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Sample records for endorphins

  1. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  2. Lipotropin and endorphin research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, E.; Saito, T.; Harris, K.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays have been developed for Met-enkephalin, β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and γ-endorphin. Lipotropins and endorphins in plasma and cerebrospinal fluids of patients have been determined. The function of β-lipotropin hormone is being studied. From binding-site studies, it is suggested that it may be involved in the regulation of adrenal function. The role of β-endorphin in diabetes and obesity is being investigated

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid endorphins in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimon, R.; Terenius, L.; Kampman, R.

    1980-01-01

    Opioid-receptor-active material, endorphins, has been measured in cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from schizophrenics. A chromatographic procedure isolated the Fraction I endorphin which was quantitated in a receptorassay. At least two cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from each patient, at day 0 with no medication and at days 30 and 60 after medication with fluphenazine under standardized conditions. Three series of patients were included: acute schizophrenics (n=11); re-entry schizophrenics (n=7) who have previously been treated with neuroleptics but were readmitted to hospital usually as a consequence of stopped medication, and chronic schizophrenics (n=9) who had been without neuroleptics for at least 2 weeks prior to day 0. At day 0, 6/9 acute cases, 4/6 of re-entry and 2/9 chronic cases had endorphin levels above the range of healthy volunteers. The levels in chronic cases were significantly lower than those in acute cases. Treatment with neuroleptics significantly lowered the endorphin levels in acute cases. These results confirm and extend previous observations. (author)

  4. β-endorphin in human cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoate, W.J.; McLoughlin, L.; Hope, J.; Rees, L.H.; Ratter, S.J.; Lowry, P.J.; Besser, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    β-endorphin is a brain peptide with potent morphine-like activity structurally related to the anterior pituitary hormone β-lipotrophin (β-L.P.H.). A radioimmunoassay has been developed for human β-endorphin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (C.S.F.). Since the antiserum also reacts with β-L.P.H., β-endorphin was distinguished by using a second antiserum which measures β-L.P.H. alone. With these two immunoassay systems and gel chromatography, β-endorphin was found in all 20 C.S.F. samples tested at a concentration always higher than, but with no other relationship to, that in plasma. β-endorphin was found in C.S.F. of patients who had hypopituitarism and undetectable plasma-β-endorphin, suggesting that it is synthesised in the brain rather than in the pituitary. (author)

  5. Non-opiate [beta]-endorphin fragments and dopamine--V [gamma]-type endorphins and prolactin secretion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, S.W.J.; De Quijada, M.; Ree, J.M. van; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    The effects on prolactin secretion of three peptide-derivatives of β-endorphin which show neuroleptic-like activities in rats were studied. Intravenous administration of γ-endorphin (β-endorphin (βE) 1–17) enhanced plasma prolactin levels. γ-Endorphin did not affect the prolactin secretion by

  6. Immunoassay of β-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoellt, V.; Gramsch, C.; Herz, A.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper describes the characteristics of a series of antisera against β-endorphin (β-E) developed in our laboratory which all recognize β-lipotropin and their use in (1) the determination of β-E in tissue and in body fluids and in (2) the immunocytochemical localization of β-E containing neurons in the rat brain and in (3) the study of the conversion of the β-E/β-LPH precursor into β-LPH and β-E in the pars intermedia/nervosa of the rat pituitary. It is the purpose of the present report to critically analyze the pitfalls and drawbacks, as well as the advantage, of the use of radioimmunoassay and other immunoassays in the determination of β-E. (Auth.)

  7. Effects of α-endorphin, β-endorphin and (des-tyr1)-γ-endorphin on α-MPT-induced catecholamine disappearance in discrete regions of the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, D.H.G.; Kloet, E.R. de; Wied, D. de

    1979-01-01

    Summary Following the intracerebroventricular administration of α-endorphin, β-endorphin and (des-tyrosine1)-γ-endorphin in a dose of 100 ng, the α-MPT-induced catecholamine disappearance was found to be altered in discrete regions of the rat brain. In the regions in which α-endorphin exerted an

  8. β-Endorphin biotransformation in brain: Formation of γ-endorphin by a synaptosomal plasma membrane associated endopeptidase distinct from cathepsin D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Loeber, J.G.; Verhoef, J.; Kloet, E.R. de

    1980-01-01

    cSPM preparations of rat brain contain a peptidase activity which generates γ-endorphin from β-endorphin. Some properties of this enzyme were studied and compared with those of cathepsin D. Maximal accumulation of γ-endorphin upon digestion of β-endorphin with a cSPM preparation was found at neutral

  9. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  10. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  11. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Beta-endorphin and alpha-n-acetyl beta-endorphin; synthesis, conformation and binding parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovegren, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin (EP) is a 31-residue opioid peptide found in many tissues, including the pituitary, brain and reproductive tract. Alpha-amino-acetyl beta-endorphin (AcEP) was characterized spectroscopically by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism in deuterated water and trifluoroethanol (TFE). Both EP and AcEP bind to neuroblastoma N2a cells. This binding was not mediated through opiate receptors, and both peptides seemed to bind at common sites. Ovarian immunoreactive-EP levels were determined for immature and mature rates. These levels were found to be responsive to exogenous gonadotropin treatment in immature animals. A large percentage of the immunoreactive-EP is present in follicular fluid, and most of the endorphin-like peptides were acetylated, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Chromatogaphic analysis suggested at least three EP-like species: EP, a carboxy-terminally cleaved and an amino-terminally acetylated EP.

  13. Biosynthesis and release of beta-endorphin-, N-acetyl beta-endorphin-, beta-endorphin-(1-27)-, and N-acetyl beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like peptides by rat pituitary neurointermediate lobe: beta-endorphin is not further processed by anterior lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, A.S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Krieger, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous labeling and pulse-chase techniques were employed to study the synthesis and secretion of multiple forms of immunoreactive beta-endorphin by cultured dispersed rat anterior lobe cells and intact neurointermediate pituitary lobe. Intact neurointermediate lobes incorporated radiolabeled amino acids into four to six forms of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Four of these forms were physicochemically similar to authentic beta-endorphin, N-acetylated beta-endorphin, beta-endorphin-(1-27), and N-acetylated beta-endorphin-(1-27). Pulse-chase studies indicated that a beta-lipotropin-like molecule served as a metabolic intermediate for a beta-endorphin-like molecule. As beta-endorphin-like material accumulated in the cell, some of it was N-acetylated (approximately 18% at 2 hr chase and approximately 65% at 18 hr chase). At later chase times, beta-endorphin-(1-27)- and N-acetylated beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like peptides were the predominant molecular species detected. All endorphin forms were detected in unlabeled tissue maintained in culture or tissue continuously labeled for 72 hr and were released into the medium under basal, stimulatory (10(-8) M norepinephrine), or inhibitory (10(-7) M dopamine) incubation conditions. In all cases, beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like species were the predominant forms (more than 70% of total) present in the cells and released into the medium. In contrast, approximately 90% of radiolabeled immunoreactive beta-endorphin extracted from anterior lobe cells and medium similarly incubated appeared to represent the authentic beta-endorphin molecule. Continuous labeling (72 hr) revealed the beta-lipotropin/beta-endorphin molar ratio to be approximately 4. We conclude that, in anterior lobe, most of the beta-endorphin is not processed further and is released intact, while in neurointermediate lobe, it serves as a biosynthetic intermediate

  14. ß-endorphins as Possible Markers for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoj Jadrić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to investigate possible role of brain beta-endorphins as markers of antidepressive drugs therapy monitoring. Experiment was done using amitriptyline and trazodone as antidepressants. For quantification of brain beta-endorphins we used RIA technique. Our results showed significant decrease of brain beta-endorphins concentration in drug-pretreated animals, vs. those in of control group treated with 0,95% NaCl. The lower values were obtained in trazodone pre-treated animals. This study shows that use of psychoactive drugs have influence on brain beta-endorphins concentration. beta-endorphins could be of great importance, used as markers for evaluation of patient treatment.

  15. Inhibition of [gamma]-endorphin generating endopeptidase activity of rat brain by peptides: Structure activity relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, J.L.M.; Visser, W.H.; Hendriks, R.W.; Nispen, J.W. van; Greven, H.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-Endorphin generating endopeptidase (gammaEGE) activity is an enzyme activity which converts beta-endorphin into gamma-endorphin and beta-endorphin-(18–31). The inhibitory potency on gammaEGE activity of neuropeptides and analogues or fragments of neuropeptides was tested. Dynorphin-(1–13)

  16. Non-opiate [beta]-endorphin fragments and dopamine--IV [gamma]-type endorphins may control dopaminergic systems in the nucleus accumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Wolterink, G.; Fekete, M.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    Chronic treatment with des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE, β-endorphin 6–17) twice daily for 10 days into the nucleus accumbens of rats resulted in hypoactivity, while similar treatment with γ-endorphin antiserum led to a marked hyperactivity. This enhanced activity persisted for at least 3 days

  17. US -endorphin-(1-27) is a naturally occurring antagonist to etorphine-induced analgesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, P.; Li, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    The potent opioid peptide US -endorphin is found in the brain and pituitary with two related fragments, US -endorphin-(1-27) and US -endorphin-(1-26). The fragments, retain substantial opioid-receptor binding activity but are virtually inactive analgesically. US -Endorphin-(1-27) inhibits US -endorphin-induced and etorphine-induced analgesia when coinjected intracerebroventricularly into mice. Antagonism by competition at the same site(s) is suggested from parallel shifts of the dose-response curves of etorphine or US -endorphin in the presence of US -endorphin-(1-27). Its potency is 4-5 times greater than that of the opiate antagonist naloxone. US -Endorphin-(1-26) does not antagonize the antinociceptive action of etorphine or US -endorphin in doses up to 500 pmol per animal.

  18. EFEKTIFITAS ENDORPHIN MASSAGE TERHADAP FUNGSI SEKSUAL PEREMPUAN PADA MASA MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the effectiveness ofendorphine massage on female sexual function during menopause inNgampel District of Kendal Regency. Sampling was done by samplingcriteria acsidental aged less than 60 years old, have a husband, in a healthycondition. Data processing was performed using the Wilcoxon test todetermine differences in sexual function before and after the interventionwhile endorphine effectiveness of massage performed by using MannWhitney.Hasil research: Wilcoxon test showed that there are significantdifferences in sexual function before and after being given endorphineMassage with p value 0.00. While Mann Whitney test showed p value of0.13 and the value of z score of -2.828, which means there is a stronginfluence among endorphine Massage to increased sexual function soendorphine Massage is effective for improving sexual function.Keyword: menopause, endorphin massage, sexual function

  19. Beta-endorphin Cell Therapy for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Changqing; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Jabbar, Shaima; Shrivastava, Pallavi; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    Beta-endorphin (BEP) producing neuron in the hypothalamus plays a key role in brining the stress axis to a state of homeostasis and maintaining body immune defense system. Long-term delivery of BEP to obtain beneficial effect on chemoprevention is challenging, since the peptide rapidly develop tolerance. Using rats as animal model, we show here that transplantation of beta-endorphin neurons into the hypothalamus suppressed carcinogens- and hormone-induced cancers in various tissues and preven...

  20. Beta-endorphin radioimmunoassay: specificity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas-Linhart, N.; Perdrisot, R.; Petiet, A.; Bok, B.

    1986-01-01

    This note describes the technical details of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B-Endorphin (B-End) radioimmunoassay (RIA). We used an antiserum raised in rabbits against human B-End which cross-reacs 100% with B-Lipotrophin (B-Lph). Thus, filtration chromatography is used to separate both peptides. The assay is sensitive (limit detection=14 pmoles/l), reproducible (the intra and inter assay coefficients of variation are 5 and 6% respectively). Specificity studies are performed to verify the cross-reactions with other opioid peptides and the non specific reactions with the biological fluid (CSF). In order to evaluate the effects of iodine-containing contrast media on the RIA, additional standard curves were analyzed in the presence of varying concentrations of two contrast materials.

  1. A beta-endorphin radioimmunoassay: specificity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas-Linhart, N.; Perdrisot, R.; Petiet, A.; Bok, B.

    1986-01-01

    This note describes the technical details of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B-Endorphin (B-End) radioimmunoassay (RIA). We used an antiserum raised in rabbits against human B-End which cross-reacs 100% with B-Lipotrophin (B-Lph). Thus, filtration chromatography is used to separate both peptides. The assay is sensitive (limit detection=14 pmoles/l), reproducible (the intra and inter assay coefficients of variation are 5 and 6% respectively). Specificity studies are performed to verify the cross-reactions with other opioid peptides and the non specific reactions with the biological fluid (CSF). In order to evaluate the effects of iodine-containing contrast media on the RIA, additional standard curves were analyzed in the presence of varying concentrations of two contrast materials [fr

  2. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  3. Endorphins, Exercise, and Addictions: A Review of Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leuenberger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Endorphins are endogenous opioids released from the pituitary gland that are believed to mediate analgesia, induce euphoria, and play a role in the reward system in the brain. It has been suggested that endorphins are responsible for creating the relaxed psychological state known as runners high. Studies examining the relationship between vigorous exercise and blood plasma endorphin levels have produced conflicting results. Some indicate a significant increase of endorphins during or after exercise while others do not. Inconsistent methods and experimental techniques have made it difficult to determine a relationship between exercise and endorphin elevations. Research has shown that opioidergic activity plays a role in addictions by mediating the development of reinforcing qualities of certain activities and substances. A newly-established condition known as exercise dependence defines exercise as an addiction, characterized by a compulsion to exercise excessively even when the consequences are harmful to an individuals health, family relationships, and personal wealth (Griffiths, 1997; Hausenblas and Downs, 2002; Loumidis and Wells, 1998. Various surveys and questionnaires have been validated for determining the level of an individuals dependence on and need for exercise. As researchers define a clear relationship between vigorous exercise and increased endorphin levels, causes of exercise dependence can be more concretely determined. Exercise dependence is not currently recognized by the DSM-IV, but its presence in certain human behaviors (similar to those of alcoholics and drug addicts indicate that it should be precisely defined.

  4. [3H]-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the 3 H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of [ 3 H]-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo

  5. Circadian secretion patterns of ß-endorphin and leucine enkephalin

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    E. H. de Wet

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available ß-endorphin and leucine enkephalin are neuropeptides with potent opioid activity. In a study to investigate the circadian secretion patterns of the above-mentioned, blood samples were collected hourly from 12 healthy males who were subjected to the experiment for 24 hours. Radioimmunoassays were used in the analysis of plasma samples for ß-endorphin and leucine enkephalin. Peak concentrations of ß-endorphin were demonstrated from 08:00-09:00, while peak concentrations of leucine enkephalin occured from 23:00-07:00. Trough concentrations of ß-endorphin occurred from 24:00-05:00, while trough con­centrations of leucine enkephalin were demonstrated from 09:00-12:00. The illustrated circadian secretion pattern for ß-endorphin simulates the well-known circadian rhythm of cortisol. The answer to this may be in the fact that ß-endorphin and corticotropin stem from the same precursor. The illustrated circadian secretion pattern for leucine enkephalin simulates that of melatonin. The reason for this is unclear.

  6. Effects of endorphin massage on B-endorphin level and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score in women with postpartum blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2014-06-01

    Results: Endorphin massage treatment significantly increase the B-endorphin level compared to before treatment (P 0.05. The level of EPDS significantly decrease after treatment than that before treatment (P 0.05. There is significantly negative correlation between B-endorphin level and EPDS score (r = -0,517; P 0.05. Conclusion: Endorphin massage is good alternative treatment to increase B-endorphin level and decresae EPDS score among mother with postpartum blues. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 512-516

  7. Effects of [Des-Tyr1]-γ-endorphin and α-endorphin on substantia nigra self-stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Ree, J.M. van; Wied, D. de

    The β-lipotropin fragments, [des-Tyr1]-γ-endorphin (DTγE, β-LPH62–77) and α-endorphin (β-LPH61–76) affect self-stimulating behavior associated with electrical stimulation of neurons of the ventral tegmentum area of rats in an opposite way. Subcutaneous administration of DTγE (5 and 25 μg) attenuated

  8. Biotransformation of endorphins by a synaptosomal plasma membrane preparation of rat brain and by human serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Loeber, J.G.; Verhoef, J.; Kloet, E.R. de; Wied, D. de

    1979-01-01

    β-Endorphin (β-LPH 61–91), γ-endorphin (61–77), des-tyrosine-γ-endorphin (62–77), α-endorphin (61–76), and β-LPH 61–69 either labeled with [125I] at the N-terminal 61-tyrosine residue or unlabeled were incubated with a crude synaptosomal plasma membrane fraction of rat brain or in human serum. At

  9. Effects of Amphetamine and β-Endorphin Fragments on Maze Performance in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, S. de; Bohus, B.

    1990-01-01

    Fragments of β-endorphin and amphetamine cause similar effects in some tests of maze behavior in rats. The present study served to compare the influence of amphetamine and two β-endorphin fragments [β-endorphin (βE)-(2-9) and βE-(2-16)] on maze behavior in more detail. In Experiment I no significant

  10. Effect of irradiation on analgesia induced by morphine and endorphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hyun, Soung Hee; Chung, Ki Myung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Morphine and endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) produce analgesia by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Gamma irradiation attenuates the acute analgesic action of i.c.v. injected morphine in mice. This study was done to investigate the effect of-irradiation on the analgesia produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co source and the analgesic effects were tested 5, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min after irradiation using the acetic acid-induced writhing test. The analgesic effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for analgesia produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine or endorphin. Irradiation significantly potentiated the analgesia produced by endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results support the hypothesis that morphine and endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinocieception by different neuronal mechanisms.

  11. Effect of irradiation on analgesia induced by morphine and endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hyun, Soung Hee; Chung, Ki Myung

    2003-01-01

    Morphine and endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) produce analgesia by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Gamma irradiation attenuates the acute analgesic action of i.c.v. injected morphine in mice. This study was done to investigate the effect of-irradiation on the analgesia produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a 60 Co source and the analgesic effects were tested 5, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min after irradiation using the acetic acid-induced writhing test. The analgesic effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for analgesia produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine or endorphin. Irradiation significantly potentiated the analgesia produced by endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results support the hypothesis that morphine and endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinocieception by different neuronal mechanisms

  12. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  13. Effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui

    2001-01-01

    The authors observed the effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers and their correlation. The levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol of smokers before and after cigarette withdrawal were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The Levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers is significantly higher than in controls. After natural withdrawal, the levels of plasma cortisol increased significantly, while beta-endorphin decreased significantly. After drug treatment, the levels of beta-endorphin and cortisol balanced. The drugs may play the role of cigarette withdrawal by improving the secretion of endogenous opium and the axis of hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal

  14. The effects of Beta-Endorphin: state change modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-endorphin (beta-END) is an opioid neuropeptide which has an important role in the development of hypotheses concerning the non-synaptic or paracrine communication of brain messages. This kind of communication between neurons has been designated volume transmission (VT) to differentiate it

  15. Locomotor sensitization to ethanol: Contribution of b-Endorphin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephani eDempsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders, like all drug addictions, involve a constellation of adaptive changes throughout the brain. Neural activity underlying changes in the rewarding properties of alcohol reflect changes in dopamine transmission in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways and these effects are modulated by endogenous opioids such as b-Endorphin. In order to study the role of b-Endorphin in the development of locomotor sensitization to repeated EtOH exposure, we tested transgenic mice that vary in their capacity to synthesize this peptide as a result of constitutive modification of the Pomc gene. Our results indicate that mice deficient in b-Endorphin show attenuated locomotor activation following an acute injection of EtOH (2 g/kg and, in contrast to wildtype mice, fail to demonstrate locomotor sensitization after 12 days of repeated EtOH injections. These data support the idea that b-Endorphin modulates the locomotor effects of EtOH and contributes to the neuroadaptive changes associated with chronic use.

  16. Biotinylated human. beta. -endorphins as probes for the opioid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhaus, G.; Gibson, B.W.; Sadee, W.

    1988-01-05

    The reaction of human ..beta..-endorphin and biotinyl N-hydroxysuccinimide with or without spacer arm, afforded a series of products that were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of the biotinylated products and their tryptic digests produced abundant protonated molecular ions (MH/sup +/), which specified the number and location of biotinylation. Between 1 and 4 biotinyl residues were incorporated per human ..beta..-endorphin molecule, at Lys-9, -19, -24, -28, and -29, but not at the amino-terminal Try-1. Three HPLC fractions were isolated for receptor binding studies monobiotinylation of Lys-9, Lys-19, and a mixture of Lys-24, Lys-28, and Lys-29 derivatives. IC/sub 50/ values for binding to ..mu.. and delta opioid receptor sites were 3-8 times higher for monobiotinylated derivatives than for the parent human ..beta..-endorphin. Association with avidin decreased opioid receptor affinities for the C/sub 6/ spacer derivative biotinylated at position Lys-9, which is close to the (1-5) enkephalin receptor region. In contrast, avidin did not affect or even increased apparent affinities to ..mu.. and delta sites for derivatives biotinylated at the ..cap alpha..-helical part of the molecule (Lys-19, -24, -28, and -29). Biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphins also bound to low affinity nonopioid binding sites on NG-108-15 cells; however, affinities to these sites were considerably reduced when derivatives were bound to avidin. The ability of biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphin to cross-link the ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors to avidin allows application of the biotin-avidin system as a molecular probe of the opioid receptor.

  17. Effects of (Des-Tyr1)-γ-endorphin and α-endorphin as compared to haloperidol and amphetamine on nucleus accumbens self-stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Otte, A.P.

    The β-endorphin fragment (Des-Tyr1)-γ-endorphin (DTγE, β-LPH 62–77) attenuated self-stimulation behaviour associated with electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens area of rats. This effect was observed after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 2.5 and 25 μg of the neuropeptide and appeared to be

  18. γ-endorphin and Nα-acetyl-γ-endorphin interfere with distinct dopaminergic systems in the nucleus accumbens via opioid and non-opioid mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Gaffori, O.; Kiraly, I.

    1984-01-01

    Low doses (10 ng) of the dopamine agonist apomorphine induced hypolocomotion when injected into the nucleus accumbens of rats. This behavioral response was antagonized by local treatment with either the opioid peptide γ-endorphin (γE) or the non-opioid peptide Nα-acetyl-γ-endorphin (AcγE) in a dose

  19. Beta-endorphin and the immune system--possible role in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, H; Pedersen, B K

    1995-01-01

    The immune system and the neuroendocrine system are closely interconnected having such means of bidirectional communication and regulation. In this review, a hypothesis is put forward regarding the possible role of beta-endorphins in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: It is suggested...... that the increased cytokine production in immunoinflammatory disorders induces production of beta-endorphins from the pituitary and the lymphocytes; the enhanced level of beta-endorphin causes inhibition of human T helper cell function, which potentially down-regulate the antibody production. Also the beta......-endorphin-induced enhancement of the natural killer cell activity may suppress the B cell function. In addition, beta-endorphin also exerts a direct inhibitory effect on the antibody production. Thus, in autoimmune disorders the enhanced cytokine level may via stimulation of the production of beta-endorphins exert a negative...

  20. Beta-endorphin and ACTH in plasma during attacks of common and classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F W; Jensen, K; Blegvad, N

    1985-01-01

    Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH were measured during and outside migraine attacks in 17 patients with common migraine and 11 patients with classic migraine. Specific radioimmunoassays for beta-endorphin and ACTH were used. The beta-endorphin assay did not cross-react with beta-lipotropin...... migraine. Accordingly, we could not add evidence to the theory of a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system in migraine....

  1. Endorphinic neurons are contacting the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, G.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical relationships between endorphinic neurons and dopaminergic neurons were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus using a combination of immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. In the arcuate nucleus, endorphinic endings were seen making contacts with dopaminergic cell bodies and dendrites. No synapsis could be observed at the sites of contacts. These results strongly suggest that the endorphinic neurons are directly acting on dopaminergic neurons to modify the release of dopamine into the pituitary portal system

  2. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment.

  3. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment

  4. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  5. Specific binding of beta-endorphin to normal human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenet, B.; Hollis, V. Jr.; Kang, Y.; Simpkins, C.

    1986-03-05

    Beta-endorphin (BE) exhibits peripheral functions which may not be mediated by interactions with receptors in the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated binding of BE to both opioid and non-opioid receptors on lymphocytes and monocytes. Abood has reported specific binding of /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine in erythrocytes. Using 5 x 10/sup -11/M /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and 10/sup -5/M unlabeled BE, they have detected 50% specific binding to human erythrocytes. This finding is supported by results from immunoelectron microscopy using rabbit anti-BE antibody and biotinylated secondary antibody with avidin-biotin complexes horseradish peroxidase. Binding is clearly observed and is confined to only one side of the cells. Conclusions: (1) BE binding to human erythrocytes was demonstrated by radioreceptor assay and immunoelectron microscopy, and (2) BE binding sites exist on only one side of the cells.

  6. Skin β-Endorphin Mediates Addiction to UV Light

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, Gillian L.; Robinson, Kathleen C.; Mao, Jianren; Woolf, Clifford J.; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is an established carcinogen yet evidence suggests that UV-seeking behavior has addictive features. Following UV exposure, epidermal keratinocytes synthesize Proopiomelanocortin that is processed to Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, inducing tanning. We show that in rodents another POMC-derived peptide, β-endorphin, is coordinately synthesized in skin, elevating plasma levels after low-dose UV. Increases in pain-related thresholds are observed, and reversed by pharmacologic op...

  7. Radioimmunological evidence for beta-endorphin in human cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, M.

    1982-01-01

    Both-endomorphin-like immunoreactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid was determined by two different radioimmunoassays. Measurements made using a bought RIA-kit (Immuno Nuclear Corporation) produced results which were too high compared to results from the literature. The procedure for the beta-endophin radioimmunoassay of Hoellt et al. was followed, the various steps studied and in part modified. Here both beta endorphin and beta-lipotropin were labelled with I-125 and a new method introduced for separating I - -125 following labelling. Studies on the specificity of the method revealed that, in addition to beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin and two further non-identified fluid fractions were also determined but that the specificity of the RIA's could be significantly increased by prior extraction of the fluid with silicic acid. Determinations of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in 28 different human fluids using this RIA gave values from below 20 pg/ml to 70 pg/ml thus confirming literature values. (orig.) [de

  8. Skin β-endorphin mediates addiction to UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Gillian L; Robinson, Kathleen C; Mao, Jianren; Woolf, Clifford J; Fisher, David E

    2014-06-19

    UV light is an established carcinogen, yet evidence suggests that UV-seeking behavior has addictive features. Following UV exposure, epidermal keratinocytes synthesize proopiomelanocortin (POMC) that is processed to melanocyte-stimulating hormone, inducing tanning. We show that, in rodents, another POMC-derived peptide, β-endorphin, is coordinately synthesized in skin, elevating plasma levels after low-dose UV. Increases in pain-related thresholds are observed and reversed by pharmacologic opioid antagonism. Opioid blockade also elicits withdrawal signs after chronic UV exposure. This effect was sufficient to guide operant behavioral choices to avoidance of opioid withdrawal (conditioned place aversion). These UV-induced nociceptive and behavioral effects were absent in β-endorphin knockout mice and in mice lacking p53-mediated POMC induction in epidermal keratinocytes. Although primordial UV addiction, mediated by the hedonic action of β-endorphin and anhedonic effects of withdrawal, may theoretically have enhanced evolutionary vitamin D biosynthesis, it now may contribute to the relentless rise in skin cancer incidence in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-opiate [beta]-endorphin fragments and dopamine--II [beta]-endorphin 2-9 enhances apomorphine-induced stereotypy following subcutaneous and intra-striatal injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van

    1982-01-01

    The non-opiate β-endorphin (βE) fragment 2–16 (des Tyr1-α-endorphin) enhanced apomorphine-induced stereotyped sniffing in rats, but did not interfere with the hypoactivity elicited by small doses of apomorphine. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the active moiety of α-endorphin

  10. Non-opiate [beta]-endorphin fragments and dopamine--I the neuroleptic-like [gamma]-endorphin fragments interfere with the behavioural effects elicited by small doses of apomorphine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Innemee, H.; Louwerens, J.W.; Kahn, R.S.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    In rats, the β- endorphin fragment, 6–17 (des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin, DEγE), dose-dependently antagonized the reduction of the rate of locomotion and rearing induced by small doses of apomorphine. Structure-activity studies revealed that the active moiety of γ-endorphin fragments with respect to

  11. Plasma beta-endorphin levels in obese and non-obese patients with polycystic ovary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Guisasola, J; Guerrero, M; Alonso, F; Díaz, F; Cordero, J; Ferrer, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of body weight on circulating plasma levels of beta-endorphin and insulin in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), as well as the correlation between the plasma levels of beta-endorphin and insulin. One-hundred and sixty-seven consecutive subjects with PCOD were recruited, 117 of whom had normal weight (body mass index (BMI) 25). A venous blood sample was taken and plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin, insulin, gonadotropins, prolactin, progesterone, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone, androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Mean beta-endorphin and insulin plasma levels were significantly higher (p PCOD women than in non-obese ones. Correlation analysis showed a positive association between insulin and beta-endorphin, beta-endorphin and BMI (and weight), insulin and BMI (and weight), and a negative correlation was found between insulin and SHBG. A weak association was found between beta-endorphin and luteinizing hormone (LH) in peripheral plasma. Stratified and linear regression analysis showed that plasma beta-endorphin concentrations correlate more with BMI than with insulinemia.

  12. Behavioral effects of the [beta]-endorphin fragment 2-9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    The non-opiate β-endorphin (βE) fragment des-Tyr-α-endorphin (βE 2–16) delays extinction of pole jumping avoidance behavior and potentiates apomorphine-induced stereotyped sniffing. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the active moiety mediating these psycho-stimulant effects

  13. Central effects of beta-endorphins on glucose homeostasis in the conscious dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosevich, P.M.; Lacy, D.B.; Brown, L.L.; Williams, P.E.; Abumrad, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of centrally administered beta-endorphins on glucose homeostasis in the conscious dog were studied. Intracerebroventricular administration of beta-endorphin (0.2 mg/h) caused a 70% increase in plasma glucose. The mechanism of the hyperglycemia was twofold: there was an early increase in glucose production and a late inhibition of glucose clearance. These changes are explained by marked increases in plasma epinephrine (30-fold) and norepinephrine (6-fold) that occurred during infusion of beta-endorphin. Central administration of beta-endorphin also resulted in increased levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol. In addition there was an increase in plasma insulin but no increase in plasma glucagon. Intravenous administration of beta-endorphin did not alter glucose homeostasis. Intracerebroventricular administration of acetylated beta-endorphin did not perturb glucose kinetics or any of the hormones that changed during infusion of the unacetylated peptide. We conclude that beta-endorphin acts centrally to cause hyperglycemia by stimulating sympathetic outflow and the pituitary-adrenal axis. Acetylation of beta-endorphin abolishes the in vivo activity of the peptide

  14. Central effects of beta-endorphins on glucose homeostasis in the conscious dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosevich, P.M.; Lacy, D.B.; Brown, L.L.; Williams, P.E.; Abumrad, N.N.

    1989-02-01

    The effects of centrally administered beta-endorphins on glucose homeostasis in the conscious dog were studied. Intracerebroventricular administration of beta-endorphin (0.2 mg/h) caused a 70% increase in plasma glucose. The mechanism of the hyperglycemia was twofold: there was an early increase in glucose production and a late inhibition of glucose clearance. These changes are explained by marked increases in plasma epinephrine (30-fold) and norepinephrine (6-fold) that occurred during infusion of beta-endorphin. Central administration of beta-endorphin also resulted in increased levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol. In addition there was an increase in plasma insulin but no increase in plasma glucagon. Intravenous administration of beta-endorphin did not alter glucose homeostasis. Intracerebroventricular administration of acetylated beta-endorphin did not perturb glucose kinetics or any of the hormones that changed during infusion of the unacetylated peptide. We conclude that beta-endorphin acts centrally to cause hyperglycemia by stimulating sympathetic outflow and the pituitary-adrenal axis. Acetylation of beta-endorphin abolishes the in vivo activity of the peptide.

  15. Beta-endorphin and ACTH in plasma during attacks of common and classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F W; Jensen, K; Blegvad, N

    1985-01-01

    Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH were measured during and outside migraine attacks in 17 patients with common migraine and 11 patients with classic migraine. Specific radioimmunoassays for beta-endorphin and ACTH were used. The beta-endorphin assay did not cross-react with beta......-lipotropin. In common migraine, median plasma beta-endorphin was 3.3 pmol/l (95% confidence limits: 2.5-4.0 pmol/l) during attacks and 2.9 (2.4-3.2) pmol/l in the headache-free period. In classic migraine, plasma beta-endorphin was 3.2 (1.4-4.3) pmol/l during attacks and 2.4 (1.1-3.6) pmol/l outside attacks. ACTH...

  16. Effects Of Amitryptilin Administration on Rat Sera and Brain Beta-endorphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoj Jadrić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish the influence of antidepressive drugs on serum and brain beta-endorphins in experimental animals. Experiment was performed on albino Wistar rats. Antidepressant amitryptiline was used, and for quantification of sera and brain beta-endorphins RIA technique. Our results showed difference between sera and brain beta-endorphins concentration in amitryptiline pretreated animals, vs. those in serum and brain of control group treated with 0.95% NaCl. This study shows that use of psychoactive drugs have influence on sera and brain beta-endorphins concentration. Beta-endorphins could be of great importance, used as markers for evaluation of antidepressant drug effects.

  17. Molecular interpretation of ACTH-β-endorphin coaggregation: relevance to secretory granule biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastav Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Peptide/protein hormones could be stored as non-toxic amyloid-like structures in pituitary secretory granules. ACTH and β-endorphin are two of the important peptide hormones that get co-stored in the pituitary secretory granules. Here, we study molecular interactions between ACTH and β-endorphin and their colocalization in the form of amyloid aggregates. Although ACTH is known to be a part of ACTH-β-endorphin aggregate, ACTH alone cannot aggregate into amyloid under various plausible conditions. Using all atom molecular dynamics simulation we investigate the early molecular interaction events in the ACTH-β-endorphin system, β-endorphin-only system and ACTH-only system. We find that β-endorphin and ACTH formed an interacting unit, whereas negligible interactions were observed between ACTH molecules in ACTH-only system. Our data suggest that ACTH is not only involved in interaction with β-endorphin but also enhances the stability of mixed oligomers of the entire system.

  18. Comparison of Trazodone, Diazepame and Dibenzepine Influences on Rat Brain Beta-Endorphins Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoj Jadrić

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish the extent of influence of different psychotropic drugs to brain β-endorphins in experimental animals. The study was performed on albino Wistar rats (weight 250 g, treated with different psychoactive drugs. RIA technique was employed for quantification of brain β-endorphins. Brain β-endorphins were higher in experiment group treated with trazodone (929 pg/g ± 44,43; X±SD, and dibenzepine (906,63 pg/g ± 74,06, yet with lower brain content in rats treated with diazepame (841,55 pg/g ± 68,47, compared to brain β-endorphins content of control group treated with saline solution (0,95% NaCl (873,5 pg/g ± 44,89. Significant differences were obtained comparing brain β-endorphins of trazodone vs. diaze-pame treated animals, with diazepame group having lower values (p<0,02. This study showed differences in changes of rat brain β-endorphins contents when different psy-choactive drugs are used. Therefore, we consider that β-endorphins could be used for evaluation of effects of psychoactive drugs, as a useful parameter in therapy with these psycho pharmaceuticals.

  19. β-endorphins Plasma Level is Higher in Lean Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, M; Milewicz, T; Spałkowska, M; Krzyczkowska-Sendrakowska, M; Wasyl, B; Pełka, A; Krzysiek, J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation the β-endorphin plasma levels in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome as well as in women without this disorder. The associations between β-endorphins and other laboratory parameters were also investigated. 31 women lean, defined as women with normal range body mass index, 15 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 16 without this disorder were included to the study. In all the patients the level of β-endorphins was measured. Also the diagnostic laboratory profile including hormone assessment was made in all patients. There were significant differences in β-endorphin levels between the 2 groups. The β-endorphin level was higher in the polycystic ovary syndrome group compared to the healthy controls (15.5±4.37 pg/ml vs. 6.9±2.47 pg/ml, ppolycystic ovary syndrome group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/ml was associated with an increase of cortisol at 8 am level of 1.134 µg/dl and decrease of sex hormone binding globuline of 0.948 nmol/l in polycystic ovary syndrome group. Our study showed that the levels of β-endorphins were significantly higher in lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome than in lean controls. Moreover, β-endorphins levels were found to be correlated with other hormonal parameters. In this respect, β-endorphins may play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome pathophysiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.C.; Burns, R.S.; Dubois, M.; Cohen, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and [ 14 C]methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption

  1. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.C.; Burns, R.S.; Dubois, M.; Cohen, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and (/sup 14/C)methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption.

  2. Association Between Plasma Beta-endorphin and WOMAC Score in Female Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Hariyanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: β-endorphin plays a role in the descending pain control in the central nervous system. Central sensitization may be involved in the generating and maintenance of osteoarthritis (OA pain. However, the correlation between β-endorphin and pain severity in OA has shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma β-endorphin and the severity of the disease. METHODS: This study was an observational cross-sectional study carried out on 60 female subjects with knee OA who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Plasma β-endorphin was measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Osteoarthritis knees were classified by the Kellegren-Lawrence (KL grading (1-4 criteria. The Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC scoring method was used to assess self-reported physical function, pain and stiffness. RESULTS: The mean of the participants' ages was 58 years old, ranging from 42 to 83 years. Overall, more than 70% of the participants were overweight with a mean of body mass index (BMI of 27.59. More than 54% of the participants were diagnosed of having KL grading 3 or 4. Plasma β-endorphin was correlated inversely with the WOMAC subscale of stiffness (r=-0.286, p=0.0311, but no correlation was noted with the WOMAC subscale of pain and physical activity. There was no significant difference of the mean of plasma β-endorphin among the KL gradings. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma β-endorphin is associated with better WOMAC total score and stiffness subscale, but not associated with KL grading of OA. KEYWORDS: knee osteoarthritis, female, β-endorphin, WOMAC, Kellgren-Lawrence.

  3. Diurnal variation of. beta. -endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, I.A.; Perry, M.L.S.; Carrasco, M.A.; Dias, R.D. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias); Orsingher, O.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1984-09-01

    ..beta..-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of ..beta..-endorphin immunoreactive material.

  4. Diurnal variation of β-endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, I.A.; Perry, M.L.S.; Carrasco, M.A.; Dias, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    β-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of β-endorphin immunoreactive material. (Author) [pt

  5. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral ?-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    OpenAIRE

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P.; Ragonese, G.; Fazio, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating ?-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma ?-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive sho...

  6. Analyzing the evolution of beta-endorphin post-translational processing events: studies on reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Pezhman; Baron, Andrea; Szynskie, Laura; Dores, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    In many cartilaginous fishes, most ray-finned fishes, lungfishes, and amphibians, the post-translational processing of POMC includes the monobasic cleavage of beta-endorphin to yield an opioid that is eight to ten amino acids in length. The amino acid motif within the beta-endorphin sequence required for a monobasic cleavage event is -E-R-(S/G)-Q-. Mammals and birds lack this motif and as a result beta-endorphin(1-8) is a not an end-product in either group. Since both mammals and birds were derived from ancestors with reptilian origins, an analysis of beta-endorphin sequences from extant groups of reptiles should provide insights into the manner in which beta-endorphin post-translational processing mechanisms have evolved in amniotes. To this end a POMC cDNA was cloned from the pituitary of the turtle, Chrysemys scripta. The beta-endorphin sequence in this species was compared to other reptile beta-endorphin sequences (i.e., Chinese soft shell turtle and gecko) and to known bird and mammal sequences. This analysis indicated that either the loss of the arginine residue at the cleavage site (the two turtle species, chick, and human) or a substitution at the glutamine position in the consensus sequence (gecko and ostrich) would account for the loss of the monobasic cleavage reaction in that species. Since amphibians are capable of performing the beta-endorphin monobasic reaction, it would appear that the amino acid substitutions that eliminated this post-translational process event in reptilian-related tetrapods must have occurred in the ancestral amniotes.

  7. Effect of des-Tyr1-[gamma]-endorphin and des-enkephalin-[gamma]-endorphin on active and passive avoidance behavior of rats; A dose-response relationship study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffori, O.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    The potency of two β-endorphin fragments, des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE, βE-(2–17)) and des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE, βE-(6–17)) was compared on extinction of pole-jumping avoidance behavior and on retention of a one-trial step-through passive avoidance procedure. Both peptides facilitated the

  8. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF OXYTOCIN AND ENDORPHIN MASSAGE ON UTERINE INVOLUTION IN PRIMIPAROUS MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmala Sari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the puerperal complication is uterine subinvolution that can cause bleeding to maternal death. Oxytocin massage can stimulate oxytocin hormone that plays a role in the process of uterine involution. Endorphine massage can increase the release of oxytocin and endorphine hormone that give a sense of calm and comfort. It also increases production of oxytocin hormone that can improve the process of uterine involution. Objective: To prove the effectiveness of a combination of oxytocin massage and endorphine massage to uterine involution in primiparaous mothers during postpartum period. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest with control group design. Total samples were 44 normal postpartum mothers selected using purposive sampling technique, which were randomly assigned in four groups, namely: 1 oxytocin massage group, 2 endorphin massage group, 3 combined oxytocin-endorphin massage group, and 4 control group. The data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate and One Way Anova to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Results: There were statistically significant differences of fundal height before and after intervention among the four groups (p=<0.05. Conclusion: The combination of oxytocin massage and endorphine massage proved most effective in accelerating uterine involution in normal postpartum mothers.

  9. Effect of chronic morphine treatment on β-endorphin biosynthesis by the rat neurointermediate lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoulakis, C.; Drouin, J.-N.; Seidah, N.G.; Kalant, H.; Chretien, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chronic morphine treatment on the in vitro biosynthesis of β-endorphin by rat pars intermedia was investigated. Tolerance and physical dependence were induced in 200 g rats by the subcutaneous implantation of 75 mg morphine pellets for either 3 days or 15 days. Immediately following sacrifice of the animals the neurointermediate lobes were removed and incubated with [ 3 H]phenylalanine. The protein extracts of the lobes were analyzed for the incorporation of the labelled amino acid into total protein, pro-opiomelanocortin, β-lipotropin (β-LPH) and β-endorphin. The biosynthesized products were purified by immunoprecipitation with an antiserum to β-endorphin. The identity and purity of β-endorphin were verified by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate, and mircrosequencing. The identity of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) was verified by peptide mapping of its tryptic digestion products. The results showed that morphine treatment induced a decrease in the incorporation of the radioactive amino acid into total protein, pro-opiomelanocortin, β-LPH and β-endorphin. The decrease was more pronounced for the incorporation into β-LPH and β-endorphin than into pro-opiomelanocortin and total proteins, suggesting an effect of morphine treatment on the processing of the pro-opiomelanocortin to its final maturation products. (Auth.)

  10. Electroencephalographic changes in the lateral septum complex following systemic administration of DES-TYR1 -[alpha]-endorphin, Des-Tyr1-[gamma]-endorphin and haloperidol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, I.J.A.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    The influence of systemically administered Des-Tyr1-α-endorphin (DTαE), Des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE) and haloperidol on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of the lateral septum complex (LSC) and the frontal cortex was studied in male rats. DTαE (2 μg) significantly increased whereas DTγE (10 μg)

  11. Non-opiate [beta]-endorphin fragments and dopamine--III [gamma]-type endorphins and various neuroleptics counteract the hypoactivity elicited by injection of apomorphine into the nucleus accumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Caffe, A.R.; Wolterink, G.

    1982-01-01

    The hypoactivity in rats induced by small doses of apomorphine, injected bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens area of the brain, could be antagonized by pretreatment with the neuroleptic-like neuropeptide des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE, β-endorphin 6–17) as well as with the neuroleptic drugs

  12. Investigating variations of β-endorphin serum levels and pain caused by primary dysmenorrhea following a course of aerobic training with and without consumption of cumin supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadese Eidi Kakhki

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion:  Aerobic exercise results in the secretion of β-endorphin and may also be effective in reducing the pain severity of menstrual. However, cumin did not have a significant effect on β-endorphin and painseverity and it is likely to reduce the pain of menstruation through a mechanism independent of β -endorphin secretion

  13. Correlation of Serum β-Endorphin and the Quality of Life in Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergic rhinitis (AR significantly impairs the quality of life of the patients; however, a questionnaire alone is an insufficient and subjective measure of this condition. Obtaining an objective clinical assessment of the level of impairment will be valuable for its treatment. β-Endorphin is one of the most important mediators of both mental state and specific immunity. Thus, we investigated the possibility of using β-endorphin as a biomarker for evaluating the impairment level in AR. Methods. This study included 48 patients with AR and 32 healthy volunteers. The serum β-endorphin level was determined by enzyme immunoassay, and the serum-specific IgE and total IgE levels were determined by immunoblot assay. The Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ was used to assess the impairment level in the symptom duration. Results. The β-endorphin concentration was significantly decreased in AR patients compared to the healthy controls (p=0.000, p0.05. Conclusion. β-Endorphin is a systemic biomarker that has the potential to assess the impairment level in AR and may therefore be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of AR.

  14. Conversion of des-tyrosine-y-endorphin by brain synaptic membrane associated peptidases: identification of generated peptide fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Schotman, P.; Verhoef, J.; Kloet, E.R. de; Wied, D. de

    1980-01-01

    Des-tyrosine-γ-endorphin, a β-endorphin fragment with neuroleptic-like properties, was digested with a cSPM fraction of rat brain. A profile of metabolites and a time course of conversion were obtained by HPLC analysis of the digests. Quantitative amino acid analysis and a second HPLC fractionation

  15. Autoradiographic evidence of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, M.T.; Freire-Garabal, M.; Giraldez, M.; Nunez, M.J.; Belmonte, A.; Couceiro, J.; Jorge, J. (Univ. of Santiago (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    After {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage.

  16. The effects of beta-endorphin: state change modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veening, Jan G; Barendregt, Henk P

    2015-01-29

    Beta-endorphin (β-END) is an opioid neuropeptide which has an important role in the development of hypotheses concerning the non-synaptic or paracrine communication of brain messages. This kind of communication between neurons has been designated volume transmission (VT) to differentiate it clearly from synaptic communication. VT occurs over short as well as long distances via the extracellular space in the brain, as well as via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowing through the ventricular spaces inside the brain and the arachnoid space surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). To understand how β-END can have specific behavioral effects, we use the notion behavioral state, inspired by the concept of machine state, coming from Turing (Proc London Math Soc, Series 2,42:230-265, 1937). In section 1.4 the sequential organization of male rat behavior is explained showing that an animal is not free to switch into another state at any given moment. Funneling-constraints restrict the number of possible behavioral transitions in specific phases while at other moments in the sequence the transition to other behavioral states is almost completely open. The effects of β-END on behaviors like food intake and sexual behavior, and the mechanisms involved in reward, meditation and pain control are discussed in detail. The effects on the sequential organization of behavior and on state transitions dominate the description of these effects.

  17. Beta-endorphin cell therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Jabbar, Shaima; Shrivastava, Pallavi; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2015-01-01

    β-Endorphin (BEP)-producing neuron in the hypothalamus plays a key role in bringing the stress axis to a state of homeostasis and maintaining body immune defense system. Long-term delivery of BEP to obtain beneficial effect on chemoprevention is challenging, as the peptides rapidly develop tolerance. Using rats as animal models, we show here that transplantation of BEP neurons into the hypothalamus suppressed carcinogens- and hormone-induced cancers in various tissues and prevented growth and metastasis of established tumors via activation of innate immune functions. In addition, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of nanosphere-attached dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) increased the number of BEP neurons in the hypothalamus, reduced the stress response, enhanced the innate immune function, and prevented tumor cell growth, progression, and metastasis. BEP neuronal supplementation did not produce any deleterious effects on general health but was beneficial in suppressing age-induced alterations in physical activity, metabolic, and immune functions. We conclude that the neuroimmune system has significant control over cancer growth and progression, and that activation of the neuroimmune system via BEP neuronal supplementation/induction may have therapeutic value for cancer prevention and improvement of general health. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Specific radioimmunoassay of human. beta. -endorphin in unextracted plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Saito, T.; Linfoot, J.A.; Li, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    With an antiserum against human ..beta..-endorphin (..beta..-EP) crossreacting <2% with human ..beta..-lipotropin (..beta..-LPH) by weight we have developed a radioimmunoassay that can detect 1 pg ..beta..-EP in diluted raw plasma. In a.m. fasting plasma of 14 normal subjects ..beta..-EP ranged from <5 to 45 pg/ml. ..beta..-EP was elevated in untreated, but normal in successfully treated Cushing's disease; undetectable in a patient with adrenal adenoma; extremely high in Nelson's syndrome; and elevated in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma before, but undetectable after tumor resection. In subjects with intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ..beta..-EP was undectectable after dexamethasone and increased after metyrapone administration and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. ..beta..-EP concentration was considerably lower in serum than in simultaneously collected plasma, but increased in serum left unfrozen for several hours after clot removal. Thus, ..beta..-EP behaves like a hormone responding to the same stimuli as ACTH and ..beta..-LPH and blood appears to contain enzymes both generating and destroying immunoreactive ..beta..-EP.

  19. Muscarinic supersensibility of anterior pituitary ACTH and beta-endorphin release in major depressive illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, S.C.; Gillin, J.C.; Janowsky, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Since numerious physiological systems display muscarinic receptor supersensitivity in major depressive illnesses, the authors have hypothesize that anterior pituitary release of ACTH and beta-Endorphin immunoreactivity may also be muscarinically supersensitive in depression. The studies were conducted under FDA-approved IND and with local human subjects committee approval. Plasma ACTH concentrations were determined as follows: samples were assayed in duplicate using equilibrium radioimmunoassay utilizing a rabbit anti-porcine ACTH antibody. Significance ofchanges in plasma cortisol, ACTH and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity after physostigmine and saline were determined by repeated measures analysis of variance. In all subject groups, physostigmine (relative to placebo) caused significant increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, and beta-endorphin immonoreactivity

  20. Peripheral non-viral MIDGE vector-driven delivery of β-endorphin in inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busch Melanie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes infiltrating inflamed tissue produce and release opioid peptides such as β-endorphin, which activate opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory nerves resulting in analgesia. Gene therapy is an attractive strategy to enhance continuous production of endogenous opioids. However, classical viral and plasmid vectors for gene delivery are hampered by immunogenicity, recombination, oncogene activation, anti-bacterial antibody production or changes in physiological gene expression. Non-viral, non-plasmid minimalistic, immunologically defined gene expression (MIDGE vectors may overcome these problems as they carry only elements needed for gene transfer. Here, we investigated the effects of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-coupled MIDGE encoding the β-endorphin precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain in rats. Results POMC-MIDGE-NLS injected into inflamed paws appeared to be taken up by leukocytes resulting in higher concentrations of β-endorphin in these cells. POMC-MIDGE-NLS treatment reversed enhanced mechanical sensitivity compared with control MIDGE-NLS. However, both effects were moderate, not always statistically significant or directly correlated with each other. Also, the anti-hyperalgesic actions could not be increased by enhancing β-endorphin secretion or by modifying POMC-MIDGE-NLS to code for multiple copies of β-endorphin. Conclusion Although MIDGE vectors circumvent side-effects associated with classical viral and plasmid vectors, the current POMC-MIDGE-NLS did not result in reliable analgesic effectiveness in our pain model. This was possibly associated with insufficient and variable efficacy in transfection and/or β-endorphin production. Our data point at the importance of the reproducibility of gene therapy strategies for the control of chronic pain.

  1. Effect of. beta. -endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.

    1986-10-01

    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus.

  2. Effect of β-endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus

  3. Biosynthesis of amidated joining peptide from pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, E.I.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1987-09-01

    Joining peptide is the major alpha-amidated product of pro-ACTH/endorphin (PAE) in AtT-20 corticotropic tumor cells. To study intracellular joining peptide synthesis, affinity purified antibodies directed against gamma-MSH, joining peptide, and ACTH were used to immunoprecipitate extracts from biosynthetically labeled AtT-20 cells. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tryptic peptide mapping on HPLC. In steady labeling experiments, radioactivity in amidated joining peptide (JP) increased roughly linearly with time, in the manner of a final product, whereas radioactivity associated with PAE (1-94)NH2 reached a constant value after 2-4 h, indicating that PAE(1-94)NH2 is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of JP. Radioactivity appeared in ACTH(1-39) well before JP, consistent with a cleavage order in which ACTH is cleaved from PAE(1-95) before JP sequences are cleaved from PAE(1-74). This conclusion was supported by tryptic peptide analyses of immunoprecipitates, which indicated that less than 5% of JP-related material is cleaved from PAE(1-74) before being cleaved from ACTH-related sequences. After a pulse label, radioactivity in PAE(1-94)NH2 reached a peak value after 1 h of chase and declined with a half-life of less than 1 h. Amidated JP increased to a constant level after 2 h of chase. Enough radiolabeled PAE(1-94)NH2 was detected to account for about half of the radioactivity found in amidated JP, indicating that about half of JP-related material is first cleaved from PAE(1-95) before being amidated. This result was corroborated using HPLC purification to determine both amidated and glycine-extended forms of JP.

