolecular aggregates, depyrogenation is more difficult than sterilization. We report here that soft hydrothermal processing, which has many advantages in safety and cost efficiency, is sufficient to assure complete depyrogenation by the inactivation of endotoxins. The endotoxin concentration in a sample was measured by using a chromogenic limulus method with an endotoxin-specific limulus reagent. The endotoxin concentration was calculated from a standard curve obtained using a serial dilution of a standard solution. We show that endotoxins were completely inactivated by soft hydrothermal processing at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system. Moreover, it is easy to remove endotoxins from water by soft hydrothermal processing similarly at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min, without any requirement for ultrafiltration, nonselective adsorption with a hydrophobic adsorbent, or an anion exchanger. These findings indicate that soft hydrothermal processing, applied in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system, can inactivate endotoxins and may be useful for the depyrogenation of parenterals, including end products and medical devices that cannot be exposed to the high temperatures of dry heat treatments. PMID:19502435

  10. Complications in obstructive jaundice: role of endotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, J. W.; Gouma, D. J.; Buurman, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Surgical treatment of patients with obstructive jaundice is associated with a high postoperative morbidity and mortality. A correlation was suggested between endotoxins and the observed complications. The mechanism by which endotoxins affect the negative outcome in operated jaundiced patients was,

  11. Effects of endotoxin on mammary secretion of lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengemann, F.W.; Pitzrick, M.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to describe the magnitude and time course of changes in milk pH, Na, K, lactose, and somatic cells and to determine if paracellular pathways were altered after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (serotype 0128:AB12) to produce inflammation in one-half of the udder of the goat. Intramammary infusion of endotoxin increased pH, number of somatic cells, and Na and decreased K and lactose in milk. Sodium and number of somatic cells were increased by as little as .1μg of endotoxin; .25 μg produced changes in most of the other parameters; maximal effect was elicited by 1μg of endotoxin. The gland response peaked from 5 to 7 h after infusion of endotoxin with an increase in milk cellularity as the only significant effect noted in the control gland. Infusion of [ 14 C]lactose into the gland and [/sup 99m/Tc]albumin into the blood demonstrated that large molecules were more able to cross into and out of udder halves after endotoxin treatment. It is suggested that ion interchange rather than bulk flow across paracellular paths is responsible for changes. In addition, endotoxin appeared to reduce lactose secretion and synthesis

  12. Personal endotoxin exposure in a panel study of school children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjoa Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endotoxin exposure has been associated with asthma exacerbations and increased asthma prevalence. However, there is little data regarding personal exposure to endotoxin in children at risk, or the relation of personal endotoxin exposure to residential or ambient airborne endotoxin. The relation between personal endotoxin and personal air pollution exposures is also unknown. Methods We characterized personal endotoxin exposures in 45 school children with asthma ages 9-18 years using 376 repeated measurements from a PM2.5 active personal exposure monitor. We also assayed endotoxin in PM2.5 samples collected from ambient regional sites (N = 97 days and from a subset of 12 indoor and outdoor subject home sites (N = 109 and 111 days, respectively in Riverside and Whittier, California. Endotoxin was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate kinetic chromogenic assay. At the same time, we measured personal, home and ambient exposure to PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC, and organic carbon (OC. To assess exposure relations we used both rank correlations and mixed linear regression models, adjusted for personal temperature and relative humidity. Results We found small positive correlations of personal endotoxin with personal PM2.5 EC and OC, but not personal PM2.5 mass or stationary site air pollutant measurements. Outdoor home, indoor home and ambient endotoxin were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. However, in mixed models, personal endotoxin was not associated with indoor home or outdoor home endotoxin, but was associated with ambient endotoxin. Dog and cat ownership were significantly associated with increased personal but not indoor endotoxin. Conclusions Daily fixed site measurements of endotoxin in the home environment may not predict daily personal exposure, although a larger sample size may be needed to assess this. This conclusion is relevant to short-term exposures involved in the acute exacerbation of

  13. Detoxifying Escherichia coli for endotoxin-free production of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Uwe; Wilke, Kathleen; Bramhill, David; Schromm, Andra Beate; Lindner, Buko; Kohl, Thomas Andreas; Corchero, José Luis; Villaverde, Antonio; Schaffer, Lana; Head, Steven Robert; Souvignier, Chad; Meredith, Timothy Charles; Woodard, Ronald Wesley

    2015-04-16

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also referred to as endotoxin, is the major constituent of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of virtually all Gram-negative bacteria. The lipid A moiety, which anchors the LPS molecule to the outer membrane, acts as a potent agonist for Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2-mediated pro-inflammatory activity in mammals and, thus, represents the endotoxic principle of LPS. Recombinant proteins, commonly manufactured in Escherichia coli, are generally contaminated with endotoxin. Removal of bacterial endotoxin from recombinant therapeutic proteins is a challenging and expensive process that has been necessary to ensure the safety of the final product. As an alternative strategy for common endotoxin removal methods, we have developed a series of E. coli strains that are able to grow and express recombinant proteins with the endotoxin precursor lipid IVA as the only LPS-related molecule in their outer membranes. Lipid IVA does not trigger an endotoxic response in humans typical of bacterial LPS chemotypes. Hence the engineered cells themselves, and the purified proteins expressed within these cells display extremely low endotoxin levels. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of endotoxin-free E. coli strains, and demonstrates the direct production of recombinant proteins with negligible endotoxin contamination.

  14. Splenic CD11clowCD45RBhigh dendritic cells derived from endotoxin-tolerant mice attenuate experimental acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai-Nan; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Shi, Chun-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Sheng-Guo; Tang, Xin-Yue; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is suggested to attenuate the severity of acute liver failure (ALF) in mice, possibly through both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the involvement of regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) in ET has not been fully elucidated. In this study, their effect on ALF in mice was investigated. Splenic DCregs from ET-exposed mice (ET-DCregs) showed lower expression levels of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II markers and stronger inhibition of allogenic T cells and regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 secretion than splenic DCregs from normal mice (nDCregs). Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and P65 in splenic ET-DCregs were significantly lower than those in the splenic nDCregs. The survival rate was significantly increased and liver injury was mitigated in mice with ALF treated with splenic ET-DCregs. In addition, A20 expression was decreased in the liver of ALF mice, but elevated after infusion of splenic nDCregs and ET-DCregs, and a much higher elevation was observed after infusing the latter cells. The functionality of splenic DCregs was altered after ET exposure, contributing to protection of the livers against D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF. PMID:27625297

  15. Endotoxin Removal from Water Using Heterogenus Catalytic Ozonation by Bone Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Rezaee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The endotoxin is one of pollutants with lipopolysaccharide structure which release from gram negative bacteria and cyanobacters. The aim of this study was removal of endotoxin from water using catalytic ozonation by bone char. The endotoxin for experiments have extracted from Escherichia coli bacterium cell wall by Stefan and Jan method. Chromogenic limulus ambusite lysate method in 405-410 nm wave length was used for analysing of endotoxin. The ozone have analysed by potassium iodine method. Results: Results of the research shown endotoxin removal rates using heterogenous catalytic ozonation were 6.0 Eu/ml.min and 0.5 Eu/ml.min for grey bone char and white bone char, respectively. The efficency of the process was found eighty percent. Primary concentration of basic compounds had no effect on endotoxin removal rate. Therefore, endotoxin removal kinetic of reaction is a zero order reaction. This study revealed that ozonation process using bone char is more efficient than other proposed methods such as ozonation or chlorination and can be used successfully for endotoxin removal from water as a efficient method.

  16. Endotoxin and CD14 in the progression of biliary atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ching-Mei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary atresia (BA is a typical cholestatic neonatal disease, characterized by obliteration of intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile ducts. However, the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of BA remain uncertain. Because of decreased bile flow, infectious complications and damaging endotoxemia occur frequently in patients with BA. The aim of this study was to investigate endotoxin levels in patients with BA and the relation of these levels with the expression of the endotoxin receptor, CD14. Methods The plasma levels of endotoxin and soluble CD14 were measured with a pyrochrome Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with early-stage BA when they received the Kasai procedure (KP, in patients who were jaundice-free post-KP and followed-up at the outpatient department, in patients with late-stage BA when they received liver transplantation, and in patients with choledochal cysts. The correlation of CD14 expression with endotoxin levels in rats following common bile duct ligation was investigated. Results The results demonstrated a significantly higher hepatic CD14 mRNA and soluble CD14 plasma levels in patients with early-stage BA relative to those with late-stage BA. However, plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in both the early and late stages of BA relative to controls. In rat model, the results demonstrated that both endotoxin and CD14 levels were significantly increased in liver tissues of rats following bile duct ligation. Conclusions The significant increase in plasma endotoxin and soluble CD14 levels during BA implies a possible involvement of endotoxin stimulated CD14 production by hepatocytes in the early stage of BA for removal of endotoxin; whereas, endotoxin signaling likely induced liver injury and impaired soluble CD14 synthesis in the late stages of BA.

  17. The effect of endotoxin on preirradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlert, W.; Oehlert, M. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie); Moenig, H.; Konermann, G. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1992-12-01

    Adult male mice were given a whole body irradiation with non-lethal doses of 2.5 or 5 Gy. Unirradiated animals served as controls. The animals (including controls) received a single injection of endotoxin (LPS from Salmonella abortus equi) with doses of 100, 200 or 400 [mu]g one day up to one year after irradiation. Twelve, 24 or 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application the animals were killed and dissected. Animals which died spontaneously were also examined. Liver, lung, kidney, small intestine, and stomach were histologically investigated. The histological findings showed, that differences exist between irradiated and unirradiated mice and that the cause of death is also different for animals dying spontaneously. The investigations have shown that after irradiation phases of different degrees of sensitivity with regard to the endotoxin response exist. This behaviour can be observed by different lethality rates or in the light of the histological results. Moreover, the histological findings have shown, that distinct regenerative changes occur first of all in the liver, in the mucosa of small intestine, and the gastric mucosa, in which the number of differntiated cells compared with the mitotic active cells is reduced. It can be ascertained, that a whole body irradiation with 2.5 to 5 Gy enhances an additional injury by endotoxin weeks to months later. Contrary to this a preirradiation a few days before endotoxin application leads to a 'protection' against the efficacy of endotoxin. These findings can be explained by modes of action described in literature, according to which endotoxins induce the formation of highly active mediators especially the tumor necrosis factor. (orig.).

  18. The effect of endotoxin on preirradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlert, W; Oehlert, M [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Moenig, H; Konermann, G [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1992-12-01

    Adult male mice were given a whole body irradiation with non-lethal doses of 2.5 or 5 Gy. Unirradiated animals served as controls. The animals (including controls) received a single injection of endotoxin (LPS from Salmonella abortus equi) with doses of 100, 200 or 400 [mu]g one day up to one year after irradiation. Twelve, 24 or 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application the animals were killed and dissected. Animals which died spontaneously were also examined. Liver, lung, kidney, small intestine, and stomach were histologically investigated. The histological findings showed, that differences exist between irradiated and unirradiated mice and that the cause of death is also different for animals dying spontaneously. The investigations have shown that after irradiation phases of different degrees of sensitivity with regard to the endotoxin response exist. This behaviour can be observed by different lethality rates or in the light of the histological results. Moreover, the histological findings have shown, that distinct regenerative changes occur first of all in the liver, in the mucosa of small intestine, and the gastric mucosa, in which the number of differntiated cells compared with the mitotic active cells is reduced. It can be ascertained, that a whole body irradiation with 2.5 to 5 Gy enhances an additional injury by endotoxin weeks to months later. Contrary to this a preirradiation a few days before endotoxin application leads to a 'protection' against the efficacy of endotoxin. These findings can be explained by modes of action described in literature, according to which endotoxins induce the formation of highly active mediators especially the tumor necrosis factor. (orig.).

  19. Bacterial endotoxin in the endometrium and its clinical significance in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Shigeru; Teruya, Yoko; Nohara, Makoto; Kanazawa, Koji

    2004-10-01

    Bacterial endotoxin was detected in menstrual effluent from infertile women. Endometrial endotoxin appears to influence reproductive process because the pregnancy rate after IVF-ET was significantly associated with an endotoxin level.

  20. Gel-chromatographic and light scattering study of the salmonella typhi endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhelici, G; Dezhelici, N; Jusici, D [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1977-01-01

    The endotoxin of Salmonella typhi, strain 0-901 extracted with 1 M sodium chloride was studied by gel-chromatography and light scattering. The extracted material consisted of two components: a high molecular weight endotoxin (5.6 milion dalton) and a lower molecular weight protein-polysaccharide complex (less than 66,000 dalton). The endotoxin component proved to be a highly polydispersed material. Estimation of various averages of gyration radii suggested a more compact structure of endotoxin particles than those obtained by the Boivin extraction method, possibly due to the tertiary structuring of polypeptide chains in the protein-lipopolysaccharide complex of the endotoxin particle.

  1. Inhibition of radiation-induced transformation in vitro by bacterial endotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, J.A.; Collins, M.F.; Kennedy, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) were found to suppress X-ray-induced malignant transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. Endotoxins were effective if present either throughout the 6-week transformation assay period, or for the final 4-week phase, but not when present only for the initial 2-week phase. Neither growth nor survival of C3H/10T1/2 cells, or a radiation-transformed cell line derived from them, were affected by endotoxins. Also, the endotoxins did not affect the formation of foci by the radiation transformed cells when these cells were co-cultured with untransformed cells. These results suggest that endotoxins exert their effect directly upon the transformation process itself, perhaps at a 'late' step in the conversion of an untransformed to a transformed cell. (author)

  2. Inhibition of radiation-induced transformation in vitro by bacterial endotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, J A; Collins, M F; Kennedy, A R

    1988-05-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) were found to suppress X-ray-induced malignant transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. Endotoxins were effective if present either throughout the 6-week transformation assay period, or for the final 4-week phase, but not when present only for the initial 2-week phase. Neither growth nor survival of C3H/10T1/2 cells, or a radiation-transformed cell line derived from them, were affected by endotoxins. Also, the endotoxins did not affect the formation of foci by the radiation transformed cells when these cells were co-cultured with untransformed cells. These results suggest that endotoxins exert their effect directly upon the transformation process itself, perhaps at a 'late' step in the conversion of an untransformed to a transformed cell.

  3. Detection of Endotoxin Contamination of Graphene Based Materials Using the TNF-α Expression Test and Guidelines for Endotoxin-Free Graphene Oxide Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav P Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials may be contaminated with bacterial endotoxin during production and handling, which may confound toxicological testing of these materials, not least when assessing for immunotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluated the conventional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay for endotoxin detection in graphene based material (GBM samples, including graphene oxide (GO and few-layered graphene (FLG. Our results showed that some GO samples interfered with various formats of the LAL assay. To overcome this problem, we developed a TNF-α expression test (TET using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages incubated in the presence or absence of the endotoxin inhibitor, polymyxin B sulfate, and found that this assay, performed with non-cytotoxic doses of the GBM samples, enabled unequivocal detection of endotoxin with a sensitivity that is comparable to the LAL assay. FLG also triggered TNF-α production in the presence of the LPS inhibitor, pointing to an intrinsic pro-inflammatory effect. Finally, we present guidelines for the preparation of endotoxin-free GO, validated by using the TET.

  4. Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other beddin...

  5. Labelling of endotoxins with Na/sup 51/CrO/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oginski, M; Lipinska-Piotrowska, I [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    The authors modified the method of Braude of labelling of endotoxins with /sup 51/Cr. A higher uptake of the isotope by endotoxin was obtained (98.4%) which has a favourable effect on the accuracy of measurements with labelled endotoxins.

  6. Masking of endotoxin in surfactant samples: Effects on Limulus-based detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Johannes; Lang, Pierre; Grallert, Holger; Motschmann, Hubert

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few decades Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) has been the most sensitive method for the detection of endotoxins (Lipopolysaccharides) and is well accepted in a broad field of applications. Recently, Low Endotoxin Recovery (LER) in biopharmaceutical drug products has been noticed, whereby the detection of potential endotoxin contaminations is not ensured. Notably, most of these drug products contain surfactants, which can have crucial effects on the detectability of endotoxin. In order to analyze the driving forces of LER, endotoxin detection in samples containing nonionic surfactants in various buffer systems was investigated. The results show that the process of LER is kinetically controlled and temperature-dependent. Furthermore, only the simultaneous presence of nonionic surfactants and components capable of forming metal complexes resulted in LER. In addition, capacity experiments show that even hazardous amounts of endotoxin can remain undetectable within such formulation compositions. In conclusion, the LER phenomenon is caused by endotoxin masking and not by test interference. In this process, the supramolecular structure of endotoxin is altered and exhibits only a limited susceptibility in binding to the Factor C of Limulus-based detection systems. We propose a two-step mechanism of endotoxin masking by complex forming agents and nonionic surfactants. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorometric sensing of endotoxin based on aggregation of CTAB capped gold nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ida Evangeline [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Unit, University of South Africa, Florida Park 1709 Johannesburg (South Africa); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of different sizes were used to carry out comparative fluorometric detection study on endotoxin. At excitation wavelength, 308 nm the GNPs exhibited strong emission intensity at wavelength 421 nm with varying intensities at 215.122, 234.965 and 262.551 for 15 nm (GNPs-I), 30 nm (GNPs-II) and 40 nm (GNPs-III), respectively. The different sizes of GNPs were interacted with endotoxin to study the effect of GNPs size on endotoxin detection. The electrostatic interaction between GNPs (GNPs-I, II, and III) and endotoxin led to the enhancement of the fluorescence intensities. The sensitivity of endotoxin detection was improved significantly by decreasing the size of the GNPs to 15 nm (GNPs-I). The endotoxin detection limit using GNPs-I was theoretically calculated to be 0.56×10{sup −9} M using the formula 3SD/slope, and it was able to detect lower levels of endotoxin when compared to GNPs-II or GNPs-III. The GNPs-I showed excellent selectivity for endotoxin detection with the optimized pH and volumetric ratio. Most importantly the optimized size was successfully used to detect endotoxin in real samples (milk samples and fruit juices) with a recovery rate of 98–105%.

  8. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...... were isolated, labelled with Indium and reinjected intravenously. Eight rabbits received an infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 while eight received isotonic saline. The redistribution of granulocytes was imaged with a gamma camera and calculated with a connected computer before and 2 and 6...... hours after infusion of endotoxin or saline. Serum cortisol and interleukin-1 beta were measured. In another seven rabbits, respiratory burst activity and degranulation of granulocytes were measured prior to and from 5 min to 6 hours after infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 BW. Following...

  9. Predictors of Airborne Endotoxin Concentrations in Inner City Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazique, D; Diette, GB; Breysse, PN; Matsui, EC; McCormack, MC; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D; Peng, RD; Hansel, NN

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have assessed in-home factors which contribute to airborne endotoxin concentrations. In 85 inner-city Baltimore homes, we found no significant correlation between settled dust and airborne endotoxin concentrations. Certain household activities and characteristics, including frequency of dusting, air conditioner use and type of flooring, explained 36–42% of the variability of airborne concentrations. Measurements of both airborne and settled dust endotoxin concentrations may be needed to fully characterize domestic exposure in epidemiologic investigations. PMID:21429483

  10. Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

  11. Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents.

  12. Measurement of operative plasma endotoxin levels in jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, J A; Bailey, M E

    1987-01-01

    A study of portal plasma endotoxin levels was performed using a chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The assay proved sensitive and reproducible. In only 1 of 25 healthy subjects was the systemic plasma endotoxin level above 100 pg/ml (equivalent Escherichia coli 0111B4). In 30 non-jaundiced patients undergoing surgery the mean (+SEM) portal plasma endotoxin level (60 + 9 pg/ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than the mean level in the systemic blood (46 + 6 pg/ml), supporting the concept of endotoxin absorption from the intestine into the portal blood. In 20 patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing surgery 42% of portal, 45% of inferior mesenteric and 35% of systemic venous plasma endotoxin levels were above 100 pg/ml. There were significantly higher levels in the portal (p less than 0.05) and inferior mesenteric (p less than 0.05) compared with the systemic blood. Neither the presence of malignancy nor the duration of surgery appeared to influence endotoxin absorption. The significance of raised plasma endotoxin levels in obstructive jaundice is discussed.

  13. Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-09-03

    Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (EU/m(3) and EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations.

  14. A conscious mouse model of gastric ileus using clinically relevant endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yuanlin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric ileus is an unsolved clinical problem and current treatment is limited to supportive measures. Models of ileus using anesthetized animals, muscle strips or isolated smooth muscle cells do not adequately reproduce the clinical situation. Thus, previous studies using these techniques have not led to a clear understanding of the pathophysiology of ileus. The feasibility of using food intake and fecal output as simple, clinically relevant endpoints for monitoring ileus in a conscious mouse model was evaluated by assessing the severity and time course of various insults known to cause ileus. Methods Delayed food intake and fecal output associated with ileus was monitored after intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin, laparotomy with bowel manipulation, thermal injury or cerulein induced acute pancreatitis. The correlation of decreased food intake after endotoxin injection with gastric ileus was validated by measuring gastric emptying. The effect of endotoxin on general activity level and feeding behavior was also determined. Small bowel transit was measured using a phenol red marker. Results Each insult resulted in a transient and comparable decrease in food intake and fecal output consistent with the clinical picture of ileus. The endpoints were highly sensitive to small changes in low doses of endotoxin, the extent of bowel manipulation, and cerulein dose. The delay in food intake directly correlated with delayed gastric emptying. Changes in general activity and feeding behavior were insufficient to explain decreased food intake. Intestinal transit remained unchanged at the times measured. Conclusion Food intake and fecal output are sensitive markers of gastric dysfunction in four experimental models of ileus. In the mouse, delayed gastric emptying appears to be the major cause of the anorexic effect associated with ileus. Gastric dysfunction is more important than small bowel dysfunction in this model. Recovery of

  15. Biophysical mechanisms of endotoxin neutralization by cationic amphiphilic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaconis, Yani; Kowalski, Ina; Howe, Jörg; Brauser, Annemarie; Richter, Walter; Razquin-Olazarán, Iosu; Iñigo-Pestaña, Melania; Garidel, Patrick; Rössle, Manfred; Martinez de Tejada, Guillermo; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2011-06-08

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) are strong elicitors of the human immune system by interacting with serum and membrane proteins such as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 with high specificity. At LPS concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml, such interactions may lead to severe pathophysiological effects, including sepsis and septic shock. One approach to inhibit an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction is the use of appropriate polycationic and amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides, here called synthetic anti-LPS peptides (SALPs). We designed various SALP structures and investigated their ability to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine secretion in vitro, their protective effect in a mouse model of sepsis, and their cytotoxicity in physiological human cells. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we investigated selected SALPs with considerable differences in their biological responses to characterize and understand the mechanism of LPS inactivation by SALPs. Our investigations show that neutralization of LPS by peptides is associated with a fluidization of the LPS acyl chains, a strong exothermic Coulomb interaction between the two compounds, and a drastic change of the LPS aggregate type from cubic into multilamellar, with an increase in the aggregate sizes, inhibiting the binding of LBP and other mammalian proteins to the endotoxin. At the same time, peptide binding to phospholipids of human origin (e.g., phosphatidylcholine) does not cause essential structural changes, such as changes in membrane fluidity and bilayer structure. The absence of cytotoxicity is explained by the high specificity of the interaction of the peptides with LPS. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3 EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH 7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6 h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: The processes of endotoxins adsorbed from HLC. - Highlights: • TA buffer is a mild buffer system for endotoxins removal of HLC. • TA buffer may facilitate endotoxins adsorbed on the

  17. Endotoxin inactivation via steam-heat treatment in dilute simethicone emulsions used in biopharmaceutical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Keith A; Galvin, Jeffrey; Gammell, Patrick; Nti-Gyabaah, Joseph; Boras, George; Kolwyck, David; Ramirez, José G; Presente, Esther; Naugle, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Simethicone emulsion is used to regulate foaming in cell culture operations in biopharmaceutical processes. It is also a potential source of endotoxin contamination. The inactivation of endotoxins in dilute simethicone emulsions was assessed as a function of time at different steam temperatures using a Limulus amebocyte lysate kinetic chromogenic technique. Endotoxin inactivation from steam-heat treatment was fit to a four-parameter double exponential decay model, which indicated that endotoxin inactivation was biphasic, consisting of fast and slow regimes. In the fast regime, temperature-related effects were dominant. Transitioning into the slow regime, the observed temperature dependence diminished, and concentration-related effects became increasingly significant. The change in the Gibbs free energy moving through the transition state indicated that a large energy barrier must be overcome for endotoxin inactivation to occur. The corresponding Arrhenius pre-exponential factor was >10(12) s(-1) suggesting that endotoxins in aqueous solution exist as aggregates. The disorder associated with the endotoxin inactivation reaction pathway was assessed via the change in entropy moving through the transition state. This quantity was positive indicating that endotoxin inactivation may result from hydrolysis of individual endotoxin molecules, which perturbs the conformation of endotoxin aggregates, thereby modulating the biological activity observed. Steam-heat treatment decreased endotoxin levels by 1-2 logarithm (log) reduction (LRV), which may be practically relevant depending on incoming raw material endotoxin levels. Antifoam efficiency and cell culture performance were negligibly impacted following steam-heat treatment. The results from this study show that steam-heat treatment is a viable endotoxin control strategy that can be implemented to support large-scale biopharmaceutical manufacturing. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Experiments in radioactive marking of lipopoly saccharides in the framework of endotoxin research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmueller, B.

    1985-01-01

    The endotoxin from E. coli was marked using Na-125-iodine, in order to eventually through animal experiments obtain more information about the biological attack site of the endotoxin in the organism. The endotoxin from S. equi served thereby as a reference substance, since more exact information about the structure and degree of purity of this endotoxin is present. (orig.) [de

  19. Endotoxins in surgical instruments of hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Regina Goveia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate endotoxins in sterilized surgical instruments used in hip arthroplasties. METHOD A descriptive exploratory study conducted in a public teaching hospital. Six types of surgical instruments were selected, namely: acetabulum rasp, femoral rasp, femoral head remover, chisel box, flexible bone reamer and femoral head test. The selection was based on the analysis of the difficulty in removing bone and blood residues during cleaning. The sample was made up of 60 surgical instruments, which were tested for endotoxins in three different stages. The EndosafeTM Gel-Clot LAL (Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method was used. RESULT There was consistent gel formation with positive analysis in eight instruments, corresponding to 13.3%, being four femoral rasps and four bone reamers. CONCLUSION Endotoxins in quantity ≥0.125 UE/mL were detected in 13.3% of the instruments tested.

  20. Importance of the personal endotoxin cloud in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Nathan; Liu, Andrew H; Zhang, Lening; Rodes, Charles E; Foarde, Karin; Dutton, Steven J; Murphy, James R; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2005-11-01

    A number of studies have observed associations between the amount of endotoxin in urban dust and chronic asthma severity, but a direct relationship between personal exposure to household endotoxin and acute asthma worsening has not yet been defined. We sought to investigate the relationship between day-to-day changes in personal endotoxin exposure and asthma severity. In the winter and spring of 1999 through 2000, endotoxin exposures were monitored in asthmatic schoolchildren by using portable, as opposed to stationary, monitors designed to measure inhalable and respirable particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microm in diameter. Children were followed with daily measurements of FEV(1) and asthma symptoms. Over a 24-hour period, median daily personal endotoxin exposures ranged from 0.08 EU/m(3) (measured at a particulate matter size range Personal exposures were significantly (P personal activities might be better correlated with disease severity. Increases in personal endotoxin exposures were associated with decreased FEV(1) values and increased symptoms. These findings demonstrate the importance of using personal monitoring to both measure and correlate endotoxin exposure with asthma severity.

  1. Distribution of /sup 51/Cr labelled endotoxin on tissue and intracellular organella in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K; Suzuki, M; Okuaki, A; Saito, M [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    The distribution of /sup 51/Cr labelled endotoxin was investigated in mice. The degree of toxicity between non-labelled endotoxin and /sup 51/Cr labelled endotoxin did not change. /sup 51/Cr-endotoxin was distributed in the highest levels in the liver, and to a lesser degree in the intestine, lungs, spleen and kidneys. The affinity of the tissue to /sup 51/Cr-endotoxin was strongest in the liver followed by the spleen, lungs, kidneys and intestine. /sup 51/Cr-endotoxin was distributed mainly in the mitochondrial fraction and the nuclear fraction in the intracellular species. /sup 51/Cr-endotoxin was distributed only in the liver and the intestine when a small dose was administered. It was also distributed in the lungs, spleen and kidneys when a large dose was given, but the uptake in the liver was somewhat limited. /sup 51/Cr-endotoxin was distributed mainly in the liver and the spleen in the mice that survived one week.

  2. Endotoxin predictors and associated respiratory outcomes differ with climate regions in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Angelico; Wilkerson, Jesse; Salo, Pӓivi M; Cohn, Richard D; Zeldin, Darryl C; Thorne, Peter S

    2018-03-01

    Although endotoxin is a recognized cause of environmental lung disease, how its relationship with respiratory outcomes varies with climate is unknown. To examine the endotoxin predictors as well as endotoxin association with asthma, wheeze, and sensitization to inhalant allergens in various US climate regions. We analyzed data on 6963 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Endotoxin measurements of house dust from bedroom floor and bedding were performed at the University of Iowa. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify endotoxin predictors and assess endotoxin association with health outcomes. The overall median house dust endotoxin was 16.2 EU/mg; it was higher in mixed-dry/hot-dry regions (19.7 EU/mg) and lower in mixed-humid/marine areas (14.8 EU/mg). Endotoxin predictors and endotoxin association with health outcomes significantly differed across climate regions. In subarctic/very cold/cold regions, log 10 -endotoxin was significantly associated with higher prevalence of wheeze outcomes (OR:1.48, 95% CI:1.19-1.85 for any wheeze, OR:1.48, 95% CI:1.22-1.80 for exercise-induced wheeze, OR:1.50, 95% CI:1.13-1.98 for prescription medication for wheeze, and OR:1.95, 95% CI:1.50-2.54 for doctor/ER visit for wheeze). In hot-humid regions, log 10 -endotoxin was positively associated with any wheeze (OR:1.66, 95% CI:1.04-2.65) and current asthma (OR:1.56, 95% CI:1.11-2.18), but negatively with sensitization to any inhalant allergens (OR:0.83, 95% CI:0.74-0.92). Endotoxin predictors and endotoxin association with asthma and wheeze differ across U.S. climate regions. Endotoxin is associated positively with wheeze or asthma in cold and hot-humid regions, but negatively with sensitization to inhalant allergens in hot-humid climates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of radio-detoxified endotoxin as adjuvant for experimental foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solyom, F; Bertok, L

    1985-01-01

    The immunity enhancing adjuvant activity of radiodetoxified endotoxin (RD-LPS) on the potency of C type foot-and-mouth (FMD) vaccine was tested in different animal species. For radiodetoxification 5 Mrad gamma radiation was used. The suitable quantity of RD-LSP (20 ..mu..g per mouse) adjuvated FMD vaccines of lower antigen content better than those of higher one. In cattle and sheep the adjuvant effect of oil + RD + LPS surpassed only slightly that of oil alone. The effect of RD-LPS in pig was very pronounced when applied in small doses but further studies in larger animal populations have to confirm this result. (author). 14 references, 6 tables.

  4. Bacterial endotoxin adhesion to different types of orthodontic adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Coutinho ROMUALDO

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial endotoxin (LPS adhesion to orthodontic brackets is a known contributing factor to inflammation of the adjacent gingival tissues. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems, comparing two commercial brands. Material and Methods Forty specimens were fabricated from Transbond XT and Light Bond composite and bonding agent components (n=10/component, then contaminated by immersion in a bacterial endotoxin solution. Contaminated and non-contaminated acrylic resin samples were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. LPS quantification was performed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate QCL-1000™ test. Data obtained were scored and subjected to the Chi-square test using a significance level of 5%. Results There was endotoxin adhesion to all materials (p0.05. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 among commercial brands. Affinity of endotoxin was significantly greater for the bonding agents (p=0.0025. Conclusions LPS adhered to both orthodontic adhesive systems. Regardless of the brand, the endotoxin had higher affinity for the bonding agents than for the composites. There is no previous study assessing the affinity of LPS for orthodontic adhesive systems. This study revealed that LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems. Therefore, additional care is recommended to orthodontic applications of these materials.

  5. Removal of endotoxin from deionized water using micromachined silicon nanopore membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ross A; Fissell, William H; Fleischman, Aaron J; Roy, Shuvo; Goldman, Ken; Zorman, Christian A

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharide components of the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that trigger the body's innate immune system and can cause shock and death. Water for medical therapy, including parenteral and dialysate solutions, must be free of endotoxin. This purity is challenging to achieve as many Gram-negative bacteria are endemic in the environment, and can thrive in harsh, nutrient-poor conditions. Current methods for removing endotoxin include distillation and reverse osmosis, both of which are resource intensive processes. Membranes that present an absolute barrier to macromolecular passage may be capable of delivering pure water for biomedical applications. In this work, endotoxin has been filtered from aqueous solutions using silicon nanopore membranes (SNMs) with monodisperse pore size distributions. SNMs with critical pore sizes between 26 and 49 nm were challenged with solutions of deionized water spiked with endotoxin and with Pseudomonas cepacia. The filtrate produced by the SNM from Pseudomonas-contaminated water had <1.0 endotoxin unit (EU) ml −1 , which meets standards for dialysate purity. This approach suggests a technique for single-step cleanup of heavily contaminated water that may be suitable for field or clinical use

  6. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Azadèh; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2018-02-08

    Elevated endotoxin levels have been measured in ambient air around livestock farms, which is a cause of concern for neighbouring residents. There is clear evidence that occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne endotoxin causes respiratory inflammation, respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. However, health effects of exposure to low levels of endotoxin are less well described. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize published associations between exposure to relatively low levels of airborne endotoxin and respiratory health endpoints. Studies investigating respiratory effects of measured or modelled exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (average effects of exposure to low levels of endotoxin on respiratory symptoms and lung function. However, considerable heterogeneity existed in the outcomes of the included studies and no overall estimate could be provided by meta-analysis to quantify the possible relationship. Instead, a best evidence synthesis was performed among studies examining the exposure-response relationship between endotoxin and respiratory outcomes. Significant exposure-response relationships between endotoxin and symptoms and FEV 1 were shown in several studies, with no conflicting findings in the studies included in the best evidence synthesis. Significantly different effects of endotoxin exposure were also seen in vulnerable subgroups (atopics and patients with broncho-obstructive disease) and smokers. Respiratory health effects of exposure to low levels of airborne endotoxin (health effects, especially in vulnerable subgroups of the population.

  7. Exposure to household endotoxin and total and allergen-specific IgE in the US population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although endotoxin has strong pro-inflammatory properties, endotoxin-allergy relationship in adults and children have been inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated the association between household endotoxin levels and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) or specific IgE in the US general population, classified into three age ranges: children/adolescent, adults, and older adults. Methods: We analyzed the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 5220 participants for whom serum IgE and household endotoxin data were available was included in the analyses. Results: Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization, especially in specific IgE to plants (OR in Quartile 3 = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.44–0.76) and pets (OR in Quartile 3 = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.41–0.92), for children/adolescents. In contrast, the risk among adults and older adults increased with increasing endotoxin levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the effect of endotoxin on allergic reaction is likely to depend on age. - Highlights: • Findings regarding the endotoxin-allergy relationship in adults and children are inconsistent. • We investigated the association of endotoxin with total and specific IgE in US population. • The association between endotoxin levels and allergic markers is likely to depend on age. • Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization for children/adolescents. • The risk among adults and older adults increased with increasing endotoxin levels. - Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization for children/adolescents, but decreased the risk among adults and older

  8. Removal of endotoxins from bacteriophage preparations by extraction with organic solvents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Szermer-Olearnik

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol. During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 10(3 and 10(5 EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 10(3-10(5 EU/10(9 PFU (plaque forming units down to an average of 2.8 EU/10(9 PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli and F8 (P. aeruginosa.

  9. Changes in endotoxin levels in T2DM subjects on anti-diabetic therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of an adverse cytokine profile from adipose tissue. Aims The study investigated the relationship between endotoxin and various metabolic parameters of diabetic patients to determine if anti-diabetic therapies exerted a significant effect on endotoxin levels and adipocytokine profiles. Methods Fasting blood samples were collected from consenting Saudi Arabian patients (BMI: 30.2 ± (SD5.6 kg/m2, n = 413, consisting of non-diabetics (ND: n = 67 and T2DM subjects (n = 346. The diabetics were divided into 5 subgroups based on their 1 year treatment regimes: diet-controlled (n = 36, metformin (n = 141, rosiglitazone (RSG: n = 22, a combined fixed dose of metformin/rosiglitazone (met/RSG n = 100 and insulin (n = 47. Lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP and endotoxin concentrations were determined. Results Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between endotoxin levels and triglycerides (R2 = 0.42; p 2 = 0.10; p 2 = 0.076; p 2 = 0.032; p 2 = 0.055; p Conclusion We conclude that sub-clinical inflammation in T2DM may, in part, be mediated by circulating endotoxin. Furthermore, that whilst the endotoxin and adipocytokine profiles of diabetic patients treated with different therapies were comparable, the RSG group demonstrated significant differences in both adiponectin and endotoxin levels. We confirm an association between endotoxin and serum insulin and triglycerides and an inverse relationship with HDL. Lower endotoxin and higher adiponectin in the groups treated with RSG may be related and indicate another mechanism for the effect of RSG on insulin sensitivity.

  10. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...

  11. Endotoxin and cancer chemo-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Reduced rates of lung cancer have been observed in several occupational groups exposed to high levels of organic dusts contaminated by endotoxin. The underlying anti-neoplastic mechanism of endotoxin may be an increased secretion of endogenous anti-neoplastic mediators and activation of the toll-like receptors (TLR). A detoxified endotoxin derivative, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL(®)) is marketed in Europe since 1999 as part of the adjuvant systems in allergy vaccines for treatment of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic asthma. Over 200,000 patients have used them to date (nearly 70% in Germany). Since detailed exposure (MPL(®) dose and timing of administration) and individual data are potentially available, an observational follow-up study could be conducted in Germany to investigate the protective effect of MPL(®) against cancer, comparing cancer incidence in two groups of patients with allergic rhinitis: those treated with allergoids plus MPL(®) and those treated with a vaccine including the same allergoids but not MPL(®). The protective effect of MPL(®) could be quantified in ever and never smokers. If this proposed observational study provides evidence of protective effects, MPL(®) could be immediately used as a chemo-preventive agent since it is already in use as adjuvant in human vaccines against cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the termination of immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population induced by the intravenous injection of deaggregated bovine gamma globulin was terminated by whole body irradiation. After irradiation, the weight of the thymus recovered biphasically, and the termination of tolerance occurred as early as in the first phase. Both Thy-1 antigen expression and helper activity of the thymus cell population in irradiated mice recovered in parallel with the recovery of the thymus weight. Sensitivity of the regenerating thymus cells to the tolerogen was not different from that of the normal thymus cells. The first phase of thymus regeneration may be caused by the proliferation and differentiation of relatively radioresistant and tolerogen insensitive precursors residing in the thymus. Tolerogen and/or immunogen reactive thymus cells may originate from the precursor. (author)

  13. Effect of Tris-acetate buffer on endotoxin removal from human-like collagen used biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huizhi; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Zhu, Chenghui; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Xiaoxuan

    2014-09-01

    Protein preparation, which has active ingredients designated for the use of biomaterials and therapeutical protein, is obtained by genetic engineering, but products of genetic engineering are often contaminated by endotoxins. Because endotoxin is a ubiquitous and potent proinflammatory agent, endotoxin removal or depletion from protein is essential for researching any biomaterials. In this study, we have used Tris-acetate (TA) buffer of neutral pH value to evaluate endotoxins absorbed on the Pierce high-capacity endotoxin removal resin. The effects of TA buffer on pH, ionic strength, incubation time as well as human-like collagen (HLC) concentration on eliminating endotoxins are investigated. In the present experiments, we design an optimal method for TA buffer to remove endotoxin from recombinant collagen and use a chromogenic tachypleus amebocyte lysate (TAL) test kit to measure the endotoxin level of HLC. The present results show that, the endotoxins of HLC is dropped to 8.3EU/ml at 25 mM TA buffer (pH7.8) with 150 mM NaCl when setting incubation time at 6h, and HLC recovery is about 96%. Under this experimental condition, it is proved to exhibit high efficiencies of both endotoxin removal and collagen recovery. The structure of treated HLC was explored by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), demonstrating that the property and structure of HLC treated by TA buffer are maintained. Compared to the most widely used endotoxin removal method, Triton X-114 extraction, using TA buffer can obtain the non-toxic HLC without extra treatment for removing the toxic substances in Triton X-114. In addition, the present study aims at establishing a foundation for further work in laboratory animal science and providing a foundation for medical grade biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  15. Comparison of Endotoxin Exposure Assessment by Bioaerosol Impinger and Filter-Sampling Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Duchaine, Caroline; Thorne, Peter S.; Mériaux, Anne; Grimard, Yan; Whitten, Paul; Cormier, Yvon

    2001-01-01

    Environmental assessment data collected in two prior occupational hygiene studies of swine barns and sawmills allowed the comparison of concurrent, triplicate, side-by-side endotoxin measurements using air sampling filters and bioaerosol impingers. Endotoxin concentrations in impinger solutions and filter eluates were assayed using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. In sawmills, impinger sampling yielded significantly higher endotoxin concentration measurements and lower variances than filte...

  16. High exposure to endotoxin in farming is associated with less new-onset pollen sensitisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Doekes, Gert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Little is known about risk factors for new onset and loss of atopic sensitisation in adulthood. The aim is to examine the longitudinal effect of quantitatively assessed endotoxin exposures on changes in specific allergen sensitisation in young adults. METHODS: The cohort consisted...... in relation to cumulative endotoxin exposure during follow-up, considering early life farm exposure. RESULTS: Endotoxin exposure during follow-up was significantly associated with less new onset of specifically grass and birch pollen sensitisation. For the highest versus lowest quartile of cumulative...... endotoxin exposure, the OR for new-onset IgE sensitisation was 0.35 (0.13-0.91) for birch and 0.14 (0.05-0.50) for grass. On the other hand, loss of pollen sensitisation showed a positive, although mostly non-significant, association with increased levels of endotoxin exposure. Endotoxin exposure...

  17. Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heederik, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypotheses that current endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with allergic sensitisation and positively associated with non-allergic respiratory diseases in four occupationally exposed populations using a standardised analytical approach. Methods Data were pooled from...... four epidemiological studies including 3883 Dutch and Danish employees in veterinary medicine, agriculture and power plants using biofuel. Endotoxin exposure was estimated by quantitative job-exposure matrices specific for the study populations. Dose–response relationships between exposure, Ig...... Current endotoxin exposure was dose-dependently associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic sensitisation (ORs of 0.92, 0.81 and 0.66 for low mediate, high mediate and high exposure) and hay fever (ORs of 1.16, 0.81 and 0.58). Endotoxin exposure was a risk factor for organic dust toxic syndrome...

  18. Effect of plasmapheresis on the immune system in endotoxin-induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Schmidt, R; Broechner, A C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that plasmapheresis is most effective when applied early in Gram-negative sepsis. We therefore studied the effect of early plasmapheresis on immunity in experimental Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced sepsis. METHODS: 20 pigs received 30 microg/kg of E. coli...... endotoxin. 40 min later, half of the pigs were treated with plasmapheresis which lasted 4 h. The adhesion molecules, the oxidative burst, the number of neutrophils in blood and lungs, and cytokines were measured. RESULTS: Infusion of endotoxin was associated with activation of adhesion molecules increased...... oxidative burst, increased concentration of cytokine, and accumulation of granulocytes in lung tissue. Plasmapheresis reduced the oxidative burst, and there was a tendency towards a reduced accumulation of granulocytes in the lung. CONCLUSION: Though plasmapheresis was initiated early after the endotoxin...

  19. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.; Zock, J.P.; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in

  20. Ambient endotoxin in PM10 and association with inflammatory activity, air pollutants, and meteorology, in Chitwan, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Parth Sarathi; Jain, Sumeet; Shrestha, Sujan; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Puppala, Siva Praveen

    2018-03-15

    Endotoxin associated with ambient PM (particulate matter) has been linked to adverse respiratory symptoms, but there have been few studies of ambient endotoxin and its association with co-pollutants and inflammation. Our aim was to measure endotoxin associated with ambient PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diametermeteorology, co-pollutants, and inflammatory activity. PM 10 concentrations were recorded and filter paper samples were collected using E-samplers; PM 1, PM 2.5 , black carbon (BC), methane (CH 4 ), and carbon monoxide (CO) were also measured. The Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was used for endotoxin quantification and the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation assay to assess inflammatory activity. The mean concentration of PM 10 at the different locations ranged from 136 to 189μg/m 3 , and of endotoxin from 0.29 to 0.53EU/m 3 . Pollutant presence was positively correlated with endotoxin. Apart from relative humidity, meteorological variations had no significant impact on endotoxin concentration. NF-κB activity was negatively correlated with endotoxin concentration. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first measurements of ambient endotoxin associated with PM 10 in Nepal. Endotoxin and co-pollutants were positively associated indicating a similar source. Endotoxin was negatively correlated with inflammatory activity as a result of a time-limited forest fire event during the sampling period. Studies of co-pollutants suggested that the higher levels of endotoxin related to biomass burning were accompanied by increased levels of anti-inflammatory agents, which suppressed the endotoxin inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilla, José R F; Moreira, Maria S N A; Miyagi, Sueli P H; Bombana, Antônio C; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124  J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  2. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

  3. Single session of Nd:YAG laser intracanal irradiation neutralizes endotoxin in dental root dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilla, José R. F.; Moreira, Maria S. N. A.; Miyagi, Sueli P. H.; Bombana, Antônio C.; Gutknecht, Norbert; Marques, Márcia M.

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of 124 J/cm2). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (p≤0.05). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.04). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group (p=0.027) and similar to that of negative control group (p=0.20). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.

  4. Fingolimod against endotoxin-induced fetal brain injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, And; Sezik, Mekin; Ozmen, Ozlem; Asci, Halil

    2017-11-01

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i.p. fingolimod (4 mg/kg maternal weight). Hysterotomy for preterm delivery was performed 6 h after fingolimod. The study groups included (i) vehicle controls (i.p. normal saline only); (ii) positive controls (endotoxin plus saline); (iii) saline plus fingolimod; and (iv) endotoxin plus fingolimod treatment. Brain tissues of the pups were dissected for evaluation of interleukin (IL)-6, caspase-3, and S100β on immunohistochemistry. Maternal fingolimod treatment attenuated endotoxin-related fetal brain injury and led to lower immunoreactions for IL-6, caspase-3, and S100β compared with endotoxin controls (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Antenatal maternal fingolimod therapy had fetal neuroprotective effects by alleviating preterm birth-related fetal brain injury with inhibitory effects on inflammation and apoptosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Panum's studies on "putrid poison" 1856. An early description of endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2006-01-01

    , but insoluble in alcohol, and with preserved activity after long-term boiling. "Putrid poison" has striking similarities with endotoxin, a cell wall product of Gram-negative bacteria and a powerful inducer of inflammation and septic shock. Thanks to Panum's carefully arranged experiments and meticulous...... recording of observations it is fair to conclude that "putrid poison" was endotoxin, and as such he deserves credit for being the first to have described endotoxin. Panum published his observations twice, in Danish in 1856, and in German in 1874. At first he rejected the possibility that bacteria could play...... a causative role in the development of symptoms and signs seen after infusion of "putrid poison". However, in his last publication he hypothesized that "putrid poison" could be a bacterial product, and he envisaged future antibacterial chemotherapy of sepsis and treatment with anti-endotoxin agents....

