WorldWideScience

Sample records for endogenous bioactive lipids

  1. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  2. Bioactive Lipids and Chronic Inflammation: Managing the Fire Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Chiurchiù

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an immune response that works as a contained fire that is pre-emptively sparked as a defensive process during infections or upon any kind of tissue insult, and that is spontaneously extinguished after elimination or termination of the damage. However, persistent and uncontrolled immune reactions act as a wildfire that promote chronic inflammation, unresolved tissue damage and, eventually, chronic diseases. A wide network of soluble mediators, among which endogenous bioactive lipids, governs all immune processes. They are secreted by basically all cells involved in inflammatory processes and constitute the crucial infrastructure that triggers, coordinates and confines inflammatory mechanisms. However, these molecules are also deeply involved in the detrimental transition from acute to chronic inflammation, be it for persistent or excessive action of pro-inflammatory lipids or for the impairment of the functions carried out by resolving ones. As a matter of fact, bioactive lipids have been linked, to date, to several chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on the involvement of the main classes of endogenous bioactive lipids—namely classical eicosanoids, pro-resolving lipid mediators, lysoglycerophospholipids/sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids—in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to the pathogenesis of chronic disorders.

  3. Bioactive lipids in kidney physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sałata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids not only have structural functions, but also play an important role as signaling and regulatory molecules and participate in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Bioactive lipids act both as extracellular mediators, which are associated with receptors on the surface of cells, and intracellular mediators triggering different signal pathways. They are present and active in physiological conditions, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. Bioactive lipids such as derivatives of arachidonic acid and sphingolipids have an important role in renal development, physiology and in many renal diseases. Some of them are potential indicators of kidney damage degree and/or function of the transplanted kidneys.

  4. Exogenous and endogenous lipids of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; Oliver, M A; Martínez, V; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Martí, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted. Caucasian fibers were found to be well hydrated, and moisture diminution was observed mainly for the external lipid extracted fibers. Unexpectedly, the lipid extraction promoted an increase in the break tenacity of the Caucasian fibers. The hydrophobic character of the fiber surfaces indicates the marked hydrophobicity of all fibers. Delipidization promotes only a slight diminution of their hydrophobic properties. Water uptake and desorption studies indicate an important water regain for Caucasian fibers. The external extracted hair fibers presented a diminution of maximum water regain, which surprisingly increases with the following internal lipid extraction. This can be due to a higher water desorption found only for external extracted fibers. The relationship between fluidity of lipids extracted and hair fiber water diffusion were established. Extraction of internal lipids of Caucasian fibers, which have a higher unsaturated lipid content than external lipids of the same hair fiber, leads to a lower water permeability of the fiber. On the capillar formulations should be considered the importance of lipid fluidity to modify the permeability of the fiber. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gastrointestinal Endogenous Proteins as a Source of Bioactive Peptides - An In Silico Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Lakshmi A.; Montoya, Carlos A.; Rutherfurd, Shane M.; Moughan, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins are known to contain bioactive peptides that are released during digestion. Endogenous proteins secreted into the gastrointestinal tract represent a quantitatively greater supply of protein to the gut lumen than those of dietary origin. Many of these endogenous proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract but the possibility that these are also a source of bioactive peptides has not been considered. An in silico prediction method was used to test if bioactive peptides could be derived from the gastrointestinal digestion of gut endogenous proteins. Twenty six gut endogenous proteins and seven dietary proteins were evaluated. The peptides present after gastric and intestinal digestion were predicted based on the amino acid sequence of the proteins and the known specificities of the major gastrointestinal proteases. The predicted resultant peptides possessing amino acid sequences identical to those of known bioactive peptides were identified. After gastrointestinal digestion (based on the in silico simulation), the total number of bioactive peptides predicted to be released ranged from 1 (gliadin) to 55 (myosin) for the selected dietary proteins and from 1 (secretin) to 39 (mucin-5AC) for the selected gut endogenous proteins. Within the intact proteins and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide sequences were the most frequently observed in both the dietary and endogenous proteins. Among the dietary proteins, after in silico simulated gastrointestinal digestion, myosin was found to have the highest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (49 peptides), while for the gut endogenous proteins, mucin-5AC had the greatest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (38 peptides). Gut endogenous proteins may be an important source of bioactive peptides in the gut particularly since gut endogenous proteins represent a quantitatively large and consistent source of protein. PMID:24901416

  6. Gastrointestinal endogenous proteins as a source of bioactive peptides--an in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Lakshmi A; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins are known to contain bioactive peptides that are released during digestion. Endogenous proteins secreted into the gastrointestinal tract represent a quantitatively greater supply of protein to the gut lumen than those of dietary origin. Many of these endogenous proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract but the possibility that these are also a source of bioactive peptides has not been considered. An in silico prediction method was used to test if bioactive peptides could be derived from the gastrointestinal digestion of gut endogenous proteins. Twenty six gut endogenous proteins and seven dietary proteins were evaluated. The peptides present after gastric and intestinal digestion were predicted based on the amino acid sequence of the proteins and the known specificities of the major gastrointestinal proteases. The predicted resultant peptides possessing amino acid sequences identical to those of known bioactive peptides were identified. After gastrointestinal digestion (based on the in silico simulation), the total number of bioactive peptides predicted to be released ranged from 1 (gliadin) to 55 (myosin) for the selected dietary proteins and from 1 (secretin) to 39 (mucin-5AC) for the selected gut endogenous proteins. Within the intact proteins and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide sequences were the most frequently observed in both the dietary and endogenous proteins. Among the dietary proteins, after in silico simulated gastrointestinal digestion, myosin was found to have the highest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (49 peptides), while for the gut endogenous proteins, mucin-5AC had the greatest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (38 peptides). Gut endogenous proteins may be an important source of bioactive peptides in the gut particularly since gut endogenous proteins represent a quantitatively large and consistent source of protein.

  7. Bioactive lipids as radioprotectors and potentiators of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Undurti N.

    2016-01-01

    Selective elimination of tumor cells with little or no effects on normal cells is desirable for the treatment of cancer. Radiotherapy, a well accepted form of cancer therapy, is associated with significant side effects that need to be eliminated or dampened. Our studies revealed that radiation can produce significant changes in the metabolism of essential fatty acids that could be related to its actions and side effects. It was noted that UVB exposed skin produced PGE2, PGF2a and PGE3 that accompany the erythema in the first 24-48 h, associated with increased COX-2 expression at 24 h. Leukocyte chemoattractants 11-, 12- and 8-monohydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) are elevated from 4 to 72 h, in association with peak dermal neutrophil influx at 24 h, and increased dermal CD3"+ lymphocytes and 12- and 15-LOX expression from 24 to 72 h. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory metabolite 15-HETE shows later expression, peaking at 72 h. Thus, skin lesions are characterized by overlapping sequential profiles of increases in COX products followed by LOX products that may regulate subsequent events and ultimately its resolution. The enhanced expression of 15-HETE at 72 h is interesting since it forms the precursor to antiinflammatory bioactive lipids. We and others also showed that the anti-cancer action of radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs can be augmented by certain polyunsaturated fatty acids with little or no action on normal cells. Even tumor cell drug resistance could be reversed by these bioactive lipids. Our recent studies revealed that these bioactive lipids also prevent genetic damage induced by radiation and other drugs. These studies imply that employing certain bioactive lipids may be exploited as radiation protective molecules and as enhancers of the anti-cancer action of radiation in the therapy of cancer. (author)

  8. Is There a Role for Bioactive Lipids in the Pathobiology of Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undurti N. Das

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, decreased levels of circulating endothelial nitric oxide (eNO and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, altered activity of hypothalamic neurotransmitters (including serotonin and vagal tone and gut hormones, increased concentrations of free radicals, and imbalance in the levels of bioactive lipids and their pro- and anti-inflammatory metabolites have been suggested to play a role in diabetes mellitus (DM. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM is due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells because of enhanced production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and other pro-inflammatory cytokines released by immunocytes infiltrating the pancreas in response to unknown exogenous and endogenous toxin(s. On the other hand, type 2 DM is due to increased peripheral insulin resistance secondary to enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF-α in response to high-fat and/or calorie-rich diet (rich in saturated and trans fats. Type 2 DM is also associated with significant alterations in the production and action of hypothalamic neurotransmitters, eNO, BDNF, free radicals, gut hormones, and vagus nerve activity. Thus, type 1 DM is because of excess production of pro-inflammatory cytokines close to β cells, whereas type 2 DM is due to excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the systemic circulation. Hence, methods designed to suppress excess production of pro-inflammatory cytokines may form a new approach to prevent both type 1 and type 2 DM. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and similar surgeries ameliorate type 2 DM, partly by restoring to normal: gut hormones, hypothalamic neurotransmitters, eNO, vagal activity, gut microbiota, bioactive lipids, BDNF production in the gut and hypothalamus, concentrations of cytokines and free radicals that results in resetting glucose-stimulated insulin production by pancreatic β cells. Our recent studies suggested that bioactive lipids, such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaneoic acid, and docosahexaenoic

  9. Discovery of Novel Lipid Profiles in PCOS: Do Insulin and Androgen Oppositely Regulate Bioactive Lipid Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengxian; Chu, Qianqian; Ma, Jing; Sun, Yun; Tao, Tao; Huang, Rong; Liao, Yu; Yue, Jiang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Xue, Xinli; Zhu, Mingjiang; Kang, Xiaonan; Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives, both tightly linked to PCOS and obesity, play important roles in inflammation and reproduction. This study aimed to investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed patients with PCOS using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity. Thirty-two newly diagnosed women with PCOS and 34 controls were divided into obese and lean subgroups. A PCOS rat model was used to validate results of the human studies. Serum lipid profiles, including phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and bioactive lipids, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS. Elevation in phosphatidylcholine and a concomitant decrease in lysophospholipid were found in obese patients with PCOS vs lean controls. Obese patients with PCOS had decreased PUFA levels and increased levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids vs lean controls. Serum bioactive lipids downstream of arachidonic acid were increased in obese controls, but reduced in both obese and lean patients with PCOS vs their respective controls. Patients with PCOS showed abnormal levels of phosphatidylcholine, FFAs, and PUFA metabolites. Circulating insulin and androgens may have opposing effects on lipid profiles in patients with PCOS, particularly on the bioactive lipid metabolites derived from PUFAs. These clinical observations warrant further studies of the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of PCOS and obesity. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  10. The role of ATP-binding cassette transporters in neuro-inflammation: relevance for bioactive lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs eKooij

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are highly expressed by brain endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB. These efflux pumps play an important role in maintaining brain homeostasis as they actively hinder the entry of unwanted blood-derived compounds into the central nervous system (CNS. Consequently, their high activity at the BBB has been a major hurdle for the treatment of several brain diseases, as they prevent numerous drugs to reach their site of action within the brain. Importantly, recent data indicate that endogenous substrates for ABC transporters may include inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines and bioactive lipids, suggesting a potential role for ABC transporters in immunological responses, and more specifically in inflammatory brain disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS. In this review, we will give a comprehensive overview of recent findings that illustrate this novel role for ABC transporters in neuro-inflammatory processes. Moreover, we will provide first insights into underlying mechanisms and focus on the importance for bioactive lipids, in particular platelet-activating factor (PAF, herein. A thorough understanding of these events may form the basis for the development for selective treatment modalities to dampen the neuro-inflammatory attack in MS and thereby reducing tissue damage.

  11. Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P cooking (P cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Bioactive Structure of Membrane Lipids and Natural Products Elucidated by a Chemistry-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michio; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Matsumori, Nobuaki

    2015-08-01

    Determining the bioactive structure of membrane lipids is a new concept, which aims to examine the functions of lipids with respect to their three-dimensional structures. As lipids are dynamic by nature, their "structure" does not refer solely to a static picture but also to the local and global motions of the lipid molecules. We consider that interactions with lipids, which are completely defined by their structures, are controlled by the chemical, functional, and conformational matching between lipids and between lipid and protein. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the bioactive structures of membrane lipids bound to proteins and related molecules, including some of our recent results. By examining recent works on lipid-raft-related molecules, lipid-protein interactions, and membrane-active natural products, we discuss current perspectives on membrane structural biology. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E.; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W.; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C.; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to lo...

  14. Opportunistic activation of TRP receptors by endogenous lipids: exploiting lipidomics to understand TRP receptor cellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Raboune, Siham; Hollis, Jennifer L

    2013-03-19

    Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) form a large family of ubiquitous non-selective cation channels that function as cellular sensors and in many cases regulate intracellular calcium. Identification of the endogenous ligands that activate these TRP receptors is still under intense investigation with the majority of these channels still remaining "orphans." That these channels respond to a variety of external stimuli (e.g. plant-derived lipids, changes in temperature, and changes in pH) provides a framework for their abilities as cellular sensors, however, the mechanism of direct activation is still under much debate and research. In the cases where endogenous ligands (predominately lipids) have shown direct activation of a channel, multiple ligands have been shown to activate the same channel suggesting that these receptors are "promiscuous" in nature. Lipidomics of a growing class of endogenous lipids, N-acyl amides, the most famous of which is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (the endogenous cannabinoid, Anandamide) is providing a novel set of ligands that have been shown to activate some members of the TRP family and have the potential to deorphanize many more. Here it is argued that activation of TRPV receptors, a subset of the larger family of TRPs, by multiple endogenous lipids that are structurally analogous is a model system to drive our understanding that many TRP receptors are not promiscuous, but are more characteristically "opportunistic" in nature; exploiting the structural similarity and biosynthesis of a narrow range of analogous endogenous lipids. In addition, this manuscript will compare the activation properties of TRPC5 to the activity profile of an "orphan" lipid, N-palmitoyl glycine; further demonstrating that lipidomics aimed at expanding our knowledge of the family of N-acyl amides has the potential to provide novel avenues of research for TRP receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathophysiology of mitochondrial lipid oxidation: Role of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and other bioactive lipids in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengqing; Zhong, Huiqin; Xia, Lin; Tao, Yongzhen; Yin, Huiyong

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial lipids are essential for maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial membranes and the proper functions of mitochondria. As the "powerhouse" of a cell, mitochondria are also the major cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress occurs when the antioxidant system is overwhelmed by overproduction of ROS. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes are primary targets for ROS attack, which may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and generation of reactive lipids, such as 4-hydroxynonenal. When mitochondrial lipids are oxidized, the integrity and function of mitochondria may be compromised and this may eventually lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been associated with many human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. How mitochondrial lipids are oxidized and the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences associated with mitochondrial LPO remain poorly defined. Oxidation of the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin and generation of bioactive lipids through mitochondrial LPO has been increasingly recognized as an important event orchestrating apoptosis, metabolic reprogramming of energy production, mitophagy, and immune responses. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of how mitochondrial LPO and generation of bioactive lipid mediators in mitochondria are involved in the modulation of mitochondrial functions in the context of relevant human diseases associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  17. Influence of encapsulated functional lipids on crystal structure and chemical stability in solid lipid nanoparticles: Towards bioactive-based design of delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hanna; Gömmel, Christina; Leuenberger, Bruno H; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of physicochemical properties of encapsulated functional lipids--vitamin A, β-carotene and ω-3 fish oil--on the structural arrangement of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). The relationship between the crystal structure and chemical stability of the incorporated bioactive lipids was evaluated with different emulsifier compositions of a saponin-rich, food-grade Quillaja extract alone or combined with high-melting or low-melting lecithins. The major factors influencing the structural arrangement and chemical stability of functional lipids in solid lipid dispersions were their solubility in the aqueous phase and their crystallization temperature in relation to that of the carrier lipid. The results showed that the stabilization of the α-subcell crystals in the lattice of the carrier lipid is a key parameter for forming stable solid lipid dispersions. This study contributes to a better understanding of SLN as a function of the bioactive lipid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of endogenous proteins and lipids on starch digestibility in rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiangping; Hu, Xiuting; Luo, Shunjing; McClements, David Julian; Liang, Lu; Liu, Chengmei

    2018-04-01

    The composition and structure of the food matrix can have a major impact on the digestion. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of endogenous proteins and lipids on starch digestibility in rice flour, with an emphasis on establishing the underlying physicochemical mechanisms involved. Native long-grain indica rice flour and rice flour with the lipids and/or proteins removed were subjected to a simulated digestion in vitro. A significant increase in starch digestibility was observed after removal of proteins, lipids, or both. The starch digestibility of the rice flour without lipids was slightly lower than that without proteins, even though the proteins content was about 10-fold higher than the lipids content. Microstructural analysis suggested that the proteins and lipids were normally attached to the surfaces of the starch granules in the native rice flour, thus inhibiting their contact with digestive enzymes. Moreover, the proteins and lipids restricted the swelling of the starch granules, which may have decreased their digestion by reducing their surface areas. In addition, amylose-lipid complex was detected in the rice flour, which is also known to slow down starch digestion. These results have important implications for the design of foods with improved nutritional profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  20. The role of endogenous lipids in the emulsifying properties of cocoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Furse, Samuel; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a study in which the emulsifying properties of cocoa material with and without its lipid fraction were explored. This study was motivated by the commercial interest in naturally-occurring particulate emulsifiers as opposed to the chemically modified emulsifying particles presently available for commercial use. The hypothesis was that endogenous lipids from cocoa were responsible for driving the formation of stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The data presented includes relative quantification of phospholipids from different commercially available cocoa material using 31P NMR spectroscopy and analyses of the emulsifying power of delipidified cocoa material. The commercially available cocoa material comprised several phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most abundant in all samples. Dispersions of delipidified cocoa material were found to drive the formation of o/w emulsions despite the absence of lipids. We therefore concluded that the emulsifying behaviour of cocoa material is not entirely reliant upon the endogenous lipids. This suggests that cocoa material may have a new and potentially widespread use in industrial food preparation and may inform manufacturing strategies for novel food grade emulsifiers.

  1. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols, the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils.

  2. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe Miroslava; López-Saiz, Carmen María; Ramírez-Guerra, Hugo Enrique; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido

    2016-01-01

    In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols), the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils. PMID:27886145

  3. Novel bio-active lipid nanocarriers for the stabilization and sustained release of sitosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacatusu, I; Badea, N; Stan, R; Meghea, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work, new stable and efficiently bio-active lipid nanocarriers (NLCs) with antioxidant properties have been developed for the transport of active ingredients in food. The novel NLCs loaded with β-sitosterol/β-sitosterol and green tea extract (GTE) and prepared by a combination of natural oils (grape seed oil, fish oil and squalene) and biological lipids with food grade surfactants, were physico-chemically examined by DLS, TEM, electrokinetic potential, DSC and HPLC and found to have main diameters less than 200 nm, a spherical morphology, excellent physical stability, an imperfect crystalline lattice and high entrapment efficiency. The novel loaded-NLCs have demonstrated the potential to develop a high blocking action of chain reactions, trapping up to 92% of the free-oxygen radicals, as compared to the native β-sitosterol (AA%=36.5). Another advantage of this study is associated with the quality of bio-active NLCs based on grape seed oil and squalene to manifest a better sitosterol—sustained release behaviour as compared to their related nanoemulsions. By coupling both in vitro results, i.e. the enhanced antioxidant activity and superior release properties, this study emphasizes the sustainability of novel bio-active nanocarriers to gain specific bio-food features for development of functional foods with a high applicability spectrum. (paper)

  4. Bioactivities of Milk Polar Lipids in Influencing Intestinal Barrier Integrity, Systemic Inflammation, and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Albert Lihong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of lactation is for nutrient provision and also importantly for protection from various environmental stressors. Milk polar lipids reduce cholesterol, protect against bacterial infection, reduce inflammation and help maintain gut integrity. Dynamic interactions within dietary fat, lipid metabolism, gut permeability and inflammatory cytokines remain unclear in the context of obesity and systemic inflammation. A rat model and three mouse models were developed to test the hypotheses ...

  5. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endogenous lipid (cholesterol) pneumonia in three captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollo, Enrico; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Chiappino, Laura; Sereno, Alessandra; Triberti, Orfeo; Schröder, Cathrin

    2012-05-01

    During the years 2009-2011, 7 Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), aged between 2 and 14 years, from the Safaripark of Pombia were referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). Three tigers, aged 10 (2 animals) and 14 years, had multifocal, irregularly distributed, white, soft, subpleural, 3-mm nodules scattered throughout the lungs. Histologically, there was a marked infiltration of macrophages, with foamy cytoplasm, and multinucleate giant cells interspersed with numerous clusters of cholesterol clefts. A mild lymphocytic infiltration was localized around the lesion. The findings were consistent with endogenous lipid pneumonia, which was considered an incidental finding of no clinical significance.

  7. The Role of Bioactive Lipids in Stem Cell Mobilization and Homing: Novel Therapeutics for Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri M. Klyachkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in medical therapy and interventional strategies, the prognosis of millions of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and ischemic heart disease (IHD remains poor. Currently, short of heart transplantation with all of its inherit limitations, there are no available treatment strategies that replace the infarcted myocardium. It is now well established that cardiomyocytes undergo continuous renewal, with contribution from bone marrow (BM-derived stem/progenitor cells (SPCs. This phenomenon is upregulated during AMI by initiating multiple innate reparatory mechanisms through which BMSPCs are mobilized towards the ischemic myocardium and contribute to myocardial regeneration. While a role for the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in retention of BMSPCs in bone marrow is undisputed, its exclusive role in their mobilization and homing to a highly proteolytic microenvironment, such as the ischemic/infarcted myocardium, is currently being challenged. Recent evidence suggests a pivotal role for bioactive lipids in the mobilization of BMSPCs at the early stages following AMI and their homing towards ischemic myocardium. This review highlights the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of stem cell mobilization, provides newer evidence implicating bioactive lipids in BMSPC mobilization and differentiation, and discusses their potential as therapeutic agents in the treatment of IHD.

  8. Bioactive compounds in lipid fractions of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) seeds for use in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronezi, Carolina Médici; Jorge, Neuza

    2012-06-01

    Seeds are considered to be agro-industrial residues, which can be used as source of macronutrients and/or raw material for extraction of vegetable oils, since they present great quantities of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the lipid fractions and the seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) varieties Nova Caravela, Mini Paulista, Menina Brasileira, and Moranga de Mesa aiming at using them in food. The chemical composition of the seeds was performed according to the official methods of American Oil Chemists' Society and Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were determined by spectrophotometry, while the levels of tocopherols were analyzed by high efficiency liquid chromatography. It was noted that the seeds contain high amounts of macronutrients that are essential for the functioning of the human organism. As to total carotenoids, Mini Paulista and Menina Brasileira pumpkin varieties presented significant amounts, 26.80 and 26.03 μg/g, respectively. Mini Paulista and Nova Caravela pumpkin varieties showed high amounts of total phenolic compounds in the lipid fractions and in the seeds. It was also found that γ-tocopherol is the isomer that stood out in the lipid fractions and in the seeds, mainly in Menina Brasileira. Finally, the consumption of these seeds and use of lipid fractions provide the supply of large quantities of compounds that are beneficial for health and that may be potentially used in food, besides representing an alternative to better use of agro-industrial residues. Bioactive compounds, besides presenting basic nutritional functions, provide metabolic and physiological health benefits when consumed as part of the usual diet. Therefore, there is a growing interest in vegetable oils of special composition, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds. The seeds of Cucurbita sp are shown to be promising sources of oils, and especially the Cucurbita moschata and maxima species have not yet

  9. Lipidomic Approaches towards Deciphering Glycolipids from Microalgae as a Reservoir of Bioactive Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, noteworthy research has been performed around lipids from microalgae. Among lipids, glycolipids (GLs are quite abundant in microalgae and are considered an important source of fatty acids (FAs. GLs are rich in 16- and 18-carbon saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and often contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like n-3 α-linolenic (ALA 18:3, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6. GLs comprise three major classes: monogalactosyldiacyl glycerolipids (MGDGs, digalactosyl diacylglycerolipids (DGDGs and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerolipids (SQDGs, whose composition in FA directly depends on the growth conditions. Some of these lipids are high value-added compounds with antitumoral, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities and also with important nutritional significance. To fully explore GLs’ bioactive properties it is necessary to fully characterize their structure and to understand the relation between the structure and their biological properties, which can be addressed using modern mass spectrometry (MS-based lipidomic approaches. This review will focus on the up-to-date FA composition of GLs identified by MS-based lipidomics and their potential as phytochemicals.