  4. Biosynthesis of amidated joining peptide from pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, E.I.; Mains, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Joining peptide is the major alpha-amidated product of pro-ACTH/endorphin (PAE) in AtT-20 corticotropic tumor cells. To study intracellular joining peptide synthesis, affinity purified antibodies directed against gamma-MSH, joining peptide, and ACTH were used to immunoprecipitate extracts from biosynthetically labeled AtT-20 cells. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tryptic peptide mapping on HPLC. In steady labeling experiments, radioactivity in amidated joining peptide (JP) increased roughly linearly with time, in the manner of a final product, whereas radioactivity associated with PAE (1-94)NH2 reached a constant value after 2-4 h, indicating that PAE(1-94)NH2 is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of JP. Radioactivity appeared in ACTH(1-39) well before JP, consistent with a cleavage order in which ACTH is cleaved from PAE(1-95) before JP sequences are cleaved from PAE(1-74). This conclusion was supported by tryptic peptide analyses of immunoprecipitates, which indicated that less than 5% of JP-related material is cleaved from PAE(1-74) before being cleaved from ACTH-related sequences. After a pulse label, radioactivity in PAE(1-94)NH2 reached a peak value after 1 h of chase and declined with a half-life of less than 1 h. Amidated JP increased to a constant level after 2 h of chase. Enough radiolabeled PAE(1-94)NH2 was detected to account for about half of the radioactivity found in amidated JP, indicating that about half of JP-related material is first cleaved from PAE(1-95) before being amidated. This result was corroborated using HPLC purification to determine both amidated and glycine-extended forms of JP

  5. Infundibular neurons of the human hypothalamus simultaneously reactive with antisera against endorphins, ACTH, MSH and beta-LPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnon, C; Bloch, B; Lenys, D; Fellmann, D

    1979-06-27

    In man, discrete neurons of the infundibular (arcuate) nucleus contain compounds that can be stained with anti-endorphin (alpha and beta), anti-ACTH, anti-MSH (alpha and beta) and anti-beta-LPH immune sera (I.S.). In the fetus, certain neurons stain with anti-beta-endorphin or anti((17--39)ACTH starting from the 11th week of fetal life. At the ultrastructural level, these neurons contain elementary granules that are immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin. In the adult, neurons immunoreactive with anti-beta-endorphin are found in the infundibular nucleus. Their axonal fibers terminate around blood vessels in the neurovascular zone and in the pituitary stalk, or establish contacts with non-immunoreactive perikarya of the infundibular nucleus. These neurons can be stained with anti(17--39)ACTH and anti-beta-endorphin I.S. The most reactive are also stained moderately with anti-alpha-MSH, anti-beta-MSH, anti-beta-LPH, anti-alpha-endorphin, or anti(1--24)ACTH I.S. These results indicate that, in man, compound(s) identical with or immunologically related to endorphins, beta-LPH, ACTH and MSH are secreted by certain hypothalamic neurons. These agents probably originate from a common precursor molecula similar to the so-called pro-opiocortin.

  6. The ontogeny of seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, O C; Stephens, H

    1984-06-01

    Rats ranging in postnatal age from 6 hours to 28 days were implanted with cortical and depth electrodes as well as an indwelling cannula in the lateral ventricle. We then administered varying amounts of the opiate peptides leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin intracerebroventricularly with continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. Leucine-enkephalin produced electrical seizure activity in rats as young as 2 days. beta-Endorphin administration was associated with seizures at the fifth postnatal day, with a high incidence of apnea resulting in death in animals as young as 6 hours. An adult seizure response to beta-endorphin and leucine-enkephalin was seen at 15 and 28 days of age, respectively. Naloxone blocked the seizure produced by these opiate peptides in all age groups. The data indicate that the opiate peptides are potent epileptogenic compounds in developing brain, that seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin differ from those caused by beta-endorphin, and that petit mal-like seizure activity can be an adult response in the rodent.

  7. beta. -endorphin augments the cytolytic activity and interferon production of natural killer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandler, R.N.; Biddison, W.E.; Mandler, R.; Serrate, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    The in vitro effects of the neurohormone ..beta..-endorphin (b-end) on natural killer (NK) activity and interferon (IFN) production mediated by large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were investigated. LGL-enriched fractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal human volunteers were obtained by fractionation over discontinuous Percoll gradients. LGL were preincubated with or without various concentrations of b-end or the closely related peptides ..cap alpha..-endorphin (a-end), ..gamma..-endorphin (g-end), or D-ALA/sub 2/-..beta..-endorphin (D-ALA/sub 2/-b-end), a synthetic b-end analogue. NK activity was assayed on /sup 51/Cr-labeled K562 target cells. Preincubation of LGL effectors (but not K562 targets) for 2 to 18 hr with concentrations of b-end between 10/sup -7/ M and 10/sup -10/ M produced significant augmentation of NK cytolytic activity (mean percentage increase: 63%). The classic opiate antagonist naloxone blocked the enhancing effect when used at a 100-fold molar excess relative to b-end. These findings demonstrate that b-end enhances NK activity and IFN production of purified LGL, and suggests that b-end might bind to an opioid receptor on LGL that can be blocked by naloxone. These results lend support to the concepts of regulation of the immune response by neurohormones and the functional relationship between the nervous and immune systems.

  8. The Role of Pituitary Beta-Endorphin in the Attenuation of Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-28

    analgesia after deltoid and gluteal injections of methadone and morphine. In: Opioid Analgesics in the Management of Clinical Pain, edited by K. Foley...of pethidine hydrochloride (Demerol). J. Pharmacal. Exp. Ther. 80: 300-307, 1944. Wybran, J. Enkephalins and endorphins as modifiers of the

  9. β-endorphin modulation of mitogen-stimulated calcium uptake by rat thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmick, L.M.; Bidlack, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens or antigens exhibit an enhanced calcium uptake early in the proliferation or activation response. Modulation of this calcium uptake results in alterations of proliferation and immunocompetence. β-endorphin and other opioids affect several parameters of lymphocyte competence. Limited data are available concerning the mechanism(s) of these effects. This study examines whether a possible opioid mechanism is the modification of the early calcium influx into stimulated lymphocytes. The time course of both concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake into thymocytes was characterized to determine the optimal time for testing the effects of opioids. Β-Endorphin 1-31 significantly enhanced Con A-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake into rat thymocytes. This peptide had no significant effect on PHA-simulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake or on basal thymocyte 45 Ca 2+ flux. The β/sub h/-endorphin stimulatory effect was titratable in the range of 0.1 nM to 10 μM. Naloxone did not reverse the enhancement. Met-enkephalinamide and other opioid agonists did not duplicate the stimulatory effect. Thus, the β/sub h/-endorphin 1-31 enhancement of Con A-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake by rat thymocytes does not operate via classical opioid receptor mechanisms. β/sub h/-endorphin 1-31 appears to be acting on a subset of T cells that are responsive to Con A but not to PHA. 30 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  10. beta. -endorphin modulation of mitogen-stimulated calcium uptake by rat thymocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmick, L.M.; Bidlack, J.M.

    1987-10-19

    Lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens or antigens exhibit an enhanced calcium uptake early in the proliferation or activation response. Modulation of this calcium uptake results in alterations of proliferation and immunocompetence. ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids affect several parameters of lymphocyte competence. Limited data are available concerning the mechanism(s) of these effects. This study examines whether a possible opioid mechanism is the modification of the early calcium influx into stimulated lymphocytes. The time course of both concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into thymocytes was characterized to determine the optimal time for testing the effects of opioids. BETA-Endorphin 1-31 significantly enhanced Con A-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into rat thymocytes. This peptide had no significant effect on PHA-simulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake or on basal thymocyte /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ flux. The ..beta../sub h/-endorphin stimulatory effect was titratable in the range of 0.1 nM to 10 ..mu..M. Naloxone did not reverse the enhancement. Met-enkephalinamide and other opioid agonists did not duplicate the stimulatory effect. Thus, the ..beta../sub h/-endorphin 1-31 enhancement of Con A-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake by rat thymocytes does not operate via classical opioid receptor mechanisms. ..beta../sub h/-endorphin 1-31 appears to be acting on a subset of T cells that are responsive to Con A but not to PHA. 30 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. Plasma levels of cortisol and opioid peptide beta-endorphin during spontaneous vaginal delivery

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    Arsenijević Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Labor pain is very frequent in clinical practice, but the underlying mechanisms as well as numerous neuroendocrine responses activated by such pain have not been fully explained yet. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the influence of labor pain on plasma levels of cortisol and opioid peptide ß-endorphin. METHOD Cortisol and ß-endorphin levels were measured in blood plasma of: health, non-pregnant women (group 1, n=8, health pregnant women (group 2, n=8 and in parturitions, through fourth ages (group 3, n=8, Plasma level of cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay, and ß-endorphin by enzyme immunoassay. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean and were analyzed by Student's t test and Mann Whitney test. RESULTS Plasma level of cortisol in group 2 was significantly increased compared to the group 1. During labor progression, plasma level of cortisol was rising till the third labor age. Plasma level of cortisol in fourth labor age was not significantly different from the ag.e one and group 1. Plasma level of ß-endorphin was (n.g/L: in group 1:64±20, group 2:70±22, group 3:the first labor age: 75±15, the second labor age: 193±54, the third labor age: 346+97 and the fourth labor age: 114±31. CONCLUSION These results indicate that both ß-endorphin and cortisol are involved in regulation and modulation of labor pain and stress.

  12. Intracerebral beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin and morphine: kindling of seizures and handling-induced potentiation of epileptiform effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, D P; Corcoran, M E

    1984-06-18

    The effects of repeated infusion of small, initially subconvulsive amounts of beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin or morphine sulfate into the amygdala and hippocampus were investigated. beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin evoked epileptiform spiking when infused into the posterior amygdala or ventral hippocampus. Morphine evoked epileptiform spiking when infused into the anterior amygdala. Naloxone blocked or terminated the spiking. Repetition of the infusions led to the gradual development of bilateral generalized convulsions by beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin and to the development of tolerance to morphine. An unexpected observation was that handling, immobilization or conspecific threat potentiated the epileptiform effects of beta-endorphin and morphine in many cases. These results suggest that endogenous opiate mechanisms might play a role in convulsive seizures and that stressful stimuli can exacerbate opiate seizures.

  13. β-Endorphin via the Delta Opioid Receptor is a Major Factor in the Incubation of Cocaine Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshtein, Yahav; Barnea, Royi; Kronfeld, Noam; Lax, Elad; Roth-Deri, Ilana; Friedman, Alexander; Gispan, Iris; Elharrar, Einat; Levy, Sarit; Ben-Tzion, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2013-01-01

    Cue-induced cocaine craving intensifies, or ‘incubates', during the first few weeks of abstinence and persists over extended periods of time. One important factor implicated in cocaine addiction is the endogenous opioid β-endorphin. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of β-endorphin in the incubation of cocaine craving. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, 10 days, 6 h/day), followed by either a 1-day or a 30-day period of forced abstinence. Subsequent testing for cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior (without cocaine reinforcement) was performed. Rats exposed to the drug-associated cue on day 1 of forced abstinence demonstrated minimal cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior concurrently with a significant increase in β-endorphin release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Conversely, exposure to the cue on day 30 increased cocaine seeking, while β-endorphin levels remained unchanged. Intra-NAc infusion of an anti-β-endorphin antibody (4 μg) on day 1 increased cue-induced cocaine seeking, whereas infusion of a synthetic β-endorphin peptide (100 ng) on day 30 significantly decreased cue response. Both intra-NAc infusions of the δ opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 μg) on day 1 and naltrindole together with β-endorphin on day 30 increased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. Intra-NAc infusion of the μ opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (30 ng and 3 μg) had no behavioral effect. Altogether, these results demonstrate a novel role for β-endorphin and the δ opioid receptor in the development of the incubation of cocaine craving. PMID:23800967

  14. Electroacupuncture effect at the LI 4 Hegu point on the plasma β-endorphin level of healthy subjects

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    Setiawardhani, A. L.; Srilestari, A.; Simadibrata, C.

    2017-08-01

    As a therapy modality, acupuncture is becoming popular for treating diseases. Nevertheless, the acupuncture mechanism of action remains unclear until now. Some studies suggest that acupuncture works by stimulating the β-endorphin release, whereas other studies show the opposite. This study aims to determine whether electro acupuncture at the LI 4 Hegu point could increase the plasma β-endorphin level as a basic of acupuncture mechanism of action. Thirty-six healthy subjects were involved and divided randomly into two groups, namely, intervention (n=18) and control (n=18). In the intervention group, electroacupuncture was applied at the LI 4 Hegu point with a low frequency for 30 min. In the control group, sham electroacupuncture was applied at a non-acupoint for 30 min. The plasma β-endorphin was examined before and after intervention using the ELISA method. A significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups in increasing the plasma β-endorphin level (9(50%) vs. 1(5.6%); p = 0.009). A significant difference was also observed in the plasma β-endorphin level after intervention between the two groups (35.1±3.4 vs. 10.3±1.8 p=0.003). Electroacupuncture at the LI 4 Hegu point was found to increase the plasma β-endorphin level in healthy subjects.

  15. THE IMPACT OF LAVENDER AROMATHERAPY ON PAIN INTENSITY AND BETA-ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN POST-CAESAREAN MOTHERS

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    Yohana Putri Apryanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caesarean section is one of the most common interventions to overcome labor complications. However, pain cannot be avoided after the surgery. Lavender aromatherapy is considered as one of non-pharmacological therapy to reduce pain and increase beta-endorphin levels. Objective: To examine the effect of lavender aromatherapy on the intensity of pain and beta-endorphin levels in post-caesarean mothers. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest and posttest with control group at Sembiring Delitua General Hospital on December 2016 to February 2017. There were 40 samples selected using purposive sampling, with 20 samples assigned in the experiment and control group. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS was used to measure pain and ELIZA methods to measure beta-endorphin levels. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used for data analysis Results: Results of this study showed that there was a significant difference in the mean value of pain intensity levels (p=0.000 and beta-endorphin levels (p=0.023 between experiment and control group. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of lavender aromatherapy on the decrease of pain intensity and the increase of beta-endorphin hormone in post-caesarean mothers. It is expected that lavender aromatherapy can be used as an alternative treatment to reduce pain and increase beta-endorphin levels in post-caesarean mothers.

  16. beta. -endorphin-like and. alpha. -MSH-like immunoreactivities in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando, T.; Rainero, I.; De Gennaro, T.; Oggero, R.; Mostert, M.; Dattola, P.; Pinessi, L. (Univ. of Turin (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    We measured with radioimmunoassay the {beta}-endorphin-like and {alpha}-MSH-like immunoreactivities in milk and plasma of 8 lactating women. Mean {beta}-endorphin concentrations ({plus minus} SD) were 16.6 {plus minus} 6.7 fmol/ml in milk and 9.9 {plus minus} 4.1 fmol/ml in plasma. {alpha}-MSH concentrations were 39.4 {plus minus} 15.5 pg/ml in milk and 18.2 {plus minus} 8.4 pg/ml in plasma. The concentrations of both peptides in milk were significantly higher than in plasma. No significant correlation between milk and plasma concentrations of these peptides was found.

  17. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golanov, E.V.; Fufacheva, A.A.; Parin, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus.

  18. Simultaneous extraction of. beta. -endorphin and leu- and met-enkephalins from human and rat plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Smith, P.M.; Kennedy, B.W. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA)); Voyles, N.R.; Recant, L. (Diabetes Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable procedure is described to simultaneously concentrated and purify {beta}-endorphin, leu-and met-enkephalins from small volumes of human and rat plasma before radioimmunoassay is performed. It uses C{sub 18} Sep-Pak reverse phase cartridges. The effectiveness of different protease inhibitors in preventing degradation of opiates by plasma and different solvent systems for eluting opiates is also evaluated.

  19. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

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    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  20. Comparison of beta-endorphin and CGRP levels before and after treatment for severe schizophrenia

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    Urban-Kowalczyk M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Janusz Śmigielski,2 Dominik Strzelecki1 1Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, 2Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Aging Research Centre (HARC, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Objectives: Links between endorphins and dopaminergic transmission have not been fully explored in schizophrenia. Both endorphins excess and deficiency were postulated. CGRP is probably involved in dopaminergic transmission. The aim of this study was the evaluation of beta-endorphin (BE and CGRP blood concentrations before and after treatment of severe schizophrenia. Methods: Seventy patients treated with various antipsychotics, with severe symptoms of schizophrenia (51 with positive symptoms, 19 with negative symptoms, 15 first-degree relatives, and 44 healthy controls were included in the study. BE and CGRP blood concentrations were measured during patients severe schizophrenia and in their stable mental state after treatment. The results were compared with relatives and controls. Results: BE and CGRP concentrations in patients with negative symptoms were higher than in relatives and in controls. BE levels in patients with positive symptoms were lower than in patients with negative symptoms (P<0.0000 and controls (P<0.0006. No significant changes in CGRP concentration were found in patient samples. CGRP levels in these samples were independent of treatment, but they were significantly higher than in relatives and controls. After the treatment, BE level decreased in patients with negative symptoms (P<0.0001 and increased in patients with positive symptoms (P<0.0000. No differences in BE concentration between patients in stable mental state, their relatives, and controls were found. Conclusion: Effective antipsychotic treatment results in “normalization” of BE level. Specific changes in BE concentration could be involved in dopaminergic transmission and related to some symptoms of schizophrenia. Keywords

  1. Effects of Exercise on B-Endorphin and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Levels among Female Army Officer

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    Ruqaiyah Ruqaiyah

    2014-06-01

    Material and Methods: Fourty six healthy female army officer volunteered for the study. All of them gave written consent regarding their participation. The subjects were categorized in two groups: high-intensity exercise (HE, 23 subjects and non exercise (NE, 23 subjects. The inclusion criteria were amenorrhea, no consumption of reproductive hormonal, age between 21-40 years, and not involved in diet programme, while the exclusion criteria were any factors that could interfere with normality. High intensity-exercise was performed chronically by running for between 1953-3200 meter, three times per day, 6 days per weeks, for 7 months. Serum beta-endorphin was measured immunoenzymatically using an ELISA method. FSH serum was measured by chemiluminescence method. Results: Age, body weight, height and onset of menarchee were not significantly different between group (P > 0.05. High-intensity exercise significantly increase the B -endorphin level compared to the control (P 0.01. The level of FSH significantly decrease in the HE group than that the NE group (P 0.01. Conclusion: In conclusion, the high-intensitiy exercise on among female army officer can increase B-endorphin and decrease follicle stimulating hormone level. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 496-500

  2. Correlation between ovarian steroidogenesis and beta-endorphin in the Lizard Uromastyx acanthinura: Immunohistochemical approach.

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    Jean Marie Exbrayat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mammals, opioid peptides are involved in various physiological processes including the reproductive function. The knowledge of the distribution of beta-endorphin, one of opioid peptides in Reptiles ovaries is very limited. Therefore, the present study used the lizard ovarian follicles to further elucidate the role of this peptide in steroidogenesis. In Uromastyx acanthinura, the localization of both this peptide and sex steroid hormone was investigated by the immunohistochemical approach. This technique was used to evaluate the distribution of these substances and their relationship. The beta-endorphin is strongly distributed in the granulosa cells and oocyte cytoplasm of the previtellogenic follicles in sexually quiescent lizards (winter when steroidogenesis was interrupted. In spring, the signal became weak, or even absent, in the vitellogenic and previtellogenic follicles. The granulosa cells of the previtellogenic follicles showed an important synthesis of 17beta-estradiol. Females that did not undergo in vitellogenesis in spring showed the same profile than quiescent females of winter. These findings represent the first evidence of the presence of beta-endorphin in the ovary of this lizard. The seasonal variations observed in the reproductive cycle suggest that this opioid peptide is involved in the modulation of seasonal steroidogenesis.

  3. Do Endorphins represent the biochemical basis of inheritance of mental information?

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    Machado Dias, Álvaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article (06/2009, Halabe Bucay presents the hypothesis that endorphins can be a core element in the transmission of mental information produced during life to the next generation. This paper argues that Bucay’s model is based on four essential axioms, which are subject to debate.The aim of this paper is to discuss these specific axioms and evaluate the feasibility of the hypothesis. The specific axioms are: 1. “Endorphins act directly on different sperm function which impliestheir influence on the genetic expressivity of the same”; 2. Exogenous opioids affect genes and this could be a means through which acquired information could be transmitted to the next generationsunder the influence of endogenous opioids; 3. “Mental information produced through life” could be transmitted; 4. Endorphins are specifically related to the presumed phenomenon, thus justifying theepistemological frame. The four axioms are contested by most (if not all studies addressing these specific issues which leads us to conclude that the hypothesis cannot be held. At the same time,the hypothesis presents a timely opportunity to discuss the role of neuropeptides on behavior and their possible role in the constitution of the brain, in regard to which we add that it is possible thatendorphin levels within fetal and neonate milieus are associated with epigenic processes (e.g., methylations and produce lifelong effects —although we do not develop this idea further, since it wouldrequire a totally different focus, based on completely different axioms—.

  4. Some methodic aspects in optimizing the radioimmunoassay of β-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckert, R.I.; Hoffmann, Y.; Rohde, W.

    1986-01-01

    A specific double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human β-endorphin (β-EP) using an antibody to synthetic β/sub h/-endorphin was established. This antibody cross-reacted with β-lipotropin (β-LPH) at 42% on molar basis and allowed a usable range of 20 pg to 4 ng of β-endorphin per ml in the assay. Comparing the efficiency of the conventional extraction procedures under various conditions using Corning glass, Vycor glass, QUSO G-32, silicic acid and controlled pore glass 75, the optimal result was obtained by Corning glass, with a recovery rate of more than 80%. The most simple and rapid method with an extraction efficiency of more than 90% was found to be the extraction by use of Sep-Pak C18 cartridges. The separation of β-EP from β-LPH was studied using Sephadex G-50, G-75, G-100 and Bio-Gel P-60 columns and different elution media. The use of a Sephadex G-50 column (0.9 x 55 cm) and elution with 0.1 N acetic acid-0.05% HSA gave the best result. The reliability of the radioimmunoassay was shown under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. (author)

  5. Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking beta-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, José M; Zimmer, Andreas; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    The endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the behavioral effects of nicotine. Thus, micro-opioid receptor and the endogenous opioids derived from proenkephalin are involved in the central effects of nicotine. However, the role played by the different endogenous opioid peptides in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine remains to be fully established. Mice lacking beta-endorphin were acutely injected with nicotine at different doses to evaluate locomotor, anxiogenic and antinociceptive responses. The rewarding properties of nicotine were evaluated by using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. Mice chronically treated with nicotine were acutely injected with mecamylamine to study the behavioral expression of nicotine withdrawal. Mice lacking beta-endorphin exhibited a spontaneous hypoalgesia and hyperlocomotion and a reduction on the anxiogenic and rewarding effects induced by nicotine. Nicotine induced similar antinociception and hypolocomotion in both genotypes and no differences were found in the development of physical dependence. The dissociation between nicotine rewarding properties and physical dependence suggests a differential implication of beta-endorphin in these addictive related responses.

  6. Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking β-endorphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, José M.; Zimmer, Andreas; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the behavioral effects of nicotine. Thus, μ-opioid receptor and the endogenous opioids derived from proenkephalin are involved in the central effects of nicotine. However, the role played by the different endogenous opioid peptides in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine remains to be fully established. Mice lacking β-endorphin were acutely injected with nicotine at different doses to evaluate locomotor, anxiogenic and antinociceptive responses. The rewarding properties of nicotine were evaluated by using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. Mice chronically treated with nicotine were acutely injected with mecamylamine to study the behavioral expression of nicotine withdrawal. Mice lacking β-endorphin exhibited a spontaneous hypoalgesia and hyperlocomotion and a reduction on the anxiogenic and rewarding effects induced by nicotine. Nicotine induced similar antinociception and hypolocomotion in both genotypes and no differences were found in the development of physical dependence. The dissociation between nicotine rewarding properties and physical dependence suggests a differential implication of β-endorphin in these addictive related responses. PMID:19376143

  7. Pressure pain threshold and β-endorphins plasma level are higher in lean polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Mrozińska, Sandra; Rogatko, Iwona; Sztefko, Krystyna; Majewska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Despite some evidence that indicates that the evolution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to the activity of the endogenous opioid system, and that concentration of plasma β-endorphin levels can increase pain threshold, there are no studies which evaluate pressure pain threshold in the PCOS women population. In 48 lean women with PCOS and 38 lean women without this disorder plasma β-endorphins and PPT were measured. The β-endorphins level was higher in the PCOS group compared to the controls (15.28±2.49 pg/mL vs. 6.33±1.71 pg/mL, PPCOS group PPTs measured on deltoid and trapezius muscles were higher compared to the controls (9.33±1.3 kg/cm² vs. 5.19±0.57 kg/cm², PPCOS group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/mL was associated with increase of PPT value on deltoid muscle of 0.23 kg/cm² (R=0.632, P=0.011) and of 0.18 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle (R=0.588, P=0.037). There were no correlations between testosterone level and PPT in PCOS group. β-endorphin serum level as well as PPT are higher in lean PCOS group than in controls. We found correlations between β-endorphin levels and PPT in the PCOS group. It may suggest the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of PCOS and also that the increases in circulating plasma β-endorphins concentration can increases PPT in this group.

  8. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

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    Cristina Cravana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing and Group B (not competing. To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001, only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023, with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001. The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024 with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training. Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise

  9. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil enhances analgesic effect of opioids in patients with refractory cancer pain by increasing plasma β-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Ou, Wu-Ling; Wang, Jun; Yao, Guo-Qing; Yang, Bo; Rao, Zhi-Guo; Gao, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Bi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of a combination of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioids, and evaluate the relationship between refractory pain relief and plasma β-endorphin levels in cancer patients. A total of 120 cancer patients was randomly divided into two groups, 60 patients took orally morphine sulfate sustained-release tablets in group A, and another 60 patients receiving the combination treatment of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioid drugs in group B. After 7 days, pain relief, quality of life improvement and side effects were evaluated. Furthermore, plasma β-endorphin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. With the combination treatment of intravenous intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioids, the total effective rate of pain relief rose to 91.4%, as compared to 82.1% when morphine sulfate sustained-release tablet was used alone. Compared with that of group A, the analgesic effect increased in group B (p=0.031). Moreover, satisfactory pain relief was associated with a significant increase in plasma β-endorphin levels. After the treatment, plasma β-endorphin level in group B was 62.4±13.5 pg/ml, which was higher than that in group A (45.8±11.2 pg/ml) (pflurbiprofen axetil and opioids can enhance the analgesic effect of opioid drugs by increasing plasma β-endorphin levels, which would offer a selected and reliable strategy for refractory cancer pain treatment.

  10. Increased central immunoreactive beta-endorphin content in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, J A; Pullan, P T; Kril, J J; Harper, C G

    1991-01-01

    beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophin, and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone were measured by radioimmunoassay in three areas of human brain at necropsy in seven subjects with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and in 52 controls. Thiamin concentration in six brain areas was also measured. Mamillary body beta-endorphin concentrations were significantly increased in those with the syndrome compared with controls, and those controls with high alcohol intake showed increased mamillary body beta-endorphin compared with controls with low alcohol intake. Brain thiamin concentration was similar in both groups, with the exception of the brainstem, where it was reduced in subjects with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Thalamic beta-endorphin in controls was inversely correlated with thiamin in frontal white matter, frontal cortex, parietal white matter and parietal cortex, while beta-endorphin in the hypothalamus of patients was inversely correlated with thiamin in frontal cortex, parietal white matter, thalamus and brainstem. These results suggest that there is a disturbance of the endorphinergic system in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome which may be related to alcohol intake. PMID:1650797

  11. Exercise reinforcement, stress, and β-endorphins: an initial examination of exercise in anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shope, Sydney; Varangis, Eleanna; Klein, Diane; Pfaff, Donald W; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are abused primarily in the context of intense exercise and for the purposes of increasing muscle mass as opposed to drug-induced euphoria. AASs also modulate the HPA axis and may increase the reinforcing value of exercise through changes to stress hormone and endorphin release. To test this hypothesis, 26 adult males drawn from a larger study on AAS use completed a progressive ratio task designed to examine the reinforcing value of exercise relative to financial reinforcer. Sixteen experienced and current users (8 on-cycle, 8 off-cycle) and 10 controls matched on quantity×frequency of exercise, age, and education abstained from exercise for 24 h prior to testing and provided 24-h cortisol, plasma cortisol, ACTH, β-endorphin samples, and measures of mood, compulsive exercise, and body image. Between group differences indicated that on-cycle AAS users had the highest β-endorphin levels, lowest cortisol levels, higher ACTH levels than controls. Conversely, off-cycle AAS users had the highest cortisol and ACTH levels, but the lowest β-endorphin levels. Exercise value was positively correlated with β-endorphin and symptoms of AAS dependence. The HPA response to AASs may explain why AASs are reinforcing in humans and exercise may play a key role in the development of AAS dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P; Ragonese, G; Fazio, E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; prelease of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise program. Moreover, the responses during exercise in the course of post-competition training sessions seem to be significantly different from those the pre-competition training. These data show that the preliminary competitive stress induced additional significant changes of β-endorphin pattern. It would reflect the need of a long-lasting modulation of fatigue and pain perception related to the effect of an additional physical and mental effort for the consecutive competitive and training sessions.

  13. Associations of beta-endorphin with HVA and MHPG in the plasma of prepubertal boys: effects of familial drug abuse and antisocial personality disorder liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, H B; Yao, J K

    1996-06-01

    It is well-established that the secretion of the opioid neuropeptide beta-endorphin is perturbed by the administration of various drugs of abuse. Several investigators have speculated that variations in beta-endorphin secretory regulation may precede the development of a substance use disorder, and thus be a component of the liability for substance abuse. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined fasting, morning plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and two catecholamine metabolites in prepubertal boys naive to drugs of abuse and at elevated familial risk for a substance use disorder (SA+), and in controls (SA-). Specifically, the dopaminergic metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA), and the noradrenergic metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (pMHPG) were measured. Between-group differences were not found for beta-endorphin, pHVA, or pMHPG. Similarly, such differences did not differentiate sons of fathers with Antisocial Personality Disorder and controls. However, regression analysis revealed that although both pHVA and pMHPG predicted beta-endorphin concentrations to similar degrees, the directions of influence were the opposite. pHVA was found to be positively associated with beta-endorphin while pMHPG was found to be negatively associated with beta-endorphin. No between-group differences in these relationships were found. The results suggest an opponent process in catecholaminergic regulation of beta-endorphin in humans, and are consistent with observations in the central nervous system of animal models.

  14. Blood supply to the brain and. beta. -endorphin and acth levels under the influence of thyrotrophin releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzoyan, R.S.; Ganshina, T.S.; Mirzoyan, R.A.; Ragimov, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    The authors studied beta-endorphin because of its possible mediator role in terms of the cerebrovascular effects of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), and also because of data in the literature on antagonistic relations between TRH and the endogenous opioid system of the brain. Beta-endorphin was determined by radioimmunoassay; its level was determined after its separation from the beta-lipotrophin fraction. The investigation showed that TRH has a marked depressant effect on cerebrovascular vasoconstrictor refleces. Elevation of the blood ACTH level causes an increase in BP and in the tone of the cerebral vessels. An absence of correlation between the beta-endorphin and ACTH levels in the blood and CSF under the influence of TRH is shown.

  15. sup. alpha. N-acetyl derivatives of. beta. -endorphin-(1-31) and -(1-27) regulate the supraspinal antinociceptive activity of different opioids in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P. (Cajal Institute, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin(1-31) injected icv to mice antagonized the analgesic activity of {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) and morphine whereas the analgesia evoked by DADLE and DAGO was enhanced by this treatment. The modulatory activity of {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) was exhibited at remarkable low doses (fmols) reaching a maximum that persisted even though the dose was increased 100,000 times. The regulatory effect of a single dose of the acetylated neuropeptide lasted for 24h. The activity of {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin(1-31) was partially retained by the shorter peptide {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin-(1-27) and to a lesser extent by {beta}-endorphin-(1-27), {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) lacked this regulatory activity on opioid analgesia. Acetylated {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) displayed a biphasic curve when competing with 5 pM ({sup 125}I)-Tyr{sup 27} human {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) specific binding, the first step was abolished with an apparent IC{sub 50} of 0.35 nM, and the rest with an IC{sub 50} of 200 nM. It is suggested that {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) changed the efficiency of the opioid analgesics by acting upon a specific substrate that is functionally coupled to the opioid receptor, presumably the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins G{sub i}/G{sub 0}.

  16. Influences of β-endorphins in Ethanol Consumption Patterns and Acquisition of a Conditioned Taste Aversion Mediated by the Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Molina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rewarding effects of ethanol may be mediated in part by endogenous opioids. Ethanol alters β-endorphin synthesis and release. β-endorphin heterozygous (HT and knockout (KO mice consume higher levels of a low-concentrated alcohol solution and show heightened predisposition to self-administer ethanol in comparison with wild-type (WT mice (Grisel et al., 1999. This study was conducted in order to: i re-analyze and extend previous results in terms of ethanol consumption profiles of β-endorphin deficient mice; and ii analyze conditioned aversive learning mediated by ethanol postabsorptive effects as a function of genetic capabilities to synthesize β-endorphin. In Experiment 1, mice were evaluated in terms of consumption of a low (7% ethanol solution in a two-bottle free choice paradigm. Ethanol concentration was then increased to 10 % and voluntary intake consumption was tested. WT mice displayed significantly higher consumption levels and ethanol-preference scores than did KO mice, independently from ethanol concentration. HT mice drank more ethanol than did KO mice. In Experiment 2, mice (KO, HT and WT were tested in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm in which a sodium chloride (NaCl solution was paired with a 2-g/kg ethanol dose. Only HT and KO displayed a conditioned aversion when using 2-g/kg ethanol as unconditioned stimulus. The present results indicate that total or partial deficiency of β-endorphin synthesis reduces ethanol preference and consumption. Furthermore, this study indicates that the lack of β-endorphin synthesis exacerbates ethanol’s aversive postabsorptive effects which can in turn modulate self-administration patterns of the drug.

  17. Selective reward deficit in mice lacking beta-endorphin and enkephalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Michael D; Pintar, John E; Low, Malcolm J

    2002-09-15

    It has been impossible to unequivocally identify which endogenous opioids modulate the incentive value of rewarding stimuli because these peptides are not highly selective for any single opioid receptor subtype. Here, we present evidence based on the measurement of instrumental behavior of beta-endorphin and enkephalin knock-out mice that both opioid peptides play a positive role. A progressive ratio schedule was used to measure how hard an animal would work for food reinforcers. The loss of either opioid reduced responding under this schedule, regardless of the palatability of the three different formulas of reinforcers used. The phenotype of mice lacking both endogenous opioids was nearly identical to the phenotype of mice mutant for either individual opioid. Responses were tested in nondeprived and deprived feeding states but were reduced in beta-endorphin- and enkephalin-deficient mice only when they were maintained under nondeprived conditions. Other operant manipulations ruled out variables that might contribute nonspecifically to this result such as differences in acquisition, early satiation, motor performance deficit, and reduced resistance to extinction. In contrast to the effects on instrumental performance, the loss of either or both endogenous opioids did not influence preference for water flavored with sucrose or saccharin in a two-bottle free-choice drinking paradigm. We conclude that both beta-endorphin and enkephalin positively contribute to the incentive-motivation to acquire food reinforcers. Because the attenuation of operant responding was observed only during a nondeprived motivational state, the hedonics of feeding are likely altered rather than energy homeostasis.

  18. Endorphin mediation of post-ictal effects of kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J E; Belluzzi, J D

    1982-12-16

    Brief electrical stimulation of the enkephalin-rich globus pallidus at 1-h intervals produced kindled, clonic seizures in rats as rapidly as similar stimulation of the amygdala. Massing the kindling trials at 10-min intervals inhibited the occurrence of subsequent seizures, especially following globus pallidus stimulation. Naloxone (20 mg/kg), an opiate receptor antagonist, reversed this post-ictal inhibition of seizures following massed trials, but had no effect on seizures kindled at 1-h intervals. Thus, endorphin-released during seizures do not appear to mediate the production of kindled seizures, but do appear to mediate the transient posts ictal inhibition of seizures.

  19. ACTH, corticosterone, and beta-endorphin in rat blood plasma after prolonged immobilization stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyatkin, E.A.; Amiragova, M.G.; Kushlinskii, N.E.; Polyntsev, Yu. V.

    1986-01-01

    To assess functional relations between changes in ACTH, beta-endorphin (BE), and corticosterone (CS) levels, plasma concentrations of these hormones were studied in rats during the development of prolonged immobilization stress. Plasma hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results were analyzed by standard statistical methods on a microcomputer. A particular feature about the kit used to determine BE was the presence of 50% cross-reactivity of the antiserum against beta-lipotrophin. To determine CS a highly specific antiserum produced by a laboratory was used.

  20. Secondary structure determination of human. beta. -endorphin by /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtarge, O.; Jardetzky, O.; Li, C.H.

    1987-09-08

    The /sup 1/H NMR spectra of human ..beta..-endorphin indicate that the peptide exists in random-coil form in aqueous solution but becomes helical in mixed solvent. Thermal denaturation NMR experiments show that in water there is no transition between 24 and 75/sup 0/C, while a slow noncooperative thermal unfolding is observed in a 60% methanol-40% water mixed solvent in the same temperature range. These findings are consistent with circular dichroism studies by other workers concluding that ..beta..-endorphin is a random coil in water but that it forms 50% ..cap alpha..-helix or more in mixed solvents. The peptide in the mixed water-methanol solvent was further studied by correlated spectroscopy (COSY) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. These allow a complete set of assignments to be made and establish two distinct stretches over which the solvent induces formation of ..cap alpha..-helices: the first occurs between Tyr-1 and Thr-12 and the second between Leu-14 and extending to Lys-28. There is evidence that the latter is capped by a turn occurring between Lys-28 and Glu-31. These helices form at the enkephalin receptor binding site, which is at the amino terminus, and at the morphine receptor binding site, located at the carboxyl terminus. The findings suggest that these two receptors may specifically recognize ..cap alpha..-helices.

  1. PACKAGE OF BIRTHING BALL, PELVIC ROCKING, AND ENDORPHIN MASSAGE (BPE DECREASE THE FIRST STEP LABOR PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Marwiyah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Labor pain is unpleasant and frightening experience for birth mother. In addition, labor pain cause exhaustion and childbirth trauma.Birthing ball, pelvic rocking, and endorphin (B.P.E massage are emerging as non-pharmacology methods of pain management in labor. The aimed of this study was to investigate the effect of package of BPE on labour pain during the first stage of labor. Method: This study was quasi-experiment. Total numbers of samples were 23 mothers who were in the first stage of labor. Samples were selected by using quota sampling technique. Instrument of this study was numeric rating scale (NRS. Result: Data analysis by using paired sample t-test revealed that there were significantly different between before and after the intervention of BPE on labour pain during the first stage of labor in this study (p <0.01.  Conclusion and recommendation: This study showed that BPE is effective as non-pharmacology methods on pain relieve of first stage of labor. Further study need to investigate other variables such as anxiety of birth mother. Key Words: labor pain, package of birth ball, pelvic rocking, and endorphin massage(BPE, labor process.

  2. Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Moore, G.H.; Deere, W.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.; Mueller, G.P.

    1983-12-01

    Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse.

  3. Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Moore, G.H.; Deere, W.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.; Mueller, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse

  4. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  5. Pain Relief with Wet Cupping Therapy in Rats is Mediated by Heat Shock Protein 70 and ß-Endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subadi, Imam; Nugraha, Boya; Laswati, Hening; Josomuljono, Harjanto

    2017-07-01

    Wet cupping therapy is a complementary therapy in pain management. The mechanism of this therapy, however, needs further elucidation. Cells injured by wet cupping therapy seem to stimulate the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Its benefit in pain reduction could be mediated by the expression of ß-endorphin. This study aimed at determining the correlation between HSP70 and ß-endorphin after wet cupping therapy. Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG; n=8) and treatment (TG; n=8) groups. The rats in both groups were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at the footpad. In the TG, wet cupping therapy was done at the left and right paralumbar regions 48 hours after the CFA injection. Twenty-four hours after therapy, the hot plate test was done to assess pain threshold. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry from the skin subjected to wet cupping therapy was conducted for HSP70 and ß-endorphin. The expression of HSP70 was significantly higher in the keratinocytes of the TG (20.25±3.53; Pcupping therapy was significantly higher in the TG (22.81±6.34 s; P=0.003) than in the CG (11.78±3.56 s). The benefit of wet cupping therapy in terms of pain reduction in rats could be mediated by the expression of HSP70 and ß-endorphin.

  6. Dependence creating properties of lipotropin C-fragment (β-endorphin): Evidence for its internal control of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Smyth, D.G.; Colpaert, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The C-fragment of lipotropin (β-endorphin) possesses reinforcing properties, in that this peptide, like heroin, induced intraventricular self-administering behavior in drug naive rats. Only mild behavioral signs reminiscent of physical dependence were present. After injection into the nucleus raphé

  7. Beta-endorphin in the plasma: Radioimmunological determination and findings in patients showing disorders at the level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerl, A.

    1985-01-01

    Beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were determined simultaneously in the plasma using a radioimmunological procedure. It was found that in patients showing imbalances within the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system (Addison's disease, Cushing's Syndrome, Nelson's Syndrome) as well as elevated levels of beta-endorphin the values of ACHT invariably were also increased. The behaviour of the plasma levels of beta-endorphin and ACTH before, during and subsequent to hypophyseal surgery gives evidence to prove the close link between the two hormones. Tests performed to examine the function of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) both in healthy volunteers and patients suffering from endocrinological disorders likewise pointed to a parallel behaviour pattern of the two hormones in their responding or failure to respond to stimulation. The fact that a significant correlation was established between all measured values of beta-endorphin and ACTH is further evidence in confirmation of a parallel release of these two hormones in man. (TRV) [de

  8. The effect of altered 5-hydroxytryptamine levels on beta-endorphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.; Mash, Deborah C.; Walker, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of altering the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on beta-endorphin (beta-Ep) content in the hypothalamus, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG)-rostral pons regions of the rat brain. The selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), significantly lowered beta-Ep content in the hypothalamus and the PAG. Parachlorophenylalanine, which inhibits 5-HT synthesis, significantly elevated beta-Ep in all brain parts studied. Intracisternal injections of the neurotoxin 5-prime, 7-prime-dihydroxytryptamine with desmethylimipramine pretreatment significantly increased beta-Ep content in the hypothalamus and the PAG. In adrenalectomized rats, fluoxetine significantly decreased beta-Ep levels in the hypothalamus and increased the levels in the PAG. The results indicate that 5-HT may modulate the levels of brain beta-Ep.

  9. The changes of β-endorphin, thyroid hormone and cortisol in military stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Cuihua; Liu Qing; Qi Bing; Zhang Jing; Zhao Junwu

    2002-01-01

    The change of irritable hormones was studied when new soldiers were in military stress. The stressor was the test of real shooting. Forty and two new soldiers were selected, and their vein blood were extracted when they were in stress and in rest. The content of blood β-endorphin (β-EP), thyroid hormone and cortisol was analysed by RIA. Results showed that the content of β-EP and cortisol was greater in stress than in rest (P 3 was significantly lesser in stress than in rest (P 4 was raised in stress, but it was not significant (P>0.05). Military stress led to the changes of the soldiers stress. Detection of stress hormone will be very worthy in the matter of raising military stress's ability and insuring fighter's health of body and mind

  10. Kinetic parameters for plasma β-endorphin in lean and obese Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodd, D.; Farrell, P.A.; Caston, A.L.; Green, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    To determine plasma clearance kinetics for β-endorphin (BE) by empirical compartmental analysis, a bolus of radioactive labeled 125I-BE was rapidly injected into a carotid artery catheter of unanesthetized lean (L) and obese (O) Zucker rats. The plasma disappearance of 125I was followed over a 3-h period. A 3-component exponential equation provided the best fit for plasma data. Plasma transit times were very short (10 s); however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was much slower. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 min) as was recycle time (1.3 min). These data suggest that BE plasma disappearance kinetics are similar in L and O rats

  11. Characterization of solubilized human and rat brain US -endorphin-receptor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmeste, D.M.; Li, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been solubilized from human striatal and rat whole-brain membranes by use of 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Tritiated human US -endorphin (TH-US /sub h/-EP) binding revealed high-affinity competition by morphine, naloxone, and various US -EP analogues. Lack of high-affinity competition by (+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50-488, Upjohn) indicated that k sites were not labeled by TH-US -/sub h/-EP under these conditions. Affinities were similar in both soluble and membrane preparations except for (Met)enkephalin, which appears to be rapidly degraded by the solubilized extract. Size differences between human and rat solubilized TH-US /sub h/-EP-receptor complexes were revealed by exclusion chromatography.

  12. Kinetic parameters for plasma. beta. -endorphin in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodd, D.; Farrell, P.A.; Caston, A.L.; Green, M.H. (Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (USA))

    1991-03-01

    To determine plasma clearance kinetics for {beta}-endorphin (BE) by empirical compartmental analysis, a bolus of radioactive labeled 125I-BE was rapidly injected into a carotid artery catheter of unanesthetized lean (L) and obese (O) Zucker rats. The plasma disappearance of 125I was followed over a 3-h period. A 3-component exponential equation provided the best fit for plasma data. Plasma transit times were very short (10 s); however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was much slower. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 min) as was recycle time (1.3 min). These data suggest that BE plasma disappearance kinetics are similar in L and O rats.

  13. The effects of cysteamine on thyrotropin and immunoreactive beta-endorphin secretion in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Badger, T.M.; Carr, D.B.; Arnold, M.A.; Spindel, E.; Kasting, N.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-02-01

    We examined the effects of the thiol agent cysteamine (CSH), which is known to deplete the hypothalamus of immunoreactive somatostatin, on physiological TSH and beta- endorphin secretion in the adult male rat. CSH at doses of 90 and 300 mg/kg CSH produced a rapid decline in plasma TSH, whereas a dose of 30 mg/kg did not alter plasma TSH levels. After the higher doses of CSH, TSH levels in the blood remained lower than control values on day 2, but returned to normal by 1 week. This decrease in TSH within the plasma was not associated with a reduction in hypothalamic TRH concentrations. The TSH response to 500 ng/kg TRH was normal in CSH-treated animals. Blockade of norepinephrine synthesis with diethyldithiocarbamate (500 mg/kg) or fusaric acid (100 mg/kg) inhibited TSH secretion in a manner similar to that of CSH. beta-Endorphin-like immunoreactivity (bet-End-LI) was elevated in the plasma immediately after CSH (300 mg/kg) administration. This was associated with a 58% reduction in anterior pituitary beta-End-LI and no change in hypothalmic beta-End-LI. Plasma beta-End-LI returned to normal on day 2. The increase in plasma beta-End-LI induced by immobilization stress was not compromised by CSH treatment. The observed effects of CSH on both TSH and beta-End-LI are consistent with a reduction in central norepinephrine neurotransmission through the known actin of CSH to inhibit dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Acute stress may play a role as well in the observed changes in TSH and beta-End-LI secretion.

  14. β-lipotropin is the major opioid-like peptide of human pituitary and rat pars distalis: lack of significant β-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, A.S.; Suda, T.; Krieger, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    β-Lipotropin is the predominant opioid peptide of the human pituitary and rat pars distalis and is present in concentrations essentially equimolar with corticotropin. When freshly obtained nonfrozen rat anterior pituitaries were homogenized with 0.2 M HCl, approximately 98% of the immunoreactivity detected utilizing an antiserum that crossreacts equally with β-lipotropin and β-endorphin coeluted with 125 I-labeled human β-lipotropin upon molecular sieve chromatography. The remainder of the activity eluted with synthetic human β-endorphin. Similar results were obtained for human pituitary. HCl homogenization of thawed tissue or homogenization of fresh tissue with acetic acid yielded substantially greater concentrations of β-endorphin and decreased concentrations of β-lipotropin. In human subjects, acute anterior pituitary stimulation using either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or vasopressin administration was associated with increased plasma β-lipotropin and corticotropin levels. At the time of peak concentrations, no significant levels of β-endorphin were detectable. These data indicate the lack of significant amounts of β-endorphin in human pituitary. Additionally, there appears to be no specific intrapituitary conversion of β-lipotropin to β-endorphin

  15. Pain Relief with Wet Cupping Therapy in Rats is Mediated by Heat Shock Protein 70 and ß-Endorphin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Subadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wet cupping therapy is a complementary therapy in pain management. The mechanism of this therapy, however, needs further elucidation. Cells injured by wet cupping therapy seem to stimulate the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70. Its benefit in pain reduction could be mediated by the expression of ß-endorphin. This study aimed at determining the correlation between HSP70 and ß-endorphin after wet cupping therapy. Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG; n=8 and treatment (TG; n=8 groups. The rats in both groups were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA at the footpad. In the TG, wet cupping therapy was done at the left and right paralumbar regions 48 hours after the CFA injection. Twenty-four hours after therapy, the hot plate test was done to assess pain threshold. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry from the skin subjected to wet cupping therapy was conducted for HSP70 and ß-endorphin. Results: The expression of HSP70 was significantly higher in the keratinocytes of the TG (20.25±3.53; P<0.001 than in the keratinocytes of the CG (10.50±2.44; P<0.001. The expression of ß-endorphin was significantly higher in the keratinocytes of the TG (22.37±3.52; P<0.001 than in the keratinocytes of the CG (5.12±1.72; P<0.001. The results also revealed a high correlation between HSP70 and ß-endorphin (β=0.864; P<0.001. Pain threshold after wet cupping therapy was significantly higher in the TG (22.81±6.34 s; P=0.003 than in the CG (11.78±3.56 s. Conclusions: The benefit of wet cupping therapy in terms of pain reduction in rats could be mediated by the expression of HSP70 and ß-endorphin.

  16. Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Contribute to Upregulation of β-endorphin in Inflamed Skin Tissues by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Tang-feng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroacupuncture (EA can produce analgesia by increasing the β-endorphin level and activation of peripheral μ-opioid receptors in inflamed tissues. Endogenous cannabinoids and peripheral cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs are also involved in the antinociceptive effect of EA on inflammatory pain. However, little is known about how peripheral CB2Rs interact with the endogenous opioid system at the inflammatory site and how this interaction contributes to the antinociceptive effect of EA on inflammatory pain. In this study, we determined the role of peripheral CB2Rs in the effects of EA on the expression of β-endorphin in inflamed skin tissues and inflammatory pain. Results Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the left hindpaw of rats. Thermal hyperalgesia was tested with a radiant heat stimulus, and mechanical allodynia was quantified using von Frey filaments. The mRNA level of POMC and protein level of β-endorphin were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The β-endorphin-containing keratinocytes and immune cells in the inflamed skin tissues were detected by double-immunofluorescence labeling. The CB2R agonist AM1241 or EA significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, whereas the selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist β-funaltrexamine significantly attenuated the antinociceptive effect produced by them. AM1241 or EA significantly increased the mRNA level of POMC and the protein level of β-endorphin in inflamed skin tissues, and these effects were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the CB2R antagonist AM630. AM1241 or EA also significantly increased the percentage of β-endorphin-immunoreactive keratinocytes, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes in inflamed skin tissues, and these effects were blocked by AM630. Conclusions EA and CB2R stimulation reduce inflammatory pain through activation of μ-opioid receptors. EA increases

  17. Relationships Between Self-Injurious Behaviors, Pain Reactivity, and β-Endorphin in Children and Adolescents With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Charrier, Annaëlle; Oriol, Cécile; Kermarrec, Solenn; Canitano, Roberto; Botbol, Michel; Coulon, Nathalie; Antoine, Corinne; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cohen, David; Haidar, Hazar; Trabado, Séverine; Carlier, Michèle; Bronsard, Guillaume; Mottron, Laurent

    Autism and certain associated behaviors including self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and atypical pain reactivity have been hypothesized to result from excessive opioid activity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between SIB, pain reactivity, and β-endorphin levels in autism. Study participants were recruited between 2007 and 2012 from day care centers and included 74 children and adolescents diagnosed with autism (according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and CFTMEA) and intellectual disability. Behavioral pain reactivity and SIB were assessed in 3 observational situations (parents at home, 2 caregivers at day care center, a nurse and child psychiatrist during blood drawing) using validated quantitative and qualitative scales. Plasma β-endorphin concentrations were measured in 57 participants using 2 different immunoassay methods. A high proportion of individuals with autism displayed SIB (50.0% and 70.3% according to parental and caregiver observation, respectively). The most frequent types of SIB were head banging and hand biting. An absence or decrease of overall behavioral pain reactivity was observed in 68.6% and 34.2% of individuals with autism according to parental and caregiver observation, respectively. Those individuals with hyporeactivity to daily life accidental painful stimuli displayed higher rates of self-biting (P < .01, parental evaluation). No significant correlations were observed between β-endorphin level and SIB or pain reactivity assessed in any of the 3 observational situations. The absence of any observed relationships between β-endorphin level and SIB or pain reactivity and the conflicting results of prior opioid studies in autism tend to undermine support for the opioid theory of autism. New perspectives are discussed regarding the relationships found in this study between SIB and hyporeactivity to pain. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Interleukin 1 induces early protein phosphorylation and requires only a short exposure for late induced secretion of β-endorphin in a mouse pituitary cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagarasan, M.O.; Axelrod, J.; Bishop, J.F.; Rinaudo, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work has shown that prolonged pretreatment of a mouse anterior pituitary cell line, AtT-20 cells, with the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) stimulates β-endorphin release and potentiates the secretion induced by many secretagogues. Desensitization of protein kinase C (PKC) by pretreatment with phorbol ester [phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA)] for 8 hr abolished the secretion induced by TPA as well as the enhancement of TPA-induced β-endorphin release produced by IL-1. Desensitization of PKC only partly abolished the potentiating effects of IL-1 on corticotropin-releasing factor-induced β-endorphin secretion. In contrast, IL-1-induced β-endorphin release was independent of PKC. The authors observed that treatment of AtT-20 cells with IL-1 markedly phosphorylated 19-, 20-, and 60-kDa proteins within minutes, presumably by early activation of protein kinases. Prolonged treatment with TPA, which was shown to desensitize an 87-kDa protein (a substrate for PKC), had no effect on IL-1-induced phosphorylation of 20-, 60-, and 87-kDa proteins, indicating that the phosphorylation of these proteins does not involve PKC. IL-1 does not generate cAMP in AtT-20 cells, suggesting that a cAMP-dependent protein kinase is also not involved. These observations indicate that once IL-1 generates an early signal, its presence is no longer necessary for the subsequent secretion of β-endorphin

  19. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Pratanaphon, Sainatee; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Sriboonreung, Thanyaluck; Yankai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-05-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  20. Rat beta-LPH, gamma-LPH and beta-endorphin biosynthesized by isolated cells of pars intermedia and pars distalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoulakis, C.; Seidah, N.G.; Routhier, R.; Chretien, M.