  6. Dialysate bacterial endotoxin as a prognostic indicator of peritoneal dialysis related peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Lai, Ka-Bik; Chow, Kai-Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Law, Man-Ching; Pang, Wing-Fai; Ma, Terry King-Wing; Leung, Chi-Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2016-12-01

    Peritonitis is the major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of our present study is to explore the prognostic value of endotoxin level in PD effluent for the prediction of treatment failure in PD-related peritonitis. We studied 325 peritonitis episodes in 223 patients. PD effluent (PDE) was collected every 5 days for endotoxin level and leukocyte count. Patients were followed for relapsing or recurrent peritonitis. We found 20 episodes (6.2%) had primary treatment failure; 41 (12.6%) developed relapsing, 19 (5.8%) had recurrent, and 22 (6.8%) had repeat episodes. Endotoxin was detectable in the PDE of 19 episodes (24.4%) caused by Gram negative organisms, 4 episodes (6.8%) of mixed bacterial growth, and none of the culture negative episodes or those by Gram positive organisms. For episodes caused by Gram negative bacteria, a detectable endotoxin level in PDE on day 5 had a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7% and 83.3%, respectively, for predicting primary treatment failure. In contrast, PDE leukocyte count > 1000 per mm3 on day 5 had a sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and 89.1%, respectively; the addition of PDE endotoxin assay did not improve the sensitivity or specificity. We conclude that detectable endotoxin in PDE 5 days after antibiotic therapy might predict primary treatment failure in peritonitis episodes caused by Gram negative organisms. However, the sensitivity and specificity of PDE endotoxin assay was inferior to PDE leukocyte count. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Identification of Sources of Endotoxin Exposure as Input for Effective Exposure Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Gröllers-Mulderij, Mariska; van de Runstraat, Annemieke; Duisterwinkel, Anton; Terwoert, Jeroen; Spaan, Suzanne

    2018-02-13

    Aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of endotoxins on product samples from potatoes, onions, and seeds, representing a relevant part of the agro-food industry in the Netherlands, to gather valuable insights in possibilities for exposure control measures early in the process of industrial processing of these products. Endotoxin levels on 330 products samples from companies representing the potato, onion, and seed (processing) industry (four potato-packaging companies, five potato-processing companies, five onion-packaging companies, and four seed-processing companies) were assessed using the Limulus Amboecyte Lysate (LAL) assay. As variation in growth conditions (type of soil, growth type) and product characteristics (surface roughness, dustiness, size, species) are assumed to influence the level of endotoxin on products, different types, and growth conditions were considered when collecting the samples. Additionally, waste material, rotten products, felt material (used for drying), and process water were collected. A large variation in the endotoxin levels was found on samples of potatoes, onions, and seeds (overall geometric standard deviation 17), in the range between 0.7 EU g-1 to 16400000 EU g-1. The highest geometric mean endotoxin levels were found in plant material (319600 EU g-1), followed by soil material (49100 EU g-1) and the outer side of products (9300 EU g-1), indicating that removal of plant and soil material early in the process would be an effective exposure control strategy. The high levels of endotoxins found in the limited number of samples from rotten onions indicate that these rotten onions should also be removed early in the process. Mean endotoxin levels found in waste material (only available for seed processing) is similar to the level found in soil material, although the range is much larger. On uncleaned seeds, higher endotoxin levels were found than on cleaned seeds, indicating that cleaning processes are important

  8. On the effects of endotoxin in previously irradiated mice and their time relationships. Ueber die Wirkung von Endotoxin auf vorbestrahlte Maeuse in Abhaeengigkeit von der Zeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenig, H; Oehlert, W [Institut fuer Pathologie, Histologie und Zytologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Oehlert, M [Institut fuer Pathologie, Histologie und Zytologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Konermann, G [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1993-01-01

    Adult mice were subjected to non-lethal wholebody irradiation with doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Gy. Non-irradiated animals served as controls. Following periods varying from one day to one year after irradiation, the animals were once administered endotoxin (LPS from S. abortus equi) using doses of 100, 200 or 400 [mu]g. Twelve to 48 hours following the single administration of endotoxin the animals were sacrificed and examined for changes to the liver, lungs, kidneys, small intestine and stomach. It was confirmed on a histological basis that the causes of death differed between irradiated and non-irradiated animals. The studies have shown that the responsiveness to endotoxin subsequent to irradiation was characterized by considerable fluctuations over time. Histology further provided evidence to prove that regenerative processes were in progress in the liver as well as the intestinal and gastric mucosae, with the number of differentiated cells determined here being lower than that of mitotic cells. To summarize it can be stated that wholebody irradiation with 2.5 Gy to 5 Gy in the course of weeks or months clearly adds to the damage already done by endotoxin. Conversely, irradiation a few days prior to administration of endotoxin provides protection against those damaging influences. (orig./MG)

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of honey cannot be distinguished from endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Michael; Bartelt, Stine; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2008-01-01

    in vitro effects of honey. Our results show that natural honeys induce interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells as well as release of reactive oxygen species from all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) differentiated HL-60 cells. The natural honeys contained substantial amounts of endotoxin, and the responses...... observed in the cell based assays were similar to the responses induced by endotoxin alone. In addition, we determined that the immunomodulatory component present in the natural honeys was retained in the ultra filtrated fraction with a molecular weight greater than 20 kDa. The component was resistant...... to boiling and its immunomodulatory activity could be abrogated by the addition of polymyxin B. We speculate that the observed in vitro immunomodulatory effects of honey might solely be explained by the endotoxin content in the natural honeys....

  10. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a... intended for use in conjunction with other laboratory findings and clinical assessment of the patient to...

  11. Origin of endotoxemia influences the metabolic response to endotoxin in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeniralam, H. S.; Bemelman, W. A.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Ackermans, M. T.; van Lanschot, J. J.; Hermsen, R. C.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Different routes of endotoxin administration have been used to mimic inflammatory and metabolic responses observed during sepsis. Because the origin of endotoxemia may affect the reactions to endotoxin, we compared the induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), hormones, and

  12. The role of amoebocytes in endotoxin-mediated coagulation in the innate immunity of Achatina fulica snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, C; Mandal, C

    1999-02-01

    Achatina amoebocyte lysate (AAL) derived from amoebocytes of Achatina fulica was activated by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins in a time-dependent manner resulting in gel formation/coagulation. The activation and maximum proliferation of amoebocytes was observed 40 min after intramuscular injection (20 microg/snail) of endotoxin. Endotoxin-mediated proteolytic activity of AAL towards a serine-protease-specific chromogenic substrate was maximum at pH 8.0, 37 degrees C and within 15 min in a divalent-cation-dependent manner. The AAL activity induced by the endotoxin was directly dependent on the endotoxin concentration, showed a high specificity and saturated at higher endotoxin concentrations. An endotoxin-sensitive factor (ESF) was purified from AAL to apparent homogeneity by single-step affinity chromatography on a heparin-Sepharose 4B column. Native ESF of molecular weight 140 000 was composed of two identical subunits of molecular weight 70 000 attached through non-covalent association. A strong binding to endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5) was exhibited by ESF with a 40-fold higher biological activity than AAL. The ESF was shown to have a unique Phe-Ile active site with regard to its alternate activation by alpha-chymotrypsin instead of endotoxin. The ESF was characterized as a serine protease type as evidenced by potent inhibition with specific inhibitors.

  13. Immunoradiometric assay of lipid A: a test for detecting and quantitating endotoxins of various origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, J P; Vladutiu, A O; Moreno, D M; Cohen, S A; Camara, D S [State University of New York, Buffalo (USA). School of Medicine

    1982-11-26

    The ability to measure circulating endotoxin in various disease states has been hampered by the lack of a specific and quantitative assay. The test most commonly used has been the Limulus gelation assay, which measures an enzymatic effect of endotoxin rather than the substance itself. Based on a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay previously developed to detect the specific lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 026, a similar assay has been developed for the lipid A moiety of endotoxins. The assay uses rabbit antibodies to lipid A which do not react with ketodeoxyoctonate, myristic or beta-hydroxymyristic acids, and detects lipid A obtained from endotoxins of various origins after acid hydrolysis of lipopolysaccharide. Experiments in rats given exogenous endotoxin suggest that this assay can be useful for quantitation of bacterial endotoxins in serum and for studying the pathophysiology of experimental endotoxemia.

  14. Effects of hepatocyte CD14 upregulation during cholestasis on endotoxin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Huei Chou

    Full Text Available Cholestasis is frequently related to endotoxemia and inflammatory response. Our previous investigation revealed a significant increase in plasma endotoxin and CD14 levels during biliary atresia. We therefore propose that lipopolysacharides (LPS may stimulate CD14 production in liver cells and promote the removal of endotoxins. The aims of this study are to test the hypothesis that CD14 is upregulated by LPS and investigate the pathophysiological role of CD14 production during cholestasis. Using Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and promoter activity assay, we demonstrated that LPS was associated with a significant increase in CD14 and MD2 protein and mRNA expression and CD14 promoter activity in C9 rat hepatocytes but not in the HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cell line in vitro. To correlate CD14 expression and endotoxin sensitivity, in vivo biliary LPS administration was performed on rats two weeks after they were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL or a sham operation. CD14 expression and endotoxin levels were found to significantly increase after LPS administration in BDL rats. These returned to basal levels after 24 h. In contrast, although endotoxin levels were increased in sham-operated rats given LPS, no increase in CD14 expression was observed. However, mortality within 24 h was more frequent in the BDL animals than in the sham-operated group. In conclusion, cholestasis and LPS stimulation were here found to upregulate hepatic CD14 expression, which may have led to increased endotoxin sensitivity and host proinflammatory reactions, causing organ failure and death in BDL rats.

  15. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  16. Endotoxin induction of an inhibitor of plasminogen activator in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-05

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on the fibrinolytic activity of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were examined. Endotoxin suppressed the net fibrinolytic activity of cell extracts and conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of endotoxin required at least 6 h for expression. Cell extracts and conditioned media contained a 44-kDa urokinase-like plasminogen activator. Media also contained multiple plasminogen activators with molecular masses of 65-75 and 80-100 kDa. Plasminogen activators in extracts and media were unchanged by treatment of cells with endotoxin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-abolished fibrinolytic activity of extracts and conditioned media. DFP-treated samples from endotoxin-treated but not untreated cells inhibited urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, but not plasmin. Inhibitory activity was lost by incubation at pH 3 or heating to 56/sup 0/C for 10 min. These treatments did not affect inhibitory activity of fetal bovine serum. Incubation of /sup 125/I-urokinase with DFP-treated medium from endotoxin-treated cells produced an inactive complex with an apparent molecular mass of 80-85 kDa.

  17. The role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of acute bovine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R; Mutsaers, C W; Klarenbeek, A

    1991-07-01

    To study the possible role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis, local and systemic injections of endotoxin (E. coli 0111 B4) with different doses were given to three groups of four cows each. Clinical and haematologic parameters indicated an acute-phase response, including positive plasma ethanol gelation (soluble fibrin), the occurrence of fibrin degradation products and decreased thrombocyte counts. Local Shwartzman reactions were not evoked. Clinical examination of the claws and the gait of the animals revealed no signs of laminitis. However, on histopathological examination of the claw corium signs of laminitis such as vacuolisation of the Stratum basale, lymphocyte and leucocyte infiltration and thrombosis were found. These results indicate that endotoxin indeed may be involved in the pathogenesis of laminitis. For the development of a clinical acute laminitis model in cattle either another dosage, other toxins or factors in addition to the endotoxin used in this experiment are needed.

  18. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevents intestinal development during gestation in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim G A M Wolfs

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis is the most significant source of prenatal inflammation and preterm delivery. Prematurity and prenatal inflammation are associated with compromised postnatal developmental outcomes, of the intestinal immune defence, gut barrier function and the vascular system. We developed a sheep model to study how the antenatal development of the gut was affected by gestation and/or by endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis.Chorioamnionitis was induced at different gestational ages (GA. Animals were sacrificed at low GA after 2d or 14d exposure to chorioamnionitis. Long term effects of 30d exposure to chorioamnionitis were studied in near term animals after induction of chorioamnionitis. The cellular distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 was shown to be underdeveloped at low GA whereas endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevented the maturation of tight junctions during later gestation. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis did not induce an early (2d inflammatory response in the gut in preterm animals. However, 14d after endotoxin administration preterm animals had increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive cells and gammadelta T-cells which lasted till 30d after induction of chorioamnionitis in then near term animals. At early GA, low intestinal TLR-4 and MD-2 mRNA levels were detected which were further down regulated during endotoxin-induced chorioamnionitis. Predisposition to organ injury by ischemia was assessed by the vascular function of third-generation mesenteric arteries. Endotoxin-exposed animals of low GA had increased contractile response to the thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in responses to acetylcholine. The administration of a nitric oxide (NO donor completely restored endothelial dysfunction suggesting reduced NO bioavailability which was not due to low expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.Our results indicate that the distribution of the tight

  19. Analysis of a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and human mucin 1 (MUC1) conjugate protein in a MUC1-tolerant mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasov, Julia; Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Mason, Hugh S; Walmsley, Amanda M; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2010-12-01

    Since epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) is associated with several adenocarcinomas at the mucosal sites, it is pertinent to test the efficacy of a mucosally targeted vaccine formulation. The B subunit of the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin (CTB) has great potential to act as a mucosal carrier for subunit vaccines. In the present study we evaluated whether a MUC1 tandem repeat (TR) peptide chemically linked to CTB would break self-antigen tolerance in the transgenic MUC1-tolerant mouse model (MUC1.Tg) through oral or parenteral immunizations. We report that oral immunization with the CTB-MUC1 conjugate along with mucosal adjuvant, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) did not break self-antigen tolerance in MUC1.Tg mice, but induced a strong humoral response in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, self-antigen tolerance in the MUC1.Tg mouse model was broken after parenteral immunizations with different doses of the CTB-MUC1 conjugate protein and with the adjuvant CpG ODN co-delivered with CTB-MUC1. Importantly, mice immunized systemically with CpG ODN alone and with CTB-MUC1 exhibited decreased tumor burden when challenged with a mammary gland tumor cell line that expresses human MUC1.

  20. Analysis of a Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTB) and Human Mucin 1 (MUC1) Conjugate Protein in a MUC1 Tolerant Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasov, Julia; Alvarez, M. Lucrecia; Pathangey, Latha B.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Mason, Hugh S.; Walmsley, Amanda M.; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2011-01-01

    Since epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) is associated with several adenocarcinomas at mucosal sites, it is pertinent to test the efficacy of a mucosally targeted vaccine formulation. The B subunit of the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin (CTB) has great potential to act as a mucosal carrier for subunit vaccines. In the present study we evaluated whether a MUC1 tandem repeat (TR) peptide chemically linked to CTB would break self-antigen tolerance in the transgenic MUC1 tolerant mouse model (MUC1.Tg) through oral or parenteral immunizations. We report that oral immunization with the CTB-MUC1 conjugate along with mucosal adjuvant, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12), did not break self-antigen tolerance in MUC1.Tg mice, but induced a strong humoral response in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, self-antigen tolerance in the MUC1.Tg mouse model was broken after parenteral immunizations with different doses of the CTB-MUC1 conjugate protein and with the adjuvant CpG ODN co-delivered with CTB-MUC1. Importantly, mice immunized systemically with CpG ODN alone and with CTB-MUC1 exhibited decreased tumor burden when challenged with a mammary gland tumor cell line that expresses human MUC1. PMID:20824430

  1. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu (Pueraria lobata is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro.

  2. Detection of bacterial endotoxin in food: New planar interdigital sensors based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Rahman, Mohd Syaifudin; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Goicoechea, J.; Matias, Ignacio R.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    coating thickness on sensor sensitivity, selectivity and stability. Different food samples contaminated with endotoxin were also tested to verify that the interdigital sensing approach is able to be used for endotoxin detection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  4. Predictors and respiratory depositions of airborne endotoxin in homes using biomass fuels and LPG gas for cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Bijaya K; Adhikari, Atin; Satapathy, Prakasini; Patra, Alok K; Chandel, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the presence of endotoxin in indoor air and its role in respiratory morbidities. Burning of household fuels including unprocessed wood and dried animal dung could be a major source of endotoxin in homes. We measured endotoxin levels in different size fractions of airborne particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1), and estimated the deposition of particle-bound endotoxin in the respiratory tract. The study was carried out in homes burning solid biomass fuel (n=35) and LPG (n=35). Sample filters were analyzed for endotoxin and organic carbon (OC) content. Household characteristics including temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels were also recorded. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate the contributing factors for airborne endotoxin. Respiratory deposition doses were calculated using a computer-based model. We found a higher endotoxin concentration in PM2.5 fractions of the particle in both LPG (median: 110, interquartile range (IQR) 100-120 EU/m 3 ) and biomass (median: 350, IQR: 315-430 EU/m 3 ) burning homes. In the multivariate-adjusted model, burning of solid biomass fuel (β: 67; 95% CI: 10.5-124) emerged as the most significant predictor followed by OC (β: 4.7; 95% CI: 2.7-6.8), RH (β: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.76-2.4), and PM2.5 (β: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.11-0.78) for airborne endotoxin (P<0.05). We also observed an interaction between PM organic carbon content and household fuel in predicting the endotoxin levels. The model calculations showed that in biomass burning homes, total endotoxin deposition was higher among infants (59%) than in adult males (47%), of which at least 10% of inhaled endotoxin is deposited in the alveolar region of the lung. These results indicate that fine particles are significant contributors to the deposition of endotoxin in the alveolar region of the lung. Considering the paramount role of endotoxin exposure, and the source and timing of exposure on respiratory health, additional

  5. Actions of four organic acids in radix isatidis on endotoxin-neutralization investigated by kinetic turbidimetric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; He, Ying-jun; Li, You; Gong, Mu-xin

    2012-06-01

    To investigate anti-endotoxin action of four OAs reacted with endotoxin by the LAL assay with KTA. Using a incubating kinetic tube reader and kinetic turbidimetric assay (KTA), the concentration-response time curve of endotoxin reacted with limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) at 37 degrees C were obtained and the action of four organic acids (OAs) on it were investigated. The four OAs were benzoic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid and 2-amino-benzoic acid from Radix isatidis. Meanwhile, the temperature variation caused by endotoxin with the four OAs was studied by the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT). It was showed that a low concentration (1 mg/mL) of the four OAs had a little effect of anti-endotoxin, and when the concentrations of the four OAs were 30 mg/mL, the endotoxin was neutralized completely. The relationships between the concentrations of endotoxin and the OAs were all linear with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.9995, indicating that the four OAs all had strong anti-endotoxin action, while syringic acid had the strongest action among the four OAs with IC50 of 12.84 mg/mL. The investigations of KTA agreed well with the results obtained by means of RPT.

  6. The role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D A; Thorne, P S; Yagla, S J; Burmeister, L F; Olenchock, S A; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J

    1995-08-01

    To identify the role of endotoxin in grain dust-induced lung disease, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional investigation among grain handlers and postal workers. The study subjects were selected by randomly sampling all grain facilities and post offices within 100 miles of Iowa City. Our study population consisted of 410 grain workers and 201 postal workers. Grain workers were found to be exposed to higher concentrations of airborne dust (p = 0.0001) and endotoxin (p = 0.0001) when compared with postal workers. Grain workers had a significantly higher prevalence of work-related (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest tightness, and dyspnea) and chronic (usual cough or phlegm production) respiratory symptoms than postal workers. Moreover, after controlling for age, gender, and cigarette smoking status, work-related respiratory symptoms were strongly associated with the concentration of endotoxin in the bioaerosol in the work setting. The concentration of total dust in the bioaerosol was marginally related to these respiratory problems. After controlling for age, gender, and cigarette smoking status, grain workers were found to have reduced spirometric measures of airflow (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75) and enhanced airway reactivity to inhaled histamine when compared with postal workers. Although the total dust concentration in the work environment appeared to have little effect on these measures of airflow obstruction, higher concentrations of endotoxin in the bioaerosol were associated with diminished measures of airflow and enhanced bronchial reactivity. Our results indicate that the concentration of endotoxin in the bioaerosol may be particularly important in the development of grain dust-induced lung disease.

  7. Personal exposure to dust and endotoxin in Robusta and Arabica coffee processing factories in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwari, Gloria; Mamuya, Simon H D; Bråtveit, Magne; Larsson, Lennart; Pehrson, Christina; Moen, Bente E

    2013-03-01

    Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers' breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41 mg/m(3) and 10 800 EU/m(3) versus 2.10 mg/m(3) and 1400 EU/m(3), respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers.

  8. Insoluble glycogen, a metabolizable internal adsorbent, decreases the lethality of endotoxin shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble glycogen is an enzymatically modified form of naturally occurring soluble glycogen with a great adsorbing capacity. It can be metabolized by phagocytes to glucose. In this study we used insoluble glycogen intravenously in the experimental endotoxin shock of rats. Wistar male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by Pb acetate. The survival of rats were compared in groups of animals endotoxin shock treated and non-treated with insoluble glycogen. Furthermore, we have determined in vitro the binding capacity of insoluble glycogen for endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and secretable phospholipase A2. Use of 10 mg/kg dose of insoluble glycogen could completely prevent the lethality of shock induced by LD50 quantity of endotoxin in rats. All animals treated survived. Insoluble glycogen is a form of ‘metabolizable internal adsorbents’. It can potentially be used for treatment of septic shock.

  9. Erythropoietin augments the cytokine response to acute endotoxin-induced inflammation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Taudorf, Sarah; Lundby, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    in a human in vivo model of acute systemic low-grade inflammation, we measured circulating inflammatory mediators after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) bolus injection (0.1 ng/kg of body weight) in young healthy male subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups...... receiving either (1) LPS alone, (2) EPO alone (15,000 IE of rHuEPO) or (3) EPO and LPS. Endotoxin administration alone induced a 3-, 12- and 5-fold increase in plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10, respectively, 3h after LPS challenge. When EPO was given prior to a bolus injection...... with endotoxin, the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were enhanced by 5- and 40-fold, respectively, whereas the endotoxin-induced increase in IL-10 response was not influenced by EPO. In contrast to our hypothesis, we find that EPO augments the acute inflammatory effect....

  10. Specific tolerance induction across a xenogeneic barrier: Production of mixed rat/mouse lymphohematopoietic chimeras using a nonlethal preparative regimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabi, Y.; Aksentijevich, I.; Sundt, T.M. III; Sachs, D.H.; Sykes, M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of safe methods for inducing donor-specific tolerance across xenogeneic barriers could potentially relieve the critical shortage of allograft donors that currently limits the applicability of organ transplantation. We report here that such tolerance can be induced in a xenogeneic combination (rat----mouse) using a nonmyeloablative and nonlethal preparative regimen. Successful induction of chimerism and donor-specific transplantation tolerance required pretreatment of recipients with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against NK1.1, Thy-1.2, CD4 and CD8, followed by administration of 3 Gy whole body radiation (WBI), 7 Gy thymic irradiation, and infusion of T cell-depleted rat bone marrow cells (BMC). Rat cells appeared among peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of such recipients by 2-3 wk, and rat T cells by 2-5 wk following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Donor-type rat skin grafts placed 4 mo after BMT were accepted, while simultaneously placed non-donor-type rat skin grafts were promptly rejected. In addition to its clinical potential, the ability to induce donor-specific tolerance across xenogeneic barriers using such a nonlethal preparative regimen provides a valuable model for the study of mechanisms of xenogeneic transplantation tolerance

  11. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Long-term interdisciplinary therapy reduces endotoxin level and insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fábio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Santos, Ronaldo V; Carnier, June; Sanches, Priscila L; de Piano, Aline; de Souza, Claudio T; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T; Seelaender, Marília; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M; Oyama, Lila M; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-09-18

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the dietary fat intake, glucose, insulin, Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance HOMA-IR, and endotoxin levels and correlate them with adipokine serum concentrations in obese adolescents who had been admitted to long-term interdisciplinary weight-loss therapy. The present study was a longitudinal clinical intervention of interdisciplinary therapy. Adolescents (n = 18, aged 15-19 y) with a body mass index > 95th percentile were admitted and evaluated at baseline and again after 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy. We collected blood samples, and IL-6, adiponectin, and endotoxin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Food intake was measured using 3-day diet records. In addition, we assessed glucose and insulin levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The most important finding from the present investigation was that the long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy decreased dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels and improved HOMA-IR. We observed positive correlations between dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels, insulin levels, and the HOMA-IR. In addition, endotoxin levels showed positive correlations with IL-6 levels, insulin levels and the HOMA-IR. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between serum adiponectin and both dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels. The present results indicate an association between dietary fat intake and endotoxin level, which was highly correlated with a decreased pro-inflammatory state and an improvement in HOMA-IR. In addition, this benefits effect may be associated with an increased adiponectin level, which suggests that the interdisciplinary therapy was effective in improving inflammatory pathways.

  13. Long-term interdisciplinary therapy reduces endotoxin level and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Fábio S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The purpose of the present study was to assess the dietary fat intake, glucose, insulin, Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance HOMA-IR, and endotoxin levels and correlate them with adipokine serum concentrations in obese adolescents who had been admitted to long-term interdisciplinary weight-loss therapy. Design The present study was a longitudinal clinical intervention of interdisciplinary therapy. Adolescents (n = 18, aged 15–19 y with a body mass index > 95th percentile were admitted and evaluated at baseline and again after 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy. We collected blood samples, and IL-6, adiponectin, and endotoxin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Food intake was measured using 3-day diet records. In addition, we assessed glucose and insulin levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results The most important finding from the present investigation was that the long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy decreased dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels and improved HOMA-IR. We observed positive correlations between dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels, insulin levels, and the HOMA-IR. In addition, endotoxin levels showed positive correlations with IL-6 levels, insulin levels and the HOMA-IR. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between serum adiponectin and both dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels. Conclusions The present results indicate an association between dietary fat intake and endotoxin level, which was highly correlated with a decreased pro-inflammatory state and an improvement in HOMA-IR. In addition, this benefits effect may be associated with an increased adiponectin level, which suggests that the interdisciplinary therapy was effective in improving inflammatory pathways.

  14. Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells and Central Tolerance in Autoimmune Hepatitis Development: Novel Perspective from a New Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Alexandropoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is an immune-mediated disorder that affects the liver parenchyma. Diagnosis usually occurs at the later stages of the disease, complicating efforts towards understanding the causes of disease development. While animal models are useful for studying the etiology of autoimmune disorders, most of the existing animal models of AIH do not recapitulate the chronic course of the human condition. In addition, approaches to mimic AIH-associated liver inflammation have instead led to liver tolerance, consistent with the high tolerogenic capacity of the liver. Recently, we described a new mouse model that exhibited spontaneous and chronic liver inflammation that recapitulated the known histopathological and immunological parameters of AIH. The approach involved liver-extrinsic genetic engineering that interfered with the induction of T-cell tolerance in the thymus, the very process thought to inhibit AIH induction by liver-specific expression of exogenous antigens. The mutation led to depletion of specialized thymic epithelial cells that present self-antigens and eliminate autoreactive T-cells before they exit the thymus. Based on our findings, which are summarized below, we believe that this mouse model represents a relevant experimental tool towards elucidating the cellular and molecular aspects of AIH development and developing novel therapeutic strategies for treating this disease.

  15. Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by 3 H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in 3 H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin

  16. Research on securing no bacteria and nonfeverish property for disposable medical appliances. Inactivation of endotoxin by Co-60 γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Tanamoto, Kenichi; Haijima, Yuji.

    1996-01-01

    The contamination by fever-causing endotoxin has become a large problem in medical treatment field. In the industry manufacturing disposable medical appliances, the method of manufacturing endotoxin-free products is an important subject, and the development of the methods of inactivating and eliminating efficiently endotoxin is desired. As a part of this development, the possibility of inactivating endotoxin with Co-60 γ ray was examined. The sample was the endotoxin originated from E.Coli R3 F653 strain. For the irradiation, the Co-60 γ ray irradiation apparatus of 185 T-Bq in National Institute of Hygienic Sciences was used. The measurement of the activity of endotoxin was carried out by limulus test synthetic substrate method. The activity value of the endotoxin in aqueous solution decreased logarithmically with the increasing irradiation dose, and this decreasing tendency was not affected by the initial concentration of the endotoxin. The experiment of recovering freezing-dried endotoxin from a vial is described. The results of inactivating the endotoxin in dry system by γ ray are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Endotoxin as a cause of aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Harbert, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The role of pyrogens in aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography was studied by means of the Limulus test, a sensitive detector of endotoxin. During a 15-month period, 39 reactions associated with cisternography were reported. Ten samples of specific lots of the radioactive drugs implicated in 20 of these reactions were tested and all reacted strongly positive to the Limulus test. The less sensitive rabbit pyrogen test was negative for these preparations when tested on a dose-per-weight basis. Our findings apparently provide clinical evidence for the observation made in animals that endotoxin is at least 1,000 times more toxic intrathecally than intravenously. The data implicate endotoxin contamination as a cause of adverse reactions to radionuclide cisternography. We conclude that the USP pyrogen test is insufficiently sensitive for intrathecal injectables and should be supplemented by the Limulus test. (auth)

  18. Kinetics of the disappearance of Cr/sup 51/-labelled endotoxin from the circulation in domestic hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malwinska, K

    1974-01-01

    The clearance rate of Cr/sup 51/-labelled S. gallinarum endotoxin from the circulation of the hen was investigated. The relationship between the dose of endotoxin and the disappearance rate or radioactivity from the blood was observed. It was noted that radioactivity in the blood decreased faster after injection of 5 mg of endotoxin than after administration of 10 mg. These differences were most pronounced during the first hour of observation and diminished later. Blood radioactivity of Cr/sup 51/Cl/sub 3/ was disappearing slower than that of labelled endotoxin. 17 references, 1 figure.

  19. Allergen specific responses in cord and adult blood are differentially modulated in the presence of endotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiwegger, T.; Mayer, E.; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2008-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are common contaminants in allergen preparations and affect antigen-specific cellular responses. Distinct effects of endotoxin on cells in human umbilical cord and adult blood are poorly defined. Objectives To examine the effect of endotoxins in allergen preparations...... on cellular responses in human cord and peripheral blood (PB). Methods The endotoxin content in beta lactoglobulin (BLG), the peanut allergen Ara h 1 and the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was assessed. Proliferation and cytokine response of mononuclear cells towards contaminated and lipopolysaccharide....... Results The proliferative response of cord blood (CB)-derived mononuclear cells towards allergen-preparations at day 3 was related to the level of LPS contamination. At day 7, proliferation was also detected in the absence of endotoxin. Cytokine production in CB was strongly affected by the content...

  20. Comparison of endotoxin levels found in primary and secondary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Endo, Marcos S; Martinho, Frederico C

    2012-08-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the levels of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides [LPSs]) found in primary and secondary endodontic infections with apical periodontitis by correlating LPS contents with clinical/radiographic findings. In addition, the presence of target gram-negative anaerobic bacteria was also investigated. Samples were taken from 15 root canals with primary infections and 15 with secondary infections by using paper points. The limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to quantify endotoxins, and the polymerase chain reaction technique (16S rDNA) was used for bacterial investigation. Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canal samples collected from primary (15/15) and secondary (15/15) infections with median values of 7.49 EU/mL and 3.96 EU/mL, respectively (P asymptomatic teeth with primary infections (P 3 mm) (P < .05). Prevotella nigrescens (10/15, 4/15), Fusobacterium nucleatum (5/15, 1/15), Treponema denticola (3/15, 1/15), and Treponema socranskii (5/15, 1/15) were detected in teeth with primary and secondary infections, respectively. P. endodontalis was present only in teeth with primary infections (5/15). Teeth with primary endodontic infections had higher contents of endotoxins and a more complex gram-negative bacterial community than teeth with secondary infections. Moreover, the levels of endotoxins were related to the severity of bone destruction in periapical tissues as well as the development of clinical features in teeth with primary infections. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Smit, Lidwien A M; Samadi, Sadegh; Omland, Oyvind; Hjort, Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette; Skov, Simon; Wouters, Inge M

    2012-02-01

    To test the hypotheses that current endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with allergic sensitisation and positively associated with non-allergic respiratory diseases in four occupationally exposed populations using a standardised analytical approach. Data were pooled from four epidemiological studies including 3883 Dutch and Danish employees in veterinary medicine, agriculture and power plants using biofuel. Endotoxin exposure was estimated by quantitative job-exposure matrices specific for the study populations. Dose-response relationships between exposure, IgE-mediated sensitisation to common allergens and self-reported health symptoms were assessed using logistic regression and generalised additive modelling. Adjustments were made for study, age, sex, atopic predisposition, smoking habit and farm childhood. Heterogeneity was assessed by analysis stratified by study. Current endotoxin exposure was dose-dependently associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic sensitisation (ORs of 0.92, 0.81 and 0.66 for low mediate, high mediate and high exposure) and hay fever (ORs of 1.16, 0.81 and 0.58). Endotoxin exposure was a risk factor for organic dust toxic syndrome, and levels above 100 EU/m(3) significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis (pOccupational endotoxin exposure has a protective effect on allergic sensitisation and hay fever but increases the risk for organic dust toxic syndrome and chronic bronchitis. Endotoxin's protective effects are most clearly observed among agricultural workers.

  2. Effects of endotoxin exposure on childhood asthma risk are modified by a genetic polymorphism in ACAA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sordillo Joanne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the endotoxin-mediated TLR4 pathway genes have been associated with asthma and atopy. We aimed to examine how genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity pathways interact with endotoxin to influence asthma risk in children. Methods In a previous analysis of 372 children from the Boston Home Allergens and the Connecticut Childhood Asthma studies, 7 SNPs in 6 genes (CARD15, TGFB1, LY96, ACAA1, DEFB1 and IFNG involved in innate immune pathways were associated with asthma, and 5 SNPs in 3 genes (CD80, STAT4, IRAK2 were associated with eczema. We tested these SNPs for interaction with early life endotoxin exposure (n = 291, in models for asthma and eczema by age 6. Results We found a significant interaction between endotoxin and a SNP (rs156265 in ACAA1 (p = 0.0013 for interaction. Increased endotoxin exposure (by quartile showed protective effects for asthma in individuals with at least one copy of the minor allele (OR = 0.39 per quartile increase in endotoxin, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.01. Endotoxin exposure did not reduce the risk of asthma in children homozygous for the major allele. Conclusion Our findings suggest that protective effects of endotoxin exposure on asthma may vary depending upon the presence or absence of a polymorphism in ACAA1.

  3. Experimental study of 『PERSICAE SEMEN』 on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Keun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of 「Persicae Semen」(PS on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. The blood was induced by Endotoxin injection into the caudal vein of rats and PS group taken a measurement of RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC, ESR, CRP. The results were obtained as follows: 1. RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC were increased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. 2. ESR, CRP were decreased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. It is concluded that PS group has significant effects on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. Therefore, PS group seems to be applicable to the diseases related to Endotoxin in clinics.

  4. Endotoxin testing of proteins for parenteral administration using the Mono Mac 6 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    2000-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products containing proteins cause problems in testing for endotoxin and pyrogens. Many proteins interfere with the LAL test and the proteins are immunogenic in rabbits. The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is an alternative assay for detection of endotoxin and other pyrogens....

  5. Endotoxin and dust at respirable and nonrespirable particle sizes are not consistent between cage- and floor-housed poultry operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirychuk, Shelley P; Reynolds, Stephen J; Koehncke, Niels K; Lawson, Joshua; Willson, Philip; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Marciniuk, Darcy; Classen, Henry L; Crowe, Trever; Just, Natasha; Schneberger, David; Dosman, James A

    2010-10-01

    Individuals engaged in work in intensive animal houses experience some of the highest rates of occupationally related respiratory symptoms. Organic dust and in particular endotoxin has been most closely associated with respiratory symptoms and lung function changes in workers. It has previously been shown that for intensive poultry operations, type of poultry housing [cage-housed (CH) versus floor-housed (FH)] can influence the levels of environmental contaminants. The goal of the study was to determine the differences in endotoxin and dust levels at different size fractions between CH and FH poultry operations. Fifteen CH and 15 FH poultry operations were sampled for stationary measurements (area) of dust and associated endotoxin. Fractioned samples were collected utilizing Marple cascade impactors. Gravimetric and endotoxin analysis were conducted on each of the filters. When assessed by individual Marple stage, there was significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration (endotoxin units per cubic meter) in the size fraction >9.8 μm for the FH operations whereas at the size fraction 1.6-3.5 μm, the CH operations had significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration than the FH operations. Endotoxin concentration in the dust mass (endotoxin units per milligram) was significantly greater in the CH operations as compared to the FH operations for all size fractions >1.6 μm. As such, endotoxin in the respirable fraction accounted for 24% of the total endotoxin in the CH operations whereas it accounted for only 11% in the FH operations. There was significantly more dust in all size fractions in the FH operations as compared to the CH poultry operations. There is more endotoxin in the presence of significantly lower dust levels in the respirable particle size fractions in CH poultry operations as compared to the FH poultry operations. This difference in respirable endotoxin may be important in relation to the differential respiratory response experienced by

  6. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Margaret T; Rickles, Frederick R; Armstrong, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal.

  7. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret T Armstrong

    Full Text Available In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin. The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal.

  8. A comparison of the development of tolerance to ethanol and cross-tolerance to nicotine after chronic ethanol treatment in long- and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1993-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in the development of tolerance to both nicotine and ethanol, indicating that genetic factors regulate tolerance development. Those mouse strains that are most sensitive to an acute challenge dose of either drug develop the most tolerance to that drug. The ethanol-sensitive long-sleep (LS) mice are more sensitive to several behavioral and physiological effects of nicotine than are the ethanol-resistant short-sleep (SS) mice. The experiments reported here assessed whether the LS and SS mice develop tolerance to ethanol after chronic treatment with ethanol-containing liquid diets and whether cross-tolerance to nicotine also developed. Tolerance and cross-tolerance were measured by assessing the effects of acute challenge doses of drug on Y-maze crossing and rearing activities, heart rate and body temperature. The LS mice developed tolerance to ethanol's effects on three of the four measures and were cross-tolerant to nicotine on all of the measures. In contrast, the SS mice developed tolerance to ethanol for only two of the measures, but failed to develop cross-tolerance to any action of nicotine. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol and nicotine share sites of action and that common genes regulate responses to these two drugs. Evidence suggests that tolerance to nicotine may be related to an up-regulation of brain nicotinic receptors, at least in some inbred mouse strains, but chronic ethanol treatment did not reproducibly change either [3H]nicotine or alpha-[125I]bungarotoxin binding. Therefore, other mechanisms must underlie the tolerance and cross-tolerance that was seen.

  9. Determination of bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) in radiopharmaceuticals by the gel clot method. Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki

    2008-01-01

    Before the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the only available means of pirogenicity testing for parenteral drugs and medical devices was the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) rabbit pyrogen test. Especially for radiopharmaceuticals, the LAL assay is the elective way to determine bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this work was to validate the gel clot method for some radiopharmaceuticals without measurable interference. The FDA's LALTest guideline defines interference as a condition that causes a significant difference between the endpoints of a positive water control and positive product control series using a standard endotoxin. Experiments were performed in accordance to the USP bacterial endotoxins test in the 131 I- m-iodobenzylguanidine; the radioisotopes Gallium-67 and Thallium-201; the lyophilized reagents DTPA, Phytate, GHA, HSA and Colloidal Tin. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated for each product based upon the clinical dose of the material and a twofold serial dilution below the MVD was performed in duplicate to detect interferences. The labeled sensitivity of the used LAL reagent was 0.125 EU mL -1 (Endotoxin Units per milliliter). For validation, a dilution series was performed, a twofold dilution of control standard endotoxin (CSE) from 0.5 to 0.03 EU mL -1 , to confirm the labeled sensitivity of the LAL reagent being tested in sterile and non pyrogenic water, in quadruplicate. The same dilution series was performed with the CSE and the product in the 1:100 dilution factor, in three consecutive batches of each radiopharmaceutical. The products 131 I-m-iodobenzylguanidine, Gallium-67, Thallium-201, DTPA, HSA and Colloidal Tin were found compatible with the LAL test at a 1:100 dilution factor. Phytate and GHA showed some interference in the gel clot test. Other techniques to determine endotoxins as the chromogenic (color development) and the turbidimetric test (turbidity development), were also assessed to get valuable quantitative and

  10. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiao [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shetty, Sreerama [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708 (United States); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Shuxia [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Zhenyu [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Fu, Jian, E-mail: jian.fu@uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  11. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiao; Shetty, Sreerama; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia

  12. Intestinal Endotoxins as Co-Factors of Liver Injury in Obstructive Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Menteş, B. Bülent; Tatlicioğlu, Ertan; Akyol, Gülen; Uluoğlu, Ömer; Sultan, Nedim; Yilmaz, Erdal; Çelebi, Murat; Taneri, Ferit; Ferahköşe, Zafer

    1996-01-01

    The concept of endotoxin-mediated rather than direct liver injury in biliary obsruction was investigated using the experimental rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Small identical doses of intravenous endotoxin (bacterial LPS) caused a significantly more severe liver injury in rats with BDL, compared with sham-operated rats, suggesting the possible contribution of LPS in this type of liver damage. BDL was then combined with surgica...

  13. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum alpha(2)-Macroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M; Konno, S

    1970-05-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an alpha(2)-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III(0), whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate.

  14. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum α2-Macroglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Morimasa; Konno, Seishi

    1970-01-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an α2-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III0, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Images PMID:16557754

  15. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (pnettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL

  16. DMPD: Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n M. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jan;1096:1-17. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Pub...medID 17405910 Title Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Authors Bo

  17. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  18. Diet Matters: Endotoxin in the Diet Impacts the Level of Allergic Sensitization in Germ-Free Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schwarzer

    Full Text Available Germ-free animals have been used to define the vital role of commensal bacteria on the maturation of the host immune system. However, the role of bacterial residues in diet in this setting is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of bacterial contamination in sterile diet on the level of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Sterile grain-based diets ST1 and R03 were tested for the level of bacterial contamination. ST1 contained higher amount of bacterial DNA, approximately ten times more endotoxin, and induced higher, TLR4-dependent, cytokine production in dendritic cells compared to R03. In a germ-free mouse model of sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, feeding on ST1 for at least two generations was associated with decreased production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies in sera in comparison to R03. Furthermore, reduced levels of allergen-specific and ConA-induced cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 accompanied by increased levels of IFN-γ were detected in splenocytes cultures of these mice. Our results show that contamination of experimental diet with bacterial residues, such as endotoxin, significantly affects the development of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Therefore, careful selection of sterile food is critical for the outcomes of germ-free or gnotobiotic experimental models of immune-deviated diseases.

  19. Workplace Determinants of Endotoxin Exposure in Dental Healthcare Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanusha S.; Bello, Braimoh; Mabe, Onnicah D.; Renton, Kevin; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Aerosols generated during dental procedures have been reported to contain endotoxin as a result of bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines. This study investigated the determinants of airborne endotoxin exposure in dental healthcare settings. Methods: The study population included dental personnel (n = 454) from five academic dental institutions in South Africa. Personal air samples (n = 413) in various dental jobs and water samples (n = 403) from dental handpieces and basin taps were collected. The chromogenic-1000 limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to determine endotoxin levels. Exposure metrics were developed on the basis of individually measured exposures and average levels within each job category. Analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression models were constructed to ascertain the determinants of exposure in the dental group. Results: There was a 2-fold variation in personal airborne endotoxin from the least exposed (administration) to the most exposed (laboratory) jobs (geometric mean levels: 2.38 versus 5.63 EU m−3). Three percent of personal samples were above DECOS recommended exposure limit (50 EU m−3). In the univariate linear models, the age of the dental units explained the most variability observed in the personal air samples (R2 = 0.20, P < 0.001), followed by the season of the year (R2 = 0.11, P < 0.001). Other variables such as institution and total number of dental units per institution also explained a modest degree of variability. A multivariate model explaining the greatest variability (adjusted R2 = 0.40, P < 0.001) included: the age of institution buildings, total number of dental units per institution, ambient temperature, ambient air velocity, endotoxin levels in water, job category (staff versus students), dental unit model type and age of dental unit. Conclusions: Apart from job type, dental unit characteristics are important predictors of airborne endotoxin

  20. IgA against gut-derived endotoxins: does it contribute to suppression of hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    Endotoxins of intestinal origin are supposed to play an important role in the development of alcoholic hepatitis in man. To estimate the role of immunoglobulin response to gut-derived endotoxin in the development of alcohol-induced liver disease, serum levels of IgA and IgG against fecal endotoxin......, endotoxin, and acute-phase proteins were measured in patients with different stages of alcoholic liver disease and in healthy controls. Antibodies of type IgA, but not IgG, against fecal endotoxins were significantly increased in patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. IgA antibodies against fecal...... endotoxin were found to be closely correlated with the plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and C-reactive protein in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In conclusion, as IgA located in body tissue was shown to suppress the inflammatory process, enhanced...

  1. Systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, A. F.; van Haren, M. A.; Verhagen, C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is released in the circulation and aqueous humor during endotoxin-induced uveitis, and induces acute uveitis when injected intraocularly in rats. To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor in the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis we analysed the effect of

  2. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin in the diagnosis of bacteremia.

  3. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. VIII. Further observations on the role of endogenous pyrogen in endotoxin fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GILLMAN, S M; BORNSTEIN, D L; WOOD, W B

    1961-11-01

    Rabbits made granulocytopenic with nitrogen mustard have been shown to generate serum endogenous pyrogen when given a fever-producing dose of bacterial endotoxin. This finding is in accord with the hypothesis that endogenous pyrogen plays a central role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin fever. The fact that leucopenic animals produce less serum-endogenous pyrogen than normal animals given the same dose of endotoxin has also been confirmed and suggests that polymorphonuclear leucocytes constitute a major source of the endogenous pyrogen which is demonstrable in the circulation during endotoxin fever.

  4. Immunostimulatory Potential of β-Lactoglobulin Preparations: Effects Caused by Endotoxin Contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bovetto, L.; Fritsche, R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The immunomodulating potential residing in cow's milk proteins is currently receiving increasing attention because of growing interest in functional foods and the complex problem of cow's milk allergy. One of the major cow's milk allergens, whey protein beta-lactoglobulin, has...... the immunomodulatory activity. Eventually, the immunostimulatory effect was found to be caused by endotoxin contamination.Conclusion: These results identify endotoxin as the main immunostimulatory component present in some commercial beta-lactoglobulin preparations. Moreover, the present study makes it evident...