  10. The effects of dexketoprofen on endogenous leptin and lipid peroxidation during liver ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Koksal, Ersin; Kaya, Cengiz; Sener, Elif Bengi; Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Yarim, Gul; Kabak, Yonca; Gulbahar, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury has complex mechanisms. We investigated the effect of dexketoprofen on endogenous leptin and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups and were subjected to 1-hour ischemia and different subsequent reperfusion intervals. Dexketoprofen was administered in a dose of 25 mg/kg 15 minutes before ischemia induction and 1-hour reperfusion to the Dexketoprofen one-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (DIR1) group and 6-hour reperfusion to the Dexketoprofen six-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (DIR6) group. In the control groups, 0.9% physiologic serum (SF) was administered 15 minutes before ischemia induction and 1-hour reperfusion to the one-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (IR1) group and 6-hour reperfusion to the six-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (IR6) group. Although serum leptin (P = 0.044) and hepatic tissue MDA levels (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the IR6 group than in the IR1 group, there were no significant differences in dexketoprofen pretreatment between the DIR1 and DIR6 groups. There were no differences in serum MDA levels among the 4 groups, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were significantly higher in the IR1 (P = 0.026 and P = 0.018, respectively) and IR6 (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002, respectively) groups than in the DIR1 and DIR6 groups. Dexketoprofen pretreatment can protect the liver from IR injury by decreasing inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Our study shows that dexketoprofen has no effects on endogenous leptin during IR injury.

  11. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of [ 14 C]linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte

  12. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A

    2015-09-01

    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to locally deliver the immunomodulatory small molecule FTY720 in tibial defects created in rat bone marrow chimeras containing genetically-labeled bone marrow for monitoring cell origin and fate. Donor bone marrow contributed significantly to both myeloid and osteogenic cells in remodeling tissue surrounding allografts. FTY720 coatings altered the phenotype of immune cells two weeks post-injury, which was associated with increased vascularization and bone formation surrounding allografts. Consequently, degradable polymer coating strategies that deliver small molecule growth factors such as FTY720 represent a novel therapeutic strategy for harnessing endogenous bone marrow-derived progenitors and enhancing healing in load-bearing bone defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhong, Qisheng; Mo, Canlong; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Ting; Tan, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of endogenous lipid mediators in complex biological samples is a daunting challenge. In this study, a robust and direct endogenous quantitative method using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was first developed for the determination of endogenous lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats. Absolute quantification without surrogate matrix could be achieved by using background subtracting calibration curves, which were corrected and verified from standard curves constructed on original matrix. The recoveries of this method were in the range of 50.3-98.3%, the precision with the relative standard deviation was less than 13.8%, and the accuracy with the relative error was within ± 15.0%. In addition, background subtracting calibration curves were further verified by validation factors ranging from 90.3 to 110.9%. This validated method has been successfully applied to the analysis of seven endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in the brain tissues of ischemic stroke rats. The results indicated that prostaglandins as inflammatory factors and some lipid mediators with neuroprotective effects increased apparently (p endogenous compounds in the complex biological samples. Graphical abstract The analysis procedure of determining endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators using BSCC by LC-MS/MS.

  14. Relationship between variations in the level of endogenous thiols and antioxidant activity of lipids and radiosensitivity of animals of different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Graevskaya, B.M.; Ivanenko, G.F.; Shishkina, L.N.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1978-01-01

    Initial levels of total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant activity (AOA) of lipids of the spleen and liver are measured in animals of different species. Radiosensitivity of animals is assessed by the value of LDsub(50/30). No reliable correlation has been revealed between initial levels of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids. There is a positive correlation between AOA of the spleen lipids and LDsub(50/30) as well as between the level of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of the animal species under study. It is likely that the level of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids reflect various aspects of cellular metabolism which is responsible for radioresistance of the organism

  15. Responses of membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones of soybean seedlings to UV-B radiation and rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shengrong; Yang Chunhe; Zhang Yuequn

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to provide strategies for development of rare earth and control of environmental pollution. [Method] Responses of membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones of soybean seedlings to UV-B radiation and rare earth were studied through hydroponics in laboratory. [Result] The results showed that under irradiation of UV-B(T1-0.15 W/m2 and T2-0.45 W/m2), chlorophyll and indole-3-acetic acid(IAA) contents firstly decreased during the stress phase (1-5d) and then increased during the restoration phase (6-9d) while contents of malonadialdehyde(MDA) and abscisic acid(ABA) gradually increased during the imposition of UV-B radiation (1-5d) and subsequently decreased during recovery from UV-B stress (6-9d) . With adding of La (Ⅲ) with the concentration of 20mg•L-1, the decline/rise trend of chlorophyll, IAA, MDA and ABA contents was slowed down during the stress period while the rise/decline speed was accelerated during the recovery period. [Conclusion] It suggests that the regulation of La (Ⅲ) on membrane lipid peroxidation and endogenous hormones could increase chlorophyll and IAA contents, improve the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit membrane lipid peroxidation, decrease the accumulation amount of ABA and alleviate injury of UV-B radiation to soybean seedlings. Further, the protective potential of La (Ⅲ) was better under low UV-B radiation than under high one

  16. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Giménez, María Dolores García; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  17. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guillén-Bejarano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw/day and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day, saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF, the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA, fiber fraction (FF, and flavonoid fraction (FVF to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD. In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  19. GC-MS evaluation of fatty acid profile and lipid bioactive of partially hydrogenated cooking oil consumed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhroab, A.A.; Sherazi, S.T.H.; Mahesar, S.A.; Talpura, M.Y.; Bhutto, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of fatty acid profile including trans fat and lipid bioactive (tocopherol and sterol contents) of most commonly used vanaspati ghee and cooking oil brands was made by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MSD). Among the saturated fatty acids (SFA), palmitic and stearic acid were dominant fatty acids; the mean value of SFA in ghee and oil was 44.98 and 30.83%, respectively. Mean values of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids in ghee were 47.51, 7.49 and 8.08%, and in oil 49.26, 19.90 and 0.91%, respectively. alpha-tocopherol was the major tocopherol while campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol were main phytosterols in terms of their quantity. (author)

  20. Chemical Profiling and Bioactivity of Body Wall Lipids from Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Shikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The lipids from gonads and polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments from body walls of sea urchins are intensively studied. However, little is known about the body wall (BW lipids. Ethanol extract (55 °C contained about equal amounts of saturated (SaFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA representing 60% of total fatty acids, with myristic, palmitic and eicosenoic acids as major SaFAs and MUFAs, respectively. Non-methylene-interrupted dienes (13% were composed of eicosadienoic and docosadienoic acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA included two main components, n6 arachidonic and n3 eicosapentaenoic acids, even with equal concentrations (15 μg/mg and a balanced n6/n3 PUFA ratio (0.86. The UPLC-ELSD analysis showed that a great majority of the lipids (80% in the ethanolic extract were phosphatidylcholine (60 μg/mg and phosphatidylethanolamine (40 μg/mg, while the proportion of neutral lipids remained lower than 20%. In addition, alkoxyglycerol derivatives—chimyl, selachyl, and batyl alcohols—were quantified. We have assumed that the mechanism of action of body wall lipids in the present study is via the inhibition of MAPK p38, COX-1, and COX-2. Our findings open the prospective to utilize this lipid fraction as a source for the development of drugs with anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Effects of a new bioactive lipid-based drug carrier on cultured hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, Joanna E.; Poelstra, Klaas; Scherphof, Gerrit L.; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Reker-Smit, Catharina; Morselt, Henriette W. M.; Zwiers, Peter; Kamps, Jan A. A. M.

    In the fibrotic liver, hepatic stellate cells ( HSC) produce large amounts of collagen and secrete variety of mediators that promote development of fibrosis in this organ. Therefore, these cells are considered an attractive target for antifibrotic therapies. We incorporated the bioactive lipid

  2. Photoacoustic imaging of human lymph nodes with endogenous lipid and hemoglobin contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, James A.; Allen, Thomas J.; Plumb, Andrew; Zhang, Edward Z.; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Punwani, Shonit; Beard, Paul C.

    2015-05-01

    Lymph nodes play a central role in metastatic cancer spread and are a key clinical assessment target. Abnormal node vascularization, morphology, and size may be indicative of disease but can be difficult to visualize with sufficient accuracy using existing clinical imaging modalities. To explore the potential utility of photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of lymph nodes, images of ex vivo samples were obtained at multiple wavelengths using a high-resolution three-dimensional photoacoustic scanner. These images showed that hemoglobin based contrast reveals nodal vasculature and lipid-based contrast reveals the exterior node size, shape, and boundary integrity. These two sources of complementary contrast may allow indirect observation of cancer, suggesting a future role for photoacoustic imaging as a tool for the clinical assessment of lymph nodes.

  3. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  4. Microencapsulation of nanoemulsions: novel Trojan particles for bioactive lipid molecule delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Ta, Thi Minh Chau; Zhao, Minjie; Messaddeq, Nadia; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2011-01-01

    Nanoemulsions consist of very stable nanodroplets of oil dispersed in an aqueous phase, typically below 300 nm in size. They can be used to obtain a very fine, homogeneous dispersion of lipophilic compounds in water, thus facilitating their handling and use in nanomedicine. However, the drawback is that they are suspended in an aqueous media. This study proposes a novel technique for drying lipid nanoemulsion suspensions to create so-called Trojan particles, ie, polymer microparticles (around 2 μm) which very homogeneously "entrap" the nano-oil droplets (around 150 nm) in their core. Microencapsulation of the nanoemulsions was performed using a spray-drying process and resulted in a dried powder of microparticles. By using a low-energy nanoemulsification method and relatively gentle spray-drying, the process was well suited to sensitive molecules. The model lipophilic molecule tested was vitamin E acetate, encapsulated at around 20% in dried powder. We showed that the presence of nanoemulsions in solution before spray-drying had a significant impact on microparticle size, distribution, and morphology. However, the process itself did not destroy the oil nanodroplets, which could easily be redispersed when the powder was put back in contact with water. High-performance liquid chromatography follow-up of the integrity of the vitamin E acetate showed that the molecules were intact throughout the process, as well as when conserved in their dried form. This study proposes a novel technique using a spray-drying process to microencapsulate nanoemulsions. The multiscale object formed, so-called Trojan microparticles, were shown to successfully encapsulate, protect, and release the lipid nanodroplets.

  5. Characterization of fatty acids, bioactive lipids, and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanien, M. F.R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells (Campanula medium seed oil. C. medium seeds contained 9.2% extractable oil. The lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterol and tocopherol composition of C. medium seed oil were determined. The amount of neutral lipids in the oil was the highest, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. Linoleic and oleic were the main fatty acids. C. medium oil is characterized by high levels of phytosterols and β-sitosterol was the main compound. β-Tocopherol constituted 42.5% of the total tocopherol content followed by γ-tocopherol. The radical scavenging activity (RSA toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and galvinoxyl radicals of C. medium oil were higher than those of extra virgin olive oil. The diverse potential uses of C. medium oil may make this plant industrially important.El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la composición química y la actividad de captación de radicales de aceites de semillas de campanillas de Canterbury (Campanula medium. Las semillas de C. medium contenían 9,2 % de aceite extraíble. Se determinó la composición de las diferentes clases de lípidos, ácidos grasos, fitoesteroles y tocoferoles. La cantidad de lípidos neutros en el aceite fue mayoritario, seguido de glicolípidos y fosfolípidos. Linoleico y oleico fueron los ácidos grasos principales. El aceite de C. medium se caracteriza por altos niveles de fitoesteroles y β-sitosterol fue el compuesto principal. β-tocoferol constituía 42,5 % del contenido total de tocoferol seguido de γ-tocoferol. La actividad de captación de radicales (RSA a 1,1-difenil-2- picrilhidrazil (DPPH y radicales galvinoxil de C. medium fueron superiores a las de aceite de oliva virgen extra. Los diversos usos potenciales de los aceites de C. medium pueden hacer que esta planta pueda ser importante industrialmente.

  6. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary counselling effectively improves lipid levels in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia: emphasis on weight reduction and alcohol limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F. H.; van der Laarse, A.; Hopman, E. G.; Gevers Leuven, J. A.; Onkenhout, W.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Smelt, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of dietary counselling in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia and evaluate the effects of advised nutrient changes. A prospective dietary intervention study in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia from January I st 1988 to December 31 st 1996

  8. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  9. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  10. CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Gijzel, Sanne M W; Siersbæk, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    -dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are upregulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally...... presenting cells (APCs), which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis....

  11. A Review About Lycopene-Induced Nuclear Hormone Receptor Signalling in Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism via still Unknown Endogenous Apo-10´-Lycopenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Garcia, Ada L; Reynaud, Eric; Lucas, Renata; Aydemir, Gamze; Rühl, Ralph

    2017-10-20

    Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and tomato products and is an important dietary carotenoid found in the human organism. Lycopene-isomers, oxidative lycopene metabolites and apo-lycopenoids are found in the food matrix. Lycopene intake derived from tomato consumption is associated with alteration of lipid metabolism and a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Lycopene is mainly described as a potent antioxidant but novel studies are shifting towards its metabolites and their capacity to mediate nuclear receptor signalling. Di-/tetra-hydro-derivatives of apo-10´-lycopenoic acid and apo-15´-lycopenoic acids are potential novel endogenous mammalian lycopene metabolites which may act as ligands for nuclear hormone mediated activation and signalling. In this review, we postulate that complex lycopene metabolism results in various lycopene metabolites which have the ability to mediate transactivation of various nuclear hormone receptors like RARs, RXRs and PPARs. A new mechanistic explanation of how tomato consumption could positively modulate inflammation and lipid metabolism is discussed.

  12. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions (DS) at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm) as compared to the larger (2.5 mm) ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides) used in the development of functional foods.

  13. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO, chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS or duodenum secretions (DS at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm as compared to the larger (2.5 mm ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides used in the development of functional foods.

  14. Delivery of bioactive lipids from composite microgel-microsphere injectable scaffolds enhances stem cell recruitment and skeletal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anusuya; Barker, Daniel A; Wang, Tiffany; Lau, Cheryl M; Lin, Yong; Botchwey, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a microgel composed of chitosan and inorganic phosphates was used to deliver poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) microspheres loaded with sphingolipid growth factor FTY720 to critical size cranial defects in Sprague Dawley rats. We show that sustained release of FTY720 from injected microspheres used alone or in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP2) improves defect vascularization and bone formation in the presence and absence of rhBMP2 as evaluated by quantitative microCT and histological measurements. Moreover, sustained delivery of FTY720 from PLAGA and local targeting of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors reduces CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltration, promotes endogenous recruitment of CD29+CD90+ bone progenitor cells and enhances the efficacy of rhBMP2 from chitosan microgels. Companion in vitro studies suggest that selective activation of sphingosine receptor subtype-3 (S1P3) via FTY720 treatment induces smad-1 phosphorylation in bone-marrow stromal cells. Additionally, FTY720 enhances stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) mediated chemotaxis of CD90+CD11B-CD45- bone progenitor cells in vitro after stimulation with rhBMP2. We believe that use of such small molecule delivery formulations to recruit endogenous bone progenitors may be an attractive alternative to exogenous cell-based therapy.

  15. Delivery of bioactive lipids from composite microgel-microsphere injectable scaffolds enhances stem cell recruitment and skeletal repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusuya Das

    Full Text Available In this study, a microgel composed of chitosan and inorganic phosphates was used to deliver poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLAGA microspheres loaded with sphingolipid growth factor FTY720 to critical size cranial defects in Sprague Dawley rats. We show that sustained release of FTY720 from injected microspheres used alone or in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP2 improves defect vascularization and bone formation in the presence and absence of rhBMP2 as evaluated by quantitative microCT and histological measurements. Moreover, sustained delivery of FTY720 from PLAGA and local targeting of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P receptors reduces CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltration, promotes endogenous recruitment of CD29+CD90+ bone progenitor cells and enhances the efficacy of rhBMP2 from chitosan microgels. Companion in vitro studies suggest that selective activation of sphingosine receptor subtype-3 (S1P3 via FTY720 treatment induces smad-1 phosphorylation in bone-marrow stromal cells. Additionally, FTY720 enhances stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 mediated chemotaxis of CD90+CD11B-CD45- bone progenitor cells in vitro after stimulation with rhBMP2. We believe that use of such small molecule delivery formulations to recruit endogenous bone progenitors may be an attractive alternative to exogenous cell-based therapy.

  16. Recent advances in oral delivery of drugs and bioactive natural products using solid lipid nanoparticles as the carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Chen, Chun-Han; Lin, Zih-Chan; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-04-01

    Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix. SLNs used for oral administration offer several benefits over conventional formulations, including increased solubility, enhanced stability, improved epithelium permeability and bioavailability, prolonged half-life, tissue targeting, and minimal side effects. The nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of SLNs tailor the controllable physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles for GI penetration via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of SLNs for disease treatment. Recent application of oral SLNs includes therapies for cancers, central nervous system-related disorders, cardiovascular-related diseases, infection, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition to drugs that may be active cargos in SLNs, some natural compounds with pharmacological activity are also suitable for SLN encapsulation to enhance oral bioavailability. In this article, we systematically introduce the concepts and amelioration mechanisms of the nanomedical techniques for drug- and natural compound-loaded SLNs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Recent advances in oral delivery of drugs and bioactive natural products using solid lipid nanoparticles as the carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix. SLNs used for oral administration offer several benefits over conventional formulations, including increased solubility, enhanced stability, improved epithelium permeability and bioavailability, prolonged half-life, tissue targeting, and minimal side effects. The nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of SLNs tailor the controllable physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles for GI penetration via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of SLNs for disease treatment. Recent application of oral SLNs includes therapies for cancers, central nervous system-related disorders, cardiovascular-related diseases, infection, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition to drugs that may be active cargos in SLNs, some natural compounds with pharmacological activity are also suitable for SLN encapsulation to enhance oral bioavailability. In this article, we systematically introduce the concepts and amelioration mechanisms of the nanomedical techniques for drug- and natural compound-loaded SLNs.

  18. First International Conference on Lysophospholipids and Related Bioactive Lipids in Biology and Disease Sponsored by the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Goetzl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The First International Conference on “Lysophospholipids and Related Bioactive Lipids in Biology and Diseases” was held in Tucson, AZ on June 10�14, 2001, under the sponsorship of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology (FASEB. More than 100 scientists from 11 countries discussed the recent results of basic and clinical research in the broad biology of this emerging field. Immense progress was reported in defining the biochemistry of generation and biology of cellular effects of the bioactive lysophospholipids (LPLs. These aspects of LPLs described at the conference parallel in many ways those of the eicosanoid mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. As for eicosanoids, the LPLs termed lysophosphatidic acid (LPA and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P are produced enzymatically from phospholipid precursors in cell membranes and act on cells at nanomolar concentrations through subfamilies of receptors of the G protein–coupled superfamily. The rate-limiting steps in production of LPLs were reported to be controlled by specific phospholipases for LPA and sphingosine kinases for S1P. The receptor subfamilies formerly were designated endothelial differentiation gene-encoded receptors or Edg Rs for their original discovery in endothelial cells. A currently active nomenclature committee at this conference suggested the ligand-based names: S1P1 = Edg-1, S1P2 = Edg-5, S1P3 = Edg-3, S1P4 = Edg-6, and S1P5 = Edg-8; LPA1 = Edg-2, LPA2 = Edg-4, and LPA3 = Edg-7 receptors. Several families of lysophospholipid phosphatases (LPPs have been characterized, which biodegrade LPA, whereas S1P is inactivated with similar rapidity by both a lyase and S1P phosphatases.

  19. Endogenous 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in microalga Chlorella kessleri acts as a bioactive indicator of pollution with common herbicides and growth regulating factor of hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoljaric, Dubravka; Cipak, Ana; Horvatic, Janja; Andrisic, Luka; Waeg, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven; Jaganjac, Morana

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress, i.e. excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leads to lipid peroxidation and to formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g. 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; HNE), which act as second messengers of free radicals. It was previously shown that herbicides can induce ROS production in algal cells. In the current paper, the unicellular green microalga Chlorella kessleri was used to study the effect of two herbicides (S-metolachlor and terbuthylazine) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on oxidative stress induction, HNE formation, chlorophyll content and the cell growth. Production of HNE was detected in this study for the first time in the cells of unicellular green algae using the antibody specific for the HNE-histidine adducts revealing the HNE-histidine adducts even in untreated, control C. kessleri. Exposure of algal cells to herbicides and H(2)O(2) increased the ROS production, modifying production of HNE. Namely, 4h upon treatment the levels of HNE-histidine conjugates were below controls. However, their amount increased afterwards. The increase of HNE levels in algae was followed by their increased growth rate, as was previously described for human carcinoma cells. Hence, changes in the cellular HNE content upon herbicide treatment inducing lipid oxidative stress and alterations in cellular growth rate of C. kessleri resemble adaptation of malignant cells to the HNE treatment. Therefore, as an addition to the standard toxicity tests, the evaluation of HNE-protein adducts in C. kessleri might indicate environmental pollution with lipid peroxidation-inducing herbicides. Finally, C. kessleri might be a convenient experimental model to further study cellular hormetic adaptation to oxidative stress-derived aldehydes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  1. Antioxidant Potential and Modulatory Effects of Restructured Lipids from the Amazonian Palms on Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Oliveira Falcão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification is used to manipulate oil and fat in order to obtain improved restructured lipids with desired technological properties. However, with raw materials containing significant amounts of bioactive compounds, the influence of this enzymatic process on the bioactivity of the final product is still not clear. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant potential and modulatory effects of two raw materials from the Amazonian area, buriti oil and murumuru fat, before and after lipase interesterification, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2. The results indicate that minor bioactive compounds naturally found in the raw materials and their antioxidant capacity are preserved after enzymatic interesterification, and that the restructured lipids modulate HepG2 endogenous antioxidant enzyme.

  2. Effects of a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds and biotin compared with monensin on body condition, energy metabolism and milk performance in transition dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Janis; Deiner, Carolin; Patra, Amlan K.; Immig, Irmgard; Starke, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds (also termed ‘essential oils’) and biotin (PBLC+B) could decrease the mobilization of body reserves and ketosis incidence in postpartum dairy cows. We compared non-supplemented control (CON) cows with cows receiving monensin (MON) as a controlled-release capsule at d -21, and with cows receiving PBLC+B from day (d) -21 before calving until calving (Phase 1) and further until d 37 after calving (Phase 2), followed by PBLC+B discontinuation from d 38 to d 58 (Phase 3). The PBLC+B cows had higher body weight and higher back fat thickness than CON cows and lesser body weight change than MON and CON cows in Phase 3. Body condition score was not different among groups. Milk protein concentration tended to be higher on the first herd test day in PBLC+B vs. CON cows. Milk fat concentration tended to be highest in PBLC+B cows throughout Phases 2 and 3, with significantly higher values in PBLC+B vs. MON cows on the second herd test day. Yields of energy-corrected milk were higher in PBLC+B vs. CON and MON cows in Phase 2 and higher in PBLC+B and MON cows vs. CON cows in Phase 3. The incidence of subclinical ketosis was 83%, 61% and 50% in CON, PBLC+B and MON cows, respectively, with lower mean β-hydroxybutyrate values in MON than in PBLC+B cows in Phase 1 prepartum. The serum triglyceride concentration was higher in PBLC+B vs. CON cows on d 37. No differences were observed in serum glucose, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations. Aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase but not glutamate dehydrogenase activities tended to be highest in MON and lowest in PBLC+B in Phase 2. We conclude that PBLC+B prevent body weight loss after parturition and are associated with similar ketosis incidence and partly higher yields of energy-corrected milk compared to MON supplementation of dairy cows. PMID:29584764

  3. Endogenous antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim

    2006-09-01

    The febrile increase of body temperature is regarded as a component of the complex host response to infection or inflammation that accompanies the activation of the immune system. Late phases of fever appear mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines called endogenous pyrogens. The rise of body temperature is beneficial because it accelerates several components of the activated immune system. To prevent an excessive and dangerous rise of body temperature the febrile response is controlled, limited in strength and duration, and sometimes even prevented by the actions of endogenous antipyretic substances liberated systemically or within the brain during fever. In most cases the antipyretic effects are achieved by an inhibitory influence on the formation or action of endogenous pyrogens, or by effects on neuronal thermoregulatory circuits that are activated during fever. Endogenous antipyretic substances include steroid hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines and other molecules. It is the purpose of this review to consider the current state in the research on endogenous antipyretic systems.