    1980-01-01

    Rats pars intermedia cells were incubated for 3 h with the following amino-acids: a) 35 S-methionine and 3 H-phenylalamine; b) 3 H-valine; and c) 3 H-valine and 3 H-lysine. Radioactive gamma-lipotropin, beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin were purified on carboxy- methyl-cellulose and characterized by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis af pH 4.5, molecular weight estimation and microsequencing. Rat gamma-lipotropin was shown to differ slightly from ovine gamma-lipotropin in its NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence, in containing no methionine and having phenylalanine at position 6, valine at positions 13 and 27, and lysine at position 20. The same variations were observed in the sequence of rat beta-lipotropin, while rat beta-endorphin was shown to be identical to the ovine beta-endorphin. Following a 3-h pulse of rat pars distalis, the cells were extracted with care to avoid beta-lipotropin degradation by proteolytic enzymes. A peptide was purified and identified to be rat beta-endorphin, thus demonstrating that beta-endorphin is biosynthesized in pars distalis and is not an extraction artifact. (author)

  1. Volume transmission of beta-endorphin via the cerebrospinal fluid; a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veening Jan G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence that non-synaptic communication by volume transmission in the flowing CSF plays an important role in neural mechanisms, especially for extending the duration of behavioral effects. In the present review, we explore the mechanisms involved in the behavioral and physiological effects of β-endorphin (β-END, especially those involving the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, as a message transport system to reach distant brain areas. The major source of β-END are the pro-opio-melano-cortin (POMC neurons, located in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARH, bordering the 3rd ventricle. In addition, numerous varicose β-END-immunoreactive fibers are situated close to the ventricular surfaces. In the present paper we surveyed the evidence that volume transmission via the CSF can be considered as an option for messages to reach remote brain areas. Some of the points discussed in the present review are: release mechanisms of β-END, independence of peripheral versus central levels, central β-END migration over considerable distances, behavioral effects of β-END depend on location of ventricular administration, and abundance of mu and delta opioid receptors in the periventricular regions of the brain.

  2. Plasma kinetics of 125I beta endorphin turnover in lean and obese Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodd, D.; Caston, A.L.; Green, M.H.; Farrell, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma clearance kinetics for Beta Endorphin (BEP) are not well-defined and no definitive data exist for lean versus obese animals. To determine such kinetic parameters, a bolus of 125 I BEP (1μCi/kg) was infused into awake lean(L) and obese(O) Zucker rats. Arterial blood samples were withdrawn initially at 20 seconds intervals and less frequently as a 3-hour experimental period progressed. Donor rat blood was infused (venous catheter) to replace withdrawn blood. At 180 minutes approximately 10% of the initial dose remained in the plasma. Clearance kinetics for 125 I BEP were analyzed by compartmental analysis. A 3-component equation (i.e., 3 compartment model) provided the best fit for both L and O groups. Plasma transit times were very rapid; however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was low. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 minutes) as was recycle time. These data suggest that BEP kinetics are similar in L and O rats, and that this peptide may undergo extensive recycling into and out of the plasma compartment. The identity of the other two compartments requires further investigation

  3. 60 YEARS OF POMC: Lipotropin and beta-endorphin: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, D G

    2016-05-01

    Many important fields of research had a humble origin. In the distant past, A J P Martin's discovery that amino acids could be separated by paper chromatography and Moore and Stein's use of columns for quantitative amino acid analysis provided the first steps towards the determination of structure in complex biologically active molecules. They opened the door to reveal the essential relationship that exists between structure and function. In molecular endocrinology, for example, striking advances have been made by chemists with their expertise in the identification of structure working with biologists who contributed valuable knowledge and experience. Advantage was gained from the convergence of different background, and it is notable that the whole is greater than the sum. In the determination of structure, it may be recalled that four of the world's great pioneers (Archibald Martin, Rodney Porter, Fred Sanger and Vincent du Vigneaud) were acknowledged for their fundamental contributions when individually they were awarded the Nobel Prize. They foresaw that the identification of structure would prove of outstanding importance in the future. Indeed, study of the structures of β-endorphin and enkephalin and the different forms of opiate activity they engender has led to a transformation in our understanding of chemical transmission in the brain. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Plasma kinetics of sup 125 I beta endorphin turnover in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodd, D.; Caston, A.L.; Green M.H.; Farrell, P.A. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Plasma clearance kinetics for Beta Endorphin (BEP) are not well-defined and no definitive data exist for lean versus obese animals. To determine such kinetic parameters, a bolus of {sup 125}I BEP (1{mu}Ci/kg) was infused into awake lean(L) and obese(O) Zucker rats. Arterial blood samples were withdrawn initially at 20 seconds intervals and less frequently as a 3-hour experimental period progressed. Donor rat blood was infused (venous catheter) to replace withdrawn blood. At 180 minutes approximately 10% of the initial dose remained in the plasma. Clearance kinetics for {sup 125}I BEP were analyzed by compartmental analysis. A 3-component equation (i.e., 3 compartment model) provided the best fit for both L and O groups. Plasma transit times were very rapid; however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was low. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 minutes) as was recycle time. These data suggest that BEP kinetics are similar in L and O rats, and that this peptide may undergo extensive recycling into and out of the plasma compartment. The identity of the other two compartments requires further investigation.

  5. 201Tl myocardial SPECT and β-endorphin levels in patients with suspected silent ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.; Binter, G.; Koeltringer, P.; Eber, O.; Eber, B.; Klein, W.; Brandt, D.

    1990-01-01

    Today silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is a well-recognized phenomenon. Treadmill exercise according to the Bruce protocol, 201 Tl myocardial SPECT and coronary angiography were performed in a total of 106 patients with suspected SMI. In group I (high probability of ischemia; n=46), reversible defects detected by SPECT correlated well with significant stenoses and irreversible defects with subtotal stenoses or complete occlusions. SPECT sensitivity in the detection of ischemia was 91%, its specificity 96%. In group II (low probability of ischemia; n=60), SPECT sensitivity was as high as in group I (94%) but due to a high number of false-positive results (e.g. cardiomyopathy) specificity was only 75%. However, SPECT was superior to exercise ECG (sensitivity 70%; specificity 56%) in the detection of SMI. In addition, β-endorphin levels were determined in 180 healthy subjects, 37 patients with symptomatic CAD and in 34 patients with SMI before and during maximum exercise. Exercise values in patients with SMI were significantly higher than in healthy subjects or in patients with symptomatic CAD. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Mediation of Endogenous β-Endorphin in the Plasma Glucose-Lowering Action of Herbal Products Observed in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been advances in the development of new substances effective in managing diabetic disorders. Opioid receptors couple multiple systems to result in various biological effects, although opioids are best known for analgesia. In the present review, we used our recent data to describe the advance in plasma glucose-lowering action of herbal products, especially the mediation of β-endorphin in glucose homeostasis of insulin-deficient diabetes. In type 1-like streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, we identified many products purified from herbs that show a dose-dependent plasma glucose-lowering action. Increase in β-endorphin secretion from the adrenal gland may activate peripheral opioid μ-receptors (MOR to enhance the expression of muscle glucose transporters and/or to reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis at the gene level, thereby leading to improved glucose utilization in peripheral tissues for amelioration of severe hyperglycemia. It has also been observed that stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs in the adrenal gland by some herbal products is responsible for the increase in β-endorphin secretion via a phospholipase C-protein kinase dependent pathway. However, an increase in β-endorphin secretion from the adrenal gland by herbal products can function via another receptor. New insights into the mediation of endogenous β-endorphin activation of peripheral MOR by herbal products for regulation of glucose homeostasis without the presence of insulin have been established. Therefore, an increase in β-endorphin secretion and/or direct stimulation of peripheral MOR via an insulin-independent action might serve as the potential target for development of a therapeutic agent or promising adjuvant in intensive plasma glucose control.

  7. Comparison of (/sup 125/I)beta-endorphin binding to rat brain and NG108-15 cells using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidlack, J.M.; O' Malley, W.E.; Schulz, R.

    1988-02-01

    The properties of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin-binding sites from rat brain membranes and membranes from the NG108-15 cell line were compared using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor and opioid peptides as probes. The binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to both rat brain and NG108-15 membranes yielded linear Scatchard plots with Kd values of 1.2 nM and 1.5 nM, respectively, and Bmax values of 865 fmol/mg rat brain membrane protein and 1077 fmol/mg NG108-15 membrane protein. A monoclonal antibody, OR-689.2.4, capable of inhibiting mu and delta binding but not kappa binding to rat brain membranes, noncompetitively inhibited the binding of 1 nM (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to rat brain and NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 405 nM for rat brain membranes and 543 nM for NG108-15 membranes. The monoclonal antibody also inhibited the binding of 3 nM (/sup 3/H) (D-penicillamine2, D-penicillamine5) enkephalin to NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 370 nM. In addition to blocking the binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to brain membranes, the antibody also displaced (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin from membranes. Site-specific opioid peptides had large variations in their IC50 values depending on whether they were inhibiting (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to rat brain or the NG108-15 membranes. When the peptides were tested with the monoclonal antibody for their combined ability to inhibit (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to both membrane preparations, the peptides and antibody blocked binding as though they were acting at allosterically coupled sites, not two totally independent sites. These studies suggest that mu-, delta-, and beta-endorphin-binding sites share some sequence homology with the 35,000-dalton protein that the antibody is directed against.

  8. The effect of training on responses of beta-endorphin and other pituitary hormones to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Kjær, Michael; Hagen, C

    1985-01-01

    in untrained (25 +/- 6 mU X l-1) subjects (P less than 0.05). Levels of thyrotropin (TSH) changed in neither of the groups. It is concluded that, in contrast to what has been formerly proposed, training does not result in a general increase in secretory capacity of the anterior pituitary gland. TSH responds......We studied whether the previously reported intensified beta-endorphin response to exercise after training might result from a training-induced general increase in anterior pituitary secretory capacity. Identical hypoglycemia was induced by insulin infusion in 7 untrained (VO2max 49 +/- 4 ml X (kg X...

  9. Release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in response to machine milking of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objective to obtain insight into the dynamics of the release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol in response to machine milking in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy multiparous lactating Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in the study. Animals were at the 4th-5th month of pregnancy and were submitted to machine milking 2 times daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning: In baseline conditions, immediately before milking and after milking; and in the early afternoon: In baseline conditions, before milking and after milking, for 2 consecutive days. Endocrine variables were measured in duplicate, using a commercial radioimmunoassay for circulating β-endorphin and ACTH concentrations and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for cortisol concentration. Results: Data obtained showed a similar biphasic cortisol secretion of lactating dairy cows, with a significant increase of cortisol concentration after morning machine milking, at both the 1st and the 2nd day (p<0.05, and a decrease after afternoon machine milking at the 2nd day (p<0.01. One-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of the machine milking on the cortisol changes, at both morning (f=22.96; p<0.001 and afternoon (f=15.10; p<0.01 milking, respectively. Two-way RM ANOVA showed a significant interaction between cortisol changes at the 1st and the 2nd day (f=7.94; p<0.0002, and between the sampling times (f=6.09; p<0.001. Conversely, no significant effects of the machine milking were observed on β-endorphin and ACTH changes, but only a moderate positive correlation (r=0.94; p<0.06 after milking stimuli. Conclusions: A wide range of cortisol concentrations reported in this study showed the complex dynamic patterns of the homeostatic mechanisms involved during machine milking in dairy cows, suggesting that β-endorphin and ACTH were not the main factors that caused the

  10. Plasma beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin and corticotropin in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, T; Salminen, K; Virtanen, T; Apter, D

    1987-04-01

    In 9 women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and in 11 control subjects at the follicular phase of the normal cycle, blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals during a 2 h period of bed rest for the assay of beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin, corticotropin, cortisol and prolactin. During the study period, the plasma levels of these hormones decreased more significantly in the PCOD than in the control group, suggesting that the PCOD patients had a more significant stress response to the puncture of the vein than the control subjects. The second hour of the study period was considered to represent resting levels of hormones. The mean resting levels (+/- S.E.) of the hormones between the PCOD and control groups, respectively, were as follows: beta-E, 2.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; beta-LPH, 3.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, N.S.; corticotropin, 2.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; cortisol, 176 +/- 24 vs. 128 +/- 16, N.S.; and prolactin; 3.9 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.2 ng/ml, N.S. These results confirm the previous findings on increased circulating levels of beta-E in PCOD. A concomitant increase of the plasma level of corticotropin suggests that the basal secretion of both beta-E and corticotropin from the anterior pituitary gland is increased in women with PCOD.

  11. Labelling of. beta. -endorphin (. beta. -END) and. beta. -lipotropin (. beta. -LPH) by /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deby-Dupont, G.; Joris, J.; Franchimont, P. (Universite de Liege (Belgique)); Reuter, A.M.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y. (Institut des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgique))

    1983-01-01

    5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-endorphin were labelled with 2 mCi /sup 125/I by the chloramine T technique. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-15 and on Sephadex G-50 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer was obtained with a specific activity about 150 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g.Kept at + 4/sup 0/C, the tracer remained utilizable for 30 days without loss of immunoreactivity. The labelling with lactoperoxydase and the use of another gel filtration method (filtration on Aca 202) gave a /sup 125/I ..beta..-END tracer with the same immunoreactivity. The binding of this tracer to the antibody of an anti-..beta..-END antiserum diluted at 1/8000 was 32% with a non specific binding of 2%. 5 ..mu..g of human ..beta..-lipotropin were labelled with 0.5 mCi /sup 125/I by the lactoperoxydase method. After two gel filtrations on Sephadex G-25 and on Sephadex G-75 in phosphate buffer with EDTA, Trasylol and mercapto-ethanol, a pure tracer with a specific activity of 140 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g was obtained. It remained utilizable for 30 days when kept at + 4/sup 0/C. Gel filtration on Aca 202 did not give good purification, while gel filtration on Aca 54 was good but slower than on Sephadex G-75. The binding to antibody in absence of unlabelled ..beta..-LPH was 32% for an anti-..beta..-LPH antiserum diluted at 1/4000. The non specific binding was 2.5%.

  12. Beta-endorphin 1-31 biotransformation and cAMP modulation in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Hajarol Asvadi

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence now exists for the immune cell expression, production, and the release of beta-endorphin (BE 1-31 within inflamed tissue. The inflammatory milieu is characterised by increased acidity, temperature and metabolic activity. Within these harsh conditions BE 1-31 is even more susceptible to increased enzymatic degradation over that of plasma or other non-injured tissue. To elucidate the biotransformation pathways of BE 1-31 and provide an insight to the impact of inflamed tissue environments, BE 1-31 and three of its major N-terminal fragments (BE 1-11, BE 1-13 and BE 1-17 were incubated in inflamed tissue homogenates at pH 5.5 for 2 hrs. In addition, the potency of BE 1-31 and five main N--terminal fragments (BE 1-9, BE 1-11, BE 1-13, BE 1-17, BE 1-20 was assessed at mu-opioid receptors (MOR, delta-opioid receptors (DOR, and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR. Opioid receptor potency was investigated by examining the modulation of forskolin induced cAMP accumulation. The majority of the N-terminal fragment of BE 1-31 had similar efficacy to BE 1-31 at MOR. The shortest of the major N-terminal fragments (BE 1-9, had partial agonist activity at MOR but possessed the highest potency of all tested peptides at DOR. There was limited effect for BE 1-31 and the biotransformed peptides at KOR. Major N-terminal fragments produced within inflamed tissue have increased presence within inflamed tissue over that of the parent molecule BE 1-31 and may therefore contribute to BE 1-31 efficacy within disease states that involve inflammation.

  13. β-endorphin modulates the effect of stress on novelty-suppressed feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Barfield

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders, not all individuals who suffer stressful life events develop psychopathology. Differential susceptibility to stress may be influenced by genetically-mediated differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and moderation of the stress response by the opioid peptide β-endorphin (β-E. The present study investigated genetic contributions to coping behavior by examining anxious behavior of transgenic mice with varying capacities to synthesize β-E (B6.129S2-Pomctm1Low/J; regulated by insertion of a premature stop codon into one or both copies of the proopiomelanocortin gene, both under normal conditions and following 3 minutes of forced swim. Ten minutes after this stress exposure or a control manipulation, acutely food-deprived female and male transgenic mice were subjected to a novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF test, during which their interaction with an almond slice located in the center of an open field box was measured. There was an interaction between genotype and stress for latency to approach the almond and whether or not the almond was approached, such that mice with low or absent β-E displayed a stronger aversion to novelty-feeding after stress exposure than did mice with normal levels. These data provide evidence for a moderating effect of β-E on the behavioral response to stress. Genotypic differences in anxious behavior emerged when mice were stressed prior to behavioral assessment, suggesting that β-E plays a role in coping behavior. These findings indicate that genetic variability in sensitivity of the β-E system to stress may contribute, at least in part, to heritable differences in stress reactivity as well as vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology.

  14. Influence of insulin on beta-endorphin plasma levels in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunani, A; Pincelli, A I; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Baldi, G; Scacchi, M; Fatti, L M; Cavagnini, F

    1996-08-01

    To establish the possible role of hyperinsulinemia in the elevation of plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) levels observed in obese patients after an oral glucose load. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Two groups of six (age: 22-39 y, BMI: 30-48 kg/m2) and eight obese men (age: 18-37 y, BMI: 35-45 kg/m2), respectively, and five normal weight healthy men (age: 22-30 y, BMI 22-23 kg/m2). Glucose, insulin and beta-EP levels at baseline and every 30 min until 180 min during the OGTT; glucose, insulin, C-peptide and beta-EP concentrations at baseline and in steady state condition (i.e. during the last 30 min of insulin infusion) in the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. In the six obese patients undergoing the OGTT a significant elevation of beta-EP plasma levels was observed between 60 and 90 min after glucose ingestion. In the clamp studies no significant differences in beta-EP plasma levels, blood glucose and serum insulin were observed between obese and normal weight subjects both at baseline and at steady state. A markedly diminished insulin sensitivity along with a lower inhibition of C-peptide during insulin infusion was observed in obese patients compared to control subjects. A rise in serum insulin levels unaccompanied by a concomitant increase in blood glucose concentration is unable to elicit a beta-EP response in obese patients.

  15. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  16. Effect of acute ethanol on beta-endorphin secretion from rat fetal hypothalamic neurons in primary cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K.; Minami, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the effect of ethanol on the hypothalamic {beta}-endorphin-containing neurons, rat fetal hypothalamic neurons were maintained in primary culture, and the secretion of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-EP) was determined after ethanol challenges. Constant exposure to ethanol at doses of 6-50 mM produced a dose-dependent increase in basal secretion of {beta}-EP from these cultured cells. These doses of ethanol did not produce any significant effect on cell viability, DNA or protein content. The stimulated secretion of {beta}-EP following constant ethanol exposure is short-lasting. However, intermittent ethanol exposures maintained the ethanol stimulatory action on {beta}-EP secretion for a longer time. The magnitude of the {beta}-EP response to 50 mM ethanol is similar to that of the {beta}-EP response to 56 mM of potassium. Ethanol-stimulated {beta}-EP secretion required extracellular calcium and was blocked by a calcium channel blocker; a sodium channel blocker did not affect ethanol-stimulated secretion. These results suggest that the neuron culture system is a useful model for studying the cellular mechanisms involved in the ethanol-regulated hypothalamic opioid secretion.

  17. Altered levels of β-endorphin fragments after chronic morphine treatment of guinea-pig ileum in vivo and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, F.A.; Loeber, J.G.; Ree, J.M. van

    1980-01-01

    The isolated myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ilem (GPI) was used as testsystem to study the influence of chronic morphine treatment on the levels of enkephalins, β-endorphin and some of its fragments. The peptides were assayed by means of a combination of high pressure liquid

  18. Intravenous beta-endorphin administration fails to alter hypothalamic blood flow in rats expressing normal or reduced nitric oxide synthase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benyo, Z.; Szabo, C; Velkel, M.H; Bohus, B.G J; Wahl, M.A; Sandor, P

    1996-01-01

    beta-Endorphin (beta-END) significantly contributes to the maintenance of hypothalamic blood flow (HBF) autoregulation during hemorrhagic hypotension in rats. Recently, several natural and synthetic opioid peptides were reported to induce nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation in the cerebrovascular

  19. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

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    Yankai Araya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly. Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO, blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC], beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05. In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p 0.05. All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%, 1(59.52%, 3 (53.57% and 4(14.04%, whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%, 3 (42.30%, 2 (40% and 4 (9.2%. Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  20. Combination of high pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay is a powerful tool for the specific and quantitative determination of endorphins and related peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeber, J.G.; Verhoef, J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Witter, A.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the separation and subsequent quantification of endorphins and related peptides was developed. Separation of the peptides was achieved by high pressure liquid chromatography on a reversed phase column. By virtue of the high resolving capacity of this system peptides differing in only

  1. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  2. Effect of inhibitory avoidance trainning, ACTH, beta-endorphin and adrenaline on the incorporation of 14C-leucine into synaptosomal proteins of rat hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmaz, C.; Maia, H.M.M.; Izquierdo, I.

    1986-01-01

    'In vitro' incorporation of leucine to protein was studied in synaptosomes isolated from the hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus of rats submitted to inhibitory avoidance training or to the i.p. injection of ACTH, beta-endorphin or adrenaline; or in synaptosomes incubated with these substances. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

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    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  4. Inhibition of Mammary Cancer Progression in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Rats by β-Endorphin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Franklin, Tina; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) increases the susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary cancer progression in rodent models. FAE also decreases β-endorphin (β-EP) level and causes hyperstress response, which leads to inhibition of immune function against cancer. Previous studies have shown that injection of nanosphere-attached dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) into the third ventricle increases the number of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic potential of stress regulation using methods to increase hypothalamic levels of β-EP, a neuropeptide that inhibits stress axis activity, in treatment of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Fetal alcohol exposed and control Sprague Dawley rats were given a dose of N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) at postnatal day 50 to induce mammary cancer growth. Upon detection of mammary tumors, the animals were either transplanted with β-EP neurons or injected with dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres into the hypothalamus to increase β-EP peptide production. Spleen cytokines were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Metastasis study was done by injecting mammary cancer cells MADB106 into jugular vein of β-EP-activated or control fetal alcohol exposed animals. Both transplantation of β-EP neurons and injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres inhibited MNU-induced mammary cancer growth in control rats, and reversed the effect of FAE on the susceptibility to mammary cancer. Similar to the previously reported immune-enhancing and stress-suppressive effects of β-EP transplantation, injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres increased the levels of interferon-γ and granzyme B and decreased the levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Mammary cancer cell metastasis study also showed that FAE increased incidence of lung tumor retention, while β-EP transplantation inhibited lung tumor growth in

  5. The role of beta-endorphin in the pathophysiology of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadoren, K M; O'Donnell, T; Lanius, R; Coupland, N J; Lacaze-Masmonteil, N

    2009-10-01

    A role for beta-endorphin (beta-END) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is suggested by both animal research and studies examining clinical populations. The major etiological theories of depression include brain regions and neural systems that interact with opioid systems and beta-END. Recent preclinical data have demonstrated multiple roles for beta-END in the regulation of complex homeostatic and behavioural processes that are affected during a depressive episode. Additionally, beta-END inputs to regulatory pathways involving feeding behaviours, motivation, and specific types of motor activity have important implications in defining the biological foundations for specific depressive symptoms. Early research linking beta-END to MDD did so in the context of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, where it was suggested that HPA axis dysregulation may account for depressive symptoms in some individuals. The primary aims of this paper are to use both preclinical and clinical research (a) to critically review data that explores potential roles for beta-END in the pathophysiology of MDD and (b) to highlight gaps in the literature that limit further development of etiological theories of depression and testable hypotheses. In addition to examining methodological and theoretical challenges of past clinical studies, we summarize studies that have investigated basal beta-END levels in MDD and that have used challenge tests to examine beta-END responses to a variety of experimental paradigms. A brief description of the synthesis, location in the CNS and behavioural pharmacology of this neuropeptide is also provided to frame this discussion. Given the lack of clinical improvement observed with currently available antidepressants in a significant proportion of depressed individuals, it is imperative that novel mechanisms be investigated for antidepressant potential. We conclude that the renewed interest in elucidating the role of beta

  6. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  7. Differential effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and β-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) and β-endorphin (an ε-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, γ-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a δ-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and β-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a 60 Co γ-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or β-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by β-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of μ- and ε-opioid receptors to γ-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and β-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  8. THE CHANGES IN LEVEL OF 8-ENDORPHIN, INTERLEUKIN-2, INTERLEUKIN-4, INTERLEUKIN-6, IMUNOGLOBULIN AND CORTISOL HORMONE ON PRACTICES OF BRETHING EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpis Agus Sudarku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study was to reveal the changes of immunity at breathing exercises. This was an experimental study. With randomized pre-posttest control group design. Methods: The population were students of MA Mu'alimin, in Yogyakarta. Respondents were 15 students for each groups. The unit analysis were data analysis from blood taken from vena cubiti. The dependent variables were levels of IL 6, IL 4, IL 2, cortisol, Beta Endorphin, and lgG. The training programme was conducted in 7 weeks, 3 times per week, sub maximal intensity, and 6 sets per session. The laboratory vanable were the ELISA method. Results: Manova test were p: 0,000 Implied that there were differences (Wilk Lambda pendorphin (0.501 had the strongest relation to the discriminant function, followed by interleukin 6 (0.367 while the other variables had less significant relation. Discriminator variables representing the function contributed to every discriminator of modulation immunity were beta endorphin, interleukin 6 and interleukin 4. Hence, beta endorphin had the strongest contribution to the increase of body immunity compared with other variables. Conclusion: Breathing exercises could increase physical fitness and impenetrability of proven body manifestly. Breathing exercise increased beta endorphin, immunoglobulin G and interleukin 6, while interleukin 2 and interleukin 4 did not increase Cortisol level did not decrease stgnificantly but there was an indication of level of cortisol decrease. Immunity modulator which caused breathing exercise stressor got by 3 groups with strong contribution on the basis concept of psychoneuroimmunologic. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, modulation

  9. Substance P and beta-endorphin mediate electro-acupuncture induced analgesia in mouse cancer pain model

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    Kim Sun-Hyung

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid analgesics are generally used to combat the pain associated with cancerous conditions. These agents not only inhibit respiratory function and cause constipation, but also induce other significant side effects such as addiction and tolerance, all of which further contribute to a reduced quality of life for cancer patients. Thus, in the present study, the effects of electro-acupuncture treatment (EA on mechanical allodynia were examined in a cancer pain mouse model. Methods In order to produce a neuropathic cancer pain model, S-180 sarcoma cells were inoculated around the sciatic nerve of left legs of Balb/c mice. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scanning confirmed the mass of S-180 cancer cells embedded around the sciatic nerve. Mechanical allodynia was most consistently induced in the mouse sarcoma cell line S-180 (2 × 106sarcoma cells-treated group compared to all the other groups studied. EA stimulation (2 Hz was administered daily to ST36 (Zusanli of S-180 bearing mice for 30 min for 9 days after S-180 inoculation. Results EA treatment significantly prolonged paw withdrawal latency from 5 days after inoculation. It also shortened the cumulative lifting duration from 7 days after inoculation, compared to the tumor control. Also, the overexpression of pain peptide substance P in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly decreased in the EA-treated group compared to the tumor control on Day 9 post inoculation. Furthermore, EA treatment effectively increased the concentration of β-endorphin in blood and brain samples of the mice to a greater extent than that of the tumor control as well as the normal group. The concentration of β-endorphin for EA treatment group increased by 51.457% in the blood and 12.6% in the brain respectively, compared to the tumor control group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that a S-180 cancer pain model is useful as a consistent and short time animal model. It also

  10. Mediation of Endogenous β-Endorphin by Tetrandrine to Lower Plasma Glucose in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Jen-Hao Hsu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of β-endorphin in the plasma glucose-lowering action of tetrandrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats was investigated. The plasma glucose concentration was assessed by the glucose oxidase method. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the plasma level of β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER. The mRNA levels of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT4 in soleus muscle and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats were detected by Northern blotting analysis. The expressed protein of GLUT4 or PEPCK was characterized by Western blotting analysis. Tetrandrine dose-dependently increased plasma BER in a manner parallel to the decrease of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats. Moreover, the plasma glucose-lowering effect of tetrandrine was inhibited by naloxone and naloxonazine at doses sufficient to block opioid μ-receptors. Further, tetrandrine failed to produce plasma glucose-lowering action in opioid μ-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Bilateral adrenalectomy eliminated the plasma glucose-lowering effect and plasma BER-elevating effect of tetrandrine in STZ-diabetic rats. Both effects were abolished by treatment with hexamethonium or pentolinium at doses sufficient to block nicotinic receptors. Tetrandrine enhanced BER release directly from the isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-diabetic rats and this action was abolished by the blockade of nicotinic receptors. Repeated intravenous administration of tetrandrine (1.0 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 3 days resulted in an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of the GLUT4 in soleus muscle, in addition to the lowering of plasma glucose. Similar treatment with tetrandrine reversed the elevated mRNA and protein levels of PEPCK in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats. The obtained results suggest that tetrandrine may induce the activation of nicotinic receptors in adrenal medulla to enhance the secretion of β-endorphin

  11. Effects of endorphins on different parts of the gastrointestinal tract of rat and guinea-pig in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijkamp, F P; Van Ree, J M

    1980-04-01

    1 The spasmogenic and spasmolytic effects of beta-lipotropin (LPH) fragments and one analogue were investigated on different parts of the gastro-intestinal tract of guinea-pig and rat in vitro.2 Changes in muscle tone were observed in colon and rectum and to a lesser extent in jejunum and ileum of both species. Rat colon and rectum contracted to the peptides. Guinea-pig colon and rectum relaxed after an initial short-lasting contraction.3 On the rat rectum (D-ala(2))met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, gamma-endorphin, alpha-endorphin and beta-LPH 80-91 caused dose-dependent contractions, their ED(50) values being 0.96 x 10(-12) mol, 1.05 x 10(-11) mol, 1.22 x 10(-11) mol, 1.08 x 10(-10) mol, 2.65 x 10(-10) mol and 6.5 x 10(-9) mol, respectively.4 Naloxone dose-dependently shifted the dose-response curve of met-enkephalin to the right. Atropine, hexamethonium, burimamide, mepyramine, propranolol and indomethacin did not influence the response to met-enkephalin.5 In the presence of tetrodotoxin, the ED(50) for met-enkephalin and the maximal contractor response induced by met-enkephalin, appeared to be increased.6 The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) antagonists, methysergide and cyproheptadine, reduced the contractor response in a non-competitive manner. The alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine, in contrast, caused an increase of the maximal response to met-enkephalin of up to 200%. Noradrenergic and tryptaminergic systems, therefore, might be involved in the changes in muscle tone induced by met-enkephalin.7 These results demonstrate that rectum and colon of guinea-pig and rat are very sensitive to opioid-like peptides.

  12. Effects of chronic ethanol treatment on the in vitro biosynthesis of pro-opiomelanocortin and its posttranslational processing to beta-endorphin in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seizinger, B.R.; Hoellt, V.; Herz, A.

    1984-09-01

    Chronic treatment of rats with 15% (vol/vol) ethanol in tap water as their only source of liquid over a period of 3 weeks resulted in a strong decrease by almost 50% in tissue levels and in vitro release of immunoreactive beta-endorphin of the neurointermediate pituitary. Moreover, the in vitro incorporation of (3H)phenylalanine into peptides of the neurointermediate pituitary, immunoprecipitable with beta-endorphin antiserum, was found to be decreased by more than 30%. Analysis of beta-endorphin-related peptides on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that chronic ethanol treatment reduced the in vitro biosynthesis of the beta-endorphin precursor pro-opiomelanocortin. This ethanol-induced effect was combined with a retardation in the time course of the posttranslational processing of the precursor into beta-endorphin. Thus, chronic ethanol treatment may influence the activity of enzymes which process the opioid peptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin, leading to a decreased formation of the final secretory product beta-endorphin.

  13. Effect of beta-endorphin imprinting during late pregnancy on the brain serotonin and plasma nocistatin levels of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, K; Gyenge, M; Hantos, M; Csaba, G

    2007-07-01

    Female rats were treated with 10 microg of beta-endorphin on the 19th day of pregnancy. Offspring were studied when five months old. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in four brain regions were determined by HPLC-EC and the nocistatin levels of blood plasma using RIA methods. In each brain region studied, the 5-HT levels were highly significantly reduced and that of 5-HIAA in three regions was highly significantly increased. When 5HIAA/5HT ratios, as a measure of serotonin turnover, were calculated, imprinted animals showed extremely high values. Plasma nocistatin level was also significantly elevated. The results call attention to the effect of perinatal endorphin imprinting and its long-term consequences (e.g., setting of aggressiveness, pain tolerance).

  14. Beta-endorphin chimeric peptides: Transport through the blood-brain barrier in vivo and cleavage of disulfide linkage by brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardridge, W.M.; Triguero, D.; Buciak, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Water soluble peptides are normally not transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Chimeric peptides may be transportable through the BBB and are formed by the covalent coupling of a nontransportable peptide to a transportable peptide vector, e.g. cationized albumin, using disulfide-based coupling reagents such as N-succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio(propionate)] (SPDP). The transcytosis of peptide into brain parenchyma, as opposed to vascular sequestration of blood-borne peptide, was quantified using an internal carotid artery perfusion/capillary depletion method. It is shown that [125I]beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB, but is rapidly cleaved to free [125I] tyrosine via capillary peptidase. Therefore, chimeric peptide was prepared using [125I] [D-Ala2]beta-endorphin (DABE), owing to the resistance of this analogue to peptidase degradation. The [125I] DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is shown to enter brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to that reported previously for unconjugated cationized albumin. When the [125I] DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was incubated with rat brain homogenate at 37 C, the free [125I] DABE was liberated from the cationized albumin conjugate prior to its subsequent degradation into free [125I] tyrosine. Approximately 50% of the chimeric peptide was cleaved within 60 sec of incubation at 37 C. These studies demonstrate that (1) [125I]beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB in its unconjugated form, (2) a [125I] DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is transported through the BBB into brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to the unconjugated cationized albumin, and (3) brain contains the necessary disulfide reductases for rapid cleavage of the chimeric peptide into free beta-endorphin and this cleavage occurs before degradation of the [125I] DABE into [125I] tyrosine

  15. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-human beta-endorphin to cell lines possessing either mu or delta type opioid binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keren, O.; Gioannini, T.L.; Hiller, J.M.; Simon, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Affinity crosslinking of human /sup 125/I-beta-Endorphin to cell lines possessing either mu or delta binding sites was carried out. Autoradiography of SDS-PAGE gels from these crosslinked cell lines revealed that these two sites contain major peptide subunits that differ in molecular size. This confirms our earlier finding in mammalian brain which demonstrated separate and distinct subunits for mu and delta opioid receptors.

  16. The Relationship Between Beta Endorphins and Emotional State in Physically Active Individuals Aged 45-55 (A Report on a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundziņa Ieva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This sports-science-related article heavily relies on studies that have reported an increase in beta-endorphin (â-EP concentration in plasma in response to physical activity. It examines the psychological and physiological effects of physical activity and exercise and reports on a research-experiment-based, endorphin-hypotheses-related pilot study aimed at exploring mood-related â-EP effects occurring in physically active male and female individuals aged 45-55 in response to physical load. Material and methods. Six 45 to 55-year-old individuals (3 males and 3 females rated as exhibiting moderate and high levels of physical activity in sport's laboratory. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was used to establish physical activity level. For facial expression analysis a short interview was applied, using software “FaceReader 3.0” (FR. As a load test a veloergometer exercise test was used, and Beta-endorphin (â-EP levels were measured from venous blood. Results. The findings demonstrated an increase in â-EP levels in 50% of the subjects. No positive relation between â-EP increase and happiness has been observed. In four subjects an increase in disgust was observed due to the laboratory conditions. Five minutes after the load test FR data recorded the reduction or disappearance of negative emotions for all research subjects. Conclusions. Further investigation into the relationship of plasma levels of â-EP and the emotional state of the individual involved in physical activities is needed. This necessitates a further insight into how exercise-elevated endorphins (â-EP affect mood state outside laboratory conditions. Therefore, a further investigation of people involved in physical recreation activities outdoors is envisaged.

  17. COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF MASSAGE THERAPY ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH GREEN COCONUT WATER THERAPY ON Β-ENDORPHIN LEVEL IN TEENAGE GIRLS WITH DYSMENORRHEA

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    Fitria Hikmatul Ulya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea is pain during menstruation in lower abdomen, and is not due to other diseases. Effleurage massage and consuming green coconut water are considered able to reduce menstrual pain. However, little is known about the effect of the combination between the two interventions. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of effleurage massage and in combination with green coconut water on pain, anxiety, and ß-endorphin level in teenage girls with menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea. Design: A quasy experiment with pretest-posttest approach design with control group. There were 36 samples recruited in this study by purposive sampling, which were divided into a massage therapy group, the combination therapy group, and a control group. Menstrual pain was measured using Numeric Rating Scale, while anxiety was measured using Zung Self rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS, and endorphin level using ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. One way anova test and repeated anova were performed as a bivariate analysis. Mancova and post hoc anova were used for multivariate analysis. Result: The combination of massage and green coconut water was more effective in reducing pain (p 0.013 and anxiety levels (p 0.000, and in increasing β-endorphin (p 0.029 with significant value of <0.05 compared to the massage therapy alone. Conclusion: The combination of effleurage massage and green coconut water had significant effect in decreasing anxiety and pain levels, and increasing β-endorphin levels in teenage girls with painful periods (dysmenorrhea; and more effective than performing effleurage massage only. It is suggested that this combination therapy could be used as an alternative therapy for women with dysmenrrohea.

  18. Beta-endorphin chimeric peptides: Transport through the blood-brain barrier in vivo and cleavage of disulfide linkage by brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardridge, W.M.; Triguero, D.; Buciak, J.L. (UCLA School of Medicine (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Water soluble peptides are normally not transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Chimeric peptides may be transportable through the BBB and are formed by the covalent coupling of a nontransportable peptide to a transportable peptide vector, e.g. cationized albumin, using disulfide-based coupling reagents such as N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio(propionate)) (SPDP). The transcytosis of peptide into brain parenchyma, as opposed to vascular sequestration of blood-borne peptide, was quantified using an internal carotid artery perfusion/capillary depletion method. It is shown that (125I)beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB, but is rapidly cleaved to free (125I) tyrosine via capillary peptidase. Therefore, chimeric peptide was prepared using (125I) (D-Ala2)beta-endorphin (DABE), owing to the resistance of this analogue to peptidase degradation. The (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is shown to enter brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to that reported previously for unconjugated cationized albumin. When the (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was incubated with rat brain homogenate at 37 C, the free (125I) DABE was liberated from the cationized albumin conjugate prior to its subsequent degradation into free (125I) tyrosine. Approximately 50% of the chimeric peptide was cleaved within 60 sec of incubation at 37 C. These studies demonstrate that (1) (125I)beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB in its unconjugated form, (2) a (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is transported through the BBB into brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to the unconjugated cationized albumin, and (3) brain contains the necessary disulfide reductases for rapid cleavage of the chimeric peptide into free beta-endorphin and this cleavage occurs before degradation of the (125I) DABE into (125I) tyrosine.

  19. A hormone map of human immune cells showing the presence of adrenocorticotropic hormone, triiodothyronine and endorphin in immunophenotyped white blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pállinger, Éva; Csaba, György

    2008-01-01

    The amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), endorphin and triiodothyronine (T3) in twenty-six blood samples from men and women who were healthy or had non-haematological diseases were determined by flow cytometry. Lymphocytes were immunophenotyped using monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens, and monocytes and granulocytes were separated by their size and granularity (using forward-scatter versus side-scatter dot plots). Each hormone was found in each cell type. The hormone content of lymphocytes was balanced, but the concentration of ACTH was significantly lower in activated T cells, that of endorphin was significantly lower in natural killer (NK) cells, and that of T3 was lower in both cell types compared with values for all lymphocytes. Monocytes and granulocytes contained very significantly more hormones than lymphocytes or monocytes. The concentration of endorphin was an order of magnitude higher in granulocytes than in monocytes or lymphocytes, reflecting the pain-relieving role of granulocytes during inflammation. Compared with monocytes, in granulocytes there was a higher concentration of ACTH and a lower concentration of T3, which suggests selective hormone production by these cells. PMID:18005034

  20. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated human beta-endorphin in rats. An application of the capillary membrane-limited model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1987-07-01

    In order to simulate the distribution and elimination of radioiodinated human beta-endorphin (/sup 125/I-beta-EP) after iv bolus injection in rats, we proposed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model incorporating diffusional transport of /sup 125/I-beta-EP across the capillary membrane. This model assumes that the distribution of /sup 125/I-beta-EP is restricted only within the blood and the tissue interstitial fluid, and that a diffusional barrier across the capillary membrane exists in each tissue except the liver. The tissue-to-blood partition coefficients were estimated from the ratios of the concentration in tissues to that in arterial plasma at the terminal (pseudoequilibrium) phase. The total body plasma clearance (9.0 ml/min/kg) was appropriately assigned to the liver and kidney. The transcapillary diffusion clearances of /sup 125/I-beta-EP were also estimated and shown to correlate linearly with that of inulin in several tissues. Numerically solving the mass-balance differential equations as to plasma and each tissue simultaneously, simulated concentration curves of /sup 125/I-beta-EP corresponded well with the observed data. It was suggested by the simulation that the initial rapid disappearance of /sup 125/I-beta-EP from plasma after iv injection could be attributed in part to the transcapillary diffusion of the peptide.

  1. Exercise- and cold-induced changes in plasma beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Van Dijk, J P; Graham, T E; Bonen, A; George, J C

    1987-02-01

    The plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH) response of men, eumenorrheic women, and amenorrheic women (n = 6) to 1 h of rest or to a bicycle ergometer test [20 min at 30% maximum O2 uptake (VO2max), 20 min at 60% VO2max, and at 90% VO2max to exhaustion] was studied in both normal (22 degrees C) and cold (5 degrees C) environments. beta-EP and beta-LPH was measured by radioimmunoassay in venous samples collected every 20 min during rest or after each exercise bout. Exhaustive exercise at ambient temperature (Ta) 22 degrees C induced significant increases in plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH in all subjects as did work at 60% VO2max in amenorrheic and eumenorrheic women. During work at Ta 5 degrees C, the relative increase in beta-EP and beta-LPH was suppressed in eumenorrheic women and completely prevented in amenorrheic women. Although significant lowering of beta-EP and beta-LPH was observed in men and eumenorrheic women during rest at 5 degrees C, amenorrheic women maintained precold exposure levels. These findings suggest that plasma beta-EP and beta-LPH may reflect a thermoregulatory response to heat load. There appears to be a sexual dimorphism in exercise- and cold-induced release of beta-EP and beta-LPH and amenorrhea may be accompanied by alterations in these responses.

  2. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized [ 3 H]albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized [ 3 H]albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling [ 3 H]beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The [ 3 H]beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier

  3. Sucrose and naltrexone prevent increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by repetitive neonatal noxious stimulation: Role of BDNF and β-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alhusban, Ahmed; Bawaane, Areej; Al-Azzani, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution and/or naltrexone were administered before the pricks. All treatments started on day one of birth and continued for two weeks. At the end of 8weeks, behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate. The hippocampus was dissected; levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. Acute repetitive neonatal pain increased pain sensitivity later in life, while naltrexone with sucrose decreased pain sensitivity. Naltrexone and/or sucrose prevented neonatal pain induced impairment of long-term memory, while neonatal pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus; this decrease was averted by sucrose and naltrexone. Sucrose with naltrexone significantly increased β-endorphin levels in noxiously stimulated rats. In conclusion, naltrexone and sucrose can reverse increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by acute repetitive neonatal pain probably by normalizing BDNF expression and increasing β-endorphin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  5. [Music as adjuvant therapy for coronary heart disease. Therapeutic music lowers anxiety, stress and beta-endorphin concentrations in patients from a coronary sport group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollert, J O; Störk, T; Rose, M; Möckel, M

    2003-12-19

    In a study with coronary patients it was estimated that music is able to lower stress and fear and contributing to relaxation in spite of physical exercise. 15 patients (13 male, two female, mean age 62,2 +/- 7,6 years) of a coronary sport unit were listening to an especially composed relaxation music while training their common heart-frequency adapted exercises. Before the exercises and after listening to music blood pressures were measured and blood was collected for determination of beta-endorphin. Simultaneous to blood collection the participants had to perform two psychometric test: the perceived stress experience questionnaire (PSQ) of Levenstein to measure the graduation of subjective perceived stress and the state-anxiety inquiry (STAI) of Spielberger as an indicator of coping. To practice the trial ("test trial"), the whole protocol was performed one week prior to the mean trial, but without listening to music and without blood collections and blood pressure measurements. In the test trial without music there were no significant changes in PSQ-data. In the mean trial, under the influence of music, values in the section "worries" decreased as a sign of lower worries (26.6 versus 27.6; p = 0.039). STAI-values were significantly lower as a sign of reduced fear after listening to music (31 versus 34; p = 0.045). beta-endorphin concentration (10.91 microg/l versus 15.96 microg/l, p = 0.044) and systolic blood pressure (130 mmHg versus 140 mmHg; p = 0.007) decreased significantly after listening to music. Regarding worries and fear, patients seemed to benefit by the intervention of music. beta-endorphin was lowered significantly after music despite physical activity.

  6. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on pain, mood and serum endorphin level in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A double blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Eman M; Omran, Eman A H; Ismail, Nadia M; El-Hammady, Dina H; Goma, Samar H; Kotb, Hassan; Galal, Hannan; Osman, Ayman M; Farghaly, Hannan S M; Karim, Ahmed A; Ahmed, Gehad A

    Recent studies have shown that novel neuro-modulating techniques can have pain-relieving effects in the treatment of chronic pain. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving fibromyalgia pain and its relation with beta-endorphin changes. Forty eligible patients with primary fibromyalgia were randomized to receive real anodal tDCS or sham tDCS of the left motor cortex (M1) daily for 10 days. Each patient was evaluated using widespread pain index (WPI), symptom severity of fibromyalgia (SS), visual analogue scale (VAS), and determination of pain threshold as a primary outcome. Hamilton depression and anxiety scales (HAM-D and HAM-A) and estimation of serum beta-endorphin level pre and post-sessions were used as secondary outcome. All rating scales were conducted at the baseline, after the 5th, 10th session, 15 days and 1 month after the end of the sessions. Eighteen patients from each group completed the follow-up schedule with no significant difference between them regarding the duration of illness or the baseline scales. A significant TIME × GROUP interaction for each rating scale (WPI, SS, VAS, pain threshold, HAM-A, HAM-D) indicated that the effect of treatment differed in the two groups with higher improvement in the experimental scores of the patients in the real tDCS group (P = 0.001 for WPI, SS, VAS, pain threshold, and 0.002, 0.03 for HAM-A, HAM-D respectively). Negative correlations between changes in serum beta-endorphin level and the changes in different rating scales were found (P = 0.003, 0.003, 0.05, 0.002, 0002 for WPI, SS, VAS, HAM-A, and HAM-D respectively). Ten sessions of real tDCS over M1 can induce pain relief and mood improvement in patients with fibromyalgia, which were found to be related to changes in serum endorphin levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02704611. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adrenocorticotropin, beta-endorphin, and beta-lipotropin in normal thyroid and lung: possible implications for ectopic hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, J A; Funder, J W; Tracy, K; Morgan, F J; Campbell, D J; Lewis, P; Hearn, M T

    1982-12-01

    The expression of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene by normal lung and thyroid was examined by measurement of the content of ACTH, beta-lipotropin (beta LPH), and beta-endorphin (beta EP) in porcine lung and thyroid tissue. Acid extracts of normal porcine lung and thyroid tissue each contained appreciable amounts of immunoreactive (ir) ACTH, ir-beta LPH, and ir-beta EP. The content of ir-beta LPH in both tissues exceeded by severalfold, on a molar basis, the content of ir-ACTH and ir-beta EP, suggesting that the common precursor POMC was processed predominantly to peptides other than ir-ACTH and ir-beta EP. A porcine thyroid extract (Calcitare, porcine calcitonin, Armour) showed equivalent levels of beta EP-like immunoreactivity and bioactivity, measured by opiate radioreceptor assay; in contrast, ACTH-like bioactivity, measured by rat zona fasciculata steroidogenesis, was only 4% of ACTH-like immunoreactivity. On reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, Calcitare showed multiple peaks of ACTH-like immunoreactivity, one of which coeluted with porcine ACTH-(1-39), and two much smaller peaks of beta EP-like immunoreactivity, of which the smaller coeluted with porcine beta EP. These data suggest that both lung and thyroid gland synthesize POMC, which in normal tissue is usually predominantly processed to species other than ACTH and beta EP. Ectopic secretion of ACTH and beta EP by lung and thyroid neoplasms may thus represent the loss of a system(s) normally responsible for processing the precursor beyond ACTH and beta EP.

  8. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. METODE SPEOS (STIMULASI PIJAT ENDORPHIN, OKSITOSIN DAN SUGESTIF DAPAT MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI ASI DAN PENINGKATAN BERAT BADAN BAYI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    diah eka nugraheni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Target pencapaian ASI eksklusif  masih Rendah  yaitu  33,6% (SDKI 2010. ASI eksklusif dimaksudkan untuk menjamin pemenuhan hak bayi untuk 6 bulan dengan memperhatikan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan, sehingga setiap ibu akan memberikan ASI eksklusif kepada bayi (PP no.23, 2012, masalah ASI  tidak keluar di hari pertama kelahiran harus diantisipasi sejak kehamilan melalui konseling laktasi, tetapi penyebaran informasi di antara petugas belum dioptimalkan sehingga perlu dilakukan  alternatif cara merangsang produksi susu (Wiwin W, 2014. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui metode SPEOS (Pijat endorphin, oksitosin dan sugestif untuk meningkatkan produksi susu dan berat badan bayi. Desain penelitian ini digunakan Percobaan Quasi dengan sampel ibu nifas primipara diberi metode intervensi SPEOS pada hari postpartum pertama mulai 1-6 jam sampai minggu keempat, produksi ASI diukur sebelum dan setelah intervensi untuk melihat produksi susu dan peningkatan berat badan bayi. Data dianalisis univariat analisis dan analisis Wilcoxon uji bivariat dan analisis multivariat untuk mengontrol faktor pembaur dengan analisis ANCOVA. Hasil menunjukkan efek metode SPEOS rata-rata produksi susu dari 131,87 (p=0,00 dan peningkatan bayi rata-rata berat 483,30 g (p 0,00, umur dan makanan yang dikonsumsi oleh ibu selama studi (gizi ibu tidak mempengaruhi produksi susu, sedangkan efek IMD pada produksi susu dengan 0,389 r persegi (p 0,04. Kesimpulan: metode SPEOS berpengaruh pada produksi susu dan peningkatan berat badan bayi pada ibu nifas di Kota Bengkulu di BPM, 2016.Diharapkan semua petugas kesehatan yang memberikan bayi untuk dapat menggunakan metode sebagai prosedur standar dalam SPEOS merangsang produksi susu untuk meningkatkan target pemberian ASI eksklusif.

  10. [The effect of hydra peptide morphogen on the levels of beta-endorphin and some blood and adrenal hormones in albino rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzina, N B; Khomichuk, A Iu; Timoshin, S S; Obukhova, G G; Anosova, O A; Berezina, G P

    1991-10-01

    The influence of PMH on the level of beta-endorphin and some hormones of blood and adrenal glands was studied. The dose A (10 mkg/kg) and dose W (100 mkg/kg) of PMH were used in our experiments. Earlier it has been discovered, that PMH in such doses stimulated the processes of cell division in 24 hours since the moment of injection. The stimulation was dose-dependent. Within 24 hours PMH in A dose decreased the concentration of beta-endorphin in the blood 2.7-fold, ad in dose W increased it 2 times. The level of corticosterone in blood and adrenal glands after the injection of PMH in dose A exceeded the control data trustworthy in 4 and 24 hours since the moment of injection. In dose B in 4 hours 1.5-fold reduction of corticosterone concentration took place in the blood. Increase in epinephrine level in adrenal glands was observed after PMH administration in two doses. Content of T3 increased in 4 hours after PMH injection in dose B. The role of hormonal changes in stimulating cell division accompanied by PMH injection is discussed. The data received show that PMH influences directly proliferative processes.

  11. Rapid agonist-induced loss of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin opioid receptor sites in NG108-15, but not SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, R.I.; Lameh, J.; Sadee, W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites on intact SK-N-SH and NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells, respectively, in culture. Use of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin ({beta}E) as a tracer, together with {beta}E(6-31) to block high-affinity non-opioid binding in both cell lines, permitted the measurement of cell surface {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites. Labeling was at {delta} sites in NG108-15 cells and predominantly at {mu} sites in SK-N-SH cells. Pretreatment with the {mu} and {delta} agonist, DADLE, caused a rapid loss of cell surface {delta} receptor sites in NG108-15 cells, but failed to reduce significantly {mu} receptor density in SK-N-SH cells.