  5. Piroxicam Reverses Endotoxin-Induced Hypotension in Rats: Contribution of Vasoactive Eicosanoids and Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buharalioglu, C. Kemal; Korkmaz, Belma; Cuez, Tuba; Sahan-Firat, Seyhan; Sari, Ayşe Nihal; Malik, Kafait U.; Tunctan, Bahar

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is responsible for endotoxin-induced vascular hyporeactivity and hypotension resulting in multiple organ failure. Endotoxic shock is also characterized by decreased expression of constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX-1), cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A and endothelial NOS (eNOS). Our previous studies demonstrated that dual inhibition of iNOS and COX with a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, or a non-selective COX inhibitor, indomethacin, restores blood pressure presumably due to increased production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) derived from arachidonic acid (AA) by CYP4A in endotoxaemic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of piroxicam, a preferential COX-1 inhibitor, on the endotoxin-induced changes in blood pressure, expression of COX-1, inducible COX (COX-2), CYP4A1, eNOS, iNOS and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), and production of PGI2, PGE2, 20-HETE and NO. Injection of endotoxin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to male Wistar rats caused a fall in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate associated with elevated renal 6-keto-PGF1α and PGE2 levels as well as an increase in COX-2 protein expression. Endotoxin also caused an elevation in systemic and renal nitrite levels associated with increased renal iNOS protein expression. In contrast, systemic and renal 20-HETE levels and renal expression of eNOS, COX-1 and CYP4A1 were decreased in endotoxaemic rats. The effects of endotoxin, except for renal COX-1 and eNOS protein expression, were prevented by piroxicam (10 mg/kg, i.p.), given 1 hr after injection of endotoxin. Endotoxin did not change renal hsp90 protein expression. These data suggest that a decrease in the expression and activity of COX-2 and iNOS associated with an increase in CYP4A1 expression and 20-HETE synthesis contributes to the effect of piroxicam to prevent the hypotension during rat endotoxaemia. PMID:21463481

  6. Influence of endotoxin-induced sepsis on the requirements of propofol-fentanyl infusion rate in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Nielsen, Bjørn J; Toft, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Endotoxin-induced sepsis in pigs is a recognized experimental model for the study of human septic shock. Generally, pigs are brought into general anaesthesia before sepsis is induced. It is our experience that drug dosages of propofol and fentanyl need to be reduced during endotoxin-induced sepsis......, in order to prevent respiratory and cardiovascular depression, but the scientific evidence for this observation is lacking. Therefore, we measured the consumption of propofol and fentanyl at equal level of anaesthesia in pigs with (n = 5) and without (n = 5) endotoxin-induced sepsis, using the cerebral...... state index (CSI) as measure of anaesthetic depth. Infusion rates of propofol (P endotoxin-induced sepsis had an infusion rate of 2.2 mg/kg/hr (S.D. 0.5) for propofol and 12 microg/kg/hr (S.D. 2) for fentanyl, whereas...

  7. Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and to airborne endotoxin. In addition we evaluated specific pesticides (active ingredients) previously associated with PD. We used data from a hospital-based case-control study, including 444 patients with PD and 876 age and sex matched controls. Exposures to pesticides from application and re-entry work were estimated with the ALOHA+job-exposure matrix and with an exposure algorithm based on self-reported information on pesticide use. To assess exposure to specific active ingredients a crop-exposure matrix was developed. Endotoxin exposure was estimated with the DOM job-exposure matrix. The results showed almost no significant associations. However, ORs were elevated in the higher exposure categories for pesticides in general, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and below unity for endotoxin exposure. The analyses on specific active ingredients showed a significant association of PD risk with the fungicide benomyl. This study did not provide evidence for a relation between pesticide exposure and PD. However, the consistently elevated ORs in the higher exposure categories suggest that a positive association may exist. The possible association with the active ingredient benomyl requires follow-up in other studies. This study did not provide support for a possible association between endotoxin exposure and PD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Influence of apical enlargement and complementary canal preparation with the Self-Adjusting File on endotoxin reduction in retreatment cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E J N L; Ferreira, V M; Silva, C C; Herrera, D R; De-Deus, G; Gomes, B P

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of large apical preparations and complementary canal preparation with the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) in removing endotoxins from the root canal of teeth with apical periodontitis. Ten single-rooted and single-canaled teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis were selected. Endotoxin samples were taken after removal of the root filling (S1), after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 2.5% NaOCl and an R25 file (S2), after CMP using 2.5% NaOCl and an R40 file (S3) and after complementary CMP using the SAF system (S4). Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) was used to measure endotoxin levels. The Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare endotoxin levels at each clinical intervention (P file was able to significantly reduce endotoxin levels (P file (P  0.05) following the use of the R40 instrument. Apical enlargement protocols were effective in significantly reducing endotoxin levels. Complementary preparation with the SAF system failed to eliminate residual endotoxin contents beyond those obtained with the R40 instrument. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of endotoxin and allergens on neonatal lung function and infancy respiratory symptoms and eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing-Karahagopian, V.; Gugten, A.C. van der; Ent, C.K. van der; Uiterwaal, C.; Jongh, M. de; Oldenwening, M.; Brunekreef, B.; Gehring, U.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to endotoxin and allergens in house dust has been found to be associated with childhood wheeze and asthma. Neonatal lung function is rarely examined in relation to this exposure. OBJECTIVES To assess the association between exposure to endotoxin, house dust mite and cat

  10. Sensitive measurement of endotoxin by radio-rocket immunoelectrophoresis using [125I]Staphylococcus aureus protein A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.; Alam, S.; Young, L.S.; Chesebro, K.

    1981-01-01

    Antibody directed against the core glycolipid antigen (CGL) of the mutant Salmonella minnesota Re 595 has been shown to cross-react with endotoxin from bacteria within the group Enterobacteriaceae. Using this cross-reactive CGL antibody the authors have developed a sensitive (250 pg) radio-rocket immunoelectrophoretic technique to measure endotoxin. They used the principles of rocket immunoelectrophoresis and increased the sensitivity by using 125 I-labelled staphylococcal protein A which serves as a sensitive probe to bind to the Fc portion of the IgG complexed with antigen. The rocket-shaped [ 125 I]protein A labelled immune complexes were detected by radioautography. The sensitivity is 100-fold greater than conventional Coomassie brilliant blue staining. Measurement of CGL was inhibited by normal human serum. However, the assay had the capacity to quantitate endotoxin in buffer extracts of clinically isolated Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Analysis of various preparations of CGL obtained from different investigators demonstrated wide variation in their immunoreactivity. Because of the significant cross-reaction to detect various endotoxins this method has the potential to measure endotoxemia and assess the immunochemical quality of various endotoxin preparations. Additionally, the techniques of using [ 125 I]protein A has wide applicability for the sensitive measurement of other antigens. (Auth.)

  11. Occupational exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk: results of the ICARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Soumaya; Neri, Monica; Guida, Florence; Matrat, Mireille; Cenée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Molinié, Florence; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the role of occupational exposure to endotoxins in lung cancer in a French population-based case-control study (ICARE (Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers)). Detailed information was collected on the occupational history and smoking habits from 2926 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 3555 matched controls. We evaluated each subject's endotoxin exposure after cross referencing International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) codes (for job tasks) and Nomenclature d'Activités Françaises (NAF) codes (for activity sectors). Endotoxin exposure levels were attributed to each work environment based on literature reports. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models and controlled for main confounding factors. An inverse association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer was found (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). Negative trends were shown with duration and cumulative exposure, and the risk was decreased decades after exposure cessation (all statistically significant). Lung cancer risk was particularly reduced among workers highly exposed (eg, in dairy, cattle, poultry, pig farms), but also in those weakly exposed (eg, in waste treatment). Statistically significant interactions were shown with smoking, and never/light smokers were more sensitive to an endotoxin effect than heavy smokers (eg, OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.32 and OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.40, respectively, for the quartiles with the highest cumulative exposure, compared with those never exposed). Pronounced inverse associations were shown with adenocarcinoma histological subtype (OR=0.37, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.55 in the highly exposed). Our findings suggest that exposure to endotoxins, even at a low level, reduces the risk of lung cancer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  12. Detection of endotoxins and other pyrogens using human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennrich, S; Fischer, M; Hartung, T; Lexa, P; Montag-Lessing, T; Sonntag, H G; Weigandt, M; Wendel, A

    1999-01-01

    When cells of the immune system, i.e. primarily blood monocytes and macrophages, come into contact with pyrogens (fever-inducing contaminations) they release mediators transmitting the fever reaction through the organism to the thermoregulatory centres of the brain. The new test discussed here exploits this reaction for the detection of pyrogens: human whole blood taken from healthy volunteers is incubated in the presence of the test sample. If there is pyrogen contamination, the endogenous pyrogen interleukin-1 is released, which is then determined by ELISA. According to the pharmacopoeia, the rabbit pyrogen test determines the fever reaction following injection of a test sample. In comparison, the new whole blood assay is more sensitive, less expensive and determines the reaction of the targeted species. Compared to the well established in vitro alternative, i.e. the limulus amebocyte lysate assay (LAL), the new blood assay is not restricted to endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria, it is not affected by endotoxin-binding blood proteins and it reflects the potency of different endotoxin preparations in mammals. Here, interim results of the ongoing optimization and pre-validation are reported and the present state of the evaluation for biological and pharmaceutical drugs are presented.

  13. Detoxication of endotoxins from the enteric group of bacteria using gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanian, M A; Dunlishcheva, A P; Sinilova, N G; Ivanov, K K

    1975-03-01

    A study was made of the effect of gamma radiation on the toxic properties of endotoxins of the O-somatic antigens and lipopolysaccharides separated from various representatives of the enterobacteriaceae: S. typhi 2 4446, S. paratyphi B42, B. proteus vulgaris 1 and mirabilis 4, E. coli K12 and 5396/38 and Sh. dysenteriae flexneri 516 and 550. An irradiation dose of 1 mrad led to an insignificant decrease in toxicity, while a dose of 3 mrad led to a decrease in toxicity by a factor of 3 to 4 in comparison with the toxicity of the initial preparation. The decrease in toxicity under the effect of irradiation is apparently connected with the lipid part of the endotoxin molecule. The irradiation results in a decrease in the molecular weight of the endotoxin. The infrared spectrum of the molecule shows considerable changes at high radiation doses. (SJR)

  14. The Chemical Composition of Endotoxin Isolated from Intestinal Strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Lodowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desulfovibrio desulfuricans anaerobes are constituents of human alimentary tract microflora. There are suggestions that they take part in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and some gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. Endotoxin is one of Gram-negative bacteria cellular components that influence these microorganisms pathogenicity. Endotoxin is a lipid-polisaccharide heteropolymer consisting of three elements: lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O-specific polysaccharide, also called antigen-O. The biological activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS is determined by its structure. In this study, we show that rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose, galactose, heptose, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid (Kdo are constituents of D. desulfuricans endotoxin oligosaccharide core and O-antigen. Lipid A of these bacteria LPS is composed of glucosamine disaccharide substituted by 3-acyloxyacyl residues: ester-bound 3-(dodecanoyloxytetradecanoic, 3-(hexadecanoyloxytetradecanoic acid, and amide-bound 3-(tetradecanoyloxytetradecanoic acid.

  15. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Schwarz

    Full Text Available Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU. When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml. We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  16. Detection of endotoxins in radiopharmaceutical preparations. II. Comparison of the sensitivity of methods using the rabbit and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate for the detection of endotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, J; Cohen, Y; Merlin, L; Peysson, S

    1986-01-01

    The rise of the rabbit internal temperature after i.v. injection of an endotoxin solution is proportional to concentration. Gelation of Limulus amoebocyte, when in presence of an endotoxin solution, is also related to concentration. We compared the sensitivity of these two methods. With our experimental procedure, the rabbit is sensitive to a 0.40 ng/mL solution and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate to a 0.14 ng/mL solution. The rabbit sensitivity increase is related to the per kilogramme injected volume, whereas sensitivity is not related to the volume to check in the case of the lysate.

  17. Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

    2013-10-01

    Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP.

  18. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  19. A NEW ANIMAL-MODEL FOR HUMAN PREECLAMPSIA - ULTRA-LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN INFUSION IN PREGNANT RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; VISSCHER, CA; BAKKER, WW

    OBJECTIVE: An animal model for preeclampsia was developed by means of an ultra-low-dose endotoxin infusion protocol in conscious pregnant rats. STUDY DESIGN: Rats received a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 0 of pregnancy, through which endotoxin (1.0 mu/kg body weight) (n = 10) or saline

  20. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Kamps, J.AAM; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin

  1. Phosphatidylcholine reverses ethanol-induced increase in transepithelial endotoxin permeability and abolishes transepithelial leukocyte activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitscherling, K.; Volynets, V.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol abuse increases both intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Intestinal permeability of endotoxin, a component of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a crucial role in the development of alcohol-induced liver...... disease (ALD). As impaired bile flow leads to endotoxemia and the bile component phosphatidylcholine (PC) is therapeutically active in ALD, we tested the hypothesis that conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and PC inhibit ethanol-enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the subsequent...... transepithelial activation of human leukocytes. METHODS: For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without...

  2. [Change and correlated factors of fasting level of the plasma endotoxin in subjects with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Zhao, Tie-Yun; Hou, Li-Qiong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the change of the levels of fasting plasma endotoxin (ET) and assess its correlated factors in individuals with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices. The levels of fasting plasma ET were assayed by the endpoint chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate method in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The height, body mass, waist, hips, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured with the conventional methods; body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. All groups were divided into obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and non-obesity (BMIfasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours plasma glucose (2 hPG), fasting insulin (FINS), postprandial insulin (PINS), hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc), blood lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also analyzed, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The relationship of the levels of plasma ET with age, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, FBG, 2 hPG, FINS, PINS, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, blood lipids, FFA, AST and ALT were also analyzed. (1) The levels of plasma ET in T2DM group (n=37) was significantly higher than that in NGT group (n=37) [7. 1 (3. 7-11. 8) EU/mL vs. 4. 5 (2.2-6.3) EU/mL, P0. 05). (2) The levels of plasma ET in the obesity T2DM subgroup was higher than that in the non-obesity T2DM subgroup but the differences were not significant [7. 3 (3. 8-13. 3) EU/mL vs. 7.0 (3. 6-10. 4) EU/mL, P>0. 05]. There was a remarkable difference in the levels of plasma ET between obesity and non-obesity subgroup of IGR (6.8 (2.9-13.2) EU/mL vs. 2.7 (1.6-5. 5) EU/mL, Pobesity and non-obesity subgroup of NGT (6.2 (3. 4-12. 7) EU/mL vs. 2. 8 (1. 8-4. 9) EU/mL, P<0. 05). (3) Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that ET wasn' t the important factor influencing FBG and 2 hPG. But BMI and FBG were the important factors

  3. Sensitive measurement of endotoxin by radio-rocket immunoelectrophoresis using (/sup 125/I)Staphylococcus aureus protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P; Alam, S; Young, L S; Chesebro, K [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Center for the Health Sciences

    1981-06-16

    Antibody directed against the core glycolipid antigen (CGL) of the mutant Salmonella minnesota Re 595 has been shown to cross-react with endotoxin from bacteria within the group Enterobacteriaceae. Using this cross-reactive CGL antibody the authors have developed a sensitive (250 pg) radio-rocket immunoelectrophoretic technique to measure endotoxin. They used the principles of rocket immunoelectrophoresis and increased the sensitivity by using /sup 125/I-labelled staphylococcal protein A which serves as a sensitive probe to bind to the Fc portion of the IgG complexed with antigen. The rocket-shaped (/sup 125/I)protein A labelled immune complexes were detected by radioautography. The sensitivity is 100-fold greater than conventional Coomassie brilliant blue staining. Measurement of CGL was inhibited by normal human serum. However, the assay had the capacity to quantitate endotoxin in buffer extracts of clinically isolated Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Analysis of various preparations of CGL obtained from different investigators demonstrated wide variation in their immunoreactivity. Because of the significant cross-reaction to detect various endotoxins this method has the potential to measure endotoxemia and assess the immunochemical quality of various endotoxin preparations. Additionally, the techniques of using (/sup 125/I)protein A has wide applicability for the sensitive measurement of other antigens.

  4. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, E.J.; Cook, J.A.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Rokach, J.; Halushka, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats. Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3

  5. Activation of innate immune genes in caprine blood leukocytes after systemic endotoxin challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Øyvind; Reiten, Malin R; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    observed peaking at 2 h, corroborating the increasing evidence that ISGs respond immediately to bacterial endotoxins. A slower response was manifested by four extrahepatic acute phase proteins (APP) (SAA3, HP, LF and LCN2) reaching maximum levels at 5 h. We report an immediate induction of ISGs...... insights into the dynamic regulation of innate immune genes, as well as raising new questions regarding the importance of ISGs and extrahepatic APPs in leukocytes after systemic endotoxin challenge....

  6. Phosphatidylcholine Reverses Ethanol-Induced Increase in Transepithelial Endotoxin Permeability and Abolishes Transepithelial Leukocyte Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzscherling, Katja; Volynets, Valentina; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse increases both intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Intestinal permeability of endotoxin, a component of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a crucial role in the development of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD......). As impaired bile flow leads to endotoxemia and the bile component phosphatidylcholine (PC) is therapeutically active in ALD, we tested the hypothesis that conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and PC inhibit ethanol-enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the subsequent transepithelial...... activation of human leukocytes. For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without the addition of CPBS (1.5 m...

  7. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here...... present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin...

  8. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meitern

    Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.

  9. Invited review: Role of bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathogenesis of periparturient diseases of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Emily F; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The dairy industry continues to suffer severe economic losses due to the increased disease incidence cows experience during the transition period. It has long been the classical view that the major contributing factor to the development of these periparturient diseases is the considerable increase in nutritional demands for milk production. This classical view, however, fails to account for the substantial correlation between both metabolic and infectious diseases and the detrimental effects that can occur with the provision of high-energy diets to support these nutritional demands. Currently, increasing evidence implicates bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathology of most periparturient diseases. Bacterial endotoxins are components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria that are highly immunostimulatory and can trigger proinflammatory immune responses. The ability of endotoxins to translocate from the mucosal tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, mammary gland, and uterus, into the systemic circulation has been observed. Once they have entered the circulation, endotoxins potentially contribute to disease either directly, through eliciting an inflammatory response, or indirectly through other factors such as the overreaction of the natural protective mechanisms of the host. Although the evidence implicating a role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of transition diseases continues to grow, our current knowledge of the host response to mucosal endotoxin exposure and pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Developing our understanding of the connection between endotoxemia and dairy cattle disease holds significant potential for the future development of preventative measures that could benefit the productivity of the dairy industry as well as animal welfare. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Upregulation of miR-375 level ameliorates morphine analgesic tolerance in mouse dorsal root ganglia by inhibiting the JAK2/STAT3 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HQ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Haiqin Li, Rong Tao, Jing Wang, Lingjie Xia Department of Clinical Pain, The People’s Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Several lines of evidence indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs modulate tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine via regulation of pain-related genes, making dysregulation of miRNA levels a clinical target for controlling opioid tolerance. However, the precise mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate opioid tolerance are unclear. In the present study, we noted that the miR-375 level was downregulated but the expression of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 was upregulated in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG following chronic morphine treatment. The miR-375 levels and JAK2 expression were correlated with the progression of morphine tolerance, and upregulation of miR-375 level could significantly hinder morphine tolerance. This was ameliorated by JAK2 knockdown. Prolonged morphine exposure induced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in a time-dependent manner in the DRG. This was regulated by the miR-375 and JAK2–signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 pathway, and inhibition of this pathway decreased BDNF production, and thus, attenuated morphine tolerance. More importantly, we found that miR-375 could target JAK2 and increase BDNF expression in a JAK2/STAT3 pathway-dependent manner. Keywords: morphine tolerance, miR-375, JAK2, BDNF

  11. A biological study establishing the endotoxin limit for in vitro proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nomura

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Since endotoxins can affect various cellular functions, an endotoxin limit should be set for in vitro MSC cultures. The lowest observed adverse effect level was determined to be 0.1 ng/ml based on the effect on MSC proliferation.

  12. Effect of hyperbaric air on endotoxin from Bacteroides fragilis strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, D.; Kašíková, A.; Martineková, P.; Hájek, M.; Rozložník, M.; Brabec, Marek; Janečková, J.; Vobejdová, J.; Čižnár, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2018), s. 283-290 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : endotoxin * hyperbaric condition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2016

  13. Effect of radio-detoxified endotoxin on the liver microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertok, L.; Szeberenyi, S.

    1983-01-01

    E. coli endotoxin (LPS) depresses the hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity. Radio-detoxified LPS (TOLERIN: 60 Co irradiated endotoxin preparation) decreases this biotransforming activity to a smaller extent. Phenobarbital, an inducer of this mono-oxygenase system, failed to induce in LPS-treated animals. In radio-detoxified LPS-treated rats, phenobarbital induced the mono-oxygenase and almost fully restored the biotransformation

  14. Determination of bacterial endotoxins in blood of animals and humans subjected to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, P N; Shchul' s, T S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1981-01-01

    The content of Gram-negative bacterium endotoxins in the irradiated organism was determined by the use of actinomycin D sensitizing the organism to the effect of such toxins. Regularities in the accumulation of Gram-negative bacterium endotoxins in the irradiated organism were studied as well as the dependence of animal sensitization on the actinomycin D dose. Possibilities for the development of endotoxemia in oncologic patients in the process of radiotheraphy were traced. It is shown that the radiotherapy of the intestine containing large quantaties of bacteria and their toxins is accompanied by endotoxemia; in the first part of the radiotherapy course its manifestation depends on the irradiation dose; having reached a specific level, endotoxemia retains its symptoms till the end of irradiation. It is indicated that the determination of bacterium endotoxins is of interest when studying not only the development of endotoxemia in the organism exposed to radiation, hut also many other toxemic states.

  15. Common studied polymorphisms do not affect plasma cytokine levels upon endotoxin exposure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Sarah; Krabbe, K.S.; Berg, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter regions of genes of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-18, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-6 and IL-10 affect the cytokine response during a controlled......-607, IFN-gamma+874, IL-6-174, IL-10-592 and IL-10-1082) and endotoxin-induced changes in plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10. IL-18 levels were unaffected by endotoxin. In conclusion, the investigated SNPs did not affect endotoxin-induced low-grade cytokine production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-18 or IL......-10 in healthy young men. Previous reports of a major heritability factor in the inflammatory response may be due to other target genes or effects in older age groups or women Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  16. Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lambalgen, A.A.; van den Bos, G.C.; Thijs, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Regional differences in plasma extravasation during endotoxin shock in rats and a possible relationship with changes in regional blood flow were studied with radioactive isotopes ( 125 I-HSA, 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, microspheres) in anesthetized rats (pentobarbital). Shock was induced by intravenous infusion of endotoxin (Eschericia coli; 10 mg X kg-1) for 60 min (starting at t = 0); at t = 120 min, the experiments were terminated. These rats (n = 8) were compared with time-matched control rats (n = 8). A third group (rats killed 7.5 min after injection of 125 I-HSA, i.e., no extravasation; n = 8) served as baseline. The amount of plasma extravasated in 2 hr of endotoxin shock was significantly increased over control values in skin (by 67%), colon (88%), skeletal muscle (105%), stomach (230%), pancreas (300%), and diaphragm (1300%). Losses of 125 I-HSA into intestinal lumen and peritoneal cavity had also increased over control values by 146 and 380%, respectively. Blood flow was compromised in most organs except heart and diaphragm. Extravasation when normalized for total plasma supply was correlated with total blood supply; the more the blood supply decreased, the higher the normalized extravasation. In the diaphragm, however, blood supply and plasma leakage increased together. Decreased blood supply and plasma extravasation may be related but they could also be simultaneously occurring independent phenomena with a common origin

  17. Structural studies of {delta}-endotoxin Cry 1 C from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, B.G.; Garratt, R.C.; Oliva, G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lemos, M.V.F. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada Agropecuaria; Arantes, O.M.N. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    1996-12-31

    Full text. The {delta}-endotoxins are a family of crystal protein by a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. The study of these proteins has been of great interest due to their highly specific activity against insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera. Thus, the {delta}a-endotoxins have been used for more than two decades as biological insecticides to control agricultural pests and, more recently, insects vectors of some diseases. The knowledge of their three-dimensional structures is very important to understand their mechanism of action and their high specificity. To date, the structure of only three proteins of the {delta}-endotoxins family have been reported: Cry3A, a coleopteran-specific toxin (beetle toxin){sup 1}, Cry1Aa, a lepidopteran-specific toxin (butterfly toxin){sup 2} and CytB, a dipteran-specific toxin (mosquito toxin){sup 3} Our work is aimed at the determination of the crystallographic structure by X-ray diffraction of {delta}-endotoxin Cry1C, also toxic to insects of the Lepidoptera order but towards families other than those affected by Cry1Aa. A comparison between these structures may lead to important conclusions about the reasons for the specificity and would allow the planning of mutants with more efficient activity. The cry1C gene was cloned into an adequate vector and expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain. After cell culture and sporulation the microcrystals of Cry1C were separated by ultra-centrifugation in sacharose. The protoxin inclusion bodies were activated by commercial trpsin and the protease-resistant core was purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Crystallization experiments are being conducted in order to obtain single crystals suitable for diffraction measurements. We intend to use the Protein Crystallograph Station of the LNLS to collect data as soon as it is available and we have suitable crystals. (author) 3 refs.

  18. Structural studies of δ-endotoxin Cry 1 C from Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, B.G.; Garratt, R.C.; Oliva, G.; Lemos, M.V.F.; Arantes, O.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Full text. The δ-endotoxins are a family of crystal protein by a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. The study of these proteins has been of great interest due to their highly specific activity against insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera. Thus, the δa-endotoxins have been used for more than two decades as biological insecticides to control agricultural pests and, more recently, insects vectors of some diseases. The knowledge of their three-dimensional structures is very important to understand their mechanism of action and their high specificity. To date, the structure of only three proteins of the δ-endotoxins family have been reported: Cry3A, a coleopteran-specific toxin (beetle toxin) 1 , Cry1Aa, a lepidopteran-specific toxin (butterfly toxin) 2 and CytB, a dipteran-specific toxin (mosquito toxin) 3 Our work is aimed at the determination of the crystallographic structure by X-ray diffraction of δ-endotoxin Cry1C, also toxic to insects of the Lepidoptera order but towards families other than those affected by Cry1Aa. A comparison between these structures may lead to important conclusions about the reasons for the specificity and would allow the planning of mutants with more efficient activity. The cry1C gene was cloned into an adequate vector and expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain. After cell culture and sporulation the microcrystals of Cry1C were separated by ultra-centrifugation in sacharose. The protoxin inclusion bodies were activated by commercial trpsin and the protease-resistant core was purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Crystallization experiments are being conducted in order to obtain single crystals suitable for diffraction measurements. We intend to use the Protein Crystallograph Station of the LNLS to collect data as soon as it is available and we have suitable crystals. (author)

  19. Blockade by fenspiride of endotoxin-induced neutrophil migration in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F Q; Boukili, M A; da Motta, J I; Vargaftig, B B; Ferreira, S H

    1993-07-06

    Fenspiride, an antiinflammatory drug with low anti-cyclooxygenase activity, administered orally at 60-200 mg/kg inhibited neutrophil migration into peritoneal and air pouches cavities as well as exudation into peritoneal cavities induced by endotoxin but not induced by carrageenin. Up to 100 microM, fenspiride failed to inhibit the in vitro release of a neutrophil chemotactic activity by endotoxin-stimulated macrophages and the in vivo migration into the peritoneal cavities induced by the supernatant of those macrophages. The release of tumour necrosis factor by stimulated macrophages was inhibited by fenspiride in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of fenspiride are associated with the inhibition of the tumour necrosis factor release by resident macrophages.

  20. Endotoxins in surgical instruments of hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goveia, Vania Regina; Mendoza, Isabel Yovana Quispe; Guimarães, Gilberto Lima; Ercole, Flavia Falci; Couto, Bráulio Roberto Gonçalves Marinho; Leite, Edna Marilea Meireles; Stoianoff, Maria Aparecida Resende; Ferreira, José Antonio Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    To investigate endotoxins in sterilized surgical instruments used in hip arthroplasties. A descriptive exploratory study conducted in a public teaching hospital. Six types of surgical instruments were selected, namely: acetabulum rasp, femoral rasp, femoral head remover, chisel box, flexible bone reamer and femoral head test. The selection was based on the analysis of the difficulty in removing bone and blood residues during cleaning. The sample was made up of 60 surgical instruments, which were tested for endotoxins in three different stages. The EndosafeTM Gel-Clot LAL (Limulus Amebocyte Lysate method) was used. There was consistent gel formation with positive analysis in eight instruments, corresponding to 13.3%, being four femoral rasps and four bone reamers. Endotoxins in quantity ≥0.125 UE/mL were detected in 13.3% of the instruments tested. Investigar endotoxinas em instrumentais cirúrgicos esterilizados empregados em artroplastias do quadril. Estudo exploratório, descritivo, desenvolvido em um hospital público de ensino. Foram selecionados seis tipos de instrumentais, a saber: raspa acetabular, raspa femural, saca-cabeça de fêmur, formão box, fresa de fêmur e cabeça de prova de fêmur. A seleção foi feita a partir da análise da dificuldade para a remoção de resíduos de sangue e osso durante a limpeza. A amostra foi constituída por 60 instrumentais cirúrgicos, que foram testados para endotoxinas em três momentos distintos. Foi utilizado o método de gel-clot pelo Limulus Amebócito Lisado (LAL) Endosafe(tm). Houve formação de gel consistente com análise positiva em oito instrumentais, o que corresponde a 13,3%, sendo quatro raspas de fêmur e quatro fresas de fêmur. Foram detectadas endotoxinas em quantidade ≥0,125 UE/mL em 13,3% dos instrumentais testados.

  1. Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release in patients with gram-negative urosepsis: a double-blind study comparing imipenem and ceftazidime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J. M.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Kuijper, E. J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Speelman, P.

    1995-01-01

    The clinical significance of differences between antibiotics in endotoxin-liberating potential is unknown. Thirty patients with gram-negative urosepsis were randomized between imipenem and ceftazidime, which have, respectively, a low and a high endotoxin-liberating potential in vitro. In patients

  2. Modeling the LPS Neutralization Activity of Anti-Endotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, also known as endotoxins, are major structural components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that serve as a barrier and protective shield between them and their surrounding environment. LPS is considered to be a major virulence factor as it strongly stimulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which mediate the host immune response and culminating in septic shock. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of the LPS neutralization activities of anti-endotoxins were performed using charge and quantum chemical descriptors. Artificial neural network implementing the back-propagation algorithm was selected for the multivariate analysis. The predicted activities from leave-one-out cross-validation were well correlated with the experimental values as observed from the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.930 and 0.162, respectively. Similarly, the external testing set also yielded good predictivity with correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.983 and 0.130. The model holds great potential for the rational design of novel and robust compounds with enhanced neutralization activity.

  3. Cytokine release from human peripheral blood leucocytes incubated with endotoxin with and without prior infection with influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1993-01-01

    Previous work with a neonatal ferret model for human SIDS had indicated that inflammation caused by a combination of influenza virus and bacterial endotoxin may be a cause of human SIDS. To determine whether cytokines may be involved in this inflammatory response, levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta......, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were examined, using ELISA assays, in culture supernatants of human peripheral blood leucocytes infected with influenza virus and subsequently incubated with endotoxin. Levels of TNF-alpha were increased compared to cells incubated with virus or endotoxin...... alone. Levels of IL-1 beta were also increased whereas levels of IL-6 were generally not enhanced. Cytokines appeared within 1-2 h of stimulation with virus or endotoxin and increased subsequently to reach maximum titres between 16 and 20 h post treatment. While levels of cytokine were much lower when...

  4. Detection of bacterial endotoxin in food: New planar interdigital sensors based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Rahman, Mohd Syaifudin

    2013-02-01

    Food poisoning caused by endotoxins or Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are associated with Gram-negative bacteria. Two major food-borne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella are examples of Gram-negative bacteria which cause a large number of outbreaks of food poisoning. New types of planar interdigital sensors have been fabricated with different coating materials to assess their response to endotoxins. A carboxyl-functional polymer, APTES (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane) and Thionine were chosen to be coated onto FR4 interdigital sensors. The chosen coating materials have carboxylic or amine functional groups, which were optimized to be stable in water. All coated sensors were immobilized with PmB (Polymyxin B) which has specific binding properties to LPS. The sensors were tested with different concentrations of LPS O111:B4, ranging from 0.1 to 1000 μg/ml. Analyses of sensors\\' performance were based on the impedance spectroscopy method. The impedance spectra were modeled using a constant phase-element (CPE) equivalent circuit, and a principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data classification. Sensor coated with APTES has shown better selectivity for LPS detection. The experiments were repeated by coating APTES and immobilizing PmB to a new improve designed of novel interdigital sensors (thin film silicon based sensors). These sensors were observed to have better sensitivity and selectivity to the target biomolecules of LPS. Further experiments were conducted to study the effect of different coating thickness on sensor sensitivity, selectivity and stability. Different food samples contaminated with endotoxin were also tested to verify that the interdigital sensing approach is able to be used for endotoxin detection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of endotoxin. II. Comparison of reactivities measured by radioimmunoassay and with the limulus test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-08-01

    Various endotoxins and the ether extracts of grampositive bacteria were measured immunologically by radioimmunoassay and also biologically by the Limulus test. The minimum amount of endotoxin detectable with the Limulus test was in the range from 1 ng/ml to 1 ..mu..g/ml, with the lysate of sensitivity, 100 ng ml (E. coli 0111: B4(B) lipopolysaccharide). On the other hand, by the radioimmunoassay they were estimated in the range of 0.3 to 10 times of dry weight. Endotoxin-like activity was detected in the ether extracts of grampositive bacteria at a minimum concentration between 1 ..mu..g/ml and 100 ..mu..g/ml with the Limulus test. However, most of them were estimated by the radioimmunoassay to be under 1/50 of dry weight. Various substances such as thrombin, thromboplastin, polynosinic-polycytidylic acid, polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid, carrageenan and human colonic mucosal antigen had cross reactivities of various degrees in the minimum concentration from 10 ..mu..g/ml to 10 mg/ml. Compounds such as thrombin and thromboplastin cross-reacting in the Limulus test were scarcely measured by the radioimmunoassay except for polynucleotides. From this study, it has become clear that the radioimmunoassay method is quite specific and accurate for quantitative measurements of endotoxin.

  6. Immunological studies on albino rats against crude endotoxins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Aeromonas comprises a group of organisms widely distributed in the environment, isolated from water, shallow tube wells, dug wells, piped water supply from sewage, children and adults with diarrhoea, and associated with disease in animals and man. The present work studied the effect of crude endotoxin ...

  7. [The importance of endotoxin producing bacterias for practical purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Dietrich

    1994-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) cause according to resorption out of the intestinal tract or aerogenic inhalation or by a septic infection clinical signs. The clinical reactions are praeshock symptoms, acute forms of shock and death. The experimental intratracheally administration of lipopolysaccharides into calves caused pneumonic lesions without bacterial experimental infection.

  8. [The protective properties of the endotoxin protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, V I; Belkin, Z P; Egorova, T P

    1991-08-01

    The isolation and properties of endotoxin protein, or lipid A-associated protein (LAP), from Shigella sonnei were described earlier (Zh. mikrobiol. epidemiol. immunobiol., 1991, No. 4, pp. 11-17, and No. 7). In this report the data on its protective activity are presented. In experiments on mice one nanogram of LAP injected i. v. protected 50% of the animals against i. p. challenge with 40 LD50 of virulent S. sonnei. Guinea pigs injected s. c. with 10 micrograms of LAP were protected against local (keratoconjunctival) challenge with S. sonnei, the efficiency of immunization being 58%. LAP preparations containing no detectable amounts of O-antigen (less than 0.003%) were found to have a protective effect. Hyperimmune anti-LAP rabbit serum prevented local infection when incubated with S. sonnei challenge inoculum before injection into guinea pigs. Both active and passive protection induced by LAP was specific since no effect was observed in animals challenged with Shigella flexneri. In the homologous system the protective effect of anti-LAP serum was abolished by the addition of protein-free LPS. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the protective activity of LAP depends on the presence of minute amounts of O-antigen whose immunogenic effect is greatly amplified by the protein component of the natural endotoxin complex.

  9. Determinants of house dust, endotoxin, and β-(1→3)-d-glucan in homes of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Gitte Juel; Høst, Arne; Doekes, G

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the geographic variation and determinants of bacterial endotoxin and β -(1,3)-d-glucan in Danish house dust. In a population of 317 children, we: (i) described loads and concentrations of floor dust, endotoxin, and β-(1→3)-d-glucan and (ii) their correlations and (iii......) assessed their determinants; (iv) Finally, we compared our findings with previous European studies. Bedroom floor dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for β-(1→3)-d-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding...... potential determinants. We found: geometric means (geometric standard deviations) 186 mg/m(2) (4.3) for dust; 5.46 × 10(3) EU/m(2) (8.0) and 31.1 × 10(3) EU/g (2.6) for endotoxin; and 142 μg/m(2) (14.3) and 0.71 × 10(3) μg/g (7.3) for β-(1→3)-d-glucan. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor...

  10. Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Ahlgren, A.; Tsai, C.M.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a 60 Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins

  11. Endotoxins in surgical instruments of hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Goveia, Vania Regina; Mendoza, Isabel Yovana Quispe; Guimarães, Gilberto Lima; Ercole, Flavia Falci; Couto, Bráulio Roberto Gonçalves Marinho; Leite, Edna Marilea Meireles; Stoianoff, Maria Aparecida Resende; Ferreira, José Antonio Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate endotoxins in sterilized surgical instruments used in hip arthroplasties. METHOD A descriptive exploratory study conducted in a public teaching hospital. Six types of surgical instruments were selected, namely: acetabulum rasp, femoral rasp, femoral head remover, chisel box, flexible bone reamer and femoral head test. The selection was based on the analysis of the difficulty in removing bone and blood residues during cleaning. The sample was made up of 60...

  12. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    production. Muscle and hepatic lipid contents were assessed by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and immune status, cytokines, and endotoxin were measured with specific assays. RESULTS: In glucose-tolerant volunteers, daily administration of L. reuteri SD5865 increased glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and GLP-2....... reuteri SD5865 or placebo over 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and isoglycemic glucose infusion tests were used to assess incretin effect and GLP-1 and GLP-2 secretion, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose were used to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose...... cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Enrichment of gut microbiota with L. reuteri increases insulin secretion, possibly due to augmented incretin release, but does not directly affect insulin sensitivity or body fat distribution. This suggests that oral ingestion of one specific strain may serve as a novel therapeutic...

  13. Induction of generalized Shwartzman reaction (GSR) in irradiated rabbits by a single injection of endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronowski, T.; Uchanska-Dudzinska, B.; Teisseyre, E.; Kopec, M.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbits were prepared to GSR by either a single dose 30 μg/kg of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin or by a single whole-body exposure to 850 R of x ray. After 24 hrs provocative dose of endotoxin 50 μg/kg was injected. Histological examinations of kidneys revealed that GSR occurred with equal frequency in both groups of rabbits but was more severe in the animals prepared by irradiation. Protamine gelation test detected soluble fibrin complexes in plasma in about 50% of rabbits 24 hrs after either of the preparatory procedures and virtually in 100% after the provocative endotoxin dose. During the preparatory phase of GSR the irradiation induced a profound decrease in blood lymphocyte count and in the weight of thymus and spleen. It is postulated that early postexposure lysis of lymphatic cells participates in mechanisms leading to thrombotic phenomena after irradiation

  14. Lipopolysaccharide does not alter small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Chantal; Royce, Simon G; Vlahos, Ross; Bourke, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been associated with occupational airway diseases with asthma-like symptoms and in acute exacerbations of COPD. The direct and indirect effects of LPS on small airway reactivity have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that both in vitro and in vivo LPS treatment would increase contraction and impair relaxation of mouse small airways. Lung slices were prepared from naïve Balb/C mice and cultured in the absence or presence of LPS (10 μg/ml) for up to 48 h for measurement of TNFα levels in conditioned media. Alternatively, mice were challenged with PBS or LPS in vivo once a day for 4 days for preparation of lung slices or for harvest of lungs for Q-PCR analysis of gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptors involved in airway contraction. Reactivity of small airways to contractile agonists, methacholine and serotonin, and bronchodilator agents, salbutamol, isoprenaline and rosiglitazone, were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy. In vitro LPS treatment of slices increased TNFα release 6-fold but did not alter contraction or relaxation to any agonists tested. In vivo LPS treatment increased lung gene expression of TNFα, IL-1β and ryanodine receptor isoform 2 more than 5-fold. However there were no changes in reactivity in lung slices from these mice, even when also incubated with LPS ex vivo. Despite evidence of LPS-induced inflammation, neither airway hyperresponsiveness or impaired dilator reactivity were evident. The increase in ryanodine receptor isoform 2, known to regulate calcium signaling in vascular smooth muscle, warrants investigation. Since LPS failed to elicit changes in small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices following in vitro or in vivo treatment, alternative approaches are required to define the potential contribution of this endotoxin to altered small airway reactivity in human lung diseases.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide does not alter small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Donovan

    Full Text Available The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been associated with occupational airway diseases with asthma-like symptoms and in acute exacerbations of COPD. The direct and indirect effects of LPS on small airway reactivity have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that both in vitro and in vivo LPS treatment would increase contraction and impair relaxation of mouse small airways. Lung slices were prepared from naïve Balb/C mice and cultured in the absence or presence of LPS (10 μg/ml for up to 48 h for measurement of TNFα levels in conditioned media. Alternatively, mice were challenged with PBS or LPS in vivo once a day for 4 days for preparation of lung slices or for harvest of lungs for Q-PCR analysis of gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and receptors involved in airway contraction. Reactivity of small airways to contractile agonists, methacholine and serotonin, and bronchodilator agents, salbutamol, isoprenaline and rosiglitazone, were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy. In vitro LPS treatment of slices increased TNFα release 6-fold but did not alter contraction or relaxation to any agonists tested. In vivo LPS treatment increased lung gene expression of TNFα, IL-1β and ryanodine receptor isoform 2 more than 5-fold. However there were no changes in reactivity in lung slices from these mice, even when also incubated with LPS ex vivo. Despite evidence of LPS-induced inflammation, neither airway hyperresponsiveness or impaired dilator reactivity were evident. The increase in ryanodine receptor isoform 2, known to regulate calcium signaling in vascular smooth muscle, warrants investigation. Since LPS failed to elicit changes in small airway reactivity in mouse lung slices following in vitro or in vivo treatment, alternative approaches are required to define the potential contribution of this endotoxin to altered small airway reactivity in human lung diseases.

  16. Effect of diatrizoate (Angiografin) on the aortic endothelium in rats during the course of endotoxin shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospos, C; Freudenberg, N; Hauenstein, K H; Kauffmann, G W; Koch, H K

    1982-08-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the endothelial changes produced by diatrizoate (Angiografin) during the course of endotoxin shock. A single injection was given directly into the aorta of 1 ml of the contrast medium, with an iodine content of 300 mg/ml. The increased proliferation of the aortic endothelium could be shown to be due to the endotoxin shock, but was not further increased by administration of the contrast medium.

  17. The role of endotoxin in grain dust exposure and airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S

    1997-05-01

    Grain dust exposure is a common cause of respiratory symptoms in grain workers, feed mill employees, and farmers. Many of these workers develop wheezing and acute and chronic bronchitis symptoms, which can be associated with obstructive changes on pulmonary function testing. It has recently been demonstrated that grain dust exposure causes neutrophilic airways inflammation and systemic symptoms related to release of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and other mediators of inflammation. Although grain dust is a heterogenous substance, endotoxin has received the greatest amount of attention as a possible cause of the airway inflammation that occurs after grain dust exposure. Although endotoxin undoubtedly causes a portion of the changes seen after grain dust exposure, it is becoming clear that other substances play a role as well.

  18. Differential effects of air conditioning type on residential endotoxin levels in a semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J D; Kruman, B A; Nelson, M C; Merrill, R M; Graul, R J; Hoybjerg, T G; Tuttle, S C; Myers, S J; Cook, R B; Weber, K S

    2017-09-01

    Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n=18) and central air conditioners (n=22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan-Apr) and summer (Aug-Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n=281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Housing factors were measured by survey, and indoor temperature and relative humidity measures were collected during both seasons. Endotoxin concentrations (EU/mg) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons. Endotoxin surface loads (EU/m 2 ) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons and in upholstered furniture during winter. For the nine significant season-by-location comparisons, EU/mg and EU/m 2 were approximately three to six times greater in homes using evaporative coolers. A plausible explanation for these findings is that evaporative coolers serve as a reservoir and distribution system for Gram-negative bacteria or their cell wall components in homes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of Bacterial Endotoxins on Superovulated Mouse Embryos In Vivo: Is CSF-1 Involved in Endotoxin-Induced Pregnancy Loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Jaiswal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryonic development is regulated by several cytokines and growth factors from embryonic or maternal origins. Since CSF-1 plays important role in embryonic development and implantation, we investigated its role in gram-negative bacterial LPS-induced implantation failure. The effect of LPS on normal (nonsuperovulated and superovulated in vivo-produced embryos was assessed by signs of morphological degeneration. A significantly similar number of morphologically degenerated embryos recovered from both nonsuperovulated and superovulated LPS treated animals on day 2.5 of pregnancy onwards were morphologically and developmentally abnormal as compared to their respective controls (P < .001. Normal CSF-1 expression level and pattern were also altered through the preimplantation period in the mouse embryos and uterine horns after LPS treatment. This deviation from the normal pattern and level of CSF-1 expression in the preimplantation embryos and uterine tissues suggest a role for CSF-1 in LPS-induced implantation failure.

  20. DMPD: The role of macrophages in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation inresponse to endotoxin (LPS). [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available response to endotoxin (LPS). Derijk RH, van Rooijen N, Berkenbosch F. Res Immunol. 1992 Feb;143(2):224-9. (....e hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation inresponse to endotoxin (LPS). Authors Derijk RH, van Rooijen N, Berk

  1. Sex differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to endotoxin unfold in vivo but not ex vivo in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Alexander; Benson, Sven; Rebernik, Laura; Spreitzer, Ingo; Jäger, Marcus; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Engler, Harald

    2017-07-01

    Clinical data indicate that inflammatory responses differ across sexes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we assessed in vivo and ex vivo cytokine responses to bacterial endotoxin in healthy men and women to elucidate the role of systemic and cellular factors underlying sex differences in inflammatory responses. Participants received an i.v. injection of low-dose endotoxin (0.4 ng/kg body mass), and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 responses were analyzed over a period of 6 h. In parallel, ex vivo cytokine production was measured in endotoxin-stimulated blood samples obtained immediately before in vivo endotoxin administration. As glucocorticoids (GCs) play an important role in the negative feedback regulation of the inflammatory response, we additionally analyzed plasma cortisol concentrations and ex vivo GC sensitivity of cytokine production. Results revealed greater in vivo pro-inflammatory responses in women compared with men, with significantly higher increases in plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations. In addition, the endotoxin-induced rise in plasma cortisol was more pronounced in women. In contrast, no sex differences in ex vivo cytokine production and GC sensitivity were observed. Together, these findings demonstrate major differences in in vivo and ex vivo responses to endotoxin and underscore the importance of systemic factors underlying sex differences in the inflammatory response.