  4. The Endogenous Exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Mutlu, Esra; Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard; Bodnar, Wanda; Yu, Rui; Lai, Yongquan; Moeller, Benjamin; Lu, Kun; Swenberg, James

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Exposome, is a compilation of diseases and one’s lifetime exposure to chemicals, whether the exposure comes from environmental, dietary, or occupational exposures; or endogenous chemicals that are formed from normal metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, infections, and other natural metabolic processes such as alteration of the gut microbiome. In this review, we have focused on the Endogenous Exposome, the DNA damage that arises from the production of endogenous electrophilic molecules in our cells. It provides quantitative data on endogenous DNA damage and its relationship to mutagenesis, with emphasis on when exogenous chemical exposures that produce identical DNA adducts to those arising from normal metabolism cause significant increases in total identical DNA adducts. We have utilized stable isotope labeled chemical exposures of animals and cells, so that accurate relationships between endogenous and exogenous exposures can be determined. Advances in mass spectrometry have vastly increased both the sensitivity and accuracy of such studies. Furthermore, we have clear evidence of which sources of exposure drive low dose biology that results in mutations and disease. These data provide much needed information to impact quantitative risk assessments, in the hope of moving towards the use of science, rather than default assumptions. PMID:24767943

  5. Endogene CGRP

    OpenAIRE

    Höfer, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele Die vorliegende tierexperimentelle Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, welche Rolle endogenes Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in der Niere spielt. Hierbei untersuchten wir die renale CGRP Freisetzung aus renalen Afferenzen in vitro anhand von gesunden Tieren und einem pathologischen Modell der Glomerulonephritis. Man weiß bereits, dass sowohl sympathische als auch primär sensorische Neuronen die Entzündung und die Immunantwort in der Peripherie regulieren (68)....

  6. Seaweed Bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti

    . In conclusion, two brown seaweeds, Laminaria digitata and Undaria pinnatifida, inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities due to their content of several bioactive components with a potential use for future functional foods. Their effects on the postprandial insulin response and the in vitro findings...

  7. Prospects of fatty acid profile and bioactive composition from lipid seeds for the discrimination of apple varieties with the application of chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arain, S.; Sherazzi, S. T. H.; Bhanger, M. I.; Memon, N.; Mahesar, S. A.; Rajput, M. T.

    2012-11-01

    The extracted oils from four apple seed varieties (Royal Gala, Red Delicious, Pyrus Malus and Golden Delicious) from Pakistan were investigated for their fatty acid profiles and lipid biactives by GC-MS. The oil contents in the seeds of the apple varieties ranged from 26.8-28.7%. The results revealed that linoleic acid (40.5-49.6%) was the main fatty acid in the Royal Gala, Red Delicious and Pyrus Malus seeds, and oleic acid (38.7-45.5%) was the main fatty acid in the Golden Delicious seeds. Palmitic acid (6.1-7.4%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.1%) were the dominant saturated fatty acids, besides the small amount of palmitoleic, heptadecanoic, linolenic, archidic, eicosanoic, and behenic acids. Sterols, tocopherols, hydrocarbons and some other minor components were also identified from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction. The variation among the results of both fatty acids and lipid bio actives for the four different varieties was assessed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cluster analyses. The results conclude that both oil fractions could be applied as a useful tool to discriminate among the apple seed varieties. (Author) 42 refs.

  8. Effect of bioactive substances found in rapeseed, raspberry and strawberry seed oils on blood lipid profile and selected parameters of oxidative status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieszka, Marek; Tombarkiewicz, Barbara; Roman, Adam; Migdał, Władysław; Niedziółka, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    Rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils are a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants such as tocols, bioflavonoids and phytosterols. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the blood lipid profile of rats fed with rapeseed, strawberry and raspberry seed oils and their effects on selected parameters of oxidative status. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. The oils were administered by oral gavage for 5 weeks once daily at the dose of about 0.8 ml per rat. Blood samples were taken before and after supplementation period. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (cGPx) was assessed in erythrocytes and contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, low-density fraction of cholesterol (LDL) and high-density fraction of cholesterol (HDL) were assessed in plasma. The experiment shows that oils supplemented in the diet for 5 weeks had no significant effect on the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol as well as HDL and LDL fractions. Reduced activity of cGPX and SOD in the group of rats receiving raspberry and strawberry seed oils suggests that these native oils may contribute to oxidative stability (improves antioxidant status). Thus, strawberry and raspberry seed oils can be considered as special biological oils, which constitute potential nutraceuticals reducing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peptidome characterization and bioactivity analysis of donkey milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-04-24

    Donkey milk is an interesting commercial product for its nutritional values, which make it the most suitable mammalian milk for human consumption, and for the bioactivity associated with it and derivative products. To further mine the characterization of donkey milk, an extensive peptidomic study was performed. Two peptide purification strategies were compared to remove native proteins and lipids and enrich the peptide fraction. In one case the whole protein content was precipitated by organic solvent using cold acetone. In the other one the precipitation of the most abundant milk proteins, caseins, was performed under acidic conditions by acetic acid at pH4.6, instead. The procedures were compared and proved to be partially complementary. Considered together they provided 1330 peptide identifications for donkey milk, mainly coming from the most abundant proteins in milk. The bioactivity of the isolated peptides was also investigated, both by angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activity assays and by bioinformatics, proving that the isolated peptides did have the tested biological activities. The rationale behind this study is that peptides in food matrices often play an important biological role and, despite the extensive study of the protein composition of different samples, they remain poorly characterized. In fact, in a typical shotgun proteomics study endogenous peptides are not properly characterized. In proteomics workflows one limiting point is the isolation process: if it is specific for the purification of proteins, it often comprises a precipitation step which aims at isolating pure protein pellets and remove unwonted interferent compounds. In this way endogenous peptides, which are not effectively precipitated as well as proteins, are removed too and not analyzed at the end of the process. Moreover, endogenous peptides do often originate from precursor proteins, but in phenomena which are independent of the shotgun digestion

  10. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  11. Bioactive lipids as key regulators in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Scheuring van een vaatwandvernauwing (plaque) kan ertoe leiden dat materiaal vanuit deze plaques in direct contact komt met de bloedsomloop wat de bloedstolling kan activeren met als mogelijk gevolg bloedvatafsluiting en hartinfarct. Vooral vetten zoals het lysofosfatidaat (LPA) in deze plaques zijn

  12. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  13. Formation of milk lipids: a molecular perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McManaman, James L

    2009-01-01

    Lipids, primarily triglycerides, are major milk constituents of most mammals, providing a large percentage of calories, essential fatty acids and bioactive lipids required for neonatal growth and development. To meet the caloric and nutritional demands of newborns, the mammary glands of most species have evolved an enormous capacity to synthesize and secrete large quantities of lipids during lactation. Significant information exists regarding the physiological regulation of lipid metabolism i...

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

  15. The dynamic of lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Both endogenous and exogenous lipid levels may be regulators of total lipid oxidation in skeletal muscles. We studied the dynamics of lipid oxidation in human myotubes established from healthy, lean subjects exposed to acutely and chronically increased palmitate concentrations. The intramyocellular...... triacylglycerol content increased with chronic palmitate exposure. Both, ectopically increased intracellular and extracellular lipid levels were simultaneously oxidized and could partly suppress each other's oxidation. Overall, the highest acute palmitate treatments stimulated fatty acid oxidation whilst...... the highest chronic treatments decreased total lipid oxidation. Intracellular lipids showed a more complete oxidation than exogenous lipids. Endogenous lipids reduced insulin-mediated glucose oxidation. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous lipid concentrations regulated each other's oxidation and total lipid...

  16. Endogenous Prospect Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zank, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This paper provides an axiomatization of a new specification of cumulative prospect theory, termed endogenous prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  17. Are endogenous feline leukemia viruses really endogenous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H; Jarrett, O; Hosie, M J; Willett, B J

    2011-10-15

    Full length endogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviruses exist within the genomes of many breeds of domestic cat raising the possibility that they may also exist in a transmissible exogenous form. Such viruses would share receptor usage with the recombinant FeLV-B subgroup, a viral subgroup that arises in vivo by recombination between exogenous subgroup A virus (FeLV-A) and endogenous FeLV. Accordingly, all isolates of FeLV-B made to date have contained a "helper" FeLV-A, consistent with their recombinatorial origin. In order to assess whether endogenous viruses are transmitted between cats, we examined primary isolates of FeLV for which the viral subgroup had been determined for the presence of a subgroup B virus that lacked an FeLV-A. Here we describe the identification of two primary field isolates of FeLV (2518 and 4314) that appeared to contain subgroup B virus only by classical interference assays, raising the possibility of between-host transmission of endogenous FeLV. Sequencing of the env gene and U3 region of the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) confirmed that both viral genomes contained endogenous viral env genes. However the viral 3' LTRs appeared exogenous in origin with a putative 3' recombination breakpoint residing at the 3' end of the env gene. Further, the FeLV-2518 virions also co-packaged a truncated FeLV-A genome containing a defective env gene, termed FeLV-2518(A) whilst no helper subgroup A viral genome was detected in virions of FeLV-4314. The acquisition of an exogenous LTR by the endogenous FeLV in 4314 may have allowed a recombinant FeLV variant to outgrow an exogenous FeLV-A virus that was presumably present during first infection. Given time, a similar evolution may also occur within the 2518 isolate. The data suggest that endogenous FeLVs may be mobilised by acquisition of exogenous LTRs yielding novel viruses that type biologically as FeLV-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  19. Production of endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1979-01-01

    The production and release of endogenous pyrogen by the host is the first step in the pathogenesis of fever. Endogenous pyrogen is a low-molecular-weight protein released from phagocytic leukocytes in response to several substances of diverse nature. Some of these agents stimulate production of endogenous pyrogen because they are toxic; others act as antigens and interact with either antibody or sensitized lymphocytes in order to induce its production. Some tumors of macrophage origin produce the molecule spontaneously. Whatever the mechanism involved, endogenous pyrogen is synthesized following transcription of new DNA and translation of mRNA into new protein. Once synthesis is completed, the molecule is released without significant intracellular storage. Recent evidence suggests that following release, molecular aggregates form which are biologically active. In its monomer form, endogenous pyrogen is a potent fever-producing substance and mediates fever by its action on the thermoregulatory center.

  20. Lipid Neuroprotectants and Traumatic Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    not in individuals suffering from glaucoma (endogenous lipids ). The proposed research is to develop several such lipids as potential glaucoma...The proposed research will further assess the efficacy of the new lipids to lower IOP using mouse and monkeys that can develop glaucoma naturally or...of seminars and posters. Two high school students during summer (as part of their HHMI research program) learned hands-on about lipid analyses. A

  1. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  2. Lipid Metabolism, Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfa Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy.

  3. Nanotech: propensity in foods and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chiu-Yin; Yee-Fung, Wai; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly being developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA), and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular synthesis of new functional food compounds, innovative food packaging, food safety, and security monitoring. The relevance of bioactives includes targeted delivery systems with improved bioavailability using nanostructure vehicles such as association colloids, lipid based nanoencapsulator, nanoemulsions, biopolymeric nanoparticles, nanolaminates, and nanofibers. The extensive use of nanotechnology has led to the need for parallel safety assessment and regulations to protect public health and adverse effects to the environment. This review covers the use of biopolymers in the production of nanomaterials and the propensity of nanotechnology in food and bioactives. The exposure routes of nanoparticles, safety challenges, and measures undertaken to ensure optimal benefits that outweigh detriments are also discussed.

  4. Cytokines as endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1999-03-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic molecules mediating several pathologic processes. Long before the discovery of cytokines as immune system growth factors or as bone marrow stimulants, investigators learned a great deal about cytokines when they studied them as the endogenous mediators of fever. The terms "granulocytic" or "endogenous pyrogen" were used to describe substances with the biologic property of fever induction. Today, we recognize that pyrogenicity is a fundamental biologic property of several cytokines and hence the clinically recognizeable property of fever links host perturbations during disease with fundamental perturbations in cell biology. In this review, the discoveries made on endogenous pyrogens are revisited, with insights into the importance of the earlier work to the present-day understanding of cytokines in health and in disease.

  5. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets induce alterations in metabolism that may prevent diet-induced obesity. However, little is known as to whether different protein sources consumed at normal levels may affect diet-induced obesity and associated co-morbidities. We fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice high-fat, high......-fed mice, but otherwise no changes in lean body mass were observed between the groups. Feed efficiency and apparent nitrogen digestibility were reduced in scallop-fed mice suggesting alterations in energy utilization and metabolism. Overnight fasted plasma triacylglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids......, glycerol and hydroxy-butyrate levels were significantly reduced, indicating reduced lipid mobilization in scallop-fed mice. The plasma HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio was higher, suggesting increased reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol clearance in scallop-fed mice in both fasted and non-fasted...

  6. Evolution of endogenous analgesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous pain modulation is a complex phenomenon involved in the perception of pain. It consists of top-down inhibitory and facilitatory pathways that originate at higher sites within the central nervous system and converge at dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord, to modulate incoming afferent

  7. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  8. Oleic acid exposure of cultured endothelial cells alters lipid mediator production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, biodiesel, and other combustion sources contain free fatty acid (FFA) components capable of entering the body through particulate inhalation. FFA can also be endogenously released into circulation in response to stress. When in circulation, bioactive FFA may interact with...

  9. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  10. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  11. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  12. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  13. Inhibition of human pancreatic and biliary output but not intestinal motility by physiological intraileal lipid loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Holst, Jens Juul; Layer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Lipid perfusion into the distal ileal lumen at supraphysiological loads inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion and gastrointestinal motility in humans. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of physiological postprandial intraileal lipid concentrations on endogenously stimulated...

  14. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  15. Development of bioactive materials for glioblastoma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common and deadly human brain cancers. Unique barriers hinder the drug delivering pathway due to the individual position of glioblastoma, including blood-brain barrier and blood-brain tumor barrier. Numerous bioactive materials have been exploited and applied as the transvascular delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs. They promote site-specific accumulation and long term release of the encapsulated drugs at the tumor sites and reduce side effects with systemic delivery. And the delivery systems exhibit a certain extent of anti-glioblastoma effect and extend the median survival time. However, few of them step into the clinical trials. In this review, we will investigate the recent studies of bioactive materials for glioblastoma chemotherapy, including the inorganic materials, lipids and polymers. These bioactive materials construct diverse delivery vehicles to trigger tumor sites in brain intravenously. Herein, we exploit their functionality in drug delivery and discuss the deficiency for the featured tumors, to provide guidance for establishing optimized therapeutic drug formulation for anti-glioblastoma therapy and pave the way for clinical application.

  16. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Qishen [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andreassen, Paul R., E-mail: Paul.Andreassen@cchmc.org [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  17. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Qishen; Andreassen, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  18. Endogenous versus Exogenous Growth Factor Regulation of Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G.; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-ß1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-ß1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-ß1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-ß1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  19. Endogenous Cartilage Repair by Recruitment of Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Gun-Il

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for repair after injury. The adult body has a pool of stem cells that are mobilized during injury or disease. These cells exist inside niches in bone marrow, muscle, adipose tissue, synovium, and other connective tissues. A method that mobilizes this endogenous pool of stem cells will provide a less costly and less invasive alternative if these cells successfully regenerate defective cartilage. Traditional microfracture procedures employ the concept of bone marrow stimulation to regenerate cartilage. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has very poor mechanical properties compared to those of normal hyaline cartilage. A method that directs the migration of a large number of autologous mesenchymal stem cells toward injury sites, retains these cells around the defects, and induces chondrogenic differentiation that would enhance success of endogenous cartilage repair. This review briefly summarizes chemokines and growth factors that induce recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells, endogenous cell sources for regenerating cartilage, scaffolds for delivery of bioactive factors, and bioadhesive materials that are necessary to bring about endogenous cartilage repair.

  20. Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-β1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-β1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-β1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-β1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. Published 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...... of the reviewed theories, appears able to compensate for the explanatory gaps they leave behind. The EFN proposes consciousness as the phenomenon emerging from a distinct network of neural paths broadcasting the neural changes associated to any mental process. It additionally argues for the need to include a 5th...

  2. Hume and Endogenous Money

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2006-01-01

    David Hume’s monetary theory has three standard yet inconsistent readings. As a forefather of the quantity theory of money, Hume sees money as neutral. As an inflationist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy. As a monetarist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy only in the short run. This paper reads Hume consistently instead by showing that for Hume money is endogenous and demand-driven. Hume would read the money equation in terms of reverse causation and ...

  3. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  4. Bioactive technologies for hemocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2005-07-01

    The contact of any biomaterial with blood gives rise to multiple pathophysiologic defensive mechanisms such as activation of the coagulation cascade, platelet adhesion and activation of the complement system and leukocytes. The reduction of these events is of crucial importance for the successful clinical performance of a cardiovascular device. This can be achieved by improving the hemocompatibility of the device materials or by pharmacologic inhibition of the key enzymes responsible for the activation of the cascade reactions, or a combination of both. Different strategies have been developed during the last 20 years, and this article attempts to review the most significant, by dividing them into three main categories: bioinert or biopassive, biomimetic and bioactive strategies. With regard to bioactive strategies, particular attention is given to heparin immobilization and recent related technologies. References from both scientific literature and commercial sites are provided. Future development and studies are suggested.

  5. Combining Semi-Endogenous and Fully Endogenous Growth: a Generalization.

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that combining the semi-endogenous and the fully endogenous growth mechanisms with a general CES aggregator, either growth process can prevail in the balanced growth path depending on their degree of complementarity/substitutability. Policy-induced long-run economic switches to the fully endogenous steady state as the R&D employment ratio surpasses a positive threshold are possible if the two growth engines are gross substitutes.

  6. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  7. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  8. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  9. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  10. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  11. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  12. Lipid storage myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Claudio; Dimauro, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on disorders of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle exclusively or predominantly and to summarize recent clinical, genetic, and therapeutic studies in this field. Over the past 5 years, new clinical phenotypes and genetic loci have been described, unusual pathogenic mechanisms have been elucidated, and novel pharmacological approaches have been developed. At least one genetic defect responsible for the myopathic form of CoQ10 deficiency has been identified, causing a disorder that is allelic with the late-onset riboflavine-responsive form of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency. Novel mechanisms involved in the lipolytic breakdown of cellular lipid depots have been described and have led to the identification of genes and mutations responsible for multisystemic neutral lipid storage disorders, characterized by accumulation of triglyceride in multiple tissues, including muscle. Defects in lipid metabolism can affect either the mitochondrial transport and oxidation of exogenous fatty acid or the catabolism of endogenous triglycerides. These disorders impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness, or recurrent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by exercise, fasting, or infections. Clinical and genetic characterization of these disorders has important implications both for accurate diagnostic approach and for development of therapeutic strategies.

  13. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  14. Stem cell homing-based tissue engineering using bioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinxian; Sun, Binbin; Yi, Chengqing; Mo, Xiumei

    2017-06-01

    Tissue engineering focuses on repairing tissue and restoring tissue functions by employing three elements: scaffolds, cells and biochemical signals. In tissue engineering, bioactive material scaffolds have been used to cure tissue and organ defects with stem cell-based therapies being one of the best documented approaches. In the review, different biomaterials which are used in several methods to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds were explained and show good properties (biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties etc.) for cell migration and infiltration. Stem cell homing is a recruitment process for inducing the migration of the systemically transplanted cells, or host cells, to defect sites. The mechanisms and modes of stem cell homing-based tissue engineering can be divided into two types depending on the source of the stem cells: endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous stem cell-based bioactive scaffolds have the challenge of long-term culturing in vitro and for endogenous stem cells the biochemical signal homing recruitment mechanism is not clear yet. Although the stem cell homing-based bioactive scaffolds are attractive candidates for tissue defect therapies, based on in vitro studies and animal tests, there is still a long way before clinical application.

  15. Endogenous fertility and development traps with endogenous lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We extend the literature on endogenous lifetime and economic growth by Chakraborty (2004) and Bunzel and Qiao (2005) to endogenous fertility. We show that development traps due to underinvestments in health cannot appear when fertility is an economic decision variable and the costs of children are represented by a constant fraction of the parents' income used for their upbringing.

  16. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  17. Arachidonic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids and some of their metabolites function as endogenous antimicrobial molecules: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undurti N. Das

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our body is endowed with several endogenous anti-microbial compounds such as interferon, cytokines, free radicals, etc. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility that lipids could function as antimicrobial compounds. In this short review, the antimicrobial actions of various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly free acids and their putative mechanisms of action are described. In general, PUFAs kill microbes by their direct action on microbial cell membranes, enhancing generation of free radicals, augmenting the formation of lipid peroxides that are cytotoxic, and by increasing the formation of their bioactive metabolites, such as prostaglandins, lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that enhance the phagocytic action of leukocytes and macrophages. Higher intakes of α-linolenic and cis-linoleic acids (ALA and LA respectively and fish (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid might reduce the risk pneumonia. Previously, it was suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs: linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic (GLA, dihomo-GLA (DGLA, arachidonic (AA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA function as endogenous anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, and immunomodulating agents. A variety of bacteria are sensitive to the growth inhibitory actions of LA and ALA in vitro. Hydrolyzed linseed oil can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Both LA and AA have the ability to inactivate herpes, influenza, Sendai, and Sindbis virus within minutes of contact. AA, EPA, and DHA induce death of Plasmodium falciparum both in vitro and in vivo. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 and prostaglandin A (PGA, derived from DGLA, AA, and EPA inhibit viral replication and show anti-viral activity. Oral mucosa, epidermal cells, lymphocytes and macrophages contain and release significant amounts of PUFAs on stimulation. PUFAs stimulate NADPH-dependent superoxide production by

  18. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground......-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases....

  19. Reduced lipid oxidation in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether reduced lipid oxidation of skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects partly is based on reduced oxidation of endogenous lipids. Palmitate (PA) accumulation, total oxidation and lipolysis were not different between myotubes established from lean...... both for endogenous and exogenous lipids. Thus myotubes established from obese and obese T2D subjects express a reduced complete oxidation of endogenous lipids. Two cardinal principles govern the reduced lipid oxidation in obese and diabetic myotubes; firstly, an impaired coupling between endogenous...... lipid and mitochondria in obese and obese diabetic myotubes and secondly, a mismatch between beta-oxidation and citric acid cycle in obese diabetic myotubes....

  20. Bioactive substances of the Techirghiol therapeutic mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Hoteteu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to characterize Techirghiol's sapropelic mud both by determining the organic and inorganic composition of the constituent phases and by isolating some compounds of humic substances. The distribution between the solid and liquid phases of the peloid of the Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+cations, PO43- anion, bioactive compounds of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate classes as well as the phosphatase activity of Techirghiol sapropelic mud are analyzed. The mud is fractionated using the pH and solvent polarity variation and is spectrophotometrically characterized based on absorption in the wavelength range 340-700 nm humic acids and fulvic acids differentiated on the basis of solubility and molecular mass.

  1. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  2. 59 eyes with endogenous endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; la Cour, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the epidemiology of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective case series of 59 eyes in patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark between 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 28 to......, the visual outcome and the mortality of the patients. The epidemiology of the disease is very different in Scandinavia compared to Asia. The visual prognosis remains grave and the majority of the eyes lose useful vision....

  3. Alkyl caffeates as antioxidants in O/W emulsions: Impact of emulsifier type and endogenous tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    , the aim was to evaluate the impact of emulsifiers (Citrem and Tween80) and presence of endogenous tocopherols on the efficacies of caffeic acid and caffeates (C1–C20) as antioxidants in emulsions. Lipid oxidation was evaluated during storage and partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was estimated...... by measuring their concentrations in the aqueous phase. Partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was influenced by emulsifier type and the presence of endogenous tocopherols. Caffeic acid was the most efficient antioxidant in Citrem and Tween stabilized emulsions in the presence of endogenous tocopherol....... In contrast, for Tween stabilized emulsions, caffeic acid acted as a prooxidant and the evaluated caffeates acted as strong antioxidants in the absence of endogenous tocopherol. Thus, when endogenous tocopherol was present lipophilization of caffeic acid did not increase its efficacy as an antioxidant...