  12. Olfactory identification in patients with schizophrenia - the influence of β-endorphin and calcitonin gene-related peptide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Kowalczyk, M; Śmigielski, J; Strzelecki, D

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the olfactory system and emotional processing is an area of growing interest in schizophrenia research. Both the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala are involved in the processing of olfactory information, and olfactory deficits may be also influenced by endogenous opioids and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is probably involved in dopaminergic transmission. However, the relationship between endorphins and dopaminergic transmission has not been fully explored. Odor identification performance and valence interaction was evaluated among 50 schizophrenic patients and 50 controls. Schizophrenia symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All study participants were subjected to the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), blood β-endorphin (BE) and CGRP measurement. Insignificantly higher BE concentrations were observed in the patient group, while significantly higher UPSIT scores were seen in controls (mean UPSIT 32.48 vs 26.82). The patients demonstrated significantly more identification errors for pleasant (P=0.000) and neutral (P=0.055) odors than for unpleasant odors. Patients with higher BE concentrations made more identification errors concerning pleasant (R s =-0.292; P=0.04) and neutral odors (R s =-0.331; P=0.019). Although the concentration of CGRP was significantly higher in the patient sample (Pidentification by valence for pleasant and neutral odors (UPSIT n/16: R s =-0.450, P=0.001; UPSIT n/15: R s =-0.586, P=0.000), and a weak negative correlation between PANSS N score and identification of unpleasant odors (UPSIT n/9: R s =-0.325, P=0.021). Schizophrenic patients present a unique pattern of smell identification characterized by aberrant hedonic ratings for pleasant odors but not unpleasant ones. Individuals with predominant negative symptoms and higher BE concentrations are most able to identify negative odors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  13. The effect of calcium-naloxone treatment on blood calcium, beta-endorphin, and acetylcholine in milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A; Minoia, G; Ceci, E; Manca, R; Mutinati, M; Spedicato, M; Sciorsci, R L

    2008-09-01

    Milk fever is a postpartum syndrome of cows characterized by acute hypocalcemia, which reduces the release of acetylcholine (ACH), inducing flaccid paralysis and recumbency. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of calcium (Ca2+) combined with naloxone (Nx, an opioid antagonist; Ca2+-Nx) on plasma concentrations of ACH, beta-endorphin (betaE), and Ca2+ just before treatment (T0) and at 15, 30, and 90 min after treatment (T15, T30, and T90, respectively). Thirty cows were divided into 3 groups of 10 cows each. In group A1, cows affected by milk fever were treated (i.v.) with a combination of 0.2 mL/kg of body weight (BW) of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%) and 0.01 mg/kg of BW of Nx hydrochloride dihydrate. In group A2, cows affected by milk fever were treated (i.v.) with 2 mL/kg of BW of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%). In group C, healthy cows were treated (i.v.) with a combination of 0.2 mL/kg of BW of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%) and 0.01 mg/kg of BW of Nx hydrochloride dihydrate. Cows underwent treatments within 24 h of calving. Blood samples were collected at T0 and at T15, T30, and T90 for quantitative determination of ACH, betaE, and Ca2+. The cows in groups A1 and A2 recovered within a mean of 20 +/- 10 min, although 4 cows in group A2 underwent a relapse. Blood Ca2+ concentrations in group C increased slightly at T30 and at T90 (T30: 8.8 +/- 0.6 mg/dL; T90: 8.7 +/- 0.6 mg/dL) after treatment, whereas the response in groups affected by milk fever was similar, even though Ca2+ concentrations showed a sharp increase (A1: 8.9 +/- 0.8 mg/dL; A2: 6.0 +/- 0.7 mg/dL), particularly at T15 in group A1. Concentrations of betaE showed a similar pattern in groups A1 and C, with an increase at T15 (A1: 8.2 +/- 1.0 ng/mL; C: 2.7 +/- 0.4 ng/mL) and a subsequent decrease until T90 (A1: 1.4 +/- 0.3 ng/mL; C: 1.4 +/- 0.4 ng/mL), whereas betaE remained constant throughout in group A2. Concentrations of ACH in group A1 decreased significantly between T0 and T15, T30, and T90 (T0: 7.2 +/- 1.1 nmol

  14. Structural and pharmacological characteristics of chimeric peptides derived from peptide E and beta-endorphin reveal the crucial role of the C-terminal YGGFL and YKKGE motifs in their analgesic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Eric; Courchay, Karine; Rego, Jean-Claude Do; Leprince, Jérôme; Mayer, Catherine; Davoust, Daniel; Costentin, Jean; Vaudry, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Peptide E (a 25-amino acid peptide derived from proenkephalin A) and beta-endorphin (a 31-amino acid peptide derived from proopiomelanocortin) bind with high affinity to opioid receptors and share structural similarities but induce analgesic effects of very different intensity. Indeed, whereas they possess the same N-terminus Met-enkephalin message sequence linked to a helix by a flexible spacer and a C-terminal part in random coil conformation, in contrast with peptide E, beta-endorphin produces a profound analgesia. To determine the key structural elements explaining this very divergent opioid activity, we have compared the structural and pharmacological characteristics of several chimeric peptides derived from peptide E and beta-endorphin. Structures were obtained under the same experimental conditions using circular dichroism, computational estimation of helical content and/or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and NMR-restrained molecular modeling. The hot-plate and writhing tests were used in mice to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the peptides. Our results indicate that neither the length nor the physicochemical profile of the spacer plays a fundamental role in analgesia. On the other hand, while the functional importance of the helix cannot be excluded, the last 5 residues in the C-terminal part seem to be crucial for the expression or absence of the analgesic activity of these peptides. These data raise the question of the true function of peptides E in opioidergic systems. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. INDICATORS OF CYTOKINE ACTIVITY AND BETA-ENDORPHIN PRODUCTION LEVEL IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION ASSOCIATED WITH ASTHENIC/NEUROTIC DISORDERS IN YOUNG MEN EMPLOYED IN STRESSFUL PROFESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gertsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, arterial hypertension is the most common somatic pathology among young and able-bodied persons. Development and progression of hypertension in young people occupied with stressful jobs presents a particular problem. Anxiety and depression arise quite commonly in such persons subjected to chronic stress. Direct pathophysiological effects of anxiety and depressive disorders upon cardiovascular system leads to development of disturbances of basic regulatory processes and life-threatening clinical forms of ischemic heart disease and hypertension. However, despite sufficient data about the impact of anxiety and depressive disorders on the course of cardiac pathology, some open questions remain concerning the degree of changes in neuropeptide-cytokine pool of immune system in young, intensively working hypertensive patients.Moreover, there is lack of knowledge concerning interdependence in functioning of the major regulatory systems (autonomic nervous and immune in such patients.In this connection, the aim of this work was to study cytokines of the immune system, and the levels of betaendorphin production in hypertension, proceeding with astheno-neurotic disorders in young men of intensive specialties, as well as study of interactions between the indices of autonomic nervous system functioning, and immunity parameters in these patients. The following groups were under study: 1st (n = 34 included patients with hypertension and astheno-neurotic problems; 2nd (n = 20, patients with hypertension without psychological disorders, with acute or chronic stress in previous history (controls. Neuropeptide-cytokine profile of the immune system was evaluated by levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and β-endorphin.In the course of clinical and laboratory examination, we have found that, in the patients with hypertension and astheno-neurotic disorders, activation of proinflammatory

  16. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF HYPOTHALAMIC BETA-ENDORPHIN NEURONS AGAINST ALCOHOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURIES AND LIVER CANCERS IN RAT ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, retrograde tracing has provided evidence for an influence of hypothalamic β-endorphin (BEP) neurons on the liver, but functions of these neurons are not known. We evaluated the effect of BEP neuronal activation on alcohol-induced liver injury and hepatocellular cancer. Methods Male rats received either BEP neuron transplants or control transplants in the hypothalamus and randomly assigned to feeding alcohol-containing liquid diet or control liquid diet for 8 weeks or to treatment of a carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Liver tissues of these animals were analyzed histochemically and biochemically for tissue injuries or cancer. Results Alcohol-feeding increased liver weight and induced several histopathological changes such as prominent microvesicular steatosis and hepatic fibrosis. Alcohol feeding also increased protein levels of triglyceride, hepatic stellate cell activation factors and catecholamines in the liver and endotoxin levels in the plasma. However, these effects of alcohol on the liver were reduced in animals with BEP neuron transplants. BEP neuron transplants also suppressed carcinogen-induced liver histopathologies such as extensive fibrosis, large focus of inflammatory infiltration, hepatocelluar carcinoma, collagen deposition, numbers of preneoplastic foci, levels of hepatic stellate cell activation factors and catecholamines, as well as inflammatory milieu and the levels of NK cell cytotoxic factors in the liver. Conclusion These findings are the first evidence for a role of hypothalamic BEP neurons in influencing liver functions. Additionally, the data identify that BEP neuron transplantation prevents hepatocellular injury and hepatocellular carcinoma formation possibly via influencing the immune function. PMID:25581653

  17. Transplantation of β-endorphin neurons into the hypothalamus promotes immune function and restricts the growth and metastasis of mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipak K; Zhang, Changqing; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Dokur, Madhavi; Boyadjieva, Nadka I; Ortigüela, Maria; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Mojtehedzadeh, Sepide

    2011-10-01

    Neurobehavioral stress has been shown to promote tumor growth and progression and dampen the immune system. In this study, we investigated whether inhibiting stress hormone production could inhibit the development of mammary carcinoma and metastasis in a rat model of breast carcinogenesis. To enhance β-endorphin (BEP), the endogenous opioid polypeptide that boosts immune activity and decreases stress, we generated BEP neurons by in vitro differentiation from fetal neuronal stem cells and transplanted them into the hypothalami of rats subjected to breast carcinogenesis. BEP-transplanted rats displayed a reduction in mammary tumor incidence, growth, malignancy rate, and metastasis compared with cortical cells-transplanted rats. BEP neuron transplants also reduced inflammation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the tumor tissues. In addition, BEP neuron transplants increased peripheral natural killer (NK) cell and macrophage activities, elevated plasma levels of antiinflammatory cytokines, and reduced plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Antimetastatic effects along with stimulation of NK cells and macrophages could be reversed by treatment with the opiate antagonist naloxone, the β-receptor agonist metaproterenol, or the nicotine acetylcholine receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine. Together, our findings establish a protective role for BEP against the growth and metastasis of mammary tumor cells by altering autonomic nervous system activities that enhance innate immune function.

  18. Plasma β-Endorphin Levels in Women with Early Threatened Abortion before and after the Treatment of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斐; 俞瑾

    1999-01-01

    To observe plasma β-endorphin(β-EP)and gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRM),human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG),progesterone (P4) levels in women with early threatened abortion and with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions(RSA).Twenty patients with threatened abortion at 7-8 weeks of gestation were re-cruited,all of them had a history of 3 or more recurrent unexplained abortions.They were treated with psychological consultation accompanied by traditional Chinese herbs.Blood samples were taken to measure β-EP,GnRM,hCG and P4 levels by radioim-munoassay(RIA).The treatments were continued till 10-12 weeks,blood was taken during this period to compare changes in these peptides/hormones.Twenty normal pregnant women at 7-8 and 10-12weeks and 20patients with incomplete abortion at 10- 12weeks were recruited for comparative studies.Results:(1)In normal pregnant women,plasma β-EP,GnRH,hCG and P4 levels at 10-12 weeks were significantly higher than that at 7-8 weeks(P0.05).(3)Plasma β-EP levels in patients with incomplete abortions at 10-12 weeks were dramatically higher and GnRH,hCG and P4levels were lower than in normal pregnant women(P<0.01).β-EP might play a role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion.

  19. Effect of naloxone hydrochloride on c-fos protein expression in brain and plasma beta-endorphin level in rats with diffuse brain injury and secondary brain insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie JING

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes of c-fos protein expression in brain and beta-endorphin (β-EP level in blood plasma in rats with diffuse brain injury (DBI and secondary brain insult (SBI after intraperitoneal injection of naloxone hydrochloride, and explore the role of c-fos andβ-EP in development of SBI in rats. Methods Seventy health male SD rats were enrolled in the present study and randomly divided into group A (intraperitoneally injected with 0.9% saline after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, group B (injected intraperitoneally with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, and group C (intraperitoneally injected with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and before SBI model was reproduced. The animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injury, and the number of c-fos positive cells in brain and content of β-EP in blood plasma were determined by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay respectively, the water content and number of injured neurons in brain tissue were measured by pathomorphological observation of the brain tissue. Results No significant difference was observed between group B and C for all the detection parameters. In group B and C, the water content in brain tissue at 3h and 24h was found to be decreased, while the number of injured neurons at 24h and 48h increased, number of c-fos positive cells in brain at 3h, 24h and 48h decreased, and content of β-EP in blood plasma at 3h and 24h decreased when compared with group A(P < 0.05. Conclusion Naloxone hydrochloride could decrease the c-fos expression in brain and β-EP level in blood plasma, alleviate the nerve injury, and protect neural function. The therapeutic effect of naloxone administered either after DBI and SBI or after DBI and before SBI was similar.

  20. Differential trace labeling of calmodulin: investigation of binding sites and conformational states by individual lysine reactivities. Effects of beta-endorphin, trifluoperazine, and ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedroc, D.P.; Sinha, S.K.; Brew, K.; Puett, D.

    1985-11-05

    The CaS -dependent association of beta-endorphin and trifluoperazine with porcine testis calmodulin, as well as the effects of removing CaS by ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatment, were investigated by the procedure of differential kinetic labeling. This technique permitted determination of the relative rates of acylation of each of the epsilon-amino groups of the seven lysyl residues on calmodulin by (TH)acetic anhydride under the different conditions. In all cases, less than 0.52 mol of lysyl residue/mol of calmodulin was modified, thus ensuring that the labeling pattern reflects the microenvironments of these groups in the native protein. Lysines 75 and 94 were found to be the most reactive amino groups in CaS -saturated calmodulin. In the presence of CaS and under conditions where beta-endorphin and calmodulin were present at a molar ratio of 2.5:1, the amino groups of lysines 75 and 148 were significantly reduced in reactivity compared to calmodulin alone. At equimolar concentrations of peptides and proteins, essentially the same result was obtained except that the magnitudes of the perturbation of these two lysines were less pronounced. With trifluoperazine, at a molar ratio to calmodulin of 2.5:1, significant perturbations of lysines 75 and 148, as well as Lys 77, were also found. These results further substantiate previous observations of a commonality between phenothiazine and peptide binding sites on calmodulin. Lastly, an intriguing difference in CaS -mediated reactivities between lysines 75 and 77 of calmodulin is demonstrated. In the CaS -saturated form of the protein, both lysines are part of the long connecting helix between the two homologous halves of the protein.

  1. Regulation of Pituitary Beta Endorphin Release: Role of Serotonin Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-15

    endogenous) may be related to pain and its transmission in the nervous system. Areas known to have a large number of opiate receptors both in primates and...serotonin meta- bolite 5-hydroxytrvptamine; serotonin 5-hydroxtryptophan; serotonin precursor intra- cerebro -ventricular administration intermediate lobe

  2. Maternal plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A

    1983-12-01

    Plasma beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 10 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestation until term and in nine women in the early follicular phase of the cycle. There was a progressive and significant rise in the concentration of all three peptides throughout pregnancy and by 32 weeks the concentrations of beta-LPH and beta-EP were greater than the corresponding concentrations in the follicular phase: gamma-LPH was greater than in the follicular phase by the end of pregnancy in those women who were delivered after 40 weeks. The ratio of beta-LPH to gamma-LPH did not change significantly throughout pregnancy, but there was a progressive fall in the beta-LPH/beta-EP ratio. The possible presence of a 'big LPH' to explain this finding is discussed.

  3. Endorphins and Media Messages: Addicting Students to Mediated Violence and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercoal, Paul

    This paper discusses current developments in neuroscience and cognitive psychology that have significance for education and learning, and considers the effects of violent and emotion-laden media messages. Topics include: (1) the developing brain, including the roles of genetics, experience, metaphorical imagination, and culture; (2) the links…

  4. Non-opiate β-endorphin fragments and dopamine—VI Behavioural analysis of the interaction between γ-type endorphins and dopaminergic systems in the nucleus accumbens of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van; Király, I.

    1984-01-01

    Injection of small doses of apomorphine, bromocriptine and the new ergoline compound, GYKI-32887 into the nucleus accumbens decreased locomotor activity when rats were tested in a small open field. This effect was observed following injection of 1 pg of these substances; GYKI-32887 being more potent

  5. Stress-induced release of anterior pituitary hormones: Effect of H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of histaminergic activity or posterior hypothalamic lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U.; Søe-Jensen, P.; Jørgensen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Histamine receptors, corticotropin, *Gb-endorphin, prolactin, adrenal steroids, stress, endotoxin, serotonin......Histamine receptors, corticotropin, *Gb-endorphin, prolactin, adrenal steroids, stress, endotoxin, serotonin...

  6. Maternal and cord plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin at delivery; effect of analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A; Crawford, J S

    1983-12-01

    Maternal venous plasma concentrations of beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH were compared in (i) patients undergoing vaginal delivery, 11 with an epidural block and 13 with pethidine and nitrous oxide or no analgesics; (ii) patients delivered by caesarean section, 7 under epidural block and 8 under general anaesthesia. Patients delivered by either method under epidural block had significantly lower levels of all three peptides than those receiving no epidural. There were significant negative correlations between umbilical vein beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations and umbilical artery pH and positive correlations between beta-LPH and beta-EP but not gamma-LPH and cord PCO2 in 29 patients. There was no relation between cord levels of any of the three peptides and the method of analgesia or the route of delivery. Although concentrations of all three peptides were closely correlated to one another in either maternal or cord plasma, there was no relationship between maternal and fetal levels.

  7. Identification of endogenous opioid receptor components in rat brain using a monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bero, L.A.; Roy, S.; Lee, N.M.

    1988-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody generated against the tertiary structure of a partially purified opioid binding protein was used to probe the structure of the dynorphin and beta-endorphin receptors. The Fab fragment 3B4F11 inhibited completely the binding of 125I-beta-endorphin and (3H)dynorphin to rat brain P2 membranes with IC50 values of 26 ng/ml and 40 ng/ml, respectively. To explore further the interaction of 3B4F11 with the beta-endorphin receptor, the effect of the Fab fragment on 125I-beta-endorphin cross-linking to rat brain membranes was examined. 125I-beta-endorphin was covalently bound to three major species of approximate molecular weights 108,000, 73,000, and 49,000. The delta-selective ligand D-Pen2, D-pen5enkephalin was least effective at inhibiting the cross-linking of beta-endorphin, whereas the micro-selective ligand Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-NMe-Phe-Gly-ol and kappa-selective ligand U50488 inhibited beta-endorphin cross-linking to the 108,000 and 73,000 Da species. Both 3B4F11 and beta-endorphin prevented the covalent binding of 125I-beta-endorphin to all three labeled species. These findings suggest that micro and kappa receptor types might have some structural similarities, whereas the delta receptor type might differ in molecular size. In addition, the micro, kappa, and delta ligands might have different primary sequences, whereas their tertiary structures might share regions of molecular homology with all three receptor constituents labeled by 125I-beta-endorphin. 3B4F11 will be a valuable tool for the purification and isolation of the several components of the beta-endorphin receptor complex.

  8. Corticotropin-releasing activity of gastrin-releasing peptide in normal men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Holst, J J; Knuhtsen, S

    1987-01-01

    than 0.0025). GRP dose-dependently stimulated beta-endorphin immunoreactivity compared with the effect of saline [delta beta-endorphin immunoreactivity before and after treatment: GRP I, 6 +/- 1 vs. -3 +/- 1 pmol/L (P less than 0.01); GRP II, 11 +/- 4 vs. -6 +/- 2 pg/mL (P less than 0.025)]. GRP had...

  9. Early postradition recovery of hematopoietic stromal precursor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todriya, T.V.

    1985-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was an immunohistochemical study of alpha-endorphin-producing cells and also a study of rat mast cells (MC in the antral mucosa of the human stomach. Men aged 18 to 30 years undergoing in-patient treatment wre studied. According to the results of radioimmunoassay, antibodies against alpha-endorphin did not react with enkephalins, beta-endorphin, or the C-terminal fragment of beta-endorphin, but had cross reactivity of about 10% with gammaendorphin. Results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test at a 85% level of significance and they are shown. The facts presented here suggest that MC of human gastric mucosa include argyrophilic cells which contain alpha-endorphin.

  10. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your anxiety, talking about it may help. Enjoy physical activity. Go for a walk, ride a bicycle ... depressed and want to help. Be active. Regular physical activity helps release endorphins that make you feel ...

  11. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid

  12. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... swim. Being active can help take your mind off worries and releases endorphins that make you feel ... must fix the situation, wait until you cool off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions ...

  13. Fight Cravings with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... run up and down the stairs. Fact: Exercise boosts your endorphins, gives you time to clear your ... I find gardening really helps me keep my mind off smoking. It’s relaxing and good exercise, too!" - ...

  14. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Cholesterol Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital ... endorphins that make you feel better. Physically active adults have lower risk of depression and cognitive decline. ...

  15. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a swim. Being active can help take your mind off worries and releases endorphins that make you ... from the situation before you can handle it. Control how you react physically. Try not to curse, ...

  16. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your anxiety, talking about it may help. Enjoy physical activity. Go for a walk, ride a bicycle or ... depressed and want to help. Be active. Regular physical activity helps release endorphins that make you feel better. ...

  17. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  20. Identification of pro-opiomelanocortin and secretion of its peptide fragments in bovine adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.D.; Kizim, E.A.; Ustinova, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation to show that biosynthesis of POMC, its proteolytic processing, an secretion of the peptide products of that processing take place in the bovine adrenals. Rabbit antisera against endorphins were obtained and used for radioimmunoassay of peptides. I 125-labeled peptides were obtained by the chloramine method and purified from free I 125 on Sephadex G-10 (0.7 x 5 cm, centrifugation for 10 min at 1500 g). To detect secretion of peptide fragments of POMC in the adrenals experiments were undertaken to determine the beta-endorphin content in perfusates obtained during retrograde perfusion of the bovine adrenals. It was found that immunoreactive compounds, indistinguishable in their immunochemical properties from beta-endorphin, are present in the perfusates, just as in the tissue extracts.

  1. Social laughter is correlated with an elevated pain threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R I M; Baron, Rebecca; Frangou, Anna; Pearce, Eiluned; van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Stow, Julie; Partridge, Giselle; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vincent; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-03-22

    Although laughter forms an important part of human non-verbal communication, it has received rather less attention than it deserves in both the experimental and the observational literatures. Relaxed social (Duchenne) laughter is associated with feelings of wellbeing and heightened affect, a proximate explanation for which might be the release of endorphins. We tested this hypothesis in a series of six experimental studies in both the laboratory (watching videos) and naturalistic contexts (watching stage performances), using change in pain threshold as an assay for endorphin release. The results show that pain thresholds are significantly higher after laughter than in the control condition. This pain-tolerance effect is due to laughter itself and not simply due to a change in positive affect. We suggest that laughter, through an endorphin-mediated opiate effect, may play a crucial role in social bonding.

  2. Molecular evolution of proopiomelanocortin in early vertebrates; Gensakudobutsu hoya no shinkeisen ni saguru fukujinhishitsu sigeki horumon no kigen to bunshi shinka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi [Kitasato University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Fishieries Sciences

    1998-12-16

    Proolpiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor for melanotrophin (MSH) and {beta}-endorphin that regulate stress and environmental adaptation. The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the molecular evolution of POMC in the early vertebrates by examining structures of POMCs in protochordates and in ancient and advanced fishes. Lungfish POMC is similar to tetrapods because they include three MSHs ({alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}) and {beta}-endorphin. In contrast to the consistent occurrence of three MSHs in tetrapods and dipnoans, fish POMC varies in the number of MSH types it contains. POMCs of tuna and sturgeon lack {gamma}-MSH whereas POMC of dogfish has a forth ({delta}) MSH in addition to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-MSH. b-endorphin, however, occurs in all vertebrates. These results suggest that POMC has evolved by duplication, insertion and deletion of MSH genomic segments. The diversity of MSH may have contributed to development of the ability to adapt to different conditions. (author)

  3. Neuropeptide processing in regional brain slices: Effect of conformation and sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.W.; Bijl, W.A.; van Nispen, J.W.; Brendel, K.; Davis, T.P. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The central enzymatic stability of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and its synthetic analogs (cycloN alpha 6, C delta 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) and (Pro7, Lys(Ac)9)-beta-endorphin(6-17) was studied in vitro using a newly developed, regionally dissected rat brain slice, time course incubation procedure. Tissue slice viability was estimated as the ability of the brain slice to take up or release gamma-(3H)aminobutyric acid after high K+ stimulation. Results demonstrated stability of uptake/release up to 5 hr of incubation, suggesting tissue viability over this period. The estimated half-life of peptides based on the results obtained in our incubation protocol suggest that the peptides studied are metabolized at different rates in the individual brain regions tested. A good correlation exists between the high enzyme activity of neutral endopeptidase and the rapid degradation of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and (cycloN alpha 6, C delata 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) in caudate putamen. Proline substitution combined with lysine acetylation appears to improve resistance to enzymatic metabolism in caudate putamen and hypothalamus. However, cyclization of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin forming an amide bond between the alpha-NH2 of the N-terminal threonine and the gamma-COOH of glutamic acid did not improve peptide stability in any brain region tested. The present study has shown that the brain slice technique is a valid and unique approach to study neuropeptide metabolism in small, discrete regions of rat brain where peptides, peptidases and receptors are colocalized and that specific structural modifications can improve peptide stability.

  4. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarrilli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not significantly increase after stunning in these animals.

  5. Changes of Pituitary Hormones after Injection of Naloxone in the Hypotensive Phase of Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Hong Gyu; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Tae [Hallym Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-09-15

    The opiate antagonist, naloxone, was injected for the reversal of hypotension due to Korean hemorrhagic fever, and the authors observed changes in pituitary hormones. In the hypotensive phase of the Korean hemorrhagic fever, the beta-endorphin was high, and normalized gradually in the diuretic and convalescent period. The naloxone raised the pulse rate and the blood pressure within 30 minutes without change in the central venous pressure. Around 30 minuted after the injection of the naloxone, the beta-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol rose. The prolactin fell down 60 minutes after the naloxone injection.

  6. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  7. [Effect of bone marrow mediator myelopeptides on the summation-threshold index and behavioral reactions of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, A M; Barashkov, G N; Zakharova, L A

    1984-12-01

    Transmitter peptides having immunostimulant and endorphine-like properties were isolated from supernatant of medullary cell culture. Bioregulatory peptides were called myelopeptides. Myelopeptides provoked changes of the summation-threshold index in rats, which augmented in time. These changes pointed to the realization of the analgetic effect of myelopeptides via the spinal-stem structures of the central nervous system. Having a remarkable analgesic effect myelopeptides administered in the doses tested did not produce any action on the behavioral responses. The latter circumstance makes them differ from narcotic analgesics and known endorphines.

  8. Modulatory effects of defense and coping on stress-induced changes in endocrine and immune parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, M.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G.; Benschop, R. J.; Ballieux, R. E.; Heijnen, C. J.; de Smet, M. B.; Ursin, H.

    1995-01-01

    We examined whether habitual defense and coping affect the response of hormones (ACTH. cortisol, prolactin. endorphins, and noradrenaline) and immune parameters (numbers of T cells. B cells. natural killer [NK] cells, and proliferative responses to mitogens or antigens) to an acute laboratory

  9. Performance of music elevates pain threshold and positive affect: implications for the evolutionary function of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R I M; Kaskatis, Kostas; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vinnie

    2012-10-22

    It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making.

  10. The mechanism of effective electroacupuncture on T cell response in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Liu

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA decreased lymphocyte infiltration into the spinal cords of rats presenting with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a disease model used in the study of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of EA on the EAE. Female Lewis rats were divided into either CFA, EAE, EA, or injection with naloxone after electroacupuncture (NAL groups. Electroacupuncture was administered every day for 21 days. To evaluate proliferation and apoptosis, lymphocytes from rats presenting with EAE were collected and cultured with β-endorphin. Immunohistochemisty, flow cytometry and radio-immunity methods were applied to detect the expression of β-endorphin. Results presented in this report demonstrate that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of EA on EAE were related to β-endorphin production that balances the Thl/Th2 and Th17/Treg responses. These results suggest that β-endorphin could be an important component in the development of EA-based therapies used for the treatment of EAE.

  11. Endogenous opiates mediate radiogenic behavioral change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to ionizing radiation caused stereotypical locomotor hyperactivity similar to that produced by morphine. Naloxone administration prevented this radiation-induced behavioral activation. These results support the hypothesis that endorphins are involved in some aspects of radiogenic behavioral change

  12. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFont

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (opioid peptides and receptors in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference. Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc, which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine. The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: 1 implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and 2 the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR.

  13. Performance of Music Elevates Pain Threshold and Positive Affect: Implications for the Evolutionary Function of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I.M. Dunbar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making.

  14. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  15. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... It is also known that melatonin, B-endorphin and prolactin are important in the timing of reactivation of reproduction in the European hedgehog (Fowler 1988b). Although the present study, based upon total circulating testosterone levels illustrates a clear seasonal cycle in plasma testosterone in A. fronlalis,.

  16. Hormonal derangement and abnormal renal haemodynamics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seconds under pentobarbital anaesthesia. A reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion was found (P<0.05) while the renal cortex kallikrein activity remained normal one hour after scalding. An increase in plasma renin activity (P<0.05) and a marked increase in plasma Beta-endorphin concentration (P<0.005) was observed.

  17. Study of neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroatomic punch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenca, M.M.; Negro Vilar, A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to demonstrate an experimental method to study neuropeptide distribution in the central nervous system, the content of beta-endorphin present in several brain regions was determined by the combined use of radioimmunoassay with the neuroanatomic punch technique described by Palkovits. (author)

  18. Immune changes during whole body hot water immersion: the role of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, M; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, M B; Galbo, H; Pedersen, B K

    1997-07-01

    Studies examined the role of growth hormone, catecholamines, and beta-endorphins in changes in natural killer cell activity, subtypes of blood mononuclear cells, and leukocyte concentration in response to hot water immersion in humans. The response of leukocytes and neutrophils to 2 hours of hot water immersion and simultaneous administration of propranolol, somatostatin, naloxone, or isotonic saline are reported.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, S L; Loucks-Daniels, T L; Adler, L J; Chrousos, G P; Cameron, J L; Matthews, K A; Marcus, M D

    2000-04-01

    Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea are anovulatory because of reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive. Several studies have documented hypercortisolemia, which suggests that functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is stress-induced. Further, with recovery (resumption of ovulation), cortisol decreased and gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive increased. Corticotropin-releasing hormone can increase cortisol and decrease gonadotropin-releasing hormone. To determine its role in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we measured corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid along with arginine vasopressin, another potent adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagog, and beta-endorphin, which is released by corticotropin-releasing hormone and can inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid from 14 women with eumenorrhea and 15 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and of vasopressin were comparable and beta-endorphin levels were lower in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. In women with established functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, increased cortisol and reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone are not sustained by elevated cerebrospinal-fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or beta-endorphin. These data do not exclude a role for these factors in the initiation of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  20. Fight the Stress of Urban Education with the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is a major health problem in urban neighborhoods, but integrating the arts into education can help children deal with stress. Stress reduces or eliminates a child's ability to learn by increasing the production of cortisol in the brain, while working in the arts has been shown to produce endorphin, which counteracts the effects of cortisol.…

  1. Sweating away depression? The impact of intensive exercise on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, Ross; Linde, Jani; Blackhurst, Dee; Rauch, Hg Laurie; Schönbächler, Georg

    2016-08-01

    In periods of prolonged stress and pain the body produces endorphins to help endure pain. The PANIC system is built on the same pathways as the pain system and is characterized by behaviour that looks like depression. The term 'mental pain' in the context of feelings of loss is arguably justified in light of this relationship between the physical pain and social loss systems. It is reasonable to expect that endorphin release ameliorates depression. Moderately depressed males (n=30) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of varying exercise intensity. Each underwent a six-week exercise programme for three days per week, one hour per day. The HAM-D, MADRS, and ANPS were administered weekly and β-endorphin levels measured. Moderate- and high-intensity exercise improved depression levels, while very-low intensity exercise did not have as beneficial an effect. β-endorphin results were inconclusive. Participants showed a slight decrease in PANIC and FEAR, and increased SEEKING. The potential insensitivity of the assays that were utilized, and the known problems with measuring β-endorphins, may have contributed to the findings. The lack of a state measure of the basic emotion systems is problematic, as a trait measure has to be relied upon, and this likely affected the ability to accurately detect changes over time. The demonstrated improvements in depressive symptoms have important implications for the clinical treatment of patients despite the hypothesis that the PANIC system is involved in the genesis and maintenance of depression not having been conclusively confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alterations in opioid parameters in the hypothalamus of rats with estradiol-induced polycystic ovarian disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, G.C.; Beaudet, A.; Brawer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and density of selectively labeled mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid binding sites were examined by in vitro radioautography in the hypothalamus of normal, estradiol valerate (EV)-injected, and estradiol (E2)-implanted female rats. Hypothalamic beta-endorphin concentration was also examined by RIA in these three groups of animals. Quantitative analysis of film radioautographs demonstrated a selective increase in mu-opioid binding in the medial preoptic area of EV-treated, but not of E2-implanted rats. However, both these estrogenized groups exhibited a reduction in the density of delta-opioid binding in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Statistically significant changes between either estrogenized groups were not observed for kappa-opioid binding. Results on the hypothalamic concentration of beta-endorphin indicated a marked reduction in EV-injected animals with respect to controls. In contrast, the E2-implanted animals exhibited beta-endorphin concentrations similar to controls. The present results confirm the increase in opioid receptor binding previously reported in the hypothalamus of EV-treated rats and further demonstrate that this increase is confined to the medial preoptic area and exclusively concerns mu-opioid receptors. The concomitant reduction in beta-endorphin levels observed in the same group of animals suggests that the observed increase in mu-opioid binding could reflect a chronic up-regulation of the receptor in response to compromised beta-endorphin input. Given the restriction of this effect to the site of origin of LHRH neurons and the demonstrated inhibitory role of opioids on LHRH release, it is tempting to postulate that such up-regulation could lead to the suppression of the plasma LH pattern that characterizes polycystic ovarian disease in the EV-treated rat

  3. Alterations in opioid parameters in the hypothalamus of rats with estradiol-induced polycystic ovarian disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, G.C.; Beaudet, A.; Brawer, J.R. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    The distribution and density of selectively labeled mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid binding sites were examined by in vitro radioautography in the hypothalamus of normal, estradiol valerate (EV)-injected, and estradiol (E2)-implanted female rats. Hypothalamic beta-endorphin concentration was also examined by RIA in these three groups of animals. Quantitative analysis of film radioautographs demonstrated a selective increase in mu-opioid binding in the medial preoptic area of EV-treated, but not of E2-implanted rats. However, both these estrogenized groups exhibited a reduction in the density of delta-opioid binding in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Statistically significant changes between either estrogenized groups were not observed for kappa-opioid binding. Results on the hypothalamic concentration of beta-endorphin indicated a marked reduction in EV-injected animals with respect to controls. In contrast, the E2-implanted animals exhibited beta-endorphin concentrations similar to controls. The present results confirm the increase in opioid receptor binding previously reported in the hypothalamus of EV-treated rats and further demonstrate that this increase is confined to the medial preoptic area and exclusively concerns mu-opioid receptors. The concomitant reduction in beta-endorphin levels observed in the same group of animals suggests that the observed increase in mu-opioid binding could reflect a chronic up-regulation of the receptor in response to compromised beta-endorphin input. Given the restriction of this effect to the site of origin of LHRH neurons and the demonstrated inhibitory role of opioids on LHRH release, it is tempting to postulate that such up-regulation could lead to the suppression of the plasma LH pattern that characterizes polycystic ovarian disease in the EV-treated rat.

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  5. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  6. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D- 2 ala, D- 5 leu leucine enkephalin ( 3 H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand 3 H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex

  7. Systemic morphine blocks the seizures induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of opiates and opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urca, G; Frenk, H

    1982-08-19

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the endorphins and of morphine in rats produce highly characteristic, naloxone sensitive, electrographic seizures. In contrast, systemic injections of morphine have been shown to exert a marked anticonvulsant effect. The present study demonstrates that systemic morphine pretreatment can prevent the occurrence of electrographic seizures injected by i.c.v. morphine, Leu-enkephalin and beta-endorphin and that the anti-epileptic effect of morphine can be reversed by naloxone. Male albino rats, previously prepared for chronic i.c.v. injections and EEG recordings, were pretreated with 0--100 mg/kg of intraperitoneal (i.p.) morphine. Thirty five minutes later morphine (520 nmol), Leu-enkephalin (80 nmol) or beta-endorphin (5 nmol) were injected i.c.v. Pretreatment with i.p. morphine blocked the occurrence of seizures induced by morphine and both endogenous opioids. Lower doses of systemic morphine (50 mg/kg) were necessary to block i.c.v. morphine seizures than the dose (100 mg/kg) necessary to block seizures induced by i.c.v. Leu-enkephalin and beta-endorphin. Naloxone (1 mg/kg) administered 25 min following 50 mg/kg of i.p. morphine and preceding the injections of i.c.v. morphine reversed the antiepileptic effect of systemic morphine. These results demonstrate the possible existence of two opiate sensitive systems, one with excitatory-epileptogenic effects and the other possessing inhibitory-antiepileptic properties. The possible relationship between these findings and the known heterogeneity of opiate receptors and opiate actions is discussed.

  8. [Regulatory effect of Erbao granules on brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Du, Y; Wang, S

    2000-10-01

    To study the regulatory effect of Erbao granules (EBG) on central and peripheral brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia. Juvenile rat model of anorexia was established by imitating the major cause of infantile anorexia and treated with EBG. The cholocystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) concentration in hypothalamus, antrum pyloricum and peripheral blood were examined by radioimmunoassay. CCK-8 concentration in hypothalamus and plasma in the model rats increased (P anorexia model.

  9. Some sociological, medical and legislative views on video game addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bezenšek, Jana; Arnuš, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    also in Slovenian post-modern society. Most of them do it for enjoyment, yet a small number of individuals show traits associated with addictive behaviour when interacting with their games. The authors in the article point out that, compared to drug abuse, there exist some more approachable life-related activities that can lead to addiction. They stimulate the excretion of endorphins and lead to the transformation of consciousness. Addiction to video games is an ostensible attempt to satisfy ...

  10. Some Sociological, Medical and Legislative Views on Video Game Addiction (A Slovenian Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Goriup Jana; Arnuš Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide play video games; also in Slovenian post-modern society. Most of them do it for enjoyment, yet a small number of individuals show traits associated with addictive behaviour when interacting with their games. The authors in the article point out that, compared to drug abuse, there exist some more approachable life-related activities that can lead to addiction. They stimulate the excretion of endorphins and lead to the transformation of consciousness. Addiction to v...

  11. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and lgG used ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, by indirect sandwitch. Data were read by Elisa Reader with a sensitivity of 95%. Data were analyzed descriptives and inferential statistics by SPSS software and further analysis using t-tests. Results showed that, lgG significantly increased, p = 0013. The mean increase of lgG was 33.266 ng/mL. For beta-endorphin. Results t-tests showed the significance of 0.000. The mean increase of endorphine was 3.922ng/mL, and blood sugar levels showed a decrease after the breathing exercise. The decrease of blood sugar was significant of 0.000. The mean decrease in blood sugar levels was 28.9 mg/100ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that regular targeted and programmed breathiing exercise over 21 meetings increased the production of lgG and beta endorphins, as well as decreasing blood sugar levels. Breathing exercise was alternative sports to improve immunity. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, elderly of health

  12. Donner Pavilion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The Donner Pavilion Group continues to make significant contributions to the understanding of endocrinopathies associated with the pituitary gland, through investigations of hormonal interactions and the development of techniques for assessing alterations of molecular structures resulting from exposure to heavy-ion radiation or to environmental pollutants. During the past year assays for two new hypothalamic peptides, beta-lipotropin and, more recently, beta-endorphin - the endogenous morphinomimetic peptide - were developed

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology USSR: Space Biology & Aerospace Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 1, January-February 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-23

    regulatory peptides or injection of opiate receptor blockers into the chemoreceptor trigger zone. It was demonstrated that naloxone, gamma-endorphine and...where, by acting on a chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), they elicit vomiting and other manifestations of WD, such as pallor, perspiration, impairment...influencing the taste and flavor of water. Urea is a low toxicity substance (LD50 =14,300 mg/kg), the effect of which is not cumulative. However, when used

  14. Metformin increases pressure pain threshold in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Sztefko, Krystyna; Rogatko, Iwona; Majewska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Despite the strong preclinical rationale, there are only very few data considering the utility of metformin as a potential pain therapeutic in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the association between metformin therapy and pressure pain threshold (PPT) in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that metformin therapy in lean PCOS women increases PPT. Twenty-seven lean PCOS women with free androgen index phenotype >5 and 18 lean healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Fifteen of the PCOS women were randomly assigned to be treated with metformin 1,500 mg daily for 6 months. PPT and plasma β-endorphin levels were measured in all women at the beginning of the study and after 6 months of observation. We observed an increase in PPT values measured on deltoid and trapezius muscle in the PCOS with metformin group after 6 months of metformin administration (4.81±0.88 kg/cm(2), PPCOS without treatment group and in controls. We did not observe any significant changes in serum β-endorphin levels in any studied groups during the 6-month observation. We conclude that metformin therapy increases PPT in lean PCOS women, without affecting plasma β-endorphin concentration. Our results may suggest the potential role of metformin in pain therapy. We propose that larger, randomized studies on metformin impact on pain perception should be performed.

  15. Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles Modulates the Biochemicals Associated with Pain, Inflammation, and Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP. However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D or five dosages (5D into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Hyperthermic responses to central injections of some peptide and non-peptide opioids in the guinea-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl normetazocine and an agonist at both kappa and sigma receptors, pentazocine, was found to induce hyperthermia in guinea pigs. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta endorphin, methionine endkephalin, leucine endkephaline, and several of their synthetic analogues was also found to cause hyperthermia. Only the liver-like transport system of the three anion transport systems (iodide, hippurate, and liver-like) present in the choroid plexus was determined to be important to the central inactivation of beta-endorphin and two synthetic analogues. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine (NE) as well as cAMP were not involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine and beta-endorphin, while hyperthermic responses to ketocyclazocine, N-allyl normetazocine, pentazocine, Met-enkephalin, Leu-enkephalin, and two of the synthetic analogues were not antagonized by nalozone. The lack of antagonism of naloxone on pyrogen, arachidonic acid, PGE2, dibutyryl cAMP, and NE-induced hyperthermia shows that endogenous opioid peptides are not likely to be central mediators of the hyperthermia induced by these agents.

  17. Music and social bonding: "self-other" merging and neurohormonal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that a key function of music during its development and spread amongst human populations was its capacity to create and strengthen social bonds amongst interacting group members. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been fully discussed. In this paper we review evidence supporting two thus far independently investigated mechanisms for this social bonding effect: self-other merging as a consequence of inter-personal synchrony, and the release of endorphins during exertive rhythmic activities including musical interaction. In general, self-other merging has been experimentally investigated using dyads, which provide limited insight into large-scale musical activities. Given that music can provide an external rhythmic framework that facilitates synchrony, explanations of social bonding during group musical activities should include reference to endorphins, which are released during synchronized exertive movements. Endorphins (and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in general) are involved in social bonding across primate species, and are associated with a number of human social behaviors (e.g., laughter, synchronized sports), as well as musical activities (e.g., singing and dancing). Furthermore, passively listening to music engages the EOS, so here we suggest that both self-other merging and the EOS are important in the social bonding effects of music. In order to investigate possible interactions between these two mechanisms, future experiments should recreate ecologically valid examples of musical activities.

  18. Music and social bonding: ‘self-other’ merging and neurohormonal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn eTarr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a key function of music during its development and spread amongst human populations was its capacity to create and strengthen social bonds amongst interacting group members. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been fully discussed. In this paper we review evidence supporting two thus far independently investigated mechanisms for this social bonding effect: self-other merging as a consequence of inter-personal synchrony, and the release of endorphins during exertive rhythmic activities including musical interaction. In general, self-other merging has been experimentally investigated using dyads, which provide limited insight into large-scale musical activities. Given that music can provide an external rhythmic framework that facilitates synchrony, explanations of social bonding during group musical activities should include reference to endorphins, which are released during synchronised exertive movements. Endorphins (and the Endogenous Opioid System (EOS in general are involved in social bonding across primate species, and are associated with a number of human social behaviours (e.g. laughter, synchronised sports, as well as musical activities (e.g. singing and dancing. Furthermore, passively listening to music engages the EOS, so here we suggest that both self-other merging and the EOS are important in the social bonding effects of music. In order to investigate possible interactions between these two mechanisms, future experiments should recreate ecologically valid examples of musical activities.

  19. Steroidogenic activity of high molecular weight forms of ACTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The relative steroidogenic potencies of high molecular weight forms of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were investigated using in vitro bioassays. In order to prepare pools of separated pro-ACTH/endorphin, ACTH biosynthetic intermediate and glycosylated ACTH (1-39), the protein present in serum-free tissue culture medium obtained from cultured AtT-20/D-16v mouse pituitary tumor cells was concentrated and fractionated by gel filtration. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, over 97% of the immunoactive ACTH in each pool had the appropriate molecular weight. Suspensions of isolated rat and guinea pig adrenal cortical cells were prepared by enzymatic dissociation and mechanical dispersion. Cells were incubated in complete tissue culture medium overnight then used in a 2 hour steroid production assay. Synthetic hACTH(1-39) was used as a bioassay and immunoassay standard. The amounts of pro-ACTH/endorphin, ACTH biosynthetic intermediate and glycosylated ACTH(1-39) bioassayed were estimated by ACTH(17-24) radioimmunoassay. All three high molecular weight forms of ACTH were capable of stimulating the same maximal level of steroidogenesis, by both isolated rat and guinea pig adrenal cells, as hACTH(1-39). Glycosylated ACTH(1-39) was equipotent with hACTH(1-39); pro-ACTH/endorphin and ACTH biosynthetic intermediate were two orders of magnitude less potent than hACTH(1-39) in both bioassay systems

  20. Effect of anaerobic bout using wingate cycle ergometer on pressure pain threshold in normal individuals

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    Ajit Dabholkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Published studies reveal that incremental graded and short term anaerobic exercise lead to an increase in beta-endorphin levels, the extent correlating with the lactate concentration. Beta- endorphin can be released into the circulation from the pituitary gland or can project into areas of the brain through nerve fibers. Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration has been demonstrated to increase circulating Beta-endorphin levels. Thus, our study investigates the effect of anaerobic activity on pressure pain threshold (PPT in normal individuals. Materials and Methods: Normal individuals (N = 30 between the age group of 20-30 years were recruited for this study. The subjects performed an anaerobic bout on Monark Wingate cycle egometer. A pre and post assessment of PPT was evaluated. Data Analysis: Graphpad Instat 3 software program was used for statistical analysis. A paired't' test was done to analyse the level of statistical significance between the pre and post PPT. Results: Study revealed that post anaerobic bout there was statistical significant difference between pre and post PPT in quadriceps, Mean 14.41,95% CI[12.95,15.87], Mean 16.73,95% CI[15.06,18.40] & (P value 0.0411 and gastrocnemius,Mean 13.56, 95% CI[12.18,14.93], Mean 15.55,95% CI[13.94,17.16] & (P value <0.0001. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the influence of pain modulation after an anaerobic bout.

  1. The Effect of Different Phases of Synchrony on Pain Threshold in a Drumming Task

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    Philip Sullivan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral synchrony has been linked to endorphin activity (Cohen et al., 2010; Sullivan and Rickers, 2013; Sullivan et al., 2014; Tarr et al., 2015, 2016; Weinstein et al., 2016. This has been called the synchrony effect. Synchrony has two dominant phases of movement; in-phase and anti-phase. The majority of research investigating synchrony’s effect on endorphin activity has focused on in-phase synchrony following vigorous activities. The only research to investigate the effects of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity found that anti-phase synchronized rowing did not produce the synchrony effect (Sullivan et al., 2014. Anti-phase synchrony, however, is counter-intuitive to the sport of rowing and may have interfered with the synchrony effect. This study investigated the effect of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity in a different task (i.e., drumming. University students (n = 30 were asked to drum solo and in in-phase and anti-phase pairs for 3 min. Pain threshold was assessed as an indirect indicator of endorphin activity prior to and following the task. Although the in-phase synchrony effect was not found, a repeated measures ANOVA found that there was a significant difference in pain threshold change among the three conditions [F(2,24 = 4.10, = 0.255, p < 0.05. Post hoc t-tests showed that the anti-phase condition had a significantly greater pain threshold change than both the solo and in-phase conditions at p < 0.05. This is the first time that anti-phase synchrony has been shown to produce the synchrony effect. Because anti-phase drumming may have required more attention between partners than in-phase synchrony, it may have affected self-other merging (Tarr et al., 2014. These results support Tarr et al.’s (2014 model that multiple mechanisms account for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold, and suggest that different characteristics of the activity may influence the synchrony effect.

  2. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Boecker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Henning Boecker1, Ahmed Othman1, Sarah Mueckter1, Lukas Scheef1, Max Pensel1, Marcel Daamen1, Jakob Jankowski1, HH Schild2, TR Tölle3, M Schreckenberger41FE Klinische Funktionelle Neurobildgebung, Radiologische Universitätsklinik, Friedrich-Wilhelms–Universität Bonn, Germany; 2Radiologische Universitätsklinik, Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany; 3TUM Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik im Neuro-Kopf-Zentrum, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, München, Germany; 4Klinik und Poliklinik für Nuklearmedizin am Mainzer Universitätsklinikum, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, GermanyAbstract: This perspective attempts to outline the emerging role of positron emission tomography (PET ligand activation studies in human exercise research. By focusing on the endorphinergic system and its acclaimed role for exercise-induced antinociception and mood enhancement, we like to emphasize the unique potential of ligand PET applied to human athletes for uncovering the neurochemistry of exercise-induced psychophysiological phenomena. Compared with conventional approaches, in particular quantification of plasma beta-endorphin levels under exercise challenges, which are reviewed in this article, studying opioidergic effects directly in the central nervous system (CNS with PET and relating opioidergic binding changes to neuropsychological assessments, provides a more refined and promising experimental strategy. Although a vast literature dating back to the 1980s of the last century has been able to reproducibly demonstrate peripheral increases of beta-endorphin levels after various exercise challenges, so far, these studies have failed to establish robust links between peripheral beta-endorphin levels and centrally mediated behavioral effects, ie, modulation of mood and/or pain perception. As the quantitative relation between endorphins in the peripheral blood and the CNS remains unknown, the question arises, to what

  3. Pain perception in schizophrenia: influence of neuropeptides, cognitive disorders, and negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Kowalczyk M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Justyna Pigońska,2 Janusz Śmigielski3 1Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 2Department of Neurology and Movement Disorders, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland; 3Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre (HARC, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland Objectives: The causes and nature of insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia remain unknown. The role of endorphins and the association of cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms are postulated.Methods: In this study, 43 patients with schizophrenia, five first-degree relatives, and 34 healthy controls were examined. Participants’ plasma concentrations of substance P, β-endorphin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP were assessed. In patients, the Trail-Making Test, the Color Reading Interference Test (Stroop test, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Negative Syndrome subscale (PANSS N test were performed. We also evaluated pain threshold using nociceptive reflex (RTIII testing.Results: The mean β-endorphin concentration was about 20% higher in patients than in healthy controls (P<0.05. CGRP concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls (5.34 ng/mL versus 4.16 ng/mL; P<0.01. Subjects treated with antipsychotic polytherapy had higher concentrations of CGRP than did patients treated with second-generation antipsychotic monotherapy (5.92 ng/mL versus 5.02 ng/mL; P<0.05. There were no correlations between any biochemical parameters and Trail-Making Test, Stroop test, and PANSS N scores. There were no differences in RTIII among study groups. Strong negative correlation (P<0.001 was found between PANSS N scores and subjective pain threshold on the right lower limb.Conclusion: The insensitivity to pain in schizophrenia is a complex phenomenon that is probably not related to changes in nociceptive pathways. Increase in β-endorphin level

  4. Hormones in the immune system and their possible role. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2014-09-01

    Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands. In contrast to the glandular endocrine cells, immune cells are polyproducers and polyreceivers. As they are mobile cells, they are able to transport the stored hormone to different places (packed transport) or attracted by local factors, accumulate in the neighborhood of the target, synthesizing and secreting hormones locally. This is taking place, e.g. in the case of endorphin, where the accumulating immune cells calms pain caused by the inflammation. The targeted packed transport is more economical than the hormone-pouring to the blood circulation of glandular endocrines and the targeting also cares the other receptor-bearing cells timely not needed the effect. Mostly the immune-effects of immune-cell derived hormones were studied (except endorphin), however, it is not exactly cleared, while the system could have scarcely studied important roles in other cases. The evolutionary aspects and the known as well, as possible roles of immune-endocrine system and their hormones are listed and discussed.

  5. Diosmin, a Citrus Nutrient, Activates Imidazoline Receptors to Alleviate Blood Glucose and Lipids in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Hsu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diosmin is a nutrient that is widely contained in citrus and that has been indicated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that diosmin induces β-endorphin to lower hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms of diosmin in opioid secretion were unclear. Therefore, we focused on the secretion of opioids from isolated adrenal glands induced by diosmin. The changes in the released β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER were determined using ELISA. Diosmin increased the BER level in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was markedly reduced in the absence of calcium ions. Activation of the imidazoline I-2 receptor (I-2R has been introduced to induce opioid secretion. Interestingly, we observed that diosmin activates CHO cells expressing I-R. Additionally, diosmin-increased BER was inhibited by the blockade of I-2R in isolated adrenal glands. Additionally, an antagonist of I-2R blocked diosmin-induced effects, including the reduction in hyperglycemia and the increase in plasma BER in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats. Repeated treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with diosmin for one week induced changes in hepatic glycogen, lipid levels, and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Furthermore, an antagonist of I-2R blocked the diosmin-induced changes. Additionally, plasma lipids modified by diosmin were also reversed by the blockade of I-2R in STZ-diabetic rats. Taken together, we suggest that diosmin may activate I-2R to enhance the secretion of β-endorphin from adrenal glands and to influence metabolic homeostasis, resulting in alleviation of blood glucose and lipids in STZ-diabetic rats.