  2. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks for delta-endotoxin and protease yields modelling of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Karim; Ben Ayed, Rayda; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Ottaviani, Ennio; Mazzarello, Maura; Hertelli, Fathi; Zouari, Nabil

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a model that supplies accurate predictions of the yields of delta-endotoxins and proteases produced by B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1. Using available medium ingredients as variables, a mathematical method, based on Plackett-Burman design (PB), was employed to analyze and compare data generated by the Bootstrap method and processed by multiple linear regressions (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) including multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) models. The predictive ability of these models was evaluated by comparison of output data through the determination of coefficient (R 2 ) and mean square error (MSE) values. The results demonstrate that the prediction of the yields of delta-endotoxin and protease was more accurate by ANN technique (87 and 89% for delta-endotoxin and protease determination coefficients, respectively) when compared with MLR method (73.1 and 77.2% for delta-endotoxin and protease determination coefficients, respectively), suggesting that the proposed ANNs, especially MLP, is a suitable new approach for determining yields of bacterial products that allow us to make more appropriate predictions in a shorter time and with less engineering effort.

  3. Optimization of airborne endotoxin exposure assessment: Effects of filter type, transport conditions, extraction solutions, and storage of samples and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Thorne, P.S.; Wouters, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Endotoxin exposure occurs in homes and occupational environments and is known to cause adverse health effects. In order to compare results from different studies and establish standards, airborne endotoxin exposures should be assessed using standardized methods. Although the European Committee for

  4. Analysis of different coating thickness on new type of planar interdigital sensors for endotoxin detection

    KAUST Repository

    Syaifudin, A. R Mohd

    2013-05-01

    New types of planar interdigital sensors have been fabricated on Silicon/Silicon Dioxide (Si/SiO2) wafers. The sensors were coated with pre-cursor silica functionalized with APTES (3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane) at different thicknesses. All sensors were then immobilized with Polymyxin, B (PmB). PmB is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the Gram-positive bacterium-Bacillus, has been immobilized on the coated sensors because of its specific binding properties to endotoxin. Studies were conducted to analyze the effect of different thicknesses of coatings on the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors. It was observed sensors coated with 3 layers of coating has better sensitivity and selectivity to the target molecules (endotoxin) compared to sensors with 5 layers of coating. The repeatability and stability of the coated sensors were tested by multiple standard endotoxin measurement and it was observed that the sensors give a good reproducibility and stability up to six continuous measurements before the coating degrades. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant

  6. Some effects of prostaglandins E1 and E2 and of endotoxin injected into the hypothalamus of young chicks: dissociation between endotoxin fever and the effects of prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artunkal, A A; Marley, E; Stephenson, J D

    1977-09-01

    Prostaglandins E1 and E2 elevated body temperature of young chicks when injected into the hypothalamus at thermoneutrality (31 degrees C). In contrast, they lowered body temperature when so injected below thermoneutrality (16degreesC): the relation of the fall in body temperature to increased heat loss and decreased heat production was examined. 2 The above effects below thermoneutrality were potentiated by pretreatment with inhibitors of prostaglandin synthetase and possible reasons for this potentation are given. 3 The O-somatic antigen of Shigella dysenteriae consistently evoked hyperthermia when injected into the hypothalamus, irrespective of whether the chicks were within or below thermoneutrality. 4 Pretreatment with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors failed to prevent the onset of endotoxin fever; however, duration of the fever, induced by intrahypothalamic injection of the O-somatic antigen of Shigella dysenteriae was reduced. 5 The intrahypothalamic injection, belwo thermoneutrality of prostaglandins E1, E2, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine or carbachol reversed endotoxin fever, inducing even substantial falls in body temperature. 6 While the results cast some doubts on the role of prostaglandins of the E series as mediators of endotoxin fever in chicks, they cannot be eliminated as mediators until the significance of the reduction in duration of the pyrexic response by indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, and the degree of synthesis inhibition attained, are known.

  7. A study on bacterial endotoxins test of radiopharmaceuticals with limulus agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suozhen, Bai; Kai, Luyu; Cheng, Luo [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Ruiting, Zhang; Zhenmin, Xia [National Inst. for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products (China)

    1989-08-01

    The feasibility of endotoxins test of radiopharmaceuticals with limulus agent and the approach to take off the inhibition/enhancement effect of radiopharmaceuticals on limulus agent have been studied. Results of the test for 8 radiopharmaceuticals have been given.

  8. Radiation induced alterations in the endotoxin of S. typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerkar, D P; Govekar, L G; Kumta, U S; Sreenivasan, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1977-09-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. typhimurium has been shown to be significantly detoxified after in vivo irradiation at 500 krad. Radiation is thus a useful method for converting endotoxin into toxoid. The structural alterations in the detoxified LPS were shown to be mainly in the lipid A molecule, resulting in the loss of ..beta..-hydroxymyristic acid.

  9. Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-receptor levels in portal and hepatic vein of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis receiving elective transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, Jonel; Krag, Aleksander; Gansweid, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In cirrhosis portal hypertension can promote bacterial translocation and increase serum endotoxin levels. Vice versa, endotoxin aggravates portal hypertension by induction of systemic and splanchnic vasodilation, and by triggering hepatic inflammatory response via tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα......). However, the hepatic elimination of endotoxin in cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension, in the absence of acute complications, has not been investigated so far....

  10. Structural and functional features of self-assembling protein nanoparticles produced in endotoxin-free Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Fabián; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Pesarrodona, Mireia; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Rinas, Ursula; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mamat, Uwe; Mangues, Ramón; García-Fruitós, Elena; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-04-08

    Production of recombinant drugs in process-friendly endotoxin-free bacterial factories targets to a lessened complexity of the purification process combined with minimized biological hazards during product application. The development of nanostructured recombinant materials in innovative nanomedical activities expands such a need beyond plain functional polypeptides to complex protein assemblies. While Escherichia coli has been recently modified for the production of endotoxin-free proteins, no data has been so far recorded regarding how the system performs in the fabrication of smart nanostructured materials. We have here explored the nanoarchitecture and in vitro and in vivo functionalities of CXCR4-targeted, self-assembling protein nanoparticles intended for intracellular delivery of drugs and imaging agents in colorectal cancer. Interestingly, endotoxin-free materials exhibit a distinguishable architecture and altered size and target cell penetrability than counterparts produced in conventional E. coli strains. These variant nanoparticles show an eventual proper biodistribution and highly specific and exclusive accumulation in tumor upon administration in colorectal cancer mice models, indicating a convenient display and function of the tumor homing peptides and high particle stability under physiological conditions. The observations made here support the emerging endotoxin-free E. coli system as a robust protein material producer but are also indicative of a particular conformational status and organization of either building blocks or oligomers. This appears to be promoted by multifactorial stress-inducing conditions upon engineering of the E. coli cell envelope, which impacts on the protein quality control of the cell factory.

  11. [Interference for Various Quench Agents of Chemical Disinfectants on Detection of Endotoxin Activities in Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-jun; Shi, Yun; An, Dai-zhi; Bai, Miao; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    The quenching agents such as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite and sodium hyposulfite are commonly used for quenching the residual disinfectant in water. In this paper, in order to select the optimal type and concentration range of quenching agents prior to the Limulus assays, the interference effects of each quenching agent at different concentrations on endotoxin detection were investigated by the Limulus assays of kinetic-turbidity. Our results identified that, as for 0-1.0% concentration of histidine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite (pH unadjusted and pH neutral), interference on the Limulus assays was existed. Hence, these quenching agents could not be applied as neutralizers prior to Limulus assays. Although, there was no interference on endotoxin detection for the glycine, a yellow color, developed by the quenching products of glycine and glutaric dialdehyde, contributed to false positive results. Hence, glycine should not be used as quenching agents in Limulus assays for samples containing glutaric dialdehyde. Compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80, sodium sulfite, 0-1.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite elicited no obvious interference, while 1.0%-5.0% concentration of sodium hyposulfite illustrated exhibition effect for endotoxin detection. All in all, compared with other quenching agents as histidine, glycine, ascorbic acid, Tween-80 and sodium sulfite, sodium hyposulfite is suitable for quenching chemicals prior to endotoxin detection and less than 0.5% of concentration is allowable.

  12. Development of an in vitro Endotoxin Test for Monoolein–Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Loaded Monoolein Gel Intended to Treat. Chronic Osteomyelitis. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol.,. 2008; 3(5): 386-393. 13 Magalahaes PO, Lopes AM, Mazolla PG, Rangel-. Yagui C, Penna TCV, Pessoa Jr A. Methods of. Endotoxins. Removal from. Biological. Preparations: a Review. J Pharm Pharmaceut. Sci. 2007; 10(3): 388-404.

  13. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p bacterial count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  14. 78 FR 46274 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    .... requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is... pyroxasulfone in mice, rats, and dogs produced a variety of adverse effects in several target organs. Effects... indicators), neurotoxicity characterized by axonal/myelin degeneration in the sciatic nerve (dog, mouse, and...

  15. The effect of endotoxin and anti-endotoxin serum on synovial fluid parameters in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Gottschalk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a commercially available equine hyperimmune anti-endotoxin serum on synovial fluid parameters were evaluated in an induced synovitis model in normal horses. Four groups of 3 horses each received lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus hyperimmune antiendotoxin (anti-LPS, LPS, anti-LPS, and Ringers lactate (control respectively injected into the left intercarpal joint. Synovial fluid parameters were measured at 4, 8, 24 and 72 h. It was found that anti-LPS had no attenuating effect on the LPS and that it induced a synovitis almost equivalent to that induced by LPS alone. The introduction of sterile Ringers lactate solution into the carpal joint together with repeated aseptic arthrocentesis induces a mild inflammatory response.

  16. [Detection of endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of electromagnetic radiation frequency spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhoded, V G; Kuleshova, N V; Sergieva, N V; Konev, Iu V; Trubnikova, I A; Sudzhian, E V

    2007-01-01

    Method of Gram-negative bacteria endotoxins detection on the basis of their own spectrum of electromagnetic radiation frequency was developed. Frequency spectrum typical for chemotype Re glycolipid, which is a part of lypopolysaccharides in the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, was used. Two devices--"Mini- Expert-DT" (manufactured by IMEDIS, Moscow) and "Bicom" (manufactured by Regumed, Germany)--were used as generators of electromagnetic radiation. Detection of endotoxin using these devices was performed by electropuncture vegetative resonance test. Immunoenzyme reaction with antibodies to chemotype Re glycolipid was used during analysis of preparations for assessment of resonance-frequency method specificity. The study showed that resonance-frequency method can detect lypopolysaccharides of different enterobacteria in quantities up to 0.1 pg as well as bacteria which contain lypopolysaccharides. At the same time, this method does not detect such bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Candida albicans. The method does not require preliminary processing of blood samples and can be used for diagnostics of endotoxinemia, and detection of endotoxins in blood samples or injection solutions.

  17. Renal excretion of prostaglandin metabolites, arginine vasopressin, and sodium during endotoxin and endogenous pyrogen induced fever in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasson, H; Basu, S; Andersson, B; Kindahl, H

    1984-04-01

    Responses to intravenous injections of an endotoxin (E. coli-lipopolysaccharide, 1 microgram/kg b.wt.) and endogenous pyrogen were studied in euhydrated and hyperhydrated goats. The biphasic febrile response to the endotoxin was associated with a pronounced increase in the renal excretion of measured prostaglandin (PG) metabolites (11-ketotetranor PGF metabolites). This increase was time-correlated with the elevation of the rectal temperature, and (in hyperhydrated animals) with an inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in renal excretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Other effects of the endotoxin were an immediate depression of renal Na and K excretion followed by the development of pronounced natriuresis, and a reduction of plasma Fe and Zn concentrations. The appearance of the febrile reactions (peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering) was accompanied by miosis. The maximum elevation of the rectal temperature was significantly greater during euhydration than during hyperhydration. Also endogenous pyrogen elicited miosis concomitant with febrile reactions, and an elevation of the renal excretion of PG metabolites which was closely correlated in time with the monophasic febrile response, and (during hyperhydration) with temporary inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in the renal AVP excretion. However, the responses were much weaker than the corresponding endotoxin effects. No appreciable changes in renal excretion of Na and K were observed in response to the endogenous pyrogen. It is concluded that the observed effects on renal cation excretion were manifestations of direct endotoxin influences on kidney function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effect of cage vs. floor litter environments on the pulmonary hypertensive response to intravenous endotoxin and on blood-gas values in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Erf, G F; Wideman, R F

    2002-11-01

    Intravenous endotoxin has been shown to trigger a delayed pulmonary hypertensive response that varies widely in magnitude and duration among individual broilers. It was proposed that this individual variability may reflect immunological differences acquired during previous respiratory challenges that might have subsequently altered the endotoxin-initiated biochemical cascade. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that, when compared with broilers reared in clean stainless steel cages (Cage group), broilers reared on floor litter (Floor group) should experience a greater respiratory challenge and therefore may consistently exhibit a more enhanced pulmonary hypertensive response to intravenous endotoxin. Birds in the Cage group were grown in stainless steel cages at a low density (72 birds/8 m2 chamber), and fecal and dander materials were removed daily. Birds in the Floor group were reared on wood-shavings litter at a higher density (110 birds/8 m2 chamber). Pulmonary and systemic mean arterial pressures and blood-gas values were evaluated prior to and following the intravenous administration of 1 mg Salmonella typhimurium endotoxin. Broilers in the Floor and Cage groups exhibited pulmonary hypertensive responses to endotoxin that were very similar in terms of time of onset, duration, and magnitude, as well as variability in the response among individuals. Systemic hypotension also developed similarly in both groups following endotoxin injection. Blood-gas values indicated that the partial pressure of CO2 and the HCO3- concentration in arterial blood were higher (P broilers, and confirmed the negative impact of floor rearing on blood-gas values. We conclude that broilers reared on the floor inhaled litter dust and noxious fumes, which impaired pulmonary gas exchange and increased the arterial partial pressure of CO2 when compared with broilers reared in clean stainless steel cages. Nevertheless, the pulmonary hypertensive response to endotoxin did not differ

  19. Measurement of endotoxin levels in blood of hemodialysis Patients by 'Lal' test and comparision of its efficacy with blood culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Vazirzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presently, bacteremia is the principal cause of morbidity in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Gram-negative bacteria account for approximately 50 percent of documented infections. Endotoxins released during lysis of gram negative bacteremia result in inflammatory and defense response by the body and if not treated promptly result in septic shock and ultimately death of the patient. This study describes the detection of endotoxins in blood of patients with bacteremia due to gram - negative bacteria by LAL test. Method: Blood samples of 278 hemodialysis patients were analyzed in this study and pathogens were isolated from blood culture samples. Then, their antibiotic sensitivity was determined. In patients with positive blood culture, endotoxin levels were measured by LAL-test. Results: Frequency of bacteremia in patients was 13.6% . The prevalence of gram – negative bacteremia was 44.7%. E coli were the major pathogens, while staphylococcus aureus was the most common gram positive bacterium. Endotoxin was detected in 15 patients (3.8 ± 1.08 EU/ml . The sensitivity and specificity of endotoxins for gram – negative bacteremia were 88% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that the LAL method is a fast, sensitive and simple method. There was no significant difference between the results of blood culture and LAL – test ( P > 0.05 .

  20. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation.

  1. Nonabsorbable Antibiotics Reduce Bacterial and Endotoxin Translocation in Hepatectomised Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kakkos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that septic complications, occurring after major hepatectomies, may be caused by gram negative bacteria, translocating from the gut. We investigated in rats, the effect of extended hepatectomy on the structure and morphology of the intestinal mucosa as well as on the translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins. We also examined the effect of nonabsorbable antibiotics on reducing the intestinal flora and consequently the phenomenon of translocation by administering neomycin sulphate and cefazoline. Hepatectomy was found to increase translocation, while administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics decreased it significantly. In addition, hepatectomy increased the aerobic cecal bacterial population, which normalised in the group receiving antibiotics. Among the histological parameters evaluated, villus height demonstrated a significant reduction after hepatectomy, while the number of villi per cm and the number of mitoses per crypt, remained unchanged. Our results indicate that administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics presents a positive effect on bacterial and endotoxin translocation after extended hepatectomy, and this may be related to reduction of colonic bacterial load as an intraluminal effect of antibiotics.

  2. Intestinal endotoxins as co-factors of liver injury in obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, B B; Tatlicioglu, E; Akyol, G; Uluoglu, O; Sultan, N; Yilmaz, E; Celebi, M; Taneri, F; Ferahkose, Z

    1996-01-01

    The concept of endotoxin-mediated rather than direct liver injury in biliary obstruction was investigated using the experimental rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Small identical doses of intravenous endotoxin (bacterial LPS) caused a significantly more severe liver injury in rats with BDL, compared with sham-operated rats, suggesting the possible contribution of LPS in this type of liver damage. BDL was then combined with surgically created jejunal self-filling blind loops, which resulted in SBBO. Plasma LPS level increased significantly, and once again a more severe liver injury, determined by liver histology and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, was observed compared with the control group of rats with BDL+self-emptying blind loops. The data presented suggest that small amounts of exogenous LPS and/or the ordinarily innocous amounts of LPS constantly absorbed from the intestinal tract may be critical in the hepatic damage caused by obstruction of the biliary tract.

  3. Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses

  4. Development of an in vitro Endotoxin Test for Monoolein–Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Drugs that are administered by parenteral route must be apyrogenic. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro endotoxin test for liquid crystalline gels for use as implants, using a monoolein–water liquid crystalline gel as a model. Methods: The gel-clot technique was used. The gel was dissolved first in ...

  5. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters, V.C.; Basinas, I.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Boffetta, P.; Checkoway, H.; Coggon, D.; Portengen, L.; Sim, M.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. METHODS: Risk

  6. Effects of antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract and pretreatment with sublethal doses of endotoxins on survival after whole-liver irradiation and 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Leitch, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two rats were preconditioned by I.P. injection of sublethal doses of E. Coli endotoxin two weeks before irradiation. Thirty-two other animals were sham injected with endotoxin free water. One week before irradiation half of the endotoxin treated animals and half the sham-injected animals received non-absorbable antibiotics in their drinking water to decontaminate the intestinal tract. All 64 animals were exposed to 30 Gy whole-liver gamma-irradiation after surgically exposing the liver and moving the G.I. tract, spleen, and stomach out of the radiation field. Immediately after irradiation a 2/3 PH was performed. The animals were checked daily for 100 days postirradiation. Median survival times for sham-treated, decontaminated, endotoxin-treated, and endotoxin-treated + decontaminated animals were, respectively, 16, 26, 38, and 85 days. All animals died within 100 days except in the group receiving both endotoxin and antibiotic treatments. One third of these animals are still alive 100 days after irradiation. The significance of these results with respect to mechanisms of hepatic radiation injury are discussed

  7. Analysis of the levels of endotoxin and β-d-glucan in the synovial fluid of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, E; Maekawa, M; Kono, T

    2001-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the levels of endotoxin and β-d-glucan, which possibly induce cytokine production, in the synovial fluid of patients on long-term hemodialysis and compared the results to those in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. We studied 42 knees in 42 hemodialysis patients, 21 in 21 osteoarthritis patients, and 26 in 26 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The mean ages were 60.7, 63.2, and 59.7 years, respectively. The duration of hemodialysis in the long-term hemodialysis group averaged 14.0 years. The concentrations of endotoxin and β-d-glucan in the synovial fluid of these three groups were measured. The concentration of endotoxin was the same in the three groups. However, the concentration of β-d-glucan was significantly higher in long-term hemodialysis patients. This finding suggests that β-d-glucan may have some relation to the pathogenesis of the synovitis which exists in the hydrarthrosis of long-term hemodialysis patients.

  8. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, Virissa; Basinas, Ioannis; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Boffetta, Paolo; Checkoway, Harvey; Coggon, David; Portengen, Lützen; Sim, Malcolm; Wouters, Inge M; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2010-04-01

    To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. Risk estimates were extracted from studies published before 2009 that met predefined quality criteria, including 8 cohort, 1 case-cohort, and 2 case-control studies of cotton textile industry workers, and 15 cohort and 2 case-control studies of agricultural workers. Summary risk estimates were calculated using random effects meta-analyses. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses. The summary risk of lung cancer was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57-0.90) for textile workers and 0.62 (0.52-0.75) for agricultural workers. The relative risk of lung cancer was below 1.0 for most subgroups defined according to sex, study design, outcome, smoking adjustment, and geographic area. Two studies provided quantitative estimates of endotoxin exposure and both studies tended to support a dose-dependent protective effect of endotoxins on lung cancer risk. Despite several limitations, this meta-analysis based on high-quality studies adds weight to the hypothesis that occupational exposure to endotoxin in cotton textile production and agriculture is protective against lung cancer.

  9. Exposure to airborne culturable microorganisms and endotoxin in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paba, Emilia; Chiominto, Alessandra; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Proietto, Anna Rita; Sisto, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Even if slaughterhouses' workers handle large amounts of organic material and are potentially exposed to a wide range of biological agents, relatively little and not recent data are available. The main objective of this study was to characterize indoor concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin mod = Im (endotoxin∼Gram-negative*plant*filter) in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses. Air samples near air handling units inlets were also collected. Since there are not standardized protocols for endotoxin sampling and extraction procedures, an additional aim of the study was to compare the extraction efficiency of three different filter.. The study was also aimed at determining the correlation between concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin. In Plant A bacterial levels ranged from 17.5 to 2.6×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentrations were observed in evisceration area of chickens, between the automatic detachment of the neck and washing offal, and near birds coupling before hair-chilling. The highest mean value of Gram-negative (266.5 CFU/m3) was found near the washing offal of turkeys. In Plant B bacterial concentration ranged from 35 to 8×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentration. with the highest value of Gram-negative (248 CFU/m3), was found after defeathering. Fungal concentrations were overall lower than those found for bacteria (range: 0-205 CFU/m3 in Plant A and 0-146.2 CFU/m3 in Plant B). The microbial flora was dominated by Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococci for bacteria and by species belonging to Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera for molds. The highest endotoxin concentrations were measured in washing offal for Plant A (range: 122.7-165.9 EU/m3) and after defeathering for Plant B (range: 0.83-38.85 EU/m3). In this study airborne microorganisms concentrations were lower than those found in similar occupational settings and below the occupational limits proposed by some authors. However, these

  10. Action of Chlorhexidine, Zingiber officinale, and Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Endotoxin in the Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia C; Oliveira, Sarah Ac; Maekawa, Lilian E; Cardoso, Flávia Gr; Chung, Adriana; Silva, Stephanie Fp; Carvalho, Cláudio At

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) as auxiliary chemical substance and intracanal medications on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and their endotoxins in the root canals. The study was conducted on 48 single-rooted human teeth divided into four groups (n = 12), according to intracanal medications used: (1) Calcium hydroxide + apyrogenic saline solution (Ca(OH)2 + SS), (2) 20% ginger glycolic extract (GEN), (3) calcium hydroxide + 20% ginger glycolic extract (Ca(OH)2 + GEN), (4) apyrogenic SS (control). Collections were made from the root canal content before preparation (baseline-S1), immediately after instrumentation (S2), 7 days after instrumentation (S3), after 14 days the action of intracanal medication (S4), and 7 days after removal of the intracanal medication (S5). The antimicrobial activity and endotoxin content were analyzed for all collections. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at a significance level of 5%. After instrumentation with CHX, there was complete elimination of E. coli and C. albicans, except for E. faecalis, which was significantly reduced and then completely eliminated after intracanal medication. There was significant reduction of endotoxin after instrumentation. Comparison of collection after instrumentation and intracanal medication revealed reduction of endotoxins in all groups; this reduction was greater in group Ca(OH)2 followed by the group GEN. It was concluded that the instrumentation using CHX and intracanal medication used were able to eliminate the microorganisms from the root canal; the endotoxins were reduced, yet not completely eliminated. This study is important and relevant for searching alternatives during endodontic therapy, since it aims to study the effect of Zingiber officinale on microorganisms and endotoxins present in root canals.

  11. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ray Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  12. De Novo Endotoxin-Induced Production of Antibodies against the Bile Salt Export Pump Associated with Bacterial Infection following Major Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ming Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinically severe infection-related inflammation after major liver resection may cause hyperbilirubinemia. This study aims to clarify the impact of bacterial infection and endotoxins on the hepatobiliary transporter system and to explore possible mechanisms of endotoxin-related postoperative hyperbilirubinemia. Method. Mice that underwent major hepatectomy with removal of at least 70% of liver volume were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS at different dosages. Subsequently, hepatobiliary transporter compounds related to bile salt excretion were further investigated. Results. The expression of genes related to hepatobiliary transporter compounds was not significantly different in the liver tissue of mice after major hepatectomy and LPS exposure. However, bile salt export pump (BSEP protein expression within the liver tissue of mice treated with LPS after major hepatectomy was relatively weaker and was even further reduced in the high-dose LPS group. The formation of antibodies against the BSEP in response to endotoxin exposure was also detected. Conclusion. This study illustrates a possible mechanism whereby the dysfunction of hepatobiliary transporter systems caused by endotoxin-induced autoantibodies may be involved in the development of postoperative jaundice associated with bacterial infection after major hepatectomy.

  13. Expression of cyclin D{sub 1} during endotoxin-induced aleveolar type II cell hyperplasia in rat lung and the detection of apoptotic cells during the remodeling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Wood, M.B.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Our studies have shown that endotoxin intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cell hyperplasia occurred 2 d after instillation of endotoxin and persisted for a further 2 d. After hyperplasia, the lung remodeled and returned to a normal state within 24-48 h. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the remodeling process of this transient hyperplasia may be useful to identify molecular changes that are altered in neoplasia. The purpose of the present study was to corroborate induction of epithelial cell hyperplasia by endotoxin and to delineate mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling after endotoxin-induced alveolar type II cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, immonostaining with cyclin D1 and cytokeratin shows that endotoxin induced epithelial cell proliferation and resulted in hyperplasia in the lung which persisted through 4 d post-instillation.

  14. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen

    2003-03-26

    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin action of Zingiber Officinale as auxiliary chemical and medicament combined to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flávia Goulart da Rosa; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Cláudio Antônio Talge

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in vitro to compare the effectiveness of Zingiber Officinale as an auxiliary chemical substance followed by placement of different intra-canal medication in removing endotoxins and cultivable micro-organisms from infected root canals. Seventy-two root canals were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli for 28 days. After, the teeth were instrumented using Zingiber Officinale and divided into six groups according to the intra-canal medication: chlorhexidine gel; calcium hydroxide + chlorhexidine gel; glycolic ginger extract; calcium hydroxide + glycolic ginger extract; calcium hydroxide + saline solution and saline solution (control). Sample collections were performed after root canal contamination (Baseline; S1), after instrumentation (S2), 7 days after instrumentation (S3), after 14 days with intra-canal medication (S4) and 7 days after removal of intra-canal medication (S5). The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. It was observed that in S2 and S3 there was significant reduction of the micro-organisms and the quantity of endotoxins after instrumentation. In samples S4 and S5 there was complete elimination of micro-organisms and significant reduction of endotoxins. It was concluded that Zingiber Officinale as an auxiliary chemical substance was effective on the micro-organisms tested, yet was unable to eliminate the endotoxins. Similarly, the intra-canal medication were effective on micro-organisms, yet did not completely eliminate the endotoxins.

  16. Model-aided optimization of delta-endotoxin-formation in continuous culture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, V; Schorcht, R; Ignatenko, Yu N; Sakharova, Z V; Khovrychev, M P

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model of growth, sporulation and delta-endotoxin-formation of bac. thuringiensis is given. The results of model-aided optimization of steady-state continuous culture systems indicate that the productivity in the one-stage system is 1.9% higher and in the two-stage system is 18.5% higher than in the batch process.

  17. Effect of enrofloxacin treatment on plasma endotoxin during bovine Escherichia coli mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosogne, H.; Meyer, E.; Sturk, A.; van Loon, J.; Massart-Leën, A. M.; Burvenich, C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To investigate the effect of enrofloxacin on endotoxin resorption during bovine Escherichia coli mastitis. ANIMALS: 12 healthy early post partum Holstein cows. TREATMENT: Mastitis was induced by intramammary infusion of 10(4) cfu E. coli P4:032. Six cows were treated twice

  18. Radiation-induced enlargement of granulocytic and macrophage progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, D; Johnson, G R; Wilson, J [Walter and Eliza Hall Inst. of Medical Research, Parkville (Australia)

    1977-01-01

    The peak sedimentation velocity of C/sub 57/BL mouse bone marrow progenitors of granulocytes and macrophages (GM-colony-forming cells, GM-CFC's) increased from 4.3 mm/h to 7 to 8 mm/h by 2 days after 250 rad whole body irradiation and slowly returned to normal over the next 3 weeks. Preliminary irradiation and/or endotoxin injection did not prevent this radiation-induced change. Some change in sedimentation velocity was seen with as little as 100 rad irradiation. Neither buoyant density nor cell cycle changes could account for the sedimentation velocity data which therefore indicate a major volume increase in the GM-CFC's. This size enlargement affected all subpopulations of GM-CFC's which consequently maintained their size relationship with one another.

  19. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    Microbial quality of air inside vehicle cabs is a major occupational health risk management issue in composting facilities. Large differences and discrepancies in protection factors between vehicles and between biological agents have been reported. This study aimed at estimating the mean protection efficiency of the vehicle cab environment against bioaerosols with higher precision. In-cab measurement results were also analysed to ascertain whether or not these protection systems reduce workers' exposure to tolerable levels. Five front-end loaders, one mobile mixer and two agricultural tractors pulling windrow turners were investigated. Four vehicles were fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system. The four others were only equipped with pleated paper filter without pressurisation. Bacteria, fungi and endotoxins were measured in 72 pairs of air samples, simultaneously collected inside the cab and on the outside of the cab with a CIP 10-M sampler. A front-end loader, purchased a few weeks previously, fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system, and with a clean cab, exhibited a mean protection efficiency of between 99.47% CI 95% [98.58-99.97%] and 99.91% [99.78-99.98%] depending on the biological agent. It is likely that the lower protection efficiency demonstrated in other vehicles was caused by penetration through the only moderately efficient filters, by the absence of pressurisation, by leakage in the filter-sealing system, and by re-suspension of particles which accumulated in dirty cabs. Mean protection efficiency in regards to bacteria and endotoxins ranged between 92.64% [81.87-97.89%] and 98.61% [97.41-99.38%], and between 92.68% [88.11-96.08%] and 98.43% [97.44-99.22%], respectively. The mean protection efficiency was the lowest when confronted with fungal spores, from 59.76% [4.19-90.75%] to 94.71% [91.07-97.37%]. The probability that in-cab exposure to fungi

  20. Exposure to biohazards in wood dust: bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, K U; Mandryk, J; Hocking, A D

    1999-09-01

    Personal exposure to fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan was determined at different woodworking sites--logging sites, sawmills, woodchipping sites, and joineries. Exposure levels to fungi at logging sites and sawmills were in the range of 10(3)-10(4) cfu/m3, at the woodchipping mill, 10(3)-10(5) cfu/m3, and at joineries, 10(2)-10(4) cfu/m3. Although mean endotoxin levels were lower than the suggested threshold value of 20 ng/m3, some personal exposures at sawmills and a joinery exceeded the standard. The geometric mean personal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan exposure level at the woodchipping mill was 2.32 ng/m3, at sawmills, 1.37 ng/m3, at logging sites, 2.02 ng/m3, and at joineries, 0.43 ng/m3. Highly significant associations were found between mean personal inhalable endotoxin exposures and Gram-negative bacteria levels (p 3)-beta-D-glucan exposures and fungi levels (p = 0.0003). The prevalence of cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis, nasal symptoms, frequent headaches, and eye and throat irritations was significantly higher among woodworkers than controls. Dose-response relationships were found between personal exposures and work-related symptoms among joinery workers and sawmill and chip mill workers.

  1. Protective properties of plasma of burnt and irradiated rats against lethal effect of endotoxins in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budagov, R S; Chureyeva, L N

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate protective properties of plasma in disease with increased endotoxemia. Burns and acute radiation sickness were used as models of suppression of physiological mechanisms of detoxication. Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats and mice, which received 3rd degree burns over 15% of the body surface, whole body gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gr or both. At 3 hours, 3, 7 and 12 days after the exposure the animals were decapitated and blood collected. The irradiated mice received 0.2 ml endotoxin intraperitoneally, 1.0 ml freshly prepared rat plasma, then the lethality of the mice in 24 hours was observed. It was found that the plasma of intact rats was capable of decreasing the lethal effects of S. typhimurium and E. coli endotoxins in vivo in mice. Deep skin burns, acute radiation sickness and the combined effects of radiation and thermal injury did not change this phenomenon. The plasma of the experimental rats retained the protective properties at various periods of time after the thermal, radiation and combined exposures. The functioning of the humoral detoxication mechanism is radioresistant, indirectly indicating the nonimmunoglobulin nature of endotoxin inactivators. 19 references.

  2. Directed evolution of an LBP/CD14 inhibitory peptide and its anti-endotoxin activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LPS-binding protein (LBP and its ligand CD14 are located upstream of the signaling pathway for LPS-induced inflammation. Blocking LBP and CD14 binding might prevent LPS-induced inflammation. In previous studies, we obtained a peptide analog (MP12 for the LBP/CD14 binding site and showed that this peptide analog had anti-endotoxin activity. In this study, we used in vitro directed evolution for this peptide analog to improve its in vivo and in vitro anti-endotoxin activity. METHODS: We used error-prone PCR (ep-PCR and induced mutations in the C-terminus of LBP and attached the PCR products to T7 phages to establish a mutant phage display library. The positive clones that competed with LBP for CD14 binding was obtained by screening. We used both in vivo and in vitro experiments to compare the anti-endotoxin activities of a polypeptide designated P1 contained in a positive clone and MP12. RESULTS: 11 positive clones were obtained from among target phages. Sequencing showed that 9 positive clones had a threonine (T to methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. Compared to polypeptide MP12, polypeptide P1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in U937 cells (P<0.05. Compared to MP12, P1 significantly improved arterial oxygen pressure, an oxygenation index, and lung pathology scores in LPS-induced ARDS rats (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: By in vitro directed evolution of peptide analogs for the LBP/CD14 binding site, we established a new polypeptide (P1 with a threonine (T-to-methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. This polypeptide had high anti-endotoxin activity in vitro and in vivo, which suggested that amino acid 287 in the C-terminus of LBP may play an important role in LBP binding with CD14.

  3. Innate immune defenses exhibit circadian rhythmicity and differential temporal sensitivity to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the daily dynamics of humoral immune defenses and the temporal influence in the sensitivity of these responses to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The first experiment subjected the fish to two photoperiod conditions, 12L:12D (LD) and 0L...... experiment, fish were injected with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either at ZT3 (day) or at ZT15 (night) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of humoral immunity to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. The results demonstrated that responses to LPS were gated by the time of day. LPS...... significantly modulated serum ALP and ANTI activities but only when the endotoxin was administered at ZT3. Serum LYZ and PER were stimulated at both injection times but with differing response profiles. Modulated LYZ activity was persistent when injected at ZT3 but transient when LPS was applied at ZT15...

  4. Histopathological and ultrastructural effects of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the midgut of Simulium pertinax larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFG Cavados

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt produces parasporal crystals containing delta-endotoxins responsible for selective insecticidal activity on larvae. Upon ingestion, these crystals are solubilized in the midgut lumen and converted into active toxins that bind to receptors present on the microvilli causing serious damage to the epithelial columnar cells. We investigated the effect of these endotoxins on larvae of the Simulium pertinax, a common black fly in Brazil, using several concentrations during 4 h of the serovar israelensis strain IPS-82 (LFB-FIOCRUZ 584, serotype H-14 type strain of the Institute Pasteur, Paris. Light and electron microscope observations revealed, by time and endotoxin concentration, increasing damages of the larvae midgut epithelium. The most characteristic effects were midgut columnar cell vacuolization, microvilli damages, epithelium cell contents passing into the midgut lumen and finally the cell death. This article is the first report of the histopathological effects of the Bti endotoxins in the midgut of S. pertinax larvae and the data obtained may contribute to a better understanding of the mode of action of this bacterial strain used as bioinsecticide against black fly larvae.

  5. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools : The HITEA school study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. H.; Krop, E. J M; Borras-Santos, A.; Zock, J. P.; Taubel, M.; Hyvarinnen, A.; Pekkanen, J.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D. J J

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with

  6. Human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks: a tale of two species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eReynolds

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, monocytes and macrophages are a heterogeneous population of mononuclear phagocytes that are involved in antigen processing and presentation to initiate and regulate immune responses to pathogens, vaccines, tumour and tolerance to self. In addition to their afferent sentinel function, DCs and macrophages are also critical as effectors and coordinators of inflammation and homeostasis in peripheral tissues. Harnessing DCs and macrophages for therapeutic purposes has major implications for infectious disease, vaccination, transplantation, tolerance induction, inflammation and cancer immunotherapy. There has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the developmental origin and function of the cellular constituents of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Significant progress has been made in tandem in both human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology. This progress has been accelerated by comparative biology analysis between mouse and human, which has proved to be an exceptionally fruitful strategy to harmonise findings across species. Such analyses have provided unexpected insights and facilitated productive reciprocal and iterative processes to inform our understanding of human and mouse mononuclear phagocytes. In this review, we discuss the strategies, power and utility of comparative biology approaches to integrate recent advances in human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology and its potential to drive forward clinical translation of this knowledge. We also present a functional framework on the parallel organisation of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks.

  7. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates inflammatory tolerance in astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Jope, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory tolerance is the down-regulation of inflammation upon repeated stimuli, which is well-established to occur in peripheral immune cells. However, less is known about inflammatory tolerance in the brain although it may provide an important protective mechanism from detrimental consequences of prolonged inflammation, which appears to occur in many psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. Array analysis of 308 inflammatory molecules produced by mouse primary astrocytes after two sequential stimulations with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) distinguished three classes, tolerant, sensitized and unaltered groups. For many of these inflammatory molecules, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) increased tolerance and reduced sensitization. Focusing on LPS-tolerance in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, we found that microglia exhibited a strong tolerance response that matched that of macrophages, whereas astrocytes exhibited only partial tolerance. The astrocyte semi-tolerance was found to be regulated by GSK3. GSK3 inhibitors or knocking down GSK3 levels promoted LPS-tolerance and astrocytes expressing constitutively active GSK3 did not develop LPS-tolerance. These findings identify the critical role of GSK3 in counteracting IL-6 inflammatory tolerance in cells of the CNS, supporting the therapeutic potential of GSK3 inhibitors to reduce neuroinflammation by promoting tolerance. PMID:20553816

  8. Immunization with lipopolysaccharide-deficient whole cells provides protective immunity in an experimental mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell García-Quintanilla

    Full Text Available The increasing clinical importance of infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii warrants the development of novel approaches for prevention and treatment. In this context, vaccination of certain patient populations may contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by this pathogen. Vaccines against Gram-negative bacteria based on inactivated bacterial cells are highly immunogenic and have been shown to produce protective immunity against a number of bacterial species. However, the high endotoxin levels present in these vaccines due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide complicates their use in human vaccination. In the present study, we used a laboratory-derived strain of A. baumannii that completely lacks lipopolysaccharide due to a mutation in the lpxD gene (IB010, one of the genes involved in the first steps of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, for vaccination. We demonstrate that IB010 has greatly reduced endotoxin content (<1.0 endotoxin unit/106 cells compared to wild type cells. Immunization with formalin inactivated IB010 produced a robust antibody response consisting of both IgG1 and IgG2c subtypes. Mice immunized with IB010 had significantly lower post-infection tissue bacterial loads and significantly lower serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to control mice in a mouse model of disseminated A. baumannii infection. Importantly, immunized mice were protected from infection with the ATCC 19606 strain and an A. baumannii clinical isolate. These data suggest that immunization with inactivated A. baumannii whole cells deficient in lipopolysaccharide could serve as the basis for a vaccine for the prevention of infection caused by A. baumannii.

  9. Quantifying Dustiness, Specific Allergens, and Endotoxin in Bulk Soya Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J. Mason

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soya is an important bulk agricultural product often transported by sea as chipped beans and/or the bean husks after pelletisation. There are proven allergens in both forms. Bulk handling of soya imports can generate air pollution containing dust, allergens, and pyrogens, posing health risks to dockside workers and surrounding populations. Using an International Organization for Standardization (ISO standardised rotating drum dustiness test in seven imported soya bulks, we compared the generated levels of dust and two major soya allergens in three particle sizes related to respiratory health. Extractable levels of allergen and endotoxin from the bulks showed 30–60 fold differences, with levels of one allergen (hydrophobic seed protein and endotoxin higher in husk. The generated levels of dust and allergens in the three particle sizes also showed very wide variations between bulks, with aerolysed levels of allergen influenced by both the inherent dustiness and the extractable allergen in each bulk. Percentage allergen aerolysed from pelletized husk—often assumed to be of low dustiness—after transportation was not lower than that from chipped beans. Thus, not all soya bulks pose the same inhalation health risk and reinforces the importance of controlling dust generation from handling all soya bulk to as low as reasonably practicable.

  10. Effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis LipopolysaccharideTolerized Monocytes on Inflammatory Responses in Neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Qing Zhu

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacteria. Exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulations, which is termed endotoxin tolerance. The role and mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-tolerized monocytes in inflammatory responses in neutrophils are currently unclear. Here, conditioned supernatants were collected from THP-1 cells treated with or without repeated 1 μg/ml Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis LPS. The chemotactic response of freshly isolated neutrophils recruited by supernatants was determined by a transwell migration assay, which demonstrated a reduced migration of neutrophils stimulated with supernatants from tolerized THP-1 cells in comparison to non-tolerized THP-1 cells. In addition, there was a marked increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and a significant decrease in Caspase 3 activities in neutrophils treated with supernatants from THP-1 cells that were treated repeatedly with P.gingivalis LPS in comparison to single treatment. A cytokine antibody array was then used to assess cytokine expression patterns in THP-1 cells. In tolerized THP-1 cells, 43 cytokine (43/170 expression levels were decreased, including chemokine ligand 23 (CCL23 and IFN-γ, while 11 cytokine (11/170 expression levels were increased, such as death receptor 6 (DR6. Furthermore, there was decreased production of IFN-γ and epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78 (ENA-78 in THP-1 cells after stimulation with repeated P. gingivalis LPS in comparison to single challenge, which was confirmed by ELISA. Therefore, P.gingivalis LPS- tolerized THP-1 cells were able to depress neutrophil chemotaxis and apoptosis, and contribute to respiratory burst, which might be related to the changes in cytokine expression patterns in THP-1 cells.

  11. Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers: a pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basinas, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313908206; Schlünssen, V.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Sigsgaard, T.; Smit, L.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470882; Samadi, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838551; Omland, O.; Hjort, C.; Madsen, A.M.; Skov, S.; Wouters, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/274156652

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that current endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with allergic sensitisation and positively associated with non-allergic respiratory diseases in four occupationally exposed populations using a standardised analytical approach. METHODS: Data were pooled from

  12. Synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking severe vascular leakage in rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, H; Rosseau, S; Czymek, R; Ermert, L; Walmrath, D; Krämer, H J; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F

    1997-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria prime rabbit lungs for enhanced thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction upon subsequent challenge with the exotoxin Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) (Walmrath et al. J. Exp. Med. 1994;180:1437-1443). We investigated the impact of endotoxin priming and subsequent HlyA challenge on lung vascular permeability while maintaining constancy of capillary pressure. Rabbit lungs were perfused in a pressure-controlled mode in the presence of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505, with continuous monitoring of flow. Perfusion for 180 min with 10 ng/ml LPS did not provoke vasoconstriction or alteration of capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) values. HlyA (0.021 hemolytic units/ml) induced thromboxane release and a transient decrease in perfusion flow in the absence of significant changes in Kfc. Similar results were obtained when LPS and HlyA were coapplied simultaneously. However, when the HlyA challenge was undertaken after 180 min of LPS priming, a manifold increase in Kfc values was noted, with concomitant severe lung edema formation, although capillary pressure remained unchanged. Thus, endotoxin primes the lung vasculature to respond with a severe increase in vascular permeability to a subsequent low-dose application of HlyA. Such synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking lung vascular leakage may contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory failure in sepsis and severe lung infection.

  13. Dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria exposure as determined by work task, season, and type of plant in a flower greenhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, T.; Madsen, A. M.; Basinas, I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Greenhouse workers are exposed to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria potentially causing airway inflammation as well as systemic symptoms. Knowledge about determinants of exposure is a prerequisite for efficient prevention through knowledge-based reduction in exposure. The objective......, Lavandula, Rhipsalideae, and Helleborus. The samples were gravimetrically analysed for inhalable dust. Endotoxin was assessed by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and culture-based quantification of bacteria and fungi was performed. Information on the performed tasks during sampling was extracted from...... and between 0.84 and 1097 EU m(-3) for endotoxin exposure, with the highest mean levels measured during Lavandula and Campanula handling, respectively. Personal exposure to fungi ranged between 1.8x10(2) and 3.4x10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) and to bacteria between 1.6x10(1) and 4.2x10(5) CFU m(-3...

  14. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis CRY1A(c) d-endotoxin on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent introduction of Bt maize and Bt cotton transgenic crops into Africa has raised concerns on their potential short and long-term ecological effects on the environment. The effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A(c) d-endotoxin on the growth, nodulation and productivity of two leguminous plants grown in clay soil ...

  15. The effects of adrenal hormones, endotoxin and turpentine on serum components of the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A; Fletcher, T C

    1982-01-01

    1. Within 24 hr of injection into plaice, cortisol, deoxycorticosterone, adrenalin or endotoxin cause an increase (P less than 0.001) in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP). Turpentine and soluble dexamethasone have no effect. 2. The increase in CRP with endotoxin is not enhanced with adrenalin or deoxycorticosterone, and in conjunction with cortisol the increase is additive. 3. Changes in CRP are independent of the amounts of serum amyloid P-component or total protein. 4. Turpentine, cortisol and adrenalin cause a rapid increase in circulating glucose. 5. It is concluded that some adrenal hormones stimulate the CRP acute phase response in plaice, without an apparent provoking agent.