  4. Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides: A contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Saira; Huma, Nuzhat; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Aleem, Muhammad; Abbas, Munawar

    2018-01-02

    Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, and during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For this reason, fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and sour milk, are gaining popularity worldwide, and are considered excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke, and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders, and, certainly, readers.

  5. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  6. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rethna Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains. Results: Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm. In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm. Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups. Conclusions: It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  7. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rethna Priya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains. Results: Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm. In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm. Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups. Conclusions: It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  8. Further comparisons of endogenous pyrogens and leukocytic endogenous mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschmidt, R F; Upchurch, H F; Worthington, M L

    1983-07-01

    It was recently shown (Murphy et al., Infect. Immun. 34:177-183), that rabbit macrophages produce two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens. One of these has or copurifies with substances having a molecular weight of 13,000 and a pI of 7.3. This protein was produced by blood monocytes or inflammatory cells elicited in 16-h rabbit peritoneal exudates. These acute peritoneal exudates were produced by the intraperitoneal injection of large volumes of saline containing shellfish glycogen. When the leukocytes in these exudates were washed and incubated at 37 degrees C in saline, they released an endogenous pyrogen. The injection of this pyrogen into rabbits, rats, or mice caused the biological manifestations which have been attributed to leukocytic endogenous mediator. These effects were increases in blood neutrophils, the lowering of plasma iron and zinc levels, and the increased synthesis of the acute-phase proteins. The other rabbit endogenous pyrogen seems to be a family of proteins with isoelectric points between 4.5 and 5.0. These proteins are produced by macrophages in the lung, liver, or in chronic peritoneal exudates. In these experiments, the lower-isoelectric-point endogenous pyrogens were produced by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of rabbits that had been injected 4 days earlier with 50 ml of light mineral oil. These rabbit pyrogens were found to have leukocytic endogenous mediator activity in mice but to be completely inactive in rats. When injected into rabbits, these proteins produced fever, lowered plasma iron, increased blood neutrophils, but failed to elevate plasma fibrinogen.

  9. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Bioactivation of Phytoestrogens: Intestinal Bacteria and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, J M; Arqués, J; Medina, M; Gaya, P; de Las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R

    2016-08-17

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenols similar to human estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors. Phytoestrogens are found in high concentration in soya, flaxseed and other seeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, chocolate, etc. They comprise several classes of chemical compounds (stilbenes, coumestans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans) which are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens but which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Although epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that intake of phytoestrogens in foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, discrepancies have been observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The microbial transformations have not been reported so far in stilbenes and coumestans. However, isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively. Equol, urolithin, and enterolignans are more bioavailable, and have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activity than their precursors. Moreover, equol, urolithins and enterolignans have anti-inflammatory effects and induce antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities. The transformation of isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans by intestinal microbiota is essential to be protective against certain chronic diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Bioavailability, bioactivity, and health effects of dietary phytoestrogens are strongly determined by the intestinal bacteria of each individual.

  12. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  13. Bioactive composite for keratoprosthesis skirt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laattala, Kaisa; Huhtinen, Reeta; Puska, Mervi; Arstila, Hanna; Hupa, Leena; Kellomäki, Minna; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the fabrication and properties of a synthetic keratoprosthesis skirt for use in osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery are discussed. In the search for a new material concept, bioactive glass and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based composites were prepared. Three different bioactive glasses (i.e. 45S5, S53P4 and 1-98) and one slowly resorbing glass, FL107, with two different forms (i.e. particles and porous glass structures) were employed in the fabrication of specimens. In in vitro studies, the dissolution behaviour in simulated aqueous humour, compressive properties, and pore formation of the composites were investigated. According to the results, FL107 dissolved very slowly (2.4% of the initial glass content in three weeks); thus, the pore formation of the FL107 composite was also observed to be restricted. The dissolution rates of the bioactive glass-PMMA composites were greater (12%-17%). These faster dissolving bioactive glass particles caused some porosity on the outermost surfaces of the composite. The slight surface porosity was also confirmed by a decrease in compressive properties. During six weeks' in vitro dissolution, the compressive strength of the test specimens containing particles decreased by 22% compared to values in dry conditions (90-107 MPa). These results indicate that the bioactive composites could be stable synthetic candidates for a keratoprosthesis skirt in the treatment of severely damaged or diseased cornea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.T. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, L.F. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, I.L., E-mail: 84004@cch.org.tw [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  15. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Chen, H.T.; Huang, L.F.; Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F.; Chang, I.L.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  16. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  17. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  18. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  19. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  20. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    . In particular, 3-15% of very low birth weight preterm infants suffer from the most servere form of intestinal inflammation, known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This disease is incurable with a high mortality rate of 15-30%. Mother’s breast milk consists of different bioactive constituents...... of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  1. LipidPedia: a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tseng, Yufeng Jane

    2018-04-10

    Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3,923 lipids and more than 400,000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions, and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1,400,000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. yjtseng@csie.ntu.edu.tw. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Investigation of ionizing sublethal doses effects on endogenous radioresistance background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Goncharenko, E.N.; Antonova, S.V.; Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bajzhumanov, A.A.; Shestakova, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Sublethal doses of X-radiation (0.5 Gy and 1 Gy) caused the alterations in levels of main components of endogenous radioresistance background in rat tissues. There were demonstrated the decrease of serotonin content in stomach mocosa and spleen, adrenalin, noradrenalin and corticosteroids contents in adrenal glands, nonprotein thiols content in spleen and the increase of lipid peroxide level in serum on the 3-14 days after irradiation. The recovery of the investigated parameters was occurred to the 21 day after exposure. (author)

  3. Bioactive glasses potential biomaterials for future therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurbinder

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

  4. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (endogenous opioids and receptors), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (pain and analgesia); stress and social status (human studies); tolerance and dependence (opioid mediation of other analgesic responses); learning and memory (stress and social status); eating and drinking (stress-induced analgesia); alcohol and drugs of abuse (emotional responses in opioid-mediated behaviors); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (opioid involvement in stress response regulation); mental illness and mood (tolerance and dependence); seizures and neurologic disorders (learning and memory); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (opiates and conditioned place preferences (CPP)); general activity and locomotion (eating and drinking); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (alcohol and drugs of abuse); cardiovascular responses (opiates and ethanol); respiration and thermoregulation (opiates and THC); and immunological responses (opiates and stimulants). This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular

  5. Bio-actives and Drug

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bio-actives. have an effect on or elicit a response from living tissue. Refer to a substance that can be acted upon by a living organism or by an extract from a living organism. are constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic nutritional needs, that are responsible for changes in health ...

  6. Lipid flopping in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Bile is synthesized in the liver and is essential for the emulsification of dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. It is a complex mixture of amphiphilic bile acids (BAs; which act as detergent molecules), the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesterol and a variety of endogenous metabolites and waste products. Over the last 20 years, the combined effort of clinicians, geneticists, physiologists and biochemists has shown that each of these bile components is transported across the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte by its own specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) ABCB11 transports the BAs and drives bile flow from the liver, but it is now clear that two lipid transporters, ABCB4 (which flops PC into the bile) and the P-type ATPase ATP8B1/CDC50 (which flips a different phospholipid in the opposite direction) play equally critical roles that protect the biliary tree from the detergent activity of the bile acids. Understanding the interdependency of these lipid floppases and flippases has allowed the development of an assay to measure ABCB4 function. ABCB4 harbours numerous mis-sense mutations which probably reflects the spectrum of liver disease rooted in ABCB4 aetiology. Characterization of the effect of these mutations at the protein level opens the possibility for the development of personalized prognosis and treatment. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  7. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  8. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  9. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  10. REFERENCE MODELS OF ENDOGENOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    GEAMĂNU MARINELA

    2012-01-01

    The new endogenous growth theories are a very important research area for shaping the most effective policies and long term sustainable development strategies. Endogenous growth theory has emerged as a reaction to the imperfections of neoclassical theory, by the fact that the economic growth is the endogenous product of an economical system.

  11. Human gut endogenous proteins as a potential source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Lakshmi A; Hayes, Maria; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that endogenous bioactive proteins and peptides play a substantial role in the body's first line of immunological defence, immune-regulation and normal body functioning. Further, the peptides derived from the luminal digestion of proteins are also important for body function. For example, within the peptide database BIOPEP (http://www.uwm.edu.pl/biochemia/index.php/en/biopep) 12 endogenous antimicrobial and 64 angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory peptides derived from human milk and plasma proteins are listed. The antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php) lists over 111 human host-defence peptides. Several endogenous proteins are secreted in the gut and are subject to the same gastrointestinal digestion processes as food proteins derived from the diet. The human gut endogenous proteins (GEP) include mucins, serum albumin, digestive enzymes, hormones, and proteins from sloughed off epithelial cells and gut microbiota, and numerous other secreted proteins. To date, much work has been carried out regarding the health altering effects of food-derived bioactive peptides but little attention has been paid to the possibility that GEP may also be a source of bioactive peptides. In this review, we discuss the potential of GEP to constitute a gut cryptome from which bioactive peptides such as ACE-I inhibitory, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides may be derived. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the origins of endogenous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Interestingly, IFG is also closely related to silent talking, as well as volition. The connection between IFG and volition is important given that endogenous thoughts are or at least greatly resemble voluntary actions. Against this background, I argue that IFG is key to understanding the origins of conscious endogenous thoughts. Furthermore, I look into goal-directed thinking and show that IFG plays a key role also in unconscious endogenous thinking.

  13. Meat and meat products as a source of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.

  14. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  15. Maize Bioactive Peptides against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Jorge L.; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Preciado-Ortiz, Ricardo E.; García-Lara, Silverio

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derived food products has been associated with reduction risks of various types of cancer. Cereals main biomolecules includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids present in different quantities within the grain. The nutraceutical properties associated with peptides exerts biological functions that promote health and prevent this disease. In this review, we report the current status and advances on maize peptides regarding bioactive properties that have been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumour activities. We also highlighted its biological potential through which maize bioactive peptides exert anti-cancer activity. Finally, we analyse and emphasize the possible areas of application for maize peptides.

  16. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  17. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  18. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  19. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reac...

  20. Bioactivity and stability of endogenous fibrogenic factors in platelet-rich fibrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, R.; Dziegiel, M.H.; Agren, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous fibrin sealant (FS) enriched with a platelet concentrate (> 1,000,000 platelets/microL) produced by the automated Vivostat system and used to enhance wound healing. The effects of PRF were compared with supernatant from thrombin-activated platelet conce...

  1. Endogenous retinoic acid activity in principal cells and intercalated cells of mouse collecting duct system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Fei Wong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid is the bioactive derivative of vitamin A, which plays an indispensible role in kidney development by activating retinoic acid receptors. Although the location, concentration and roles of endogenous retinoic acid in post-natal kidneys are poorly defined, there is accumulating evidence linking post-natal vitamin A deficiency to impaired renal concentrating and acidifying capacity associated with increased susceptibility to urolithiasis, renal inflammation and scarring. The aim of this study is to examine the presence and the detailed localization of endogenous retinoic acid activity in neonatal, young and adult mouse kidneys, to establish a fundamental ground for further research into potential target genes, as well as physiological and pathophysiological roles of endogenous retinoic acid in the post-natal kidneys.RARE-hsp68-lacZ transgenic mice were employed as a reporter for endogenous retinoic acid activity that was determined by X-gal assay and immunostaining of the reporter gene product, β-galactosidase. Double immunostaining was performed for β-galactosidase and markers of kidney tubules to localize retinoic acid activity. Distinct pattern of retinoic acid activity was observed in kidneys, which is higher in neonatal and 1- to 3-week-old mice than that in 5- and 8-week-old mice. The activity was present specifically in the principal cells and the intercalated cells of the collecting duct system in all age groups, but was absent from the glomeruli, proximal tubules, thin limbs of Henle's loop and distal tubules.Endogenous retinoic acid activity exists in principal cells and intercalated cells of the mouse collecting duct system after birth and persists into adulthood. This observation provides novel insights into potential roles for endogenous retinoic acid beyond nephrogenesis and warrants further studies to investigate target genes and functions of endogenous retinoic acid in the kidney after birth, particularly in the

  2. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  3. Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the twenty-ninth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning thirty years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2006 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurological disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:17949854

  4. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    This paper is the thirty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2012 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatotoxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora function: A rat urine metabonomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Tao, Weiwei; Liu, Pei

    2016-07-15

    This research was designed to study metabonomic characteristics of the toxicity induced by yuanhuapine, a major bioactive diterpenoid in a well-known traditional Chinese medicine-Genkwa Flos. General observation, blood biochemistry and histopathological examination were used to reflect yuanhuapine-induced toxicity. Urine samples from rats in control and yuanhuapine treated rats were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Pattern recognition methods including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal partial least-squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and computational system analysis were integrated to obtain comprehensive metabonomic profiling and pathways of the biological data sets. The results suggested that yuanhuapine could induce intestinal and liver damage. And 14 endogenous metabolites as biomarkers related to the amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora were significantly changed in the urine of yuanhuapine treated rats, which were firstly constructed the metabolomic feature profiling and metabolite interaction network of yuanhuapine-induced injury using pattern recognition methods and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approach. The present study showed that yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatic toxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Applications of lipid based formulation technologies in the delivery of biotechnology-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Marais, Etienne B; Mohammed, Faruq; Kotzé, Awie F

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades several new biotechnologically-based therapeutics have been developed due to progress in genetic engineering. A growing challenge facing pharmaceutical scientists is formulating these compounds into oral dosage forms with adequate bioavailability. An increasingly popular approach to formulate biotechnology-based therapeutics is the use of lipid based formulation technologies. This review highlights the importance of lipid based drug delivery systems in the formulation of oral biotechnology based therapeutics including peptides, proteins, DNA, siRNA and vaccines. The different production procedures used to achieve high encapsulation efficiencies of the bioactives are discussed, as well as the factors influencing the choice of excipient. Lipid based colloidal drug delivery systems including liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles are reviewed with a focus on recent advances and updates. We further describe microemulsions and self-emulsifying drug delivery systems and recent findings on bioactive delivery. We conclude the review with a few examples on novel lipid based formulation technologies.

  7. Hierarchical Structures and Shaped Particles of Bioactive Glass and Its In Vitro Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Boonyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bioactive glass particles with controllable structure and porosity were prepared using dual-templating methods. Block copolymers used as one template component produced mesopores in the calcined samples. Polymer colloidal crystals as the other template component yielded either three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM products or shaped bioactive glass nanoparticles. The in vitro bioactivity of these bioactive glasses was studied by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF at body temperature (37°C for varying lengths of time and monitoring the formation of bone-like apatite on the surface of the bioactive glass. A considerable bioactivity was found that all of bioactive glass samples have the ability to induce the formation of an apatite layer on its surface when in contact with SBF. The development of bone-like apatite is faster for 3DOM bioactive glasses than for nanoparticles.

  8. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterization of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour...

  9. Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...

  10. Endogenous price flexibility and optimal monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge Senay; Alan Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    Much of the literature on optimal monetary policy uses models in which the degree of nominal price flexibility is exogenous. There are, however, good reasons to suppose that the degree of price flexibility adjusts endogenously to changes in monetary conditions. This article extends the standard new Keynesian model to incorporate an endogenous degree of price flexibility. The model shows that endogenizing the degree of price flexibility tends to shift optimal monetary policy towards complete i...

  11. Apolipoprotein gene involved in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Edward; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2007-07-03

    Methods and materials for studying the effects of a newly identified human gene, APOAV, and the corresponding mouse gene apoAV. The sequences of the genes are given, and transgenic animals which either contain the gene or have the endogenous gene knocked out are described. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene are described and characterized. It is demonstrated that certain SNPs are associated with diseases involving lipids and triglycerides and other metabolic diseases. These SNPs may be used alone or with SNPs from other genes to study individual risk factors. Methods for intervention in lipid diseases, including the screening of drugs to treat lipid-related or diabetic diseases are also disclosed.

  12. Bioactive glasses materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylänen, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are used as highly effective implant materials throughout the human body to replace or repair damaged tissue. As a result, they have been in continuous use since shortly after their invention in the late 1960s and are the subject of extensive research worldwide.Bioactive glasses provides readers with a detailed review of the current status of this unique material, its properties, technologies and applications. Chapters in part one deal with the materials and mechanical properties of bioactive glass, examining topics such

  13. Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of whole plant extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L) Druce ssp Serpyllifolia F Lamiaceae against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  14. Lipid Based Nanosystems for Curcumin: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Aditya P; Mills, Tom; Norton, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the principle bioactive compounds used in the ayurvedic medicine system that has the history of over 5000 years for human use. Curcumin an "Indian Gold" is used to treat simple ailments like the common cold to severe life threatening diseases like cancer, and HIV. Though its contribution is immense for the health protection and disease prevention, its clinical use is limited due to its susceptible nature to alkaline pH, high temperature, presence of oxygen and light. Hence it becomes extremely difficult to maintain its bioactivity during processing, storage and consumption. Recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to curcumin offer an opportunity to enhance its stability, bioactivity and to overcome its pharmacokinetic mismatch. This in turn helps to bridge the gaps that exist between its bench top research data to its clinical findings. Among the various types of nano/micro delivery systems, lipid based delivery systems are well studied and are the best suited delivery systems to enhance the stability and pharmacokinetic profile of curcumin both for pharma and the food application. In the current review, effort will be made to recapitulate the work done in the past to use lipid based delivery systems (liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and emulsions) to enhance the application of curcumin for health promotion and disease prevention. Further, future prospects for the utilization of these lipid-based delivery systems will be discussed in detail.

  15. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  16. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56–64 y–A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress.

  17. Bioactivity evolution of the surface functionalized bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Klára; Baia, Lucian; Vulpoi, Adriana; Simon, Simion; Popescu, Octavian; Simon, Viorica

    2015-02-01

    The formation of a calcium phosphate layer on the surface of the SiO2 -CaO-P2 O5 glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) generally demonstrates the bioactivity of these materials. Grafting of the surface by chemical bonding can minimize the structural changes in protein adsorbed on the surface. Therefore, in this study our interest was to evaluate the bioactivity and blood biocompatibility of the SiO2 -CaO-P2 O5 glasses after their surface modification by functionalization with aminopropyl-triethoxysilane and/or by fibrinogen. It is shown that the fibrinogen adsorbed on the glass surfaces induces a growing of the apatite-like layer. It is also evidenced that the protein content from SBF influences the growth of the apatite-like layer. Furthermore, the good blood compatibility of the materials after fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin adsorption is proved from the assessment of the β-sheet-β-turn ratio. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bioactive compounds from palm fatty acid distillate and crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiasih, T.; Ahmadi, K.

    2018-03-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) are rich sources of bioactive compounds. PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refinery that produce palm frying oil. Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate. CPO and PFAD contain some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. Bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD are vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E of CPO and PFAD mainly comprised of tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of CPO and PFAD contained beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol. Tocotrienols and phytosterols of CPO and PFAD, each can be separated to produce tocotrienol rich fraction and phytosterol rich fraction. Tocotrienol rich fraction from PFAD has both antioxidant and cholesterol lowering properties. Bioactive compounds of PFAD silmultaneously have been proven to improve lipid profile, and have hepatoprotector effect, imunomodulator, antioxidant properties, and lactogenic effect in animal test experiment. It is possible to develop separation of bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD integratively with the other process that utilizes fatty acid.

  19. Radioprotective properties of detoxified lipid A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.L.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Patchen, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has long been known to possess radioprotective properties. Nevertheless, the toxicity of LPS, or its principal bioactive component, Lipid A, has detracted from its potential use as a radioprotectant. Recently, a relatively non-toxic monophosphoryl Lipid A that retains many of the immunobiological properties of native LPS has been prepared from a polyaccharide-deficient and heptoseless Re mutant strain of S. minnesota. The authors conducted experiments that evaluated and compared the radioprotective efficiency of native endotoxin, as well as the mono (detoxified) and diphosphoryl (toxic) forms of Lipid A, in both responder (CD2F1 and C3H/HeN) and non-responder (C3H/HeJ) mice. It has been found that the optimal dose for the mono- and diphosphoryl Lipid A are approximately the same (800 μg/kg in CD2F1 mice), and that both compounds provide maximum protection when administered 24 h before exposure to an LD100 dose of cobalt - 60 gamma radiation. Possible mechanisms for the radioprotective action of detoxified Lipid A are suggested

  20. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  1. Involvement of human endogenous retroviral syncytin-1 in human osteoclast fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie

    2011-01-01

    fusion of the lipid bilayers of their cell membranes are still unknown. Syncytin-1 is a protein encoded by a human endogenous retroviral gene which was stably integrated into the human ancestor genome more than 24 million years ago. Upon activation, syncytin-1 is able to destabilize the lipid bilayer....... This was documented through Q-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. These in vitro findings were confirmed by immunohistochemical stainings in human iliac crest biopsies. A syncytin-1 inhibitory peptide reduced the number of nuclei per osteoclast by 30%, as well as TRACP activity. From a mechanistic...

  2. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  3. Chemical Atherogenesis: Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Poisons in Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical atherogenesis is an emerging field that describes how environmental pollutants and endogenous toxins perturb critical pathways that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus injuring cells found within the vessel wall. Despite growing awareness of the role of environmental pollutants in the development of cardiovascular disease, the field of chemical atherogenesis can broadly include both exogenous and endogenous poisons and the study of molecular, biochemical, and cellular pathways that become dysregulated during atherosclerosis. This integrated approach is logical because exogenous and endogenous toxins often share the same mechanism of toxicity. Chemical atherogenesis is a truly integrative discipline because it incorporates concepts from several different fields, including biochemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology, and toxicology. This review will provide an overview of this emerging research area, focusing on cellular and animal models of disease.

  4. Chemical Atherogenesis: Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Poisons in Disease Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew K; Matthews, Anberitha T; Mangum, Lee C

    Chemical atherogenesis is an emerging field that describes how environmental pollutants and endogenous toxins perturb critical pathways that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus injuring cells found within the vessel wall. Despite growing awareness of the role of environmental pollutants in the development of cardiovascular disease, the field of chemical atherogenesis can broadly include both exogenous and endogenous poisons and the study of molecular, biochemical, and cellular pathways that become dysregulated during atherosclerosis. This integrated approach is logical because exogenous and endogenous toxins often share the same mechanism of toxicity. Chemical atherogenesis is a truly integrative discipline because it incorporates concepts from several different fields, including biochemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology, and toxicology. This review will provide an overview of this emerging research area, focusing on cellular and animal models of disease.

  5. Applying Endogenous Knowledge in the African Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question presented in this article is how to improve the dispute resolution competence of practitioners in Africa. The response offered involves enhancing the endogenous knowledge of a dispute and how to resolve it. This requires not only an understanding of what endogenous knowledge is, but also an alignment of ...

  6. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  7. Spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Joanna L; Tyler, Arwen I I; Barriga, Hanna M G; Bramble, Jonathan P; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Ces, Oscar; O'Shea, Paul

    2017-10-03

    An assay to study the spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles is described. A donor/acceptor vesicle system is employed, where neutrally charged acceptor vesicles are fluorescently labelled with the electrostatic membrane probe Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE). Upon addition of charged donor vesicles, transfer of negatively charged lipid occurs, resulting in a fluorescently detectable change in the membrane potential of the acceptor vesicles. Using this approach we have studied the transfer properties of a range of lipids, varying both the headgroup and the chain length. At the low vesicle concentrations chosen, the transfer follows a first-order process where lipid monomers are transferred presumably through the aqueous solution phase from donor to acceptor vesicle. The rate of transfer decreases with increasing chain length which is consistent with energy models previously reported for lipid monomer vesicle interactions. Our assay improves on existing methods allowing the study of a range of unmodified lipids, continuous monitoring of transfer and simplified experimental procedures.