  6. Pain, music creativity and music therapy in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, C C

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the music therapy literature yields numerous reports to support the role of music in the alleviation of pain in palliative care. Four theoretical perspectives that support why many patients report reduced pain sensation after music therapy include: the psychological relationship between music and pain; the psychophysiological theory; spinal mechanisms involved in pain modulation; and the role of endorphins. Considerations significant to the use of music in pain relief include how music, used inappropriately, can aggravate pain sensation. Case studies, which include the use of creative music therapy techniques, point to the efficacy of music therapy in alleviating the pain experiences of both palliative care patients and their significant others.

  7. Sensitivity of T-Lymphocytes to Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishevskaya, N V; Gevorkyan, N M; Kozlova, N I

    2017-01-01

    The review provides information about the features of the sensitivity of thymocytes, lymphoid organs' cells and T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood to the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland's cells: growth hormone, thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and β-endorphin. Some aspects of the T-lymphocytes's response to humoral signals from the hypophysis are shown in the article. Also the pituitary hormones' role in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production of T-lymphocytes in normal and pathological conditions of the organism being discussed.

  8. A Deletion in the Canine POMC Gene Is Associated with Weight and Appetite in Obesity-Prone Labrador Retriever Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Raffan, Eleanor; Dennis, Rowena?J.; O?Donovan, Conor?J.; Becker, Julia?M.; Scott, Robert?A.; Smith, Stephen?P.; Withers, David?J.; Wood, Claire?J.; Conci, Elena; Clements, Dylan?N.; Summers, Kim?M.; German, Alexander?J.; Mellersh, Cathryn?S.; Arendt, Maja?L.; Iyemere, Valentine?P.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of candidate genes for obesity in Labrador retriever dogs identified a 14 bp deletion in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) with an allele frequency of 12%. The deletion disrupts the β-MSH and β-endorphin coding sequences and is associated with body weight (per allele effect of 0.33 SD), adiposity, and greater food motivation. Among other dog breeds, the deletion was only found in the closely related flat-coat retriever (FCR), where it is similarly associated with body weight and food mot...

  9. In vitro pharmacological activity of the tetrahydroisoquinoline salsolinol present in products from Theobroma cacao L. like cocoa and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzig, M F; Putscher, I; Henklein, P; Haber, H

    2000-11-01

    Cocoa and chocolate contain the tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid salsolinol up to a concentration of 25 microg/g. Salsolinol is a dopaminergic active compound which binds to the D(2) receptor family, especially to the D(3) receptor with a K(i) of 0.48+/-0.021 micromol/l. It inhibits the formation of cyclic AMP and the release of beta-endorphin and ACTH in a pituitary cell system. Taking the detected concentration and the pharmacological properties into account, salsolinol seems to be one of the main psychoactive compounds present in cocoa and chocolate and might be included in chocolate addiction.

  10. Recursive deconvolution of combinatorial chemical libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    Erb, E; Janda, K D; Brenner, S

    1994-01-01

    A recursive strategy that solves for the active members of a chemical library is presented. A pentapeptide library with an alphabet of Gly, Leu, Phe, and Tyr (1024 members) was constructed on a solid support by the method of split synthesis. One member of this library (NH2-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu) is a native binder to a beta-endorphin antibody. A variation of the split synthesis approach is used to build the combinatorial library. In four vials, a member of the library's alphabet is coupled to a...

  11. Endocrine factors of pair bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárka, L

    2007-01-01

    Throughout literature--fiction and poetry, fine arts and music--falling in love and enjoying romantic love plays a central role. While several psychosocial conceptions of pair attachment consider the participation of hormones, human endocrinology has dealt with this theme only marginally. According to some authors in addictology, falling in love shows some signs of hormonal response to stressors with changes in dopamine and serotonin signalling and neurotrophin (transforming growth factor b) concentration. Endorphins, oxytocin and vasopressin may play a role during the later phases of love. However, proof of hormonal events associated with love in humans has, until recently, been lacking.

  12. System recovery from athletes in team sports with individual use of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zhanneta Leonidovna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the direction of optimization of adaptive systems. In research was attended by 43 athletes. We determined the content of cortisol, insulin and β-endorphins in the blood. Showing cause injuries of athletes. It is noted that as the growth rates of athletes increases the number and severity of injuries. It is established that the main causes of injury is a conflict between reducing functionality and increasing requirements of the game. Recommended application fee of medicinal plants according to individual characteristics of functional and psycho-physiological condition of athletes. Recommendations on the normalization of the adaptive systems.

  13. Role of endogenous opioid peptides in the pathogenesis of motion sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasnetsov, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.; Karsanova, S.K.; Medvedev, O.S.; Mokrousova, A.V.; Sabaev, V.V.; Shashkov, V.A.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Vakulina, O.P

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the pathogenesis of motion sickness and the role of the various neurochemical systems of the body in the genesis of the condition. It has been shown that the endogenous opioid system participates in the genesis of several pathological processes; this was the motivation for the study. The plasma beta-endorphin level was determined in samples from 19 clinically healthy males. Considering the positive prophylactic and therapeutic effect of naloxone against motion sickness it can be postulated that endogenous opioid peptides participate in the genesis of the vestibulo-autonomic disorders in motion sickness

  14. Peculiarities of hormonal status of patients with exogenous constitutional obesity before and after nalorphine administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spesivtseva, V.G.; Berestov, L.A.; Shiyan, I.V.; Kokhanenko, Eh.M. (Pervyj Moskovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-11-01

    By means of radioimmunoassay the peculiarities of hormonal status of 24 patients with exogenous constitutional obesity before and after nalorphine intravenous administration are studied. Nalorphine is found to stimulate the ACTH and hydrocortisone synthesis, to suppress the b-endorphine and synthesisprolactin to stimulate the STH secretion. A repeated nalorphine administration revealed latent peculiarities of the endocrine system connected with the pathogenesis of obesity. It is shown that the use of nalorphine is not followed by side-effects neither at a single administration nor in case of a three-days treatment.

  15. Role of endogenous opioid peptides in the pathogenesis of motion sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasnetsov, V.V.; Il' ina, S.L.; Karsanova, S.K.; Medvedev, O.S.; Mokrousova, A.V.; Sabaev, V.V.; Shashkov, V.A.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Vakulina, O.P

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the pathogenesis of motion sickness and the role of the various neurochemical systems of the body in the genesis of the condition. It has been shown that the endogenous opioid system participates in the genesis of several pathological processes; this was the motivation for the study. The plasma beta-endorphin level was determined in samples from 19 clinically healthy males. Considering the positive prophylactic and therapeutic effect of naloxone against motion sickness it can be postulated that endogenous opioid peptides participate in the genesis of the vestibulo-autonomic disorders in motion sickness.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of benzomorphan binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crain, B.J.; Kwenjen Chang; McNamara, J.O.; Valdes, F.

    1985-07-17

    The benzomorphan subpopulation of opiate binding sites was labeled by (TH)diprenorphine in the presence of unlabeled ligands selected to quench and delta opiate binding sites. The distribution of benzomorphan binding sites was then localized autoradiographically. The distribution differs from the distributions of , delta and kappa opiate binding and is quite similar to the distribution of US -endorphin immunoreactivity. These observations support the hypothesis, based on biochemical studies in brain membranes, that benzomorphan binding sites may represent the ligand recognition sites of putative epsilon receptors. (Auth.). 34 refs.; 3 figs.

  17. The science behind animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A

    2013-04-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a complementary medicine intervention, typically utilizing dogs trained to be obedient, calm, and comforting. Several studies have reported significant pain relief after participating in therapy dog visits. Objective reports of reduced pain and pain-related symptoms are supported by studies measuring decreased catecholamines and increased endorphins in humans receiving friendly dog visits. Mirror neuron activity and disease-perception through olfactory ability in dogs may also play important roles in helping dogs connect with humans during therapeutic encounters. This review will explore a variety of possible theories that may explain the therapeutic benefits that occur during therapy dog visits.

  18. Epidural analgesia in early labour blocks the stress response but uterine contractions remain unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, T J; Hemmings, G T; Carli, F; Weeks, S K; Mazza, L; Zingg, H H

    1998-07-01

    To determine the effect of epidural analgesia on biochemical markers of stress, plasma oxytocin concentrations and frequency of uterine contractions during the first stage of labour. Nine nulliparous women, in spontaneous labour, with a singleton fetus and cervical dilatation < or = 5 cm were enrolled. Epidural bupivacaine 0.25% (range 10-14 ml) was administered and bilateral sensory blockade to ice (T8-L4) achieved. Blood samples were collected before the epidermal block and every 10 min for one hour after the block was achieved for the measurement of plasma beta-endorphin, cortical, glucose, lactate and oxytocin concentrations. No exogenous oxytocin was given. Intensity of pain was assessed at the time of the blood sampling using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The frequency of uterine contractions was recorded for 60 min before and after the epidural block. There was a decrease in plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol concentrations after epidural block (P < 0.01). There were no changes in plasma glucose and lactate concentrations. The mean VAS for pain decreased 10 min after epidural block was achieved and remained < 2 throughout the study period (P < 0.001). Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations did not change. The frequency of uterine contractions before and after the epidural block was similar. The metabolic stress response to the pain of labour was attenuated by epidural analgesia. In contrast, plasma oxytocin concentration and frequency of uterine contractions were unaffected by the attenuation of metabolic stress response.

  19. Activation of Brainstem Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons Produces Opioidergic Analgesia, Bradycardia and Bradypnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerritelli, Serena; Hirschberg, Stefan; Hill, Rob; Balthasar, Nina; Pickering, Anthony E

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are widely used medicinally as analgesics and abused for hedonic effects, actions that are each complicated by substantial risks such as cardiorespiratory depression. These drugs mimic peptides such as β-endorphin, which has a key role in endogenous analgesia. The β-endorphin in the central nervous system originates from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Relatively little is known about the NTSPOMC neurons but their position within the sensory nucleus of the vagus led us to test the hypothesis that they play a role in modulation of cardiorespiratory and nociceptive control. The NTSPOMC neurons were targeted using viral vectors in a POMC-Cre mouse line to express either opto-genetic (channelrhodopsin-2) or chemo-genetic (Pharmacologically Selective Actuator Modules). Opto-genetic activation of the NTSPOMC neurons in the working heart brainstem preparation (n = 21) evoked a reliable, titratable and time-locked respiratory inhibition (120% increase in inter-breath interval) with a bradycardia (125±26 beats per minute) and augmented respiratory sinus arrhythmia (58% increase). Chemo-genetic activation of NTSPOMC neurons in vivo was anti-nociceptive in the tail flick assay (latency increased by 126±65%, pneurons were found to project to key brainstem structures involved in cardiorespiratory control (nucleus ambiguus and ventral respiratory group) and endogenous analgesia (periaqueductal gray and midline raphe). Thus the NTSPOMC neurons may be capable of tuning behaviour by an opioidergic modulation of nociceptive, respiratory and cardiac control.

  20. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  1. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  2. The gender differences in the inhibitory action of UVB-induced melanocyte activation by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid has an inhibitory action on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced melanocyte activation. This study examined the sex differences in the inhibitory action of tranexamic acid on UVB-induced melanocyte activation. We irradiated the eye and ear of male and female mice with UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp. We orally administered tranexamic acid (750 mg/kg/day) at 30 min before UVB exposure. Tranexamic acid inhibited the UVB-induced epidermal melanocyte activation, and the effect was more remarkable under UVB eye irradiation than under UVB ear irradiation. Furthermore, the melanocyte activity suppression effect was stronger in female mice than in male mice. Following the administration of tranexamic acid, the female displayed increased blood levels of β-endorphin and μ-opioid receptor and estradiol receptor β expression in comparison with the male. Furthermore, the effect of melanocyte activity suppression in the female mice was decreased by the administration of tamoxifen (antagonist of estrogen receptor) or naltrexone (antagonist of μ-opioid receptor). These results suggest that the suppression by tranexamic acid of the UVB-induced melanocyte activation (UVB sensitivity) is stronger in female mice than in male mice and that female hormones and β-endorphin play an important role in this sex difference. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The role of proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurones in feeding behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millington George WM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The precursor protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC, produces many biologically active peptides via a series of enzymatic steps in a tissue-specific manner, yielding the melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs, corticotrophin (ACTH and β-endorphin. The MSHs and ACTH bind to the extracellular G-protein coupled melanocortin receptors (MCRs of which there are five subtypes. The MC3R and MC4R show widespread expression in the central nervous system (CNS, whilst there is low level expression of MC1R and MC5R. In the CNS, cell bodies for POMC are mainly located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. Both of these areas have well defined functions relating to appetite and food intake. Mouse knockouts (ko for pomc, mc4r and mc3r all show an obese phenotype, as do humans expressing mutations of POMC and MC4R. Recently, human subjects with specific mutations in β-MSH have been found to be obese too, as have mice with engineered β-endorphin deficiency. The CNS POMC system has other functions, including regulation of sexual behaviour, lactation, the reproductive cycle and possibly central cardiovascular control. However, this review will focus on feeding behaviour and link it in with the neuroanatomy of the POMC neurones in the hypothalamus and brainstem.

  4. Mechanical Stimulation of the HT7 Acupuncture Point to Reduce Ethanol Self-Administration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholism, which is a disabling addiction disorder, is a major public health problem worldwide. The present study was designed to determine whether the application of acupuncture at the Shenmen (HT7 point suppresses voluntary alcohol consumption in addicted rats and whether this suppressive effect is potentiated by the administration of naltrexone. Methods. Rats were initially trained to self-administer a sucrose solution by operating a lever. A mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI for objective mechanical stimulation was used on rats whose baseline response had been determined. In addition, the effect of HT7 acupuncture on beta-endorphin concentration and ethanol intake via naltrexone were investigated in different groups. Results. We found that ethanol intake and beta-endorphin level in rats being treated with the MAI at the HT7 point reduced significantly. The treatment of naltrexone at high doses reduced the ethanol intake and low-dose injection of naltrexone in conjunction with the MAI also suppressed ethanol intake. Conclusions. The results of the current study indicate that using the MAI at the HT7 point effectively reduces ethanol consumption in rats. Furthermore, the coadministration of the MAI and a low dose of naltrexone can produce some more potent reducing effect of ethanol intake than can acupuncture alone.

  5. Receptors for corticotropin-releasing hormone in human pituitary: Binding characteristics and autoradiographic localization to immunocytochemically defined proopiomelanocortin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, G.; Vauquelin, G.; Moons, L.; Smitz, J.; Kloeppel, G. (Department of Experimental Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium))

    1991-08-01

    Using autoradiography combined with immunocytochemistry, the authors demonstrated that the target cells of CRH in the human pituitary were proopiomelanocortin cells. Scatchard analysis of (125I)Tyr0-oCRH saturation binding revealed the presence of one class of saturable, high affinity sites on pituitary tissue homogenate. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (125I)Tyr0-oCRH ranged from 1.1-1.6 nM, and the receptor density was between 200-350 fmol/mg protein. Fixation of cryostat sections with 4% paraformaldehyde before tracer incubation improved both tissue preservation and localization of the CRH receptor at the cellular level. Additional postfixation with 1% glutaraldehyde inhibited tracer diffusion during subsequent immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. (125I)Tyr0-oCRH was found in cytoplasmic inclusions or at the cell periphery of ACTH/beta-endorphin cells in the anterior pituitary. Single cells of the posterior pituitary were also CRH receptor positive. Cells staining for PRL or GH were CRH receptor negative. They conclude that CRH binds only to high affinity receptors on ACTH/{beta}-endorphin cells in the human pituitary.

  6. Peptide transport through the blood-brain barrier. Final report 1 Jul 87-31 Dec 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, W.M.

    1991-01-15

    Most neuropeptides are incapable of entering the brain from blood owing to the presence of unique anatomical structures in the brain capillary wall, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Such neuropeptides could be introduced into the bloodstream by intranasal insufflation and, thus, could have powerful medicinal properties (e.g., Beta-endorphin for the treatment of pain, vasopressin analogues for treatment of memory, ACTH analogues for treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy), should these peptides be capable of traversing the BBB. One such strategy for peptide delivery through the BBB is the development of chimeric peptides, which is the basis of the present contract. The production of chimeric peptides involves the covalent coupling of a nontransportable peptide (e.g., Beta-endorphin, vasopressin) to a transportable vector peptide (e.g., insulin, transferrin, cationized albumin, histone). The transportable peptide is capable of penetrating the BBB via receptor-mediated or absorptive-mediated transcytosis. Therefore, the introduction of chimeric peptides allows the nontransportable peptide to traverse the BBB via a physiologic piggy back mechanism.

  7. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  8. Ectopic ACTH secretion due to a bronchopulmonary carcinoid localized by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, G; Pfohl, M; Dörr, U; Weiss, E M; Seif, F J

    1994-11-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old woman with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting bronchopulmonary carcinoid. This patient showed the typical long history of Cushing's syndrome, including hypokaliemia, impaired glucose tolerance, high levels of ACTH and beta-endorphin, and coproduction of other peptides. At the onset of clinical symptoms in 1979 an adrenal adenoma was suspected, and left-sided adrenalectomy was performed. The symptoms soon recurred, and the diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome was made. As no ACTH-secreting tumor was found, the right adrenal was resected, and the patient was followed up regularly. Fourteen years later chest roentgenography and computed tomography revealed a para-aortic pulmonary lesion, which was suspicious for a bronchopulmonary carcinoid. ACTH and beta-endorphin were excessively, pancreatic polypeptide slightly elevated at that time. The final diagnosis was made using somatostatin receptor scintigraphy which confirmed the hormonal activity of the suspicious lesion; no additional focus was found. This method turned out to be not only a useful additional localization technique but also a promising tool for characterization and staging of a suspected ACTH-producing carcinoid. The tumor was resected curatively, and the diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  9. The importance of communication in the management of postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Daniel Y; Deptula, Peter L; Parsa, Alan A; Don Parsa, Fereydoun

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the importance of communication in surgery and how delivering preoperative patient education can lead to better health outcomes postoperatively, via promoting tolerable pain scores and minimizing the use of narcotics after surgery. Patients who underwent outpatient surgery were randomly divided into groups to compare the pain scores of those who received preoperative patient education, the experimental group, and those who did not receive any form of patient education, the control group. Two weeks before surgery, the experimental group subjects received oral and written forms of patient education consisting of how the body responds to pain, and how endorphins cause natural analgesia. Moreover, patients were educated on the negative effects narcotics have on endorphin production and activity, as well as mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics. Of the 69 patients in the experimental group, 90% declined a prescription for hydrocodone after receiving preoperative education two weeks prior to surgery. The control group consisted of 66 patients who did not receive preoperative patient education and 100% filled their hydrocodone prescriptions. Patients in both groups were offered and received gabapentin and celecoxib preoperatively for prophylaxis of postoperative pain unless they declined. The control groups were found to have average pain scores significantly greater (P groups and also a significantly longer (P communication, which can serve as an effective means to minimize narcotic analgesia after surgery.

  10. Clinical Outcome and Hormone Profiles Before and After Laparoscopic Electroincision of the Ovaries in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate clinical outcome and hormone profiles of laparoscopic elec-troincision of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS before and after treatment. Forty five clomiphene-citrate resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome underwent laparoscopic electroincision of the ovaries. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone (T, androstenedione, 17 OH progesterone and beta endorphins were recorded before and 24 hours after the treatment. Clinical and reproductive outcome and hormone profiles were analyzed. Patients were observed during 12 months period. Laparoscopic electroincision of the ovaries was successfully performed without complications in all patients. LH/FSH ratio was 1,66 24 hours after treatment. Serum levels of T, androstenedione, 17 OH progesterone, and beta endorphins were significantly reduced 24 hours after laparoscopic electroincision of the ovaries. In follow-up period 87% of patients were recorded to have regular menstrual cycles and 61% pregnancy rate was achieved spontaneously. Laparoscopic electroincision of the ovaries is an effective treatment in clomiphene-citrate resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The high pregnancy rate of the procedure offers a promising management for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  11. The hypothalomo-pituitary-adrenal system in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences: summing up the seven-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitryaeva, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system was studied over time (1986-1993) in 500 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences with external exposure dose of 250 mSv. The concentrations of hydrocortisone, ACTH, and β-endorphine in the peripheral blood were radioimmunoassayed at rest and during functional loading. Glucocorticoids were measured in the urine by thin-layer chromatography. The number of glucocorticoid receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed by the radioreceptor method. Stable hypercorticalism in the presence of reduced β-endorphine and increased ACTH levels was observed in the majority of examinees during the first years after the accident. Six years after the accident the above parameters were normal at rest, although during functional loading disorders in the reserve potential of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system were observed, which deteriorated its adaptation to changes int he environment. It is advisable to single out high risk groups of subjects with disadaptation disorders for regular check-ups among the liquidators. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Exercise induced asthma and endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, R C; Bachman, M; Rochat, T; Egger, D; de Haller, R; Junod, A F

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of endogenous opioid peptides in the plasma are increased during exercise and these substances have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma induced by chloropropramide and alcohol in diabetic patients. This work was undertaken to determine whether exercise induced asthma might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Plasma beta endorphin, met-enkephalin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were measured in five asthmatic patients and five normal volunteers breathing cold air during exercise. In four of the patients the effect of an infusion of naloxone on FEV1 was also measured during exercise induced asthma. Exercise produced acute bronchoconstriction in all asthmatics, characterised by a fall in FEV1; whereas no change occurred in normal subjects. There was no difference in plasma met-enkephalin, beta endorphin, and ACTH concentration between the two groups. Infusion of naloxone neither prevented nor worsened exercise induced asthma. These data suggest that endogenous opioids probably do not play a part in the development of exercise induced asthma. PMID:2944240

  13. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    β-endorphin, [met]enkephalin, and [leu]enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO 4 or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. β-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; [met]enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; [leu]-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs

  14. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori, E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp [Center of Excellence, Division of Molecular Metabolism and Diabetes, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Department of Lifestyle Medicine, Biomedical Engineering Center, Tohoku University (Japan); Kaji, Takao [Department of Lifestyle Medicine, Biomedical Engineering Center, Tohoku University (Japan); Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko [Center of Excellence, Division of Molecular Metabolism and Diabetes, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro [Charles River Laboratories Japan, Inc. (Japan)

    2009-08-21

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice. Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.

  15. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese β-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice. Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in β-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.

  16. Metformin increases pressure pain threshold in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiałka M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marta Kiałka,1 Tomasz Milewicz,1 Krystyna Sztefko,2 Iwona Rogatko,2 Renata Majewska3 1Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland Background: Despite the strong preclinical rationale, there are only very few data considering the utility of metformin as a potential pain therapeutic in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the association between metformin therapy and pressure pain threshold (PPT in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. We hypothesized that metformin therapy in lean PCOS women increases PPT. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven lean PCOS women with free androgen index phenotype >5 and 18 lean healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Fifteen of the PCOS women were randomly assigned to be treated with metformin 1,500 mg daily for 6 months. PPT and plasma β-endorphin levels were measured in all women at the beginning of the study and after 6 months of observation. Results: We observed an increase in PPT values measured on deltoid and trapezius muscle in the PCOS with metformin group after 6 months of metformin administration (4.81±0.88 kg/cm², P<0.001 on deltoid muscle, and 5.71±1.16 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle. We did not observe any significant changes in PPT values in the PCOS without treatment group and in controls. We did not observe any significant changes in serum β-endorphin levels in any studied groups during the 6-month observation. Conclusion: We conclude that metformin therapy increases PPT in lean PCOS women, without affecting plasma β-endorphin concentration. Our results may suggest the potential role of metformin in pain therapy. We propose that larger, randomized studies on metformin impact on pain

  17. Glycyl-glutamine in nucleus accumbens reduces ethanol intake in alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Garth E; Shridharani, Shyam; Millington, William R; Garris, David R; Simpson, C Wayne

    2005-10-05

    Opioid peptides and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) have been implicated in the control of ethanol consumption. A recognized beta-endorphin cleavage product, Gly-Gln, inhibits voluntary alcohol consumption when microinjected into the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) of P rats. To evaluate the site-specific efficacy of Gly-Gln on ethanol consumption following AcbSh application, ethanol preferring (P) rats were allowed to establish individual baseline ethanol/water consumption utilizing a voluntary self-administration paradigm. Subsequent to baseline ethanol consumption being established, bilateral guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted +1 mm dorsal to the AcbSh for subsequent Gly-Gln (100 nmol/microl) or saline vehicle (1 microl) injections. Alcohol intake, body weight, and water intake were measured at 24 h post-injection intervals. Unilateral Gly-Gln injections reduced ethanol consumption 35.6% (P < 0.05) from pre-established baseline consumption (6.24 +/- 0.64 g/kg to 4.06 +/- 0.28 g/kg). Bilateral Gly-Gln injections further reduced consumption to 51.9% (6.4 +/- 1.0 g/kg to 3.08 +/- 0.65 g/kg at 24 h (P < 0.01) below established baseline values within 24 h without significant changes in body weight or water consumption. Also, the amino acid constituents of the dipeptide had no influence on ethanol consumption behavior; however, Gly-Gln efficacy was shown to be comparable to central beta-endorphin-(1-27) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone-induced suppression of ethanol intake. These data indicate that the AcbSh exhibits a site-specific sensitivity to the suppressive actions of Gly-Gln or beta-endorphin-(1-27) injections that modulate voluntary ethanol consumption in P rats. These findings support the broader concept that select forebrain opioid-responsive neural sites may influence the development or expression of alcohol abuse syndromes in animal models or humans.

  18. The power of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Becky

    2015-06-01

    In Ten tips for normal birth, the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) (2014) advocates the building of nests; creating an environment that helps women to feel safe and secure during birth, as this can improve women's experiences and likelihood of normal birth. Furthermore, a private, undisturbed and dark environment, where women feel calm and safe can promote the release of oxytocin, the hormone responsible for uterine contractions and thought to promote the release of the pain relieving hormones endorphins (Uvnas Moberg 2003). When this is not achieved, women can experience fear-tension-pain syndrome, impeding labour progress and causing increased levels of pain (Dick-Read 2013). In addition, birth space has the potential to encourage the promotion of normality through providing space to mobilise, and alternative furniture to enable upright birth positions. Midwives should help women to create a birth space in which they feel safe, calm and secure, to promote normality and increase the incidence of normal birth (RCM 2014).

  19. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: neuroendocrine interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiană, Cătălina; Muşat, Mădălina; Carsote, Mara; Chiriţă, Corina

    2009-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) consists in severe cognitive and mood changes, more aggressive as seen in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). These two syndromes are situated at the border between gynecology and psychiatry but the link between the two domains remains the neuroendocrine underlying mechanisms. In present, there are some molecular systems certainly proved as being involved, like estrogens. The hormonal pattern consists not in different levels of the hormones but different response to normal hormonal levels. The cyclical biochemical triggers are related to neurotransmitters as serotonin, endorphin and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). The heritability of the syndrome is sustained by genetic polymorphism in ESR1 gene. Thus, the PMDD is the result of multiple disturbances regarding neuroendocrine systems.

  20. [Exercise dependence--symptoms and mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to synthesise the knowledge about the phenomenon of exercise dependence (ED), which is now characterised by an obsessive preoccupation with exercise, negative in nature. ED could be operationalized as a multidimensional maladaptive pattern of exercise, leading to clinically impairment or distress. Its criteria are: tolerance, withdrawal effects, lack of control, reductions in other activities, impaired psychological, social or physical functioning. For primary ED, the physical activity is an end in itself; for secondary ED, motivation is extrinsic--to control or alter body mass and shape. Estimates of the prevalence of ED range from 2-3% to 20-30%. Hypotheses of ED development concentrate on beta-endorphin, sympathetic arousal, affect regulation or some psychological explanations (e.g., exercise as distractor).

  1. Move! Eat better: Try out a pedometer!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2013-01-01

    Looking for your next challenge after a successful leg in the CERN relay race? Want to get started on a new fitness regime? Hesitating to take the plunge or just a bit curious?   …and for those who already do a lot of exercise, think of your neurones: Physical activity is good for your brain! It has been shown that physical activity has positive effects on mental health and cognitive function through: • the secretion of endorphins, which have an exhilarating, relaxing and analgesic effect, • the combination of serotonin and dopamine, which improves the balance of your mood, • an increase in protein concentration, which improves the malleability of the brain, with positive effects for certain illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, • from a psychological point of view: improved confidence and self-esteem. The list of the benefits of physical activity is long, and keeps getting longer as more research is carried out… [see the...

  2. “Love” Phenomenon and Neurobiology of Love Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Evren Tufan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology; especially the neurobiological features of the “love” phenomenon has recently started to attract attention. Love relations and attachment, which is closely related with them, are known to be important in health and disease. Love and love relations are found to be complex neurobiological phenomena based on activation of the limbic system of the brain. Those processes involve oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine and serotonergic functions. Additionally, endorphine and endogenous opiate systems as well as nitrous oxide play role in those processes. The stages of love and love relations may demonstrate different neurochemical and neurophysiological features and may partially overlap with m aternal, romantic and sexual love and attachments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the common neurobiological pathways underlying the “love” phenomenon as well as their importance in medicine and health.

  3. The development of [18F]cyclofoxy as a ligand for imaging opioid receptors in the CNS of conscious humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, K.C.; Newman, A.H.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Cohen, R.M.; Pert, A.; Pert, C.B.; Burke, T.R. Jr.; McLellan, C.A.; Channing, M.A.; Finn, R.D.; Dunn, B.; Simpson, N.; Carson, R.W.; Larson, S.M.; Eckelman, W.C.; Bennett, J.M.; Kawai, R.; Sawada, Y.; Herscovitch, P.; Yolles, P.S.; Nordhal, T.; Gross, M.; Blasberg, R.

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique, noninvasive technique applicable to real time visualization and quantitation of drug receptor occupancy in the brain of conscious humans. Such studies with the normal and abnormal human CNS can potentially provide insight into the biochemical basis of disease states and the effects of drug therapy. The (-)-enantiomer of cyclofoxy, a fluorinated, potent narcotic antagonist derived from naltrexone, has been developed at NIH as an agent for study of the opioid receptor-endorphin system using PET. The development and current status of this program is described, including application of the NIH Opiate Total Synthesis for production the pharmacologically inert (+)-[ 18 F]cyclofoxy required for quantitation of receptor occupancy

  4. Reducing anxiety in stutterers through the association between "purpose in life/Ikigai" and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Riichiro

    2012-08-09

    The human prefrontal lobe is more evolved than those of other mammals. As such, every person has an innate need to establish a meaningful life, often referred to as "Purpose in life (PIL)/ikigai", using the functioning of their prefrontal lobes. PIL/ikigai psychologically, and the prefrontal lobe physiologically, have common functions such as ambition, regulating emotion, and integrating psychological events. PIL/ikigai contributes to a decrease in anxiety influenced by a need for approval from others and stimulates pleasure and comfort, which may be related to the well-balanced secretion of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and ?-endorphin. Thus, a stutterer feels stress, i.e., anxiety, caused by perceived failure when engaging in conversations with others, which may be related to an imbalanced secretion of serotonin and dopamine. Therefore, previous work has suggested that PIL/ikigai may decrease anxiety in stutterers by decreasing the symptoms associated with stuttering.

  5. A Deletion in the Canine POMC Gene Is Associated with Weight and Appetite in Obesity-Prone Labrador Retriever Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Eleanor; Dennis, Rowena J; O'Donovan, Conor J; Becker, Julia M; Scott, Robert A; Smith, Stephen P; Withers, David J; Wood, Claire J; Conci, Elena; Clements, Dylan N; Summers, Kim M; German, Alexander J; Mellersh, Cathryn S; Arendt, Maja L; Iyemere, Valentine P; Withers, Elaine; Söder, Josefin; Wernersson, Sara; Andersson, Göran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2016-05-10

    Sequencing of candidate genes for obesity in Labrador retriever dogs identified a 14 bp deletion in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) with an allele frequency of 12%. The deletion disrupts the β-MSH and β-endorphin coding sequences and is associated with body weight (per allele effect of 0.33 SD), adiposity, and greater food motivation. Among other dog breeds, the deletion was only found in the closely related flat-coat retriever (FCR), where it is similarly associated with body weight and food motivation. The mutation is significantly more common in Labrador retrievers selected to become assistance dogs than pets. In conclusion, the deletion in POMC is a significant modifier of weight and appetite in Labrador retrievers and FCRs and may influence other behavioral traits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on physiological function in the anesthetized rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alter, W.A. III; Catravas, G.N.; Hawkins, R.N.; Lake, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    Exposure of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats to 14.5-MeV electrons results in radiation-induced physiological dysfunction. Responses include transient hypotension, a transient decrease in heart rate, respiratory dysrhythmias, and a prolonged increase in pulse pressure. Magnitudes to these responses are dose related, and maximal responses can be elicited by either whole- or partial-body (head or abdominal) exposure to 10,000 rad. These responses were associated with a fivefold increase in arterial plasma concentration of epinephrine, whereas histamine, norepinephrine, and ..beta..-endorphin did not change during the first minute after the onset of exposure. Results of these experiments and information available in the literature support the hypothesis that these responses are due to an interference in the autonomic pathways that modulate cardiovascular function.

  8. Biodegradable polymeric foam with food waste; Shokumotsu zansa wo mochiita seibunkai kobunshi hahhotai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Kenji; Matsuyama, Kiyoshi; Yamauchi, Satoru; Takarabe, Shin' ichi

    1999-09-01

    A huge amount of food waste such as tea and beer dregs becomes a serious problem because of the lack of industrial waste space in Japan. On the other hand, the new polymeric foam is expected to be developed since the dangerous pollution of endorphin disrupters from industrial polymer foam is pointed out. In this work, we try to develop the biodegradable polymeric foam using the tea and beer dregs as secondary resources. And we examined the degradability of biodegradable polymer in the hydrothermal water for fundamental knowledge of polymeric foam production. We used an extruder equipped with a high pressure device to make the polymeric foam. And we examined the effect of the component ratio on the foam properties, foaming rate, strength, shrinkage rate, water-resistant. As a result, it was found that the amount of polymer is effective of quality of form and the biodegradability can be controlled by the amount of water and temperature. (author)

  9. Purification and characterization of mu-specific opioid receptor from rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, J.; Cho, T.M.; Ge, B.L.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    A mu-specific opioid receptor was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat brain membranes by 6-succinylmorphine affinity chromatography, Ultrogel filtration, wheat germ agglutinin affinity chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. The purified receptor had a molecular weight of 58,000 as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was judged to be homogeneous by the following criteria: (1) a single band on the SDS gel; and (2) a specific opioid binding activity of 17,720 pmole/mg protein, close to the theoretical value. In addition, the 58,000 molecular weight value agrees closely with that determined by covalently labelling purified receptor with bromoacetyl-/sup 3/H-dihydromorphine or with /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and dimethyl suberimidate. To their knowledge, this is the first complete purification of an opioid receptor that retains its ability to bind opiates.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of Pro-. gamma. -melanotropin, the amino-terminal fragment of proopiolipomelanocortin. [Swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, R.; Hakanson, R.; Larsson, I.; Sundler, F.; Thorell, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    A RIA has been developed for natural porcine pro-..gamma..-MSH, the 103-amino acid peptide that represents the amino-terminal part of proopiolipomelanocortin. Rabbits were immunized with the purified peptide polymerized with glutaraldehyde. The antiserum is directed against the amino-terminial end of the antigen and does not cross-react with corticotropin, ..beta..-lipotropin, ..beta..-endorphin, ..gamma../sub 3/MSH, or ..gamma../sub 2/MSH. The minimum detectable concentration is 0.15 ng/ml standard pro-..gamma..MSH (15 pg/tube). Pro-..gamma..MSH-like immunoreactivity was detected in plasma and extracts of the hypothalamus and pituitary of pigs. Gel chromatography of these extracts revealed at least three immunoreactive peaks in the anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, wheras two immunoreactive peaks were found in extracts of the hypothalalmus. (Endocrinology 111:578,1982)

  11. Development of the kits for RIA simultaneous determination of polypeptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybinski, Z.

    1982-12-01

    A simple and universal modification of chloramine T technique has been developed for the radioactive iodination of several polypeptide hormones such as insulin, human growth hormone (HGH), human TSH, synthetic human gastrin and beta-endorphine. The prepared products proved to have good immunoreactivity suitable for RIA purposes. The technique is inexpensive and quick. A new procedure has also been worked out utilizing horse myeloperoxidase in solid state as catalyser. The hormones iodinated with this technique show better parameters (e.g. longer stability, better binding to antibody, more favourable adsorption on dextran-coated charcoal); however the specific activities achieved were lower. The possibilities of simultaneous measurement of insulin and HGH have been studied. In this connection, a comparatively simple method for the determination of the endogenous anti-insulin antibodies was developed and used for the control of patients with diabetes and for the checking of new insulin preparations. However, the technique requires relatively sophisticated equipment and computerized calculations

  12. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of [ 3 H] bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10 6 cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of [ 3 H] bremazocine with an IC 50 value = 0.57μM. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, [D-Pen 2 , D-Pen 5 ] enkephalin and β-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC 50 = 60μM, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  13. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Bast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain.

  14. Comparative endocrinological responses to short transportation of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Aveni, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of short transportation on β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol changes, 12 healthy stallions of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus) were studied before and after transportation of 50 km. Blood samples were collected 1 week before transportation in basal conditions, immediately before loading and after transportation and unloading, on their arrival at the breeding station. Compared to basal and before values, donkeys showed an increase in circulating ACTH (P donkeys. Horses facing forward (direction of travel) showed higher (P donkeys; horses facing backward (the opposite direction of travel) showed lower (P donkeys and only of cortisol in horses, suggesting that transportation for donkeys may be more stressful than horses. © 2012 The Authors Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016 [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  16. Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek J. Zijlstra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of β-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 are discussed.

  17. Imaging-guided hyperstimulation analgesia in low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorenberg M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Gorenberg,1,2 Kobi Schwartz31Department of Nuclear Medicine, B'nai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel; 2The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel; 3Department of Physical Therapy, B'nai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Low back pain in patients with myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by painful active myofascial trigger points (ATPs in muscles. This article reviews a novel, noninvasive modality that combines simultaneous imaging and treatment, thus taking advantage of the electrodermal information available from imaged ATPs to deliver localized neurostimulation, to stimulate peripheral nerve endings (Aδ fibers and in turn, to release endogenous endorphins. "Hyperstimulation analgesia" with localized, intense, low-rate electrical pulses applied to painful ATPs was found to be effective in 95% patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, in a clinical validation study.Keywords: myofascial, noninvasive, electrical, impedance

  18. Studies on the hyperthermic effect of the body on utilization of far infrared radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Yong Wun; Cho, Chul Ku; Kim, Kyung Jung [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated that strong heat reaction of far infrared radiation material could have the possibility for hyperthermia in patients. Objective was CaSki cell, human uterocervical cancer cell line and they observed descending effect remarkably to compare the effect of cell death by high temperature due to far infrared radiation, platelet numbers of experimental group to compare the control were increased 7 {approx} 17%, and lymphocyte numbers 20 {approx} 40 %. High acidity in tumor tissue due to the concentration of lactic acid, so the effects of far infrared had the result to the possibility to reduce the fatigue stuff. The secretion of endorphin as cerebroneuron substance than epinephrine, sympathetic nerve substance could be reduction of pain in cancer patients because of the effect of far infrared. Above data of experiment, we were found multiple the biological efficacy of far infrared about the possibility of medical utilization. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Anesthetic Mechanism of Myeloacupuncture in Joints аnd Spine Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Yakovlenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review on the application of such method of reflexotherapy acupuncture as myeloacupuncture used in the pathology of the peri­pheral joints and spine. It is theoretically grounded and associated with a positive clinical effect as a result of regenerating influence on the processes of free radical oxidation, imbalance of the cytokine network, growth factors, vascular endothelial function, the system of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2, caspase-3. Achievement of the analgesic effect by acupuncture needle injection into the spinal cord is conducted due to the impact on peripheral, spinal and sub-spinal mechanisms, synthesis of neurotransmitters and neurohormones, neuroacid, that cause vanniloid-1 reception normalization, enhancement of production of endorphins, enkephalins and endomorphins, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and P substance.

  20. [Gender features of low back pain syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseĭkin, I A; Goĭdenko, V S; Aleksandrov, V I; Rudenko, I V; Borzunova, T A; Barashkov, G N

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four patients with low back pain caused by a radix syndrome (mean age 46.18±9.11 years) have been examined. Patients have been stratified by sex. The pain syndrome has been assessed in 1st, 10th and 21st by the VAS, pressure pain measurement and laboratory tests for measuring neurotransmitter levels. It has been shown that women endure a pain worse as assessed not only by the questionnaires but also by the pressure pain measurement especially at night. The analysis of blood serum revealed higher levels of β-endorphin, serotonin, dopamine that were correlated (р<0.05) with the pain level, their amount decreasing with the reduction of pain.

  1. A general theory of comic entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2014-01-01

    The article claims that comic entertainment consists of five elements 1. priming of the comic events to come 2. some comic entertainment inputs that creates arousal 3. Entertainment-internal signals of the playful nature of the comic input 4. Appraisal processes in audience members that evaluate...... the input as 'not real but playful', 5. this leads to a change in hedonic tone, and arousal is combined with the release of endorphins (a morphine-based neurotransmitter) that makes the arousal pleasant. The theory of comic entertainment accords with the PECMA flow theory proposed in Grodal: Embodied...... Visions, because the evaluation: playful, not real, influences the muscular directness towards the world that drops. Comic entertainment is further linked to human bonding....

  2. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Elizabeth S.; Berry, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  3. Studies on the hyperthermic effect of the body on utilization of far infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yong Wun; Cho, Chul Ku; Kim, Kyung Jung

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated that strong heat reaction of far infrared radiation material could have the possibility for hyperthermia in patients. Objective was CaSki cell, human uterocervical cancer cell line and they observed descending effect remarkably to compare the effect of cell death by high temperature due to far infrared radiation, platelet numbers of experimental group to compare the control were increased 7 ∼ 17%, and lymphocyte numbers 20 ∼ 40 %. High acidity in tumor tissue due to the concentration of lactic acid, so the effects of far infrared had the result to the possibility to reduce the fatigue stuff. The secretion of endorphin as cerebroneuron substance than epinephrine, sympathetic nerve substance could be reduction of pain in cancer patients because of the effect of far infrared. Above data of experiment, we were found multiple the biological efficacy of far infrared about the possibility of medical utilization. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Radioimmunological encephaline test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradelles, P.; Gros, C.; Rougeot, C.; Bepoldin, O.; Dray, F.; Llorens-Cortes, C.; Pollard, H.; Schwartz, J.C.; Fournie-Zaluski, M.C.; Cracel, G.

    1977-01-01

    The recent discovery of substances able to compete with opiates for morphine-specific binding sites in the brain has opened up a new path for studying the made of action of these receptors. These morphinomimetic substances known as endorphines might be the precursors of smaller molecules, e.g. encephalines, two pentapeptides (H-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-OH or Met-Enc and H-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH or Leu-Enk) which serve as neurotransmitters of the analyesic effect. A radioimmunoassay has been developed with the aim of measuring the distribution of these substances in the brain and of following their development in different states of psychopathology. (AJ) [de

  5. Nicotine and endogenous opioids: neurochemical and pharmacological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiconstantinou, Maria; Neff, Norton H

    2011-06-01

    Although the mesolimbic dopamine hypothesis is the most influential theory of nicotine reward and reinforcement, there has been a consensus that other neurotransmitter systems contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine as well. In this regard, the brain opioidergic system is of interest. Striatum is rich in opioid peptides and opioid receptors, and striatal opioidergic neurons are engaged in a bidirectional communication with midbrain dopaminergic neurons, closely regulating each other's activity. Enkephalins and dynorphins exert opposing actions on dopaminergic neurons, increasing and decreasing dopamine release respectively, and are components of circuits promoting positive or negative motivational and affective states. Moreover, dopamine controls the synthesis of striatal enkephalins and dynorphins. Evidence suggests that opioidergic function is altered after nicotine and endogenous opioids are involved in nicotine's behavioral effects. 1) The synthesis and release of β-endorphin, met-enkephalin and dynorphin in brain, especially nucleus accumbens (NAc), are altered after acute or chronic nicotine treatment and during nicotine withdrawal. 2) Although opioid receptor binding and mRNA do not appear to change in the striatum during nicotine withdrawal, the activity of κ-opioid (KOPr) and δ-opioid (DOPr) receptors is attenuated in NAc. 3) The nicotine withdrawal syndrome reminisces that of opiates, and naloxone precipitates some of its somatic, motivational, and affective signs. 4) Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that μ-opioid (MOPr) receptors are mainly involved in nicotine reward, while DOPrs contribute to the emotional and KOPrs to the aversive responses of nicotine. 5) Finally, MOPrs and enkephalin, but not β-endorphin or dynorphin, are necessary for the physical manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  6. Endogenous Opiates in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hsiang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17 acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.

  7. Estradiol upregulates progesterone receptor and orphanin FQ colocalization in arcuate nucleus neurons and opioid receptor-like receptor-1 expression in proopiomelanocortin neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus in the female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanathara, Nayna M.; Moreas, Justine; Mahavongtrakul, Matthew; Sinchak, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian steroids regulate sexual receptivity in the female rat by acting on neurons that converge on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). Estradiol rapidly activates these neurons to release β-endorphin that activates MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOP) to inhibit lordosis. Lordosis is facilitated by the subsequent action of progesterone that deactivates the estradiol-induced MPN MOP activation. Orphanin FQ (OFQ/N; aka nociceptin) infusions into the ARH, like progesterone, deactivate MPN MOP and facilitate lordosis in estradiol-primed rats. OFQ/N reduces the activity of ARH β-endorphin neurons through post- and presynaptic mechanisms via its cognate receptor, ORL-1. Methods We tested the hypotheses that progesterone receptors (PR) are expressed in ARH OFQ/N neurons by immunohistochemistry and ORL-1 is expressed in POMC neurons that project to the MPN by combining Fluoro-Gold injection into the MPN and double-label fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We also hypothesized that estradiol increases coexpression of PR-OFQ/N and ORL-1-POMC in ARH neurons of ovariectomized rats. Results The number of PR and OFQ/N immunopositive ARH neurons was increased as was their colocalization by estradiol treatment. FISH for ORL-1 and POMC mRNA revealed a subpopulation of ARH neurons that was triple-labeled indicating these neurons project to the MPN and coexpress ORL-1 and POMC mRNA. Estradiol was shown to upregulate ORL-1 and POMC expression in MPN-projecting ARH neurons. Conclusion Estradiol upregulates the ARH OFQ/N-ORL-1 system projecting to the MPN that regulates lordosis. PMID:24821192

  8. Hormonal and behavioral correlates of emotional states in sexually trained boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Malven, P V; Singleton, W L; Weesner, G D

    1999-12-01

    Physiological and behavioral traits of sexually mature boars were compared between episodes of copulation and sexual frustration in order to determine reliable indicators of the differences in emotional states. Ten boars, approximately 6 mo of age, were trained to mount a stationary artificial sow (ArtSow) and to ejaculate when digital pressure was applied to the extended penis. This method of semen collection is the typical procedure of the industry. All 10 boars used in this study were fully trained to this procedure before the onset of the study. Each boar was subjected to trials in which one of the following two treatments was applied. In the control (CTRL) treatment, boars were treated the same as during their training (i.e., allowed to complete ejaculation). In the frustration (FRUS) treatment, boars were allowed to mount the ArtSow, but because no manual pressure was applied to the extended penis, ejaculation never occurred. Blood was collected via indwelling catheters before onset of the trial, during exposure to the ArtSow, and after returning to their home pen. Concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, and beta-endorphin were quantified. Behavior of the boars was recorded during exposure to the ArtSow and for 30 min after return to their home pen. Relative to preexposure levels, serum cortisol increased (Pcortisol did not allow us to distinguish between the excitement of copulation and the negative affect associated with sexual frustration, whereas increases in serum beta-endorphin and motor activity seemed to be indicators of the negative emotional state of sexual frustration in trained boars.

  9. Group music performance causes elevated pain thresholds and social bonding in small and large groups of singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Daniel; Launay, Jacques; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Stewart, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Over our evolutionary history, humans have faced the problem of how to create and maintain social bonds in progressively larger groups compared to those of our primate ancestors. Evidence from historical and anthropological records suggests that group music-making might act as a mechanism by which this large-scale social bonding could occur. While previous research has shown effects of music making on social bonds in small group contexts, the question of whether this effect ‘scales up’ to larger groups is particularly important when considering the potential role of music for large-scale social bonding. The current study recruited individuals from a community choir that met in both small (n = 20 – 80) and large (a ‘megachoir’ combining individuals from the smaller subchoirs n = 232) group contexts. Participants gave self-report measures (via a survey) of social bonding and had pain threshold measurements taken (as a proxy for endorphin release) before and after 90 minutes of singing. Results showed that feelings of inclusion, connectivity, positive affect, and measures of endorphin release all increased across singing rehearsals and that the influence of group singing was comparable for pain thresholds in the large versus small group context. Levels of social closeness were found to be greater at pre- and post-levels for the small choir condition. However, the large choir condition experienced a greater change in social closeness as compared to the small condition. The finding that singing together fosters social closeness – even in large contexts where individuals are not known to each other – is consistent with evolutionary accounts that emphasize the role of music in social bonding, particularly in the context of creating larger cohesive groups than other primates are able to manage. PMID:27158219

  10. Naloxone inhibits superoxide but not enzyme release by human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, C.; Alailima, S.; Tate, E.

    1986-03-01

    The release of toxic oxygen metabolites and enzymes by phagocytic cells is thought to play a role in the multisystemic tissue injury of sepsis. Naloxone protects septic animals. We have found that at concentrations administered to animals (10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -4/M), naloxone inhibited (p < .001) the release of superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -/) by human neutrophils (HN), stimulated with N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (FMLP). Naloxone had no effect on cell viability. Maximum inhibition was 65% of the total O/sub 2//sup -/ released (13.1 nMoles/8 min/320,000 cells). FMLP-stimulated release of beta-glucoronidase or lysozyme was not altered by naloxone. Naloxone had no effect on the binding of /sup 3/H FMLP to HN. Using /sup 3/H naloxone and various concentrations of unlabeled naloxone higher affinity (K/sub D/ = 12nM) and lower affinity (K/sub D/ = 4.7 x 10/sup -5/) binding sites were detected. The K/sub D/ of the low affinity site corresponded to the ED/sub 50/ for naloxone inhibition of O/sub 2//sup -/ (1 x 10/sup -5/M). Binding to this low affinity site was decreased by (+) naloxone, beta-endorphin and N acetyl beta-endorphin, but not by leu-enkephalin, thyrotropin releasing factor, prostaglandin D/sub 2/ or E/sub 2/. Conclusions: (1) naloxone inhibits FMLP-stimulated O/sub 2/ but not enzyme release, (2) this inhibition is not due to alteration of FMLP receptor binding, (3) naloxone may act via a low affinity binding site which is ligand specific, and (4) a higher affinity receptor is present on HN.

  11. Cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the rat: role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kawabe

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN was studied in urethane-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats. At the baseline mean arterial pressure (BLMAP close to normal, ARCN stimulation elicited decreases in MAP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. The decreases in MAP elicited by ARCN stimulation were attenuated by either gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY, or beta-endorphin receptor blockade in the ipsilateral hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Combined blockade of GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the ipsilateral PVN converted the decreases in MAP and SNA to increases in these variables. Conversion of inhibitory effects on the MAP and SNA to excitatory effects following ARCN stimulation was also observed when the BLMAP was decreased to below normal levels by an infusion of sodium nitroprusside. The pressor and tachycardic responses to ARCN stimulation at below normal BLMAP were attenuated by blockade of melanocortin 3/4 (MC3/4 receptors in the ipsilateral PVN. Unilateral blockade of GABA-A receptors in the ARCN increased the BLMAP and heart rate (HR revealing tonic inhibition of the excitatory neurons in the ARCN. ARCN stimulation elicited tachycardia regardless of the level of BLMAP. ARCN neurons projecting to the PVN were immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67, NPY, and beta-endorphin. These results indicated that: 1 at normal BLMAP, decreases in MAP and SNA induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the PVN, 2 lowering of BLMAP converted decreases in MAP following ARCN stimulation to increases in MAP, and 3 at below normal BLMAP, increases in MAP and HR induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via MC3/4 receptors in the PVN. These results provide a base for future studies to explore the role of ARCN in cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Rab3a is critical for trapping alpha-MSH granules in the high Ca²⁺-affinity pool by preventing constitutive exocytosis.