  16. Effects of garlic oil and two of its major organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, on intestinal damage in rats injected with endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Y.-H.; Jen, L.-N.; Su, H.-Y.; Lii, C.-K.; Sheen, L.-Y.; Liu, C.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Garlic and its active components are known to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on endotoxin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Wistar rats received by gavage 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight garlic oil (GO), 0.5 mmol/kg body weight diallyl disulfide or diallyl trisulfide, or the vehicle (corn oil; 2 ml/kg body weight) every other day for 2 weeks before being injected with endotoxin (i.p., 5 mg/kg body weight). Control rats were administered with corn oil and were injected with sterile saline. Samples for the measurement of proinflammatory cytokines were collected 3 h after injection, and all other samples were collected 18 h after injection. The low dose of GO suppressed endotoxin-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, ulceration, and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The high dose of GO significantly lowered the peripheral level of nitrate/nitrite and endotoxin-induced iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05) but worsened intestinal mucosal damage accompanied by elevated peripheral proinflammatory cytokines. Diallyl trisulfide but not diallyl disulfide showed similar toxic effect as that of high-dose GO. These results suggest the preventive effect and possible toxicity of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation and intestinal damage

  17. Modulation of reactive oxygen species production alters responses of lung inflammatory cells to endotoxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčová, Daniela; Konopka, Roman; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan; Kubala, Lukáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2006), S112-S112 ISSN 1071-5762 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : myeloperoxidase * inflammation * endotoxin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. Ascorbic acid deficiency increases endotoxin influx to portal blood and liver inflammatory gene expressions in ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yuki; Miura, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Murai, Atsushi; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Horio, Fumihiko

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ascorbic acid (AsA) deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. The mechanisms by which AsA deficiency provokes inflammatory changes in the liver were investigated in Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats (which are unable to synthesize AsA). Male ODS rats (6-wk-old) were fed a diet containing sufficient (300 mg/kg) AsA (control group) or a diet without AsA (AsA-deficient group) for 14 or 18 d. On day 14, the hepatic mRNA levels of acute-phase proteins and inflammation-related genes were significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than the control group, and these elevations by AsA deficiency were exacerbated on day 18. The serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, which induce acute-phase proteins in the liver, were also significantly elevated on day 14 in the AsA-deficient group compared with the respective values in the control group. IL-1β mRNA levels in the liver, spleen, and lung were increased by AsA deficiency. Moreover, on both days 14 and 18, the portal blood endotoxin concentration was significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than in the control group, and a significant correlation between serum IL-1β concentrations and portal endotoxin concentrations was found in AsA-deficient rats. In the histologic analysis of the ileum tissues, the number of goblet cells per villi was increased by AsA deficiency. These results suggest that AsA deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of microorganisms, endotoxins and aluminum in mobile dialysis services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rodrigues de Jesus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis water and dialysates are fundamental in the treatment of kidney disease. During just one hemodialysis session, 120 liters of dialysate are consumed. Thus, it is essential that the parameters of chemical and microbiological quality of the fluids used in dialysis systems are carefully observed. In this study, water samples were collected at 12 hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were obtained at three points of fluid reservoirs: pre-, post-osmosis and dialysis solution. After collection, colony forming units (CFU, total coliforms and Escherichia coli 100 mL-1 were quantified. Later, isolated colonies and endotoxin content were identified by biochemical assays. Data about total aluminum levels per sample (mg L-1 were also obtained. Samples of all mobile dialysis services and points of collection were contaminated above the levels set out by national laws, in particular by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Endotoxin levels were also above the recommended by current legislation (> 0.25 EU mL-1. Only three samples contained detectable levels of aluminum, which were found to be above the recommended values for the corresponding resolution (0.01 mg L-1. Finally, there were no observable amounts of total coliforms and E. coli 100 mL-1 sample. The data from this study are an important step forward in the standardization and control of chemical/microbiological quality of mobile dialysis services.

  20. Study on security of sterile and non-pyrogenic disposable wares for medical use. Inactivation of endotoxins by γ-ray radiation in the presence of various drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Tanamoto, Kenichi; Haijima, Yuji

    1997-01-01

    To efficiently inactivate endotoxins, γ-ray radiation to disposable wares for medical use was conducted using 185TBq 60 Co-radiation system in a medium added with various drugs. Endotoxin derived from E. coli R3F653 was used as the subject. Hydrogen peroxide solution, ethyl alcohol, or sodium hydrochloride were added to the basal medium. The activity of endotoxin was determined by limulus test with toxicolor system. The activity was markedly decreased by standing in 0.03% sodium hydrochloride solution for several days, whereas it was little affected in solutions of other two drugs at any concentration. However, γ-ray radiation in the medium added with either of those drugs caused to reduce the endotoxin activity dose-dependently. Such reducing effects by γ-ray radiation were most marked in the medium containing Na-hydrochloride at 0.03 or 0.3%, suggesting that there might be interaction of γ-ray and Na-hydrochloride. (M.N.)

  1. Effect of ultrasonic activation on the reduction of bacteria and endotoxins in root canals: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, V C; Pinheiro, E T; Prado, L C; Silveira, A C; Carvalho, A P L; Mayer, M P A; Gavini, G

    2018-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonic activation with that of nonactivated irrigation on the removal of bacteria and endotoxin from root canals. Fifty patients with necrotic pulps and asymptomatic apical periodontitis were randomly allocated into two groups according to the final irrigation protocol after root canal preparation: Group UI - ultrasonic irrigation (n = 25) and Group NI - needle irrigation (n = 25). The root canals were medicated with calcium hydroxide for 14 days. Microbiological sampling was performed before (S1) and after the root canal preparation (S2), after the irrigation protocols (S3) and after the removal of the intracanal medication (S4). Total bacteria counts were determined by qPCR and the endotoxin levels by the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Intragroup analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon test for related samples, whereas intergroup analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P  0.05). Ultrasonic activation was more effective than nonactivated irrigation for reducing the number of bacteria but not the endotoxin levels in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Activity of wild-type and hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins against Agrotis ipsilon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Molthoff, J.W.; Naimov, S.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Cry1 and two Cry9 ?-endotoxins fromBacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon).A. ipsilon was not susceptible to many toxins, but three toxins had significant activity. Cry9Ca was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Aa and Cry1Fb. Hybrids between

  3. [In vitro examination of the influence of lipase and amylase on dog's pancreas tissue incubated with endotoxins, phospholipase A2 or cytokines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, László; Antal-Szalmás, Péter; Dezso, Balázs; Sipka, Sándor; Furka, Andrea; Mikó, Irén; Sápy, Péter

    2005-04-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated during acute pancreatitis. The endotoxins and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) also have important role in acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine, what factors are responsible for the tissue damage in acute pancreatitis. The examinations were performed on fixed and frozen sections of healthy dog's pancreas tissue. Direct effects of endotoxins, PLA2, and proinflammatory cytokines together with pancreas enzymes were examined on pancreatic tissue. Pancreas enzymes themselves did not cause any change in the structure of pancreas. The common influence of endotoxins, PLA2 and pancreas enzymes was examined, and finally the effect of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes was examined on pancreas tissue. Our results show, that besides enzymes many other factors are necessary to inflict tissue damage in acute pancreatitis, but for necrosis the presence of TNF alfa is a must.

  4. Determination of bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) in radiopharmaceuticals by the gel clot method. Validation; Determinacao de endotoxina bacteriana (pirogenio) em radiofarmacos pelo metodo de formacao de gel. Validacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki

    2008-07-01

    Before the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the only available means of pirogenicity testing for parenteral drugs and medical devices was the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) rabbit pyrogen test. Especially for radiopharmaceuticals, the LAL assay is the elective way to determine bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this work was to validate the gel clot method for some radiopharmaceuticals without measurable interference. The FDA's LALTest guideline defines interference as a condition that causes a significant difference between the endpoints of a positive water control and positive product control series using a standard endotoxin. Experiments were performed in accordance to the USP bacterial endotoxins test in the {sup 131}I- m-iodobenzylguanidine; the radioisotopes Gallium-67 and Thallium-201; the lyophilized reagents DTPA, Phytate, GHA, HSA and Colloidal Tin. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated for each product based upon the clinical dose of the material and a twofold serial dilution below the MVD was performed in duplicate to detect interferences. The labeled sensitivity of the used LAL reagent was 0.125 EU mL{sup -1} (Endotoxin Units per milliliter). For validation, a dilution series was performed, a twofold dilution of control standard endotoxin (CSE) from 0.5 to 0.03 EU mL{sup -1}, to confirm the labeled sensitivity of the LAL reagent being tested in sterile and non pyrogenic water, in quadruplicate. The same dilution series was performed with the CSE and the product in the 1:100 dilution factor, in three consecutive batches of each radiopharmaceutical. The products {sup 131}I-m-iodobenzylguanidine, Gallium-67, Thallium-201, DTPA, HSA and Colloidal Tin were found compatible with the LAL test at a 1:100 dilution factor. Phytate and GHA showed some interference in the gel clot test. Other techniques to determine endotoxins as the chromogenic (color development) and the turbidimetric test (turbidity development), were also assessed to get valuable

  5. Determination of bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) in radiopharmaceuticals by the gel clot method. Validation; Determinacao de endotoxina bacteriana (pirogenio) em radiofarmacos pelo metodo de formacao de gel. Validacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki

    2008-07-01

    Before the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the only available means of pirogenicity testing for parenteral drugs and medical devices was the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) rabbit pyrogen test. Especially for radiopharmaceuticals, the LAL assay is the elective way to determine bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this work was to validate the gel clot method for some radiopharmaceuticals without measurable interference. The FDA's LALTest guideline defines interference as a condition that causes a significant difference between the endpoints of a positive water control and positive product control series using a standard endotoxin. Experiments were performed in accordance to the USP bacterial endotoxins test in the {sup 131}I- m-iodobenzylguanidine; the radioisotopes Gallium-67 and Thallium-201; the lyophilized reagents DTPA, Phytate, GHA, HSA and Colloidal Tin. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated for each product based upon the clinical dose of the material and a twofold serial dilution below the MVD was performed in duplicate to detect interferences. The labeled sensitivity of the used LAL reagent was 0.125 EU mL{sup -1} (Endotoxin Units per milliliter). For validation, a dilution series was performed, a twofold dilution of control standard endotoxin (CSE) from 0.5 to 0.03 EU mL{sup -1}, to confirm the labeled sensitivity of the LAL reagent being tested in sterile and non pyrogenic water, in quadruplicate. The same dilution series was performed with the CSE and the product in the 1:100 dilution factor, in three consecutive batches of each radiopharmaceutical. The products {sup 131}I-m-iodobenzylguanidine, Gallium-67, Thallium-201, DTPA, HSA and Colloidal Tin were found compatible with the LAL test at a 1:100 dilution factor. Phytate and GHA showed some interference in the gel clot test. Other techniques to determine endotoxins as the chromogenic (color development) and the turbidimetric test (turbidity development), were also assessed to get

  6. Emissies van endotoxinen uit de veehouderij: een literatuurstudie voor ontwikkeling van een toetsingskader = Emissions of endotoxins from animal production: a literature survey for development of an assessment framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Wouters, I.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this literature review, the state of knowledge is summarized on endotoxin emissions from animal production. Furthermore, the design of an assessment framework for endotoxins for use in permit granting is explored. Finally, lacking knowledge to develop such a framework has been determined.

  7. Limulus amebocyte lysate technique (LAL) for bacterial endotoxin control in radiodiagnosis agents (kits) and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morote, M.; Robles, A.; Ramos, B.; Otero, M.

    1997-01-01

    A procedure based on a fast technique of LAL individual kits has been devised to control bacterial endotoxins in radiodiagnosis agents (RDA): HEMTEC, DEIDA, PPI, AMD, GHCa, RENTEC, DMSA, MAA, TSC, HERTEC, DTPA, BRATEC and EDTMP as well as in radioisotopes I-131 and Tc99m. The procedures begins with the determination of the following values, injection volume (IV), endotoxin limits (EL), maximum valid dilution (MVD), total mass (TM), reconstitution volume (RV), concentration (mg/ml), and final dilution (FD). Subsequently, a procedure is carried out to conduct an 'in vitro' control of the radiodiagnosis agents and radioisotopes with LAL individual kits; the procedures includes: reconstitution of the sample to be controlled, dilution, inoculation of the diluted sample in LAL tubes and incubation at 37 o C for an hour. Finally, results are interpreted through the observation of gel formation or not in LAL tubes

  8. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of P. agglomerans in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10(4)-10(8) CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10(3)-10(5) CFU/m(3) and formed 73.2-96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10-50 nm that could be described as the 'endotoxin super-macromolecules'. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927) between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS). Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA), endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN), and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained

  9. Adoptive transfer of transplantation tolerance in the H-2 compatible mouse system CBA/C3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegl, E.; Brock, J.; Schulze, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of neonatally induced tolerance in the H-2 compatible CBA/C3H strain combination is possible with different efficiency by injection of adherent and non-adherent spleen cells, unseparated spleen cells and lymph node cells from C3H-tolerant CBA mice into sublethal irradiated CBA mice. The most efficient cell populations are adherent spleen cells and lymph node cells. Successfull transfer of transplantation tolerance is not possible to non-irradiated mice. The adherent fraction of spleen cells and lymph node cells contains a suppressor cell population responsible for transplantation tolerance against non-H-2 antigens. The induced transplantation tolerance is not due to a chimeric state of C3H-tolerant CBA mice. (author)

  10. Short-chain inulin-like fructans reduce endotoxin and bacterial translocations and attenuate development of TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Tadashi, Wada; Yasuhiko, Tomono; Sugiyama, Kimio; Kiriyama, Shuhachi; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of short-chain inulin-like fructans (SCF) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis were investigated in rats, focusing specifically on endotoxin and bacterial translocations. SCF with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 4 and 8 were used. Rats were fed either control diet or diets including 60 g DP4 or DP8 per kilogram for 7 days, and then received intracolonic TNBS and were fed the respective diets for a further 10 days. DP4 and DP8 significantly reduced colonic injuries as assessed by damage score, but the reduction of colonic myeloperoxidase activity was manifest solely with DP8. At 3 days after colitis induction, bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph node was significantly lower in the DP4 and DP8 groups, but significant reduction in the portal endotoxin concentration was achieved solely in the DP8 group. Immediately prior to colitis induction, cecal immunoglobulin A and mucin concentrations were higher in the DP4 and DP8 groups, but these changes were abolished at 10 days post colitis induction. The data suggest that SCF exert prophylactic effects against TNBS colitis, presumably as a result of inhibitory effects on endotoxin and bacterial translocations.

  11. Aldose reductase deficiency protects from autoimmune- and endotoxin-induced uveitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Shoeb, Mohammed; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-10-17

    To investigate the effect of aldose reductase (AR) deficiency in protecting the chronic experimental autoimmune (EAU) and acute endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in c57BL/6 mice. The WT and AR-null (ARKO) mice were immunized with human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding peptide (hIRPB-1-20), to induce EAU, or were injected subcutaneously with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg) to induce EIU. The mice were killed on day 21 for EAU and at 24 hours for EIU, when the disease was at its peak, and the eyes were immediately enucleated for histologic and biochemical studies. Spleen-derived T-lymphocytes were used to study the antigen-specific immune response in vitro and in vivo. In WT-EAU mice, severe damage to the retinal wall, especially to the photoreceptor layer was observed, corresponding to a pathologic score of ∼2, which was significantly prevented in the ARKO or AR inhibitor-treated mice. The levels of cytokines and chemokines increased markedly in the whole-eye homogenates of WT-EAU mice, but not in ARKO-EAU mice. Further, expression of inflammatory marker proteins such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 was increased in the WT-EIU mouse eyes but not in the ARKO-EIU eyes. The T cells proliferated vigorously when exposed to the hIRPB antigen in vitro and secreted various cytokines and chemokines, which were significantly inhibited in the T cells isolated from the ARKO mice. These findings suggest that AR-deficiency/inhibition protects against acute as well as chronic forms of ocular inflammatory complications such as uveitis.

  12. Review of Mouse Models of Graves' Disease and Orbitopathy-Novel Treatment by Induction of Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, Martin; Faßbender, Julia; Li, Zhongmin; Münch, Götz; Holthoff, Hans-Peter

    2017-04-01

    Various approaches have been used to model human Graves' disease in mice, including transfected fibroblasts, and plasmid or adenoviral immunisations with the extracellular A subunit of the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). Some of these models were only observed for a short time period or were self-limiting. A long-term model for human Graves' disease was established in mice using continuing immunisations (4-weekly injections) with recombinant adenovirus expressing TSHR. Generation of TSHR binding cAMP-stimulatory antibodies, thyroid enlargement and alterations, elevated serum thyroxin levels, tachycardia and cardiac hypertrophy were maintained for at least 9 months in all Ad-TSHR-immunised mice. Here, we show that these mice suffer from orbitopathy, which was detected by serial orbital sectioning and histomorphometry. Attempts to treat established Graves' disease in preclinical mouse model studies have included small molecule allosteric antagonists and specific antagonist antibodies which were isolated from hypothyroid patients. In addition, novel peptides have been conceived which mimic the cylindrical loops of the TSHR leucine-rich repeat domain, in order to re-establish tolerance toward the antigen. Here, we show preliminary results that one set of these peptides improves or even cures all signs and symptoms of Graves' disease in mice after six consecutive monthly injections. First beneficial effects were observed 3-4 months after starting these therapies. In immunologically naïve mice, administration of the peptides did not induce any immune response.

  13. Type II collagen in cartilage evokes peptide-specific tolerance and skews the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, V; Kjellén, P; Holmdahl, R

    1998-06-01

    T cell recognition of type II collagen (CII) is a crucial event in the induction of collagen-induced arthritis in the mouse. Several CII peptides have been shown to be of importance, dependent on which MHC haplotype the mouse carries. By sequencing the rat CII and comparing the sequence with mouse, human, bovine and chicken CII, we have found that the immunodominant peptides all differ at critical positions compared with the autologous mouse sequence. Transgenic expression of the immunodominant Aq-restricted heterologous CII 256-270 epitope inserted into type I collagen (TSC mice) or type II collagen (MMC-1 mice) led to epitope-specific tolerance. Immunization of TSC mice with chick CII led to arthritis and immune responses, dependent on the subdominant, Aq-restricted and chick-specific CII 190-200 epitope. Immunization of F1 mice, expressing both H-2q and H-2r as well as transgenic expression of the Aq-restricted CII 256-270 epitope in cartilage, with bovine CII, led to arthritis, dependent on the Ar-restricted, bovine-specific epitope CII 607-621. These data show that the immunodominance of CII recognition is directed towards heterologous determinants, and that T cells directed towards the corresponding autologous epitopes are tolerated without evidence of active suppression.

  14. Monocytes from cystic fibrosis patients are locked in an LPS tolerance state: down-regulation of TREM-1 as putative underlying mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Fresno

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is an inherited pleiotropic disease that results from abnormalities in the gene that codes for the chloride channel, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR. CF patients are frequently colonized by several pathogens, but the mechanisms that allow colonization in spite of apparently functional immune systems are incompletely understood. In this paper we show that blood peripheral monocytes isolated from CF patients are found in an endotoxin tolerance state, yet this is not due to a deficient TLR activation. On the other hand, levels of the amplifier of inflammatory responses, TREM-1 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells, are notably down-regulated in monocytes from patients, in comparison to those extracted from healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the soluble form of TREM-1 (sTREM-1 was not detected in the sera of patients. Additionally, and in strict contrast to patients who suffer from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, CF monocytes challenged ex vivo with LPS neither up-regulated membrane-anchored TREM-1 nor sTREM-1. Finally, similar levels of PGE(2 expression and p65 translocation into the nucleus were found in both patients and healthy volunteers, thus suggesting that TREM-1 regulation is neither controlled by PGE(2 levels nor by p65 activation in this case. However, PU.1 translocation into the nucleus was significantly higher in CF monocytes than in controls, suggesting a role for this transcription factor in the control of TREM-1 expression. We conclude that down-regulation of TREM-1 expression in cystic fibrosis patients is at least partly responsible for the endotoxin tolerance state in which their monocytes are locked.

  15. Dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria exposure as determined by work task, season, and type of plant in a flower greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilsing, Trine; Madsen, Anne Mette; Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Tendal, Kira; Bælum, Jesper

    2015-03-01

    Greenhouse workers are exposed to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria potentially causing airway inflammation as well as systemic symptoms. Knowledge about determinants of exposure is a prerequisite for efficient prevention through knowledge-based reduction in exposure. The objective of this study was to assess the occupational exposure in a flower greenhouse and to investigate the impact of work tasks on the intensity and variability in exposure. Seventy-six personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 38 employees in a Danish flower greenhouse producing Campanula, Lavandula, Rhipsalideae, and Helleborus. The samples were gravimetrically analysed for inhalable dust. Endotoxin was assessed by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and culture-based quantification of bacteria and fungi was performed. Information on the performed tasks during sampling was extracted from the greenhouse electronic task logging system. Associations between log-transformed exposure outcomes, season, and work tasks were examined in linear mixed-effects regression with worker identity as random effect. Measured concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 2.41mg m(-3) for inhalable dust and between 0.84 and 1097 EU m(-3) for endotoxin exposure, with the highest mean levels measured during Lavandula and Campanula handling, respectively. Personal exposure to fungi ranged between 1.8×10(2) and 3.4×10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) and to bacteria between 1.6×10(1) and 4.2×10(5) CFU m(-3). Exposure to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria differed between seasons. Packing Lavandula, sticking, potting, and grading Rhipsalideae, and all examined tasks related to Campanula production except sticking increased dust exposure. Endotoxin exposure was increased during sticking Campanula and pinching or packing Rhipsalideae, and fungi exposure was elevated by subtasks performed in the research and development area for Campanula, and by potting, packing/dumping Campanula. Sticking and

  16. Importance of bacterial endotoxin (LPS in endodontics A importância da endotoxina bacteriana (LPS na endodontia atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Roberto Leonardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New knowledge of the structure and biological activity of endotoxins (LPS has revolutionized concepts concerning their mechanisms of action and forms of inactivation. Since the 1980's, technological advances in microbiological culture and identification have shown that anaerobic microorganisms, especially Gram-negative, predominate in root canals of teeth with pulp necrosis and radiographically visible chronic periapical lesions. Gram-negative bacteria not only have different factors of virulence and generate sub-products that are toxic to apical and periapical tissues, as also contain endotoxin (LPS on their cell wall. This is especially important because endotoxin is released during multiplication or bacterial death, causing a series of biological effects that lead to an inflammatory reaction and resorption of mineralized tissues. Thus, due to the role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions, we reviewed the literature concerning the biological activity of endotoxin and the relevance of its inactivation during treatment of teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion.O conhecimento mais aprofundado sobre a estrutura e atividade biológica das endotoxinas (LPS revolucionou os conceitos sobre seu mecanismo de ação e formas de inativação. A partir da década de 80, os avanços tecnológicos na cultura e identificação microbiológica demonstraram que, em canais radiculares de dentes portadores de necrose pulpar e lesão periapical crônica, visível radiograficamente, predominam microrganismos anaeróbios, particularmente os gram-negativos. Como se sabe, os microrganismos gram-negativos, além de possuírem diferentes fatores de virulência e gerarem produtos e sub-produtos tóxicos aos tecidos apicais e periapicais, contêm endotoxina em sua parede celular. Esse conhecimento é particularmente importante, uma vez que a endotoxina é liberada durante a multiplicação ou morte bacteriana, exercendo uma série de

  17. Discrimination between low dietary zinc and endotoxin exposure : a model study on weaning rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, van J.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Hamer, van den C.J.A.; de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    To establish a parameter for zinc status that is independent of the occurrence of infection, we studied the effects of low dietary zinc and endotoxin in weaning rats 21 d after 65Zn intubation. We monitored aspects of zinc status (tissue zinc content, 65Zn distribution, and specific 65Zn activity in

  18. Pantoea agglomerans : a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pantoea agglomerans , a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10 4 –10 8 CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10 3 –10 5 CFU/m 3 and formed 73.2–96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS. The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10–50 nm that could be described as the ‘endotoxin super-macromolecules’. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927 between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS. Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA, endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN, and mixture of

  19. Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambadi PR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paramesh Ramulu Lambadi,1,* Tarun Kumar Sharma,1,* Piyush Kumar,1 Priyanka Vasnani,2 Sitaramanjaneya Mouli Thalluri,2 Neha Bisht,1 Ranjana Pathania,1,2 Naveen Kumar Navani1,21Department of Biotechnology, 2Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host’s immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs. Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial

  20. Biophysical analysis of the interaction of granulysin-derived peptides with enterobacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Howe, Jörg; Andrä, Jörg; Rössle, Manfred; Richter, Walter; da Silva, Ana Paula Galvão; Krensky, Alan M; Clayberger, Carol; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    To combat infections by Gram-negative bacteria, it is not only necessary to kill the bacteria but also to neutralize pathogenicity factors such as endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The development of antimicrobial peptides based on mammalian endotoxin-binding proteins is a promising tool in the fight against bacterial infections, and septic shock syndrome. Here, synthetic peptides derived from granulysin (Gra-pep) were investigated in microbiological and biophysical assays to understand their interaction with LPS. We analyzed the influence of the binding of Gra-pep on (1) the acyl chain melting of the hydrophobic moiety of LPS, lipid A, by Fourier-transform spectroscopy, (2) the aggregate structure of LPS by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, and 3) the enthalpy change by isothermal titration calorimetry. In addition, the influence of Gra-pep on the incorporation of LPS and LPS-LBP (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) complexes into negatively charged liposomes was monitored. Our findings demonstrate a characteristic change in the aggregate structure of LPS into multilamellar stacks in the presence of Gra-pep, but little or no change of acyl chain fluidity. Neutralization of LPS by Gra-pep is not due to a scavenging effect in solution, but rather proceeds after incorporation into target membranes, suggesting a requisite membrane-bound step.

  1. The Structural Basis for Lipid and Endotoxin Binding in RP105-MD-1, and Consequences for Regulation of Host Lipopolysaccharide Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suarez, Maite L; Bond, Peter J

    2016-01-05

    MD-1 is a member of the MD-2-related lipid-recognition (ML) family, and associates with RP105, a cell-surface protein that resembles Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The RP105⋅MD-1 complex has been proposed to play a role in fine-tuning the innate immune response to endotoxin such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4⋅MD-2, but controversy surrounds its mechanism. We have used atomically detailed simulations to reveal the structural basis for ligand binding and consequent functional dynamics of MD-1 and the RP105 complex. We rationalize reports of endogenous phospholipid binding, by showing that they prevent collapse of the malleable MD-1 fold, before refining crystallographic models and uncovering likely binding modes for LPS analogs. Subsequent binding affinity calculations reveal that endotoxin specificity arises from the entropic cost of expanding the MD-1 cavity to accommodate bulky lipid tails, and support the role of MD-1 as a "sink" that sequesters endotoxin from TLR4 and stabilizes RP105/TLR4 interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunity to endotoxin and Asp299Gly polymorphism of TLR-4 in adult patients with early and late onset of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Bisyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The gene polymorphism of Asp299Gly TLR-4 may be associated with the risk of asthma development. Methods and results. The gene polymorphism of TLR-4 (Asp299Gly receptor has been researched in 262 early-onset and in 69 late-onset asthma patients. The state of anti-endotoxin immunity was assessed by determination of specific antibodies to the endotoxin of A, M, G classes and sCD14 by ELISA. The polymorphism was analyzed by the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction with electrophoretic detection. It was estimated that the risk of early-onset asthma in the population of Crimea is associated with genotypes AG and GG (Asp299Gly of TLR-4. There were increased levels of anti-endotoxin IgM and decreased of sIgA in patients with late-onset asthma and AA genotype as compared to other genotypes. Conclusion. The gene polymorphism of Asp299Gly TLR-4 is associated with the risk of early-onset asthma development in Crimea population.

  3. Novel endotoxin-sequestering compounds with terephthalaldehyde-bis-guanylhydrazone scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khownium, Kriangsak; Wood, Stewart J; Miller, Kelly A; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Nguyen, Thuan B; Kimbrell, Matthew R; Georg, Gunda I; David, Sunil A

    2006-03-01

    We have shown that lipopolyamines bind to the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide, a constituent of Gram-negative bacterial membranes, and neutralize its toxicity in animal models of endotoxic shock. In an effort to identify non-polyamine scaffolds with similar endotoxin-recognizing features, we had observed an unusually high frequency of hits containing guanylhydrazone scaffolds in high-throughput screens. We now describe the syntheses and preliminary structure-activity relationships in a homologous series of bis-guanylhydrazone compounds decorated with hydrophobic functionalities. These first-generation compounds bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide with a potency comparable to that of polymyxin B, a peptide antibiotic known to sequester LPS.

  4. Maternal endotoxin-induced fetal growth restriction in rats: Fetal responses in toll-like receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major etiology of periodontal disease can produce virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide/LPS, which is expected to play a role in the intrauterine fetal growth. Trophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface actively participates in response to infection through the expression of a family of natural immune receptors, toll-like receptor (TLR. Purpose: the aims of study were to identify endotoxin concentration in maternal blood serum of Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats, to characterize the TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells, and to determine its effect on fetal growth. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2 x 109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrified on 14th and 20th gestational day. Fetuses were evaluated for weight and length. Endotoxin was detected by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the maternal blood serum. The TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. Endotoxins and cytokines during liver transplantation : Changes in plasma levels and effects on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, JK; Klompmaker, IJ; Zwaveling, JH; van der Meer, J; Limburg, PC; Slooff, MJH

    Endotoxins, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 are believed to have a key role in liver transplantation, The origin and course of these factors is not completely known. In this prospective study of 40 patients, we sought more understanding of the relations

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde and linalool from the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira in endotoxin-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Shih-Yun; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2018-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira is a Taiwan native plant that belongs to genus Cinnamomum and is also known as pseudocinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon. Its leaf is traditionally used by local people in cooking and as folk therapy. We previously demonstrated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira of linalool chemotype in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on endotoxin-injected mice. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether cinnamaldehyde and linalool the active anti-inflammatory compounds in leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. Before the injection of endotoxin, C57BL/6 mice of the experimental groups were administered cinnamaldehyde (0.45 or 0.9 mg/kg body weight) or linalool (2.6 or 5.2 mg/kg body weight), mice of the positive control group were administered the leaf essential oil (13 mg/kg body weight), and mice of the negative group were administered vehicle (corn oil, 4 mL/kg body weight) by gavage every other day for two weeks. All mice received endotoxin (i.p. 10 mg/mL/kg body weight) the next day after the final administration and were killed 12 h after the injection. Normal control mice were pretreated with vehicle followed by the injection with saline. None of the treatment found to affect body weight or food or water intake of mice before the injection of endotoxin. Cinnamaldehyde and linalool were found significantly reversed endotoxin-induced body weight loss and lymphoid organ enlargement compared with vehicle (P essential oil, which was 0.9 mg/kg and 5.2 mg/kg, respectively, showed similar or slightly less inhibitory activity for most of these inflammatory parameters compared with that of the leaf essential oil. Our data confirmed the potential use of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira as an anti-inflammatory natural product and provide evidence for cinnamaldehyde and linalool as two potent agents for prophylactic use

  6. Mechanisms underlying sodium nitroprusside-induced tolerance in the mouse aorta: Role of ROS and cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Mariana C; Olivon, Vania C; Tavares, Lívia D; Simplicio, Janaina A; Gonzaga, Natália A; de Souza, Daniele G; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Tirapelli, Carlos R; Bonaventura, Daniella

    2017-05-01

    To determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced tolerance. Additionally, we evaluated the role of ROS on NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines production during SNP-induced tolerance. To induce in vitro tolerance, endothelium-intact or -denuded aortic rings isolated from male Balb-c mice were incubated for 15, 30, 45 or 60min with SNP (10nmol/L). Tolerance to SNP was observed after incubation of endothelium-denuded, but not endothelium-intact aortas for 60min with this inorganic nitrate. Pre-incubation of denuded rings with tiron (superoxide anion (O 2 - ) scavenger), and the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin and atorvastatin reversed SNP-induced tolerance. l-NAME (non-selective NOS inhibitor) and l-arginine (NOS substrate) also prevented SNP-induced tolerance. Similarly, ibuprofen (non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor), nimesulide (selective COX-2 inhibitor), AH6809 (prostaglandin PGF 2 α receptor antagonist) or SQ29584 [PGH 2 /thromboxane TXA 2 receptor antagonist] reversed SNP-induced tolerance. Increased ROS generation was detected in tolerant arteries and both tiron and atorvastatin reversed this response. Tiron prevented tolerance-induced increase on O 2 - and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels. The increase onp65/NF-κB expression and TNF-α production in tolerant arteries was prevented by tiron. The major new finding of our study is that SNP-induced tolerance is mediated by NADPH-oxidase derived ROS and vasoconstrictor prostanoids derived from COX-2, which are capable of reducing the vasorelaxation induced by SNP. Additionally, we found that ROS mediate the activation of NF-κB and the production of TNF-α in tolerant arteries. These findings identify putative molecular mechanisms whereby SNP induces tolerance in the vasculature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiations on bacterial endotoxins: comparison between gamma radiations and accelerated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, S; Goury, V; Darbord, J C

    1988-01-01

    Determinations of the effect of radiation sterilization processing on purified endotoxins, in aqueous solution or on dried support, are reported. These observations allow us to accept gamma radiations for sterilization of parenteral devices with an estimated probability of existence of non apyrogenic items, based upon a similar definition of the usual Sterility Assurance Level (SAL = 10/sup -6/).

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool in Analysis of Proteus mirabilis Endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żarnowiec, Paulina; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to scan whole bacterial cells as well as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, endotoxins) isolated from them. Proteus mirabilis cells, with chemically defined LPSs, served as a model for the ATR FT-IR method. The paper focuses on three steps of infrared spectroscopy: (1) sample preparation, (2) IR scanning, and (3) multivariate analysis of IR data (principal component analysis, PCA).

  9. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. C. Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10 and Th3 (TGF-β regulatory T cells (Tregs plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral, formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein: localization in secretory granules of Paneth cells in the mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein involved in the host's response to endotoxin and mainly synthesized and secreted to the blood by the liver. But in addition, LBP is also made by extrahepatic cells, including the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. To study...... in closer detail the synthesis and storage of LBP in the intestinal mucosal epithelium, we performed an immunolocalization of LBP in mouse small intestine. By immunofluorescence microscopy, an antibody recognizing the 58-60 kDa protein of LBP distinctly labeled a small population of cells located deep...... into the crypts. This cell population was also positive for lysozyme and alpha-defensin 4, identifying Paneth cells as the main intestinal LBP-producing cells. By immunogold electron microscopy, intense labeling was observed in the secretory granules of these cells. We conclude that Paneth cells express LBP...

  11. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  12. Effect of aging and oral tolerance on dendritic cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, P U; Fernandes, L G R; Gabriel, D L; Tamashiro, W M S C

    2010-01-01

    Oral tolerance can be induced in some mouse strains by gavage or spontaneous ingestion of dietary antigens. In the present study, we determined the influence of aging and oral tolerance on the secretion of co-stimulatory molecules by dendritic cells (DC), and on the ability of DC to induce proliferation and cytokine secretion by naive T cells from BALB/c and OVA transgenic (DO11.10) mice. We observed that oral tolerance could be induced in BALB/c mice (N = 5 in each group) of all ages (8, 20, 40, 60, and 80 weeks old), although a decline in specific antibody levels was observed in the sera of both tolerized and immunized mice with advancing age (40 to 80 weeks old). DC obtained from young, adult and middle-aged (8, 20, and 40 weeks old) tolerized mice were less efficient (65, 17 and 20%, respectively) than DC from immunized mice (P stimulating IFN-g, IL-4 and IL-10 production. However, TGF-beta levels were significantly elevated in co-cultures carried out with DC from tolerant mice (P production (P oral tolerance in BALB/c mice, but reduces DC functions, probably due to the decline of the expression of the CD86 surface marker.

  13. Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharides induce RANKL by mouse osteoblast in a way different from that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Sun, Feifei; Li, Xiaoting; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Shihai; Zhou, Xuedong

    2011-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to have a high positive rate in infected root canals and symptomatic apical periodontitis. It may play an integral role as a potent stimulator of inflammatory cytokines involved in apical lesions. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been proven to be the key regulator of bone remodeling. This study investigated P. endodontalis LPS-induced RANKL production and LPS signaling in mouse osteoblasts. LPS-induced RANKL production in mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells was measured by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were determined by the blocking test using anti-TLRs antibodies. In addition, specific inhibitors were used to analyze the intracellular signaling pathways. Escherichia coli LPS was used as the control. Both of the anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4 antibodies significantly (P endodontalis LPS; only anti-TLR2 antibody had a significant (P endodontalis LPS-infected osteoblasts (P endodontalis LPS has the ability to promote the expression of RANKL in mouse osteoblasts, and this induction was mainly through the TLR2/4-JNK signaling pathway, a situation quite different from that of typical bacterial endotoxin (E. coli LPS). Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of iodine-labelled fibrinogen in rat during endotoxin shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, J [Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary); Spett, B; Bertok, L; Kocsar, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1978-10-01

    Animals of the experimental and control groups received 10-10 microcurie i.v. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen. The fibrinogen forms a deposit on the surface of the microthrombi and we can find more activity where the thrombi were formed. 60 minutes after administering endotoxin the activity of the ilium of the shocked animals increased significantly (exceeding that of the control group by 37%). A considerable difference may be observed also 120 minutes later, and the activity of the liver amounts to twice the activity of control animals two hours after i.v. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen injection.

  15. Children’s residential exposure to selected allergens and microbial indicators: endotoxins and (1→3-β-D-glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kozajda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was aimed at assessment of exposure to endotoxins, (1→3-β-D-glucans and mite, cockroach, cat, dog allergens present in settled dust in premises of children as agents which may be significantly correlated with the occurrence of allergic symptoms and diseases in children. Materials and Methods: The study covered 50 homes of one- or two-year-old children in Poland. Samples of settled dust were taken from the floor and the child's bed. The levels of (1→3-β-D-glucans (floor, endotoxins (floor and allergens of mite, cat, dog and cockroach (floor and bed were analyzed. Results: Average geometric concentrations (geometric standard deviation of endotoxins, (1→3-β-D-glucans, Der p1, Fel d1, Can f1 and Bla g1 in children homes were on the floor 42 166.0 EU/g (3.2, 20 478.4 ng/g (2.38, 93.9 ng/g (6.58, 119.8 ng/g (13.0, 288.9 ng/g (3.4, 0.72 U/g (4.4 and in their beds (only allergens 597.8 ng/g (14.2, 54.1 ng/g (4.4, 158.6 ng/g (3.1 0.6 U/g (2.9, respectively. When the floor was covered with the carpet, higher concentrations of endotoxins, (1→3-β-D-glucans and allergens (each type were found in the settled dust (p < 0.05. The trend was opposite in case of allergens (except dog analyzed from bed dust and significantly higher concentrations were found in the rooms with smooth floor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Among the analyzed factors only the type of floor significantly modified both the level of biological indicators and allergens. The results of this study could be the base for verifying a hypothesis that carpeting may have a protective role against high levels of cockroach, dog and cat allergens.

  16. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  17. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins is correlated with the presence of high-affinity binding sites in the brush border membrane of target insect midguts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.; Vanderbruggen, H.; Hoefte, H.; Van Rie, J.; Jansens, S.; Van Mellaert, H.

    1988-01-01

    Binding studies were performed with two 125 I-labeled Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins on brush border membrane vesicles prepared from the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta or the cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae. One δ-endotoxin, Bt2-protoxin, is a 130-kDa recombinant crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. berliner. It kills larvae of both insect species. The active Bt2-toxin is a 60-kDa proteolytic fragment of the Bt2-protoxin. It binds saturably and with high affinity to brush border membrane vesicles from the midgut of both species. The other δ-endotoxin, Bt4412-protoxin, is a 136-kDa crystalline protein from B. thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis, which is highly toxic for P. brassicae, but not for M. sexta larvae. Bt4412-toxin, obtained after proteolytic activation of Bt4412-protoxin, shows high-affinity saturable binding to P. brassicae vesicles but not to M. sexta vesicles. The correlation between toxicity and specific binding is further strengthened by competition studies. Other B. thuringiensis δ-endotoxins active against M. sexta compete for binding of 125 I-labeled Bt2-toxin to M. sexta vesicles, whereas toxins active against dipteran or coleopteran larvae do not compete. Bt2-toxin and Bt4412-toxin bind to different sites on P. brassicae vesicles

  18. GLOMERULAR INFLAMMATION IN PREGNANT RATS AFTER INFUSION OF LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN - AN IMMUNOHISTOLOGICAL STUDY IN EXPERIMENTAL PREECLAMPSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; BAKKER, WW

    1995-01-01

    Increased endotoxin sensitivity during pregnancy occurs in many animals, including rats. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In the present study it was investigated whether this increased sensitivity is reflected by an altered inflammatory pattern. Inflammatory cell influx, the

  19. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, K; Sardesai, N Y; Quattrocchi, C

    2008-01-01

    VGX-1027 is a novel, low molecular weight, immunomodulatory compound that has shown efficacy against a variety of immuno-inflammatory disease models in animals including autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, collagen-induced arthritis and chemically induced inflammatory colitis. Here, we have studied ...... the effects of VGX-1027 on the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in male Lewis rats, as a model of inflammatory ocular diseases in humans....

  1. Data mining strategies to improve multiplex microbead immunoassay tolerance in a mouse model of infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Mani

    Full Text Available Multiplex methodologies, especially those with high-throughput capabilities generate large volumes of data. Accumulation of such data (e.g., genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. is fast becoming more common and thus requires the development and implementation of effective data mining strategies designed for biological and clinical applications. Multiplex microbead immunoassay (MMIA, on xMAP or MagPix platform (Luminex, which is amenable to automation, offers a major advantage over conventional methods such as Western blot or ELISA, for increasing the efficiencies in serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. MMIA allows detection of antibodies and/or antigens efficiently for a wide range of infectious agents simultaneously in host blood samples, in one reaction vessel. In the process, MMIA generates large volumes of data. In this report we demonstrate the application of data mining tools on how the inherent large volume data can improve the assay tolerance (measured in terms of sensitivity and specificity by analysis of experimental data accumulated over a span of two years. The combination of prior knowledge with machine learning tools provides an efficient approach to improve the diagnostic power of the assay in a continuous basis. Furthermore, this study provides an in-depth knowledge base to study pathological trends of infectious agents in mouse colonies on a multivariate scale. Data mining techniques using serodetection of infections in mice, developed in this study, can be used as a general model for more complex applications in epidemiology and clinical translational research.

  2. Aerosolization of fungi, (1→3)-β-D glucan, and endotoxin from flood-affected materials collected in New Orleans homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Atin; Jung, Jaehee; Reponen, Tiina; Lewis, Jocelyn Suzanne; DeGrasse, Enjoli C.; Grimsley, L. Faye; Chew, Ginger L.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Standing water and sediments remaining on flood-affected materials were the breeding ground for many microorganisms in flooded homes following Hurricane Katrina. The purpose of this laboratory study was to examine the aerosolization of culturable and total fungi, (1→3)-β-D glucan, and endotoxin from eight flood-affected floor and bedding materials collected in New Orleans homes, following Hurricane Katrina. Aerosolization was examined using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) connected to a BioSampler. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming. A two-stage cyclone sampler was used for size-selective analysis of aerosolized glucan and endotoxin. On average, levels of culturable fungi ranged from undetectable (lower limit = 8.3×104) to 2.6×105 CFU/m2; total fungi ranged from 2.07×105 to 1.6×106 spores/m2; (1→3)-β-D glucan and endotoxin were 2.0×103 – 2.9×104 ng/m2 and 7.0×102 – 9.3×104 EU/m2, respectively. The results showed that 5–15 min sampling is sufficient for detecting aerosolizable biocontaminants with the FSSST. Smaller particle size fractions (1.8 μm) fractions, which raises additional exposure concerns. Vacuuming was found to overestimate inhalation exposure risks by a factor of approximately 102 for (1→3)-β-D glucan and by 103 to 104 for endotoxin as detected by the FSSST. The information generated from this study is important with respect to restoration and rejuvenation of the flood-affected areas in New Orleans. We believe the findings will be significant during similar disasters in other regions of the world including major coastal floods from tsunamis. PMID:19201399

  3. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates T- helper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Mérida

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60-70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration.

  4. Concentration of airborne Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA), total bacteria, and endotoxins in pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frederic G; Sakwinska, Olga; Charrière, Nicole; Semaani, Eulalia; Oppliger, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Pigs are very often colonized by Staphylococcus aureus and transmission of such pig-associated S. aureus to humans can cause serious medical, hygiene, and economic problems. The transmission route of zoonotic pathogens colonizing farm animals to humans is not well established and bioaerosols could play an important role. The aim of this study was to assess the potential occupational risk of working with S. aureus-colonized pigs in Switzerland. We estimated the airborne contamination by S. aureus in 37 pig farms (20 nursery and 17 fattening units; 25 in summer, 12 in winter). Quantification of total airborne bacterial DNA, airborne Staphylococcus sp. DNA, fungi, and airborne endotoxins was also performed. In this experiment, the presence of cultivable airborne methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 in a pig farm in Switzerland was reported for the first time. Airborne methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was found in ~30% of farms. The average airborne concentration of DNA copy number of total bacteria and Staphylococcus sp. measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction was very high, respectively reaching values of 75 (± 28) × 10(7) and 35 (± 9.8) × 10(5) copy numbers m(-3) in summer and 96 (± 19) × 10(8) and 40 (± 12) × 10(6) copy numbers m(-3) in winter. Total mean airborne concentrations of endotoxins (1298 units of endotoxin m(-3)) and fungi (5707 colony-forming units m(-3)) exceeded the Swiss recommended values and were higher in winter than in summer. In conclusion, Swiss pig farmers will have to tackle a new emerging occupational risk, which could also have a strong impact on public health. The need to inform pig farmers about biological occupational risks is therefore crucial.

  5. The effectiveness of various biofiltration substrates in removing bacteria, endotoxins, and dust from ventilation system exhaust from a chicken hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymczyna, L; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, A; Drabik, A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various organic and organic-mineral biofilter media in purifying ventilation exhaust from a chicken hatchery room. Three different substrates were tested. Efficiency levels for the removal of dust, gram-negative bacteria, and bacterial endotoxin were recorded. The microbiological properties of the substrates were also studied. All of the biofilter substrates were highly effective in removing gram-negative bacteria, moderately effective in reducing dust levels, and only slightly effective in removing endotoxin. The substrate that was most efficient in retaining bioaerosols was the organic-mineral medium containing 20% halloysite, 40% compost, and 40% peat, which generally had at least satisfactory efficiency values for removing all of the contaminants tested.