  8. Bioactive Glasses in Dentistry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.

  9. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human endogenous retroviruses and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Emanuela; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Matteucci, Claudia; D'Agati, Elisa; Sorrentino, Roberta; Baratta, Antonia; Caterina, Rosa; Zenobi, Rossella; Curatolo, Paolo; Garaci, Enrico; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-08-01

    Several lines of evidences suggest that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are implicated in the development of many complex diseases with a multifactorial aetiology and a strong heritability, such as neurological and psychiatric diseases. Attention deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from a complex interaction of environmental, biological and genetic factors. Our aim was to analyse the expression levels of three HERV families (HERV-H, K and W) in patients with ADHD. The expression of retroviral mRNAs from the three HERV families was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 30 patients with ADHD and 30 healthy controls by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression levels of HERV-H are significantly higher in patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls, while there are no differences in the expression levels of HERV-K and W. Since the ADHD aetiology is due to a complex interaction of environmental, biological and genetic factors, HERVs may represent one link among these factors and clinical phenotype of ADHD. A future confirmation of HERV-H overexpression in a larger number of ADHD patients will make possible to identify it as a new parameter for this clinical condition, also contributing to deepen the study on the role of HERVs in the neurodevelopment diseases.

  11. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  12. Peptides: Production, bioactivity, functionality, and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajfathalian, Mona; Ghelichi, Sakhi; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Production of peptides with various effects from proteins of different sources continues to receive academic attention. Researchers of different disciplines are putting increasing efforts to produce bioactive and functional peptides from different sources such as plants, animals, and food industry...... by-products. The aim of this review is to introduce production methods of hydrolysates and peptides and provide a comprehensive overview of their bioactivity in terms of their effects on immune, cardiovascular, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. Moreover, functional and antioxidant properties...... of hydrolysates and isolated peptides are reviewed. Finally, industrial and commercial applications of bioactive peptides including their use in nutrition and production of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals are discussed....

  13. Nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadasan, K.; Mukundan, M.K.; Antony, P.D.; Viswanathan Nair, P.G.; Perigreen, P.A.; Joseph, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The International Symposium on Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms, was held during 16-17 September 1993 by the Society of Fisheries Technologists (India) to review the progress of research in this area in India and elsewhere. The papers presented indicate that scientific productivity in this field is substantial and that some of the bioactive materials isolated from aquatic organisms have potential application in human health, nutrition and therapy. The symposium focussed attention on toxicants, nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms in general, and also on pollution of aquatic systems due to thermal effluents. Paper relevant to INIS database is indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  14. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  15. Bioavailability of Isothiocyanates From Broccoli Sprouts in Protein, Lipid, and Fiber Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviero, Teresa; Lamers, Simone; Capuano, Edoardo; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Optimization of bioavailability of dietary bioactive health-beneficial compounds is as important as increasing their concentration in foods. The aim of this study is to explore the change in bioavailability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli sprouts incorporated in protein, fiber, and lipid gels. Methods and results: Five participants took part in a cross-over study and collected timed urine samples up to 24 h after consumption of proteins, dietary fibers, and lipid gels containing ...

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of T-Cell Lipid Metabolism: Implications for Plasma Membrane Lipid Rafts and T-Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Robinson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that cholesterol and glycosphingolipids are enriched in the plasma membrane (PM and form signaling platforms called lipid rafts, essential for T-cell activation and function. Moreover, changes in PM lipid composition affect the biophysical properties of lipid rafts and have a role in defining functional T-cell phenotypes. Here, we review the role of transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism including liver X receptors α/β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, estrogen receptors α/β (ERα/β, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in T-cells. These receptors lie at the interface between lipid metabolism and immune cell function and are endogenously activated by lipids and/or hormones. Importantly, they regulate cellular cholesterol, fatty acid, glycosphingolipid, and phospholipid levels but are also known to modulate a broad spectrum of immune responses. The current evidence supporting a role for lipid metabolism pathways in controlling immune cell activation by influencing PM lipid raft composition in health and disease, and the potential for targeting lipid biosynthesis pathways to control unwanted T-cell activation in autoimmunity is reviewed.

  17. Sol-gel derived porous bioactive nanocomposites: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.

    2013-06-01

    Porous bioactive composites consisting of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioactive glass-ceramic and synthetic water soluble polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP (C6H9NO)n, MW˜40000 g/mol] have been synthesized by sol-gel route. As-prepared polymeric composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Two major bone mineral phases, viz., hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and wollastonite [calcium silicate (CaSiO3)] have been identified in the XRD patterns of the composites. Presence of these bone minerals indicates the bioactive nature of the composites. In vitro bioactivity tests confirm bioactivity in the porous composites. The flexibility offered by these bioactive polymer composites is advantageous for its application as implant material.

  18. Contagion risk in endogenous financial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shouwei; Sui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an endogenous financial network model. • Endogenous networks include interbank networks, inter-firm networks and bank-firm networks. • We investigate contagion risk in endogenous financial networks. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate contagion risk in an endogenous financial network, which is characterized by credit relationships connecting downstream and upstream firms, interbank credit relationships and credit relationships connecting firms and banks. The findings suggest that: increasing the number of potential lenders randomly selected can lead to an increase in the number of bank bankruptcies, while the number of firm bankruptcies presents a trend of increase after the decrease; after the intensity of choice parameter rises beyond a threshold, the number of bankruptcies in three sectors (downstream firms, upstream firms and banks) shows a relatively large margin of increase, and keeps at a relatively high level; there exists different trends for bankruptcies in different sectors with the change of the parameter of credits’ interest rates.

  19. Endogenous Money, Output and Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.

  20. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  1. Some observations about the endogenous money theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bertocco Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The endogenous money theory constitutes the core element of the post-keynesian monetary theory. The first formulation of this theory can be found in the works of Kaldor published in the 1970s. Taking these studies as a starting point, the post-keynesians elaborated two versions of the endogenous money theory which differ in their assumptions about the behaviour of the monetary authorities and the banking system, and hence offer different conclusions about the slope of the money supply curve. ...

  2. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  3. Endogenous Money Supply and Money Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Woon Gyu Choi; Seonghwan Oh

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the behavior of money demand by explicitly accounting for the money supply endogeneity arising from endogenous monetary policy and financial innovations. Our theoretical analysis indicates that money supply factors matter in the money demand function when the money supply partially responds to money demand. Our empirical results with U.S. data provide strong evidence for the relevance of the policy stance to the demand for MI under a regime in which monetary policy is subs...

  4. Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M. M.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    potential as a source of biomass for the production of biofuels, due to their high growth rates and high cellular lipid content. Petroleum pollutant degradation can also be done by these organisms-Achanthes minutissima has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Stephanopyxis turris a silicon utilizing organism releases a blend of chlorinated C8 hydrocarbons. This adds a fundamentally new pathway to the limited set of halogenating enzymatic activities known from nature. Many silicon utilizing organisms can produce PUFA from saturated fatty acids which ultimately produce many important bioactive chemicals like hormosirene, finaverrene, heptadienal, dietyopterene, cystophorene, decadienal. Trienoic acid, octadiene and many other important agents. Similarly terpenoid biosynthetic pathway is activated by them with formation of diterpenoids, sesterpenoids, triterpenoids and sterols.

  5. A close collaboration of chitosan with lipid colloidal carriers for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnicourt, Loïc; Ladavière, Catherine

    2017-06-28

    Chitosan and lipid colloids have separately shown a growing interest in the field of drug delivery applications. Their success is mainly due to their interesting physicochemical behaviors, as well as their biological properties such as bioactivity and biocompatibility. While chitosan is a well-known cationic polysaccharide with the ability to strongly interact with drugs and biological matrices through mainly electrostatic interactions, lipid colloids are carriers particularly recognized for the drug vectorization. In recent years, the combination of both entities has been considered because it offers new systems which gather the advantages of each of them to efficiently deliver various types of bioactive species. The purpose of this review is to describe these associations between chemically-unmodified chitosan chains (solubilized or dispersed) and lipid colloids (as nanoparticles or organized in lipid layers), as well as their potential in the drug delivery area so far. Three assemblies have mainly been reported in the literature: i) lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles or nanostructured lipid carriers) coated with chitosan chains, ii) lipid vesicles covered with chitosan chains, and iii) chitosan chains structured in nanoparticles with a lipid coating. Their elaboration processes, their physicochemical characterization, and their biological studies are detailed and discussed herein. The different bioactive species (drugs and bio(macro)molecules) incorporated in these assemblies, their maximal incorporation efficiency, and their loading capacity are also presented. This review reveals the versatility of these assemblies. Depending on the organization of lipids (i.e., nanoparticles or vesicles) and the state of polymer chains (i.e., solubilized or dispersed under the form of nanoparticles), a large variety of drugs can be successfully incorporated, and various routes of administration can be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Comparative Chemical Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia BOBIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Beebread is a valuable bee product, both for bee nutrition and for humans. The high nutritional and bioactive properties of beebread were evaluated by chemical composition analysis of beebread from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. Bee bread harvested from Romania and India, coming from Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata bees, were evaluated for their chemical composition. Analyses were made in APHIS Laboratory from USAMV Cluj, using validated methods for bee products. Lipids were determined by the Soxhlet extraction method, total protein content was determined by Kjehldahl method, sugar spectrum was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-IR. Water content of beebread samples were situated between 11.45 and 16.46%, total protein content between 16.84 and 19.19% and total lipids between 6.36 and 13.47%.  Beebread has high bioactive properties which can be expressed as antioxidant and/or antibacterial activity. Chemical composition and bioactive properties of beebread is influenced by floral origin of the pollen which the bees collect and place in combs for fermentation. Also the climatic conditions have an important role in developing different fermentation compounds, that may act as antioxidants or antibacterial agents.

  7. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-09-15

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) following intravenous injection; CNTF fever was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. The fever induced by CNTF was not due to contaminating endotoxins. Increasing doses of CNTF resulted in prolongation of the fever, suggesting the subsequent induction of additional endogenous pyrogenic activity. After passive transfer of plasma obtained during CNTF-induced fever, endogenous pyrogen activity was not present in the circulation; CNTF also did not induce the endogenous pyrogens interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin 6 in vitro. Nevertheless, a second endogenous pyrogen may originate within the central nervous system following the systemic injection of CNTF. Of the four endogenous pyrogens described to date (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and interleukin 6), CNTF, like interleukin 6, utilizes the cell-surface gp 130 signal-transduction apparatus.

  8. Synthesis and bioactive evaluations of novel benzotriazole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and bioactive evaluations of novel benzotriazole compounds as ... School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, .... −3 mol/L) was prepared by dissolving its solid in doubly distilled water.

  9. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  10. Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Stamatia; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggeli, Dimitra; Sayegh, Fotoon; Aggelis, George

    2014-12-01

    . Therefore, algal production systems need to be improved and harvesting systems need to be more effective in order for their industrial applications to become more competitive and economically viable. Besides, a reduction of the production cost of microalgal lipids can be achieved by combining lipid production with other commercial applications. The combined production of bioactive products and lipids, when possible, can support the commercial viability of both processes. Hydrophobic compounds can be extracted simultaneously with lipids and then purified, while hydrophilic compounds such as proteins and sugars may be extracted from the defatted biomass. The microalgae also have applications in environmental biotechnology since they can be used for bioremediation of wastewater and to monitor environmental toxicants. Algal biomass produced during wastewater treatment may be further valorized in the biofuel manufacture. It is anticipated that the high microalgal lipid potential will force research towards finding effective ways to manipulate biochemical pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis and towards cost effective algal cultivation and harvesting systems, as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ceramide in lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition: an innocent bystander?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, Johanna E.; Serlie, Mireille J.; Poppema, Aldi; Mirzaian, Mina; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2011-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease is a prevalent and severe complication of long term parenteral nutrition. We present here for the first time data on the presence of ceramide, a bioactive compound involved in a variety of metabolic processes, in different lipid emulsions used in

  12. Polymerization kinetics of experimental bioactive composites containing bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Matej; Tarle, Zrinka; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2018-06-21

    To investigate the polymerization kinetics and the degree of conversion (DC) of experimental resin composites with varying amount of bioactive glass 45S5 (BG). Experimental resin composites based on a photo-curable Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system were prepared. The composite series contained 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 wt% of BG and reinforcing fillers up to the total filler amount of 70 wt%. Composite specimens were light cured with 1,219 mW/cm 2 for 20 or 40 s and their DC was monitored during 5 min at the data collection rate of 2 s -1 using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The 5-min DC values for experimental composites were in the range of 42.4-55.9% and 47.3-57.9% for curing times of 20 and 40 s, respectively. The differences in the 5-min DC between curing times of 20 s or 40 s became more pronounced in materials with higher BG amount. Within both curing times, a decreasing trend of the 5-min DC values was observed with the increasing percentage of BG fillers. The maximum polymerization rate also decreased consistently with the increasing BG amount. Unsilanized BG fillers showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on polymerization rate and the DC. Extending the curing time from 20 to 40 s showed a limited potential to improve the DC of composites with higher BG amount. The observed inhibitory effect of BG fillers on the polymerization of resin composites may have a negative influence on mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  14. In vitro bioactivity of polymer matrices reinforced with a bioactive glass phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oréfice Rodrigo L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites that can mimic the in vitro bioactive behavior of bioactive glasses were designed to fulfill two main features of bioactive glasses that are responsible for their high bond-to-bone rates: (1 capability of providing ions such as calcium and phosphate to the nearby environment and (2 ideal surface structure that allows fast heterogeneous precipitation of hydroxy-carbonate-apatite (HCA. The novel composites were prepared by incorporating bioactive glass particles into polymer matrices. The in vitro bioactivity test was performed by introducing samples into a buffered solution as well as into a simulated body fluid solution. FTIR was used to evaluate the kinetics of HCA (hydroxy-carbonate-apatite precipitation. The results showed that the obtained composites can supply ions, such as silicates and phosphates in rates and concentrations comparable or superior than bulk bioactive glasses. Moreover, the surface chemistry of the composites was altered to mimic the surface of bioactive glasses. It was demonstrated that the in vitro bioactivity of the composites was enhanced by chemically modifying polymer surfaces through the introduction of special alkoxysilane groups.

  15. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations......Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...

  16. Host-virus interactions of mammalian endogenous retroviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Farkašová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) originate by germline infection and subsequent mendelian inheritance of their exogenous counterparts. With notable exceptions, all mammalian ERVs are evolutionarily old and fixed in the population of its host species. Some groups of retroviruses were believed not to be able to form endogenous copies. We discovered an additional endogenous Lentivirus and a first endogenous Deltaretrovirus. Both of these groups were previously considered unable to form endogenous ...

  17. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    . However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

  18. [The endogenous opioid system and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, R

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder leading to complex adaptive changes within the brain reward circuits. Several neurotransmitters, including the endogenous opioid system are involved in these changes. The opioid system plays a pivotal role in different aspects of addiction. Thus, opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides are largely distributed in the mesolimbic system and modulate dopaminergic activity within the reward circuits. Opioid receptors and peptides are selectively involved in several components of the addictive processes induced by opioids, cannabinoids, psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This review is focused on the contribution of each component of the endogenous opioid system in the addictive properties of the different drugs of abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... potential confounds in previous experiments. A key feature of our experimental design is to have the exact same regulations chosen endogenously as those that are imposed exogenously. When we compare the same regulations chosen endogenously to those externally imposed, we observe no differences in extraction...... endogenous regulations with communication and exogenous regulations without communication. Our results suggest that externally imposed regulations do not crowd out intrinsic motivations in the lab and they confirm that communication facilitates cooperation to reduce extraction....

  20. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  1. Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barreiro, Maria Filomena

    2015-04-01

    Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this context, microencapsulation emerges as a potential approach to overcome these problems and, additionally, to provide controlled or targeted delivery or release. This work intends to contribute to the field of functional food development by performing a comprehensive review on the microencapsulation methods and materials, the bioactives used (extracts and isolated compounds) and the final application development. Although several studies dealing with microencapsulation of bioactives exist, they are mainly focused on the process development and the majority lack proof of concept for final applications. These factors, together with the lack of regulation, in Europe and in the United States, delay the development of new functional foods and, consequently, their market entry. In conclusion, the potential of microencapsulation to protect bioactive compounds ensuring their bioavailability is shown, but further studies are required, considering both its applicability and incentives by regulatory agencies.

  2. Endogenous network of firms and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianting; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-02-01

    We construct an endogenous network characterized by commercial credit relationships connecting the upstream and downstream firms. Simulation results indicate that the endogenous network model displays a scale-free property which exists in real-world firm systems. In terms of the network structure, with the expansion of the scale of network nodes, the systemic risk increases significantly, while the heterogeneities of network nodes have no effect on systemic risk. As for firm micro-behaviors, including the selection range of trading partners, actual output, labor requirement, price of intermediate products and employee salaries, increase of all these parameters will lead to higher systemic risk.

  3. Endogenous Generalized Weights under DEA Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    Non-parametric efficiency analysis, such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, based on revealed preferences or market prices. However, as DEA is gaining popularity in regulation and normative budgeting, the strategic interest...... of the evaluated industry calls for attention. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA where the units collectively propose the set of weights that maximize their efficiency. Thus, the sector-wide efficiency is then a result of compromising the scores of more specialized smaller units...

  4. An endogenous model of the credit network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianmin; Sui, Xin; Li, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an endogenous credit network model of firm-bank agents is constructed. The model describes the endogenous formation of firm-firm, firm-bank and bank-bank credit relationships. By means of simulations, the model is capable of showing some obvious similarities with empirical evidence found by other scholars: the upper-tail of firm size distribution can be well fitted with a power-law; the bank size distribution can be lognormally distributed with a power-law tail; the bank in-degrees of the interbank credit network as well as the firm-bank credit network fall into two-power-law distributions.

  5. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  6. [Mechanisms of leukocyte formation of endogenous pyrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakina, E G; Sorokin, A V

    1982-06-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of endogenous pyrogen production by rabbit blood and exudate leukocytes and possible role played by the products of activated leukocytes in autoregulation of the process. It was established that accumulation of endogenous pyrogen in the cell precedes its release by stimulated cells. Then the processes of active pyrogen formation and release gel interdependent: pyrogen formed releases from the cell; the lowering of pyrogen concentration in the cell is accompanied by the decrease of its content in the medium. No stimulating effect of the products activated during leukocyte inflammation on pyrogen formation by blood leukocytes was discovered.

  7. Microbial biotransformation of bioactive flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Chen, Xiaoqing; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Xiao, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive flavonoids are considered as the most important phytochemicals in food, which exert a wide range of biological benefits for human being. Microbial biotransformation strategies for production of flavonoids have attracted considerable interest because they allow yielding novel flavonoids, which do not exist in nature. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoids by various microbes. The main reactions during microbial biotransformation are hydroxylation, dehydroxylation, O-methylation, O-demethylation, glycosylation, deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, C ring cleavage of the benzo-γ-pyrone system, cyclization, and carbonyl reduction. Cunninghamella, Penicillium, and Aspergillus strains are very popular to biotransform flavonoids and they can perform almost all the reactions with excellent yields. Aspergillus niger is one of the most applied microorganisms in the flavonoids' biotransformation; for example, A. niger can transfer flavanone to flavan-4-ol, 2'-hydroxydihydrochalcone, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, and 4'-hydroxyflavanone. The hydroxylation of flavones by microbes usually happens on the ortho position of hydroxyl group on the A ring and C-4' position of the B ring and microbes commonly hydroxylate flavonols at the C-8 position. The microorganisms tend to hydroxylate flavanones at the C-5, 6, and 4' positions; however, for prenylated flavanones, dihydroxylation often takes place on the C4α=C5α double bond on the prenyl group (the side chain of A ring). Isoflavones are usually hydroxylated at the C-3' position of the B ring by microorganisms. The microbes convert flavonoids to their 7-O-glycosides and 3-O-glycosides (when flavonoids have a hydroxyl moiety at the C-3 position). The demethylation of multimethoxyl flavonoids by microbes tends to happen at the C-3' and C-4' positions of the B ring. Multimethoxyl flavanones and isoflavone are demethylated at

  8. Effect of a bioactive curcumin derivative on DPPC membrane: A DSC and Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardikis, Kostantinos [Department of Pharm. Technology, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Hatziantoniou, Sophia [Department of Pharm. Technology, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Viras, Kyriakos [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Demetzos, Costas [Department of Pharm. Technology, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: demetzos@pharm.uoa.gr

    2006-08-01

    Interactions of dimethoxycurcumin (1) a lipophilic bioactive curcumin derivative with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were investigated. The thermodynamic changes caused by (1) and its location into DPPC lipid bilayers were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal that (1) influences the thermotropic properties of DPPC lipid membrane causing abolition of the pretransition and broadening of the phase-transition profile and slightly decreases the T {sub m} at increasing concentrations. The Raman height intensity ratios of the peaks I {sub 2935/2880}, I {sub 2844/2880} and I {sub 1090/1130} are representative of the interaction of (1) with the alkyl chains and furnish information about the ratio between disorder and order that exists in the conformation of the alkyl chain. The intensity changes of the peak at 715 cm{sup -1} indicates interaction between the choline head group and (1). The Raman spectroscopy results are in agreement with the thermal analysis results. Biologically active lipophilic molecules such as (1) should be studied in terms of their interaction with lipid bilayers prior to the development of advanced lipid carrier systems such as liposomes. The results of these studies provide information on the membrane integrity and physicochemical properties that are essential for the rational design lipidic drug delivery systems.

  9. Lipofection indirectly increases expression of endogenous major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B A; Drury, M; Hu, H M; Cao, Z; Huntzicker, E G; Qie, W; Urba, W J

    1998-01-01

    Direct intratumoral injection of a lipid/DNA complex encoding an allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule leads to regression of both an immunogenic murine tumor and also melanoma lesions in some patients. We have sought to understand the mechanism(s) for this augmentation of antitumor activity. While optimizing parameters for in vitro gene transfer into the D5 subclone of B16BL6, it was noted that lipofected tumors not only expressed the new alloantigen but also exhibited increased expression of endogenous MHC class I, both H-2 Kb and H-2 Db. This increase in expression was not restricted to the small percentage of cells that expressed the transfected gene, but appeared to affect the majority of cells in culture. Class I expression was not increased by lipopolysaccharide, DNA alone, lipid, or lipid/lipopolysaccharide mixtures. Enhanced class I expression required a DNA/lipid complex and was greatest when parameters optimized for gene transfer of the alloantigen were used. All DNA plasmids tested had this effect, including one plasmid whose DNA was not transcribed because it lacked an expression cassette. Because of the critical role that MHC class I antigens play in immune recognition, we propose that lipid complex-mediated gene transfer may provide immunological advantages beyond those that are attributable to expression of the specific gene transferred.

  10. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. Results MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. Conclusions We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells. PMID:22727223

  11. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjan-Odedra, Shetal; Swanson, Chad M; Sherer, Nathan M; Wolinsky, Steven M; Malim, Michael H

    2012-06-22

    The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells.

  12. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; S P Singh

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO2 in Na2O-CaO-SrO-P2O5-SiO2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO2. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Tripathi, Himanshu [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim [Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P. [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO{sub 2} in Na{sub 2}O–CaO–SrO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO{sub 2} has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO{sub 2}. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • The substitution of SrO was done for SiO{sub 2} in Na{sub 2}O–CaO–SrO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} bioactive glass. • Network connectivity significantly influenced on bioactivity and biocompatibility. • In vitro SBF studies showed enhanced HCA crystallinity on the glass surface. • The cell culture studies exhibited better cell compatibility and significant growth. • Density and elastic moduli increased with increasing concentration of strontia.

  14. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO 2 in Na 2 O–CaO–SrO–P 2 O 5 –SiO 2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO 2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO 2 . The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • The substitution of SrO was done for SiO 2 in Na 2 O–CaO–SrO–P 2 O 5 –SiO 2 bioactive glass. • Network connectivity significantly influenced on bioactivity and biocompatibility. • In vitro SBF studies showed enhanced HCA crystallinity on the glass surface. • The cell culture studies exhibited better cell compatibility and significant growth. • Density and elastic moduli increased with increasing concentration of strontia.