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    Simon Sedej

    Full Text Available Rab3a is a small GTPase of the Rab3 subfamily that acts during late stages of Ca²⁺-regulated exocytosis. Previous functional analysis in pituitary melanotrophs described Rab3a as a positive regulator of Ca²⁺-dependent exocytosis. However, the precise role of the Rab3a isoform on the kinetics and intracellular [Ca²⁺] sensitivity of regulated exocytosis, which may affect the availability of two major peptide hormones, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH and β-endorphin in plasma, remain elusive. We employed Rab3a knock-out mice (Rab3a KO to explore the secretory phenotype in melanotrophs from fresh pituitary tissue slices. High resolution capacitance measurements showed that Rab3a KO melanotrophs possessed impaired Ca²⁺-triggered secretory activity as compared to wild-type cells. The hampered secretion was associated with the absence of cAMP-guanine exchange factor II/ Epac2-dependent secretory component. This component has been attributed to high Ca²⁺-sensitive release-ready vesicles as determined by slow photo-release of caged Ca²⁺. Radioimmunoassay revealed that α-MSH, but not β-endorphin, was elevated in the plasma of Rab3a KO mice, indicating increased constitutive exocytosis of α-MSH. Increased constitutive secretion of α-MSH from incubated tissue slices was associated with reduced α-MSH cellular content in Rab3a-deficient pituitary cells. Viral re-expression of the Rab3a protein in vitro rescued the secretory phenotype of melanotrophs from Rab3a KO mice. In conclusion, we suggest that Rab3a deficiency promotes constitutive secretion and underlies selective impairment of Ca²⁺-dependent release of α-MSH.

  13. Subcutaneous Administration of Tramadol after Elective Surgery Is as Effective as Intravenous Administration in Relieving Acute Pain and Inflammation in Dogs

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    Buhari, Salisu; Hashim, Kalthum; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous (SC) administration of tramadol was compared with intravenous (IV) administration to evaluate analgesia following canine ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Healthy female dogs (n = 12) between 1 and 3 years of age (1.95 ± 0.65 years), weighing between 10.5 and 17.1 kg (13.12 ± 1.95 kg), were used. Pain was assessed at baseline before surgery and then hourly for 8 hr after surgery. Tramadol was administered both SC and IV at a dose of 3 mg/kg and provided significant postoperative analgesia, as indicated by analgesiometry, β-endorphin levels, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. The respiratory rates and rectal temperatures remained normal and were not significantly different between or within the groups. A significant increase in heart rate was observed at 4 hr for dogs in both groups relative to the baseline, but there was no significant difference in heart rates between the groups at any time point. A significant decrease in mechanical pain threshold was observed within each group after surgery, but both groups responded similarly, suggesting that SC administration of tramadol is as effective as IV administration. Increased serum levels of both IL-6 and β-endorphin 3 hr postoperatively further indicate that both routes of administration achieve similar pain control. Thus, the relative analgesic efficacy of SC tramadol is comparable to that of IV administration and can be used to achieve similar effects for postsurgical pain management in dogs undergoing OHE. PMID:22778699

  14. Effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS on hormones profile in subjects with primary dysmenorrhoea - a preliminary study

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    S. R. A. Akinbo

    2007-01-01

    as the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin which occurs in the absence of any underlying disease. The pathogenesis is unclear, but uterine hyperactivity, elevated prostaglandin and leukotrienes levels, and hormonal level fluctuations have all been implicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on the hormones cortisol and prolactin in individuals with PD. Methods: Plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin were studied in twenty-one (21 subjects with PD by obtaining blood samples from each subject pre-and post-TENS therapy on the first day of menstruation. The mean age of subjects was 23 (+ 2 years.  The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to assess the pre-and post-treatment pain intensity.  The TENS unit was applied for a duration of 30 minutes. Results: A paired t-test showed that there was an overall reduction in the mean cortisol and prolactin from  pre treatment values of 28.45µg/dl ((5.27 and 56.81ng/ml ((31.86 to post treatment values of 27.33µg/dl ((5.13 and 53.23ng/ml ((37.63 respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05.  Pain intensity was significantly reduced comparing pre and post treatment VAS scores (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The probable mechanism by which TENS effected alterations in cortisol and prolactin levels and pain reduction in subjects with PD might be through the opioid-modulating analgesia system, which releases B-endorphins and other endogenous opiates in response to pain.  This is because there is a close relationship between B-endorphin, cortisol and neurons, which secrete dopamine into the hypothalamic-pituitary-portal system.

  15. Preliminary study on the effect of parenteral naloxone, alone and in association with calcium gluconate, on bone healing in an ovine "drill hole" model system

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    Langhoff Jens D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several diseases affect bone healing and physiology. Many drugs that are commonly used in orthopaedics as "analgesics" or anti-inflammatory agents impair bone healing. Stressful conditions are associated with decreased serum osteocalcin concentration. High endorphin levels alter calcium metabolism, blocking the membrane channels by which calcium normally enters cells. The consequent decrease of intracellular calcium impairs the activities of calcium-related enzymes. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. Morphine-induced osteocalcin inhibition was abolished when osteoblasts were incubated with naloxone. Naloxone restored the altered cellular and tissue physiology by removing β-endorphins from specific receptors. However, this is only possible if the circulating Ca concentration is adequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral naloxone administration in inducing fast mineralization and callus remodelling in a group of sheep with a standardised bone lesion. Methods Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. Group A acted as control, group B received a solution of calcium gluconate, group C a solution of naloxone, and group D a solution of calcium gluconate and naloxone. A transverse hole was drilled in the left metacarpus, including both cortices, then parenteral treatment was administered intramuscularly, daily for four weeks. Healing was evaluated by weekly radiographic examination for eight weeks. For quantitative evaluation, the ratio of the radiographic bone density between the drill area and the adjacent cortical bone was calculated. After eight weeks the sheep were slaughtered and a sample of bone was collected for histopathology Results Group D showed a higher radiographic ratio than the other groups. Sheep not treated with naloxone showed a persistently lower ratio in the lateral than the medial cortex (P Conclusion A low-dose parenteral regimen of naloxone enhances

  16. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

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    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  17. Regulation of ventilation and oxygen consumption by delta- and mu-opioid receptor agonists.

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    Schaeffer, J I; Haddad, G G

    1985-09-01

    To study the effect of endorphins on metabolic rate and on the relationship between O2 consumption (VO2) and ventilation, we administered enkephalin analogues (relatively selective delta-receptor agonists) and a morphiceptin analogue (a highly selective mu-receptor agonist) intracisternally in nine unanesthetized chronically instrumented adult dogs. Both delta- and mu-agonists decreased VO2 by 40-60%. delta-Agonists induced a dose-dependent decrease in mean instantaneous minute ventilation (VT/TT) associated with periodic breathing. The decrease in VT/TT started and resolved prior to the decrease and returned to baseline of VO2, respectively. In contrast, the mu-agonists induced an increase in VT/TT associated with rapid shallow breathing. Arterial PCO2 increased and arterial PO2 decreased after both delta- and mu-agonists. Low doses of intracisternal naloxone (0.002-2.0 micrograms/kg) reversed the opioid effect on VT/TT but not on VO2; higher doses of naloxone (5-25 micrograms/kg) reversed both. Naloxone administered alone had no effect on VT/TT or VO2. These data suggest that 1) both delta- and mu-agonists induce alveolar hypoventilation despite a decrease in VO2, 2) this hypoventilation results from a decrease in VT/TT after delta-agonists but an increase in dead space ventilation after mu-agonists, and 3) endorphins do not modulate ventilation and metabolic rate tonically, but we speculate that they may do so in response to stressful stimulation.

  18. Naloxone inhibits superoxide but not enzyme release by human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, C.; Alailima, S.; Tate, E.

    1986-01-01

    The release of toxic oxygen metabolites and enzymes by phagocytic cells is thought to play a role in the multisystemic tissue injury of sepsis. Naloxone protects septic animals. We have found that at concentrations administered to animals (10 -7 to 10 -4 M), naloxone inhibited (p 2 - ) by human neutrophils (HN), stimulated with N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (FMLP). Naloxone had no effect on cell viability. Maximum inhibition was 65% of the total O 2 - released (13.1 nMoles/8 min/320,000 cells). FMLP-stimulated release of beta-glucoronidase or lysozyme was not altered by naloxone. Naloxone had no effect on the binding of 3 H FMLP to HN. Using 3 H naloxone and various concentrations of unlabeled naloxone higher affinity (K/sub D/ = 12nM) and lower affinity (K/sub D/ = 4.7 x 10 -5 ) binding sites were detected. The K/sub D/ of the low affinity site corresponded to the ED 50 for naloxone inhibition of O 2 - (1 x 10 -5 M). Binding to this low affinity site was decreased by (+) naloxone, beta-endorphin and N acetyl beta-endorphin, but not by leu-enkephalin, thyrotropin releasing factor, prostaglandin D 2 or E 2 . Conclusions: (1) naloxone inhibits FMLP-stimulated O 2 but not enzyme release, (2) this inhibition is not due to alteration of FMLP receptor binding, (3) naloxone may act via a low affinity binding site which is ligand specific, and (4) a higher affinity receptor is present on HN

  19. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kader, S.M.; Ezz El-Arab, A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 1 0 ''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 1 0t h day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  20. Effect of laser acupuncture versus traditional acupuncture in neck pain of cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kharbotly, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Alyaa A.; Mohammed, Mouchira A.; El-Masry, Manal R.; Daoud, Eitedal M.; Hassan, Nagwa; Abdel-Wahab, Khaled G.; Helmy, Ghada; Mostafa, Taymour

    2014-02-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to compare the efficiency of laser versus traditional acupuncture in treating cervical spondylosis (CS) pain. Forty female patients were randomized into two equal groups that received 3 sessions / week for 4 weeks. Group A received needle acupuncture therapy with electrical stimulation for 20 min at standard acupoints, ear points and Ashi point on the average 3 points. Group B received low level laser therapy (LLLT) acupuncture at the same acupoints. The results demonstrated that tenderness disappeared in 65% of patients in group A and 75% of patients in group B with improved percentage of 85.5% and 89.2%. Pain on VAS related to direction of motion at 6 directions was improved in all cases where with improvement percentage 76.45% and 85.88%. Pain on VAS at rest was improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 80.41% and 84.28%. NDIQ score improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 69.78% and 73.77%. Follow up of VAS after 6 months from the last session revealed persistent improvement in 55% of patients of group A vs 80% of patients of group B. Mean serum TNF-α was decreased in 85% of patients of group A vs 95% of patients of group B where serum beta endorphins was increased in all patients. It is concluded that both modes of treatment for CS gave improvement regarding pain intensity, disability and quality of life being more evident in LLLT followed for 6 months supported with improved serum TNFα and beta endorphin.

  1. Effects of opiate-like peptides, morphine, and naloxone in the photosensitive baboon, Papio papio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S; Menini, C; Stutzmann, J M; Naquet, R

    1979-07-13

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or systemic injections of Met- or Leu-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, FK 33.824 (D-Ala2, MePhe4, Met(O5)-ol-enkephalin) and of morphine and naloxone have been studied in baboons, Papio papio, which spontaneously show photically induced epileptic responses. Animals were chronically implanted with epidural or deep recording electrodes and a cannula in one lateral ventricle, and tested whilst seated in a primate chair. In some animals the natural syndrome was enhanced by the prior administration of DL-allylglycine, 100--200 mg/kg, i.v. Met- or Leu-enkephalin, 1--10 mg, i.c.v., did not lead to any manifest focal or generalized seizure discharges. Nor did it lead to any consistent enhancement or reduction of photically induced myoclonic responses (as tested 5--10 min after injection). beta-Endorphin, 0.1--0.5 mg, i.c.v., did not enhance or impair photically induced myoclonic responses. FK 33.824, 0.1--0.5 mg, i.c.v., depressed respiration and slowed EEG background rhythms for 9--15 h. This was associated with a loss of myoclonic responses to photic stimulation. These effects were reversed for 20--40 min following the injection of naloxone, 1 mg/kg i.m. A depression of respiration and a slowing of EEG rhythms was seen beginning 5--20 min after FK 33.824, 2 or 4 mg/kg, i.v. The higher dose also abolished photically induced myoclonic responses. Naloxone, 1 mg/kg, definitively reversed these effects. Morphine, 5--10 mg i.c.v., tended to increase the latency to onset of generalized myoclonus during photic stimulation. Myoclonic responses were delayed or diminished after morphine, 5 mg/kg, i.m. Naloxone, 1--2 mg/kg i.m., reversed this effect. Naloxone, 0.2--5.0 mg/kg i.m., alone, did not significantly modify photically induced myoclonus, either in animals of low or high initial responsiveness, or in those pretreated with allylglycine.

  2. Opioid system manipulation during testicular development: results on sperm production and sertoli cells population - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.5940 Opioid system manipulation during testicular development: results on sperm production and sertoli cells population - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.5940

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    Valdemiro Amaro Silva Júnior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cell has fundamental importance to the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis, as well as it has a directly proportional numerical relationship to sperm production. The proliferative period of this cell in rats occurs between 13 days pre-natal and 21 days pos-natal, when is established the final population in adult animals. The Leydig cell can modulate the Sertoli cell proliferation during fetal and neonatal period through β-endorphin. The manipulation of opioidergic system can promote changes in parameters related to development of nervous, endocrine and reproductive systems. By the way, the main purpose of this present work was to compare the effects of the blockade of opioid receptor blocking in Sertoli cells using naltrexone (50 mg kg-1 during fetal and neonatal period in Wistar rats. According to the results, the manipulation of opioidergic system during pre-natal period reduced the total length of seminiferous tubule and Sertoli cell population in adult rats, but sperm production was normal because this cell has had a compensatory response for spermatozoids support capacity.The Sertoli cell has fundamental importance to the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis, as well as it has a directly proportional numerical relationship to sperm production. The proliferative period of this cell in rats occurs between 13 days pre-natal and 21 days pos-natal, when is established the final population in adult animals. The Leydig cell can modulate the Sertoli cell proliferation during fetal and neonatal period through β-endorphin. The manipulation of opioidergic system can promote changes in parameters related to development of nervous, endocrine and reproductive systems. By the way, the main purpose of this present work was to compare the effects of the blockade of opioid receptor blocking in Sertoli cells using naltrexone (50 mg kg-1 during fetal and neonatal period in Wistar rats. According to the results

  3. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility.

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    Jun-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus.We identified MS susceptible (MSS and insusceptible (inMSS rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81 and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1. In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine.Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion stimulation might be a putative

  4. Efficacy of a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing stress and inflammation: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Nalin; Sharma, Ratna; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Previously it was shown that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases even in a short duration. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing stress and inflammation in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. This study reports preliminary results from a nonrandomized prospective ongoing study with pre-post design. The study was conducted at the Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting these yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for prevention and management of chronic diseases. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and overweight/obese subjects were included while physically challenged, and those on other interventions were excluded from the study. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. There was a reduction in stress (plasma cortisol and β-endorphin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) at day 0 versus day 10. Eighty-six (86) patients (44 female, 42 male, 40.07 ± 13.91 years) attended this program. Overall, the mean level of cortisol decreased from baseline to day 10 (149.95 ± 46.07, 129.07 ± 33.30 ng/mL; p=0.001) while β-endorphins increased from baseline to day 10 (3.53 ± 0.88, 4.06 ± 0.79 ng/mL; p=0.024). Also, there was reduction from baseline to day 10 in mean levels of IL-6 (2.16 ± 0.42, 1.94 ± 0.10 pg/mL, p=0.036) and TNF-α (2.85 ± 0.59, 1.95 ± 0.32 pg/mL, p=0.002). This brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention reduced the markers of stress and inflammation as early as 10 days in patients with chronic diseases; however, complete results of this study will confirm whether this program has utility as complementary and alternative therapy.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEUROPEPTIDE-CYTOKINE IMMUNITY LINKS IN PATIENTS WITH COMBINED CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY, PROCEEDING WITH ANXIETY/DEPRESSION DISORDER

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    A. V. Gertsev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, pathogenetic events underlying coronary heart disease and hypertensive syndrome should be regarded as complex reactions of neuroimmune interactions characterized by activation of proinflammatory cytokines, opiate receptors and endogenous opioid peptides. These changes are mediated by high activity of basic regulatory systems that increase myocardial resistance to acute and chronic ischemic damage. However, there is lack of data concerning severity of these changes in the course of complicated coronary heart disease and hypertension, which occur in the background of anxiety-depressive disorders.The aim of present study was to assess regulatory disturbances at the level of neuropeptide-cytokine pool in the patients with polymorbid cardiovascular disease accomplished by anxiety and depressive conditions. Clinical examination of 85 patients (males aged 35 to 45 years, with complicated cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease combined with essential hypertension stage II associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. To address these issues, we have formed a group of patients with anxiety and depressive disorders (group 1, n = 40, patients with coronary artery disease and stage II hypertension; group 2 (n = 20 included patients with coronary artery disease; group 3 (n = 25 included patients with hypertension stage II; group 4 (n = 30 represented controls (healthy person. In order to study dysfunction of regulatory neuropeptides at the level of cytokine-mediated immunity in these groups, we have studied diagnostic markers of the suprasegmentary autonomous nervous condition, and cytokine pool of immune system. Immune testing was used to determine β-endorphin, cytokines of pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10 spectra in blood serum of patients.In the course of clinical and laboratory examination, the authors found that the patients with polymorbid cardiovascular pathology exhibit regulatory

  6. Neural mechanism of electroacupuncture's hypotensive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Longhurst, John C.

    2010-01-01

    EA at P 5–6 and S 36–37 using low current and low frequency may be able to reduce elevated blood pressure in a subset of patients (~70%) with mild to moderate hypertension. The effect is slow in onset but is long-lasting. Experimental studies have shown that EA inhibition of cardiovascular sympathetic neurons that have been activated through visceral reflex stimulation is through activation of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, vlPAG in the midbrain and NRP in the medulla, which, in turn, inhibit the activity of premotor sympathetic neurons in the rVLM. The arcuate also provides direct projections to the rVLM that contain endorphins. Glutamate, acetylcholine, opioids, GABA, nociceptin, serotonin and endocannabinoids all appear to participate in the EA hypotensive response although their importance varies between nuclei. Thus, a number of mechanisms underlying the long-lasting effect of EA on cardiovascular function have been identified but clearly further investigation is warranted. PMID:20444652

  7. Amyloid Fibril Polymorphism: Almost Identical on the Atomic Level, Mesoscopically Very Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuring, Carolin; Verasdonck, Joeri; Ringler, Philippe; Cadalbert, Riccardo; Stahlberg, Henning; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H; Riek, Roland

    2017-03-02

    Amyloid polymorphism of twisted and straight β-endorphin fibrils was studied by negative-stain transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Whereas fibrils assembled in the presence of salt formed flat, striated ribbons, in the absence of salt they formed mainly twisted filaments. To get insights into their structural differences at the atomic level, 3D solid-state NMR spectra of both fibril types were acquired, allowing the detection of the differences in chemical shifts of 13 C and 15 N atoms in both preparations. The spectral fingerprints and therefore the chemical shifts are very similar for both fibril types. This indicates that the monomer structure and the molecular interfaces are almost the same but that these small differences do propagate to produce flat and twisted morphologies at the mesoscopic scale. This finding is in agreement with both experimental and theoretical considerations on the assembly of polymers (including amyloids) under different salt conditions, which attribute the mesoscopic difference of flat versus twisted fibrils to electrostatic intermolecular repulsions.

  8. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  9. Electroacupuncture Alleviates Pain Responses and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Acute Gout Arthritis

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    Wenxin Chai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gout arthritis is one of the most painful inflammatory conditions. Treatments for gout pain are limited to colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids, which oftentimes result in severe adverse effects. Electroacupuncture (EA has been proved to be effective in relieving many inflammatory pain conditions with few side effects. Here, we aim to investigate the therapeutic potentials of EA on pain and inflammation of a rat model of acute gout arthritis and underlying mechanisms. We found that 2/100 Hz EA produced the most robust analgesic effect on mechanical hyperalgesia of acute gout arthritis rat model compared with 2 and 100 Hz. EA produced similar analgesic effect compared with indomethacin. 2/100 Hz EA also significantly alleviates the ongoing pain behavior, thermal hyperalgesia, and ankle edema. Locally applied μ and κ-opioid receptor antagonists but not adenosine A1 receptor antagonist significantly abolished the analgesic effect of EA. Locally applied μ and κ-opioid receptor agonists produced significant antiallodynia on acute gout arthritis rats, mimicking EA. Furthermore, 2/100 Hz EA upregulated β-endorphin expression in inflamed ankle skin tissue. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that EA can be used for relieving acute gout arthritis with effect dependent on peripheral opioid system and comparable with the one obtained with indomethacin.

  10. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  11. Effects of flotation-REST on muscle tension pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, A; Sundequist, U; Norlander, T; Archer, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women) suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants) or an experimental group (20 participants). The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  12. The use of genes for performance enhancement: doping or therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM to enhance athletic performance. In such ‘gene doping’, exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1, myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.

  13. Ancient Chinese medicine and mechanistic evidence of acupuncture physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward S; Li, Pei-Wen; Nilius, Bernd; Li, Geng

    2011-11-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used in China for three millennia as an art of healing. Yet, its physiology is not yet understood. The current interest in acupuncture started in 1971. Soon afterward, extensive research led to the concept of neural signaling with possible involvement of opioid peptides, glutamate, adenosine and identifying responsive parts in the central nervous system. In the last decade scientists began investigating the subject with anatomical and molecular imaging. It was found that mechanical movements of the needle, ignored in the past, appear to be central to the method and intracellular calcium ions may play a pivotal role. In this review, we trace the technique of clinical treatment from the first written record about 2,200 years ago to the modern time. The ancient texts have been used to introduce the concepts of yin, yang, qi, de qi, and meridians, the traditional foundation of acupuncture. We explore the sequence of the physiological process, from the turning of the needle, the mechanical wave activation of calcium ion channel to beta-endorphin secretion. By using modern terminology to re-interpret the ancient texts, we have found that the 2nd century B.C.: physiologists were meticulous investigators and their explanation fits well with the mechanistic model derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy. In conclusion, the ancient model appears to have withstood the test of time surprisingly well confirming the popular axiom that the old wine is better than the new.

  14. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Nylander, Erik; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis

  16. Possible role of a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Around half the inmates in prison institutions have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). A recent theory has proposed that a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) underlies the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present theoretical paper, based on a comprehensive database and hand search of the relevant literature, this hypothesis is extended to ASPD, which may be the predominant expression of EOS dysfunction in men, while the same pathology underlies BPD in women. According to evidence from human and animal studies, the problematic behaviours of persons with antisocial, callous, or psychopathic traits may be seen as desperate, unconscious attempts to stimulate their deficient EOS, which plays a key role in brain reward circuits. If the needs of this system are not being met, the affected persons experience dysphoric mood, discomfort, or irritability, and strive to increase binding of endogenous opioids to receptors by using the rewarding effects of aggression by exertion of physical or manipulative power on others, by abusing alcohol or substances that have the reward system as target, by creating an "endorphin rush" by self-harm, by increasing the frequency of their sexual contacts, or by impulsive actions and sensation seeking. Symptoms associated with ASPD can be treated with opioid antagonists like naltrexone, naloxone, or nalmefene. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Does exercise deprivation increase the tendency towards morphine dependence in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, Mohammad Reza; Sheibani, Vahid; Ghahraman Tabrizi, Kourosh; Marefati, Hamid; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2010-01-01

    Exercise deprivation has been concluded to have some negative effectson psychological well-being. This study was conducted to find outwhether exercise deprivation may lead to morphine dependence in rats. Forty male Wistar rats weighing 162 ± 9 g were housed in clear plasticcages in groups of two under standard laboratory conditions. The studyhad two phases. In phase I, the animals were randomly divided intoexercised (E) and unexercised (UE) groups (n = 20 each) and treadmillrunning was performed based on a standard protocol for three weeks. Atthe end of the training period, plasma β-endorphin levels weredetermined in four rats from each group. In phase II, the animals wereprovided with two bottles, one containing tap water and the other 25mg/l morphine sulfate in tap water for a total of 12 weeks. At the end ofthis phase naloxone was injected intraperitoneally to precipitatemorphine withdrawal. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UE AND E GROUPS INMORPHINE CONSUMPTION (MG/KG/WK) [ F(1,14) = 0.2, P = 0.690; time:F(11,154) =18.72, P exercise does not increasethe tendency of morphine dependence in rats.

  18. Psychobiological mechanisms of exercise dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise dependence (ED) is characterised by an obsessive and unhealthy preoccupation with exercise. Previous research has focused largely on identifying behavioural aspects of ED, although the biological mechanisms remain unknown and are under researched. We review various ED hypotheses including affect regulation, anorexia analogue, sympathetic arousal and beta-endorphin. We also present a novel hypothesis pertaining to ED and interleukin (IL)-6, which combines previous hypotheses with literature from the field of psycho-neuroimmunology. We explore the notion that IL-6 provides a link from the periphery to the brain, which may mediate the underlying features of ED. We propose a conceptual model indicating that, in individuals prone to ED, exercise results in a transient reduction in negative affect, but concurrently results in excessive production of IL-6 and the activation of neuroendocrine pathways, which are associated with behavioural and psychological disturbances of exercise withdrawal. Our intention is for this model to serve as a basis for further research in the area of ED, which may eventually lead to the development of successful treatment strategies. Recent developments in methods to reliably assess these biological markers from blood and saliva samples should encourage such research to be undertaken in exercise settings.

  19. Pituitary-adrenal hormones and testosterone across the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual syndrome and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, M; Schmidt, P J; Su, T P; Tobin, M B; Rubinow, D R

    1998-06-15

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclic mood disorder, widely believed, yet not conclusively shown, to be of endocrine etiology. This study examines basal levels of several hormones reported, albeit inconsistently, to differ in women with PMS compared with controls. Subjects (10 PMS patients and 10 controls) had their blood drawn for one full menstrual cycle. Subjects' mood and behavioral symptoms were assessed by daily self-ratings and objective ratings. Plasma was assayed for total and free testosterone (T), beta-endorphin (beta-EP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol. No differences were observed between the PMS and control groups for beta-EP, ACTH, or cortisol. PMS subjects had significantly lower total and free T plasma levels with a blunting of the normal periovulatory peak, a finding that may be epiphenomenal to age. This study does not confirm previous reports of abnormalities in plasma levels of either ACTH or beta-EP in women with PMS; it also fails to replicate a previous observation of high free T levels in women with PMS. These results are not supportive of a primary endocrine abnormality in PMS patients.

  20. Influence of large testicular dose on neuroendocrine function in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shouliang; Liu Shuzheng

    1992-01-01

    In present study, the changes of hypothalamic endogenous opiate peptides and the endocrine function of pituitary and testes were observed at 1, 23, 63 and 97 days after exposure of testes to 10 Gy X-rays in male Wistar rats to attempt to clarify the neuroendocrine effect of ionizing radiation and its mechanism. One day after irradiation, hypothalamic β-endorphin (β-EP) content increased significantly, but serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TS) and cAMP content in tests were lowered in varying degrees. Twenty three days after irradiation, hypothalamic β-EP content decreased, while serum LH, FSH, TS and testicular cAMP content increased very significantly. Sixty three days after irradiation, the level of hypothalamic β-EP still was the same as that at 23 days after irradiation, hypothalamic leu-enkephalin (L-Enk) content decreased significantly, serum LH and FSH levels still continued to increase up, while serum TS and testicular cAMP contents declined very significantly. Ninety seven days after irradiation, serum LH and FSH levels returned to lower, serum TS and testicular cAMP content still continued to decrease, and in testicular tissue, serious lesion occurred

  1. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists and for nicotine and α-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides (β-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer

  2. The effect of various opiate receptor agonists on the seizure threshold in the rat. Is dynorphin an endogenous anticonvulsant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłocka, B; Stala, L; Lasoń, W; Przewłocki, R

    1983-01-01

    The effects of various opiate receptor agonists on the seizure threshold after an intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazol were investigated in rats. The mu- and epsilon-receptor agonists, morphine (20-40 micrograms) and beta-endorphin (5-10 micrograms) show proconvulsant properties towards clonic and tonic seizures. The delta-receptor agonist (D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin, DADL 5-40 micrograms) and alpha-neoendorphin (20-40 micrograms) show pro- and anticonvulsant properties towards clonic and tonic seizures, respectively. Anticonvulsant properties of DADL are possibly due to its action on the spinal cord, since after the intrathecal injection this effect is still observed. Similarities between DADL and alpha-neoendorphin suggest that they may act through the same receptor. The kappa-receptor agonist dynorphin A (5-20 micrograms) and its degradation-resistant analogue D-Arg-dynorphin1-13 (10 micrograms) show significant anticonvulsant properties. Our present results suggest that the kappa-receptor agonist dynorphin may act physiologically as an endogenous anticonvulsant, in contrast to other opioid peptides.

  3. Opiate modification of amygdaloid-kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W S; Eggleton, C E; Berman, R F

    1982-05-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were stereotaxically implanted bilaterally with bipolar electrodes in the central amygdala. Rats were then kindled once daily for 1 sec until 3 consecutive Stage V [25] kindled seizures were elicited. On the following day, animals were injected (IP) with either saline, naloxone (10 mg/kg), naltrexone (10mg/kg) or morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg) and again stimulated at the kindling stimulation parameters. Saline injected animals continued to show long bilateral AD's and behaviors (i.e., forelimb clonus, rearing, falling) typical of Stage V kindled animals. In contrast, rats injected with naloxone or naltrexone showed reduced behavioral seizures. Potentiation of post-ictal spiking by morphine in amygdaloid-kindled rats was also observed supporting previous reports [7,21]. In a second experiment, the reduction of kindled seizure serverity by naloxone was systematically replicated. It is concluded that opiates can significantly modify amygdaloid-kindled seizures, and that brain endorphins may play a role in the development or maintenance of an amygdaloid-kindled seizure focus.

  4. Pro- and anticonvulsant actions of morphine and the endogenous opioids: involvement and interactions of multiple opiate and non-opiate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, H

    1983-10-01

    The proconvulsant actions of high doses of systemic morphine are probably mediated by 3 different systems. One of them produces non-convulsant electrographic seizures and can be activated separately from the others both by intracerebroventricular injections as well as microinjections into discrete subcortical areas. The enkephalins and beta-endorphin, when administered to the same loci, produce similar effects. Pharmacological evidence suggests that specific opiate receptors of the delta-subtype mediate the epileptiform effects produced by this system. The second system mediating proconvulsant effects of systemic morphine is not mediated by stereo-specific opiate receptors. It produces behavioral convulsions, and the GABA-ergic system has been implicated in its action. A third proconvulsant action of systemic morphine can be activated separately from the other two systems by administering this compound with other convulsive agents or manipulations. Specific mu-type opiate receptors are implicated in this effect. In addition to potent proconvulsant effects, systemic morphine also has anticonvulsant properties which are mediated by specific opiate mu-receptors. The conditions under which morphine acts as a proconvulsant rather than an anticonvulsant agent are, as yet, not understood.

  5. [Effect of Small Knife Needle on β-enorpin and Enkehalin Contents of Tansverse Process Syndrome of the Third Vertebra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-gang; Guo, Chang-qing; Sun, Hong-mei; Li, Xiao-hong; Wu, Hai-xia; Xu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    To explore the analgesic mechanism of small knife needle for treating transverse process syndrome of the third vertebra (TPSTV) by observing peripheral and central changesof β-endorphin (β-EP) and enkephalin (ENK) contents. Totally 30 Japanese white big-ear rabbits of clean grade were divided into 5 groups according to random digit table, i.e., the normal control group, the model group, the small knife needle group, the electroacupunture (EA) group, and the small knife needle plus EA group, 6 in each group. The TPSTV model was established by inserting a piece of gelatin sponge into the left transverse process of 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Rabbits in the small knife needlegroup were intervened by small knife needle. Those in the EA group were intervened by EA at bilateralWeizhong (BL40). Those in the small knife needle plus EA group were intervened by small knife needleand EA at bilateral Weizhong (BL40). Contents of β-EP and ENK in plasma, muscle, spinal cord, and hypothalamus were determined after sample collection at day 28 after modeling. Compared with the normal control group, contents of β-EP and ENK in plasma and muscle increased significantly, and contents of β-EP and ENK in spinal cord and hypothalamus decreased significantly in the model group (P 0.05). Small knife needle treatment and EA had benign regulation on peripheral and central β-EP and ENK in TPSTV rabbits. Small knife needle treatment showed better effect than that of EA.

  6. Reviving the old sermon of medicine with the placebo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hyong Jin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The message of the importance of a caring doctor-patient relationship is now like an old sermon which does not impact anyone's mind or action. Observing the healing practice of the old time physicians, who valued their attitudes and relationship with their patients more than the actual interventions, this paper reviews the literature on their main therapeutic device - the placebo effect - as a novel way of delivering this old sermon of medicine to contemporary doctors. DISCUSSION: There are countless historical and contemporary examples of the impressive placebo effect and although contested by some, it seems real and significant. The classic conditioning theory and the expectation theory explain reasonably well the mechanisms of the placebo effect, especially in conjunction with each other. The underlying biochemical pathway, according to the limited current knowledge, involves endorphins for pain and dopamine for Parkinson's disease. Finally, human factors such as the doctor's positive attitudes and a good doctor-patient relationship seem to be more essential than the placebo itself in eliciting the placebo effect. CONCLUSIONS: Given the body of evidence supporting the existence of significant placebo effect and the importance of the doctor-patient relationship in determining it, the human factors of the medical treatment should be emphasised in order to maximise the placebo effect and consequently the overall therapeutic effect of the healing acts.

  7. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Receptor stimulated formation of inositol phosphates in cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells: the effects of bradykinin, bombesin and neurotensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, S J; Marley, P D; Livett, B G

    1990-04-01

    The ability of a number of drugs and neuropeptides to stimulate phosphoinositide metabolism in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells has been assessed. Low concentrations (10 nM) of angiotensin II, bradykinin, histamine, arginine-vasopressin, and bombesin, and high (10 microM) concentrations of oxytocin, prostaglandins E1, and E2, beta-endorphin, and neurotensin stimulated significant accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in adrenal medullary cells preloaded with [3H)]inositol. Bradykinin stimulated a significant response at concentration as low as 10pM, with an EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM. The response was markedly inhibited by the bradykinin B2 antagonist [Thi5,8,D-Phe7] bradykinin but not the B1 antagonist [Des-Arg9,Leu8] bradykinin. Higher concentrations of bombesin and neurotensin were required to elicit a response (10 nM and 10 microM respectively). The bombesin response was sensitive to inhibition by the bombesin antagonist [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9Leu11]-substance P. In contrast, the neurotensin response was not reduced by the NT1 antagonist [D-Trp11]-neurotensin. These results indicate there are a number of agents that can stimulate phosphatidylinositide hydrolysis in the adrenal medullary cells by acting on different classes of receptors. Such a range of diverse agonists that stimulate inositol phosphate formation will facilitate further analysis of the phosphatidylinositide breakdown in chromaffin cell function.

  9. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Stress Neurohormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, Farideh; Salman Yazdi, Reza; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Abedinia, Nasrin

    2015-06-01

    To determine the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum levels of stress neurohormones in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was a clinical trial and was performed during July 2011 (month of Ramadan) in Royan institute, Tehran. A total of 40 women who were aged 20-40 years and known cases of PCOS and had no other medical diseases were included in the study. They were divided into two groups as follows: (i) study group (n = 20) who participated in Ramadan fasting and (ii) control group (n = 20) who did not participate in fasting. For evaluating Ramadan's effect on the level of neurohormones serum level of the following variables were evaluated before and after Ramadan: cortisol, adrenaline (A), noradrenalin (NA), beta-endorphin (β-End), insulin, as well as sex hormones including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. In the study group after Ramadan serum cortisol and nor-adrenaline levels were significantly lower than the initial levels obtained at beginning of Ramadan (p Ramadan fasting decreases stress neurohormones in women with PCOS.

  10. Reducing Anxiety in Stutterers through the Association between “Purpose in Life/Ikigai” and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Riichiro

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal lobe is more evolved in humans than in other mammals. The functioning of human prefrontal lobes promotes an innate need to establish a meaningful life, often referred to as “Purpose in life (PIL)/ikigai.” PIL/ikigai and the prefrontal lobe psychologically and physiologically, respectively, shape ambition, regulate the development of emotions and integrate psychological events. PIL/ikigai contributes to both a reduction in the anxiety caused by a need for approval from others and the stimulation of pleasure and comfort, which may be related to the well-balanced secretion of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and β-endorphin. Thus, if a stutterer aware that articulate speech is advantageous in communication feels a need for social desirability (SD) based on a need for approval from others, they may develop stress and anxiety caused by their perceived failure when engaging in conversations. This feeling of failure may be related to an imbalanced secretion of serotonin and dopamine. Therefore, previous work has suggested that PIL/ikigai may reduce anxiety in stutterers who seek SD by reducing the symptoms associated with stuttering. PMID:22980384

  11. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Stress Neurohormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zangeneh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum levels of stress neurohormones in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.This study was a clinical trial and was performed during July 2011 (month of Ramadan in Royan institute, Tehran. A total of 40 women who were aged 20-40 years and known cases of PCOS and had no other medical diseases were included in the study. They were divided into two groups as follows: (i study group (n = 20 who participated in Ramadan fasting and (ii control group (n = 20 who did not participate in fasting. For evaluating Ramadan's effect on the level of neurohormones serum level of the following variables were evaluated before and after Ramadan: cortisol, adrenaline (A, noradrenalin (NA, beta-endorphin (β-End, insulin, as well as sex hormones including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and testosterone.In the study group after Ramadan serum cortisol and nor-adrenaline levels were significantly lower than the initial levels obtained at beginning of Ramadan (p < 0.05 as compared to control group.This study indicates that Ramadan fasting decreases stress neurohormones in women with PCOS.

  12. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelidou Asimenia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years. Only neurotensin (NT was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004. There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP. NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  13. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, Asimenia; Francis, Konstantinos; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Alysandratos, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Zhang, Bodi; Theoharides, Athanasios; Lykouras, Lefteris; Sideri, Kyriaki; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2010-08-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years) and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years). Only neurotensin (NT) was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP). NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  14. Non-pharmacological interventions during childbirth for pain relief, anxiety, and neuroendocrine stress parameters: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Angelita José; Gabrielloni, Maria Cristina; Rodney, Patricia; Barbieri, Márcia

    2018-03-07

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of warm shower hydrotherapy and perineal exercises with a ball on pain, anxiety, and neuroendocrine stress parameters during childbirth. This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 128 women during childbirth, admitted for hospital birth in São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2013 to February 2014. The participants were randomly assigned into one of the following intervention groups: received warm shower hydrotherapy (GA); performed perineal exercises with a ball (GB); and combined intervention group, which received warm shower hydrotherapy and perineal exercises with a ball (GC) (n = 39). Pre-and post-intervention parameters were evaluated using visual analogue scales for pain and anxiety, and salivary samples were collected for the stress hormones analysis. Pain, anxiety, and epinephrine release decreased in the group performing perineal exercises with a ball (GB). β-endorphin levels increased in this group (GB) after the intervention and showed significant difference in capacity to cause this effect (P = .007). However, no significant differences were observed in cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels. Warm showers and perineal exercises could be considered as adjunct therapy for women suffering from pain, anxiety, and stress during childbirth. Clinical Trial Registry RBR-84xprt. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Varieties of Pathological Self-mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R; Rosenthal, R J

    1990-01-01

    Pathological self-mutilation appears as a non-specific symptom as well as a specific syndrome. Since psychotic persons may commit horrifying acts, such as enucleation of an eye or amputation of a body part, identification of high risk patients is crucial. Stereotypical self-mutilation, such as head banging and biting off of fingertips, is associated with mental retardation and with the syndromes of Lesch-Nyhan, deLange, and Tourette. This type of self-mutilation is the focus of biological research or endorphins and on dopamine receptors. Skin cutting and burning, the most common type of self-mutilation, is often associated with personality disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder. When cutting and burning become established as responses to disturbing psychological symptoms on environmental events, a specific Axis I impulse disorder known as Repetitive Self Mutilation may be diagnosed. Patients with this newly identified syndrome may alternate their direct acts of self-mutilation with eating disorders and episodic alcoholism.

  16. Varieties of Pathological Self-Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando R. Favazza

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological self-mutilation appears as a non-specific symptom as well as a specific syndrome. Since psychotic persons may commit horrifying acts, such as enucleation of an eye or amputation of a body part, identification of high risk patients is crucial. Stereotypical self-mutilation, such as head banging and biting off of fingertips, is associated with mental retardation and with the syndromes of Lesch-Nyhan, deLange, and Tourette. This type of self-mutilation is the focus of biological research or endorphins and on dopamine receptors. Skin cutting and burning, the most common type of self-mutilation, is often associated with personality disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder. When cutting and burning become established as responses to disturbing psychological symptoms on environmental events, a specific Axis I impulse disorder known as Repetitive Self Mutilation may be diagnosed. Patients with this newly identified syndrome may alternate their direct acts of self-mutilation with eating disorders and episodic alcoholism.

  17. The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an 'ice-breaker effect' of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect.

  18. Somatostatin: a metabolic regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dileepan, K.N.; Wagle, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Somatostatin, the hypothalamic release-inhibiting factor, has been found to stimulate gluconeogenesis in rat kidney cortical slices. Stimulation by somatostatin was linear and dose-dependent. Other bioactive peptides such as cholecystokinin, gastro-intestinal peptide, secretin, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pancreatic polypeptide, beta endorphin and substance P did not affect the renal gluconeogenic activity. Somatostatin-induced gluconeogenesis was blocked by phentolamine (alpha adrenergic antagonist) and prazosin (alpha 1 adrenergic antagonist) but not by propranolol (beta adrenergic antagonist) and yohimbine (alpha 2 adrenergic antagonist) suggesting that the effect is via alpha 1 adrenergic stimuli. Studies on the involvement of Ca 2+ revealed that tissue depletion and omission of Ca 2+ from the reaction mixture would abolish the stimulatory effect of somatostatin. Furthermore, somatostatin enhanced the uptake of 45 calcium in renal cortical slices which could be blocked by lanthanum, an inhibitor of Ca 2+ influx. It is proposed that the stimulatory effect of somatostatin on renal gluconeogenesis is mediated by alpha 1 adrenergic receptors, or those which functionally resemble the alpha 1 receptors and that the increased influx of Ca 2+ may be the causative factor for carrying out the stimulus. 88 references

  19. Gene doping: an overview and current implications for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gronde, Toon; de Hon, Olivier; Haisma, Hidde J; Pieters, Toine

    2013-07-01

    The possibility of gene doping, defined as the transfer of nucleic acid sequences and/or the use of normal or genetically modified cells to enhance sport performance, is a real concern in sports medicine. The abuse of knowledge and techniques gained in the area of gene therapy is a form of doping, and is prohibited for competitive athletes. As yet there is no conclusive evidence that that gene doping has been practiced in sport. However, given that gene therapy techniques improve continuously, the likelihood of abuse will increase. A literature search was conducted to identify the most relevant proteins based on their current gene doping potential using articles from Pubmed, Scopus and Embase published between 2006 and 2011. The final list of selected proteins were erythropoietin, insulin-like growth factor, growth hormone, myostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, endorphin and enkephalin, α actinin 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARδ) and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C). We discuss these proteins with respect to their potential benefits, existing gene therapy experience in humans, potential risks, and chances of detection in current and future anti-doping controls. We have identified PPARδ and PEPCK-C as having high potential for abuse. But we expect that for efficiency reasons, there will be a preference for inserting gene target combinations rather than single gene doping products. This will also further complicate detection.

  20. The use of genes for performance enhancement: doping or therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R S; Collares, T F; Smith, K R; Collares, T V; Seixas, F K

    2011-12-01

    Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM) to enhance athletic performance. In such 'gene doping', exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products) in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.

  1. REMIFENTANIL VS FENTANYL DURING DAY CASE DENTAL SURGERY IN PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS: A COMPARATIVE, PILOT STUDY OF THEIR EFFECT ON STRESS RESPONSE AND POSTOPERATIVE PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklika, Eirini; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Perrea, Despina; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Matsota, Paraskevi

    2016-06-01

    People with special needs undergoing dental surgery frequently require general anesthesia. We investigated the effect of remifentanil vs fentanyl on stress response and postoperative pain in people with special needs undergoing day-case dental surgery. Forty-six adult patients with cognitive impairment undergoing day-case dental surgery under general anesthesia were allocated to receive intraoperatively either fentanyl 50 μg iv bolus (group F, n = 23) or continuous infusion of remifentanil 0.5-1 μg/kg/min (group R, n = 23). Iintraoperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded and serum inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor-α, substance-P], stress hormons (melatonin, cortisol) and β-endorphin were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed during the first postoperative 12 hours with the Wong-Baker faces pain-rating scale. Demographics were similar in two groups. The two groups did not differ regarding their effects on inflammatory mediators, stress hormons and postoperative pain scores. However, the use of remifentanil prevented intraoperative increases of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Remifentanil and fentanyl did not affect differently stress and inflammatory hormones during day-case dental surgery, although remifentanil may render intraoperative management of hemodynamic responses easier. Both opioids are equally efficient for postoperative pain management following dental surgery in people with special needs.

  2. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis.

  3. Degradation of dynorphin A in brain tissue in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, E.A.; Walker, J.M.; Houghten, R.; Akil, H.

    1987-07-01

    The demonstration of analgesia following in vivo administration of dynorphin A (Dyn A) has been difficult. In contrast, a number of electrophysiological and behavioral effects reported with in vivo injection of Dyn A can be produced by des-tyrosine dynorphin A (Dyn A 2-17). This suggested the extremely rapid amino terminal degradation of dynorphin A. To test this hypothesis, we examined the degradation of dynorphin A following in vivo injection into the periaqueductal gray (PAG) as well as in vitro using rat brain membranes under receptor binding conditions. In vivo, we observed the rapid amino terminal cleavage of tyrosine to yield the relatively more stable destyrosine dynorphin A. This same cleavage after tyrosine was observed in vitro. Inhibition of this aminopeptidase activity in vitro was observed by the addition of dynorphin A 2-17 or dynorphin A 7-17 but not after the addition of dynorphin A 1-13, dynorphin A 1-8, dynorphin B or alpha-neo-endorphin suggesting a specific enzyme may be responsible. The detection of the behaviorally active des-tyrosine dynorphin A following in vivo injection of dynorphin A suggests that this peptide may play an important physiological role.

  4. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    Full Text Available It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  6. Somatostatin: a metabolic regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dileepan, K.N.; Wagle, S.R.

    1985-12-23

    Somatostatin, the hypothalamic release-inhibiting factor, has been found to stimulate gluconeogenesis in rat kidney cortical slices. Stimulation by somatostatin was linear and dose-dependent. Other bioactive peptides such as cholecystokinin, gastro-intestinal peptide, secretin, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pancreatic polypeptide, beta endorphin and substance P did not affect the renal gluconeogenic activity. Somatostatin-induced gluconeogenesis was blocked by phentolamine (alpha adrenergic antagonist) and prazosin (alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic antagonist) but not by propranolol (beta adrenergic antagonist) and yohimbine (alpha/sub 2/ adrenergic antagonist) suggesting that the effect is via alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic stimuli. Studies on the involvement of Ca/sup 2 +/ revealed that tissue depletion and omission of Ca/sup 2 +/ from the reaction mixture would abolish the stimulatory effect of somatostatin. Furthermore, somatostatin enhanced the uptake of /sup 45/calcium in renal cortical slices which could be blocked by lanthanum, an inhibitor of Ca/sup 2 +/ influx. It is proposed that the stimulatory effect of somatostatin on renal gluconeogenesis is mediated by alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic receptors, or those which functionally resemble the alpha/sub 1/ receptors and that the increased influx of Ca/sup 2 +/ may be the causative factor for carrying out the stimulus. 88 references.

  7. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  8. I-gel Laryngeal Mask Airway Combined with Tracheal Intubation Attenuate Systemic Stress Response in Patients Undergoing Posterior Fossa Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoliang Tang

    2015-01-01

    patients. In this study, we proposed that I-gel combined with tracheal intubation could reduce the stress response of posterior fossa surgery patients. Methods. Sixty-six posterior fossa surgery patients were randomly allocated to receive either tracheal tube intubation (Group TT or I-gel facilitated endotracheal tube intubation (Group TI. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables, stress and inflammatory response, oxidative stress, anesthesia recovery parameters, and adverse events during emergence were compared. Results. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were lower in Group TI during intubation and extubation (P<0.05 versus Group TT. Respiratory variables including peak airway pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension were similar intraoperative, while plasma β-endorphin, cortisol, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde concentrations, and blood glucose were significantly lower in Group TI during emergence relative to Group TT. Postoperative bucking and serious hypertensions were seen in Group TT but not in Group TI. Conclusion. Utilization of I-gel combined with endotracheal tube in posterior fossa surgery patients is safe which can yield more stable hemodynamic profile during intubation and emergence and lower inflammatory and oxidative response, leading to uneventful recovery.

  9. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  10. Do Neuroendocrine Peptides and Their Receptors Qualify as Novel Therapeutic Targets in Osteoarthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Grässel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint tissues like synovium, articular cartilage, meniscus and subchondral bone, are targets for neuropeptides. Resident cells of these tissues express receptors for various neuroendocrine-derived peptides including proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, i.e., α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH and β-endorphin (β-ED, and sympathetic neuropeptides like vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and neuropeptide y (NPY. Melanocortins attained particular attention due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in several tissues and organs. In particular, α-MSH, ACTH and specific melanocortin-receptor (MCR agonists appear to have promising anti-inflammatory actions demonstrated in animal models of experimentally induced arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA. Sympathetic neuropeptides have obtained increasing attention as they have crucial trophic effects that are critical for joint tissue and bone homeostasis. VIP and NPY are implicated in direct and indirect activation of several anabolic signaling pathways in bone and synovial cells. Additionally, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP proved to be chondroprotective and, thus, might be a novel target in OA. Taken together, it appears more and more likely that the anabolic effects of these neuroendocrine peptides or their respective receptor agonists/antagonists may be exploited for the treatment of patients with inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases in the future.

  11. A fast universal immobilization of immunoglobulin G at 4 °C for the development of array-based immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Lin Guo

    Full Text Available To maintain the antibody activity and enhance performance of array-based immunoassays, protein G was used to allow a shorter duration of immunoglobulin G immobilization at 4 °C, with the antibody placed in the appropriate orientation. The multiplexed detection of six pain-related message molecules (PRMMs was used as examples for the development of array-based immunoassays: substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and β-endorphin. Protein G- and non-protein G-coated slides were tested. Compared to non-protein G immunoassays, protein G shortened the antibody immobilization time at 4 °C from overnight to 2 hours. Only protein G-facilitated immunoassays succeeded in simultaneously detecting all six PRMMs with high specificity. Dose-response curves showed that the limits of detection of the protein G-multiplexed immunoassays for the PRMMs was approximately 164, 167, 120, 60, 80, and 92 pg/ml, respectively. Thus, protein G effectively shortens the duration of antibody immobilization at 4 °C, allowing the use of sensitive array-based immunoassays for the simultaneous detection of PRMMs.

  12. Study of the anti-fatigue effects of amino acids and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ning XIAO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the anti-fatigue effects of amino acids and vitamins on rats after exhaustive exercise. In addition, the current research might provide a theoretical foundation for the future development of new anti-fatigue nutritional supplements. Methods  Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups after adaptive swimming. Each group consisted of 12 rats, namely amino acids and vitamins capsule group (capsule group, control with bland water group (control group, and amino acid and fructose beverage group (granules group. Exhaustion was produced by non-load swimming. After 14 days of feeding with different beverages, the exhaustion time of swimming was recorded, and then all rats were killed to measure concentrations of muscle and hepatic glycogen, and contents of serum β-endorphin (β-EP, lactic acid (LA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine kinase (CK. Results  The swimming time and the levels of the muscle and hepatic glycogen in the capsule and granules groups were longer or higher than those in the control group (PPP>0.05. Conclusion  Compound amino acids and vitamins can delay the occurrence of exhaustion after swimming in rats, increase hepatic and muscle glycogen contents, and decrease the generation of various metabolites during fatigue exercises, and hence giving anti-fatigue effects.

  13. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.E.; Khachaturian, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of (TH)naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing (Leu)enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of (TH)naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand (TH)D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between (TH)naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between (TH)naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission.

  14. Stress and its influence on reproduction in pigs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The manifestations of stress, defined as a biological response to an event that the individual perceives as a threat to its homeostasis, are commonly linked to enhanced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the activation of the sympathetic adreno-medullary (SA system. Activation of the HPA system results in the secretion of peptides from the hypothalamus, principally corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and beta-endorphin. ACTH induces the secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex, which can be seen in pigs exposed to acute physical and/or psychological stressors. The present paper is a review of studies on the influence of stressors on reproduction in pigs. The effects of stress on reproduction depend on the critical timing of stress, the genetic predisposition to stress, and the type of stress. The effect of stress on reproduction is also influenced by the duration of the responses induced by various stressors. Prolonged or chronic stress usually results in inhibition of reproduction, while the effects of transient or acute stress in certain cases is stimulatory (e.g. anoestrus, but in most cases is of impairment for reproduction. Most sensitive of the reproductive process are ovulation, expression of sexual behaviour and implantation of the embryo, since they are directly controlled by the neuroendocrine system.

  15. Adsorption of aromatic amino acids in a fixed bed column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremasco M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine (Phe and tyrosine (Tyr are two of the twenty amino acids in proteins; they are classified as aromatic amino acids, because both have a benzene ring in their structures. These amino acids are important in the synthesis of several biologically active amines, such as beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter. Amino acids can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. In this case, it is important that fixed-bed adsorber design adequately predict the breakthrough curve. This work presents a mathematical model for both fluid and porous phases. In the solution proposed for this model the liquid-phase concentration inside the particles is solved analytically and is related to the liquid-phase concentration in the bed using Duhamel's theorem. The solution for liquid-phase concentration in the bed is then solved numerically instead of analytically. The basic mass transfer parameters are from the literature. The results from the model are compared with those obtained experimentally using Phe and Tyr diluted in aqueous solutions in a fixed bed of PVP (poly-4-vinylpyridine resin.

  16. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  17. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Westerman

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  18. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

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    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision.