  6. An Exploratory Investigation of Endotoxin Levels in Novice Long Distance Triathletes, and the Effects of a Multi-Strain Probiotic/Prebiotic, Antioxidant Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Roberts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS. This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB4ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day−1 containing 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157, 10 billion CFU·day−1 Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156, 9.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL-20 (NCIMB 30172 and 0.5 billion CFU·day−1 Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL-34 (NCIMB 30153/55.8 mg·day−1 fructooligosaccharides/ 400 mg·day−1 α-lipoic acid, 600 mg·day−1 N-acetyl-carnitine; matched pro/prebiotic (LAB4 or placebo (PL for 12 weeks preceding a long-distance triathlon. Plasma endotoxin units (via Limulus amebocyte lysate chromogenic quantification and GI permeability (via 5 h urinary lactulose (L: mannitol (M recovery were assessed at baseline, pre-race and six days post-race. Endotoxin unit levels were not significantly different between groups at baseline (LAB4ANTI: 8.20 ± 1.60 pg·mL−1; LAB4: 8.92 ± 1.20 pg·mL−1; PL: 9.72 ± 2.42 pg·mL−1. The use of a 12-week LAB4ANTI intervention significantly reduced endotoxin units both pre-race (4.37 ± 0.51 pg·mL−1 and six days post-race (5.18 ± 0.57 pg·mL−1; p = 0.03, ηp2 = 0.35, but only six days post-race with LAB4 (5.01 ± 0.28 pg·mL−1; p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.43. In contrast, endotoxin units remained unchanged with PL. L:M significantly increased from 0.01 ± 0.01 at baseline to 0.06 ± 0.01 with PL only (p = 0.004, ηp2 = 0.51. Mean race times (h:min:s were not statistically different between groups despite faster times with both pro/prebiotoic groups (LAB4ANTI: 13:17:07 ± 0:34:48; LAB4: 12

  7. An Exploratory Investigation of Endotoxin Levels in Novice Long Distance Triathletes, and the Effects of a Multi-Strain Probiotic/Prebiotic, Antioxidant Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Justin D; Suckling, Craig A; Peedle, Georgia Y; Murphy, Joseph A; Dawkins, Tony G; Roberts, Michael G

    2016-11-17

    Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ ANTI ; 30 billion CFU·day -1 containing 10 billion CFU·day -1 Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day -1 Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9.5 billion CFU·day -1 Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL-20 (NCIMB 30172) and 0.5 billion CFU·day -1 Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL-34 (NCIMB 30153)/55.8 mg·day -1 fructooligosaccharides/ 400 mg·day -1 α-lipoic acid, 600 mg·day -1 N -acetyl-carnitine); matched pro/prebiotic (LAB⁴) or placebo (PL) for 12 weeks preceding a long-distance triathlon. Plasma endotoxin units (via Limulus amebocyte lysate chromogenic quantification) and GI permeability (via 5 h urinary lactulose (L): mannitol (M) recovery) were assessed at baseline, pre-race and six days post-race. Endotoxin unit levels were not significantly different between groups at baseline (LAB⁴ ANTI : 8.20 ± 1.60 pg·mL -1 ; LAB⁴: 8.92 ± 1.20 pg·mL -1 ; PL: 9.72 ± 2.42 pg·mL -1 ). The use of a 12-week LAB⁴ ANTI intervention significantly reduced endotoxin units both pre-race (4.37 ± 0.51 pg·mL -1 ) and six days post-race (5.18 ± 0.57 pg·mL -1 ; p = 0.03, ηp² = 0.35), but only six days post-race with LAB⁴ (5.01 ± 0.28 pg·mL -1 ; p = 0.01, ηp² = 0.43). In contrast, endotoxin units remained unchanged with PL. L:M significantly increased from 0.01 ± 0.01 at baseline to 0.06 ± 0.01 with PL only ( p = 0.004, ηp² = 0.51). Mean race times (h:min:s) were not statistically different between groups despite faster times with both pro/prebiotoic groups (LAB⁴ ANTI : 13:17:07 ± 0

  8. Antibiotics protect against fructose-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice: role of endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergheim, Ina; Weber, Synia; Vos, Miriam; Krämer, Sigrid; Volynets, Valentina; Kaserouni, Seline; McClain, Craig J; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2008-06-01

    Consumption of refined carbohydrates in soft drinks has been postulated to be a key factor in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to test the effects of ad libitum access to different sugars consumed in drinking water on hepatic fat accumulation. For 8 weeks, C57BL/J6 mice had free access to solutions containing 30% glucose, fructose, sucrose, or water sweetened with artificial sweetener (AS) or plain water. Body weight, caloric intake, hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation were assessed. Total caloric intake and weight gain were highest in mice exposed to glucose. In contrast, hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly higher in mice consuming fructose compared to all other groups. Moreover, endotoxin levels in portal blood and lipid peroxidation as well as TNFalpha expression were significantly higher in fructose fed mice than in all other groups. Concomitant treatment of fructose fed mice with antibiotics (e.g., polymyxin B and neomycin) markedly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in fructose fed mice. These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only lead to liver damage through overfeeding but also may be directly pro-inflammatory by increasing intestinal translocation of endotoxin.

  9. Elimination of Proteus mirabilis 51Cr endotoxin from the liver in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinska-Piotrowska, I.

    1977-01-01

    Using isotope methods, elimination of the endotoxin of Proteus mirabilis labelled with chromium (CrEPm) from the liver of rats was studied. The following studies were carried out: intravital exploration of the liver with a scintillation probe, measurements of radioactivity of organs and excreted urine and stools, scintigraphy of the liver, binding of CrEPm by subcellular fractions of hepatocytes, and the influence of selected drugs (polymyxin and hydrocortisone) on elimination of CrEPm from the liver and organelles of hepatocytes. (author)

  10. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  11. Endotoxin in Dairy Cattle:Production, Effects and Control Technology%奶牛内毒素的产生、影响和防控技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯军; 谭支良; 张佩华; 韩奇鹏

    2016-01-01

    内毒素也称为脂多糖,是革兰氏阴性细菌死亡后或快速繁殖时细菌细胞壁破裂后释放的一种物质,在动物机体中普遍存在,过量时导致机体产生免疫应激。本文介绍了奶牛内毒素产生的原因和作用机制及其对奶牛采食量,血液中蛋白质、氨基酸,乳中乳蛋白、乳脂的影响,减少奶牛内毒素的途径,为降低内毒素对奶牛生产的影响提供参考。%Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide, is produced when the gram-negative bacteria are dead or multiply rapidly. It commonly exists in ruminants and results in immunological stress when overdose. This article elaborated the production and action mechanism of endotoxin in dairy cattle, the effects on feed intake, proteins and amino acids in blood, milk protein and milk fat, and the ways to decrease endotoxin in dairy cat-tle, which will give help for decreasing endotoxin in dairy cattle production.

  12. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis D(delta)-endotoxins against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncheva, R.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.; Naimov, S.

    2006-01-01

    Solubilized protoxins of nine Cry1 and one hybrid Cry1 ¿-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against larvae of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L). Cry1Da was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Ab, Cry1Ba, and Cry1Ac, while Cry1Aa, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ia, and SN19 were still

  13. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1 hybrid proteins with increased activity against the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Cry1 delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis are generally active against lepidopteran insects, but Cry1Ba and Cry1Ia have additional, though low, levels of activity against coleopterans such as the Colorado potato beetle. Here we report the construction of Cry1Ba/Cry1Ia hybrid toxins which have

  15. A low concentration of ethanol reduces the chemiluminescence of human granulocytes and monocytes but not the tumor necrosis factor alpha production by monocytes after endotoxin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Diedrich, J. P.; Schäfer, Christian

    1998-01-01

    necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from Mphi. Further, the efficiency of ethanol to inactivate chemically generated ROS was tested. Significant stimulation of ROS release occurred at endotoxin concentrations of 1 ng/ml or higher in both PMNs and Mphi. Ethanol significantly suppressed the formation of ROS...... immunogens and to increase the susceptibility of alcohol abusers to infectious diseases. As endotoxemia is common in alcohol abusers, we investigated the effect of ethanol (21.7 mmol/liter) on the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence of PMNs and Mphi after endotoxin stimulation and the release of tumor...... identical (6 to 8 ng/ml) in both PMNs and Mphi, independent of the presence of ethanol. In contrast to ROS formation, ethanol had no effect on the amount of TNF-alpha produced by endotoxin-stimulated Mphi. Ethanol was shown to be unable to decrease the levels of chemically generated ROS under physiological...

  16. The release of endotoxin, TNF and IL-6 during the antibiotic treatment of experimental Gram-negative sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Potthoff, H.; Bom, V.J.J.; Bartels, H.L.; De Vries-Hospers, H.G.; Bijzet, J.; Weits, J.; Buurman, W.; Bleichrodt, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the role of different antibiotics in the release of endotoxin and the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) during the treatment of experimental Escherichia coli septical peritonitis, we obtained serial blood samples from septic rats treated with placebo,

  17. Suppression of cellular immunity in obstructive jaundice is caused by endotoxins: a study with germ-free rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, J. W.; Gouma, D. J.; Soeters, P. B.; Buurman, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    The increased susceptibility to infections after surgery in jaundiced patients is considered to be caused by an impairment of cellular immunity and/or nutritional status. Endotoxins are suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of action is unknown. Germ-free rats were

  18. Effect of endotoxin shock on the elimination of /sup 133/Xe by the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, T [Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary); Spett, B; Bertok, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Vittay, P; Kopcsanyi, Zs; Jakab, T [Orvostovabbkepzoe Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1979-07-01

    Experimental shock was induced in rats by the administration of 2 mg E.coli 089 endotoxin. 3 hours later 6.142 MBq /sup 133/Xe, dissolved in 1 ml physiological saline, was administered and the changes of radioactivity were followed over the lungs by a gamma-camera. The biological half-life of the isotope was 1.06 s in the control animals and 1.69 s in the animals in shock.

  19. 21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used for assisted reproduction procedures. Media include liquid and powder versions of various..., antibiotics, etc.). (b) Classification. Class II (special controls) (mouse embryo assay information, endotoxin...

  20. A rapid kinetic chromogenic method for quantification of bacterial endotoxins in lyophilized reagents for labeling with 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Campos, Domingos G.; Silva, Laercio; Fernandes, Adriana V.; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid quantitative kinetic chromogenic test in an automated Portable Test System (PTS) has been developed for determination of bacterial endotoxins in water, in-process and end-products using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). The aim of this work was to validate the method for lyophilized reagents for labeling with 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals with no interfering factors. Experiments were performed in three consecutive batches of the lyophilized reagents Methylenediphosphonic Acid (MDP) and Pyrophosphate (PYRO) produced at IPEN-CNEN/ SP using the PTS from Endosafe, Inc. TM , Charleston, SC. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated to establish the extent of dilution to avoid interfering test conditions (MVD=500). Better results were obtained above 1:20 dilution factor for MDP and 1:100 for PYRO. The parameters of coefficient correlation (R) -0.980, RPPC between 50 - 200% and coefficient variation (CV) of the samples less than 25% were satisfied and the endotoxin concentration was lower than the lowest concentration of the standard curve (0.05 EU mL -1 ), therefore less than the established limit in pharmacopoeias. The PTS is a rapid, simple and accurate technique using the quantitative kinetic chromogenic method for bacterial endotoxin determination. For this reason, it is very practical in the radiopharmaceutical area and it trends to be the method of choice for the pyrogen test. For MDP and PYRO, the validation was successfully performed. (author)

  1. Some aspects of endotoxins and corpus luteum function in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edqvist, L.E.; Fredriksson, G.; Kindahl, H.

    1984-01-01

    Following parturition in cattle, prostaglandin levels are high for 10-20 days. The duration and possibly the magnitude of the release seem to be related to the time required for completion of uterine involution. Animals showing clinical signs of postpartum uterine disorder have a prolonged release of prostaglandin. The intravenous administration of an endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium to goats induces a massive prostaglandin release terminating corpus luteum function, resulting in short oestrous cycles in non-pregnant animals and abortions in pregnant animals. The possibility exists that postpartum uterine infections may be partly responsible for the postpartum prostaglandin release and that this bacteriologic/endocrine interrelationship represents a way in which the uterus eliminates infectious agents, particularly gram-negative bacteria. (author)

  2. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strizhov, N.; Keller, M.; Mathur, J.; Koncz-Kaiman, Z.; Bosch, D.; Prudovksy, E.; Schell, J.; Sneh, B.; Koncz, C.; Zilberstein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and

  3. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  4. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Norbäck

    Full Text Available There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96% from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH, muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm. No cat (Fel d1, dog (Can f 1 or horse allergens (Ecu cx were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t, house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1 and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1 were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  5. Elimination of Proteus mirabilis /sup 51/Cr endotoxin from the liver in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska-Piotrowska, I [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland)

    1977-01-01

    Using isotope methods, elimination of the endotoxin of Proteus mirabilis labelled with chromium (CrEPm) from the liver of rats was studied. The following studies were carried out: intravital exploration of the liver with a scintillation probe, measurements of radioactivity of organs and excreted urine and stools, scintigraphy of the liver, binding of CrEPm by subcellular fractions of hepatocytes, and the influence of selected drugs (polymyxin and hydrocortisone) on elimination of CrEPm from the liver and organelles of hepatocytes.

  6. Resistance of 3T3 mouse cells to UV light in relation to excision and transfer of dimers to daughter strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menck, C F.M.; Meneghini, R [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1982-04-01

    Mouse cells (3T3 line) and human fibroblasts are equally sensitive to UV light. At fluences of 2.0-2.5 J/m/sup 2/ mouse cells excise only 20% of the pyrimidine dimers as compared to 80% excised by human fibroblasts. This fluence allows 37% survival in both cases. Hence, mouse cells are more resistant to the same burden of unexcised dimers. The reason for this increased tolerance to dimers does not seem to be due to a recombinational mechanism, as judged by the fact that only ca. 5% of the dimers are transferred from parental to daughter strands. The transfer of dimers was measured by the Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease assay, irradiating cells at G/sub 1/ to avoid artifacts arising from introduction of dimers in nascent strands. The possibility of other mechanisms being involved in the process of tolerance to DNA lesions is discussed.

  7. On-line Biomass Estimation in a Batch Biotechnological Process: Bacillus thuringiensis δ - endotoxins production.

    OpenAIRE

    Amicarelli, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this Chapter it has been addressed the problem of the biomass estimation in a batch biotechnological process: the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxins production process. Different alternatives that can be successfully used in this sense were presented. It has been exposed the design of various biomass estimators, namely: a phenomenological biomass estimator, a standard EKF biomass estimator, a biomass estimator based on ANN, a decentralized Kalman Filter, and a biomass concentration ...

  8. Diagnostic value of tolerance-related gene expression measured in the recipient alloantigen-reactive T cell fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Gyun; Park, Youn-Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Jeong, Seong-Hee; Kim, Song-Cheol

    2013-08-01

    The efficient development of tolerance-inducing therapies and safe reduction of immunosuppression should be supported by early diagnosis and prediction of tolerance in transplantation. Using mouse models of donor-specific tolerance to allogeneic skin and islet grafts we tested whether measurement of tolerance-related gene expression in their alloantigen-reactive peripheral T cell fraction efficiently reflected the tolerance status of recipients. We found that Foxp3, Nrn1, and Klrg1 were preferentially expressed in conditions of tolerance compared with rejection or unmanipulated controls if their expression is measured in CD69(+) T cells prepared from coculture of recipient peripheral T cells and donor antigen-presenting cells. The same pattern of gene expression was observed in recipients grafted with either skin or islets, recipients of different genetic origins, and even those taking immunosuppressive drugs. These findings suggest that the expression of tolerance-related genes in the alloantigen-reactive T cell fraction could be used to detect tolerance in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever with influenzal viruses. II. The effects of endogenous pyrogen in normal and virus-tolerant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATKINS, E; HUANG, W C

    1958-03-01

    Observations have been made on the fever-inducing properties of an endogenous pyrogen found in the circulation of rabbits after the intravenous inoculation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). When endogenous pyrogen was given to a normal recipient, a biphasic fever was produced which simulated that seen with bacterial endotoxins. With the use of a technique of serial passive transfer, it has been shown that the "double-humped" response results from two separate actions of the injected pyrogen. The first of these appears to be a direct stimulation of the thermoregulatory centers. The second involves the release of further endogenous pyrogen in the normal recipient to cause, in turn, the second fever peak. Since the injection of endogenous pyrogen did not produce a significant change in the number of circulating leukocytes, it is inferred that this substance is different from either bacterial or tissue polysaccharides. In rabbits rendered tolerant by a previous injection of virus the second fever peak failed to appear and the response to endogenous pyrogen was monophasic. Evidence indicates that the absence of a second fever peak in the tolerant recipient was not due to rise in temperature on the preceding day of virus injection or to the development of either serum inhibitors or tolerance to virus itself. It is postulated that prior mobilization of endogenous pyrogen by virus may have modified the ability of the tolerant recipient to liberate further amounts of this substance in response to an injection of endogenous pyrogen.

  10. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As

  11. Agent-based modeling of endotoxin-induced acute inflammatory response in human blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xu; Foteinou, Panagiota T; Calvano, Steven E; Lowry, Stephen F; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2010-02-18

    Inflammation is a highly complex biological response evoked by many stimuli. A persistent challenge in modeling this dynamic process has been the (nonlinear) nature of the response that precludes the single-variable assumption. Systems-based approaches offer a promising possibility for understanding inflammation in its homeostatic context. In order to study the underlying complexity of the acute inflammatory response, an agent-based framework is developed that models the emerging host response as the outcome of orchestrated interactions associated with intricate signaling cascades and intercellular immune system interactions. An agent-based modeling (ABM) framework is proposed to study the nonlinear dynamics of acute human inflammation. The model is implemented using NetLogo software. Interacting agents involve either inflammation-specific molecules or cells essential for the propagation of the inflammatory reaction across the system. Spatial orientation of molecule interactions involved in signaling cascades coupled with the cellular heterogeneity are further taken into account. The proposed in silico model is evaluated through its ability to successfully reproduce a self-limited inflammatory response as well as a series of scenarios indicative of the nonlinear dynamics of the response. Such scenarios involve either a persistent (non)infectious response or innate immune tolerance and potentiation effects followed by perturbations in intracellular signaling molecules and cascades. The ABM framework developed in this study provides insight on the stochastic interactions of the mediators involved in the propagation of endotoxin signaling at the cellular response level. The simulation results are in accordance with our prior research effort associated with the development of deterministic human inflammation models that include transcriptional dynamics, signaling, and physiological components. The hypothetical scenarios explored in this study would potentially improve

  12. Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function (GELDING) - a novel theory for the development of late onset hypogonadism in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremellen, Kelton

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health problem, with two-thirds of the adult population in many Western countries now being either overweight or obese. Male obesity is associated with late onset hypogonadism, a condition characterised by decreased serum testosterone, sperm quality plus diminished fertility and quality of life. In this paper we propose a novel theory underlying the development of obesity related hypogonadism- the GELDING theory (Gut Endotoxin Leading to a Decline IN Gonadal function). Several observational studies have previously reported an association between obesity related hypogonadism (low testosterone) and systemic inflammation. However, for the first time we postulate that the trans-mucosal passage of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut lumen into the circulation is a key inflammatory trigger underlying male hypogonadism. Obesity and a high fat/high calorie diet are both reported to result in changes to gut bacteria and intestinal wall permeability, leading to the passage of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide- LPS) from within the gut lumen into the circulation (metabolic endotoxaemia), where it initiates systemic inflammation. Endotoxin is known to reduce testosterone production by the testis, both by direct inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic pathways and indirectly by reducing pituitary LH drive, thereby also leading to a decline in sperm production. In this paper we also highlight the novel evolutionary benefits of the GELDING theory. Testosterone is known to be a powerful immune-suppressive, decreasing a man's ability to fight infection. Therefore we postulate that the male reproductive axis has evolved the capacity to lower testosterone production during times of infection and resulting endotoxin exposure, decreasing the immunosuppressive influence of testosterone, in turn enhancing the ability to fight infection. While this response is adaptive in times of sepsis, it becomes maladaptive in the setting of "non

  13. A hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin gene gives resistance against a coleopteran and a lepidopteran pest in transgenic potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins has proven to be a successful strategy for obtaining insect resistance in transgenic plants. Drawbacks of expression of a single resistance gene are the limited target spectrum and the potential for rapid adaptation of the pest. Hybrid toxins

  14. Extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John; Park, Thomas J

    2009-12-09

    Mammalian brains have extremely high levels of aerobic metabolism and typically suffer irreversible damage after brief periods of oxygen deprivation such as occur during stroke or cardiac arrest. Here we report that brain tissue from naked mole-rats, rodents that live in a chronically low-oxygen environment, is remarkably resistant to hypoxia: naked mole-rat neurons maintain synaptic transmission much longer than mouse neurons and can recover from periods of anoxia exceeding 30 min. We suggest that brain tolerance to hypoxia may result from slowed or arrested brain development in these extremely long-lived animals.

  15. Repeated exposure to intra-amniotic LPS partially protects against adverse effects of intravenous LPS in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisslen, Tate; Hillman, Noah H; Musk, Gabrielle C; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2014-02-01

    Histologic chorioamnionitis, frequently associated with preterm births and adverse outcomes, results in prolonged exposure of preterm fetuses to infectious agents and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as LPS. Endotoxin tolerance-type effects were demonstrated in fetal sheep following repetitive systemic or intra-amniotic (i.a.) exposures to LPS, suggesting that i.a. LPS exposure would cause endotoxin tolerance to a postnatal systemic dose of LPS in preterm sheep. In this study, randomized pregnant ewes received either two i.a. injections of LPS or saline prior to preterm delivery. Following operative delivery, the lambs were treated with surfactant, ventilated, and randomized to receive either i.v. LPS or saline at 30  min of age. Physiologic variables and indicators of systemic and lung inflammation were measured. Intravenous LPS decreased blood neutrophils and platelets values following i.a. saline compared to that after i.a. LPS. Intra-amniotic LPS prevented blood pressure from decreasing following the i.v. LPS, but also caused an increased oxygen index. Intra-amniotic LPS did not cause endotoxin tolerance as assessed by cytokine expression in the liver, lung or plasma, but increased myeloperoxidase-positive cells in the lung. The different compartments of exposure to LPS (i.a. vs i.v.) are unique to the fetal to newborn transition. Intra-amniotic LPS incompletely tolerized fetal lambs to postnatal i.v. LPS.

  16. Effect of aging and oral tolerance on dendritic cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Simioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tolerance can be induced in some mouse strains by gavage or spontaneous ingestion of dietary antigens. In the present study, we determined the influence of aging and oral tolerance on the secretion of co-stimulatory molecules by dendritic cells (DC, and on the ability of DC to induce proliferation and cytokine secretion by naive T cells from BALB/c and OVA transgenic (DO11.10 mice. We observed that oral tolerance could be induced in BALB/c mice (N = 5 in each group of all ages (8, 20, 40, 60, and 80 weeks old, although a decline in specific antibody levels was observed in the sera of both tolerized and immunized mice with advancing age (40 to 80 weeks old. DC obtained from young, adult and middle-aged (8, 20, and 40 weeks old tolerized mice were less efficient (65, 17 and 20%, respectively than DC from immunized mice (P < 0.05 in inducing antigen-specific proliferation of naive T cells from both BALB/c and DO11.10 young mice, or in stimulating IFN-g, IL-4 and IL-10 production. However, TGF-β levels were significantly elevated in co-cultures carried out with DC from tolerant mice (P < 0.05. DC from both immunized and tolerized old and very old (60 and 80 weeks old mice were equally ineffective in inducing T cell proliferation and cytokine production (P < 0.05. A marked reduction in CD86+ marker expression was observed in DC isolated from both old and tolerized mice (75 and 50%, respectively. The results indicate that the aging process does not interfere with the establishment of oral tolerance in BALB/c mice, but reduces DC functions, probably due to the decline of the expression of the CD86 surface marker.

  17. Exonization of active mouse L1s: a driver of transcriptome evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badge Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1s, L1s have been recently implicated in the regulation of mammalian transcriptomes. Results Here, we show that members of the three active mouse L1 subfamilies (A, GF and TF contain, in addition to those on their sense strands, conserved functional splice sites on their antisense strands, which trigger multiple exonization events. The latter is particularly intriguing in the light of the strong antisense orientation bias of intronic L1s, implying that the toleration of antisense insertions results in an increased potential for exonization. Conclusion In a genome-wide analysis, we have uncovered evidence suggesting that the mobility of the large number of retrotransposition-competent mouse L1s (~2400 potentially active L1s in NCBIm35 has significant potential to shape the mouse transcriptome by continuously generating insertions into transcriptional units.

  18. Molecular basis for endotoxin neutralization by amphipathic peptides derived from the alpha-helical cationic core-region of NK-lysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Garidel, Patrick; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Howe, Jörg; Koch, Michel H J; Gutsmann, Thomas; Andrä, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    An analysis of the interaction of the NK-lysin derived peptide NK-2 and of analogs thereof with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) was performed to determine the most important biophysical parameters for an effective LPS neutralization. We used microcalorimetry, FTIR spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurements, and small-angle X-ray scattering to analyze the peptide:LPS binding enthalpy, the accessible LPS surface charge, the fluidity of the LPS hydrocarbon chains, their phase transition enthalpy change, the aggregate structure of LPS, and how these parameters are modulated by the peptides. We conclude that (i) a high peptide:LPS binding affinity, which is facilitated by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and which leads to a positive Zeta potential, (ii) the formation of peptide-enriched domains, which destabilize the lipid packing, demonstrated by a drastic decrease of phase transition enthalpy change of LPS, and (iii) the multilamellarization of the LPS aggregate structure are crucial for an effective endotoxin neutralization by cationic peptides.

  19. Susceptibility to endotoxin induced uveitis is not reduced in mice deficient in BLT1, the high affinity leukotriene B4 receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J R; Subbarao, K; Franc, D T; Haribabu, B; Rosenbaum, J T

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of arachidonic acid derived chemotactic factor, LTB4, in the development of endotoxin induced uveitis (EIU), using mice deficient in the BLT1 gene which encodes the high affinity LTB4 receptor.

  20. Ethanol Reversal of Tolerance to the Antinociceptive Effects of Oxycodone and Hydrocodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joanna C; Poklis, Justin L; Akbarali, Hamid I; Henderson, Graeme; Dewey, William L

    2017-07-01

    This study compared the development of tolerance to two orally bioavailable prescription opioids, oxycodone and hydrocodone, to that of morphine, and the reversal of this tolerance by ethanol. Oxycodone (s.c.) was significantly more potent in the mouse tail-withdrawal assay than either morphine or hydrocodone. Oxycodone was also significantly more potent in this assay than hydrocodone when administered orally. Tolerance was seen following chronic subcutaneous administration of each of the three drugs and by the chronic administration of oral oxycodone, but not following the chronic oral administration of hydrocodone. Ethanol (1 g/kg i.p.) significantly reversed the tolerance to the subcutaneous administration of each of the three opioids that developed when given 30 minutes prior to challenge doses. It took twice as much ethanol, when given orally, to reverse the tolerance to oxycodone. We investigated whether the observed tolerance to oxycodone and its reversal by ethanol were due to biodispositional changes or reflected a true neuronal tolerance. As expected, a relationship between brain oxycodone concentrations and activity in the tail-immersion test existed following administration of acute oral oxycodone. Following chronic treatment, brain oxycodone concentrations were significantly lower than acute concentrations. Oral ethanol (2 g/kg) reversed the tolerance to chronic oxycodone, but did not alter brain concentrations of either acute or chronic oxycodone. These studies show that there is a metabolic component of tolerance to oxycodone; however, the reversal of that tolerance by ethanol is not due to an alteration of the biodisposition of oxycodone, but rather is neuronal in nature. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Effect of gamma rays on gram negative bacterial endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Dzulkarnain, B.

    1977-01-01

    Escherichia coli br and a Flavobacterium sp., isolated from Tjiptomangunkusumo Hospital in Jakarta, were used as bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) source. Suspensoion of 10 7 , 10 6 , and 10 5 bacteria in sterile and pyrogen free Sodium Chloride Injection, that had been treated by heat at 80 deg C for 15 minutes or treated by irradiation with a dose of 2.5 x 10 6 rad, were injected each to nine rabbits. Maximum temperature rises were registered and compared. Data were interpreted according to the requirements of Indonesian Pharmacopea (1972) and British Pharmacopea (1973). The results showed that a dose of 2.5 x 10 6 rad did not reduce the pyrogenic activity. The rate of bacterial multiplications in the pharmaceutical preparations were tested by using sterile Dextrose (2.5%) and Sodium Chloride Injection as medium; storage time were 0; 6; and 24 hours. (author)

  2. Adsorption of endotoxins on Ca2+ -iminodiacetic acid by metal ion affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, André Moreni; Romeu, Jorge Sánchez; Meireles, Rolando Páez; Perera, Gabriel Marquez; Morales, Rolando Perdomo; Pessoa, Adalberto; Cárdenas, Lourdes Zumalacárregui

    2012-11-01

    Endotoxins (also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) are undesirable by-products of recombinant proteins, purified from Escherichia coli. LPS can be considered stable under a wide range of temperature and pH, making their removal one of the most difficult tasks in downstream processes during protein purification. The inherent toxicity of LPS makes their removal an important step for the application of these proteins in several biological assays and for a safe parenteral administration. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) enables the affinity interactions between the metal ions (immobilized on the support through the chelating compound) and the target molecules, thus enabling high-efficiency separation of the target molecules from other components present in a mixture. Affinity chromatography is applied with Ca2+ -iminodiacetic acid (IDA) to remove most of the LPS contaminants from the end product (more than 90%). In this study, the adsorption of LPS on an IDA-Ca2+ was investigated. The adsorption Freundlich isotherm of LPS-IDA-Ca2+ provides a theoretical basis for LPS removal. It was found that LPS is bound mainly by interactions between the phosphate group in LPS and Ca2+ ligands on the beads. The factors such as pH (4.0 or 5.5) and ionic strength (1.0 mol/L) are essential to obtain effective removal of LPS for contaminant levels between endotoxin' concentration values less than 100 EU/mL and 100 000 EU/mL. This new protocol represents a substantial advantage in time, effort, and production costs.

  3. Analysis of endotoxin and endothelin-1 levels in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Baoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical data, laboratory parameters, infection rate, and serum procalcitonin (PCT and ET-1 levels of patients with cirrhotic ascites and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS and to investigate the roles of endotoxin and ET-1 in the development of HRS. MethodsBetween January 2009 and October 2012, 56 inpatients with cirrhotic ascites and type 1 HRS (HRS group and 60 inpatients with cirrhotic ascites who had normal renal function (non-HRS group were included in the study. Their general data, causes of liver cirrhosis, infection rates and types, Child-Pugh classification, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS score, and mean arterial pressure (MAP were recorded; blood samples were collected to evaluate liver and renal function and measure serum electrolyte, PCT, and ET-1 levels. The clinical data and laboratory parameters were compared between the two groups. Categorical data were analyzed by chi-square test; comparison of normally distributed continuous data between the two groups was made by independent-samples t test, and comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between the two groups was made by Wilcoxon rank sum test. ResultsThe infection rate of HRS group (75.0% was significantly higher than that of non-HRS group (28.4% (χ2=11.91, P<0.05. The PCT and ET-1 levels and SIRS score of HRS group [8.72 (3.14, 31.68 ng/L, 13.04±2.82 pg/ml, and 2.1±1.1] were significantly higher than those of non-HRS group [0.11 (0.04, 0.45 ng/L, 5.76±1.68 pg/ml, and 0.6±0.6] (P<0.05. In addition, the HRS group had significantly higher serum urea, creatine, cystatin C, and K levels than the non-HRS group (P<0.05, while the HRS group had significantly lower Na and Cl levels than the non-HRS group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences in ALT and AST levels between the two groups (P>005. ConclusionEndotoxin causes elevated expression of ET-1, and ET-1 induces renal perfusion deficiency by

  4. Transitional-2 B cells acquire regulatory function during tolerance induction and contribute to allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Aurélie; Blair, Paul A; Chai, Jian-Guo; Ratnasothy, Kulachelvy; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Alhabbab, Rowa; Rackham, Chloe L; Jones, Peter M; Smyth, Lesley; Elgueta, Raul; Howard, Jane K; Lechler, Robert I; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2015-03-01

    In humans, tolerance to renal transplants has been associated with alterations in B-cell gene transcription and maintenance of the numbers of circulating transitional B cells. Here, we use a mouse model of transplantation tolerance to investigate the contribution of B cells to allograft survival. We demonstrate that transfer of B cells from mice rendered tolerant to MHC class I mismatched skin grafts can prolong graft survival in a dose-dependent and antigen-specific manner to a degree similar to that afforded by graft-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells. Tolerance in this model was associated with an increase in transitional-2 (T2) B cells. Only T2 B cells from tolerized mice, not naïve T2 nor alloantigen experienced T2, were capable of prolonging skin allograft survival, and suppressing T-cell activation. Tolerized T2 B cells expressed lower levels of CD86, increased TIM-1, and demonstrated a preferential survival in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate a synergistic effect between tolerized B cells and graft-specific Treg cells. IL-10 production by T2 B cells did not contribute to tolerance, as shown by transfer of B cells from IL-10(-/-) mice. These results suggest that T2 B cells in tolerant patients may include a population of regulatory B cells that directly inhibit graft rejection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  6. Exercise and IL-6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starkie, Rebecca; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Jauffred, Sune

    2003-01-01

    and atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments in which eight healthy males either rested (CON), rode a bicycle for 3 h (EX), or were infused with recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) for 3 h while they rested. After 2.5 h, the volunteers received a bolus of Escherichia coli...... exercise and rhIL-6 infusion at physiological concentrations inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans. Hence, these data provide the first experimental evidence that physical activity mediates antiinflammatory activity and suggest that the mechanism include IL-6, which is produced...

  7. Effect of the dilution factor on 18FDG and Na18F samples for bacterial endotoxin test using PTS (portable test system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Costa, Flavia M.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.

    2011-01-01

    18 FDG and Na 18 F are radiopharmaceuticals produced as sterile solutions suitable for intravenous administration, which must contain no more than 175 EV/V. The most commonly used approach to detect endotoxins is the gelclot technique that requires 60 minutes for results. For radiopharmaceuticals containing short-life radionuclides, such as 18 F, there is an increasing interest for faster quality control methods. FDA licensed the Endosafe, PTS, a kinetic chromogenic endotoxin detection system that takes about 15 minutes for results. As other techniques, PTS test is susceptible to interferences which can be solved by product dilution. The aim of this study was to establish the best dilution of 18 FDG and Na 18 F for PTS analysis. Two different dilution factors for 18 FDG and 1:10 for Na 18 F were essayed: 1:10 and 1:100. 18 FDG and Na 18 solutions were prepared by the addition of LAL reagent water. Considering the assay acceptance criteria, the best dilution factor was 1:100 for 18 FDG and 1:10 for Na 18 F. The recovery of the product positive control was 98-12% for 18 FDG 1:100 and 104-120% for Na 18 F 1:10, which were, in both cases, within the specification (50-200%) and very close to 100%. Results obtained with these dilution studies were important to establish the most appropriate and non-interfering dilution factor for 18 FDG and Na 18 F routine endotoxin test. (author)

  8. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokender Kumar

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2 indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti

  9. Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy. It is likely that anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and neutraceutical agents may have the potential to reduce the endotoxin mediated inflammation and complications associated with endotoxin release. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of zingerone (active compound of zingiber officinale) against liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia. The selected antibiotics capable of releasing high content of endotoxin were employed for their in vivo efficacy in P.aeruginosa peritonitis model. Released endotoxin induced inflammation and zingerone as co-anti-inflammatory therapy significantly reduced inflammatory response. Improved liver histology and reduced inflammatory markers MDA, RNI, MPO, tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, ALP) and inflammatory cytokines (MIP-2, IL-6 and TNF-α) were indicative of therapeutic potential of zingerone. The mechanism of action of zingerone may be related to significant inhibition of the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (TLR4, RelA, NF-kB2, TNF- α, iNOS, COX-2) indicating that zingerone interferes with cell signalling pathway and suppresses hyper expression of cell signaling molecules of inflammatory pathway. Zingerone therapy significantly protected liver from endotoxin induced inflammatory damage by down regulating biochemical as well as molecular markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that zingerone is a potent anti

  10. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. IX. Characteristics of endogenous serum pyrogen and mechanisms governing its release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETERSDORF, R G; KEENE, W R; BENNETT, I L

    1957-12-01

    The "endogenous serum pyrogen" that appears in the circulating blood after a single intravenous injection of endotoxin does not produce leukopenia in normal animals, fails to provoke the local Shwartzman reaction, and elicits no "tolerance" when injected daily. Suppression of the febrile response to endotoxin by prednisone does not prevent the appearance of pyrogen in the blood. Animals given large amounts of endotoxin daily continue to respond with high fevers despite failure of endogenous serum pyrogen to appear in detectable amounts after the first two or three injections. Analysis of the response to daily injections shows clearly that the fever during the first 2 hours after administration of endotoxin is unrelated to levels of endogenous serum pyrogen; in contrast, the magnitude of the fever after the 2nd hour correlates well with endogenous pyrogen in some instances. The leukopenic response to endotoxin could not be correlated with the appearance of endogenous serum pyrogen. The differences between endotoxin and endogenous pyrogen and the similarities between leukocyte extracts (sterile exudates) and endogenous pyrogen are summarized and discussed. Dissociation of the febrile response to bacterial endotoxin and levels of endogenous serum pyrogen are discussed and it is concluded that a mechanism involving both direct and indirect action of endotoxins offers the best explanation for the pyrogenic action of these bacterial products.

  11. Correlation of Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxin Level in Cotton Dust with the Increase of TNFα Level and the Decline of Lung Function in Cotton Spinning Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilatus Sukma Ika Noviarmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS endotoxin contained in cotton dust may cause airway inflammation and decline of lung function when inhaled, which eventually leads to respiratory symptoms. The objective of this research is to analyze the correlation of the exposure of LPS endotoxin in cotton dust with the increase of TNFα level and the decline of lung function after one day’s work. This study applies analytical observation method and prospective cohort approach. Main participants of this study were the workers of a cotton spinning factory located in Tulangan District, Sidoarjo Regency, East Java Province. Sixteen samples from cotton factory were taken as study group, and twenty three samples from village administrators were taken as control group. Data collection involves several techniques: spirometry, laboratory test, and interview. Results showed that concentration of personal dust has a significant relationship with the decline of FVC, %FVC, FEV1, and %FEV1, with Pearson correlation test showing p0.05. The research concludes that the level of LPS endotoxin was strongly related to the increase of blood serum TNFα and the decline of lung function. Development of more effective preventive measures such as stronger enforcement of worker’s health maintenance regulations and use of personal protective equipment is needed to ensure the best protection of cotton workers’ health.

  12. Men and women differ in inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses to endotoxin but not in the severity of sickness symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Harald; Benson, Sven; Wegner, Alexander; Spreitzer, Ingo; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2016-02-01

    Impaired mood and increased anxiety represent core symptoms of sickness behavior that are thought to be mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, excessive inflammation seems to be implicated in the development of mood/affective disorders. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and are at higher risk to develop depressive and anxiety disorders compared to men, experimental studies on sex differences in sickness symptoms are scarce. Thus, the present study aimed at comparing physiological and psychological responses to endotoxin administration between men and women. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (14 men, 14 women) were intravenously injected with a low dose (0.4 ng/kg) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and plasma concentrations of cytokines and neuroendocrine factors as well as negative state emotions were measured before and until six hours after LPS administration. Women exhibited a more profound pro-inflammatory response with significantly higher increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. In contrast, the LPS-induced increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 was significantly higher in men. The cytokine alterations were accompanied by changes in neuroendocrine factors known to be involved in inflammation regulation. Endotoxin injection induced a significant increase in noradrenaline, without evidence for sex differences. The LPS-induced increase in cortisol was significantly higher in woman, whereas changes in dehydroepiandrosterone were largely comparable. LPS administration also increased secretion of prolactin, but only in women. Despite these profound sex differences in inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses, men and women did not differ in endotoxin-induced alterations in mood and state anxiety or non-specific sickness symptoms. This suggests that compensatory mechanisms exist that counteract the more pronounced inflammatory response in women, preventing an exaggerated sickness

  13. Epitope-Specific Tolerance Modes Differentially Specify Susceptibility to Proteolipid Protein-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with myelin components can elicit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE susceptibility varies between mouse strains, depending on the antigen employed. BL/6 mice are largely resistant to EAE induction with proteolipid protein (PLP, probably a reflection of antigen-specific tolerance. However, the extent and mechanism(s of tolerance to PLP remain unclear. Here, we identified three PLP epitopes in PLP-deficient BL/6 mice. PLP-sufficient mice did not respond against two of these, whereas tolerance was “leaky” for an epitope with weak predicted MHCII binding, and only this epitope was encephalitogenic. In TCR transgenic mice, the “EAE-susceptibility-associated” epitope was “ignored” by specific CD4 T cells, whereas the “resistance-associated” epitope induced clonal deletion and Treg induction in the thymus. Central tolerance was autoimmune regulator dependent and required expression and presentation of PLP by thymic epithelial cells (TECs. TEC-specific ablation of PLP revealed that peripheral tolerance, mediated by dendritic cells through recessive tolerance mechanisms (deletion and anergy, could largely compensate for a lack of central tolerance. However, adoptive EAE was exacerbated in mice lacking PLP in TECs, pointing toward a non-redundant role of the thymus in dominant tolerance to PLP. Our findings reveal multiple layers of tolerance to a central nervous system autoantigen that vary among epitopes and thereby specify disease susceptibility. Understanding how different modalities of tolerance apply to distinct T cell epitopes of a target in autoimmunity has implications for antigen-specific strategies to therapeutically interfere with unwanted immune reactions against self.

  14. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-dependent tryptophan metabolites contribute to tolerance induction during allergen immunotherapy in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, Yousef A.; Piavaux, Benoit J. A.; Gras, Renee; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Hofman, Gerard A.; Bloksma, Nanne; Henricks, Paul A. J.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    Background: The tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in immune suppression and tolerance induction. Objective: We examined (1) whether IDO activity is required during tolerance induction by allergen immunotherapy or for the subsequent suppressive

  15. Anti-CD25 mAb administration prevents spontaneous liver transplant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Carper, K; Liang, Y; Zheng, X X; Kuhr, C S; Reyes, J D; Perkins, D L; Thomson, A W; Perkins, J D

    2006-12-01

    Liver allografts are accepted spontaneously in all mouse strain combinations without immunosuppressive therapy. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely undefined. In this study, we examined the effect of CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) on the induction of mouse liver transplant tolerance. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from B10 (H2b) to C3H (H2k) mice. Depleting rat anti-mouse CD25 mAb (PC61) was given to the donors or recipients (250 microg/d IP) pretransplant or to the recipients postoperatively. At day 5 posttransplantation, both effector T cells (mainly CD8) and CD4+ CD25+ Treg were increased in the liver allografts and host spleens compared to naïve mice. Anti-CD25 mAb administration, either pretransplantation or posttransplantation, reduced the ratio of CD4+ CD25+ Treg to the CD3 T cells of liver grafts and recipient spleens and induced liver allograft acute rejection compared to IgG treatment. Anti-CD25 mAb administration elevated anti-donor T-cell proliferative responses and CTL and NK activities of graft infiltrates and host splenocytes; reduced CTLA4, Foxp3, and IDO mRNA levels; increased IL-10 and IFN-gamma; and decreased IL-4 mRNA levels in the livers or host spleens. The number of apoptotic T cells was reduced significantly in the liver grafts and treated host spleens. Therefore, anti-CD25 mAb administration changed the balance of CD4+ CD25+ Treg to activated T cells of liver graft recipients, preventing liver transplant tolerance. This was associated with enhanced anti-donor immune reactivity, downregulated Treg gene expression, and reduced T cell apoptosis in the grafts and host spleens.

  16. Phenotyping of left and right ventricular function in mouse models of compensated hypertrophy and heart failure with cardiac MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Bastiaan J.; van Assen, Hans C.; van Deel, Elza D.; Niesen, Leonie B. P.; Duncker, Dirk J.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function have an important impact on symptom occurrence, disease progression and exercise tolerance in pressure overload-induced heart failure, but particularly RV functional changes are not well described in the relevant aortic banding mouse model.

  17. Antigen-specific tolerance of human alpha1-antitrypsin induced by helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, V; McCormack, W; Seiler, M; Mane, V; Cela, R; Clarke, C; Rodgers, J R; Lee, B

    2007-12-01

    As efficient and less toxic virus-derived gene therapy vectors are developed, a pressing problem is to avoid immune response to the therapeutic gene product. Secreted therapeutic proteins potentially represent a special problem, as they are readily available to professional antigen-presenting cells throughout the body. Some studies suggest that immunity to serum proteins can be avoided in some mouse strains by using tissue-specific promoters. Here we show that expression of human alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) was nonimmunogenic in the immune-responsive strain C3H/HeJ, when expressed from helper-dependent (HD) vectors using ubiquitous as well as tissue-specific promoters. Coadministration of less immunogenic HD vectors with an immunogenic first-generation vector failed to immunize, suggesting immune suppression rather than immune stealth. Indeed, mice primed with HD vectors were tolerant to immune challenge with hAAT emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Such animals developed high-titer antibodies to coemulsified human serum albumin, showing that tolerance was antigen specific. AAT-specific T cell responses were depressed in tolerized animals, suggesting that tolerance affects both T and B cells. These results are consistent with models of high-dose tolerance of B cells and certain other suppressive mechanisms, and suggest that a high level of expression from HD vectors can be sufficient to induce specific immune tolerance to serum proteins.

  18. Reduced lung cancer mortality in dairy farmers: is endotoxin exposure the key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, G; Marzia, V; Marcer, G

    1996-11-01

    From two areas in the Province of Padova, we selected 2,283 male farmers who worked either in cattle raising or in crop/orchard cultivation. There were 422 cohort deaths from 1970 to 1992. Using the regional population as a reference, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the Poisson distribution. Cancer mortality was significantly reduced among the 1,561 dairy farmers (SMR = 0.65; CI = 0.53-0.81); there was a significant decrease in lung cancer (SMR = 0.49; CI = 0.31-0.74), whereas a significant increase from brain tumors was found (SMR = 2.83; CI = 1.04-6.17). Neither overall cancer mortality nor the lung cancer SMR deviated significantly from unity for the 722 crop/orchard farmers. Among dairy farmers, moreover, lung cancer SMRs showed a significant downward trend across the quartiles of increasing length of work, 0.96 in the first quartile, and 0.48, 0.40, and 0.25 in the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. Moreover, lung cancer risk decreased with increasing farm land area, with SMRs in the quartiles of 0.89, 0.37, 0.41 and 0.19. This decrease cannot be attributed to either a selection (healthy worker effect) or a confounding (lower percentage of smokers) bias. Nor was it due to an artifact introduced by differences in age distribution among the quartiles. Dairy farmers are known to be exposed to higher airborne endotoxin concentrations; reasonably, this cumulative exposure increases further with years of work and area of farm. Endotoxins may have protected the dairy farmers against lung cancer through the tumor necrosis factor produced by alveolar macrophages.

  19. Zingerone Suppresses Liver Inflammation Induced by Antibiotic Mediated Endotoxemia through Down Regulating Hepatic mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peritonitis Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-induced endotoxin release is associated with high mortality rate even when appropriate antibiotics are used for the treatment of severe infections in intensive care units. Since liver is involved in systemic clearance and detoxification of endotoxin hence it becomes a primary target organ for endotoxin mediated inflammation. Currently available anti-inflammatory drugs give rise to serious side effects. Hence, there is an urgent need for safe and effective anti-inflammatory therapy....

  20. Improved detection limits of bacterial endotoxins using new type of planar interdigital sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Syaifudin, A. R Mohd

    2012-10-01

    New types of planar interdigital sensors were fabricated by photolithography and etching techniques on a Silicon/Silicon Dioxide (Si/SiO2) wafer (single side polished). The sensors were then coated with APTES (3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane) a cross linker used to bind Polymyxin B (PmB) molecules on electrodes surface. PmB is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the Gram-positive bacterium-Bacillus which has specific binding properties to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper will discuss the fabrication process, coating and immobilization procedures and analysis of sensors\\' performance based on Impedance Spectroscopy method. The sensor sensitivity was compared to standard ToxinSensor Chromogenic LAL Endotoxin Assay Kit for verification. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. A Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Incorporating Genetically Attenuated Endotoxin Dissociates Inflammation From Immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Dowling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific in vitro culture systems.Methods. OMVs from wild type and inactivated lpxL1 gene mutant N. meningitidis strains were characterized in human neonatal and adult in vitro whole blood assays and dendritic cell arrays. OMVs were benchmarked against licensed vaccines, including Bexsero and whole cell pertussis formulations, with respect to Th-polarizing cytokine and PGE2 production, as well as cell surface activation markers (HLA-DR, CD86, CCR7. OMV immunogenicity was assessed in mice.Results. ΔlpxLI native OMVs demonstrated significantly less cytokine induction in human blood and DCs than Bexsero and most of the other pediatric vaccines (e.g., PedvaxHib, EasyFive, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG tested. Despite a much lower inflammatory profile in vitro than Bexsero, ΔlpxLI native OMVs still had moderate DC maturing ability and induced robust anti-N. meningitidis antibody responses after murine immunization.Conclusions. A meningococcal vaccine comprised of attenuated LPS-based OMVs with a limited inflammatory profile in vitro induces robust antigen-specific immunogenicity in vivo.