  15. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital

  16. Essays on Policy Evaluation with Endogenous Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, experimental and quasi-experimental methods have been favored by researchers in empirical economics, as they provide unbiased causal estimates. However, when implementing a program, it is often not possible to randomly assign subjects to treatment, leading to a possible endogeneity bias. This dissertation consists of two…

  17. Place branding, embeddedness and endogenous rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, Mechthild; Horlings, Lummina; Fort, Fatiha; Vellema, Sietze

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with place branding on the regional scale, in the rural context of food and tourism networks in Europe. Place branding is linked to the concepts of endogenous rural development, territory and embeddedness, by analysing how the valorisation of specific rural assets takes shape.

  18. Climate changes and farmers' endogenous adaptation strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been claimed that climate changes impact studies often assume certain adaptations and little explicit examination of how, when, why, and under what conditions they occur. This research aims at analysing the endogenous strategies developed by farmers in agricultural land and crop management. With random ...

  19. Endogenous thrombin potential in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate plasma endogenous thrombin generation in four different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS is diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. DESIGN: Multicenter...

  20. Immigration, Endogenous Technology Adoption and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Pandey, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We document that immigration to U.S. states has increased the mass of workers at the lower range of the skill distribution. We use this change in skill distribution of workers to analyze the effect of immigration on wages. Our model allows firms to endogenously respond to the immigration-induced

  1. HERVd: the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Database: update

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pačes, Jan; Pavlíček, A.; Zíka, Radek; Jurka, J.; Pačes, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2004), s. 50-50 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : human * endogenous retrovirus * database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2004

  2. Endogenous Quality Effects of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe study the optimal trade policy against a foreign oligopoly with endogenous quality. We show that, under the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause, a uniform tariff policy is always welfare improving over the free trade equilibrium. However, a nonuniform tariff policy is always desirable

  3. Optimized Formation of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Endogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To use endogenous myrosinase in Carica papaya seed to convert benzyl glucosinolate (BG) to benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and then extract it for further studies. Methods: Process variables including seed powder particle size, sample-to-solvent ratio, pH of buffer solution, enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis ...

  4. Structural classification of endogenous regulatory oligopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyatnin, A A

    1991-07-01

    Based on the criteria of 50% identity in the amino acid sequence, a new method for grouping endogenous regulatory oligopeptides into structural families is presented. Data from the EROP-Moscow data bank on 579 oligopeptides fitting a preset spectrum of functional activities revealed 73 structural oligopeptide groups, 36 of which were called families.

  5. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  6. The Limit of Public Policy : Endogenous Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Gill, O.; Fershtman, C.

    2000-01-01

    In designing public policy it is not enough to consider the possible reaction of individuals to the chosen policy.Public policy may also affect the formation of preferences and norms in a society.The endogenous evolution of preferences, in addition to introducing a conceptual difficulty in

  7. Endogeneity in Strategy-Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; B. Folta, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    , such as employees, strategic partners, customers, or investors, whose choices and preferences also affect the final decision. We discuss how endogeneity can plague the measurement of the performance effects of these two-sided strategic decisions—which are more complex, but more realistic, than prior representations...

  8. Managing spillovers: an endogenous sunk cost approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Senyuta, Olena; Žigić, Krešimir

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2016), s. 45-64 ISSN 0167-6245 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0961 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : endogenous sunk costs * innovations * knowledge spillovers Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  9. Applying Endogenous Knowledge in the African Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This requires not only an understanding of what endogenous knowledge is, but also an alignment of personal values, innovative strategies and an attitude of activism. An integral part of an extensive skills set to implement specifi c dispute resolution strategies is the ability to facilitate the free sharing of information about all ...

  10. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  11. [Endogenous pyrogen formation by bone marrow cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, O M; Sorokin, A V; El'kina, O A

    1978-01-01

    The cells of the rabbit bone marrow produced endogenous pyrogen in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Incubation of the cells in medium No 199 containing a 15% homologous serum is optimal for the release of pyrogen. It is supposed that the cells of the bone marrow take part in the formation of endgenous pyrogen and in the mechanism of pyrexia in the organism.

  12. Structure, bioactivity, and synthesis of methylated flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lingrong; Jiang, Yueming; Yang, Jiali; Zhao, Yupeng; Tian, Miaomiao; Yang, Bao

    2017-06-01

    Methylated flavonoids are an important type of natural flavonoid derivative with potentially multiple health benefits; among other things, they have improved bioavailability compared with flavonoid precursors. Flavonoids have been documented to have broad bioactivities, such as anticancer, immunomodulation, and antioxidant activities, that can be elevated, to a certain extent, by methylation. Understanding the structure, bioactivity, and bioavailability of methylated flavonoids, therefore, is an interesting topic with broad potential applications. Though methylated flavonoids are widely present in plants, their levels are usually low. Because developing efficient techniques to produce these chemicals would likely be beneficial, we provide an overview of their chemical and biological synthesis. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  14. Surface coated polyurethane with improved bioactivity and cytocompatability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chetty, AS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU) may be suitable for various implant applications; however, it lacks bioactivity. Bioactivity allows for direct tissue attachment at the bio- interface, enabling implant fixation while preventing fibrous encapsulation. To impart...

  15. Bioactive glass-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Will, J.; Gerhardt, L.C.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed to fill and restore bone defects, bioactive glasses are currently also being intensively investigated for bone tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds made from bioactive silicate

  16. ENDOGENOUS ANALGESIA, DEPENDENCE, AND LATENT PAIN SENSITIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bradley K; Corder, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) provides relief from acute pain. Recent studies have established that tissue inflammation produces latent pain sensitization (LS) that is masked by spinal MOR signaling for months, even after complete recovery from injury and re-establishment of normal pain thresholds. Disruption with MOR inverse agonists reinstates pain and precipitates cellular, somatic and aversive signs of physical withdrawal; this phenomenon requires N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated activation of calcium-sensitive adenylyl cyclase type 1 (AC1). In this review, we present a new conceptual model of the transition from acute to chronic pain, based on the delicate balance between LS and endogenous analgesia that develops after painful tissue injury. First, injury activates pain pathways. Second, the spinal cord establishes MOR constitutive activity (MORCA) as it attempts to control pain. Third, over time, the body becomes dependent on MORCA, which paradoxically sensitizes pain pathways. Stress or injury escalates opposing inhibitory and excitatory influences on nociceptive processing as a pathological consequence of increased endogenous opioid tone. Pain begets MORCA begets pain vulnerability in a vicious cycle. The final result is a silent insidious state characterized by the escalation of two opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences on pain transmission: LS mediated by AC1 (which maintains accelerator), and pain inhibition mediated by MORCA (which maintains the brake). This raises the prospect that opposing homeostatic interactions between MORCA analgesia and latent NMDAR–AC1-mediated pain sensitization create a lasting vulnerability to develop chronic pain. Thus, chronic pain syndromes may result from a failure in constitutive signaling of spinal MORs and a loss of endogenous analgesic control. An overarching long-term therapeutic goal of future research is to alleviate chronic pain by either: a) facilitating endogenous opioid

  17. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  18. Molecular Regulation of Adipogenesis and Potential Anti-Adipogenic Bioactive Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Moseti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor stem cells differentiate into lipid laden adipocytes. Adipogenesis is regulated by a complex and highly orchestrated gene expression program. In mammalian cells, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs such as C/EBPα, β and δ are considered the key early regulators of adipogenesis, while fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, adiponectin, and fatty acid synthase (FAS are responsible for the formation of mature adipocytes. Excess accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue leads to obesity, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and other pathologies. Thus, investigating adipose tissue development and the underlying molecular mechanisms is vital to develop therapeutic agents capable of curbing the increasing incidence of obesity and related pathologies. In this review, we address the process of adipogenic differentiation, key transcription factors and proteins involved, adipogenic regulators and potential anti-adipogenic bioactive molecules.

  19. Accelerated bone ingrowth by local delivery of Zinc from bioactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-19

    Oct 19, 2015 ... Aims: This study aims to evaluate in vivo the performance therapy of zinc-doped bioactive glass (BG-Zn) and ... Keywords: zinc metallic ion; bioactive glass; osteoporosis; trabecular bone architecture; mechanical property; oxidative stress ..... Ducheyne P, Qiu Q. Bioactive ceramics: the effect of surface.

  20. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol–gel derived bioactive glass film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhijun, E-mail: mokuu@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Ji, Huijiao [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China); Hu, Xiaomeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Teng, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China); Chen, Weibo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Qiu, Jianrong, E-mail: qjr@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: zhangming201201@126.com [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China)

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol–gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  1. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  2. Bioactive compounds in potatoes: Accumulation under drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Wegener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Besides starch, crude fibre, amino acids (AAS, vitamins and minerals, the tubers contain diverse phenolic compounds. These phenolics and AAS confer anti-oxidant protection against reactiveoxygen species, tissue damage, and diseases like atherosclerosis, renal failure, diabetes mellitus,and cancer. Climate change and drought stress may become a major risk for crop production worldwide, resulting in reduced access for those who depend on the nutritional value of this staple crop. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of drought stress on water, lipid soluble antioxidants, anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, free AAS, peroxidase (POD and lipid acyl hydrolase activity (LAH in tuber tissue. Methods: The study was carried out on three potato genotypes comprising one yellow-fleshed cultivar and two purple breeding clones. The plants were grown in pots (from April to September in a glasshouse with sufficient water supply and under drought stress conditions. After harvest, the tubers of both variants were analysed for antioxidants measured as ascorbic acid (ACE and Trolox equivalent (TXE using a photo-chemiluminescent method. Amounts of anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, as well as POD and LAH activities were analysed using a UV photometer. Finally, free AAS were measured by HPLC. Results: The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduces tuber yield, but has no significant effect on antioxidants, Ac, soluble phenols and POD. Drought stress significantly increased the levels of soluble protein (P < 0.0001 and LAH (P < 0.001. Also, total amounts of free AAS were higher in the drought stressed tubers (+34.2%, on average than in the tubers grown with a sufficient water supply. Above all, proline was elevated due to drought stress.

  3. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  4. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated......Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  5. Bioactive polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stratton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of engineered scaffolds have been created for tissue engineering using polymers, ceramics and their composites. Biomimicry has been adopted for majority of the three-dimensional (3D scaffold design both in terms of physicochemical properties, as well as bioactivity for superior tissue regeneration. Scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching, particle sintering, hydrogels and lithography have been successful in promoting cell growth in vitro and tissue regeneration in vivo. Scaffold systems derived from decellularization of whole organs or tissues has been popular due to their assured biocompatibility and bioactivity. Traditional scaffold fabrication techniques often failed to create intricate structures with greater resolution, not reproducible and involved multiple steps. The 3D printing technology overcome several limitations of the traditional techniques and made it easier to adopt several thermoplastics and hydrogels to create micro-nanostructured scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering and drug delivery. This review highlights scaffold fabrication methodologies with a focus on optimizing scaffold performance through the matrix pores, bioactivity and degradation rate to enable tissue regeneration. Review highlights few examples of bioactive scaffold mediated nerve, muscle, tendon/ligament and bone regeneration. Regardless of the efforts required for optimization, a shift in 3D scaffold uses from the laboratory into everyday life is expected in the near future as some of the methods discussed in this review become more streamlined.

  6. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti–6Al–4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti–6Al–4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti–6Al–4V with traditional thermal...

  7. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  8. Bioactive Compounds And Encapsulation Of Yanang ( Tiliacora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, this paper reports the design of the experimental method for optimization of Yanang encapsulation using three independent variables: the ratio of core material (Yanang), to wall material (gum Arabic), gum Arabic concentration and inlet temperature of spray drying on bioactive compounds stability. The stability ...

  9. Natural bioactive compounds: antibiotics | Dezfully | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics are powerful therapeutic agents that are produced by diverse living organisms. Over the last several decades, natural bioactive products particularly antibiotics have continued to play a significant role in drug discovery and has expanded the process for developing drugs with high degree of therapeutic index and ...

  10. Extraction, Isolation And Characterization Of Bioactive Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the ... The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic ...

  11. Mechanical properties of bioactive glass putty formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, N.A.P.; Geurts, J.A.P.; Hulsen, D.J.W.; Hofmann, S.; Ito, K.; van Rietbergen, B.; Arts, J.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bioactive glass (BAG) has been studied widely and seems to be a very promising biomaterial in regeneration of large bone defects and osteomyelitis treatment, because of its bone bonding and antibacterial properties[1]-[5]. Its high stiffness could potentially also enable mechanical

  12. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  13. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  14. The evolution of lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y. H.; Sugai, A.; Uda, I.; Itoh, T.

    2001-01-01

    Living organisms on the Earth which are divided into three major domains - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, probably came from a common ancestral cell. Because there are many thermophilic microorganisms near the root of the universal phylogenetic tree, the common ancestral cell should be considered to be a thermophilic microorganism. The existence of a cell is necessary for the living organisms; the cell membrane is the essential structural component of a cell, so its amphiphilic property is vital for the molecule of lipids for cell membranes. Tetraether type glycerophospholipids with C 40 isoprenoid chains are major membrane lipids widely distributed in archaeal cells. Cyclization number of C 40 isoprenoid chains in thermophilic archaea influences the fluidity of lipids whereas the number of carbons and degree of unsaturation in fatty acids do so in bacteria and eucarya. In addition to the cyclization of the tetraether lipids, covalent bonding of two C 40 isoprenoid chains was found in hyperthermophiles. These characteristic structures of the lipids seem to contribute to their fundamental physiological roles in hyperthermophiles. Stereochemical differences between G-1-P archaeal lipids and G-3-P bacterial and eucaryal lipids might have occured by the function of some proteins long after the first cell was developed by the reactions of small organic molecules. We propose that the structure of lipids of the common ancestral cell may have been similar to those of hyperthermophilic archaea.

  15. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

  16. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  17. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance. © The

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  19. Development of an enrichment method for endogenous phosphopeptide characterization in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Giorgia; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Ferraris, Francesca; Laus, Michele; Piovesana, Susy; Sparnacci, Katia; Laganà, Aldo

    2018-01-01

    The work describes the development of an enrichment method for the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides in serum. Endogenous peptides can play significant biological roles, and some of them could be exploited as future biomarkers. In this context, blood is one of the most useful biofluids for screening, but a systematic investigation of the endogenous peptides, especially phosphorylated ones, is still lacking, mainly due to the lack of suitable analytical methods. Thus, in this paper, different phosphopeptide enrichment strategies were pursued, based either on metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC, in the form of commercial TiO 2 spin columns or magnetic graphitized carbon black-TiO 2 composite), or on immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC, in the form of Ti 4+ -IMAC magnetic material or commercial Fe 3+ -IMAC spin columns). While MOAC strategies proved completely unsuccessful, probably due to interfering phospholipids displacing phosphopeptides, the IMAC materials performed very well. Different sample preparation strategies were tested, comprising direct dilution with the loading buffer, organic solvent precipitation, and lipid removal from the matrix, as well as the addition of phosphatase inhibitors during sample handling for maximized endogenous phosphopeptide enrichment. All data were acquired by a shotgun peptidomics approach, in which peptide samples were separated by reversed-phase nanoHPLC hyphenated with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The devised method allowed the identification of 176 endogenous phosphopeptides in fresh serum added with inhibitors by the direct dilution protocol and the Ti 4+ -IMAC magnetic material enrichment, but good results could also be obtained from the commercial Fe 3+ -IMAC spin column adapted to the batch enrichment protocol.

  20. Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi, E-mail: x.chatzistavrou@imperial.ac.uk [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kantiranis, Nikolaos, E-mail: kantira@geo.auth.gr [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, Eleana, E-mail: kont@dent.auth.gr [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, Konstantinos, E-mail: hrisafis@physics.auth.gr [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, Labrini, E-mail: lambrini@geo.auth.gr [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, Petros, E-mail: pkoidis@dent.auth.gr [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: a.boccaccini@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M., E-mail: kpar@auth.gr [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as a source of nutrients, bioactive compounds and colouring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Inès; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Soković, Marina; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-10-01

    The nutritional and bioactive composition of plants have aroused much interest not only among scientists, but also in people's daily lives. Apart from the health benefits, plants are a source of pigments that can be used as natural food colorants. In this work, the nutritional composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was analysed, as well as its bioactive compounds and natural pigments. Glucose (sugar), malic acid (organic acid), α-tocopherol (tocopherol) and linoleic acid (fatty acid) were the major constituents in the corresponding classes. 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural was the most abundant non-anthocyanin compound, while delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside was the major anthocyanin both in its hydroethanolic extract and infusion. H. sabdariffa extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, highlighting that the hydroethanol extract presents not only lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, but also bactericidal/fungicidal inhibition ability for all the bacteria and fungi tested. Furthermore, both extracts revealed the absence of toxicity using porcine primary liver cells. The studied plant species was thus not only interesting for nutritional purposes but also for bioactive and colouring applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carboxylesterases in lipid metabolism: from mouse to human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Lian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mammalian carboxylesterases hydrolyze a wide range of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds, including lipid esters. Physiological functions of carboxylesterases in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis in vivo have been demonstrated by genetic manipulations and chemical inhibition in mice, and in vitro through (overexpression, knockdown of expression, and chemical inhibition in a variety of cells. Recent research advances have revealed the relevance of carboxylesterases to metabolic diseases such as obesity and fatty liver disease, suggesting these enzymes might be potential targets for treatment of metabolic disorders. In order to translate pre-clinical studies in cellular and mouse models to humans, differences and similarities of carboxylesterases between mice and human need to be elucidated. This review presents and discusses the research progress in structure and function of mouse and human carboxylesterases, and the role of these enzymes in lipid metabolism and metabolic disorders.

  4. Endogenous Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Coppi, B.; Basu, B.; Fletcher, A.; Golub, L.

    2017-12-01

    We propose that a magneto-thermal reconnection process occurring in coronal loops be the source of the heating of the Solar Corona [1]. In the adopted model, magnetic reconnection is associated with electron temperature gradients, anisotropic electron temperature fluctuations and plasma current density gradients [2]. The input parameters for our theoretical model are derived from the most recent observations of the Solar Corona. In addition, the relevant (endogenous) collective modes can produce high energy particle populations. An endogenous reconnection process is defined as being driven by factors internal to the region where reconnection takes place. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. and the Kavli Foundation* [1] Beafume, P., Coppi, B. and Golub, L., (1992) Ap. J. 393, 396. [2] Coppi, B. and Basu, B. (2017) MIT-LNS Report HEP 17/01.

  5. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sharif A; Norsted, Ebba; Lee, Lillian S; Lang, Penelope D; Lee, Brian S; Woolley, Joshua D; Fields, Howard L

    2006-08-01

    Endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the neural control of food intake. Opioid signaling is thought to regulate palatability, the reward value of a food item as determined by orosensory cues such as taste and texture. The reward value of a food reflects not only these sensory properties but also the relative value of competing food choices. In the present experiment, we used a consummatory contrast paradigm to manipulate the relative value of a sucrose solution for two groups of rats. Systemic injection of the nonspecific opioid antagonist naltrexone suppressed sucrose intake; for both groups, however, this suppression was selective, occurring only for the relatively more valuable sucrose solution. Our results indicate that endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the encoding of relative reward value.

  6. Endogenous Natural Complement Inhibitor Regulates Cardiac Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Simon A; Skov, Louise L; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    mechanisms during fetal development and adult homeostasis. In this article, we describe the function of an endogenous complement inhibitor, mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated protein (MAp)44, in regulating the composition of a serine protease-pattern recognition receptor complex, MBL-associated serine...... of MAp44 caused impaired cardiogenesis, lowered heart rate, and decreased cardiac output. These defects were associated with aberrant neural crest cell behavior. We found that MAp44 competed with MASP-3 for pattern recognition molecule interaction, and knockdown of endogenous MAp44 expression could...... be rescued by overexpression of wild-type MAp44. Our observations provide evidence that immune molecules are centrally involved in the orchestration of cardiac tissue development....

  7. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Cepni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand of economic agents. In this study, we investigate which of the money supply theories holds in Turkish economy for the period 2006-2015 by employing cointegration and causality tests. Our findings show that the causality runs from bank loans to money supply both in the short and long terms, which supports the endogenous view in a sense that central bank and the banks fully meet the total demand for money in Turkish economy.

  8. Independent effects of endogenous and exogenous attention in touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Forster, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    Endogenous and exogenous attention in touch have typically been investigated separately. Here we use a double-cueing paradigm manipulating both types of orienting in each trial. Bilateral endogenous cues induced long-lasting facilitation of endogenous attention up to 2 s. However, the exogenous cue only elicited an effect at short intervals. Our results favour a supramodal account of attention and this study provides new insight into how endogenous and exogenous attention operates in the tactile modality.

  9. Endogenous pyrogen-like substance produced by reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, H A; Kluger, M J

    1977-06-01

    1. Injection of lizards (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) with rabbit endogenous pyrogen led to a fever. Injections with denatured endogenous pyrogen did not affect body temperature. 2. Injection of lizards with lizard endogenous pyrogen led to a fever of short duration, while injection of denatured lizard endogenous pyrogen produced no change in body temperature. 3. These data support the hypothesis that the febrile mechanism observed in the higher vertebrates has its origins in some primitive vertebrate.

  10. A General Theory of Endogenous Market Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Etro; Paolo Bertoletti

    2014-01-01

    We provide a unified approach to imperfect (monopolistic, Bertrand and Cournot) competition equilibria with demand functions derived from symmetric preferences over a large but finite number of goods. The equilibrium markups depend on the Morishima Elasticity of Substitution/Complementarity between goods, and can be derived directly from the utility functions and ranked unambiguously. We characterize the endogenous market structures, their dependence on market size, income and firms’ producti...

  11. Pensions with Heterogenous Individuals and Endogenous Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Gahvari, Firouz; Pestieau, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the design of pension schemes in a society where fertility is endogenous and parents differ in their ability to raise children. In a world with perfect information, a pay-as-you-go social security system is characterized by equal pensions for all but different contributions which may or may not increase with the number of children. Additionally, fertility must be subsidized at the margin to correct for the externality that accompanies fertility. In a world of asymmetric inf...

  12. Endogenous Growth, Monetary Shocks and Nominal Rigidities

    OpenAIRE

    Annicchiarico, Barbara; Pelloni, Alessandra; Lorenza, Rossi

    2010-01-01

    We introduce endogenous growth in an otherwise standard NK model with staggered prices and wages. Some results follow: (i) monetary volatility negatively affects long-run growth; (ii) the relation between nominal volatility and growth depends on the persistence of the nominal shocks and on the Taylor rule considered; (iii) a Taylor rule with smoothing increases the negative effect of nominal volatility on mean growth.

  13. Social Security, Intergenerational Transfers, and Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Junsen Zhang; Junxi Zhang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of social security in a simple model of endogenous growth with alternative motives of having children are analyzed. It shows how the effects of social security depend on the size of the social security tax, the motive to have children, and the pattern of intergenerational transfers. The pattern of intergenerational transfers itself, however, is shown to change with the social security tax rate. When the social security tax is not too high, social security increases ...

  14. The endogeneity of money and the eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Otto

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous theory of money, developed by Basil Moore, argues that the supply of central bank money in modern economies is not under the control of the central bank. According to this view, a central bank typically supplies cash reserves automatically on demand at its minimum lending rate, resulting in a clearly horizontal money supply function. While the paper agrees with Moore that the supply of central bank money cannot be determined exogenously by the central bank, it wonders whether t...

  15. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan Cepni; Ibrahim Ethem Guney

    2017-01-01

    There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand ...

  16. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-01-01

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) foll...

  17. Endogenous Retroviruses in the Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Welkin E

    2015-11-01

    Endogenous retroviruses comprise millions of discrete genetic loci distributed within the genomes of extant vertebrates. These sequences, which are clearly related to exogenous retroviruses, represent retroviral infections of the deep past, and their abundance suggests that retroviruses were a near-constant presence throughout the evolutionary history of modern vertebrates. Endogenous retroviruses contribute in myriad ways to the evolution of host genomes, as mutagens and as sources of genetic novelty (both coding and regulatory) to be acted upon by the twin engines of random genetic drift and natural selection. Importantly, the richness and complexity of endogenous retrovirus data can be used to understand how viruses spread and adapt on evolutionary timescales by combining population genetics and evolutionary theory with a detailed understanding of retrovirus biology (gleaned from the study of extant retroviruses). In addition to revealing the impact of viruses on organismal evolution, such studies can help us better understand, by looking back in time, how life-history traits, as well as ecological and geological events, influence the movement of viruses within and between populations.