  19. Fifty Years in the Development of a Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex (KB220) to Balance Brain Reward Circuitry in Reward Deficiency Syndrome: A Pictorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, K; Febo, M; Badgaiyan, RD

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine along with other chemical messengers like serotonin, cannabinoids, endorphins and glutamine, play significant roles in brain reward processing. There is a devastating opiate/opioid epidemicin the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day due to narcotic overdose and alarmingly heroin overdose is on the rise. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved some Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for alcoholism, opiate and nicotine dependence, but nothing for psychostimulant and cannabis abuse. While these pharmaceuticals are essential for the short-term induction of “psychological extinction,” in the long-term caution is necessary because their use favors blocking dopaminergic function indispensable for achieving normal satisfaction in life. The two institutions devoted to alcoholism and drug dependence (NIAAA & NIDA) realize that MATs are not optimal and continue to seek better treatment options. We review, herein, the history of the development of a glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex called KB220 to provide for the possible eventual balancing of the brain reward system and the induction of “dopamine homeostasis.” This complex may provide substantial clinical benefit to the victims of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and assist in recovery from iatrogenically induced addiction to unwanted opiates/opioids and other addictive behaviors. PMID:27840857

  20. Interactions of the opioid and cannabinoid systems in reward: Insights from knockout studies

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    Katia eBefort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The opioid system consists of three receptors, mu, delta, and kappa, which are activated by endogenous opioid peptides (enkephalins, endorphins and dynorphins. The endogenous cannabinoid system comprises lipid neuromodulators (endocannabinoids, enzymes for their synthesis and their degradation and two well-characterized receptors, cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. These systems play a major role in the control of pain as well as in mood regulation, reward processing and the development of addiction. Both opioid and cannabinoid receptors are coupled to G proteins and are expressed throughout the brain reinforcement circuitry. Extending classical pharmacology, research using genetically modified mice has provided important progress in the identification of the specific contribution of each component of these endogenous systems in vivo on reward process. This review will summarize available genetic tools and our present knowledge on the consequences of gene knockout on reinforced behaviors in both systems, with a focus on their potential interactions. A better understanding of opioid-cannabinoid interactions may provide novel strategies for therapies in addicted individuals.

  1. Candidate genes and favoured loci: strategies for molecular genetic research into schizophrenia, manic depression, autism, alcoholism and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurling, H

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that further research to achieve more detailed diagnostic systems in many psychiatric disorders is unlikely to be productive without taking genetic effects into account. Even when this is done, for example when carrying out segregation analysis to determine a mode of genetic transmission, mental illnesses often pose specific problems that preclude accurate analysis. Because techniques in molecular biology and genetics have made it possible to study gene effects in human disease systematically it should now be possible to specify the genes that are involved. When this has been achieved then a diagnostic system based on genetic causation can develop. This will have the advantage of helping to pinpoint environmental factors more accurately. Specific strategies will need to be adopted to overcome uncertain modes of inheritance, incomplete or non-penetrance of disease alleles and disease heterogeneity. Highly speculative hypotheses can be put forward for a locus causing Alzheimer's disease on a portion of the long arm of chromosome 21. For autism it is plausible that there is a disease locus at or near the fragile X site on the X chromosome. A locus for manic depression has been very tentatively mapped using DNA markers to chromosome 11 and in a small proportion of families DNA markers have also shown some evidence for X linkage. Schizophrenia does not seem to be associated with any favoured loci. Candidate genes for schizophrenia include those encoding dopamine, other neurotransmitter receptors or enzymes and various neuropeptides such as enkephalin and beta endorphin.

  2. The relationship of exercise to anovulatory cycles in female athletes: hormonal and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J B; Mitchell, D; Musey, P I; Collins, D C

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity affects the menstrual cycle. Women with high, medium, and low levels of physical activity were compared for menstrual function, physical characteristics, and urinary and serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, estradiol-17 beta, and 2-hydroxyestrone. None of the physical characteristics other than age and muscle area were significantly different in the three groups. The percentage of body fat did not appear to be a factor in the amenorrhea induced by strenuous exercise, as the percent of body fat in all three groups was less than 22%. The group of athletes under strenuous exercise which correlated with oligomenorrhea had decreased serum levels of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol-17 beta but elevated levels of 2-hydroxyestrone. These data suggest that anovulatory cycles are correlated with the amount of exercise and increased levels of catechol estrogens. Catecholamines and beta-endorphin elevated by exercise may interact to suppress luteinizing hormone release at the hypothalamic pituitary axis.

  3. CUTANEUS STIMULATION: SLOW-STROKE BACK MASSAGE REDUCES THE INTENSITY OF OSTEOARTRITIS PAIN OF ELDERLY

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    Mira Triharini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis disease is the result of both mechanical and biological process which lead come to unstable degradation and synthesis of condrozyte cartilage and extracellular matrix. The risk factor of this instability is aging process. The aging process stimulates osteophytes formation and degradation of cartilage, and emerged pain as primary clinical symptom. One of the non pharmacological ways to cope this pain is by applying cutaneus stimulation through slow-stroke back massage method. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of applying cutaneus stimulation with slow-stroke back massage method to osteoarthritis’s pain intensity. Method: Pre experimental design with one group pre test-post test approach was used in this study. The subject of this study were elderly above 50 years old living in Panti Werdha Hargo Dedali Surabaya, 15 participants were involved using purpose sampling technique. This study started on January 29th until February 6th, 2010. Data were collected by interview and observation and analyzed by WIlcoxcon Signed Rank Test α = 0.05, p value <α. Result: The Result showed that the message intervention was significantly affect the elder’s level of osteoarthritis pain in Panti Werdha Hargo Dedali Surabaya (p = 0.003. Discussion: It can be concluded that gives stimulation cutaneus: slow-stroke back massage reduce osteoathritis pain intensity. Slow-stroke back massage increase level of endorphin, so that pain reduction and individual pain perception will decrease.

  4. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  5. [Neuroendocrine mechanisms of puberty onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teinturier, C

    2002-10-01

    An increase in pulsatile release of GnRH is essential for the onset of puberty. However, the mechanism controlling the pubertal increase in GnRH release is still unclear. The GnRH neurosecretory system is already active during the neonatal period but subsequently enters a dormant state by central inhibition in the juvenile period. When this central inhibition is removed or diminished, an increase in GnRH release occurs with increase in synthesis and release of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, followed by the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Recent studies suggest that disinhibition of GnRH neurons from GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) appears to be a critical factor in female rhesus monkey. After central inhibition is removed, increases in stimulatory input from glutamatergic neurons as well as new stimulatory input from norepinephrine and NPY neurons and inhibitory input from beta endorphin neurons appear to control pulsatile GnRH release as well as gonadal steroids. Nonetheless, the most important question still remains: what determines the timing to remove central inhibition? Because many genes are turned on or turned off to establish a complex series of events occurring during puberty, the timing of puberty must be regulated by a master gene or genes, as a part of developmental events.

  6. Distinct roles of exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides in the peripheral control of neuropathy-triggered heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Dominika; Celik, Melih Ö; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-09-08

    Neuropathic pain often results from peripheral nerve damage, which can involve immune response. Local leukocyte-derived opioid peptides or exogenous opioid agonists inhibit neuropathy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in animal models. Since neuropathic pain can also be augmented by heat, in this study we investigated the role of opioids in the modulation of neuropathy-evoked heat hypersensitivity. We used a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, and tested opioid effects in heat and mechanical hypersensitivity using Hargreaves and von Frey tests, respectively. We found that although perineural exogenous opioid agonists, including peptidergic ligands, were effective, the endogenous opioid peptides β-endorphin, Met-enkephalin and dynorphin A did not alleviate heat hypersensitivity. Specifically, corticotropin-releasing factor, an agent triggering opioid peptide secretion from leukocytes, applied perineurally did not attenuate heat hypersensitivity in wild-type mice. Exogenous opioids, also shown to release opioid peptides via activation of leukocyte opioid receptors, were equally analgesic in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, indicating that endogenous opioids do not contribute to exogenous opioid analgesia in heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, exogenously applied opioid peptides were ineffective as well. Conversely, opioid peptides relieved mechanical hypersensitivity. Thus, both opioid type and sensory modality may determine the outcome of neuropathic pain treatment.

  7. Neuropeptides as endogenous neuronal growth regulatory factors on serotonergic maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila-Garcia, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    Products of the proopiomelanocortin molecule as well as leu- and met-enkephalin were tested for their effects on serotonergic neuronal maturation. High affinity uptake of ( 3 H)5-HT and morphometrics using immunocytochemistry specific for serotonergic neurons were used to monitor neuronal maturation. Cultured brainstem raphe neurons from 14 day fetuses, in the presence or absence of target tissue, were administered neuropeptides at various concentrations for 1,3 or 5 days in culture. ACTH peptides stimulate neurite length and, with the endorphins, the expression of ( 3 H)5-HT uptake by serotonergic fetal neurons cultured alone but had no effect when these neurons were cocultured with hippocampal target cells. A daily dose of leu-enkephalin to these cells inhibited neuronal uptake after 5 days of exposure and decreased neurite cell length in 24 hr cultures. In contrast, a single dose of leu-enkephalin at plating stimulated uptake after 5 days while co-administration of bacitracin inhibited uptake expression. Naloxone reversed the opioid effect and stimulated uptake when administered alone. Desulfated-CCK, which resembles leu-enkephalin, was equally potent as leu-enkephalin in inhibiting uptake

  8. Information Models of Acupuncture Analgesia and Meridian Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hua Zou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture and meridian channels have been major components of Chinese and Eastern Asian medicine—especially for analgesia—for over 2000 years. In recent decades, electroacupuncture (EA analgesia has been applied clinically and experimentally. However, there were controversial results between different treatment frequencies, or between the active and the placebo treatments; and the mechanisms of the treatments and the related meridian channels are still unknown. In this study, we propose a new term of infophysics therapy and develop information models of acupuncture (or EA analgesia and meridian channels, to understand the mechanisms and to explain the controversial results, based on Western theories of information, trigonometry and Fourier series, and physics, as well as published biomedical data. We are trying to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and Western medicine by investigating the Eastern acupuncture analgesia and meridian channels with Western sciences; we model the meridians as a physiological system that is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; we consider frequencies, amplitudes and wave numbers of electric field intensity (EFI as information data. Our modeling results demonstrate that information regulated with acupuncture (or EA is different from pain information, we provide answers to explain the controversial published results, and suggest that mechanisms of acupuncture (or EA analgesia could be mostly involved in information regulation of frequencies and amplitudes of EFI as well as neuronal transmitters such as endorphins.

  9. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  10. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

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    Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, β-endorphins (β-End, and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg, which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg, which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain.

  11. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  12. Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H MitchellDepartment of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USAAbstract: Ekbom disease (EKD, formerly known as restless legs syndrome (RLS has affected and bothered many people over the centuries. It is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders in Europe and North-America, affecting about 10% of the population. The main characteristics are the strong urge to move, accompanied or caused by uncomfortable, sometimes even distressing, paresthesia of the legs, described as a "creeping, tugging, pulling" feeling. The symptoms often become worse as the day progresses, leading to sleep disturbances or sleep deprivation, which leads to decreased alertness and daytime functions. Numerous studies have been conducted assessing the efficacy of dopaminergic drugs, opioids, and other pharmacologic agents in alleviating EKD symptoms. However, there is also a growing body of evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments including life style changes, physical activity programs, pneumatic compression, massage, near-infrared light therapy, and complementary therapies. The working mechanisms behind these alternatives are diverse. Some increase blood flow to the legs, therefore reducing tissue hypoxia; some introduce an afferent counter stimulus to the cortex and with that "close the gate" for aberrant nerve stimulations; some increase dopamine and nitric oxide and therefore augment bio-available neurotransmitters; and some generate endorphins producing an analgesic effect. The advantages of these treatments compared with pharmacologic agents include less or no side effects, no danger of augmentation, and less cost.Keywords: RLS, modalities, massage, intermittent compression, NIR

  13. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  14. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. (National Cancer Institute-Navy Medical Oncology Branch, Bethesda, MD (USA) Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  15. Acupuncture as Treatment of Hot Flashes and the Possible Role of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Clara E. Spetz Holm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind hot flashes in menopausal women are not fully understood. The flashes in women are probably preceded by and actually initiated by a sudden downward shift in the set point for the core body temperature in the thermoregulatory center that is affected by sex steroids, β-endorphins, and other central neurotransmitters. Treatments that influence these factors may be expected to reduce hot flashes. Since therapy with sex steroids for hot flashes has appeared to cause a number of side effects and risks and women with hot flashes and breast cancer as well as men with prostate cancer and hot flashes are prevented from sex steroid therapy there is a great need for alternative therapies. Acupuncture affecting the opioid system has been suggested as an alternative treatment option for hot flashes in menopausal women and castrated men. The heat loss during hot flashes may be mediated by the potent vasodilator and sweat gland activator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP the concentration of which increases in plasma during flashes in menopausal women and, according to one study, in castrated men with flushes. There is also evidence for connections between the opioid system and the release of CGRP. In this paper we discuss acupuncture as a treatment alternative for hot flashes and the role of CGRP in this context.

  16. Neuropeptides as endogenous neuronal growth regulatory factors on serotonergic maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Garcia, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    Products of the proopiomelanocortin molecule as well as leu- and met-enkephalin were tested for their effects on serotonergic neuronal maturation. High affinity uptake of ({sup 3}H)5-HT and morphometrics using immunocytochemistry specific for serotonergic neurons were used to monitor neuronal maturation. Cultured brainstem raphe neurons from 14 day fetuses, in the presence or absence of target tissue, were administered neuropeptides at various concentrations for 1,3 or 5 days in culture. ACTH peptides stimulate neurite length and, with the endorphins, the expression of ({sup 3}H)5-HT uptake by serotonergic fetal neurons cultured alone but had no effect when these neurons were cocultured with hippocampal target cells. A daily dose of leu-enkephalin to these cells inhibited neuronal uptake after 5 days of exposure and decreased neurite cell length in 24 hr cultures. In contrast, a single dose of leu-enkephalin at plating stimulated uptake after 5 days while co-administration of bacitracin inhibited uptake expression. Naloxone reversed the opioid effect and stimulated uptake when administered alone. Desulfated-CCK, which resembles leu-enkephalin, was equally potent as leu-enkephalin in inhibiting uptake.

  17. Affinity-based screening of combinatorial libraries using automated, serial-column chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.M.; Williams, K.P.; McGuinness, B. [PerSeptive Biosystems, Framingham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The authors have developed an automated serial chromatographic technique for screening a library of compounds based upon their relative affinity for a target molecule. A {open_quotes}target{close_quotes} column containing the immobilized target molecule is set in tandem with a reversed-phase column. A combinatorial peptide library is injected onto the target column. The target-bound peptides are eluted from the first column and transferred automatically to the reversed-phase column. The target-specific peptide peaks from the reversed-phase column are identified and sequenced. Using a monoclonal antibody (3E-7) against {beta}-endorphin as a target, we selected a single peptide with sequence YGGFL from approximately 5800 peptides present in a combinatorial library. We demonstrated the applicability of the technology towards selection of peptides with predetermined affinity for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). We expect that this technology will have broad applications for high throughput screening of chemical libraries or natural product extracts. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  18. The Effectiviness of Dysmenorrhea Gymnastics as an Alternative Therapy in Reducing Menstrual Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lina Fitri Kumalasari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual pain occurs due to the imbalance of the hormones which will cause the uterine muscles to contract and lead to colic pain. Approximately 50 % of women worldwide  and  90 % of Indonesian women  suffer from menstrual pain. Pharmacological therapy is the most popular treatment used to relieve menstrual pain. Unfortunately, it leads to indisputable side effects on health. Therefore, safety alternative treatments such as dysmenorrhea gymnastics are signifficantly needed to improve bloodstream in the uterus and produce endorphins which can relieve menstrual pain. The aim of the study wasto determine the effectiveness of dysmenorrhea gymnastics to relieve the level of menstrual pain. The method of study is systematic review on 14 studies of the efectiveness of exercise dysmenorrhea gymnastics to relieve menstrual pain. The results obtained are dysmenorrhea gymnastcs can relieve menstrual pain with a mean value of 4.006. Conclusion: dysmenorrhea gymnastics can relieve menstrual pain and better  done in the afternoon.

  19. The Mortality Rate of Myocardial Infraction Patients With and Without Opium Dependen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Hani; Shamsi, Alireza; Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Seyed Zadeh, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghazi, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart condition caused by the suspension of blood circulation in a part of the myocardium. There are different risk factors contributing to a heart attack. Some believe that endorphins and endogenous opioids play an important role in causing MIs. This study intended to determine the relationship between opium dependency and mortality rate among patients with MI. This retrospective study investigated patients who had MI for the first time and were hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Khatamolanbia hospital in Zahedan, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. These patients were either opium dependent or not. Four hundred patients were selected. The patients' possibilities of death and re-hospitalization after the first MI were confirmed over the phone. Data was analyzed through t-test and chi-squared test. Of all the patients, 19.5% were opium-dependent. The mortality rate in the non-opium-dependent group was 5.9%, while in the dependent group this rate was 11.5% (P = 0.072). The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was higher in the opium-dependent patients (P opium-dependent or non-opium-dependent. The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was meaningfully higher in the opium-dependent patients; hence, educating people and training them on the destructive effects of opium, specifically in patients with heart conditions is highly recommended.

  20. Central mechanisms of taste: Cognition, emotion and taste-elicited behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste is unique among sensory systems in its innate association with mechanisms of reward and aversion in addition to its recognition of quality, e.g., sucrose is sweet and preferable, and quinine is bitter and aversive. Taste information is sent to the reward system and feeding center via the prefrontal cortices such as the mediodorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices in rodents and the orbitofrontal cortex in primates. The amygdala, which receives taste inputs, also influences reward and feeding. In terms of neuroactive substances, palatability is closely related to benzodiazepine derivatives and β-endorphin, both of which facilitate consumption of food and fluid. The reward system contains the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum and finally sends information to the lateral hypothalamic area, the feeding center. The dopaminergic system originating from the ventral tegmental area mediates the motivation to consume palatable food. The actual ingestive behavior is promoted by the orexigenic neuropeptides from the hypothalamus. Even palatable food can become aversive and avoided as a consequence of a postingestional unpleasant experience such as malaise. The neural mechanisms of this conditioned taste aversion will also be elucidated.

  1. Application of plug-plug technique to ACE experiments for discovery of peptides binding to a larger target protein: a model study of calmodulin-binding fragments selected from a digested mixture of reduced BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki; Nakato, Mamiko; Mizuguchi, Takaaki; Wada, Shinji; Uchimura, Hiromasa; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hirota, Hiroshi; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2014-03-01

    To discover peptide ligands that bind to a target protein with a higher molecular mass, a concise screening methodology has been established, by applying a "plug-plug" technique to ACE experiments. Exploratory experiments using three mixed peptides, mastoparan-X, β-endorphin, and oxytocin, as candidates for calmodulin-binding ligands, revealed that the technique not only reduces the consumption of the protein sample, but also increases the flexibility of the experimental conditions, by allowing the use of MS detection in the ACE experiments. With the plug-plug technique, the ACE-MS screening methodology successfully selected calmodulin-binding peptides from a random library with diverse constituents, such as protease digests of BSA. Three peptides with Kd values between 8-147 μM for calmodulin were obtained from a Glu-C endoprotease digest of reduced BSA, although the digest showed more than 70 peaks in its ACE-MS electropherogram. The method established here will be quite useful for the screening of peptide ligands, which have only low affinities due to their flexible chain structures but could potentially provide primary information for designing inhibitors against the target protein. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Musical feedback during exercise machine workout enhances mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Music making has a number of beneficial effects for motor tasks compared to passive music listening. Given that recent research suggests that high energy musical activities elevate positive affect more strongly than low energy musical activities, we here investigated a recent method that combined music making with systematically increasing physiological arousal by exercise machine workout. We compared mood and anxiety after two exercise conditions on non-cyclical exercise machines, one with passive music listening and the other with musical feedback (where participants could make music with the exercise machines. The results showed that agency during exercise machine workout (an activity we previously labeled jymmin—a cross between jammin and gym had an enhancing effect on mood compared to workout with passive music listening. Furthermore, the order in which the conditions were presented mediated the effect of musical agency for this subscale When participants first listened passively, the difference in mood between the two conditions was greater, suggesting that a stronger increase in hormone levels (e.g. endorphins during the active condition may have caused the observed effect. Given an enhanced mood after training with musical feedback compared to passively listening to the same type of music during workout, the results suggest that exercise machine workout with musical feedback (jymmin makes the act of exercise machine training more desirable.

  3. TERAPI RELAKSASI AKUPRESUR UNTUK MENGATASI KELUHAN MUAL DAN MUNTAH PADA IBU HAMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Mayasari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nausea and vomiting are the most common symptoms in pregnancy and have affected 50-80% pregnant women. Acupressure is a science of healing by tapping, massaging, and massage the body with the intention of reactivating the energy balance in mother's body because the body adapt to the changes that occur during pregnancy. With acupressure, especially at point pericardium 6 the balance in the body of mother can be overcome. Objective: To know the effectiveness of acupressure relaxation therapy to reducing complaints of nausea and vomiting in the first trimester pregnancy. Method: This was a quasi experimental study with Case Control design. Sample size was 22 respondents from Rachmi Maternity Hospital Yogyakarta with purposive sampling technique. Data analysis used univariable analysis and bivariable with Mann Whitney U test with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in the frequency of nausea and vomiting between treatment and control groups. The decreased of frequency of nausea and vomiting in the treated group was higher than the control group (p =0.026. Conclusion: Acupressure therapy i s effective in reducing t h e complaints of nausea and vomiting in first trimester pregnancy at Rachmi Maternity Hospital Yogyakarta. Provide acupressure therapy to pregnant women who complained of nausea and vomiting in trimester I. Create a regular schedule acupressure therapy. Measure the levels of HCG, the hormone endorphin, intestinal peristalsis, the intensity and duration of nausea and vomiting.

  4. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: current view on neuroendocrine aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is defined as a non-organic and reversible disorder in which the impairment of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion plays a key role. There are main three types of FHA: stress-related amenorrhea, weight loss-related amenorrhea and exercise-related amenorrhea. The spectrum of GnRH-luteinizing hormone (LH) disturbances in FHA is very broad and includes lower mean frequency of LH pulses, complete absence of LH pulsatility, normal-appearing secretion pattern and higher mean frequency of LH pulses. Precise mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of FHA are very complex and unclear. Numerous neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and neurosteroids play important roles in the physiological regulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion and there is evidence that different neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of FHA. Particular attention is paid to such substances as allopregnanolone, neuropeptide Y, corticotropin-releasing hormone, leptin, ghrelin and beta-endorphin. Some studies reveal significant changes in these mentioned substances in patients with FHA. There are also speculations about use some of these substances or their antagonists in the treatment of FHA.

  5. The effects of nutrients on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Donohoe, R T

    1999-09-01

    A recent major theory was that a meal high in carbohydrate increased the rate that tryptophan enters the brain, leading to an increase in the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin that modulates mood. Although such a mechanism may be important under laboratory conditions it is unlikely to be of significance following the eating of any typical meal. As little as 2-4% of the calories of a meal as protein will prevent an increased availability of tryptophan. Arguably the food with the greatest impact on mood is chocolate. Those who crave chocolate tend to do so when they feel emotionally low. There have been a series of suggestions that chocolate's mood elevating properties reflect 'drug-like' constituents including anandamines, caffeine, phenylethylamine and magnesium. However, the levels of these substances are so low as to preclude such influences. As all palatable foods stimulate endorphin release in the brain this is the most likely mechanism to account for the elevation of mood. A deficiency of many vitamins is associated with psychological symptoms. In some elderly patients folate deficiency is associated with depression. In four double-blind studies an improvement in thiamine status was associated with improved mood. Iron deficiency anaemia is common, particularly in women, and is associated with apathy, depression and rapid fatigue when exercising.

  6. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence and reward: participation of the endogenous opioid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrendero, Fernando; Robledo, Patricia; Trigo, José Manuel; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary component of tobacco that maintains the smoking habit and develops addiction. The adaptive changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produced by repeated exposure to nicotine play a crucial role in the establishment of dependence. However, other neurochemical systems also participate in the addictive effects of nicotine including glutamate, cannabinoids, GABA and opioids. This review will cover the involvement of these neurotransmitters in nicotine addictive properties, with a special emphasis on the endogenous opioid system. Thus, endogenous enkephalins and beta-endorphins acting on mu-opioid receptors are involved in nicotine rewarding effects, whereas opioid peptides derived from prodynorphin participate in nicotine aversive responses. An upregulation of mu-opioid receptors has been reported after chronic nicotine treatment that could counteract the development of nicotine tolerance, whereas the downregulation induced on kappa-opioid receptors seems to facilitate nicotine tolerance. Endogenous enkephalins acting on mu-opioid receptors also play a role in the development of physical dependence to nicotine. In agreement with these actions of the endogenous opioid system, the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown to be effective for smoking cessation in certain subpopulations of smokers. PMID:20170672

  7. [Effect of Electroacupuncture on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary (HPO) Axis in Rats with Peri-menopausal Depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi-Rong; Ren, Lu; Li, Chun-Ri

    2017-02-25

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the hormones derived from the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis, so as to explore the neuroendocrine mechanism induced by EA on rats with perimenopausal depression disorder. Sixty female sprague-dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, sham-operation (sham) group, clomipramine group, and electroacupuncture (EA) group, with 12 rats in each group. Perimenopausal depression model was established by bilateral ovariectomy combined with chronic unpredictable stimulation.The EA group received continuous treatment at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) once a day for 28 days. Estrous cycle and sucrose preference test were monitored, and serum estradiol (E 2 ), luteinizing hormone (LH), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and β-endorphin (β-EP) were detected by ELISA. Compared to the blank control group, sugar water consumpution rates decreased in the model group and sham group ( P Electroacupuncture can relieve the symptoms of rat with perimenopausal depression by regulating the hormone secretion in HPO axis.

  8. The role of exercise in migraine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseoglu, E; Yetkin, M F; Ugur, F; Bilgen, M

    2015-09-01

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on the use of exercise for migraine treatment with regard to its efficacy, mechanism of action and role in practice. Many randomized studies have reported the efficacy of prophylactic treatment of migrane with medications such as beta blockers or antiepileptic drugs. Studies on alternative approaches, like aerobic exercise and biofeedback, are however limited but also considered to be effective. Scientific databases were searched with keywords "exercise" and "migraine". The resulting publications were gathered, examined and discussed throughly. Past studies had limitations and were few in number, but more recent randomized controlled studies have concretely provided level of evidence about the effectiveness of exercise in prophylactic treatment of migraine. Core properties of exercise like intensity, duration, frequency, type and warming up period are required to be monitored while treating migraine to increase the beneficial effects and, also to prevent injuries and side effects which may include exertional headache. Isometric neck exercise is helpful when the migraine is accompanied by neck pain. Patient population with low beta endorphin level in blood, high physical fitness and high motivation receives significant benefits from the exercise treatment. The action of exercise on migraine is in general related to neurochemical factors, psychological states and increase in cardivascular and cerebrovascular fitness. Considering its effectiveness and minimal side effects, migraine patients should often be encouraged to practice physical exercise with intensity, frequency and duration that should be carefully instituted to achieve the most beneficial outcome while preventing potential injuries and side effects.

  9. The effects of hydrotherapy on anxiety, pain, neuroendocrine responses, and contraction dynamics during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Rebecca D; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tanner, Charles J; Swanson, Melvin; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Newton, Edward R

    2010-07-01

    Hydrotherapy (immersion or bathing) is used worldwide to promote relaxation and decrease parturient anxiety and pain in labor, but the psychophysiological effects of this intervention remain obscure. A pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to examine the effects of hydrotherapy on maternal anxiety and pain, neuroendocrine responses, plasma volume shift (PVS), and uterine contractions (CXs) during labor. Correlations among variables were examined at three time points (preimmersion and twice during hydrotherapy). Eleven term women (mean age 24.5 years) in spontaneous labor were immersed to the xiphoid in 37 degrees C water for 1 hr. Blood samples and measures of anxiety and pain were obtained under dry baseline conditions and repeated at 15 and 45 min of hydrotherapy. Uterine contractions were monitored telemetrically. Hydrotherapy was associated with decreases in anxiety, vasopressin (V), and oxytocin (O) levels at 15 and 45 min (all ps hydrotherapy for women with high baseline pain as for those with low baseline pain. beta-endorphin (betaE) levels increased at 15 min but did not differ between baseline and 45 min. During immersion, CX frequency decreased. A positive PVS at 15 min was correlated with contraction duration. Hydrotherapy during labor affects neuroendocrine responses that modify psychophysiological processes.

  10. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms of young adult female indoor tanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Descriptive statistics, χ(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions.

  11. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects.

  12. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain

  13. Opioid involvement in the perception of pain due to endurance exercise in trained man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P E; Thorbøll, J E; Nielsen, U

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of endogenous opiates in modulating physical performance during dynamic exercise in conscious man. The plasma concentration of beta-endorphin (BEP) and of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) along with muscle pain (McGuill Pain Questionnaire) were.......v.). The average (SEM) distance reached was 3,198 (45) m in the naloxone test and 3,240 (38) m in the placebo test. The BEP increased significantly during the tests by a factor of 4.1 on naloxone and by 2.8 on placebo (from the normal resting averages of 1.7 and 2.1 pmol/l, respectively). The ACTH also increased...... significantly by a factor of 2.0 on naloxone and 2.5 on placebo (from the normal resting averages of 19.3 and 16.8 pmol/l, respectively). There were no significant differences between the naloxone and the placebo test with respect to the increments of BEP or ACTH by exercise. However, the perception of muscle...

  14. Influence of chemical peeling on the skin stress response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ayako; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Li, Hong-Jin; Yonei, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2012-07-01

    Skin stress response system (SSRS) involves corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and b-endorphin that are locally generated in response to locally provided stressors or proinflammatory cytokines. This system would restrict tissue damage and restore local homoeostasis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is one of the most widely used peeling agents and applied for cosmetic treatment of photodamaged skin. However, the biological mechanism responsible for TCA peeling has yet to be fully determined. While our investigation focused on the inflammation and wound healing pathways, in the recent study, we have examined involvement of the SSRS as the third pathway. Mostly depending on our findings that TCA peeling activates the SSRS by inducing the POMC expression of keratinocytes in the CRH-independent manner, together with the results reported by other researchers, we can say that the biological effect of POMC seems to be responsible for the TCA-induced epidermal SSRS activation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Decreased anaerobic performance and hormone adaptation after expedition to Peak Lenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kung-tung; Chen, Yu-yawn; Wu, Huey-june; Chang, Chen-kang; Lee, Wen-tsung; Lu, Yen-yuan; Liu, Chieh-chung; Yang, Rong-sen; Lin, Jung-charng

    2008-11-20

    The change of anaerobic exercise abilities during and after a high-altitude expedition or hypoxic exposure is not well studied. To evaluate the effects of an extreme-altitude expedition on anaerobic performance, the 10-second supramaximal test and endocrine hormones were evaluated before and after an expedition to Peak Lenin. Four subjects (3 male and 1 female, age (30.5 +/- 16.5) years) were recruited into the study. Three sets of tests were performed, including a basic test at sea level and 20 days before first arrival at the base camp (3600 m), a middle test done at day after returning from the summit to the base camp and the post test at the 10th day after return to the sea level. Both the supramaximal test, performed by a cycle ergometer, and body composition, performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, were completed before the basic test and post test. The endocrine hormones including cortisol, growth hormone, testosterone, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glucagon and beta-endorphin were measured at all tests. Comparing the conditions before and after the expedition, the body measurement parameters were decreased after the expedition, i.e., body weight (-4.22%, P Lenin had occurred. The real physiological significance needs to be further investigated.

  16. Pathogenetic aspects of alcoholic encephalopathy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinin S.G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is considered to be the most common exogenous toxins, causing encephalopathy. The defeat of almost all parts of the nervous system should be assigned to the special features of ethanol. Neurophysiological mechanisms of development of substance dependence are based in the stem and limbic structures of the brain that are involved in ensuring the regulation of emotional state, mood, motivation sphere, psychophysical tone of human behavior in general and its adaptation to the environment. Stress or disruption of the normal functioning of these structures can lead to the formation of abstinence syndrome, affective disorders in remission and craving for alcohol. Dopaminergic and opioid (endorphin system play an important role in the genesis of various mental and motor disorders. In some way alcohol dependence can be regarded as an endorfinodefitsitnoe disease with a pathogenetic point of view. Activating of opioidereal system by trans-cranial electrical stimulation promotes the restoration of disturbed emotional, cognitive and autonomic functions, reduces craving for alcohol and in that way increases the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment

  17. How applicable is the general adaptation syndrome to the unicellular Tetrahymena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György; Pállinger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Hormone receptors, hormones and signal transduction pathways characteristic of higher vertebrates can be observed also in the unicellular Tetrahymena. Previous work showed that stress conditions (starvation, high temperature, high salt concentration, formaldehyde or alcohol treatment) elevated the intracellular level of four hormones (ACTH, endorphin, serotonin and T(3)). Here, the effect of other stressors (CuSO4 poisoning, tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) treatment) on the same and other hormones (epinephrine, insulin, histamine) was studied, using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. It was found, that each effect increased the intracellular hormone contents, but some hormones (histamine, T(3)) were less reactive. Insulin--which is a life-saving factor for Tetrahymena--itself provoked elevation of hormone amounts in association with a stressor, further increased the level of hormones. It was concluded that the ancestor of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) can be found already at unicellular level, and this possibly has a life saving function. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Central effects of some peptide and non-peptide opioids and naloxone on thermoregulation in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of several peptide and non-peptide opiods and naloxone on induced hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. The effect of tyical mu, kappa, and sigma receptor antagonists (morphine, ketocyclazcine and SKF 10,0 10, 047) and some opioid peptides (Beta-endorphin /BE/, methionine-enkaphalin /ME/, and D-Ala2-methionine-enkaphalin-amide /DAME/ are determined. The role of prostaglandins (PG), cAMP, and norepinephrine (NE) in morphine, BE, and DAME induced hyperthermia is investigated. In addition, the effect of naloxone on pyrogen, arachidonic acid, PGE2, prostacyclin, dibutyryl cAMP, and NE induced hyperthermia is determined. Among other results, it is found that the three receptor antagonists induced hyperthermia in rabbits. BE, ME, and DAME were also found to cause hyperthermia, and it is suggested that they act on the same type of receptor. It is also determined that neither NE nor cAMP is involved in the hyperthermia due to morphine, BE, and DAME. It is suggested that an action of endogenous peptides on naloxone sensitive receptors plays little role in normal thermoregulation or in hyperthermia.

  19. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  20. Effect of neonatal nociceptin or nocistatin imprinting on the brain concentration of biogenic amines and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Gyenge, Melinda; Sótonyi, Péter; Csaba, György

    2009-04-01

    Noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HA), serotonin (5HT) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) content of five brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, striatum and frontal cortex) and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured in adult (three months old) male and female rats treated neonatally with a single dose of 10 microg nociceptin (NC) or 10 microg nocistatin (NS) for hormonal imprinting. The biogenic amine and metabolite content of cerebrospinal fluid was also determined. In NC treated animals the serotonergic, dopaminergic as well as noradrenergic systems were influenced by the imprinting. The 5HT level increased in hypothalamus, the 5HIAA tissue levels were found increased in hypothalamus. Hippocampus and striatum and the HVA levels increased highly significantly in brainstem. Dopamine level decreased significantly in striatum, however in frontal cortex both noradrenalin and 5HIAA level decreased. Nevertheless, in NS-treated rats decreased NA tissue levels were found in hypothalamus, brainstem and frontal cortex. Decreased DA levels were found in the hypothalamus, brainstem and striatum. NS imprinting resulted in decreased HVA level, but increased one in the brainstem. The 5HT levels decreased in the hypothalamus, brainstem, striatum and frontal cortex, while 5HIAA content of CSF, and frontal cortex decreased, and that of hypothalamus, hippocampus and striatum increased. There was no significant difference between genders except in the 5HT tissue levels of NC treated rats. Data presented show that neonatal imprinting both by NC and NS have long-lasting and brain area specific effects. In earlier experiments endorphin imprinting also influenced the serotonergic system suggesting that during labour release of pain-related substances may durably affect the serotonergic (dopaminergic, adrenergic) system which can impress the animals' later behavior.

  1. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  2. Effect of ambient temperature on human pain and temperature perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigo, I A; Carli, F; Bushnell, M C

    2000-03-01

    Animal studies show reduced nociceptive responses to noxious heat stimuli and increases in endogenous beta-endorphin levels in cold environments, suggesting that human pain perception may be dependent on ambient temperature. However, studies of changes in local skin temperature on human pain perception have yielded variable results. This study examines the effect of both warm and cool ambient temperature on the perception of noxious and innocuous mechanical and thermal stimuli. Ten subjects (7 men and 3 women, aged 20-23 yr) used visual analog scales to rate the stimulus intensity, pain intensity, and unpleasantness of thermal (0-50 degrees C) and mechanical (1.2-28.9 g) stimuli applied on the volar forearm with a 1-cm2 contact thermode and von Frey filaments, respectively. Mean skin temperatures were measured throughout the experiment by infrared pyrometer. Each subject was tested in ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C (cool), 25 degrees C (neutral), and 35 degrees C (warm) on separate days, after a 30-min acclimation to the environment. Studies began in the morning after an 8-h fast. Mean skin temperature was altered by ambient temperature (cool room: 30.1 degrees C; neutral room: 33.4 degrees C; warm room: 34.5 degrees C; P cool than in the neutral environment (P cool room and that noxious heat stimuli were more unpleasant in a warm environment. Environmental temperature did not alter ratings of warm (37 and 40 degrees C) or mechanical stimuli. These results indicate that, in humans, a decrease in skin temperature following exposure to cool environments reduces thermal pain. Suppression of Adelta primary afferent cold fiber activity has been shown to increase cold pain produced by skin cooling. Our current findings may represent the reverse phenomenon, i.e., a reduction in thermal nociceptive transmission by the activation of Adelta cutaneous cold fibers.

  3. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  4. Molecular characterization of the leopard gecko POMC gene and expressional change in the testis by acclimation to low temperature and with a short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2004-08-01

    The gene for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a common precursor of malanotropins, corticotropin, and beta-endorphin, was isolated and analyzed in the squamata species, the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Leopard gecko POMC (lgPOMC) cDNA is composed of 1299bp, excluding the poly(A) tail, and encodes 270 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the same structural organization as that of other species and displayed identity with those of other vertebrates: 68% with mud turtles, 57/57% with African clawed frog A/B, 53% with chickens, and 45% with mice. In a phylogenic tree, the lgPOMC clustered with the sequences of the mud turtle POMC and python POMC. The lgPOMC gene comprises three exons and two introns and this structure is consistent with humans, rats, mice, African clawed frog and zebrafish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the lgPOMC mRNA was expressed only in the whole brain, pituitary, and gonads. To analyze in more detail, a competitive assay system to quantify the expression levels of POMC mRNA was established. We measured the POMC mRNA expression levels in the leopard gecko testes following transfer from a condition of 29 degrees C, 16L/8D to 18 degrees C, 10L/14D over 6 weeks. This 6-week acclimation increased the POMC mRNA expression levels significantly. This suggests that the leopard gecko POMC-derived peptides play a role in the mediation of the effect of environmental factors on reproduction.

  5. Effects of naltrexone in postnatal rats on the recovery of disturbed brain and lymphatic tissues after X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea treatment in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.G.; Plendl, J.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid systems in preweaning development after intrauterine exposure to X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) was explored in rats using naltrexone, a potent antagonist of beta-endorphin. After daily s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg naltrexone only the prenatally untreated controls had body weights increased by 11% from control level on day 28 (weaning). In the X-irradiated as well as the ENU-treated pups no significant effects of naltrexone on body weight gain were observed. However, brain weight increased in all animals under the influence of naltrexone, irrespective of prenatal treatment or the severity of brain lesions: 9.5% above control values in untreated offspring and 14% after X-irradiation (1 Gy) on gestation day 14. The brain weight of ENU-treated rats (50 mg/kg on gest. day 14) was 13% higher after postnatal naltrexone application than that of their postnatally untreated counterparts. ENU (80 mg/kg) effects on the brain when given on gestation day 18 were ameliorated to 9.2% by naltrexone in the weaning period. Naltrexone significantly increased the thymus weight in controls. Prenatally treated animals also showed an increased thymus weight at weaning, presumably due to compensatory growth. In these cases naltrexone revealed a suppressive effect on the thymus, whereas spleen weight was apparently not influenced by naltrexone treatment. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenous opioid systems play a crucial role not only in normal development, but also in reparative growth events of the brain after prenatal injuries. The thymus, predominantly containing T-lymphocytes, seems to represent another sensitive system which is regulated under the influence of opioids

  6. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  7. Comparative study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Mitsunobu, F.; Hanamoto, K.; Tanizaki, Y.; Sugita, K.; Kohima, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radon therapy is used radon ( 222 Rn) gas, which mainly emits alpha-rays, and induces a small amount of active oxygen in the body. Because most of the diseases to which the radon therapy as well as the thermal therapy is applied are related to activated oxygen, in this study the effects of the radioactivity of radon and thermal effects were compared under the room or the hot spring condition with the similar chemical component, using as the parameters which are closely involved in the clinical for radon therapy. In the results, the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation function, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produce in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response, and increased the level of CD4, which is the marker of helper T cell, and decreased the level of CD8, which is the common marker of killer T cell and supresser T cell, in the white cell differentiation antigen (CD4/CD8) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that the radon therapy more contributes to the prevention of life style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune depression than thermal therapy. Moreover these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain) and diabetes mellitus brought about more radon therapy than thermal therapy

  8. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  9. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS:A Preliminary Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO. Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Medical history revealed that multiple conservative therapy attempts failed to alleviate the pain. Two of the patients had right sided ICO. Traditional TENS device is placed to the most painful points. TENS applied 3 times in a week with duration 30 minutes for 4 weeks. Before and after TENS application, patients were evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS at first and third months. Results: Median age of patients was 26.20±2.38 (22-30. Mean VAS value was 6.52 ± 0.89 before the procedure. After 1 month VAS value was 3.82 ± 0.83 (p0.05. None of the patients needed any analgesics after during the one month. No complications, hyperemia or hypoesthesia of the scrotal or penile skin, occurred after the procedure. Conclusion: TENS reduces pain by increasing endorphin release in the spinal cord dorsal horn. TENS is very effective method for first 1 month in patients with ICO but its effect reduces by the time. There is no standard therapeutic protocol for idiopathic chronic orchialgia. Therefore TENS may be an alternative for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy and do not want invasive procedures. Short-term use of TENS and low number of the patients are the limitations of this study. Randomized, placebo-controlled, and longer follow-up period studies are needed to better assess the efficacy of TENS for ICO.

  10. Modulation of the arcuate nucleus-medial preoptic nucleus lordosis regulating circuit: a role for GABAB receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinchak, Kevin; Dewing, Phoebe; Ponce, Laura; Gomez, Liliana; Christensen, Amy; Berger, Max; Micevych, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol rapidly activates a microcircuit in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that is needed for maximal female sexual receptivity. Membrane estrogen receptor-α complexes with and signals through the metabotropic glutamate receptor-1a stimulating NPY release within the ARH activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. These POMC neurons project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and release β-endorphin. Estradiol treatment induces activation/internalization of MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOR) to inhibit lordosis. Estradiol membrane action modulates ARH gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-B (GABAB) activity. We tested the hypothesis that ARH GABAB receptors mediate estradiol-induced MOR activation and facilitation of sexual receptivity. Double label immunohistochemistry revealed expression of GABAB receptors in NPY, ERα and POMC expressing ARH neurons. Approximately 70% of POMC neurons expressed GABAB receptors. Because estradiol initially activates an inhibitory circuit and maintains activation of this circuit, the effects of blocking GABAB receptors were evaluated before estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment and after at the time of lordosis testing. Bilateral infusions of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP52432, into the ARH prior to EB treatment of ovariectomized rats prevented estradiol-induced activation/internalization of MPN MOR, and the rats remained unreceptive. However, in EB treated rats, bilateral CGP52432 infusions 30 minutes before behavior testing attenuated MOR internalization and facilitated lordosis. These results indicated that GABAB receptors were located within the lordosis-regulating ARH microcircuit and are necessary for activation and maintenance of the estradiol inhibition of lordosis behavior. Although GABAB receptors positively influence estradiol signaling, they negatively regulate lordosis behavior since GABAB activity maintains the estradiol-induced inhibition. PMID:23756153

  11. Correlation between the distribution of 3H-labelled enkephalin in rat brain and the anatomical regions involved in enkephalin-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffmans, J; Blankwater, Y J; Ukponmwan, O E; Zijlstra, F J; Vincent, J E; Hespe, W; Dzoljic, M R

    1983-08-01

    The correlation between the distribution of the intraventricularly (i.v.t.) administered delta agonist [3H](D-ala2,D-leu5)-enkephalin ([3H]DADL) and the anatomical regions involved in enkephalin-induced seizures has been studied in rat by using an autoradiographic method and recording of the electromyogram (EMG) and the electroencephalogram (EEG). The results indicate that within 10 min, the radioactivity of the intraventricularly administered drug reached all parts of the ventricular system, including the central canal of the spinal cord. However, within 2.5 min after the intraventricular administration of [3H]DADL, which corresponds to the onset of DADL-induced seizures, the substance appeared mainly in the left lateral ventricle and occasionally in the third ventricle. During the first 2.5 min the substance penetrated regularly into the surrounding periventricular tissue of the striatum, septum and hippocampus to a depth of about 100 microns. The most intensive and long-lasting epileptic discharges, exceeding 30 min were observed in the hippocampus, in contrast to the mild and short-lasting electrophysiological responses of the septum and corpus striatum. The experiments suggest that the short onset of enkephalin-induced excitatory phenomena is due to the rapid distribution and penetration of the substance in the surrounding periventricular tissue. According to these data, it is proposed that activation of delta opiate receptors, localized within the first 100 microns of the periventricular tissue, mainly in the hippocampus, is essential for the triggering of endorphin-induced seizure activity.

  12. Neuropeptides and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, O C

    1986-11-01

    There are four lines of evidence for or against a role of neuropeptides in epilepsy: Administration of a variety of opiate agonists into the ventricles or brain of animals produces a constellation of electrical and behavioral changes, seemingly receptor-specific, both sensitive to the specific opiate antagonist naloxone as well as certain anticonvulsant drugs. The primary reservation concerning these data in terms of their relevance to epilepsy regards the fact that the peptides are exogenously administered in relatively high doses. Hence, these data may reflect neurotoxic effects of peptides rather than physiologic function. A variety of opiate agonists are anticonvulsant and naloxone shortens the postictal state in some experimental seizure models. One could attempt to reconcile these data with those in No. 1 by hypothesizing that the spikes and behavioral changes examined in the latter experimental parodynes represented a sort of isolated model of the postictal state. Naloxone has little effect in clinical epilepsy. These data are far from conclusive for two reasons. First, few patients have been studied. Second, because of the issue of opiate receptor heterogeneity and the high doses of naloxone needed experimentally to block non-mu opiate effects, the doses of naloxone used clinically to date are too low to rule out possible delta- or epsilon-mediated effects. The negative clinical data are illustrative of the dangers and difficulties of extrapolating data generated in animal models of seizures to the human condition. ACTH, a peptide that is derived from the same precursor molecule as beta-endorphin, is clearly an effective anticonvulsant in certain childhood seizure states. However, whether this is due to a direct or indirect (that is, cortisol) effect on brain is far from clear. Paradoxically, in contradistinction to other data concerning pro- and anticonvulsant properties of various opioid peptides, there is no animal model of infantile spasms to help

  13. Physiological and behavioural effects of intradermal injection of sodium lauryl sulfate as an alternative to mulesing in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, I G; Paull, D R; Lee, C; Fisher, A D

    2010-12-01

    To assess the effects on physiology and behaviour of intradermal injection of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as an alternative to mulesing. Three groups of Merino lambs were studied: Control (n = 10), SLS (n = 11) and Mulesed (n = 11). The SLS group received SLS (7% w/v) and benzyl alcohol (20 mg/mL) in phosphate buffer, and the Mulesed group received 6 mL topical local anaesthetic as a wound dressing. Haematology, cortisol, beta-endorphin and haptoglobin concentrations, rectal temperatures, body weight and behaviours were monitored for up to 42 days post treatments. SLS treatment induced mild swelling followed by thin scab formation. Fever (>40°C) was observed at 12 and 24 h, cortisol concentration was elevated on days 1 and 2, haptoglobin concentration was highly elevated on days 2-7, white blood cell count was elevated on days 2 and 4 post treatment, but average daily gain was not affected. Fever at 12 h was significantly higher in the SLS than in the Mulesed group, whereas maximum temperature, temperature area under the curve (AUC), occurrence of fever, cortisol profile, cortisol AUC, white blood cell counts and haptoglobin concentrations until day 7 were comparable. The behaviours of normal standing, total standing and total lying were modified for 2 days by SLS treatment, but changes were less marked and of shorter duration than in the Mulesed group. On day 1, the SLS group spent <5% of time in total abnormal behaviours compared with 18% in the Mulesed group. The SLS group tended to spend more time in abnormal behaviours on day 1 than the Controls. The behaviour of the SLS group was similar to that of the unmulesed Controls and their physiological responses were intermediate between the Mulesed lambs receiving post-surgical analgesia and the Controls. © 2010 CSIRO. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Defining Subpopulations of Arcuate Nucleus GABA Neurons in Male, Female, and Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher J; Desroziers, Elodie; McLennan, Timothy; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Arcuate nucleus (ARN) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are implicated in many critical homeostatic mechanisms, from food intake to fertility. To determine the functional relevance of ARN GABA neurons, it is essential to define the neurotransmitters co-expressed with and potentially co-released from ARN GABA neurons. The present study investigated the expression of markers of specific signaling molecules by ARN GABA neurons in brain sections from male, female, and, in some cases, prenatally androgen-treated (PNA) female, vesicular GABA transporter (VGaT)-ires-Cre/tdTomato reporter mice. Immunofluorescence for kisspeptin, β-endorphin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was detected by confocal microscopy, and co-localization with tdTomato VGaT reporter expression throughout the ARN was quantified. GABA neurons rarely co-localized with kisspeptin (95%) co-localized with VGaT across groups. Both TH and nNOS labeling was co-localized with ∼10% of ARN GABA neurons. The proportion of TH neurons co-localized with VGaT was significantly greater in males than either control or PNA females, and the proportion of nNOS neurons co-localizing VGaT was higher in control and PNA females compared with males. These data highlight NPY as a significant subpopulation of ARN GABA neurons, demonstrate no significant impact of PNA on signal co-expression, and, for the first time, show sexually dimorphic co-expression patterns of TH and nNOS with ARN GABA neurons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Differential activation of G-proteins by μ-opioid receptor agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidak, Zuzana; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Hay, Debbie L; Northup, John K; Glass, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the ability of the activated μ-opioid receptor (MOR) to differentiate between myristoylated Gαi1 and GαoA type Gα proteins, and the maximal activity of a range of synthetic and endogenous agonists to activate each Gα protein. Membranes from HEK293 cells stably expressing transfected MOR were chaotrope extracted to denature endogenous G-proteins and reconstituted with specific purified G-proteins. The Gα subunits were generated in bacteria and were demonstrated to be recognised equivalently to bovine brain purified Gα protein by CB1 cannabinoid receptors. The ability of agonists to catalyse the MOR-dependent GDP/[35S]GTPγS exchange was then compared for Gαi1 and GαoA. Activation of MOR by DAMGO produced a high-affinity saturable interaction for GαoA (Km=20±1 nM) but a low-affinity interaction with Gαi1 (Km=116±12 nM). DAMGO, met-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin displayed maximal Gα activation among the agonists evaluated. Endomorphins 1 and 2, methadone and β-endorphin activated both Gα to more than 75% of the maximal response, whereas fentanyl partially activated both G-proteins. Buprenorphine and morphine demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the maximal activities between Gαi1 and GαoA. Interestingly, DAMGO, morphine, endomorphins 1 and 2, displayed significant differences in the potencies for the activation of the two Gα. Differences in maximal activity and potency, for Gαi1 versus GαoA, are both indicative of agonist selective activation of G-proteins in response to MOR activation. These findings may provide a starting point for the design of drugs that demonstrate greater selectivity between these two G-proteins and therefore produce a more limited range of effects. PMID:16415903

  16. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary exercise is the traditional way of improving performance of the human body in both the healthy and unhealthy states. Physiological responses to voluntary exercise are well documented. It benefits the functions of bone, joints, connective tissue, and muscle. In recent years, research has shown that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) simulates voluntary exercise in many ways. Generically, NMES can perform three major functions: suppression of pain, improve healing of soft tissues, and produce muscle contractions. Low frequency NMES may gate or disrupt the sensory input to the central nervous system which results in masking or control of pain. At the same time NMES may contribute to the activation of endorphins, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides, and ACTH which control pain and may even cause improved athletic performances. Soft tissue conditions such as wounds and inflammations have responded very favorably to NMES. NMES of various amplitudes can induce muscle contractions ranging from weak to intense levels. NMES seems to have made its greatest gains in rehabilitation where directed muscle contractions may improve joint ranges of motion correct joint contractures that result from shortening muscles; control abnormal movements through facilitating recruitment or excitation into the alpha motoneuron in orthopedically, neurologically, or healthy subjects with intense sensory, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive information; provide a conservative approach to management of spasticity in neurological patients; by stimulation of the antagonist muscle to a spastic muscle stimulation of the agonist muscle, and sensory habituation; serve as an orthotic substitute to conventional bracing used with stroke patients in lieu of dorsiflexor muscles in preventing step page gait and for shoulder muscles to maintain glenohumeral alignment to prevent subluxation; and of course NMES is used in maintaining or improving the performance or torque producing

  17. Telomerase activity and cellular aging might be positively modified by a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv Basant; Yadav, Rashmi; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Tolahunase, Madhuri; Dada, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies showed that a brief yoga-based lifestyle intervention was efficacious in reducing levels of oxidative stress and cellular aging in obese men. The objective of this case report was to assess the efficacy of this intervention in reducing the levels of biochemical markers of cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation at baseline (day 0), at the end of active intervention (day 10), and follow-up at day 90. Single case report from a prospective ongoing study with pre-post design assessing the level of various markers of cellular aging. Integral Health Clinic, an outpatient facility conducting meditation and yoga-based lifestyle intervention programs for management of chronic diseases. A 31-year-old man with class I obesity (body-mass index, 29.5 kg/m(2)) who presented to the medicine outpatient department at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, with a history of fatigue, difficulty losing weight, and lack of motivation. He noted a marked decrease in his energy level, particularly in the afternoon. A pretested intervention program included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized advice. From baseline (day 0) to day 90, the activity of telomerase and levels of β-endorphins, plasma cortisol, and interleukin-6 increased, and a sustained reduction in oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine levels. Adopting yoga/meditation-based lifestyle modification causes reversal of markers of aging, mainly oxidative stress, telomerase activity, and oxidative DNA damage. This may not only delay aging and prolong a youthful healthy life but also delay or prevent onset of several lifestyle-related diseases, of which oxidative stress and inflammation are the chief cause. This report suggests this simple lifestyle intervention may be therapeutic for oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress.