  2. Genetic disassociation of autoimmunity and resistance to costimulation blockade-induced transplantation tolerance in nonobese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Todd; Markees, Thomas G; Serreze, David V; Pierce, Melissa A; Marron, Michele P; Wicker, Linda S; Peterson, Laurence B; Shultz, Leonard D; Mordes, John P; Rossini, Aldo A; Greiner, Dale L

    2003-07-01

    Curing type 1 diabetes by islet transplantation requires overcoming both allorejection and recurrent autoimmunity. This has been achieved with systemic immunosuppression, but tolerance induction would be preferable. Most islet allotransplant tolerance induction protocols have been tested in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, and most have failed. Failure has been attributed to the underlying autoimmunity, assuming that autoimmunity and resistance to transplantation tolerance have a common basis. Out of concern that NOD biology could be misleading in this regard, we tested the hypothesis that autoimmunity and resistance to transplantation tolerance in NOD mice are distinct phenotypes. Unexpectedly, we observed that (NOD x C57BL/6)F(1) mice, which have no diabetes, nonetheless resist prolongation of skin allografts by costimulation blockade. Further analyses revealed that the F(1) mice shared the dendritic cell maturation defects and abnormal CD4(+) T cell responses of the NOD but had lost its defects in macrophage maturation and NK cell activity. We conclude that resistance to allograft tolerance induction in the NOD mouse is not a direct consequence of overt autoimmunity and that autoimmunity and resistance to costimulation blockade-induced transplantation tolerance phenotypes in NOD mice can be dissociated genetically. The outcomes of tolerance induction protocols tested in NOD mice may not accurately predict outcomes in human subjects.

  3. Platelet-rich plasma extract prevents pulmonary edema through angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability contributes to life-threatening pathological conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Current treatments for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema rely on low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation, fluid management, and pharmacological use of a single angiogenic or chemical factor with antipermeability activity. However, it is becoming clear that a combination of multiple angiogenic/chemical factors rather than a single factor is required for maintaining stable and functional blood vessels. We have demonstrated that mouse platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract contains abundant angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and multiple other factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), which potentially stabilize vascular integrity. Here, we show that PRP extract increases tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (Tie2) and attenuates disruption of cell-cell junctional integrity induced by inflammatory cytokine in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Systemic injection of PRP extract also increases Tie2 phosphorylation in mouse lung and prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and the consequent decreases in lung compliance and exercise intolerance resulting from endotoxin challenge. Soluble Tie2 receptor, which inhibits Ang-Tie2 signaling, suppresses the ability of PRP extract to inhibit pulmonary edema in mouse lung. These results suggest that PRP extract prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema mainly through Ang-Tie2 signaling, and PRP extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema and various lung diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

  4. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Qiumei; Karrow, Niel A.; Cao Honghe; Rodriguez, Alexander; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Boermans, Herman J.

    2008-01-01

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 μg/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 μg/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 μg/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin

  5. Hydrocortisone at stress-associated concentrations helps maintain human heart rate variability during subsequent endotoxin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassias, Athos J; Guyre, Paul M; Yeager, Mark P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the differential impact of stress-associated vs high pharmacologic concentrations of hydrocortisone pretreatment on heart rate variability (HRV) during a subsequent systemic inflammatory stimulus. Healthy volunteers were randomized to receive placebo (Control) and hydrocortisone at 1.5 μg/kg per minute (STRESS) or at 3.0 μg/kg per minute (PHARM) as a 6-hour infusion. The STRESS dose was chosen to replicate the condition of physiologic adrenal cortical output during acute systemic stress. The PHARM dose was chosen to induce a supraphysiologic concentration of cortisol. The next day, all subjects received 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). Heart rate variability was analyzed with the statistic approximate entropy (ApEn). A lower ApEn correlates with decreased HRV. At the 3-hour nadir, the decrease in ApEn in the STRESS group was significantly less compared to placebo (P statistically different. We also found that the maximal decrease in ApEn preceded maximal increase in heart rate in all groups. The decrease in R-R interval was maximal at 4 hours, whereas the ApEn nadir was 1 hour earlier at 3 hours. Pretreatment with a stress dose of hydrocortisone but not a higher pharmacologic dose maintained a significantly higher ApEn after endotoxin exposure when compared to a placebo. In addition, decreases in ApEn preceded increases in heart rate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential DNA methylation patterns define status epilepticus and epileptic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Delaney, Suzanne F C; Das, Sudipto; Sano, Takanori; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Bryan, Kenneth; Buckley, Patrick G; Stallings, Raymond L; Henshall, David C

    2012-02-01

    Prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) produce pathophysiological changes in the hippocampus that are associated with large-scale, wide-ranging changes in gene expression. Epileptic tolerance is an endogenous program of cell protection that can be activated in the brain by previous exposure to a non-harmful seizure episode before status epilepticus. A major transcriptional feature of tolerance is gene downregulation. Here, through methylation analysis of 34,143 discrete loci representing all annotated CpG islands and promoter regions in the mouse genome, we report the genome-wide DNA methylation changes in the hippocampus after status epilepticus and epileptic tolerance in adult mice. A total of 321 genes showed altered DNA methylation after status epilepticus alone or status epilepticus that followed seizure preconditioning, with >90% of the promoters of these genes undergoing hypomethylation. These profiles included genes not previously associated with epilepsy, such as the polycomb gene Phc2. Differential methylation events generally occurred throughout the genome without bias for a particular chromosomal region, with the exception of a small region of chromosome 4, which was significantly overrepresented with genes hypomethylated after status epilepticus. Surprisingly, only few genes displayed differential hypermethylation in epileptic tolerance. Nevertheless, gene ontology analysis emphasized the majority of differential methylation events between the groups occurred in genes associated with nuclear functions, such as DNA binding and transcriptional regulation. The present study reports select, genome-wide DNA methylation changes after status epilepticus and in epileptic tolerance, which may contribute to regulating the gene expression environment of the seizure-damaged hippocampus.

  7. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES AND COMBINATIONS OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS ON ENDOTOXIN RELEASE FROM GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA - AN INVITRO AND INVIVO STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOFFERHOFF, ASM; NIJLAND, JH; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; MULDER, POM; WEITS, J; BOM, VJJ

    1991-01-01

    Total and free endotoxin release in time from cultures of Escherichia coli by different antibiotics was studied in vitro for 4 h in relation to the antibiotic effect on viable counts and morphological features of the test cultures. The most rapid fall in viable counts was seen after treatment with

  8. Effect of endotoxin preparations (LPS) with irradiation decreased toxicity on the immune response of normal and irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elekes, E; Bertok, L [Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1979-03-01

    A comparison of the immunostimulating effect of parent and radiodetoxified with 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy (5, 10, 15 and 20 Mrad) /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays endotoxin preparations in normal and irradiated rats is given. By increasing the dose of irradiation the immunostimulating effect decreased. The preparations detoxified even with the highest (200 kGy) dose is characterized by a pronounced adjuvant effect in irradiated animals.

  9. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  10. Peptide-assembled graphene oxide as fluorescent turn-on sensor for ultrasensitive Lipopolysaccharide (Endotoxin detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Koon Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin, a major component in the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a very powerful and toxic inflammatory stimulator, resulting in sepsis or septic shock, a significant medical problem affecting about 700 000 patients and causing 250 000 casualties annually in the United States itself. The detection of LPS is highly importance. However, the currently used enzymatic limulus amebocyte lysate assay is highly susceptible to changes in temperature and pH, interference factors, and requires cumbersome sample preparation. A more cost-effective, sensitive and robust detection method is needed. Objective: To design and develop biosensor for LPS detection by assembling a LPS-binding peptide (as LPS receptor with graphene oxide (GO, as fluorescence quencher. Methods: GO was synthesized using a modified Hummer’s method. A synthetic LPS-binding peptide was designed, fluorescent labelled, and assembled with GO in PBS buffer solution. The fluorescence recovery of the peptide-GO was measured upon addition of LPS from Gram negative bacteria: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Samonella Thyphosa, P. aeruginosa, as well as living pathogenic bacteria. Specificity tests were conducted with various biological molecules to evaluate the sensing performance. Results & Discussion: Specific binding of LPS with peptide release the peptides from GO, resulting in fluorescence recovery, allowing ultrasensitive detection of LPS with the limit of detection of 130 pM, the most sensitive synthetic LPS sensors to-date. The LPS sensor is highly selective to LPS than other biological species. Conclusion: We developed a peptide-GO assembled fluorescence sensor for ultrasensitive and specific LPS/endotoxin detection. This is the most sensitive synthetic LPS sensor reported in the world.

  11. Restoring efficiency of hemopoietic cell transplantation in a mouse lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Gino

    1959-10-01

    This research thesis reports the study of possibility of treatments (or restoration) of a mouse which has been submitted to a lethal dose of X rays. More particularly, the author compared the restoring efficiency of bone marrow and fetal liver injected in a mouse which had been lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays. He also studied the functional status of the hemopoietic graft, and the emergence of the secondary disease in mice which had been as well lethally irradiated and then restored by injection of bone marrow and fetal liver. The author then addressed the influence of the induction of immune tolerance of the host with respect to the donor on the survival of a mouse lethally irradiated and restored by homologue bone marrow [fr

  12. Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows Nutrição, microbiota e doenças relacionadas à endotoxina em vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim N. Ametaj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin contribute to development of metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. It is concluded that besides the aforementioned causal agents other compounds generated in the gastrointestinal tract such as lipoteichoic acid or methylated amines might be involved in the etiology of several metabolic diseases.Neste artigo de revisão é apresentado um resumo total do papel que a dieta de alto teor de grãos e baixo teor de forragem tem sobre a composição da microbiota do rúmen e como as mudanças na dieta afetam a liberação de componentes da parede celular bacteriana tóxicos ao hospedeiro. Um destes compostos tóxicos é um lipopolisacarídeo ou endotoxina, um componente da

  13. The efficacy of intravitreal interferon alpha-2b for the treatment of experimental endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarid, Mehrdad; Lashkarizadeh, Hamid; Ashraf, Mohammad J; Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shafiee, Sayed M

    2016-05-01

    To study the efficacy of intravitreal interferon alpha-2b for endotoxin-induced uveitis. A total of 36 rabbits were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (1) received interferon plus balanced-salt solution; (2) received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon; and (3) received LPS plus balanced-salt solution. Intraocular inflammation was evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy (standardization of uveitis nomenclature grading), binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) score, and histopathology. Group 2 showed significantly lower mean (±standard deviation) anterior chamber reaction than Group 3 (3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4) on day 1 postinjection, lower vitreous cells on days 1 through 7 (day 1: 3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4; day 3: 2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4; day 7: 1.9 ± 1.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.7), and lower BIO score on days 1-7 (day 1: 3.3 ± 1.2 vs. 4.4 ± 0.7; day 3: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9; day 7: 2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 3.7 ± 1.2). The protein content of anterior and vitreous aspirates was lower in Group 2 than 3 (1618.5 ± 411.4 vs. 2567.3 ± 330.8 and 2157.0 ± 283.3 vs. 3204.6 ± 259.5, respectively). Intravitreal interferon alpha-2b was effective in controlling endotoxin-induced uveitis.

  14. Possible in vivo tolerance of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil to low-grade exercise-induced endotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the question of whether translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the blood could be involved in the process of exercise-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN activation, 12 healthy male subjects who took part in a sprint triathlon (1.5 km river swim, 40 km bicycle race, 10 km road race were studied. While there was no detectable amount of endotoxin in the blood samples drawn at rest, exercise was followed by the appearance of circulating endotoxin molecules at the end of competition in four subjects, and after one and 24 h recovery in three and seven athletes, respectively. The concentrations of plasma granulocyte myeloperoxidase ([MPO], were significantly higher immediately after exercise and one hour later than baseline values (P<0.001. This variable returned to pre-race levels the day after exercise, despite the presence of detectable amounts of LPS, at that time, in seven athletes. The absence of significant correlation (r=0.26;P=0.383 and temporal association between [MPO]and plasma endotoxin levels led us to conclude that endotoxaemia was not involved in the process of exercise-induced PMN degranulation observed in our subjects.

  15. Molecular programs induced by heat acclimation confer neuroprotection against TBI and hypoxic insults via cross-tolerance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eHorowitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection following prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures (heat acclimation HA develops via altered molecular programs such as cross-tolerance (Heat Acclimation -Neuroprotection Cross-Tolerance -HANCT. The mechanisms underlying cross-tolerance depend on enhanced on-demand protective pathways evolving during acclimation. The protection achieved is long lasting and limits the need for de novo recruitment of cytoprotective pathways upon exposure to novel stressors. Using mouse and rat acclimated phenotypes, we will focus on the impact of heat acclimation on Angiotensin II-AT2 receptors in neurogenesis and on HIF-1 as key mediators in spontaneous recovery and HANCT after traumatic brain injury (TBI. The neuroprotective consequences of heat acclimation on NMDA and AMPA receptors will be discussed using the global hypoxia model. A behavioral-molecular link will be crystallized. The differences between HANCT and consensus preconditioning will be reviewed.

  16. Treatments with antibiotics or with Anti-Endotoxin serum before calving: effects on milk yield and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Librandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An inflammatory like condition is known to be frequent around calving (Cappa et al., 1989 and could be promoted by the release of cytokines (i.e. IL-1, TNFα etc. by immune cells following to various stimuli (i.e. trauma, infection, virus, endotoxin, digestive and metabolic disorders etc.. Cytokines have local and systemic effects and namely increase body temperature and decrease feed intake (Elsasser et al., 1997. The anorexic and other effects of cytokines could cause serious consequences around calving, i.e. on liver lipid metabolism and reproduction.......

  17. Biodistribution studies of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-directed monoclonal antibodies in the EpCAM-transgenic mouse tumor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosterink, Jos G. W.; McLaughlin, Pamela M. J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Hendrikse, Harry H.; Van Zanten, Jacoba; Van Garderen, Evert; Harmsen, Martin C.; De Leij, Lou F. M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The human pancarcinoma-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (EGP-2, CO17-1A) is a well-known target for carcinoma-directed immunotherapy. Mouse-derived mAbs directed to EpCAM have been used to treat colon carcinoma patients showing well-tolerable toxic side effects but limited

  18. Effect of the dilution factor on {sup 18}FDG and Na{sup 18}F samples for bacterial endotoxin test using PTS (portable test system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Costa, Flavia M.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: mbs@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    {sup 18}FDG and Na{sup 18}F are radiopharmaceuticals produced as sterile solutions suitable for intravenous administration, which must contain no more than 175 EV/V. The most commonly used approach to detect endotoxins is the gelclot technique that requires 60 minutes for results. For radiopharmaceuticals containing short-life radionuclides, such as {sup 18}F, there is an increasing interest for faster quality control methods. FDA licensed the Endosafe, PTS, a kinetic chromogenic endotoxin detection system that takes about 15 minutes for results. As other techniques, PTS test is susceptible to interferences which can be solved by product dilution. The aim of this study was to establish the best dilution of {sup 18}FDG and Na{sup 18}F for PTS analysis. Two different dilution factors for {sup 18}FDG and 1:10 for Na{sup 18}F were essayed: 1:10 and 1:100. {sup 18}FDG and Na{sup 18} solutions were prepared by the addition of LAL reagent water. Considering the assay acceptance criteria, the best dilution factor was 1:100 for {sup 18}FDG and 1:10 for Na{sup 18}F. The recovery of the product positive control was 98-12% for {sup 18}FDG 1:100 and 104-120% for Na{sup 18}F 1:10, which were, in both cases, within the specification (50-200%) and very close to 100%. Results obtained with these dilution studies were important to establish the most appropriate and non-interfering dilution factor for {sup 18}FDG and Na{sup 18}F routine endotoxin test. (author)

  19. A practical approach for the validation of sterility, endotoxin and potency testing of bone marrow mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration in compliance with good manufacturing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gola Mauro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main scope of the EU and FDA regulations is to establish a classification criterion for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP. Regulations require that ATMPs must be prepared under good manufacturing practice (GMP. We have validated a commercial system for the determination of bacterial endotoxins in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.14, the sterility testing in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.1 and a potency assay in an ATMP constituted of mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration. Methods For the potency assay, cells were placed in the upper part of a modified Boyden chamber containing Endocult Basal Medium with supplements and transmigrated cells were scored. The invasion index was expressed as the ratio between the numbers of invading cells relative to cell migration through a control insert membrane. For endotoxins, we used a commercially available system based on the kinetic chromogenic LAL-test. Validation of sterility was performed by direct inoculation of TSB and FTM media with the cell product following Eu Ph 2.6.1 guideline. Results and discussion The calculated MVD and endotoxin limit were 780× and 39 EU/ml respectively. The 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions were selected for the validation. For sterility, all the FTM cultures were positive after 3 days. For TSB cultures, Mycetes and B. subtilis were positive after 5 and 3 days respectively. The detection limit was 1-10 colonies. A total of four invasion assay were performed: the calculated invasion index was 28.89 ± 16.82% (mean ± SD. Conclusion We have validated a strategy for endotoxin, sterility and potency testing in an ATMP used in cardiac regeneration. Unlike pharmaceutical products, many stem-cell-based products may originate in hospitals where personnel are unfamiliar with the applicable regulations. As new ATMPs are developed, the regulatory framework is likely to evolve. Meanwhile, existing regulations provide an appropriate structure for

  20. A practical approach for the validation of sterility, endotoxin and potency testing of bone marrow mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration in compliance with good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncin, Sabrina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Astori, Giuseppe; Soldati, Gianni; Gola, Mauro; Sürder, Daniel; Moccetti, Tiziano

    2009-09-08

    Main scope of the EU and FDA regulations is to establish a classification criterion for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). Regulations require that ATMPs must be prepared under good manufacturing practice (GMP). We have validated a commercial system for the determination of bacterial endotoxins in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.14, the sterility testing in compliance with EU Pharmacopoeia 2.6.1 and a potency assay in an ATMP constituted of mononucleated cells used in cardiac regeneration. For the potency assay, cells were placed in the upper part of a modified Boyden chamber containing Endocult Basal Medium with supplements and transmigrated cells were scored. The invasion index was expressed as the ratio between the numbers of invading cells relative to cell migration through a control insert membrane. For endotoxins, we used a commercially available system based on the kinetic chromogenic LAL-test. Validation of sterility was performed by direct inoculation of TSB and FTM media with the cell product following Eu Ph 2.6.1 guideline. The calculated MVD and endotoxin limit were 780x and 39 EU/ml respectively. The 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions were selected for the validation. For sterility, all the FTM cultures were positive after 3 days. For TSB cultures, Mycetes and B. subtilis were positive after 5 and 3 days respectively. The detection limit was 1-10 colonies. A total of four invasion assay were performed: the calculated invasion index was 28.89 +/- 16.82% (mean +/- SD). We have validated a strategy for endotoxin, sterility and potency testing in an ATMP used in cardiac regeneration. Unlike pharmaceutical products, many stem-cell-based products may originate in hospitals where personnel are unfamiliar with the applicable regulations. As new ATMPs are developed, the regulatory framework is likely to evolve. Meanwhile, existing regulations provide an appropriate structure for ensuring the safety and efficacy of the next generation of ATMPs. Personnel

  1. Inhibition of IRAK-4 activity for rescuing endotoxin LPS-induced septic mortality in mice by lonicerae flos extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Roh, Eunmiri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Il [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nam Song [Pharmaceutical R and D Center, Huons Co., Ltd., Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Narae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate, Phase I for sepsis treatment. •Here, HS-23 or its major constituents rescued LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. •As a mechanism, they directly inhibited IRAK-4-catalyzed kinase activity. •Thus, they suppressed LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes. -- Abstract: Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4.

  2. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  3. Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia — Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio = 3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR = 3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR = 2.66), headache (OR = 2.13) and tiredness (OR = 2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p < 0.001) and rhinitis (p = 0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p < 0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p = 0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p = 0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p = 0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in

  4. Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia — Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbäck, Dan, E-mail: dan.norback@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hashim, Jamal Hisham [United Nations University—International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Markowicz, Pawel [Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Cai, Gui-Hong [Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hashim, Zailina [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ali, Faridah [Primary Care Unit, Johor State Health Department, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Larsson, Lennart [Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio = 3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR = 3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR = 2.66), headache (OR = 2.13) and tiredness (OR = 2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p < 0.001) and rhinitis (p = 0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p < 0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p = 0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p = 0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p = 0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in

  5. Regulation of mRNA translation influences hypoxia tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koritzinsky, M.; Wouters, B.G.; Koumenis, C.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia is a heterogenous but common characteristic of human tumours and poor oxygenation is associated with poor prognosis. We believe that the presence of viable hypoxic tumor cells reflects in part an adaptation and tolerance of these cells to oxygen deficiency. Since oxidative phosphorylation is compromized during hypoxia, adaptation may involve both the upregulation of glycolysis as well as downregulation of energy consumption. mRNA translation is one of the most energy costly cellular processes, and we and others have shown that global mRNA translation is rapidly inhibited during hypoxia. However, some mRNAs, including those coding for HIF-1 α and VEGF, remain efficiently translated during hypoxia. Clearly, the mechanisms responsible for the overall inhibition of translation during hypoxia does not compromize the translation of certain hypoxia-induced mRNA species. We therefore hypothesize that the inhibition of mRNA translation serves to promote hypoxia tolerance in two ways: i) through conservation of energy and ii) through differential gene expression involved in hypoxia adaptation. We have recently identified two pathways that are responsible for the global inhibition of translation during hypoxia. The phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 α by the ER resident kinase PERK results in down-regulation of protein synthesis shortly after the onset of hypoxia. In addition, the initiation complex eIF4F is disrupted during long lasting hypoxic conditions. The identification of the molecular pathways responsible for the inhibition of overall translation during hypoxia has rendered it possible to investigate their importance for hypoxia tolerance. We have found that mouse embryo fibroblasts that are knockout for PERK and therefore not able to inhibit protein synthesis efficiently during oxygen deficiency are significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than their wildtype counterparts. We are currently also investigating the functional significance

  6. Protective effect of porphyran isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Isaka, Shogo; Ueno, Mikinori; Jin, Jun-O; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Porphyran, a sulfated polysaccharide, isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) (dc-porphyran) and one fraction (F1) purified from dc-porphyran by DEAE-chromatography showed the protective effects on LPS-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with dc-porphyran or F1 (100mg/kg) 60min prior to i.p. injection of LPS (30mg/kg) completely protected mice from LPS lethality. At 10mg/kg concentration, F1 demonstrated more protection than dc-porphyran. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge of LPS, even at 20mg/kg, was more lethal than i.p. administration; i.v. injection of F1 (100mg/kg) with LPS significantly improved the survival rate. However, i.v. dc-porphyran (100mg/kg) produced an even lower survival rate than that of LPS alone. We examined pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and TNF-α in serum. F1 significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Additionally, F1 significantly decreased the malondialdehyde level in the liver, a marker of oxidative stress, while dc-porphyran had almost no effect. Furthermore, F1 significantly decreased the production of TNF-α and NO in peritoneal exudate cells harvested from LPS-challenged mice, while dc-porphyran treatment showed a lesser decrease. Our results suggest that porphyran isolated from discolored nori, especially F1, is capable of suppressing LPS-induced endotoxin shock in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The efficacy of intravitreal interferon alpha-2b for the treatment of experimental endotoxin-induced uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Afarid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the efficacy of intravitreal interferon alpha-2b for endotoxin-induced uveitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 rabbits were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (1 received interferon plus balanced-salt solution; (2 received lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus interferon; and (3 received LPS plus balanced-salt solution. Intraocular inflammation was evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy (standardization of uveitis nomenclature grading, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO score, and histopathology. Results: Group 2 showed significantly lower mean (±standard deviation anterior chamber reaction than Group 3 (3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 on day 1 postinjection, lower vitreous cells on days 1 through 7 (day 1: 3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4; day 3: 2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4; day 7: 1.9 ± 1.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.7, and lower BIO score on days 1-7 (day 1: 3.3 ± 1.2 vs. 4.4 ± 0.7; day 3: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9; day 7: 2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 3.7 ± 1.2. The protein content of anterior and vitreous aspirates was lower in Group 2 than 3 (1618.5 ± 411.4 vs. 2567.3 ± 330.8 and 2157.0 ± 283.3 vs. 3204.6 ± 259.5, respectively. Conclusion: Intravitreal interferon alpha-2b was effective in controlling endotoxin-induced uveitis.

  8. Biphasic Effect of Curcumin on Morphine Tolerance: A Preliminary Evidence from Cytokine/Chemokine Protein Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-An Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on morphine tolerance and the corresponding cytokine/chemokine changes. Male ICR mice were made tolerant to morphine by daily subcutaneous injection for 7 days. Intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, low-dose or high-dose curcumin were administered 15 min after morphine injection, either acutely or chronically for 7 days to test the effect of curcumin on morphine-induced antinociception and development of morphine tolerance. On day 8, cumulative dose-response curves were generated and the 50% of maximal analgesic dose values were calculated and compared among groups. Corresponding set of mice were used for analyzing the cytokine responses by antibody-based cytokine protein array. Acute, high-dose curcumin enhanced morphine-induced antinociception. While morphine tolerance was attenuated by administration of low-dose curcumin following morphine injections for 7 days, it was aggravated by chronic high-dose curcumin following morphine injection, suggesting a biphasic effect of curcumin on morphine-induced tolerance. Of the 96 cytokine/chemokines analyzed by mouse cytokine protein array, 14 cytokines exhibited significant changes after the different 7-day treatments. Mechanisms for the modulatory effects of low-dose and high-dose curcumin on morphine tolerance were discussed. Even though curcumin itself is a neuroprotectant and low doses of the compound serve to attenuate morphine tolerance, high-doses of curcumin might cause neurotoxicity and aggravate morphine tolerance by inhibiting the expression of antiapoptotic cytokines and neuroprotective factors. Our results indicate that the effect of curcumin on morphine tolerance may be biphasic, and therefore curcumin should be used cautiously.

  9. In vitro and mouse in vivo characterization of the potent free fatty acid 1 receptor agonist TUG-469

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, C; Hamacher, A; Partke, H J

    2013-01-01

    in vitro potency of TUG-469 compared to the reference FFA1 agonist GW9508 and to prove in vivo activity in a pre-diabetic mouse model. The in vitro pharmacology of TUG-469 was studied using Ca(2+)-, cAMP-, and impedance-based assays at recombinant FFA1 and free fatty acid receptor 4, formerly known as GPR......120 (FFA4) expressing 1321N1 cells and the rat insulinoma cell line INS-1. Furthermore, we investigated the systemic effect of TUG-469 on glucose tolerance in pre-diabetic New Zealand obese (NZO) mice performing a glucose tolerance test after intraperitoneal administration of 5 mg/kg TUG-469...... significantly improved glucose tolerance in pre-diabetic NZO mice. TUG-469 turned out as a promising candidate for further drug development of FFA1 agonists for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus....

  10. Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ruisong; DiMarco, Diana M; Putt, Kelley K; Martin, Derek A; Gu, Qinlei; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; White, Heather M; Scarlett, Cameron O; Bruno, Richard S; Bolling, Bradley W

    2017-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5-27 and 30-40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.

  11. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  12. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  13. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Koppolu, Bhanu prasanth; Smith, Sean G.; Zaharoff, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA), viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells) and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application. PMID:27187416

  14. Functional analysis of limb transcriptional enhancers in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Mark J; Wang, Ying; Deng, Jian Min; Swinton, Paul G; Wei, Caimiao; Guindani, Michele; Schwartz, Robert J; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are genomic sequences bound by transcription factors that act together with basal transcriptional machinery to regulate gene transcription. Several high-throughput methods have generated large datasets of tissue-specific enhancer sequences with putative roles in developmental processes. However, few enhancers have been deleted from the genome to determine their roles in development. To understand the roles of two enhancers active in the mouse embryonic limb bud we deleted them from the genome. Although the genes regulated by these enhancers are unknown, they were selected because they were identified in a screen for putative limb bud-specific enhancers associated with p300, an acetyltransferase that participates in protein complexes that promote active transcription, and because the orthologous human enhancers (H1442 and H280) drive distinct lacZ expression patterns in limb buds of embryonic day (E) 11.5 transgenic mice. We show that the orthologous mouse sequences, M1442 and M280, regulate dynamic expression in the developing limb. Although significant transcriptional differences in enhancer-proximal genes in embryonic limb buds accompany the deletion of M1442 and M280 no gross limb malformations during embryonic development were observed, demonstrating that M1442 and M280 are not required for mouse limb development. However, M280 is required for the development and/or maintenance of body size; M280 mice are significantly smaller than controls. M280 also harbors an "ultraconserved" sequence that is identical between human, rat, and mouse. This is the first report of a phenotype resulting from the deletion of an ultraconserved element. These studies highlight the importance of determining enhancer regulatory function by experiments that manipulate them in situ and suggest that some of an enhancer's regulatory capacities may be developmentally tolerated rather than developmentally required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conjugated primary bile salts reduce permeability of endotoxin through bacteria-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells and synergize with lecithin in suppression of inflammatory cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schaeckeler, Simone; Moser, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    : The effect of CPBS (0.5 mM and 1.5 mM), phosphatidylcholine(0.38 mM), and human bile (0.5% vol/vol) on the barrier function was assessed by the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance, by endotoxin permeability through the intestinal epithelial cell layer, and by basolateral cytokine enzyme...

  16. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvobrata Majumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute (Corchorus sp. is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4. The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee, hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber.

  17. EIAV-based retinal gene therapy in the shaker1 mouse model for usher syndrome type 1B: development of UshStat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Zallocchi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome type 1B is a combined deaf-blindness condition caused by mutations in the MYO7A gene. Loss of functional myosin VIIa in the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE and/or photoreceptors leads to blindness. We evaluated the impact of subretinally delivered UshStat, a recombinant EIAV-based lentiviral vector expressing human MYO7A, on photoreceptor function in the shaker1 mouse model for Usher type 1B that lacks a functional Myo7A gene. Subretinal injections of EIAV-CMV-GFP, EIAV-RK-GFP (photoreceptor specific, EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat or EIAV-CMV-Null (control vectors were performed in shaker1 mice. GFP and myosin VIIa expression was evaluated histologically. Photoreceptor function in EIAV-CMV-MYO7A treated eyes was determined by evaluating α-transducin translocation in photoreceptors in response to low light intensity levels, and protection from light induced photoreceptor degeneration was measured. The safety and tolerability of subretinally delivered UshStat was evaluated in macaques. Expression of GFP and myosin VIIa was confirmed in the RPE and photoreceptors in shaker1 mice following subretinal delivery of the EIAV-CMV-GFP/MYO7A vectors. The EIAV-CMV-MYO7A vector protected the shaker1 mouse photoreceptors from acute and chronic intensity light damage, indicated by a significant reduction in photoreceptor cell loss, and restoration of the α-transducin translocation threshold in the photoreceptors. Safety studies in the macaques demonstrated that subretinal delivery of UshStat is safe and well-tolerated. Subretinal delivery of EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat rescues photoreceptor phenotypes in the shaker1 mouse. In addition, subretinally delivered UshStat is safe and well-tolerated in macaque safety studies These data support the clinical development of UshStat to treat Usher type 1B syndrome.

  18. EIAV-based retinal gene therapy in the shaker1 mouse model for usher syndrome type 1B: development of UshStat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Binley, Katie; Lad, Yatish; Ellis, Scott; Widdowson, Peter; Iqball, Sharifah; Scripps, Vicky; Kelleher, Michelle; Loader, Julie; Miskin, James; Peng, You-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min; Cheung, Linda; Delimont, Duane; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1B is a combined deaf-blindness condition caused by mutations in the MYO7A gene. Loss of functional myosin VIIa in the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and/or photoreceptors leads to blindness. We evaluated the impact of subretinally delivered UshStat, a recombinant EIAV-based lentiviral vector expressing human MYO7A, on photoreceptor function in the shaker1 mouse model for Usher type 1B that lacks a functional Myo7A gene. Subretinal injections of EIAV-CMV-GFP, EIAV-RK-GFP (photoreceptor specific), EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) or EIAV-CMV-Null (control) vectors were performed in shaker1 mice. GFP and myosin VIIa expression was evaluated histologically. Photoreceptor function in EIAV-CMV-MYO7A treated eyes was determined by evaluating α-transducin translocation in photoreceptors in response to low light intensity levels, and protection from light induced photoreceptor degeneration was measured. The safety and tolerability of subretinally delivered UshStat was evaluated in macaques. Expression of GFP and myosin VIIa was confirmed in the RPE and photoreceptors in shaker1 mice following subretinal delivery of the EIAV-CMV-GFP/MYO7A vectors. The EIAV-CMV-MYO7A vector protected the shaker1 mouse photoreceptors from acute and chronic intensity light damage, indicated by a significant reduction in photoreceptor cell loss, and restoration of the α-transducin translocation threshold in the photoreceptors. Safety studies in the macaques demonstrated that subretinal delivery of UshStat is safe and well-tolerated. Subretinal delivery of EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) rescues photoreceptor phenotypes in the shaker1 mouse. In addition, subretinally delivered UshStat is safe and well-tolerated in macaque safety studies These data support the clinical development of UshStat to treat Usher type 1B syndrome.

  19. Transepithelial activation of human leukocytes by probiotics and commensal bacteria: role of Enterobacteriaceae-type endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäuerlein, A.; Ackermann, S.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to clarify whether commercially available probiotics induce greater trans-epithelial activation of human leukocytes than do commensal, food-derived and pathogenic bacteria and to identify the compounds responsible for this activation. Eleven different bacterial...... Escherichia coli K12, probiotic E. coli Nissle, EPEC) induced basolateral production of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL 6, 8, and 10. Gram-positive probiotics (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.) had virtually no effect. In addition, commensals (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacteroides vulgatus) and food...... (polymyxin, colistin) completely abrogated transepithelial activation of leukocytes. Enterobacteriaceae-type endotoxin is a crucial factor in transepithelial stimulation of leukocytes, regardless of whether it is produced by probiotics or other bacteria. Hence, transepithelial stimulation ofleukocytes...

  20. Production of a mouse strain with impaired glucose tolerance by systemic heterozygous knockout of the glucokinase gene and its feasibility as a prediabetes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAITO, Mikako; KANEDA, Asako; SUGIYAMA, Tae; IIDA, Ryousuke; OTOKUNI, Keiko; KABURAGI, Misako; MATSUOKA, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Exon II of glucokinase (Gk) was deleted to produce a systemic heterozygous Gk knockout (Gk+/−) mouse. The relative expression levels of Gk in the heart, lung, liver, stomach, and pancreas in Gk+/− mice ranged from 0.41–0.68 versus that in wild (Gk+/+) mice. On the other hand, its expression levels in the brain, adipose tissue, and muscle ranged from 0.95–1.03, and its expression levels in the spleen and kidney were nearly zero. Gk knockout caused no remarkable off-target effect on the expression of 7 diabetes causing genes (Shp, Hnf1a, Hnf1b, Irs1, Irs2, Kir6.2, and Pdx1) in 10 organs. The glucose tolerance test was conducted to determine the blood glucose concentrations just after fasting for 24 h (FBG) and at 2 h after high-glucose application (GTT2h). The FBG-GTT2h plots obtained with the wild strain fed the control diet (CD), Gk+/− strain fed the CD, and Gk+/− strain fed the HFD were distributed in separate areas in the FBG-GTT2h diagram. The respective areas could be defined as the normal state, prediabetes state, and diabetes state, respectively. Based on the results, the criteria for prediabetes could be defined for the Gk+/− strain developed in this study. PMID:25765873

  1. Ear leaf photosynthesis and related parameters of transgenic and non-GMO maize hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) has undergone transformation by using transgenic technology to include d-endotoxins for insect control and tolerance for the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate . Maize hybrids are being grown with multiple transgenic traits into their genotype (stacked-gene). Limited...

  2. IL-10 and IL-27 producing dendritic cells capable of enhancing IL-10 production of T cells are induced in oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Aya; Tanabe, Kosuke; Tsuji, Noriko M; Sato, Ryuichiro; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2009-06-30

    Oral tolerance is a key feature of intestinal immunity, generating systemic tolerance to ingested antigens (Ag). Dendritic cells (DC) have been revealed as important immune regulators, however, the precise role of DC in oral tolerance induction remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of DC in spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and Peyer's patch (PP) after oral Ag administration in a TCR-transgenic mouse model. DC from PP and MLN of tolerized mice induced IL-10 production but not Foxp3 expression in cocultured T cells. IL-10 production was markedly increased after 5-7-day Ag administration especially in PP DC. On the other hand, IL-27 production was increased after 2-5-day Ag administration. CD11b(+) DC, which increased after ingestion of Ag, prominently expressed IL-10 and IL-27 compared with CD11b(-) DC. These results suggest that IL-10 and IL-27 producing DC are increased by interaction with antigen specific T cells in PP, and these DC act as an inducer of IL-10 producing T cells in oral tolerance.

  3. Effect of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Eritoran on Retinochoroidal Inflammatory Damage in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzahan Ekici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated the effect of eritoran, a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, on retinochoroidal inflammatory damage in an endotoxin-induced inflammatory rat model. Methods. Endotoxin-induced inflammatory model was obtained by intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Group 1 had control rats; in groups 2-3 LPS and 0.5 mg/kg sterile saline were injected; and in groups 4-5 LPS and 0.5 mg/kg eritoran were injected. Blood samples were taken and eyes were enucleated after 12 hours (h (groups 2 and 4 or 24 hours (Groups 3 and 5. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the serum and retinochoroidal tissue and nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB levels in retinochoroidal tissue were determined. Histopathological examination was performed and retinochoroidal changes were scored. Results. Eritoran treatment resulted in lower levels of TNF-α, MDA, and NFκB after 12 h which became significant after 24 h. Serum TNF-α and retinochoroidal tissue NFκB levels were similar to control animals at the 24th h of the study. Eritoran significantly reversed histopathological damage after 24 h. Conclusions. Eritoran treatment resulted in less inflammatory damage in terms of serum and retinochoroidal tissue parameters.

  4. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  5. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  6. A matrix of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol alone, primes human monocytes/macrophages for excessive endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Role in atherosclerotic inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Christensen, Ole; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to small amounts of bacterial endotoxin, matrices of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol itself, primed human monocytes/macrophages to a highly augmented (>10-fold) production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α. Priming also sensitized the cells, as 10- to 100-fold lower...

  7. Professor Krystyna Kotełko and her contribution to the study of Proteus endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różalski, Antoni W

    2018-04-01

    Professor Krystyna Kotełko was working as a microbiologist at the University of Łódź (Poland). Her main object of study was the LPS (endotoxin) of opportunistic urinary pathogens from the genus Proteus. She demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of uronic acids and amino acids, as well as two heptoses (L- glycero-D- manno-heptose and D- glycero-D- manno-heptose) and hexosamines in Proteus LPS, and developed a classification scheme of the Proteus LPS into chemotypes. Prof Kotełko also initiated studies on the chemical structure of Proteus O-specific polysaccharide and investigations on the serological specificity of this part of LPS, as well its core region. She also analysed the virulence factors of these bacteria, such as haemolysin and invasiveness.

  8. Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia--Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-03-01

    This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio=3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR=3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR=2.66), headache (OR=2.13) and tiredness (OR=2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p<0.001) and rhinitis (p=0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p<0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p=0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p=0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p=0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p=0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in symptoms among the students

  9. Effects of morphine on the expression of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in a rabbit model of endotoxin-induced experimental uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethye P. Ortencio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of 1% morphine instillation on clinical parameters, aqueous humor turbidity, and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and myeloperoxidase (MPO in rabbits with endotoxin-induced experimental uveitis. Methods: Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6 each: control (CG, morphine (MG, naloxone (NG, and morphine-naloxone (MNG groups. Under dissociative anesthesia, 0.1 mL of solution containing 0.2 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS endotoxin from the Salmonella typhimurium cell wall was injected in the vitreous chamber. Clinical evaluations (conjunctical hyperemia, chemosis blepharospasm, and ocular discharge and laser flaremetry were performed before (baseline, and 10 and 20 hours after induction of uveitis. Rabbits were subsequently euthanized and eyes were enucleated to quantify expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 beta, PGE2, and MPO. Results: No significant differences in clinical parameters and flare values were observed between the study groups. TNF-α and IL-1 beta levels increased significantly in the CG, MG, NG, and MNG groups compared to baseline (P0.05. Conclusions: Morphine has no effect on clinical parameters, flare, or expression levels of inflammatory mediators in a rabbit model of uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of LPS.

  10. Proceedings of the Meeting of Australian Research Workers on Malaria (1st) Held at Ingleburn, 22-24 February 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    9. Peavy, D.L., Baughn, R.E., and Musher , D.M. (1979) Effect of BCG infection on the susceptibility of mouse macrophages to endotoxin. Infect. Immun...SNEWCASTLE NSW 308 ophone (049) 68 579 i Gretel Lamont see under C. Kidsoni . David J. Lee Professor oi Entomology (Retired) i78 Galston Road li

  11. Mouse allergen exposure and immunologic responses: IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG and IgG4 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Smith, Abigail L.; Eggleston, Peyton A.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is evidence that contact with mice is associated with IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific antibody responses, the exposure-response relationships remain unclear. To determine whether IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG (mIgG) and mIgG4 levels

  12. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Feng [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Liu, Yuan [Department of Ophthalmology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China); Zhao, Feng, E-mail: taixingzhaofeng163@163.com [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Taixing People" ' s Hospital, Taixing, Jiangsu Province, 225400 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  13. LYATK1 potently inhibits LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiujuan; Kong, Wei; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed monocytes/macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could lead to endotoxin shock. TGF-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) activation is involved in the process. In the current study, we studied the potential effect of a selective TAK1 inhibitor, LYTAK1, on LPS-stimulated response both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression and production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LYTAK1's activity was almost nullified with TAK1 shRNA-knockdown. Meanwhile, in both primary mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production was again attenuated with LYTAK1 co-treatment. Molecularly, LYTAK1 dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TAK1-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk, Jnk and p38) activation in RAW 264.7 cells, mouse BMDMs and human PBMCs. In vivo, oral administration of LYTAK1 inhibited LPS-induced activation of TAK1-NFκB-p38 in ex-vivo cultured PBMCs, and cytokine production and endotoxin shock in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin shock probably through blocking TAK1-regulated signalings. - Highlights: • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. • The effect by LYTAK1 is more potent than other known TAK1 inhibitors. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in primary macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 inhibits LPS-induced TAK1-NFκB and MAPK activation in macrophages/monocytes. • LYTAK1 gavage inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock and cytokine production in mice.

  14. Genomic Locus Modulating IOP in the BXD RI Mouse Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca King

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is the primary risk factor for developing glaucoma, yet little is known about the contribution of genomic background to IOP regulation. The present study leverages an array of systems genetics tools to study genomic factors modulating normal IOP in the mouse. The BXD recombinant inbred (RI strain set was used to identify genomic loci modulating IOP. We measured the IOP in a total of 506 eyes from 38 different strains. Strain averages were subjected to conventional quantitative trait analysis by means of composite interval mapping. Candidate genes were defined, and immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR (qPCR were used for validation. Of the 38 BXD strains examined the mean IOP ranged from a low of 13.2mmHg to a high of 17.1mmHg. The means for each strain were used to calculate a genome wide interval map. One significant quantitative trait locus (QTL was found on Chr.8 (96 to 103 Mb. Within this 7 Mb region only 4 annotated genes were found: Gm15679, Cdh8, Cdh11 and Gm8730. Only two genes (Cdh8 and Cdh11 were candidates for modulating IOP based on the presence of non-synonymous SNPs. Further examination using SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant analysis revealed that the SNPs in Cdh8 (Cadherin 8 were predicted to not change protein function; while the SNPs in Cdh11 (Cadherin 11 would not be tolerated, affecting protein function. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that CDH11 is expressed in the trabecular meshwork of the mouse. We have examined the genomic regulation of IOP in the BXD RI strain set and found one significant QTL on Chr. 8. Within this QTL, there is one good candidate gene, Cdh11.

  15. Transepithelial activation of human leukocytes by probiotics and commensal bacteria: Role of Enterobacteriaceae-type endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeuerlein, Annette; Ackermann, Stefanie; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to clarify whether commercially available probiotics induce greater trans-epithelial activation of human leukocytes than do commensal, food-derived and pathogenic bacteria and to identify the compounds responsible for this activation. Eleven different bacterial...... Escherichia coli K12, probiotic E. coli Nissle, EPEC) induced basolateral production of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL 6, 8, and 10. Gram-positive probiotics (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.) had virtually no effect. In addition, commensals (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacteroides vulgatus) and food...... (polymyxin, colistin) completely abrogated transepithelial activation of leukocytes. Enterobacteriaceae-type endotoxin is a crucial factor in transepithelial stimulation of leukocytes, regardless of whether it is produced by probiotics or other bacteria. Hence, transepithelial stimulation of leukocytes...