  18. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  19. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  20. Induced pluripotency with endogenous and inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duinsbergen, Dirk; Eriksson, Malin; Hoen, Peter A.C. 't; Frisen, Jonas; Mikkers, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The recent discovery that two partly overlapping sets of four genes induce nuclear reprogramming of mouse and even human cells has opened up new possibilities for cell replacement therapies. Although the combination of genes that induce pluripotency differs to some extent, Oct4 and Sox2 appear to be a prerequisite. The introduction of four genes, several of which been linked with cancer, using retroviral approaches is however unlikely to be suitable for future clinical applications. Towards developing a safer reprogramming protocol, we investigated whether cell types that express one of the most critical reprogramming genes endogenously are predisposed to reprogramming. We show here that three of the original four pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc or MYCER TAM ) induced reprogramming of mouse neural stem (NS) cells exploiting endogenous SoxB1 protein levels in these cells. The reprogrammed neural stem cells differentiated into cells of each germ layer in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to mouse development in vivo. Thus a combinatorial approach taking advantage of endogenously expressed genes and inducible transgenes may contribute to the development of improved reprogramming protocols

  1. Endogenous lung regeneration: potential and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jason; Königshoff, Melanie

    2012-12-15

    The exploration of the endogenous regenerative potential of the diseased adult human lung represents an innovative and exciting task. In this pulmonary perspective, we discuss three major components essential for endogenous lung repair and regeneration: epithelial progenitor populations, developmental signaling pathways that regulate their reparative and regenerative potential, and the surrounding extracellular matrix in the human diseased lung. Over the past years, several distinct epithelial progenitor populations have been discovered within the lung, all of which most likely respond to different injuries by varying degrees. It has become evident that several progenitor populations are mutually involved in maintenance and repair, which is highly regulated by developmental pathways, such as Wnt or Notch signaling. Third, endogenous progenitor cells and developmental signaling pathways act in close spatiotemporal synergy with the extracellular matrix. These three components define and refine the highly dynamic microenvironment of the lung, which is altered in a disease-specific fashion in several chronic lung diseases. The search for the right mixture to induce efficient and controlled repair and regeneration of the diseased lung is ongoing and will open completely novel avenues for the treatment of patients with chronic lung disease.

  2. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  3. Endogenous leukotriene formation during anaphylactic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, A.; Oerning, L.; Bernstroem, K.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1987-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT)C 4 is a biologically active substance, presumed to play major roles as a mediator of allergic and anaphylactic reactions. It is formed e.g. by basophilic and eosinophilic leukocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and mast cells. In cells having IgE receptors, bridging of these by divalent anti-IgE-receptor antibodies or by interaction between receptor-bound IgE and anti-IgE will induce LTC 4 formation. Leukotriene formation has also been demonstrated in other in vitro models of immediate hypersensivity. The biological actions of LTC 4 , comprise induction of airway obstruction, constriction of coronary arteries, hypotension, and plasma extravasation. Leukotriene formation in vivo may mediate anaphylactic shock symptoms and cause the death of an animal. In order to prove the presumed mediator role of this substance in anaphylactic reactions, it is necessary to demonstrate its endogenous formation during shock. Studies on the metabolism of LTC 4 have revealed rapid catabolism by various transformations of the peptide substituent. Recently, three metabolites were demonstrated to be excreted as end-products in man (LTE 4 ,) and the rat (N-acetyl LTE 4 and N-acetyl 11-trans LTE 4 ). By monitoring biliary N-acetyl LTE 4 levels, endogenous leukotriene formation in the rat was demonstrated in vivo after tissue trauma and endotoxin shock. We now wish to report evidence for endogenous leukotriene C 4 production during anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs. 37 refs. (author)

  4. Exercise induced asthma and endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, R C; Bachman, M; Rochat, T; Egger, D; de Haller, R; Junod, A F

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of endogenous opioid peptides in the plasma are increased during exercise and these substances have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma induced by chloropropramide and alcohol in diabetic patients. This work was undertaken to determine whether exercise induced asthma might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Plasma beta endorphin, met-enkephalin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were measured in five asthmatic patients and five normal volunteers breathing cold air during exercise. In four of the patients the effect of an infusion of naloxone on FEV1 was also measured during exercise induced asthma. Exercise produced acute bronchoconstriction in all asthmatics, characterised by a fall in FEV1; whereas no change occurred in normal subjects. There was no difference in plasma met-enkephalin, beta endorphin, and ACTH concentration between the two groups. Infusion of naloxone neither prevented nor worsened exercise induced asthma. These data suggest that endogenous opioids probably do not play a part in the development of exercise induced asthma. PMID:2944240

  5. The search for an endogenous activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekowski, K. M.; Atkins, E.

    1985-01-01

    Certain febrile diseases are unaccompanied by infection or apparent hypersensitivity. In myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism, for example, fever has been attributed to inflammation and/or tissue necrosis. Exogenous (microbial) pyrogens stimulate both human and animal monocytes/macrophages to produce endogenous pyrogen (EP) in vitro. To determine if plasma and cellular endogeneous mediators (EMs) of inflammation induced EP production, human mononuclear cells (M/L) were incubated for 18 hours with varying amounts of EM and the supernates assayed for EP in rabbits. Neutrophils (PMNs), which do not generate EP and yet are a feature of acute inflammation, were tested. Neither viable, phorbol myristic acetate-stimulated PMNs nor sonicated PMNs, red blood cells, or M/L stimulated human monocytes to produce EP. Human C3b and C5a, which mediate phagocytosis and chemotaxis, respectively, were also inactive. Despite its chemoattractant properties, the synthetic peptide FMLP failed to induce EP release. Since Poly I:Poly C (PIC: a synthetic, double-stranded RNA) is a potent pyrogen in rabbits, we investigated PIC, as well as a native, single-stranded RNA (from E. coli) and DNA (from calf thymus). None was active in vitro, and only PIC caused fever when given to rabbits intravenously. In summary, we have been unable to find an endogenous activator of EP from human monocytes to explain fevers associated with inflammation alone. PMID:3875936

  6. Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Chutoprapat, Romchat; Sato, Yuji; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Hsueh, Kesyin; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2011-03-01

    Bioactive compounds [ferulic acid (F), gamma-oryzanol (O) and phytic acid (P)] in rice bran have been widely used as antioxidants in skin care products. However, one of the major problems of antioxidants is the deterioration of their activities during long exposure to air and light. Niosomes have been used to entrap many degradable active agents not only for stability improvement, but also for increasing skin hydration. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities [by in vitro ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibition assay] and in vivo human skin hydration effects of gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes. Gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes showed higher antioxidant activity (ORAC value) at 20-28 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram of the sample than the placebo gel and cream which gave 16-18 micromolTE/g. Human sebum treated with these formulations showed more lipid peroxidation inhibition activity than with no treatment of about 1.5 times. The three different independent techniques including corneometer, vapometer and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) indicated the same trend in human skin hydration enhancement of the gel or cream formulations containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes of about 20, 3 and 30%, respectively. This study has demonstrated the antioxidant activities and skin hydration enhancement of the rice bran bioactive compounds when entrapped in niosomes and incorporated in cream formulations.

  7. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  9. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  10. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Visualizing In Situ Metabolism of Endogenous Metabolites and Dietary Phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of bioactive small molecules is indispensable for elucidating their biological or pharmaceutical roles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables determination of the distribution of ionizable molecules present in tissue sections of whole-body or single heterogeneous organ samples by direct ionization and detection. This emerging technique is now widely used for in situ label-free molecular imaging of endogenous or exogenous small molecules. MSI allows the simultaneous visualization of many types of molecules including a parent molecule and its metabolites. Thus, MSI has received much attention as a potential tool for pathological analysis, understanding pharmaceutical mechanisms, and biomarker discovery. On the other hand, several issues regarding the technical limitations of MSI are as of yet still unresolved. In this review, we describe the capabilities of the latest matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI technology for visualizing in situ metabolism of endogenous metabolites or dietary phytochemicals (food factors), and also discuss the technical problems and new challenges, including MALDI matrix selection and metabolite identification, that need to be addressed for effective and widespread application of MSI in the diverse fields of biological, biomedical, and nutraceutical (food functionality) research. PMID:24957029

  11. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P., E-mail: spsinghceram@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO{sub 2−}–24.3 Na{sub 2}O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants.

  12. Improving phenolic bioactive-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions of dark germinated barley sprouts (Hordeum vulgare L.) using seed elicitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Ramnarain; Sarkar, Dipayan; Manduri, Avani; Iyer, Shreyas Ganesan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2017-10-01

    Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments. Dark-germinated sprouts of two malting barley cultivars (Pinnacle and Celebration), treated with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and marine protein hydrolysate (GP), were evaluated. Total soluble phenolic content (TSP), phenolic acid profiles, total antioxidant activity (TA) and in vitro inhibitory activities of hyperglycemia relevant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes of the dark germinated barley sprouts were evaluated at day 2, 4, and 6 post elicitor treatments. Overall, TSP content, TA, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of dark germinated barley sprouts decreased, while α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and gallic acid content increased from day 2 to day 6. Among barley cultivars, high phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives were observed in Celebration. Furthermore, GP and COS seed elicitor treatments in selective doses improved T2D relevant phenolic-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives of barley spouts at day 6. Therefore, such seed elicitation approach can be strategically used to develop bioactive enriched functional food ingredients from cereal sprouts targeting chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress linked to T2D.

  13. Discovery of Bioactive Metabolites in Biofuel Microalgae That Offer Protection against Predatory Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eBagwell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae could become an important resource for addressing increasing global demand for food, energy, and commodities while helping to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Even though Chlorophytes are generally regarded safe for human consumption, there is still much we do not understand about the metabolic and biochemical potential of microscopic algae. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofuel candidate strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus for the potential to produce bioactive metabolites when grown under nutrient depletion regimes intended to stimulate production of triacylglycerides (TAG. Strain specific combinations of macro- and micro-nutrient restricted growth media did stimulate neutral lipid accumulation by microalgal cultures. However, cultures that were restricted for iron consistently and reliably tested positive for cytotoxicity by in vivo bioassays. The addition of iron back to these cultures resulted in the disappearance of the bioactive components by LC/MS fingerprinting and loss of cytotoxicity by in vivo bioassay. Incomplete NMR characterization of the most abundant cytotoxic fractions suggested that small molecular weight peptides and glycosides could be responsible for Chlorella cytotoxicity. Experiments were conducted to determine if the bioactive metabolites induced by Fe-limitation in Chlorella sp. cultures would elicit protection against Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, an obligate predator of Chlorella. Introduction of V. chlorellavorus resulted in a 72% decrease in algal biomass in the experimental controls after 7 days. Conversely, only slight losses of algal biomass were measured for the iron limited Chlorella cultures (0 - 9 %. This study demonstrates a causal linkage between iron bioavailability and bioactive metabolite production in strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus. Further study of this phenomenon could contribute to the development of new strategies to extend algal production cycles in open, outdoor

  14. Glucagon Decreases IGF-1 Bioactivity in Humans, Independently of Insulin, by Modulating Its Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarem, Zeinab; Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Assefa, Biruhalem; Weickert, Martin O; Adamidou, Aikatarini; Bähr, Volker; Frystyk, Jan; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Lieske, Stefanie; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Arafat, Ayman M

    2017-09-01

    Depending on its lipolytic activity, glucagon plays a promising role in obesity treatment. Glucagon-induced growth hormone (GH) release can promote its effect on lipid metabolism, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well-defined. The present study highlights the glucagon effect on the GH/insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis in vivo and in vitro, taking into consideration insulin as a confounding factor. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated changes in GH, IGFBP, and IGF-1 bioactivity after intramuscular glucagon administration in 13 lean controls, 11 obese participants, and 13 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The effect of glucagon on the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) translocation, the transcription of GH/IGF-1 system members, and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) was further investigated in vitro. Despite unchanged total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels, glucagon decreased IGF-1 bioactivity in all study groups by increasing IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. The reduction in IGF-1 bioactivity occurred before the glucagon-induced surge in GH. In contrast to the transient increase in circulating insulin in obese and lean participants, no change was observed in those with T1DM. In vitro, glucagon dose dependently induced a substantial nuclear translocation of FOXO1 in human osteosarcoma cells and tended to increase IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes, despite absent Akt phosphorylation. Our data point to the glucagon-induced decrease in bioactive IGF-1 levels as a mechanism through which glucagon induces GH secretion. This insulin-independent reduction is related to increased IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels, which are most likely mediated via activation of the FOXO/mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  16. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelska-Nowicka, Ewelina; Atanasov, Atanas G; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2018-01-31

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional constituents were chosen: (i) fatty acids; (ii) minerals; (iii) vitamins; (iv) plant antioxidants; (v) dietary fibers; (vi) probiotics and (vii) bioactive peptides. Each of them is discussed in term of their impact on human health as well as some quality attributes of the final products.

  17. Microgreens: Production, shelf life, and bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Maqbool

    2017-08-13

    Microgreens are emerging specialty food products which are gaining popularity and increased attention nowadays. They are young and tender cotyledonary leafy greens that are found in a pleasing palette of colors, textures, and flavors. Microgreens are a new class of edible vegetables harvested when first leaves have fully expanded and before true leaves have emerged. They are gaining popularity as a new culinary ingredient. They are used to enhance salads or as edible garnishes to embellish a wide variety of other dishes. Common microgreens are grown mainly from mustard, cabbage, radish, buckwheat, lettuce, spinach, etc. The consumption of microgreens has nowadays increased due to higher concentrations of bioactive components such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants than mature greens, which are important for human health. However, they typically have a short shelf life due to rapid product deterioration. This review aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality, potential bioactive compounds, and shelf life of microgreens for proper management of this specialty produce.

  18. CD1a presentation of endogenous antigens by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Clare S; Chen, Yi-Ling; Salimi, Maryam; Jarrett, Rachael; Johnson, David; Järvinen, Valtteri J; Owens, Raymond J; Repapi, Emmanouela; Cousins, David J; Barlow, Jillian L; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham

    2017-12-22

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are effectors of barrier immunity, with roles in infection, wound healing, and allergy. A proportion of ILC2 express MHCII (major histocompatibility complex II) and are capable of presenting peptide antigens to T cells and amplifying the subsequent adaptive immune response. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of CD1a-reactive T cells in allergy and infection, activated by the presentation of endogenous neolipid antigens and bacterial components. Using a human skin challenge model, we unexpectedly show that human skin-derived ILC2 can express CD1a and are capable of presenting endogenous antigens to T cells. CD1a expression is up-regulated by TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin) at levels observed in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, and the response is dependent on PLA2G4A. Furthermore, this pathway is used to sense Staphylococcus aureus by promoting Toll-like receptor-dependent CD1a-reactive T cell responses to endogenous ligands. These findings define a previously unrecognized role for ILC2 in lipid surveillance and identify shared pathways of CD1a- and PLA2G4A-dependent ILC2 inflammation amenable to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. On the origins of the universal dynamics of endogenous granules in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanapalli, Siva A; Li, Yixuan; Mugele, Frieder; Duits, Michel H G

    2009-12-01

    Endogenous granules (EGs) that consist of lipid droplets and mitochondria have been commonly used to assess intracellular mechanical properties via multiple particle tracking microrheology (MPTM). Despite their widespread use, the nature of interaction of EGs with the cytoskeletal network and the type of forces driving their dynamics--both of which are crucial for the interpretation of the results from MPTM technique--are yet to be resolved. In this report, we study the dynamics of endogenous granules in mammalian cells using particle tracking methods. We find that the ensemble dynamics of EGs is diffusive in three types of mammalian cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts), thereby suggesting an apparent universality in their dynamical behavior. Moreover, in a given cell, the amplitude of the mean-squared displacement for EGs is an order of magnitude larger than that of injected particles. This observation along with results from ATP depletion and temperature intervention studies suggests that cytoskeletal active forces drive the dynamics of EGs. To elucidate the dynamical origin of the diffusive-like nonthermal motion, we consider three active force generation mechanisms--molecular motor transport, actomyosin contractility and microtubule polymerization forces. We test these mechanisms using pharmacological interventions. Experimental evidence and model calculations suggest that EGs are intimately linked to microtubules and that microtubule polymerization forces drive their dynamics. Thus, endogenous granules could serve as non-invasive probes for microtubule network dynamics in mammalian cells.

  1. Nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sessa, Mariarenata

    2012-01-01

    2010 - 2011 The increase in dietary-intake-related illnesses, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, have made in recent years the development of health-and-wellness promoting foods a priority of the food industry. Clinical studies have demonstrated tangible health benefits that may be derived from the intake of bioactive compounds. However many difficulties are associated with their inclusion in food matrices, due to a very low solubility in water and...

  2. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka; Atanas G. Atanasov; Jarosław Horbańczuk; Agnieszka Wierzbicka

    2018-01-01

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional cons...

  3. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I Nassar; El-Sayed A Aboutabl; Rania F Ahmed; Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy; Khaled M Ibrahim; Amany A Sleem

    2010-01-01

    Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Dete...

  4. Analysis of commercial and public bioactivity databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkainen, Pekka; Franke, Lutz

    2012-02-27

    Activity data for small molecules are invaluable in chemoinformatics. Various bioactivity databases exist containing detailed information of target proteins and quantitative binding data for small molecules extracted from journals and patents. In the current work, we have merged several public and commercial bioactivity databases into one bioactivity metabase. The molecular presentation, target information, and activity data of the vendor databases were standardized. The main motivation of the work was to create a single relational database which allows fast and simple data retrieval by in-house scientists. Second, we wanted to know the amount of overlap between databases by commercial and public vendors to see whether the former contain data complementing the latter. Third, we quantified the degree of inconsistency between data sources by comparing data points derived from the same scientific article cited by more than one vendor. We found that each data source contains unique data which is due to different scientific articles cited by the vendors. When comparing data derived from the same article we found that inconsistencies between the vendors are common. In conclusion, using databases of different vendors is still useful since the data overlap is not complete. It should be noted that this can be partially explained by the inconsistencies and errors in the source data.

  5. A new bio-active glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, A.; Arif, I.; Suleman, M.; Hussain, K.; Shah, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1960 fine ceramics such as alumina have been used side by side with metallic materials for bone and joint replacement. They have high mechanical strength and are free from corrosion problem faced by metals. However they don't bond to the natural living bone and hence are called bio-inactive. This was followed by the development of bio-active glasses and glass-ceramics which bond to the natural bone but have low mechanical strength. In the present work a new bio-active glass-ceramic, based on CaO-SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 3/-MgO composition, has been developed which has mechanical strength compared to that of a bio-inactive glass ceramic and also bonds strongly to the natural bone. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals wollastanite and apatite phases in the glass ceramic. A new bio-active cement has also been developed which can be used to join broken pieces of bone or by itself at a filler. (author)

  6. Adhesive Bioactive Coatings Inspired by Sea Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Sónia J; Vale, Ana C; Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-19

    Inspired by nature, in particular by the marine mussels adhesive proteins (MAPs) and by the tough brick-and-mortar nacre-like structure, novel multilayered films are prepared in the present work. Organic-inorganic multilayered films, with an architecture similar to nacre based on bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG), chitosan, and hyaluronic acid modified with catechol groups, which are the main components responsible for the outstanding adhesion in MAPs, are developed for the first time. The biomimetic conjugate is prepared by carbodiimide chemistry and analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The buildup of the multilayered films is monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and their topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties reveal that the films containing catechol groups and BG present an enhanced adhesion. Moreover, the bioactivity of the films upon immersion in a simulated body fluid solution is evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the constructed films promote the formation of bonelike apatite in vitro. Such multifunctional mussel inspired LbL films, which combine enhanced adhesion and bioactivity, could be potentially used as coatings of a variety of implants for orthopedic applications.

  7. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  8. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Drmić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many novel and innovative techniques are nowadays researched and explored in order to replace or improve classical, thermal processing technologies. One of newer technique is technique of minimal food processing, under what we assume ultrasound processing. Ultrasound technology can be very useful for minimal food processing because transmission of acoustic energy through product is fast and complete, which allows reduction in total processing time, and therefore lower energy consumption. Industrial processing is growing more and more waste products, and in desire of preservation of global recourses and energy efficiency, several ways of active compounds extraction techniques are now explored. The goal is to implement novel extraction techniques in food and pharmaceutical industry as well in medicine. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds offers increase in yield, and reduction or total avoiding of solvent usage. Increase in temperature of treatment is controlled and restricted, thereby preserving extracted bioactive compounds. In this paper, several methods of ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials are shown. Ultrasound can improve classic mechanisms of extraction, and thereby offer novel possibilities of commercial extraction of desired compounds. Application of sonochemistry (ultrasound chemistry is providing better yield in desired compounds and reduction in treatment time.

  9. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  10. Enzyme Activities in Oleaginous Yeasts Accumulating and Utilizing Exogenous or Endogenous Lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, Jane E.; Veenhuis, Marten; Ratledge, Colin

    1988-01-01

    The activities of ATP:citrate lyase (ACL; EC 4.1.3.8), carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.7), NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42), isocitrate lyase (ICL; EC 4.1.3.1) and malic enzyme (malate dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.40) were measured in four oleaginous yeasts, Candida

  11. Endogenous ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid production confers resistance to obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Fanghong R; Wei, Dong; Jia, Wei; Kang, Jing X; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Dai, Yifan; Zhao, Allan Z

    2014-08-01

    Despite the well-documented health benefits of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), their use in clinical management of hyperglycemia and obesity has shown little success. To better define the mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs in regulating energy balance and insulin sensitivity, we deployed a transgenic mouse model capable of endogenously producing ω-3 PUFAs while reducing ω-6 PUFAs owing to the expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an ω-3 fatty acid desaturase. When challenged with high-fat diets, fat-1 mice strongly resisted obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatic steatosis. Endogenous elevation of ω-3 PUFAs and reduction of ω-6 PUFAs did not alter the amount of food intake but led to increased energy expenditure in the fat-1 mice. The requirements for the levels of ω-3 PUFAs as well as the ω-6/ω-3 ratios in controlling blood glucose and obesity are much more stringent than those in lipid metabolism. These metabolic phenotypes were accompanied by attenuation of the inflammatory state because tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α were significantly decreased. TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB signaling was almost completely abolished. Consistent with the reduction in chronic inflammation and a significant increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activity in the fat-1 liver tissue, hepatic insulin signaling was sharply elevated. The activities of prolipogenic regulators, such as liver X receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 were sharply decreased, whereas the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, a nuclear receptor that facilitates lipid β-oxidation, was markedly increased. Thus, endogenous conversion of ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs via fat-1 strongly protects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and dyslipidemia and may represent a novel therapeutic modality to treat these prevalent

  12. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  13. Optimal pollution taxes and endogenous technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, I.W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The optimal pollution tax becomes complicated when allowance is made for endogenous innovation, under a patent system. However, if anything, it is below marginal environmental damages, to counteract monopoly pricing by the patent holder, the common pool effect associated with research and a possible excess of patent holder revenue over the social benefits from innovation when environmental damages are convex. In cases where patents are weak at securing appropriability, for example when rivals can easily imitate around patented technologies, awarding research prizes or contracts is probably more efficient than raising the pollution tax. 24 refs., 4 figs

  14. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A

    1998-05-05

    "The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility." excerpt

  15. Endogenous population growth may imply chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskawetz, A; Feichtinger, G

    1995-01-01

    The authors consider a discrete-time neoclassical growth model with an endogenous rate of population growth. The resulting one-dimensional map for the capital intensity has a tilted z-shape. Using the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems, they obtain numerical results on the qualitative behavior of time paths for changing parameter values. Besides stable and periodic solutions, erratic time paths may result. In particular, myopic and far-sighted economies--assumed to be characterized by low and high savings rate respectively--are characterized by stable per capita capital stocks, while solutions with chaotic windows exist between these two extremes.