  18. Sports participation as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation in adolescents as mediated by self-esteem and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiss, Lindsay A; Gangwisch, James E

    2009-10-01

    Participation in sports has been shown to be protective against depression and suicidal ideation, but little is known about what factors mediate these relationships. No previous studies examined potential mediators between sports participation and suicidal ideation and only one study explored possible mediators between sports participation and depression. Increased sports participation could protect against depression and suicidal ideation by increasing endogenous endorphin levels, boosting self-esteem, improving body image, increasing social support, and affecting substance abuse. Multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses of Add Health data to explore whether increased participation in sports (none, 1-2, 3-4, or 5 or more times per week) is associated with depression and suicidal ideation and whether exercise, self-esteem, body weight, social support, and substance abuse mediate these relationships. As sports participation increases, the odds of suffering from depression decreases by 25% (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.70-0.82) and the odds of having suicidal ideation decreases by 12% (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.93) after controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, public assistance, and physical limitations. Substance abuse, body weight, and exercise did not mediate these associations. Consistent with self-esteem and social support acting as mediators of these relationships, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models attenuated the associations for depression (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.91) and suicidal ideation (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88-0.99). Adolescents should be offered ample opportunity and encouragement to participate in sports, which can protect against depression and suicidal ideation by boosting self-esteem and increasing social support.

  19. Effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia on serum pain mediators and placental hypoxia molecules after cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Yuan; Jian-Guo Xia; Xiao-Yang Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia on serum pain mediators and placental hypoxia molecules after cesarean section.Methods: 126 women accepting cesarean section in our hospital between May 2013 and December 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group of subjects received hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and control group of subjects accepted bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 1, 3 and 5 d after delivery, serum was collected to determine the levels of pain mediators; the placenta tissue was collected to detect the levels of oxidative stress molecules and endoplasmic reticulum stress molecules.Results: 1, 3 and 5 d after delivery, serum substance P (SP),β-endorphin (β-EP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO) and norepinephrine (NE) levels of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group whileβ-EP levels were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05); reactive oxide species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), GRP78, ERdj1, CHOP and ASK1 levels in placenta tissue of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and vitamin C (VitC) levels were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia can adjust the pain mediator secretion, relieve postoperative pain and inhibit oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  20. Tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 activate hypothalamic G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 to rapidly facilitate lordosis in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nathan; Long, Bertha; Mana, Asma; Le, Dream; Nguyen, Lam; Chokr, Sima; Sinchak, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    In the female rat, sexual receptivity (lordosis) can be facilitated by sequential activation of estrogen receptor (ER) α and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) by estradiol. In the estradiol benzoate (EB) primed ovariectomized (OVX) rat, EB initially binds to ERα in the plasma membrane that complexes with and transactivates metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a to activate β-endorphin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). This activates MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOP), inhibiting lordosis. Infusion of non-esterified 17β-estradiol into the ARH rapidly reduces MPN MOP activation and facilitates lordosis via GPER. Tamoxifen (TAM) and ICI 182,780 (ICI) are selective estrogen receptor modulators that activate GPER. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that TAM and ICI rapidly facilitate lordosis via activation of GPER in the ARH. Our first experiment demonstrated that injection of TAM intraperitoneal, or ICI into the lateral ventricle, deactivated MPN MOP and facilitated lordosis in EB-primed rats. We then tested whether TAM and ICI were acting rapidly through a GPER dependent pathway in the ARH. In EB-primed rats, ARH infusion of either TAM or ICI facilitated lordosis and reduced MPN MOP activation within 30min compared to controls. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the GPER antagonist, G15. Our findings demonstrate that TAM and ICI deactivate MPN MOP and facilitate lordosis in a GPER dependent manner. Thus, TAM and ICI may activate GPER in the CNS to produce estrogenic actions in neural circuits that modulate physiology and behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Aaron J; Stuart, Ronald C; Attard, Courtney A; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A; Low, Malcolm J

    2014-04-15

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24-48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis.

  2. Irregularidades menstruais: inter-relações com o psiquismo Menstrual irregularities: relationship with pshychic

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    Nilson Roberto de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dados provenientes de estudos em animais e humanos indicam que o estresse psicológico pode determinar alteração relevante sobre a função menstrual. Vários estudos procuraram analisar eventos estressores comuns - novo emprego, dificuldades financeiras, discussões diárias - e sua relação com características menstruais, como o intervalo e quantidade do fluxo, bem como com quadros de amenorréia. Sugere-se que as alterações menstruais funcionais resultam primariamente da ação direta dos hormônios do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal, provavelmente modulados por CRH, induzindo maior atividade de ACTH e beta-endorfina. Clinicamente, os quadros mais freqüentemente associados aos distúrbios psíquicos referem-se às anovulações de origem central e às amenorréias hipotalâmicas. A caracterização do envolvimento psíquico nessas condições representa elemento fundamental para a adequada abordagem terapêutica.Data from both animal and human research indicate that psychological stress is associated with altered menstrual function. A number of studies have examined the relationship between more common stressors (job strain, financial worries, daily hassles and menstrual cycle characteristics, such as cycle length and quality of bleeding, as well as amenorrhea. Numerous investigators have suggested that functional reproductive deficits result primarily from direct actions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical, probably modulated by a CRH-stimulated increase in the opioid beta-endorphin. The characterization of the psychic envolvement in these conditions represents basic element for the adequate therapeutical approach.

  3. Molecular characterization of opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research was to purify and characterize active opioid receptors and elucidate molecular aspects of opioid receptor heterogeneity. Purification to apparent homogeneity of an opioid binding protein from bovine caudate was achieved by solubilization in the non-ionic detergent, digitonin, followed by sequential chromatography on the opiate affinity matrix, ..beta..-naltrexylethylenediamine-CH-Sepharose 4B, and on the lectine affinity matrix, wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) followed by autoradiography revealed that radioiodinated purified receptor gave a single band. Purified receptor preparations showed a specific activity of 12,000-15,000 fmol of opiate bound per mg of protein. Radioiodinated human beta-endorphin (/sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/) was used as a probe to investigate the ligand binding subunits of mu and delta opioid receptors. /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ was shown to bind to a variety of opioid receptor-containing tissues with high affinity and specificity with preference for mu and delta sites, and with little, if any, binding to kappa sites. Affinity crosslinking techniques were employed to covalently link /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ to opioid receptors, utilizing derivatives of bis-succinimidyl esters that are bifunctional crosslinkers with specificities for amino and sulfhydryl groups. This, and competition experiments with high type-selective ligands, permitted the assignment of two labeled peptides to their receptor types, namely a peptide of M/sub r/ = 65,000 for mu receptors and one of M/sub r/ = 53,000 for delta receptors.

  4. Prospective Tests on Biological Models of Acupuncture

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    Charles Shang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of acupuncture include the regulation of a variety of neurohumoral factors and growth control factors. In science, models or hypotheses with confirmed predictions are considered more convincing than models solely based on retrospective explanations. Literature review showed that two biological models of acupuncture have been prospectively tested with independently confirmed predictions: The neurophysiology model on the long-term effects of acupuncture emphasizes the trophic and anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture. Its prediction on the peripheral effect of endorphin in acupuncture has been confirmed. The growth control model encompasses the neurophysiology model and suggests that a macroscopic growth control system originates from a network of organizers in embryogenesis. The activity of the growth control system is important in the formation, maintenance and regulation of all the physiological systems. Several phenomena of acupuncture such as the distribution of auricular acupuncture points, the long-term effects of acupuncture and the effect of multimodal non-specific stimulation at acupuncture points are consistent with the growth control model. The following predictions of the growth control model have been independently confirmed by research results in both acupuncture and conventional biomedical sciences: (i Acupuncture has extensive growth control effects. (ii Singular point and separatrix exist in morphogenesis. (iii Organizers have high electric conductance, high current density and high density of gap junctions. (iv A high density of gap junctions is distributed as separatrices or boundaries at body surface after early embryogenesis. (v Many acupuncture points are located at transition points or boundaries between different body domains or muscles, coinciding with the connective tissue planes. (vi Some morphogens and organizers continue to function after embryogenesis. Current acupuncture research suggests a

  5. Stereochemical Basis for a Unified Structure Activity Theory of Aromatic and Heterocyclic Rings in Selected Opioids and Opioid Peptides

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    Joel S. Goldberg

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel unified theory of the structure activity relationship of opioids and opioid peptides. It is hypothesized that a virtual or known heterocyclic ring exists in all opioids which have activity in humans, and this ring occupies relative to the aromatic ring of the drug, approximately the same plane in space as the piperidine ring of morphine. Since the rings of morphine are rigid, and the aromatic and piperidine rings are critical structural components for morphine’s analgesic properties, the rigid morphine molecule allows for approximations of the aromatic and heterocyclic relationships in subsequent drug models where bond rotations are common. This hypothesis and five propositions are supported by stereochemistry and experimental observations. Proposition #1 The structure of morphine provides a template. Proposition #2 Steric hindrance of some centric portion of the piperidine ring explains antagonist properties of naloxone, naltrexone and alvimopam. Proposition #3 Methadone has an active conformation which contains a virtual heterocyclic ring which explains its analgesic activity and racemic properties. Proposition #4 The piperidine ring of fentanyl can assume the morphine position under conditions of nitrogen inversion. Proposition #5 The first 3 amino acid sequences of beta endorphin (l-try-gly-gly and the active opioid dipeptide, l-tyr-pro, (as a result of a peptide turn and zwitterion bonding form a virtual piperazine-like ring which is similar in size, shape and location to the heterocyclic rings of morphine, meperidine, and methadone. Potential flaws in this theory are discussed. This theory could be important for future analgesic drug design.

  6. The opioid receptors of the rat periaqueductal gray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedynyshyn, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The opioid binding characteristics of the rat (PAG) and the signal transduction mechanisms of the opioid receptors were examined with in vitro radioligand binding, GTPase, adenylyl cyclase, and inositol phosphate assays. The nonselective ligand {sup 3}H-ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), the {mu} and {delta} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Ala{sup 2}, D-Leu{sup 5}) enkephalin (DADLE), the {mu} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Ala{sup 2}, N-methyl Phe{sup 4}, Glyol{sup 5}) enkephalin (DAGO), and the {delta} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5}) enkephalin (DPDPE) were separately used as tracer ligands to label opioid binding sites in rat PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane in competition with unlabeled DADLE, DAGO, DPDPE, or the {kappa} selective ligand trans-3,4-dichloro-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide, methane sulfonate, hydrate (U50, 488H). Only {mu} selective high affinity opioid binding was observed. No high affinity {delta} or {kappa} selective binding was detected. {sup 3}H-DAGO was used as a tracer ligand to label {mu} selective high affinity opioid binding sites in PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane in competition with unlabeled {beta}-endorphin, dynorphin A (1-17), BAM-18, methionine enkephalin, dynorphin A (1-8), and leucine enkephalin. Of these endogenous opioid peptides only those with previously reported high affinity {mu} type opioid binding activity competed with {sup 3}H-DAGO for binding sites in rat PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane with affinities similar to that of unlabeled DAGO.

  7. Role of Endogenous Opioid System in Ischemic-Induced Late Preconditioning.

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    Jan Fraessdorf

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors (OR are involved in myocardial late preconditioning (LPC induced by morphine and δ1-opioid receptor (δ1-OR agonists. The role of OR in ischemic-induced LPC is unknown. We investigated whether 1 OR are involved in the trigger and/or mediation phase of LPC and 2 a time course effect on the expression of different opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands exists.Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups (each group n = 8. Awake animals were ischemic preconditioned by a 5 minutes coronary occlusion. 24 hours later, anesthetized animals underwent 25 minutes coronary occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. The role of OR was investigated by treatment with intraperitoneal naloxone (Nal 10 minutes prior to LPC (Nal-LPC; trigger phase or 10 min prior to sustained ischemia (LPC-Nal; mediation phase.LPC reduced infarct size from 61±10% in controls to 25±9% (P<0.001. Naloxone during trigger or mediation phase completely abolished LPC-induced cardioprotection (59±9% and 62±9%; P<0.001 vs. LPC. 8, 12 and 24 hours after the ischemic stimulus, expression of δ-OR in the heart was increased, whereas μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR and κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR were not. Plasma concentrations of β-endorphin and leu-enkephalin but not dynorphin were increased by LPC.Ischemic LPC is triggererd and mediated by OR. Expression of δ-OR and plasma levels of endogenous opioid peptides are increased after ischemic LPC.

  8. CAM and Cell Fate Targeting: Molecular and Energetic Insights into Cell Growth and Differentiation

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    Carlo Ventura

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence–based CAM.

  9. Influence of different anesthesia methods on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations

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    Lin Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia method on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations. Methods: A total of 90 cases of elder patients who received orthopedic operations were randomly divided to group A, B and C, with 30 cases per group. Three groups of patients were separately given by general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia for operations; The variations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, Cortisol (Cor, β-endorphin (β-EP, Angiotensin- Ⅱ(Ang-Ⅱ, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (SBP, DBP on patients in three groups before anesthesia (T0, during skin incision (T1, after skin incision (T2 and extubation after operation (T3 were compared and analyzed. Results: During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP and Ang-Ⅱlevels in 3 groups of patients were significantly higher than those during T0; SBP and DBP were significantly lower than that during T0; HR during T2 was significantly lower than that during T0; During T3, every index in 3 groups were recovered to levels close to that during T0; During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP, Ang-Ⅱ levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A. And levels in C was lower than that in B; SBP and DBP in group B and C were significantly higher than A. No HR statistical significance appeared between each group. Conclusions: During clinical anesthesia, we should choose suitable anesthesia method combined with actual situations of patients. Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia had a slight influence on hemodynamics of elder orthopedics patients during operation, and it could effectively alleviate stress reaction during operation.

  10. Neuropeptide levels in Dercum's disease (adiposis dolorosa

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    H. Brorson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dercum’s disease (adiposis dolorosa is characterised by adiposity and chronic pain in the adipose tissue. It has been proposed that conditions encompassing chronic pain have altered concentrations of neuropeptides involved in pain transmission. The aim of this investigation was to examine whether patients with Dercum’s disease have abnormal concentrations of different neuropeptides. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in plasma (P from 53 patients with Dercum’s disease substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI, neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI, b-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (b-END-LI, calcitonin gene-related peptidelike immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI, met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity (m-ENK-LI, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI, somatostatin (SOM-LI, g2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-like immunoreactivity (g2-MSH-LI, and dynorphin-like immunoreactivity (DYN-LI were measured. Three of the substances were also measured in a control group. The CSF concentration of SP was statistically significantly lower in the Dercum group than in the control group, whereas NPY-LI and b-END-LI were borderline statistically significantly lower and higher, respectively, in Dercum patients compared to controls. Compared with reference values, CSF-MSH-LI levels were slightly elevated and CSF-NPY-LI levels were slightly lowered in the Dercum group. The other substances in both CSF and plasma were within the reference values with a high degree of statistical significance. In conclusion, altered levels of neuropeptides that have previously been seen in different pain conditions cannot clearly be demonstrated in Dercum’s disease.

  11. Effects of naltrexone in postnatal rats on the recovery of disturbed brain and lymphatic tissues after X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea treatment in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.G.; Plendl, J.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid systems in preweaning development after intrauterine exposure to X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) was explored in rats using naltrexone, a potent antagonist of beta-endorphin. After daily s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg naltrexone only the prenatally untreated controls had body weights increased by 11% from control level on day 28 (weaning). In the X-irradiated as well as the ENU-treated pups no significant effects of naltrexone on body weight gain were observed. However, brain weight increased in all animals under the influence of naltrexone, irrespective of prenatal treatment or the severity of brain lesions: 9.5% above control values in untreated offspring and 14% after X-irradiation (1 Gy) on gestation day 14. The brain weight of ENU-treated rats (50 mg/kg on gest. day 14) was 13% higher after postnatal naltrexone application than that of their postnatally untreated counterparts. ENU (80 mg/kg) effects on the brain when given on gestation day 18 were ameliorated to 9.2% by naltrexone in the weaning period. Naltrexone significantly increased the thymus weight in controls. Prenatally treated animals also showed an increased thymus weight at weaning, presumably due to compensatory growth. In these cases naltrexone revealed a suppressive effect on the thymus, whereas spleen weight was apparently not influenced by naltrexone treatment. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenous opioid systems play a crucial role not only in normal development, but also in reparative growth events of the brain after prenatal injuries. The thymus, predominantly containing T-lymphocytes, seems to represent another sensitive system which is regulated under the influence of opioids.

  12. Effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia on serum pain mediators and placental hypoxia molecules after cesarean section

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    Xiao-Hui Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia on serum pain mediators and placental hypoxia molecules after cesarean section. Methods: 126 women accepting cesarean section in our hospital between May 2013 and December 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group of subjects received hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and control group of subjects accepted bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 1, 3 and 5 d after delivery, serum was collected to determine the levels of pain mediators; the placenta tissue was collected to detect the levels of oxidative stress molecules and endoplasmic reticulum stress molecules. Results: 1, 3 and 5 d after delivery, serum substance P (SP, β-endorphin (β-EP, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, nitric oxide (NO and norepinephrine (NE levels of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while β-EP levels were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; reactive oxide species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS, GRP78, ERdj1, CHOP and ASK1 levels in placenta tissue of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and vitamin C (VitC levels were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hydromorphone hydrochloride combined with bupivacaine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia can adjust the pain mediator secretion, relieve postoperative pain and inhibit oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  13. Mycobacteria attenuate nociceptive responses by formyl peptide receptor triggered opioid peptide release from neutrophils.

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    Heike L Rittner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In inflammation, pain is regulated by a balance of pro- and analgesic mediators. Analgesic mediators include opioid peptides which are secreted by neutrophils at the site of inflammation, leading to activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. In humans, local opioids and opioid peptides significantly downregulate postoperative as well as arthritic pain. In rats, inflammatory pain is induced by intraplantar injection of heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum, a component of complete Freund's adjuvant. We hypothesized that mycobacterially derived formyl peptide receptor (FPR and/or toll like receptor (TLR agonists could activate neutrophils, leading to opioid peptide release and inhibition of inflammatory pain. In complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the paw were quantified (Hargreaves and Randall-Selitto methods, respectively. Withdrawal time to heat was decreased following systemic neutrophil depletion as well as local injection of opioid receptor antagonists or anti-opioid peptide (i.e. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin antibodies indicating an increase in pain. In vitro, opioid peptide release from human and rat neutrophils was measured by radioimmunoassay. Met-enkephalin release was triggered by Mycobacterium butyricum and formyl peptides but not by TLR-2 or TLR-4 agonists. Mycobacterium butyricum induced a rise in intracellular calcium as determined by FURA loading and calcium imaging. Opioid peptide release was blocked by intracellular calcium chelation as well as phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition. The FPR antagonists Boc-FLFLF and cyclosporine H reduced opioid peptide release in vitro and increased inflammatory pain in vivo while TLR 2/4 did not appear to be involved. In summary, mycobacteria activate FPR on neutrophils, resulting in tonic secretion of opioid peptides from neutrophils and in a decrease in inflammatory pain. Future therapeutic strategies may aim

  14. Concomitant duplications of opioid peptide and receptor genes before the origin of jawed vertebrates.

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    Görel Sundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The opioid system is involved in reward and pain mechanisms and consists in mammals of four receptors and several peptides. The peptides are derived from four prepropeptide genes, PENK, PDYN, PNOC and POMC, encoding enkephalins, dynorphins, orphanin/nociceptin and beta-endorphin, respectively. Previously we have described how two rounds of genome doubling (2R before the origin of jawed vertebrates formed the receptor family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Opioid peptide gene family members were investigated using a combination of sequence-based phylogeny and chromosomal locations of the peptide genes in various vertebrates. Several adjacent gene families were investigated similarly. The results show that the ancestral peptide gene gave rise to two additional copies in the genome doublings. The fourth member was generated by a local gene duplication, as the genes encoding POMC and PNOC are located on the same chromosome in the chicken genome and all three teleost genomes that we have studied. A translocation has disrupted this synteny in mammals. The PDYN gene seems to have been lost in chicken, but not in zebra finch. Duplicates of some peptide genes have arisen in the teleost fishes. Within the prepropeptide precursors, peptides have been lost or gained in different lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ancestral peptide and receptor genes were located on the same chromosome and were thus duplicated concomitantly. However, subsequently genetic linkage has been lost. In conclusion, the system of opioid peptides and receptors was largely formed by the genome doublings that took place early in vertebrate evolution.

  15. Cyr61/CCN1 displays high-affinity binding to the somatomedin B(1-44 domain of vitronectin.

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    Ivo M B Francischetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyr61 is a member of the CCN (Cyr61, connective tissue growth, NOV family of extracellular-associated (matricellular proteins that present four distinct functional modules, namely insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP, von Willebrand factor type C (vWF, thrombospondin type 1 (TSP, and C-terminal growth factor cysteine knot (CT domain. While heparin sulphate proteoglycans reportedly mediate the interaction of Cyr61 with the matrix and cell surface, the role of other extracellular associated proteins has not been revealed.In this report, surface plasmon resonance (SPR experiments and solid-phase binding assays demonstrate that recombinant Cyr61 interacts with immobilized monomeric or multimeric vitronectin (VTNC with K(D in the nanomolar range. Notably, the binding site for Cyr61 was identified as the somatomedin B domain (SMTB(1-44 of VTNC, which mediates its interaction with PAI-1, uPAR, and integrin alphav beta3. Accordingly, PAI-1 outcompetes Cyr61 for binding to immobilized SMTB(1-44, and Cyr61 attenuates uPAR-mediated U937 adhesion to VTNC. In contrast, isothermal titration calorimetry shows that Cyr61 does not display high-affinity binding for SMTB(1-44 in solution. Nevertheless, competitive ELISA revealed that multimeric VTNC, heat-modified monomeric VTNC, or SMTB(1-44 at high concentrations attenuate Cyr61 binding to immobilized VTNC, while monomeric VTNC was ineffective. Therefore, immobilization of VTNC exposes cryptic epitopes that recognize Cyr61 with high affinity, as reported for a number of antibodies, beta-endorphin, and other molecules.The finding that Cyr61 interacts with the SMTB(1-44 domain suggests that VTNC represent a point of anchorage for CCN family members to the matrix. Results are discussed in the context of the role of CCN and VTNC in matrix biology and angiogenesis.

  16. Pet imaging of human pituitary 5-HT2 receptors with F-18 setoperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischman, A.J.; Bonab, A.A.; Babich, J.W. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors play an important role in the regulation of pituitary function. In particular, 5HT agonists stimulate ACTH, {beta}-endorphin, prolactin and growth hormone secretion but inhibit TSH release. 5-HT binding sites have been identified by autoradiographic studies of rat and human pituitary. In the present investigation, we used PET with F-18 setoperone to image 5-HT2 receptors in normal humans. Setoperone, a piperidine derivative with potent 5-HT2 receptor blocking properties was labelled with F-18 by nucleophilic substitution on the nitro derivative. After HPLC purification, specific activity was between 10,000 and 15,000 mCi/{mu} mole and radiochemical purity was >98%. Six healthy male volunteers were injected with 5-7 mCi of F-18. Setoperone and serial PET images and arterial blood samples were collected over 2 hrs. Specific binding to 5-HT2 receptors in the frontal cortex (FC), striatum (ST) and pituitary (P) was quantitated using the cerebellum (C) as reference. The tracer showed clear retention in FC, ST and P (known to contain a high density of 5-HT2 receptors) relative to C (known to be devoid of 5-HT2 receptors). In all subjects, FC/C, ST/C and P/C ratios increased during the first hr. and remained stable thereafter. For FC and ST, the ratios reached similar values; 3.92{plus_minus}0.73 and 3.53{plus_minus}0.32. For pituitary, a significantly higher ratio, was measured at all times; 6.53{plus_minus}1.82 (p<0.01). These results indicate that F-18 setoperone is an effective PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging 5-HT2 receptors in the human pituitary. Future applications of this agent could provide important new insights into neuroendocrine function.

  17. Effect of Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors on hyperalgesia in rats with CFA-induced inflammation via direct and indirect mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianping; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Huo, Yuping; Chen, Tingjun; Hu, Fenjuan; Quirion, Rémi; Hong, Yanguo

    2013-11-01

    Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) receptors are exclusively distributed in small-sized neurons in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We investigated the effects of MrgC receptor activation on inflammatory hyperalgesia and its mechanisms. A selective MrgC receptor agonist, bovine adrenal medulla peptide 8-22 (BAM8-22) or melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) or the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist CTAP was administered intrathecally (i.t.) in rats injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in one hindpaw. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed. Neurochemicals were measured by immunocytochemistry, Western blot, ELISA and RT-PCR. CFA injection increased mRNA for MrgC receptors in lumbar DRG. BAM8-22 or MSH, given i.t., generated instant short and delayed long-lasting attenuations of CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. These effects were associated with decreased up-regulation of neuronal NOS (nNOS), CGRP and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn and/or DRG. However, i.t. administration of CTAP blocked the induction by BAM8-22 of delayed anti-hyperalgesia and inhibition of nNOS and CGRP expression in DRG. BAM8-22 also increased mRNA for MORs and pro-opiomelanocortin, along with β-endorphin content in the lumbar spinal cord and/or DRG. MrgC receptors and nNOS were co-localized in DRG neurons. Activation of MrgC receptors suppressed up-regulation of pronociceptive mediators and consequently inhibited inflammatory pain, because of the activation of up-regulated MrgC receptors and subsequent endogenous activity at MORs. The uniquely distributed MrgC receptors could be a novel target for relieving inflammatory pain. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Some Sociological, Medical and Legislative Views on Video Game Addiction (A Slovenian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goriup Jana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide play video games; also in Slovenian post-modern society. Most of them do it for enjoyment, yet a small number of individuals show traits associated with addictive behaviour when interacting with their games. The authors in the article point out that, compared to drug abuse, there exist some more approachable life-related activities that can lead to addiction. They stimulate the excretion of endorphins and lead to the transformation of consciousness. Addiction to video games is an ostensible attempt to satisfy the immanent human need for meaning. The economy of the Slovenian young consumer society inspires it and is based on “learning” of these alienated needs. The modern hyperpragmatic society makes it possible for young people to have a fragmented identity and places them under the pressure of constant choice of (formally open opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the reader with possible causes, clinical signs and methods of treatment of this disorder in Slovenian postmodern society, and explain the reasons why currently no medical textbook in the world contains any information regarding video game addiction. We intend, further, to demonstrate that gaming has become a type of “sport” in certain countries and demonstrate how potentially devastating even this type of addiction can be. The authors present the results of a research, which was undertaken on a sample of 350 individuals, to determine the appearance of indicators of behavioural addiction to video games and their connection with some family factors. They determine that through addiction to video games, post-modern societies have developed an addictive identity.

  19. The neurobiology of pleasure, reward processes, addiction and their health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2004-08-01

    Modern science begins to understand pleasure as a potential component of salutogenesis. Thereby, pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. Further, health implications related to pleasurable activities are analyzed. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors, i.e., motivational toxicity. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, endorphin and endogenous morphinergic mechanisms may play a role. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways. Thus, the concrete outcome of pleasant experiences may be a question of dose. Moderate pleasurable experiences are able to enhance biological flexibility and health. Hence, pleasure can be a resistance resource or may serve salutogenesis. Natural rewards are mediated by sensory organ stimulation, thereby exhibiting a potential association with complementary medical approaches. Trust and belief can be part of a self-healing potential connected with rewarding stimuli. Further, the placebo response physiologically resembles pleasure phenomena, since both involve brain's reward circuitry stimulation and subjective feelings of well-being. Pleasurable activities can stimulate

  20. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring 45 Ca 2+ uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that β-endorphin 1-31 (β-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca 2+ uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that β-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca 2+ uptake was not affected by β-END 1-31. β-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca 2+ uptake by either cell type. Using [ 3 H]thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, β-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. β-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by β-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca 2+ influx was not a major mechanism involved

  1. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres.

  2. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, J M; Garner, M M; Chilton, J A; Jacobson, E R; Kiupel, M

    2009-11-01

    This article describes a newly recognized highly malignant neoplastic entity in young bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, which readily metastasize. Ten bearded dragons with histories of anorexia (8), vomiting (3), hyperglycemia (2), and anemia (3) were included in this study. All animals had neoplastic masses in their stomach, with metastasis to the liver. Microscopically, 6 of these neuroendocrine carcinomas were well-differentiated and 4 were poorly differentiated. For further characterization, immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5, neuron-specific enolase, endorphin, chromogranins A and B, synaptophysin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide was performed on 5 animals. Because only immunolabeling for somatostatin was consistently observed in all neoplasms, a diagnosis of somatostatinoma was made for these 5 bearded dragons. Some neoplasms also exhibited multihormonal expression. Electron microscopy performed on 1 tumor confirmed the presence of neuroendocrine granules within neoplastic cells. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, and specifically somatostatinomas, have not been previously reported in bearded dragons, or other reptiles, and may be underdiagnosed due to inconsistent, ambiguous clinical signs. In humans, pancreatic somatostatinomas are associated with a syndrome of hypersomatostatinemia, which includes hyperglycemia, weight loss, and anemia, as observed in some of these bearded dragons. Somatostatinomas in humans are commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (Von Recklinghausen's disease), caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene NF1, which results in decreased expression of neurofibromin. In all 5 animals examined, neoplasms exhibited decreased neurofibromin expression compared with control tissues, suggesting that decreased functional neurofibromin may play a role in the pathogenesis of somatostatinomas in bearded dragons.

  3. The effects of piracetam on heroin-induced CPP and neuronal apoptosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Li, Min; Bai, Yanping; Lu, Wei; Ling, Xiaomei; Li, Weidong

    2015-05-01

    Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor that has been used in the treatment of cognitive disorders for decades. Recent surveys and drug analyses have demonstrated that a heroin mixture adulterated with piracetam has spread rapidly in heroin addicts in China, but its addictive properties and the damage it causes to the central neural system are currently unknown. The effect of piracetam on the reward properties of heroin was assessed by conditioned place preference (CPP). Electron microscopy and radioimmunoassay were used to compare the effects of heroin mixed with equivalent piracetam (HP) and heroin alone on neuronal apoptosis and the levels of beta-endorphin (β-EP) in different brain subregions within the corticolimbic system, respectively. Piracetam significantly enhanced heroin-induced CPP expression while piracetam itself didn't induce CPP. Morphological observations showed that HP-treated rats had less neuronal apoptosis than heroin-treated group. Interestingly, HP normalized the levels of β-EP in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) subregions, in where heroin-treated rats showed decreased levels of β-EP. These results indicate that piracetam potentiate the heroin-induced CPP and protect neurons from heroin-induced apoptosis. The protective role of HP might be related to the restoration of β-EP levels by piracetam. Our findings may provide a potential interpretation for the growing trend of HP abuse in addicts in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the central amygdala induces antinociception in the guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite-Panissi C.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA in the modulation of defensive behavior and in antinociceptive regulation. In a previous study, we demonstrated the existence of a cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the CEA, modulating the defensive response of tonic immobility in guinea pigs. In the present study, we investigated a similar interaction in the CEA, but now involved in the regulation of the nociceptive response. Microinjection of carbachol (2.7 nmol and morphine (2.2 nmol into the CEA promoted antinociception up to 45 min after microinjection in guinea pigs as determined by a decrease in the vocalization index in the vocalization test. This test consists of the application of a peripheral noxious stimulus (electric shock into the subcutaneous region of the thigh that provokes the emission of a vocalization response by the animal. Furthermore, the present results demonstrated that the antinociceptive effect of carbachol (2.7 nmol; N = 10 was blocked by previous administration of atropine (0.7 nmol; N = 7 or naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 7 into the same site. In addition, the decrease in the vocalization index induced by the microinjection of morphine (2.2 nmol; N = 9 into the CEA was prevented by pretreatment with naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 11. All sites of injection were confirmed by histology. These results indicate the involvement of the cholinergic and opioidergic systems of the CEA in the modulation of antinociception in guinea pigs. In addition, the present study suggests that cholinergic transmission may activate the release of endorphins/enkephalins from interneurons of the CEA, resulting in antinociception.

  5. Specific binding of 125I-salmon calcitonin to rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamuta, Hiromichi; Furukawa, Shinichi; Koida, Masao; Yajima, Haruaki; Orlowski, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Rat brain particulate fraction was found to contain binding sites for 125 I-Salmon Calcitonin-I ( 125 I-SCT). Maximum binding occurred in the physiological pH range of 7.25 - 7.5. The binding reaction proceeded in a temperature-dependent manner. Binding sites were broadly distributed among the various rat brain regions and considerable regional differences existed in the affinity and density as detected by Scatchard analysis. The highest affinity was recorded in the case of the hypothalamus and the lowest in the case of the cerebellum. The KD (nM) and Bmax (pmole/mg protein) estimated for the binding to four regions were as follows: hypothalamus: 1.4 and 0.19, midbrain, hippocampus plus striatum: 1.5 and 0.08, pon plus medulla oblongata: 3.0 and 0.15 and cerebellum: 8.3 and 0.20. Using a particulate fraction of rat brain void of cerebellum and cortices, a binding assay for calcitonins was developed. Binding of 125 I-SCT was inhibited by unlabeled salmon, [Asu sup(1,7)]-eel and porcine calcitonins in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50s were 2.0, 8.0 and 30 nM, respectively. The IC50s were comparable to those estimated using a kidney particulate fraction. Human calcitonin, β-endorphin and substance P were weak inhibitors of the binding. Other peptides, drugs and putative neurotransmitters tested (totally 23 substances) failed to inhibit the binding at concentrations of 1.0 μM. The physiological significance of brain binding sites for calcitonin, with the possibility that the brain may possess endogenous ligands for these sites are discussed. (author)

  6. The Opioid System in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Functional Role and Therapeutic Potential

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    Johannes Burtscher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is considered to be one of the most common and severe forms of focal epilepsies. Patients often develop cognitive deficits and emotional blunting along the progression of the disease. The high incidence of resistance to antiepileptic drugs and a frequent lack of admissibility to surgery poses an unmet medical challenge. In the urgent quest of novel treatment strategies, neuropeptides are interesting candidates, however, their therapeutic potential has not yet been exploited. This review focuses on the functional role of the endogenous opioid system with respect to temporal lobe epilepsy, specifically in the hippocampus. The role of dynorphins and kappa opioid receptors (KOPr as modulators of neuronal excitability is well understood: both the reduced release of glutamate as well of postsynaptic hyperpolarization were shown in glutamatergic neurons. In line with this, low levels of dynorphin in humans and mice increase the risk of epilepsy development. The role of enkephalins is not understood so well. On one hand, some agonists of the delta opioid receptors (DOPr display pro-convulsant properties probably through inhibition of GABAergic interneurons. On the other hand, enkephalins play a neuro-protective role under hypoxic or anoxic conditions, most probably through positive effects on mitochondrial function. Despite the supposed absence of endorphins in the hippocampus, exogenous activation of the mu opioid receptors (MOPr induces pro-convulsant effects. Recently-expanded knowledge of the complex ways opioid receptors ligands elicit their effects (including biased agonism, mixed binding, and opioid receptor heteromers, opens up exciting new therapeutic potentials with regards to seizures and epilepsy. Potential adverse side effects of KOPr agonists may be minimized through functional selectivity. Preclinical data suggest a high potential of such compounds to control seizures, with a strong predictive validity toward human

  7. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Oral Sucrose and Emla Cream in Reduction of Acute Pain Due to Heel Sticks for Blood Sampling in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abyari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Certain painful, invasive procedures are necessary for care, and are commonly performed in both healthly and sick neonates. Current evidence shows that the newborn infant has both physiologic and anatomic capacity to experience pain. Recent research suggests that pain experienced in the neonatal period might have long-term effects later in life. Previous research has shown that orally administered sweet-tasting solutions reduce signs of pain during painful procedures. This effect is considered to be mediated both by the release of endorphins and by a preabsorptive mechanism related to the sweet taste. Methods: This study was a controlled , randomized and double – blind study on 210 neonates. These newborns were randomly divided into 3 groups; A, B and C. Group A received 2 ml of 25% sucrose orally as well as base cream was applied at the site for heel stick, group B received 2 ml of distilled water and application of EMLA cream, while group C received 2 ml of distilled water and base cream. The heart rates of the newborn were recorded by the cardiac monitor before and after heel stick blood sampling and the duration of crying was determined as well. Pain was scored by DAN scale.There were no differences in demographic characteristics of all neonates. Results: The results showed that the DAN scale was significantly lower in the sucrose group (mean : 3.840 as compared to the EMLA group (mean: 3.366 and the placebo group(5.557, but the difference in the duration of crying was not significantly different in the sucrose group (mean: 10.5 second and the EMLA group(mean 8.76. Conclusion: Both sucrose and EMLA are effective in reducing stress associated with heel lancet in newborns, but as sucrose acts faster and is healthier, its usage is proposed in neonates requiring heel sticks for blood sampling.

  8. Consequences of the 118A>G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene: translation from bench to bedside?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elisa Mura,1 Stefano Govoni,1 Marco Racchi,1 Valeria Carossa,1 Guglielmina Nadia Ranzani,2 Massimo Allegri,3,4 Ron HN van Schaik5 1Department of Drug Sciences, Centre of Excellence in Applied Biology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Pain Therapy Service, Foundation IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy; 4Department of Clinical, Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 5Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Abstract: The 118A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the µ-opioid receptor (OPRM1 gene has been the most described variant in pharmacogenetic studies regarding opioid drugs. Despite evidence for an altered biological function encoded by this variant, this knowledge is not yet utilized clinically. The aim of the present review was to collect and discuss the available information on the 118A>G SNP in the OPRM1 gene, at the molecular level and in its clinical manifestations. In vitro biochemical and molecular assays have shown that the variant receptor has higher binding affinity for ß-endorphins, that it has altered signal transduction cascade, and that it has a lower expression compared with wild-type OPRM1. Studies using animal models for 118A>G have revealed a double effect of the variant receptor, with an apparent gain of function with respect to the response to endogenous opioids but a loss of function with exogenous administered opioid drugs. Although patients with this variant have shown a lower pain threshold and a higher drug consumption in order to achieve the analgesic effect, clinical experiences have demonstrated that patients carrying the variant allele are not affected by the increased opioid consumption in terms of side effects. Keywords: µ-opioid receptor, opioids, pharmacogenetics, pain, analgesia

  9. Interleukin-1 interaction with neuroregulatory systems: selective enhancement by recombinant human and mouse interleukin-1 of in vitro opioid peptide receptor binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedermann, C.J.

    1989-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) exerts a wide variety of biological effects on various cell types and may be regarded as a pleiotropic peptide hormone. Biological evidence suggests that IL-1 participates in the modulation of central nervous system physiology and behavior in a fashion characteristic of neuroendocrine hormones. In this investigation, recombinant (r) human (h) IL-1 and r mouse (m) IL-1 were examined for their modulation of opioid peptide receptor binding in vitro. Experiments were performed on frozen sections of rat brain. Receptor binding of radiolabeled substance P and of radiolabeled neurotensin were not significantly affected by the presence of rIL-1s. Recombinant IL-1s, however, significantly enhanced specific binding of 125I-beta-endorphin (125I-beta-END) and of D-ala2-(tyrosyl-3,5-3H)enkephalin-(5-D-leucine) (3H-D-ALA), equipotently and in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal activity occurring at a concentration of 10 LAF units/ml. The increased binding of 125I-beta-END and 3H-D-ALA was blocked steroselectively by (-)-naloxone and by etorphine, suggesting detection of opiate receptors. In addition, brain distribution patterns of receptors labeled in the presence of rIL-1s corresponded to patterns previously published for opiate receptors. Autoradiographic visualization of receptors revealed that rIL-1s in the different areas of the brain exert their effect on opioid binding with comparable potencies. The data suggest that certain central nervous system effects of IL-1s may be mediated by their selective interaction with opiatergic systems at the receptor level.

  10. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that {beta}-endorphin 1-31 ({beta}-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca{sup 2+} uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that {beta}-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} uptake was not affected by {beta}-END 1-31. {beta}-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca{sup 2+} uptake by either cell type. Using ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, {beta}-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. {beta}-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by {beta}-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca{sup 2+} influx was not a major mechanism involved.

  11. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  12. Oxytocin and Opioid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Greeting Behavior in Dogs

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    Enikő Kubinyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meeting humans is an everyday experience for most companion dogs, and their behavior in these situations and its genetic background is of major interest. Previous research in our laboratory reported that in German shepherd dogs the lack of G allele, and in Border collies the lack of A allele, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR 19208A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was linked to increased friendliness, which suggests that although broad traits are affected by genetic variability, the specific links between alleles and behavioral variables might be breed-specific. In the current study, we found that Siberian huskies with the A allele approached a friendly unfamiliar woman less frequently in a greeting test, which indicates that certain polymorphisms are related to human directed behavior, but that the relationship patterns between polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes differ between populations. This finding was further supported by our next investigation. According to primate studies, endogenous opioid peptide (e.g., endorphins receptor genes have also been implicated in social relationships. Therefore, we examined the rs21912990 of the OPRM1 gene. Firstly, we found that the allele frequencies of Siberian huskies and gray wolves were similar, but differed from that of Border collies and German shepherd dogs, which might reflect their genetic relationship. Secondly, we detected significant associations between the OPRM1 SNP and greeting behavior among German shepherd dogs and a trend in Border collies, but we could not detect an association in Siberian huskies. Although our results with OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants should be regarded as preliminary due to the relatively low sample size, they suggest that (1 OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants in dogs affect human-directed social behavior and (2 their effects differ between breeds.

  13. Oxytocin and Opioid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Greeting Behavior in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Enikő; Bence, Melinda; Koller, Dora; Wan, Michele; Pergel, Eniko; Ronai, Zsolt; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Miklósi, Ádám

    2017-01-01

    Meeting humans is an everyday experience for most companion dogs, and their behavior in these situations and its genetic background is of major interest. Previous research in our laboratory reported that in German shepherd dogs the lack of G allele, and in Border collies the lack of A allele, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) 19208A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was linked to increased friendliness, which suggests that although broad traits are affected by genetic variability, the specific links between alleles and behavioral variables might be breed-specific. In the current study, we found that Siberian huskies with the A allele approached a friendly unfamiliar woman less frequently in a greeting test, which indicates that certain polymorphisms are related to human directed behavior, but that the relationship patterns between polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes differ between populations. This finding was further supported by our next investigation. According to primate studies, endogenous opioid peptide (e.g., endorphins) receptor genes have also been implicated in social relationships. Therefore, we examined the rs21912990 of the OPRM1 gene. Firstly, we found that the allele frequencies of Siberian huskies and gray wolves were similar, but differed from that of Border collies and German shepherd dogs, which might reflect their genetic relationship. Secondly, we detected significant associations between the OPRM1 SNP and greeting behavior among German shepherd dogs and a trend in Border collies, but we could not detect an association in Siberian huskies. Although our results with OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants should be regarded as preliminary due to the relatively low sample size, they suggest that (1) OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants in dogs affect human-directed social behavior and (2) their effects differ between breeds.

  14. Future of laser biostimulation in America today: microlight 830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chadwick F.; Vangsness, C. Thomas

    1992-06-01

    For the last two years we have been investigating the use of a 830 nanometer laser for low level laser therapy in chronic pain syndromes. This laser is of low energy and by definition is low level therapy (a laser output which does not exceed 100 milliwatts). This wave length has been carefully selected to be in the 'window' of wavelengths between 650 and 900 nanometers. At this level, the laser energy will penetrate the epidermis, the dermis and the subcutaneous layers to the deep tissue. The tissue effect of this laser energy is not thermal but rather a stimulation of micro-circulation with a secondary effect of blocking pain enzymes and activation of the synthesis of endorphin enzymes. We have experience with approximately 75 patients who have been treated with low level laser therapy. We have engaged in a double- blind study at several General Motors facilities in Michigan to determine the effectiveness of low level laser therapy in this inflammatory condition. Repetitive injuries in the work place have moved from 18% of industrial accidents in 1981 to 52% in 1989. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the number one economic problem in occupational medicine. It is true that 15% of the employees of American automotive plants have Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. This large number of patients have been treated in the past by standard physiotherapy treatment modalities and ultimately by surgery for failure of conservative therapy. Incidence of 'return to work activities' has been low. We intend to show that low level laser therapy may afford a positive solution to this problem not only therapeutically but prophylactically. Indications for treatment are Chronic Pain Syndrome and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome of mild to moderate degree.

  15. Fetal alcohol programming of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin system by epigenetic mechanisms and later life vulnerability to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdash, Rola; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2014-09-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, one of the major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, immune functions, and energy homeostasis, are vulnerable to the adverse effects of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). These effects are manifested in POMC neurons by a decrease in Pomc gene expression, a decrement in the levels of its derived peptide β-endorphin and a dysregulation of the stress response in the adult offspring. The HPA axis is a major neuroendocrine system with pivotal physiological functions and mode of regulation. This system has been shown to be perturbed by prenatal alcohol exposure. It has been demonstrated that the perturbation of the HPA axis by FAE is long-lasting and is linked to molecular, neurophysiological, and behavioral changes in exposed individuals. Recently, we showed that the dysregulation of the POMC system function by FAE is induced by epigenetic mechanisms such as hypermethylation of Pomc gene promoter and an alteration in histone marks in POMC neurons. This developmental programming of the POMC system by FAE altered the transcriptome in POMC neurons and induced a hyperresponse to stress in adulthood. These long-lasting epigenetic changes influenced subsequent generations via the male germline. We also demonstrated that the epigenetic programming of the POMC system by FAE was reversed in adulthood with the application of the inhibitors of DNA methylation or histone modifications. Thus, prenatal environmental influences, such as alcohol exposure, could epigenetically modulate POMC neuronal circuits and function to shape adult behavioral patterns. Identifying specific epigenetic factors in hypothalamic POMC neurons that are modulated by fetal alcohol and target Pomc gene could be potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat stress-related diseases in patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Effects of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats: in vitro and in situ studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Calogero, Aldo E; Konstandi, Maria; Kamilaris, Themis C; La Vignera, Sandro; Vignera, Sandro La; Chrousos, George P

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with hypercorticosteronemia, although the locus that is principally responsible for the hypercorticosteronism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hyperthyroidism on the functional integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, to identify the locus in the HPA axis that is principally affected, and address the time-dependent effects of alterations in thyroid status. The functional integrity of each component of the HPA axis was examined in vitro and in situ in sham-thyroidectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats given placebo or in thyroidectomized rats given pharmacological dose (50 μg) of thyroxin for 7 or 60 days. Basal plasma corticosterone and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were significantly increased in short- and long-term hyperthyroid rats, and by 60 days. Basal plasma ACTH levels were similar to controls. Both hypothalamic CRH content and the magnitude of KCL- and arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced CRH release from hypothalamic culture were increased in long-term hyperthyroid rats. There was a significant increase in the content of both ACTH and β-endorphin in the anterior pituitaries of both short- and long-term hyperthyroid animals. Short-term hyperthyroid rats showed a significant increase in basal POMC mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary, and chronically hyperthyroid animals showed increased stress-induced POMC mRNA expression. Adrenal cultures taken from short-term hyperthyroid rats responded to exogenous ACTH with an exaggerated corticosterone response, while those taken from 60-day hyperthyroid animals showed responses similar to controls. The findings show that hyperthyroidism is associated with hypercorticosteronemia and HPA axis dysfunction that becomes more pronounced as the duration of hyperthyroidism increases. The evidence suggests that experimentally induced hyperthyroidism is associated with central hyperactivity of the HPA axis.

  17. A monomeric variant of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE loses its regulatory properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Suk Song

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is a key enzyme in the metabolism of both insulin and amyloid beta peptides. IDE is unique in that it is subject to allosteric activation which is hypothesized to occur through an oligomeric structure.IDE is known to exist as an equilibrium mixture of monomers, dimers, and higher oligomers, with the dimer being the predominant form. Based on the crystal structure of IDE we deleted the putative dimer interface in the C-terminal region, which resulted in a monomeric variant. Monomeric IDE retained enzymatic activity, however instead of the allosteric behavior seen with wild type enzyme it displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior. With the substrate Abz-GGFLRKHGQ-EDDnp, monomeric IDE retained approximately 25% of the wild type activity. In contrast with the larger peptide substrates beta-endorphin and amyloid beta peptide 1-40, monomeric IDE retained only 1 to 0.25% of wild type activity. Unlike wild type IDE neither bradykinin nor dynorphin B-9 activated the monomeric variant of the enzyme. Similarly, monomeric IDE was not activated by polyphosphates under conditions in which the activity of wild type enzyme was increased more than 50 fold.These findings serve to establish the dimer interface in IDE and demonstrate the requirement for an oligomeric form of the enzyme for its regulatory properties. The data support a mechanism where the binding of activators to oligomeric IDE induces a conformational change that cannot occur in the monomeric variant. Since a conformational change from a closed to a more open structure is likely the rate-determining step in the IDE reaction, the subunit induced conformational change likely shifts the structure of the oligomeric enzyme to a more open conformation.

  18. CXCL10 Controls Inflammatory Pain via Opioid Peptide-Containing Macrophages in Electroacupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gehringer, Rebekka; Mousa, Shaaban A.; Hackel, Dagmar; Brack, Alexander; Rittner, Heike L.

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is widely used for pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain, but molecular mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. In the early phase of inflammation neutrophilic chemokines direct opioid-containing neutrophils in the inflamed tissue and stimulate opioid peptide release and antinociception. In this study the molecular pathway and neuroimmune connections in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced hind paw inflammation and electroacupuncture for peripheral pain control were analyzed. Free moving Wistar rats with hind paw inflammation were treated twice with electroacupuncture at GB30 (Huan Tiao - gall bladder meridian) (day 0 and 1) and analyzed for mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds. The cytokine profiles as well as the expression of opioid peptides were quantified in the inflamed paw. Electroacupuncture elicited long-term antinociception blocked by local injection of anti-opioid peptide antibodies (beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin A). The treatment altered the cytokine profile towards an anti-inflammatory pattern but augmented interferon (IFN)-gamma and the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10: interferon gamma-inducible protein) protein and mRNA expression with concomitant increased numbers of opioid peptide-containing CXCR3+ macrophages. In rats with CFA hind paw inflammation without acupuncture repeated injection of CXCL10 triggered opioid-mediated antinociception and increase opioid-containing macrophages. Conversely, neutralization of CXCL10 time-dependently decreased electroacupuncture-induced antinociception and the number of infiltrating opioid peptide-expressing CXCR3+ macrophages. In summary, we describe a novel function of the chemokine CXCL10 - as a regulator for an increase of opioid-containing macrophages and antinociceptive mediator in inflammatory pain and as a key chemokine regulated by electroacupuncture. PMID:24732949

  19. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (Pmemory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (Pmemory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Influence of enzymatic hydrolyzate of mussel meat on growth and some indicators of general adaptation syndrome in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Seliaskin, K E; Zorin, S N; Abramova, L S; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the 15-day consumption of enzymatic hydrolyzate of the mussels meat as a part of semi-synthetic diet on some stress biomarkers and apoptosis activity in various organs of growing male Wistar rats have been studied. Enzymatic hydrolyzate of the mussels meat (EMM) was obtained in pilot conditions using the enzyme preparation "Protozim". The animals of control group 1 (n = 8 with initial body weight of 179.4 ± 5.9 g) and experimental group 2 (n = 8, 176.3 ± 4.5 g) received a semi synthetic diet; the animals of the experimental group 3 (n = 8, 177.6 ± 4.0 g) received the same semi synthetic diet in which 50% of the casein was replaced by the peptides of EMM. On the penult day of the experiment animals of groups 2 and 3 were subjected to stress exposure by electric current on their paws (current 0.4 mA for 8 seconds) and were placed in metabolic cages for the collection of daily urine. At the 15th day of the study, all control and test animals were killed by decapitation under ether anesthesia and necropsied. The content of prostaglandin E2 and β-endorphin in blood plasma was determined by ELISA test. The concentration of urine corticosterone was measured by HPLC. DNA damage and percentage of apoptotic cells (apoptotic index) were calculated in thymus by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay). The relative body weight increase of animals treated with EMM was significantly (p general adaptation syndrome.