  16. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines but Not Endotoxin-Related Parameters Associate with Disease Severity in Patients with NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannie du Plessis

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPS levels have been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. In order to determine if LPS levels are elevated in patients with NASH compared to patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL and, if elevated LPS levels correlated with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD we compared LPS, markers of LPS bioactivity and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. At the time of surgery a liver biopsy was taken allowing the stratification into well-delineated subgroups including: No NAFL/NAFL; NASH; NASH with fibrosis and NASH cirrhotics, using the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS. Anthropometric data and plasma were collected for assessment of LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, soluble CD14 (sCD14, intestinal-type fatty acid binding protein (iFABP, Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2, 4 and a panel of cytokines/chemokines. Similar analysis was performed on plasma from a cohort of healthy controls. Our data indicate elevated levels of LPS, LBP, sCD14, iFABP and TLR2,4 in obese patients compared to healthy controls, however, these parameters remained unaltered within patients with limited liver disease (NAFL compared to NASH/NASH with fibrosis subgroups. Hierarchic cluster analysis using endotoxin-related parameters failed to discriminate between lean controls, NAFLD. While similar cluster analysis implementing inflammation-related parameters clearly distinguished lean controls, NALFD subgroups and NASH cirrhotics. In addition, LPS levels was not associated with disease severity while TNFα, IL8, and CCL3 featured a clear correlation with transaminase levels and the histological severity of NALFD. In conclusion our data indicate a stronger correlation for circulating inflammatory- rather than endotoxin-related parameters in progression of NAFLD and highlights the need

  17. The ocular endothelin system: a novel target for the treatment of endotoxin-induced uveitis with bosentan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Sadullah; Halici, Zekai; Atmaca, Hasan Tarik; Yayla, Muhammed; Yildirim, Kenan; Ekinci, Metin; Akpinar, Erol; Altuner, Durdu; Cakici, Ozgur; Bayraktutan, Zafer

    2014-05-15

    We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of bosentan and dexamethasone in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Endotoxin-induced uveitis was induced by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 μg) in Wistar rats. Rats were divided randomly into 10 groups (n = 6). Bosentan at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg were administered orally 1 hour before and 12 hours after LPS injection, and dexamethasone was administered by intraperitoneally 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after LPS injection at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Data were collected at two time points for each control and treatment; animals were killed at either 3 or 24 hours after LPS injection. Histopathologic evaluation and aqueous humour measurements of TNF-α level were performed, and endothelin-1 (ET-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelin receptor A and B (EDNRA and B) expression were analyzed. The group treated with 100 mg/kg bosentan at 24 hours displayed significantly milder uveitis and fewer inflammatory cells compared to LPS-injected animals, and there were similar findings in the dexamethasone-treated group at 24 hours. The TNF-α levels in the dexamethasone treatment group were lower than those in the LPS-induced uveitis control group (P treatment groups at 3 and 24 hours after LPS administration. Bosentan treatment at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased iNOS expression compared to LPS-injected animals (P treatment groups was statistically significantly lower than that in the LPS-induced uveitis control group at 3 and 24 hours after LPS administration (P < 0.05). Bosentan reduces intraocular inflammation and has similar effects as dexamethasone in a rat model of EIU. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  18. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005......–08) and national statistics for 28 countries, we assess both individual and contextual aspects that influence an individual's perception of different social groupings. Using a social tolerance index that captures personal attitudes toward these groupings, we present an institutional theory of social tolerance. Our...

  19. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  20. Pantoea agglomerans : a marvelous bacterium of evil and good. Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans , Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  1. Potentiation of X-ray response by quinacrine in experimental mouse mammary carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubort, S.; Goldfeder, A.

    1984-01-01

    Two mouse mammary carcinomas were subjected to various doses of 250 KV X-rays alone or in combination with quinacrine-HCl (Atabrine). The tumors, maintained by subcutaneous implant in isogenic mouse hosts, were: MT2 (X/Gf mouse strain) and DBAH (DBA/2J strain). X-rays were given locally in single doses to the tumor while the body was shielded. Quinacrine was given ad lib in drinking water (0.03%) for 5 days beginning 48 hr before X-rays. Quinacrine alone had no effect on tumor growth, and was well-tolerated by the mice, which recovered rapidly after slight, transient weight loss. In the MT2 tumor, quinacrine had only a small potentiating effect, reducing the TCD-50 from 57.5 Gy (54.9, 60.2 95% confidence) to 49.0 (47.5, 52.5) Gy for the combination treatment. Conversely, in the DBAH tumor a substantial potential was obtained (E.R. = 2.0), the TCD-50 being reduced from 50.1 (46.8, 53.7) Gy to 25.1 (22.9, 27.5) Gy. The mechanism of this potential is under investigation. Since the more responsive DBAH tumor is known to be less hypoxic than the MT2 tumor, sensitization of hypoxic cells does not appear to play a role in quinacrine-induced potentiation

  2. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  3. Protective properties of the plasma of burnt and irradiated rats with respect to the lethal effect of endotoxins in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, R.S.; Chureeva, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of endotoxins s. typhimurium and E. coli to preliminarily irradiated rats resulted in death of 80% of animals during 24 hours. At combined injection of endoxins with heterologic plasma of intact rats death decreased to 12 and 19% respectively. Deep burn of skin, acute radiation sickness and combined radiation-thermal injury did not eliminate the given phenomenon of humoral detoxication; at different periods after thermal, radiation and combined effects plasma of test rats produced protective effect practically the same as at the control

  4. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature, justifi...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature......, justification, and limits of compromise if we see it merely as a matter of toleration. While toleration is mainly a matter of accepting citizens' equal right to co-existence as subjects to law, political compromise includes the parties in making law – it makes them co-authors of law. Toleration entails...

  5. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  6. A Novel EPO Receptor Agonist Improves Glucose Tolerance via Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Scully

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated with recombinant human Epo demonstrate an improvement in insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether CNTO 530, a novel Epo receptor agonist, could affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A single administration of CNTO 530 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the area under the curve in a glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice after 14, 21, and 28 days. HOMA analysis suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and this effect was confirmed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Uptake of 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose indicated that animals dosed with CNTO 530 transported more glucose into skeletal muscle and heart relative to control animals. In conclusion, CNTO530 has a profound effect on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rodents likely because of improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. This effect was observed with epoetin-α and darbepoetin-α, suggesting this is a class effect, but the effect with these compounds relative to CNTO530 was decreased in duration and magnitude.

  7. Teaching Tolerance? Associational Diversity and Tolerance Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Freitag, Markus

    2015-01-01

    , a closer look is taken at how associational diversity relates to the formation of tolerance and the importance of associations as schools of tolerance are evaluated. The main theoretical argument follows contact theory, wherein regular and enduring contact in diverse settings reduces prejudice and thereby...

  8. The free radical scavenger Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves hypoxia tolerance in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Alicja Janc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS causes severe cognitive impairment, loss of speech, epilepsy, and breathing disturbances with intermittent hypoxia. Also mitochondria are affected; a subunit of respiratory complex III is dysregulated, the inner mitochondrial membrane is leaking protons, and brain ATP levels seem reduced. Our recent assessment of mitochondrial function in MeCP2-deficient mouse (Mecp2-/y hippocampus, confirmed early metabolic alterations, an increased oxidative burden, and a more vulnerable cellular redox balance. As these changes may contribute to the manifestation of symptoms and disease progression, we now evaluated whether free radical scavengers are capable of improving neuronal and mitochondrial function in RS. Acute hippocampal slices of adult mice were incubated with the vitamin E derivative Trolox for 3-5 h. In Mecp2-/y slices this treatment dampened neuronal hyperexcitability, improved short-term plasticity, and fully restored synaptic long-term potentiation. Furthermore, Trolox specifically attenuated the increased hypoxia susceptibility of Mecp2-/y slices. Also, the anticonvulsive effects of Trolox were assessed, but the severity of 4-aminopyridine provoked seizure-like discharges was not significantly affected. Adverse side effects of Trolox on mitochondria can be excluded, but clear indications for an improvement of mitochondrial function were not found. Since several ion-channels and neurotransmitter receptors are redox modulated, the mitochondrial alterations and the associated oxidative burden may contribute to the neuronal dysfunction in RS. We confirmed in Mecp2-/y hippocampus that Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves hypoxia tolerance. Therefore, radical scavengers are promising compounds for the treatment of neuronal dysfunction in RS and deserve further detailed evaluation.

  9. Breaking tolerance in transgenic mice expressing the human TSH receptor A-subunit: thyroiditis, epitope spreading and adjuvant as a 'double edged sword'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Sandra M; Aliesky, Holly A; Chen, Chun-Rong; Chong, Gao; Rapoport, Basil

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic mice with the human thyrotropin-receptor (TSHR) A-subunit targeted to the thyroid are tolerant of the transgene. In transgenics that express low A-subunit levels (Lo-expressors), regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion using anti-CD25 before immunization with adenovirus encoding the A-subunit (A-sub-Ad) breaks tolerance, inducing extensive thyroid lymphocytic infiltration, thyroid damage and antibody spreading to other thyroid proteins. In contrast, no thyroiditis develops in Hi-expressor transgenics or wild-type mice. Our present goal was to determine if thyroiditis could be induced in Hi-expressor transgenics using a more potent immunization protocol: Treg depletion, priming with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) + A-subunit protein and further Treg depletions before two boosts with A-sub-Ad. As controls, anti-CD25 treated Hi- and Lo-expressors and wild-type mice were primed with CFA+ mouse thyroglobulin (Tg) or CFA alone before A-sub-Ad boosting. Thyroiditis developed after CFA+A-subunit protein or Tg and A-sub-Ad boosting in Lo-expressor transgenics but Hi- expressors (and wild-type mice) were resistant to thyroiditis induction. Importantly, in Lo-expressors, thyroiditis was associated with the development of antibodies to the mouse TSHR downstream of the A-subunit. Unexpectedly, we observed that the effect of bacterial products on the immune system is a "double-edged sword". On the one hand, priming with CFA (mycobacteria emulsified in oil) plus A-subunit protein broke tolerance to the A-subunit in Hi-expressor transgenics leading to high TSHR antibody levels. On the other hand, prior treatment with CFA in the absence of A-subunit protein inhibited responses to subsequent immunization with A-sub-Ad. Consequently, adjuvant activity arising in vivo after bacterial infections combined with a protein autoantigen can break self-tolerance but in the absence of the autoantigen, adjuvant activity can inhibit the induction of immunity to autoantigens (like the

  10. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  11. Occupational exposures and chronic kidney disease: Possible associations with endotoxin and ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponholtz, Todd R; Sandler, Dale P; Parks, Christine G; Applebaum, Katie M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries a high public health burden yet there is limited research on occupational factors, which are examined in this retrospective case-control study. Newly diagnosed cases of CKD (n = 547) and controls (n = 508) from North Carolina provided detailed work histories in telephone interviews. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was heterogeneity in the association of CKD and agricultural work, with crop production associated with increased risk and work with livestock associated with decreased risk. Work with cutting/cooling/lubricating oils was associated with a reduced risk. CKD risk was increased for working in dusty conditions. CKD risk was reduced in subjects with occupational exposures previously reported to involve endotoxin exposure. Further, exposure to dusty conditions was consistently associated with increased risk of glomerulonephritis across industry, suggesting that research on CKD and ultrafine particulates is needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac domain III enhances activity against Heliothis virescens in some, but not all Cry1-Cry1Ac hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Weemen, W.M.J.; Naimov, S.; Ceron, J.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the role of domain III of Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin Cry1Ac in determining toxicity against Heliothis virescens. Hybrid toxins, containing domain III of Cry1Ac with domains I and II of Cry1Ba, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, Cry1Ea, and Cry1Fb, respectively, were created. In this way Cry1Ca,

  13. RESVERATROL PRECONDITIONING INDUCES A NOVEL EXTENDED WINDOW OF ISCHEMIC TOLERANCE IN THE MOUSE BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Saul, Isabel; Camarena, Vladimir; Thompson, John W.; Neumann, Jake T.; Young, Juan I.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prophylactic treatments that afford neuroprotection against stroke may emerge from the field of preconditioning. Resveratrol mimics ischemic preconditioning, reducing ischemic brain injury when administered two days prior to global ischemia in rats. This protection is linked to Sirt1 and enhanced mitochondrial function possibly through its repression of UCP2. BDNF is another neuroprotective protein associated with Sirt1. In this study we sought to identify the conditions of resveratrol preconditioning (RPC) that most robustly induce neuroprotection against focal ischemia in mice. Methods We tested four different RPC paradigms against a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model of stroke. Infarct volume and neurological score were calculated 24 hours following MCAo. Sirt1-chromatin binding was evaluated by ChIP-qPCR. Percoll gradients were used to isolate synaptic fractions and changes in protein expression were determined via Western blot analysis. BDNF concentration was measured using a BDNF-specific ELISA assay. Results While repetitive RPC induced neuroprotection from MCAo, strikingly one application of RPC 14 days prior to MCAo showed the most robust protection, reducing infarct volume by 33% and improving neurological score by 28%. Fourteen days following RPC, Sirt1 protein was increased 1.5 fold and differentially bound to the UCP2 and BDNF promoter regions. Accordingly, synaptic UCP2 protein decreased by 23% and cortical BDNF concentration increased 26%. Conclusions RPC induces a novel extended window of ischemic tolerance in the brain that lasts for at least 14 days. Our data suggest that this tolerance may be mediated by Sirt1, through upregulation of BDNF and downregulation of UCP2. PMID:26159789

  14. Selenite exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in mouse model of type 2 diabetes through oxidative stress-mediated JNK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun, E-mail: hustzhj@hust.edu.cn; Xu, Gang; Bai, Zhaoshuai; Li, Kaicheng; Yan, Junyan; Li, Fen; Ma, Shuai; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun, E-mail: hxxzrf@hust.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Recent evidence suggests a potential pro-diabetic effect of selenite treatment in type 2 diabetics; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of selenite treatment in a nongenetic mouse model of type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were orally gavaged with selenite at 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle for 4 weeks. High-dose selenite treatment significantly elevated fasting plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance index, in parallel with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and pyruvate tolerance. High-dose selenite treatment also attenuated hepatic IRS1/Akt/FoxO1 signaling and pyruvate kinase gene expressions, but elevated the gene expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and selenoprotein P (SelP) in the liver. Furthermore, high-dose selenite treatment caused significant increases in MDA contents, protein carbonyl contents, and a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, concurrent with enhanced ASK1/MKK4/JNK signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that high-dose selenite treatment exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in mouse model of type 2 diabetes, at least in part through oxidative stress-mediated JNK pathway, providing new mechanistic insights into the pro-diabetic effect of selenite in type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Selenite exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice. • Selenite elevates hepatic gluconeogenesis and reduces glycolysis in diabetic mice. • Selenite exacerbates hepatic oxidative stress and triggers JNK signaling pathway. • Selenite elevates hepatic selenoprotein P expression in diabetic mice.

  15. Selenite exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in mouse model of type 2 diabetes through oxidative stress-mediated JNK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Gang; Bai, Zhaoshuai; Li, Kaicheng; Yan, Junyan; Li, Fen; Ma, Shuai; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a potential pro-diabetic effect of selenite treatment in type 2 diabetics; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of selenite treatment in a nongenetic mouse model of type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were orally gavaged with selenite at 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle for 4 weeks. High-dose selenite treatment significantly elevated fasting plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance index, in parallel with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and pyruvate tolerance. High-dose selenite treatment also attenuated hepatic IRS1/Akt/FoxO1 signaling and pyruvate kinase gene expressions, but elevated the gene expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and selenoprotein P (SelP) in the liver. Furthermore, high-dose selenite treatment caused significant increases in MDA contents, protein carbonyl contents, and a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, concurrent with enhanced ASK1/MKK4/JNK signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that high-dose selenite treatment exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in mouse model of type 2 diabetes, at least in part through oxidative stress-mediated JNK pathway, providing new mechanistic insights into the pro-diabetic effect of selenite in type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Selenite exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice. • Selenite elevates hepatic gluconeogenesis and reduces glycolysis in diabetic mice. • Selenite exacerbates hepatic oxidative stress and triggers JNK signaling pathway. • Selenite elevates hepatic selenoprotein P expression in diabetic mice.

  16. Tolerance to and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C; Burch, J B; de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J

    1988-02-01

    Female DBA mice were subjected to one of four treatments: ethanol-containing or control diets, nicotine (0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg/hr) infusion or saline infusion. After removal from the liquid diets or cessation of infusion, the animals were challenged with an acute dose of ethanol or nicotine. Chronic ethanol-fed mice were tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature and open field activity and were cross tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and heart rate. Nicotine infused animals were tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and rotarod performance and were cross tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature. Ethanol-induced sleep time was decreased in chronic ethanol- but not chronic nicotine-treated mice. Chronic drug treatment did not alter the elimination rate of either drug. Chronic ethanol treatment did not alter the number or affinity of brain nicotinic receptors whereas chronic nicotine treatment elicited an increase in the number of [3H]-nicotine binding sites. Tolerance and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine is discussed in terms of potential effects on desensitization of brain nicotinic receptors.

  17. Enhancement of endotoxin neutralization by coupling of a C12-alkyl chain to a lactoferricin-derived peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Antibacterial peptide acylation, which mimics the structure of the natural lipopeptide polymyxin B, increases antimicrobial and endotoxin-neutralizing activities. The interaction of the lactoferricin-derived peptide LF11 and its N-terminally acylated analogue, lauryl-LF11, with different chemotypes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS Re, Ra and smooth S form) was investigated by biophysical means and was related to the peptides' biological activities. Both peptides exhibit high antibacterial activity against the three strains of Salmonella enterica differing in the LPS chemotype. Lauryl-LF11 has one order of magnitude higher activity against Re-type, but activity against Ra- and S-type bacteria is comparable with that of LF11. The alkyl derivative peptide lauryl-LF11 shows a much stronger inhibition of the LPS-induced cytokine induction in human mononuclear cells than LF11. Although peptide–LPS interaction is essentially of electrostatic nature, the lauryl-modified peptide displays a strong hydrophobic component. Such a feature might then explain the fact that saturation of the peptide binding takes place at a much lower peptide/LPS ratio for LF11 than for lauryl-LF11, and that an overcompensation of the negative LPS backbone charges is observed for lauryl-LF11. The influence of LF11 on the gel-to-liquid-crystalline phase-transition of LPS is negligible for LPS Re, but clearly fluidizing for LPS Ra. In contrast, lauryl-LF11 causes a cholesterol-like effect in the two chemotypes, fluidizing in the gel and rigidifying of the hydrocarbon chains in the liquid-crystalline phase. Both peptides convert the mixed unilamellar/non-lamellar aggregate structure of lipid A, the ‘endotoxic principle’ of LPS, into a multilamellar one. These data contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of the peptide-mediated neutralization of endotoxin and effect of lipid modification of peptides. PMID:15344905

  18. Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and topical thalidomide on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Büchele; Passos, Giselle Fazzioni; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele; Grumman, Astor; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of systemic or topical treatment with thalidomide, a compound that possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties, in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). The effects of thalidomide were evaluated on endotoxin-induced leucocyte and protein infiltration and also on the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in rat aqueous humour (AqH). Moreover, the actions of thalidomide were assessed on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in retinal tissue. EIU was produced by a hindpaw injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in male Wistar rats. Thalidomide (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was administered orally 1 h before LPS injection. In another set of experiments, to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, 5% thalidomide was applied topically to both eyes at 6, 12 and 18 h after LPS administration. The oral pre-treatment with thalidomide decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentration, and the levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the AqH. Similar results were found in the AqH of rats that received a topical application of thalidomide. Furthermore, oral (50 mg/kg) and local (5%) thalidomide treatment also reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS in the posterior segment of the eye. Thalidomide exhibited marked preventive and curative ocular effects in EIU in rats, a property that might be associated with its ability to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. This assembly of data provides additional molecular and functional insights into beneficial effects of thalidomide as an agent for the management of ocular inflammation.

  19. The site of primary T cell activation is a determinant of the balance between intrahepatic tolerance and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, David G; Zen, Monica; Holz, Lauren; Davis, Thomas; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Bertolino, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Hepatic immunobiology is paradoxical: although the liver possesses unusual tolerogenic properties, it is also the site of effective immune responses against multiple pathogens and subject to immune-mediated pathology. The mechanisms underlying this dichotomy remain unclear. Following previous work demonstrating that the liver may act as a site of primary T cell activation, we demonstrate here that the balance between immunity and tolerance in this organ is established by competition for primary activation of CD8+ T cells between the liver and secondary lymphoid tissues, with the immune outcome determined by the initial site of activation. Using a transgenic mouse model in which antigen is expressed within both liver and lymph nodes, we show that while naive CD8+ T cells activated within the lymph nodes were capable of mediating hepatitis, cells undergoing primary activation within the liver exhibited defective cytotoxic function and shortened half-life and did not mediate hepatocellular injury. The implications of these novel findings may pertain not only to the normal maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but also to hepatic allograft tolerance and the immunopathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis.

  20. Detection of irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacterial count and bacterial endotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of detecting irradiated chicken and fish meats by the determination of Gram negative bacteria combined with the determination of endotoxin concentrations. Samples of chicken breast with skin, skinless chicken breast and eviscerated Bolti fish (Tilabia nilotica) were irradiated at room temperature at doses of 0, 1.5 and 3 kGy followed by storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 degree C) for 12 days or frozen storage at -18 degree C for 60 days. Furthermore, other samples of chicken and Bolti fish were irradiated in the frozen sate at doses of 0, 3, and 7 kGy followed by frozen storage at - 18 degree C for 60 days. Then the enumeration of Gram negative bacteria in conjunction with the determination of endotoxin concentrations were carried out for both irradiated and non-irradiated samples post treatments and during storage in addition to the discovery of Pseudomonas spp. The obtained results showed that chicken and fish samples irradiated at dose of 1.5 kGy could be identified during refrigerated storage for 6 and 9 days, respectively, while all samples irradiated at dose of 3 kGy were identifiable during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Moreover, all irradiated and frozen stored samples were identifiable during their frozen storage (- 18 degree C). The absence of Pseudomonads in all irradiated samples may aid in the differentiation of irradiated and non-irradiated samples especially during refrigerated storage. This method can be applied as a general screening method to predict the possible treatment of chicken and fish meats by ionizing radiation

  1. Breaking Tolerance in Transgenic Mice Expressing the Human TSH Receptor A-Subunit: Thyroiditis, Epitope Spreading and Adjuvant as a ‘Double Edged Sword’

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Sandra M.; Aliesky, Holly A.; Chen, Chun-Rong; Chong, Gao; Rapoport, Basil

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic mice with the human thyrotropin-receptor (TSHR) A-subunit targeted to the thyroid are tolerant of the transgene. In transgenics that express low A-subunit levels (Lo-expressors), regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion using anti-CD25 before immunization with adenovirus encoding the A-subunit (A-sub-Ad) breaks tolerance, inducing extensive thyroid lymphocytic infiltration, thyroid damage and antibody spreading to other thyroid proteins. In contrast, no thyroiditis develops in Hi-expressor transgenics or wild-type mice. Our present goal was to determine if thyroiditis could be induced in Hi-expressor transgenics using a more potent immunization protocol: Treg depletion, priming with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) + A-subunit protein and further Treg depletions before two boosts with A-sub-Ad. As controls, anti-CD25 treated Hi- and Lo-expressors and wild-type mice were primed with CFA+ mouse thyroglobulin (Tg) or CFA alone before A-sub-Ad boosting. Thyroiditis developed after CFA+A-subunit protein or Tg and A-sub-Ad boosting in Lo-expressor transgenics but Hi- expressors (and wild-type mice) were resistant to thyroiditis induction. Importantly, in Lo-expressors, thyroiditis was associated with the development of antibodies to the mouse TSHR downstream of the A-subunit. Unexpectedly, we observed that the effect of bacterial products on the immune system is a “double-edged sword”. On the one hand, priming with CFA (mycobacteria emulsified in oil) plus A-subunit protein broke tolerance to the A-subunit in Hi-expressor transgenics leading to high TSHR antibody levels. On the other hand, prior treatment with CFA in the absence of A-subunit protein inhibited responses to subsequent immunization with A-sub-Ad. Consequently, adjuvant activity arising in vivo after bacterial infections combined with a protein autoantigen can break self-tolerance but in the absence of the autoantigen, adjuvant activity can inhibit the induction of immunity to autoantigens (like the

  2. Remember Tolerance Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history, not by inv......This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history......, not by invoking a critique external to contemporary democratic theory, but by witnessing the history of tolerance paraliptically, with an eye to what it obscures and yet presupposes....

  3. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  4. Is there sex-biased resistance and tolerance in Mediterranean wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) populations facing multiple helminth infections?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bordes, F.; Ponlet, N.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Ribas, A.; Krasnov, B. R.; Morand, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 1 (2012), s. 123-135 ISSN 0029-8549 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Apodemus sylvaticus * Body condition * Testes mass * Spleen * PHA * Helminths * Sexual dimorphism * Parasites * Resistance * Tolerance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2012

  5. Peculiarities of endotoxemia during radiotherapy of cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabelov, A A; Kiselev, P N; Shul' s, T S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1981-11-01

    Radiotherapy in cervical carcinoma patients is frequently followed by severe intestinal injuries which serve as prerequisites for the penetration of endotoxins of intestinal microflora into the systemic circulation. Peculiarities of possible development of endotoxemia were studied in 45 women with cervical carcinoma (Stages 2, 3). Radiotherapy was performed by routine methods (long-focus irradiation with subsequent intracavitary irradiation, or simultaneous long-focus and intracavitary irradiation). The presence of bacterial endotoxins in the patients blood was revealed by the testing of the lethal effect after intraperitoneal administration of the examined blood (0.1 ml) to random-bred albino mice simultaneously with actinomycin D(10 ..mu..g/mouse) that sharply increases the sensitivity of animals to a toxic effect of endotoxins. It has been established that involvement of the intestine in irradiation is followed by endotoxemia regardless of radiotherapeutic methods. The degree of severity of endotoxemia developing in the first half of a radiotherapeutic course depends on a radiation dose. On reaching a certain level, endotoxemia preserves its severity up to the end of irradiation and at early time after its completion.

  6. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthi Ravindranathan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA, viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs. Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (<0.01 EU/mg ranging from 20 to 600 cP and 80% to 97% DDA is essentially inert. This study emphasizes the need for more complete characterization and purification of chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application.

  7. Tolerance induction to a thymus-dependent antigen in vitro: treatment of nonadherent cells with tolerogen biologically filtered in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, J.W.; Kong, Y.M.

    1974-01-01

    Highly tolerogenic bovine gamma globulin (BGG), a thymus-dependent antigen, was prepared by biologic filtration in vitro. It readily induced tolerance in vivo in BALB/c mice and also rendered their nonadherent lymph node cells tolerant after in vitro incubation. Biologic filtration in vitro was carried out by incubating 2.5 x 10 7 lymph node cells with 10 mg of nontolerogenic BGG in 10 ml of Eagle's medium containing 2 percent normal mouse serum at 37 0 C for 6 hr. The BGG-containing medium was clarified by centrifugation and was used without further dilution. For tolerance induction in vitro, lymph node cells were separated into adherent and nonadherent populations on Falcon plastic. These cells were incubated for 0 to 18 hr at 37 0 C with biologically filtered BGG (bBGG). After incubation, the cells were washed three times and (2 to 2.5) x 10 7 nonadherent or 4 x 10 6 adherent cells were injected iv with their untreated counterpart into lethally irradiated mice which had received 10 6 bone marrow cells. The recipients were then challenged with 300 μg of aggregated BGG, and tolerance was assayed by the elimination of labeled BGG, rosette formation, and passive hemagglutination. Spleen cells were similarly treated for comparison. Our findings show that tolerance was not induced in vitro in adherent lymph node cells. However, in the nonadherent populations, those from the lymph node but not the spleen were rendered tolerant. The acquisition of tolerance in vitro was gradual. It was dependent upon the length of exposure to bBGG and required at least 6 hr

  8. 3D multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry reveals penetration of 18O-trehalose in mouse sperm nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechene, Claude P; Lee, Gloria Y; Poczatek, J Collin; Toner, Mehmet; Biggers, John D

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of genetically engineered mice in medical research has led to ever increasing storage costs. Trehalose has a significant beneficial effect in preserving the developmental potential of mouse sperm following partial desiccation and storage at temperatures above freezing. Using multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry, we are able to image and measure trehalose in individual spermatozoa. We provide the first evidence that trehalose penetrates the nucleus of a mammalian cell, permitting tolerance to desiccation. These results have broad implications for long-term storage of mammalian cells.

  9. Strain- and sex-dependent circadian changes in abcc2 transporter expression: implications for irinotecan chronotolerance in mouse ileum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Okyar

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette transporter abcc2 is involved in the cellular efflux of irinotecan. The drug is toxic for mouse ileum, where abcc2 is highly expressed. Here, we investigate whether circadian changes in local abcc2 expression participate in the circadian rhythm of irinotecan toxicity for ileum mucosa, and further assess whether genetic background or sex modify this relation.Ileum mucosa was obtained every 3-4 h for 24 h in male and female B6D2F(1 and B6CBAF(1 mice synchronized with light from Zeitgeber Time (ZT0 to ZT12 alternating with 12 h of darkness. Irinotecan (50 mg/kg i.v. daily for 4 days was administered at the sex- and strain-specific times corresponding to least (ZT11-15 or largest drug-induced body weight loss (ZT23-03-07. Abcc2 expression was determined with qRT-PCR for mRNA and with immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy for protein. Histopathologic lesions were graded in ileum tissues obtained 2, 4 or 6 days after treatment. Two- to six-fold circadian changes were demonstrated for mRNA and protein mean expressions of abcc2 in mouse ileum (p<0.05. ZT12 corresponded to high mRNA and protein expressions, with circadian waveforms differing according to genetic background and sex. The proportion of mice spared from ileum lesions varied three-fold according to irinotecan timing, with best tolerability at ZT11-15 (p = 0.00003. Irinotecan was also best tolerated in males (p = 0.05 and in B6CBAF(1 (p = 0.0006.Strain- and sex-dependent circadian patterns in abcc2 expressions displayed robust relations with the chronotolerance of ileum mucosa for irinotecan. This finding has strong potential implications for improving the intestinal tolerability of anticancer drugs through circadian delivery.

  10. STUDIES ON TUBERCULIN FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles H.; Atkins, Elisha

    1959-01-01

    Evidence has been presented that the fever elicited by intravenous administration of old tuberculin (O.T.) in BCG-infected rabbits is a specific property of this hypersensitivity system and is probably not due to contamination of tuberculin with bacterial endotoxins. Daily injections of O.T. in sensitized animals resulted in a rapid tolerance to its pyrogenic effect. Tuberculin tolerance can be differentiated from that occurring with endotoxins and was invariably associated with the development of a negative skin test. The mechanism of this tolerance would thus appear to be desensitization. A circulating pyrogen found during tuberculin fever was indistinguishable in its biologic effects from endogenous pyrogens obtained in several other types of experimental fever. This material produced fevers in normal recipients and therefore may be clearly differentiated from O.T. itself which was pyrogenic only to sensitized animals. Since the titer of serum pyrogen was directly proportional to the degree of fever induced by injection of O.T. in the donor animals, a causal relation is suggested. On the basis of these findings, it is postulated that tuberculin fever is due to a circulating endogenous pyrogen released by a specific action of O.T. on sensitized cells of the host. PMID:13641561

  11. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1 -/- mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  12. Proteolysis breaks tolerance toward intact α345(IV) collagen, eliciting novel anti-GBM autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Florina; Wang, Xu-Ping; Luo, Wentian; Ge, Linna; Miner, Jeffrey H; Kleinau, Sandra; Geiger, Xochiquetzal J.; Wasiluk, Andrew; Heidet, Laurence; Kitching, A. Richard; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Goodpasture disease is an autoimmune kidney disease mediated by autoAbs against NC1 monomers of α3(IV) collagen that bind to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), usually causing rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. We identified a novel type of human IgG4-restricted anti-GBM autoAbs associated with mild non-progressive glomerulonephritis, which specifically targeted α345NC1 hexamers but not α3NC1 monomers. The mechanisms eliciting these anti-GBM autoAbs were investigated in mouse models recapitulating this phenotype. Wild type and FcγRIIB−/− mice immunized with autologous murine GBM NC1 hexamers produced mouse IgG1-restricted autoAbs specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which bound to the GBM in vivo but did not cause glomerulonephritis. In these mice, intact collagen IV from murine GBM was not immunogenic. However, in Col4a3−/− Alport mice, both intact collagen IV and NC1 hexamers from murine GBM elicited IgG antibodies specific for α3α4α5NC1 hexamers, which were not subclass restricted. As heterologous antigen in COL4A3-humanized mice, murine GBM NC1 hexamers elicited mouse IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b autoAbs specific for α345NC1 hexamers and induced anti-GBM Ab glomerulonephritis. These findings indicate that tolerance toward autologous intact α3α4α5(IV) collagen is established in hosts expressing this antigen, even though autoreactive B cells specific for α345NC1 hexamers are not purged from their repertoire. Proteolysis selectively breaches this tolerance by generating autoimmunogenic α3α4α5NC1 hexamers. This provides a mechanism eliciting autoAbs specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which are restricted to non-inflammatory IgG subclasses and non-nephritogenic. In Alport syndrome, lack of tolerance toward α3α4α5(IV) collagen promotes production of alloantibodies to α345NC1 hexamers, including pro-inflammatory IgG subclasses which mediate post-transplant anti-GBM nephritis. PMID:23303673

  13. The contributions of adrenal hormones, hemodynamic factors, and the endotoxin-related stress reaction to stable prostaglandin analog-induced peripheral lymphopenia and neutrophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulich, T R; Keys, M; Ni, R X; del Castillo, J; Dakay, E B

    1988-01-01

    -independent, hemodynamic-independent mechanisms. The possibility that M-PGF2 alpha might be inducing neutrophilia via an endotoxin-like stress reaction was investigated by examining changes in circulating white blood cells in intact and adrenalectomized C3H/HeN (endotoxin-sensitive) and C3H/HeJ (endotoxin-resistant) mice after prostaglandin administration. No quantitative differences in the prostaglandin-induced neutrophilia were noted in C3H/HeJ mice as compared to the C3H/HeN mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  14. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiao, Juan, E-mail: qjuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  15. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 mutant and null mice retain morphine-induced tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Alexandra Mattioli

    Full Text Available The innate immune system modulates opioid-induced effects within the central nervous system and one target that has received considerable attention is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Here, we examined the contribution of TLR4 in the development of morphine tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence in two inbred mouse strains: C3H/HeJ mice which have a dominant negative point mutation in the Tlr4 gene rendering the receptor non-functional, and B10ScNJ mice which are TLR4 null mutants. We found that neither acute antinociceptive response to a single dose of morphine, nor the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated morphine treatment, was affected by TLR4 genotype. Likewise, opioid induced hyperalgesia and opioid physical dependence (assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal were not altered in TLR4 mutant or null mice. We also examined the behavioural consequence of two stereoisomers of naloxone: (- naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and (+ naloxone, a purported antagonist of TLR4. Both stereoisomers of naloxone suppressed opioid induced hyperalgesia in wild-type control, TLR4 mutant, and TLR4 null mice. Collectively, our data suggest that TLR4 is not required for opioid-induced analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, or physical dependence.

  17. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Optimization of the virtual mouse HeadMouse to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce TEIXIDO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a virtual mouse called HeadMouse in order to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities. HeadMouse is an absolute virtual mouse that converts head movements in cursor displacement and facial gestures in click actions. The virtual mouse combines different image processing algorithms: face detection, pattern matching and optical flow in order to emulate the behaviour of a conventional computer mouse. The original implementation of HeadMouse requires large computational power and this paper proposes specific optimizations in order to enable its use by children with disabilities in standard low cost classroom computers.

  19. 3D multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry reveals penetration of 18O-trehalose in mouse sperm nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude P Lechene

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genetically engineered mice in medical research has led to ever increasing storage costs. Trehalose has a significant beneficial effect in preserving the developmental potential of mouse sperm following partial desiccation and storage at temperatures above freezing. Using multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry, we are able to image and measure trehalose in individual spermatozoa. We provide the first evidence that trehalose penetrates the nucleus of a mammalian cell, permitting tolerance to desiccation. These results have broad implications for long-term storage of mammalian cells.

  20. Metabolic effects of bariatric surgery in mouse models of circadian disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, D M; Sandoval, D A; Turek, F W; Woods, S C; Seeley, R J

    2015-08-01

    Mounting evidence supports a link between circadian disruption and metabolic disease. Humans with circadian disruption (for example, night-shift workers) have an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases compared with the non-disrupted population. However, it is unclear whether the obesity and obesity-related disorders associated with circadian disruption respond to therapeutic treatments as well as individuals with other types of obesity. Here, we test the effectiveness of the commonly used bariatric surgical procedure, Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG), in mouse models of genetic and environmental circadian disruption. VSG led to a reduction in body weight and fat mass in both Clock(Δ19) mutant and constant-light mouse models (Pdisruption. Interestingly, the decrease in body weight occurred without altering diurnal feeding or activity patterns (P>0.05). Within circadian-disrupted models, VSG also led to improved glucose tolerance and lipid handling (Pdisruption, and that the potent effects of bariatric surgery are orthogonal to circadian biology. However, as the effects of bariatric surgery are independent of circadian disruption, VSG cannot be considered a cure for circadian disruption. These data have important implications for circadian-disrupted obese patients. Moreover, these results reveal new information about the metabolic pathways governing the effects of bariatric surgery as well as of circadian disruption.

  1. Functional interaction and cross-tolerance between ethanol and Δ9-THC: possible modulation by mouse cerebellar adenosinergic A1/GABAergic-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M Saeed

    2014-08-15

    We have previously shown a functional motor interaction between ethanol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) that involved cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAergic A receptor modulation. We now report the development of cross-tolerance between intracerebellar Δ(9)-THC and intraperitoneal ethanol using ataxia as the test response in male CD-1 mice. The drugs [Δ(9)-THC (20 μg), N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine, CHA (12 ng), muscimol (20 ng)] used in the study were directly microinfused stereotaxically via guide cannulas into the cerebellum except ethanol. Δ(9)-THC, infused once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last infusion by acute ethanol (2g/kg) and Rotorod evaluation, virtually abolished ethanol ataxia indicating development of cross-tolerance. The cross-tolerance was also observed when the order of ethanol and Δ(9)-THC treatment was reversed, i.e., ethanol injected once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last ethanol injection by Δ(9)-THC infusion. The cross-tolerance appeared within 24-48 h, lasted over 72 h and was maximal in 5-day ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-treated animals. Finally, tolerance in chronic ethanol/Δ(9)-THC/-treated animals developed not only to ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-induced ataxia, respectively, but also to the ataxia potentiating effect of CHA and muscimol, indicating modulation by cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAA receptors. A practical implication of these results could be that marijuana smokers may experience little or no negative effects such as ataxia following alcohol consumption. Clinically, such antagonism of ethanol-induced ataxia can be observed in marijuana users thereby encouraging more alcohol consumption and thus may represent a risk factor for the development of alcoholism in this segment of population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet-induced obesity attenuates endotoxin-induced cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Sharay E; Littlefield, Alyssa M; Johnson, Samantha W; Kohman, Rachel A

    2015-03-15

    Activation of the immune system can impair cognitive function, particularly on hippocampus dependent tasks. Several factors such as normal aging and prenatal experiences can modify the severity of these cognitive deficits. One additional factor that may modulate the behavioral response to immune activation is obesity. Prior work has shown that obesity alters the activity of the immune system. Whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) influences the cognitive deficits associated with inflammation is currently unknown. The present study explored whether DIO alters the behavioral response to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for a total of five months. After consuming their respective diets for four months, mice received an LPS or saline injection and were assessed for alterations in spatial learning. One month later, mice received a second injection of LPS or saline and tissue samples were collected to assess the inflammatory response within the periphery and central nervous system. Results showed that LPS administration impaired spatial learning in the control diet mice, but had no effect in DIO mice. This lack of a cognitive deficit in the DIO female mice is likely due to a blunted inflammatory response within the brain. While cytokine production within the periphery (i.e., plasma, adipose, and spleen) was similar between the DIO and control mice, the DIO mice failed to show an increase in IL-6 and CD74 in the brain following LPS administration. Collectively, these data indicate that DIO can reduce aspects of the neuroinflammatory response as well as blunt the behavioral reaction to an immune challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapamycin combined with anti-CD45RB mAb and IL-10 or with G-CSF induces tolerance in a stringent mouse model of islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gagliani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large pool of preexisting alloreactive effector T cells can cause allogeneic graft rejection following transplantation. However, it is possible to induce transplant tolerance by altering the balance between effector and regulatory T (Treg cells. Among the various Treg-cell types, Foxp3(+Treg and IL-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1 cells have frequently been associated with tolerance following transplantation in both mice and humans. Previously, we demonstrated that rapamycin+IL-10 promotes Tr1-cell-associated tolerance in Balb/c mice transplanted with C57BL/6 pancreatic islets. However, this same treatment was unsuccessful in C57BL/6 mice transplanted with Balb/c islets (classified as a stringent transplant model. We accordingly designed a protocol that would be effective in the latter transplant model by simultaneously depleting effector T cells and fostering production of Treg cells. We additionally developed and tested a clinically translatable protocol that used no depleting agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with Balb/c pancreatic islets. Recipient mice transiently treated with anti-CD45RB mAb+rapamycin+IL-10 developed antigen-specific tolerance. During treatment, Foxp3(+Treg cells were momentarily enriched in the blood, followed by accumulation in the graft and draining lymph node, whereas CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T (i.e., Tr1 cells localized in the spleen. In long-term tolerant mice, only CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T cells remained enriched in the spleen and IL-10 was key in the maintenance of tolerance. Alternatively, recipient mice were treated with two compounds routinely used in the clinic (namely, rapamycin and G-CSF; this drug combination promoted tolerance associated with CD4(+IL-10(+IL-4(- T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-CD45RB mAb+rapamycin+IL-10 combined protocol promotes a state of tolerance that is IL-10 dependent. Moreover, the combination of rapamycin+G-CSF induces

  4. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  5. Effect of intravenous endotoxin on blood cell profiles of broilers housed in cages and floor litter environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Wideman, R F; Chapman, M E; Bersi, T K; Erf, G F

    2003-12-01

    Commercial broilers are constantly exposed to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). It has been shown that microbial contamination of the air was higher in broiler houses using floor litter than in broiler houses using netting-type floors. The current study evaluated the effect of housing conditions on blood leukocyte profiles and tested the hypothesis that, when compared to broilers reared in clean stainless steel cages (Cage group), broilers raised on floor litter (Floor group) should experience a higher environmental challenge and have a desensitized immune system that may exhibit better tolerance/resistance to subsequent intravenous LPS challenge. Hematological parameters were evaluated prior to and following i.v. administration of 1 mg/kg BW Salmonella typhimurium LPS (dissolved at 1 mg/0.25 mL in PBS) or i.v. injection of 0.25 mL/kg BW PBS alone. The results showed that prior to LPS/PBS injection, broilers in the cage group had higher heterophil and monocyte concentrations, a higher B cell percentage within the lymphocyte population, and a higher heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio in the blood. The i.v. LPS injection resulted in 25% mortality in the cage group and 42% mortality in the floor group within 8 h post-injection. LPS reduced the concentrations of total white blood cells (WBC) and all differential WBC except eosinophils and increased thrombocyte concentrations within 1 h post-injection in both groups. All of these values returned to their respective pre-injection levels within 48 h post-injection in the surviving birds. The two groups exhibited similar overall hematological changes after LPS injection except that the cage group showed a higher H:L ratio at 8 h post-injection and a lower B-cell percentage within the lymphocyte population at 48 h post-injection when compared with the floor group. We concluded that the immune systems of broilers reared on floor litter were desensitized and exhibited less pronounced leukocyte

  6. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  7. Cinnamon extract regulates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression in mouse adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping; Graves, Donald J; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    Cinnamon extracts (CE) are reported to have beneficial effects on people with normal and impaired glucose tolerance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. However, clinical results are controversial. Molecular characterization of CE effects is limited. This study investigated the effects of CE on gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes. Water-soluble CE was prepared from ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate CE effects on the expression of genes coding for adipokines, glucose transporter (GLUT) family, and insulin-signaling components in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CE (100 μg/ml) increased GLUT1 mRNA levels 1.91±0.15, 4.39±0.78, and 6.98±2.18-fold of the control after 2-, 4-, and 16-h treatments, respectively. CE decreased the expression of further genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins including GSK3B, IGF1R, IGF2R, and PIK3R1. This study indicates that CE regulates the expression of multiple genes in adipocytes and this regulation could contribute to the potential health benefits of CE. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Long-term Exon Skipping Studies With 2′-O-Methyl Phosphorothioate Antisense Oligonucleotides in Dystrophic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Tanganyika-de Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-mediated exon skipping for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is currently tested in phase 3 clinical trials. The aim of this approach is to modulate splicing by skipping a specific exon to reframe disrupted dystrophin transcripts, allowing the synthesis of a partly functional dystrophin protein. Studies in animal models allow detailed analysis of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs. Here, we tested the safety and efficacy of subcutaneously administered 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate AON at 200 mg/kg/week for up to 6 months in mouse models with varying levels of disease severity: mdx mice (mild phenotype and mdx mice with one utrophin allele (mdx/utrn+/−; more severe phenotype. Long-term treatment was well tolerated and exon skipping and dystrophin restoration confirmed for all animals. Notably, in the more severely affected mdx/utrn+/− mice the therapeutic effect was larger: creatine kinase (CK levels were more decreased and rotarod running time was more increased. This suggests that the mdx/utrn+/− model may be a more suitable model to test potential therapies than the regular mdx mouse. Our results also indicate that long-term subcutaneous treatment in dystrophic mouse models with these AONs is safe and beneficial.

  9. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...... that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative...

  10. The political limit of tolerance O limite político da tolerância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yvon Thériault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary discussions about democracy modifications, tolerance has been frequently evoked in order to express the way by which the democracies respond to the new demands of plurality recognition. While drawing the general lines of the connection between tolerance and democracy, the present article intends to deepen the comprehension of tolerance’s places and limits inside the democracy. After that, the text should evaluate the reach of the contemporary use of tolerance. Keywords: Democracy. Tolerance. Political theory. National Identity. Nas discussões contemporâneas sobre as transformações da democracia, a tolerância é com freqüência evocada para expressar o modo pelo qual as democracias respondem às novas exigências de reconhecimento da pluralidade. Ao esboçar as linhas gerais da relação entre tolerância e democracia, o presente artigo pretende aprofundar a compreensão do lugar e dos limites da tolerância na democracia. Em um segundo momento, tratará de avaliar o alcance do uso contemporâneo da tolerância. Palavras-chave: Democracia. Tolerância. Teoria Política. Identidade Nacional.

  11. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  12. Ups and downs of Viagra: revisiting ototoxicity in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Adrian; Stuyt, John Gerka; Chen, Daniel; Alagramam, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra), a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5i), is a commonly prescribed drug for erectile dysfunction. Since the introduction of Viagra in 1997, several case reports have linked Viagra to sudden sensorineural hearing loss. However, these studies are not well controlled for confounding factors, such as age and noise-induced hearing loss and none of these reports are based on prospective double-blind studies. Further, animal studies report contradictory data. For example, one study (2008) reported hearing loss in rats after long-term and high-dose exposure to sildenafil citrate. The other study (2012) showed vardenafil, another formulation of PDE5i, to be protective against noise-induced hearing loss in mice and rats. Whether or not clinically relevant doses of sildenafil citrate cause hearing loss in normal subjects (animals or humans) is controversial. One possibility is that PDE5i exacerbates age-related susceptibility to hearing loss in adults. Therefore, we tested sildenafil citrate in C57BL/6J, a strain of mice that displays increased susceptibility to age-related hearing loss, and compared the results to those obtained from the FVB/N, a strain of mice with no predisposition to hearing loss. Six-week-old mice were injected with the maximum tolerated dose of sildenafil citrate (10 mg/kg/day) or saline for 30 days. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded pre- and post injection time points to assess hearing loss. Entry of sildenafil citrate in the mouse cochlea was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of a downstream target of the cGMP-PKG cascade. ABR data indicated no statistically significant difference in hearing between treated and untreated mice in both backgrounds. Results show that the maximum tolerated dose of sildenafil citrate administered daily for 4 weeks does not affect hearing in the mouse. Our study gives no indication that Viagra will negatively impact hearing and it emphasizes the need to revisit the issue of Viagra