  16. Psychological rehabilitation of patients with endogenous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kryvonis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for early psychotherapeutic intervention in combination with psychopharmatherapy in patients with endogenous disorders is provided. The mechanisms of psychological defenses to deal with traumatic experience, used by personalities functioning on a psychotic level, are also described here. Characteristic behavior patterns of extended family members in terms of emotional codependence are provided. Individual pathopsychology is considered as a symptom of abnormal functioning of the family. Emphasis is placed on the importance of inclusion of family members in psychotherapeutic interaction in order to correct interpersonal relations.

  17. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    , there is strong evidence that CNglcs serve a no less significant purpose as a transport and storage form of reduced nitrogen which may be remobilized and recycled to balance the needs of primary metabolism during certain developmental events. Reduced nitrogen from CNglcs may be recovered either via HCN refixation...... revealed the formation of glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and "anitriles", including their di- and triglycosides, evidently derived from CNglcs. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated plant species, a recycling endogenous turnover pathway for CNglcs was suggested in which...

  18. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... decay, predation and death-regeneration are discussed. From recent microbial research it has become evident that cells do not die by themselves. Bacteria are however subject to predation by protozoa. Bacteria store reserve polymers that in absence of external substrate are used for growth...

  19. [Formation of endogenous pyrogen by mononuclear phagocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasarov, L G

    1980-03-01

    Incubation of alveolar macrophages of rabbits and peritoneal macrophages of the abdominal cavity washing of albino mice does not lead to endogenous pyrogen release. Peritoneal macrophages obtained after peritoneal administration to mice of thioglycollate, glycogen or heterologous blood cells do not discharge pyrogen either during incubation without additional stimulation. Macrophages isolated after intraperitoneal administration of heterologous blood cells do not exhibit pyrogenic activity possibly because of a long period of time elapsed after phagocytosis of foreign agents. The triggering of pyrogen formation by macrophages can be effected by means of in vitro phagocytosis of corpuscular particles: staphylococci or heterologous blood cells.

  20. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices. The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  1. Seaweed-Derived Biostimulant (Kelpak (R)) Influences Endogenous Cytokinins and Bioactive Compounds in Hydroponically Grown Eucomis autumnalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aremu, A.O.; Plačková, Lenka; Grúz, Jiří; Bíba, Ondřej; Novák, Ondřej; Stirk, W. A.; Doležal, Karel; van Staden, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 151-162 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Asparagaceae * Conservation * Medicinal plants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2016

  2. EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING NATURAL MINERALS ON PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE GLASS CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Matias Stabile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two glass-ceramics composition were produced from natural minerals. Quartzes and feldspars were pre-selected on the basis of their purities studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and chemical analysis. Prepared compositions of glasses precursors were two different theoretical leucite (KAlSi₂O₆ /Bioglass 45S5 (L/Bg ratios. Transformations of raw materials mixtures and glass precursors were studied by differential thermal analyses. On the basis of thermal analysis results, glass ceramics were produced and characterized by XRD. Glass-ceramics were composed of two major crystalline phases, leucite and sodium calcium silicate. Bioactivity tests were performed submerging the glass-ceramics into simulated body fluid (SBF for different periods (1, 5 and 10 days. Bioactive behavior was monitored by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studied samples were found to be bioactive, in which hydroxyapatite layer was developed within 5 days of contact with SBF.

  3. Attenuated lipotoxicity and apoptosis is linked to exogenous and endogenous augmenter of liver regeneration by different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Thomas S; Lupke, Madeleine; Ibrahim, Sara; Buechler, Christa; Lorenz, Julia; Ruemmele, Petra; Hofmann, Ute; Melter, Michael; Dayoub, Rania

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) induce steatosis and lipo-toxicity and correlate with severity of NAFLD. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of exogenous and endogenous ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) for FFA induced ER (endoplasmatic reticulum) -stress and lipoapoptosis. Primary human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells either treated with recombinant human ALR (rhALR, 15kDa) or expressing short form ALR (sfALR, 15kDa) were incubated with palmitic acid (PA) and analyzed for lipo-toxicity, -apoptosis, activation of ER-stress response pathways, triacylglycerides (TAG), mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolizing genes. Both, exogenous rhALR and cytosolic sfALR reduced PA induced caspase 3 activity and Bax protein expression and therefore lipotoxicity. Endogenous sfALR but not rhALR treatment lowered TAG levels, diminished activation of ER-stress mediators C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) and proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and reduced death receptor 5 protein expression. Cellular ALR exerts its lipid lowering and anti-apoptotic actions by enhancing FABP1, which binds toxic FFA, increasing mitochondrial β-oxidation by elevating the mitochondrial FFA transporter CPT1α, and decreasing ELOVL6, which delivers toxic FFA metabolites. We found reduced hepatic mRNA levels of ALR in a high fat diet mouse model, and of ALR and FOXA2, a transcription factor inducing ALR expression, in human steatotic as well as NASH liver samples, which may explain increased lipid deposition and reduced β-oxidation in NASH patients. Present study shows that exogenous and endogenous ALR reduce PA induced lipoapoptosis. Furthermore, cytosolic sfALR changes mRNA and protein expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, reduces ER-stress finally impeding progression of NASH.

  4. Attenuated lipotoxicity and apoptosis is linked to exogenous and endogenous augmenter of liver regeneration by different pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Weiss

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD covers a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA induce steatosis and lipo-toxicity and correlate with severity of NAFLD. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of exogenous and endogenous ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration for FFA induced ER (endoplasmatic reticulum -stress and lipoapoptosis. Primary human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells either treated with recombinant human ALR (rhALR, 15kDa or expressing short form ALR (sfALR, 15kDa were incubated with palmitic acid (PA and analyzed for lipo-toxicity, -apoptosis, activation of ER-stress response pathways, triacylglycerides (TAG, mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolizing genes. Both, exogenous rhALR and cytosolic sfALR reduced PA induced caspase 3 activity and Bax protein expression and therefore lipotoxicity. Endogenous sfALR but not rhALR treatment lowered TAG levels, diminished activation of ER-stress mediators C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1 and proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP, and reduced death receptor 5 protein expression. Cellular ALR exerts its lipid lowering and anti-apoptotic actions by enhancing FABP1, which binds toxic FFA, increasing mitochondrial β-oxidation by elevating the mitochondrial FFA transporter CPT1α, and decreasing ELOVL6, which delivers toxic FFA metabolites. We found reduced hepatic mRNA levels of ALR in a high fat diet mouse model, and of ALR and FOXA2, a transcription factor inducing ALR expression, in human steatotic as well as NASH liver samples, which may explain increased lipid deposition and reduced β-oxidation in NASH patients. Present study shows that exogenous and endogenous ALR reduce PA induced lipoapoptosis. Furthermore, cytosolic sfALR changes mRNA and protein expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, reduces ER-stress finally impeding progression of NASH.

  5. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960´s, a great interest in the use of bioceramic materials for biomedical applications has been developed. In a previous paper, the authors reviewed crystalline bioceramic materials “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials, constituted for non-metallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidates by thermal treatment of powders at high temperature. In the present review, the authors deal with those called bioactive glasses and glassceramics. Although all of them are also obtained by thermal treatment at high temperature, the first are amorphous and the second are obtained by devitrification of a glass, although the vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases. After an introduction to the concept of bioactive materials, a short historical review of the bioactive glasses development is made. Its preparation, reactivity in physiological media, mechanism of bonding to living tissues and mechanical strength of the bone-implant interface is also reported. Next, the concept of glass-ceramic and the way of its preparation are exposed. The composition, physicochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramic materials: Bioglass®, Ceravital®, Cerabone®, Ilmaplant® and Bioverit® are also reviewed. Finally, a short review on the bioactive-glass coatings and bioactive-composites and most common uses of bioactive-glasses and glass-ceramics are carried out too.

    Desde finales de los años sesenta, se ha despertado un gran interés por el uso de los materiales biocerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. En un trabajo previo, los autores hicieron una revisión de los denominados materiales biocerámicos cristalinos en sentido estricto, es decir, de aquellos materiales, constituidos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados mediante tratamientos térmicos a altas temperaturas. En el presente trabajo, los autores

  6. Bioactivity and properties of a dental adhesive functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) and bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Marta; Hohlfeld, Lisa; Thanh, Loan Tao; Biehl, Ralf; Lühmann, Nicole; Mohn, Dirk; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of infiltrating a commercial adhesive with nanosized bioactive glass (BG-Bi) particles or methacryl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) on material properties and bioactivity. An acetone-based dental adhesive (Solobond Plus adhesive, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was infiltrated with nanosized bioactive glass particles (0.1 or 1wt%), or with monofunctional or multifunctional POSS particles (10 or 20wt%). Unfilled adhesive served as control. Dispersion and hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles were studied by dynamic light scattering. Set specimens were immersed for 28days in artificial saliva at 37°C, and surfaces were mapped for the formation of calcium phospate (Ca/P) precipitates (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Viscosity (rheometry) and the structural characteristic of the networks were studied, such as degree of conversion (FTIR spectroscopy), sol fraction and water sorption. POSS particles showed a good dispersion of the particles for both types of particles being smaller than 3nm, while the bioactive glass particles had a strong tendency to agglomerate. All nanoparticles induced the formation of Ca/P precipitates. The viscosity of the adhesive was not or only slightly increased by POSS particle addition but strongly increased by the bioactive glass particles. The degree of conversion, water sorption and sol fraction showed a maintained or improved network structure and properties when filled with BG-Bi and multifunctional POSS, however, less polymerization was found when loading a monofunctional POSS. Multifunctional POSS may be incorporated into dental adhesives to provide a bioactive potential without changing material properties adversely. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Martina [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Corazzari, Ingrid [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale “G. Scansetti” per lo studio degli amianti e di altri particolati nocivi, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy); Prenesti, Enrico [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Bertone, Elisa [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Vernè, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Ferraris, Sara [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface functionalization of bioactive glass with biomolecules has been optimized. • Biomolecules are present and active on the glass surface after functionalization. • Biomolecules affect deposition kinetics and morphology of hydroxyapatite. • Free radical scavenging activity is seen for the first time on bioactive glasses. - Abstract: Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  8. Synthesis of lipid mediators during UVB-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sisignano

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensitization during inflammatory pain is mediated by a variety of endogenous proalgesic mediators including a number of oxidized lipids, some of which serve endogenous modulators of sensory TRP-channels. These lipids are eicosanoids of the arachidonic acid and linoleic acid pathway, as well as lysophophatidic acids (LPAs. However, their regulation pattern during inflammatory pain and their contribution to peripheral sensitization is still unclear. Here, we used the UVB-model for inflammatory pain to investigate alterations of lipid concentrations at the site of inflammation, the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs as well as the spinal dorsal horn and quantified 21 lipid species from five different lipid families at the peak of inflammation 48 hours post irradiation. We found that known proinflammatory lipids as well as lipids with unknown roles in inflammatory pain to be strongly increased in the skin, whereas surprisingly little changes of lipid levels were seen in DRGs or the dorsal horn. Importantly, although there are profound differences between the number of cytochrome (CYP genes between mice and rats, CYP-derived lipids were regulated similarly in both species. Since TRPV1 agonists such as LPA 18∶1, 9- and 13-HODE, 5- and 12-HETE were elevated in the skin, they may contribute to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia during UVB-induced inflammatory pain. These results may explain why some studies show relatively weak analgesic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in UVB-induced skin inflammation, as they do not inhibit synthesis of other proalgesic lipids such as LPA 18∶1, 9-and 13-HODE and HETEs.

  9. Study on the influence of lipid peak to the results of MR spectroscopy in the central gland of prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanjun; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Jiang Xuexiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of lipid peak to MRS in central gland of prostate gland. Methods: Seventeen patients performed transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were enrolled in this study. Three groups were divided according to the pathological findings: glandular-BPH (GBPH) (7 cases), stromal-BPH (SBPH) (6 cases), and incidentally detected prostate carcinoma (IDPC) (4 cases). The voxel with lipid peak in the field of volume was counted. Compared with pathology, the following studies were performed: (1) The location of the voxels that more frequently presented lipid peak in the central gland. (2) Whether the appearance of the lipid peak would obscure the identification of the peaks of the endogenous metabolites. Results: The ratio of voxels with lipid peak in central gland was about 22.8% (834/3567). There were 1477 (397 voxels with lipid peak), 1434(396 voxels with lipid peak), and 656(41 voxels with lipid peak) voxels in CBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups, respectively. The percentage in GBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups was 23.6%, 27.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. The percentage of voxels with lipid peak at the edge of the central gland (79.6%, 68.6% and 72.4%, respectively) was higher than that in other regions. The lipid peak in most of the voxels didn't influence the identification of the citrate and choline peak (82.8%, 98.0%, and 96.4%, respectively). Conclusion: The lipid peak in the central gland may result from the lipid tissues near the gland, and most lipid peak had no influence on the identification of endogenous metabolites. (authors)

  10. The Correlation of Pore Size and Bioactivity of Spray-Pyrolyzed Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available SiO2–CaO–P2O5-based mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis in this study. Three commonly used non-ionic tri-block copolymers (L121, P123, and F127 with various lengths of hydrophilic chains were applied as structural templates to achieve different pore sizes. A mesoporous structure was observed in each as-prepared specimen, and the results showed that the L121-treated MBG had the largest pore size. The results of bioactivity tests indicated that the growth of hydroxyapatite is related to the pore size of the materials.

  11. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Endogenous fibrinolysis facilitates clot retraction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P

    2017-12-07

    Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  14. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  15. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare spending covered by basic health insurance whilst controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. These results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare spending, whilst increased availability of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. However, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies that did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Membrane composition and dynamics: a target of bioactive virgin olive oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2014-06-01

    The endogenous synthesis of lipids, which requires suitable dietary raw materials, is critical for the formation of membrane bilayers. In eukaryotic cells, phospholipids are the predominant membrane lipids and consist of hydrophobic acyl chains attached to a hydrophilic head group. The relative balance between saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated acyl chains is required for the organization and normal function of membranes. Virgin olive oil is the richest natural dietary source of the monounsaturated lipid oleic acid and is one of the key components of the healthy Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil also contains a unique constellation of many other lipophilic and amphipathic constituents whose health benefits are still being discovered. The focus of this review is the latest evidence regarding the impact of oleic acid and the minor constituents of virgin olive oil on the arrangement and behavior of lipid bilayers. We highlight the relevance of these interactions to the potential use of virgin olive oil in preserving the functional properties of membranes to maintain health and in modulating membrane functions that can be altered in several pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid Cell Biology: A Focus on Lipids in Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Elisabeth M; Özbalci, Cagakan; Eggert, Ulrike S

    2018-06-20

    Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis. We analyze how lipids facilitate changes in cellular morphology during division and how they participate in key signaling events. We identify which cytokinesis proteins are associated with membranes, suggesting lipid interactions. More broadly, we highlight key unaddressed questions in lipid cell biology and techniques, including mass spectrometry, advanced imaging, and chemical biology, which will help us gain insights into the functional roles of lipids.

  18. Lipid Uptake, Metabolism, and Transport in the Larval Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa H. Quinlivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish is a well-established model system for studies of energy metabolism, and is amenable to genetic, physiological, and biochemical approaches. For the first 5 days of life, nutrients are absorbed from its endogenous maternally deposited yolk. At 5 days post-fertilization, the yolk is exhausted and the larva has a functional digestive system including intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestinal microbiota. The transparency of the larval zebrafish, and the genetic and physiological similarity of its digestive system to that of mammals make it a promising system in which to address questions of energy homeostasis relevant to human health. For example, apolipoprotein expression and function is similar in zebrafish and mammals, and transgenic animals may be used to examine both the transport of lipid from yolk to body in the embryo, and the trafficking of dietary lipids in the larva. Additionally, despite the identification of many fatty acid and lipid transport proteins expressed by vertebrates, the cell biological processes that mediate the transport of dietary lipids from the intestinal lumen to the interior of enterocytes remain to be elucidated. Genetic tractability and amenability to live imaging and a range of biochemical methods make the larval zebrafish an ideal model in which to address open questions in the field of lipid transport, energy homeostasis, and nutrient metabolism.

  19. Metabolic control by S6 kinases depends on dietary lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R Castañeda

    Full Text Available Targeted deletion of S6 kinase (S6K 1 in mice leads to higher energy expenditure and improved glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these effects remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we analyze the potential role of dietary lipids in regulating the mTORC1/S6K system. Analysis of S6K phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro showed that dietary lipids activate S6K, and this effect is not dependent upon amino acids. Comparison of male mice lacking S6K1 and 2 (S6K-dko with wt controls showed that S6K-dko mice are protected against obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high-fat diet. S6K-dko mice fed a high-fat diet had increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance, lower fat mass gain, and changes in markers of lipid metabolism. Importantly, however, these metabolic phenotypes were dependent upon dietary lipids, with no such effects observed in S6K-dko mice fed a fat-free diet. These changes appear to be mediated via modulation of cellular metabolism in skeletal muscle, as shown by the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that the metabolic functions of S6K in vivo play a key role as a molecular interface connecting dietary lipids to the endogenous control of energy metabolism.

  20. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics are a class of third generation biomaterials which elicit a special response on their surface when in contact with biological fluids, leading to strong bonding to living tissues. The purpose of the present study was to develop diopside based alkali-free bioactive glasses in order to achieve good sintering behaviour, high bioactivity, and a dissolution/ degradation rates compatible with the target applications in bone regeneration and tiss...

  1. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...... and products of catalytic reactions can freely diffuse through open mesopores (2–40 nm). The formation mechanism of hierarchically structured porous bioactive glasses, the immobilization mechanism of enzyme and the catalysis mechanism of immobilized enzyme are then discussed. The novel nanostructure...

  2. Protein-lipid nanohybrids as emerging platforms for drug and gene delivery: Challenges and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed; Medhat, Waseem; Hany, Mark; Saher, Nourhan; Fang, Jia-You; Elzoghby, Ahmed

    2017-05-28

    Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have been long used to deliver a vast range of drugs and bioactives owing to their ability to demonstrate novel physical, chemical, and/or biological properties. An exponential growth has spurred in research and development of these nanocarriers which led to the evolution of a great number of diverse nanosystems including liposomes, nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), micelles, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), metallic NPs, and carbon nanotubes. Among them, lipid-based nanocarriers have made the largest progress whether commercially or under development. Despite this progress, these lipid-based nanocarriers suffer from several limitations that led to the development of many protein-coated lipid nanocarriers. To less extent, protein-based nanocarriers suffer from limitations that led to the fabrication of some lipid bilayer enveloping protein nanocarriers. This review discusses in-depth some limitations associated with the lipid-based or protein-based nanocarriers and the fruitful outcomes brought by protein-lipid hybridization. Also discussed are the various hybridization techniques utilized to formulate these protein-lipid nanohybrids and the mechanisms involved in the drug loading process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacogenetics of lipid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordovas Jose M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic basis for most of the rare lipid monogenic disorders have been elucidated, but the challenge remains in determining the combination of genes that contribute to the genetic variability in lipid levels in the general population; this has been estimated to be in the range of 40-60 per cent of the total variability. Therefore, the effect of common polymorphisms on lipid phenotypes will be greatly modulated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. This approach can also be used to characterise the individuality of the response to lipid-lowering therapies, whether using drugs (pharmacogenetics or dietary interventions (nutrigenetics. In this regard, multiple studies have already described significant interactions between candidate genes for lipid and drug metabolism that modulate therapeutic response--although the outcomes of these studies have been controversial and call for more rigorous experimental design and analytical approaches. Once solid evidence about the predictive value of genetic panels is obtained, risk and therapeutic algorithms can begin to be generated that should provide an accurate measure of genetic predisposition, as well as targeted behavioural modifications or drugs of choice and personalised dosages of these drugs.

  4. Cellular Lipid Extraction for Targeted Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA), results in the formation of oxidized bioactive lipids, including numerous stereoisomers1,2. These metabolites can be formed from free or esterified fatty acids. Many of these oxidized metabolites have biological activity and have been implicated in various diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and cancer3-7. Oxidized bioactive lipids can be formed enzymatically or by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enzymes that metabolize fatty acids include cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs)1,8. Enzymatic metabolism results in enantioselective formation whereas ROS oxidation results in the racemic formation of products. While this protocol focuses primarily on the analysis of AA- and some LA-derived bioactive metabolites; it could be easily applied to metabolites of other fatty acids. Bioactive lipids are extracted from cell lysate or media using liquid-liquid (l-l) extraction. At the beginning of the l-l extraction process, stable isotope internal standards are added to account for errors during sample preparation. Stable isotope dilution (SID) also accounts for any differences, such as ion suppression, that metabolites may experience during the mass spectrometry (MS) analysis9. After the extraction, derivatization with an electron capture (EC) reagent, pentafluorylbenzyl bromide (PFB) is employed to increase detection sensitivity10,11. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is used to increase the selectivity of the MS analysis. Before MS analysis, lipids are separated using chiral normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC conditions are optimized to separate the enantiomers and various stereoisomers of the monitored lipids12. This specific LC-MS method monitors prostaglandins (PGs), isoprostanes (isoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), oxoeicosatetraenoic

  5. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

  6. StraPep: a structure database of bioactive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yin, Tailang; Xiao, Xuwen; He, Dan; Xue, Zhidong; Jiang, Xinnong; Wang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Bioactive peptides, with a variety of biological activities and wide distribution in nature, have attracted great research interest in biological and medical fields, especially in pharmaceutical industry. The structural information of bioactive peptide is important for the development of peptide-based drugs. Many databases have been developed cataloguing bioactive peptides. However, to our knowledge, database dedicated to collect all the bioactive peptides with known structure is not available yet. Thus, we developed StraPep, a structure database of bioactive peptides. StraPep holds 3791 bioactive peptide structures, which belong to 1312 unique bioactive peptide sequences. About 905 out of 1312 (68%) bioactive peptides in StraPep contain disulfide bonds, which is significantly higher than that (21%) of PDB. Interestingly, 150 out of 616 (24%) bioactive peptides with three or more disulfide bonds form a structural motif known as cystine knot, which confers considerable structural stability on proteins and is an attractive scaffold for drug design. Detailed information of each peptide, including the experimental structure, the location of disulfide bonds, secondary structure, classification, post-translational modification and so on, has been provided. A wide range of user-friendly tools, such as browsing, sequence and structure-based searching and so on, has been incorporated into StraPep. We hope that this database will be helpful for the research community. Database URL: http://isyslab.info/StraPep PMID:29688386

  7. Fruit and cereal bioactives: sources, chemistry, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem; Hall, Clifford, III

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides detailed information on both beneficial bioactives such as phenolics, flavonoids, tocols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and avenanthramides and toxicant compounds including mycotoxins...

  8. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  9. Lipids, lipid bilayers and vesicles as seen by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Lipid molecules self-assemble into bilayers in water with their hydrocarbon chains facing inward due to their amphiphilic nature. The structural and dynamical properties of lipids and lipid bilayers have been studied by neutron scattering intensively. In this article, 3 topics are shown as typical examples. 1) a time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering on uni-lamellar vesicles composed of deuterated and protonated lipids to determine lipid kinetics, 2) small-angle neutron scattering to investigate spontaneous formation of nanopores on uni-lamellar vesicles, and 3) neutron spin echo study to determine bending modulus of lipid bilayers. (author)

  10. Effect of chloroquine on intestinal lipid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansbach, C.M. II; Arnold, A.; Garrett, M.

    1987-01-01

    Most studies that have quantitated recovery of infused lipid in the intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph have only been able to recapture 50-75%. One possibility is that the missing lipid enters a triacylglycerol (TG) storage pool in the enterocyte and is hydrolyzed by lysosomal lipase, and the free fatty acid released is transported by the portal vein. This postulate was tested by comparing glyceryl trioleate (TO)-infused rats pretreated with the lysosomotropic drug, chloroquine (6.3 mg.kg-1.h-1) with saline controls. Chloroquine increased mucosal TG from 94 +/- 6 to 128 +/- 8 mumol. Additionally, the specific activity of the mucosal TG relative to the infused [ 3 H]TO was reduced in the treated rats. The mucosal TG increase was not due to impaired TG output, which remained the same as controls. We conclude that the TG in the acid lipase-sensitive pool derives most of its glyceride-glycerol from endogenous sources. Furthermore, the increment in mucosal TG caused by chloroquine is not enough to explain the majority of the acyl groups unaccounted for in the mucosa and lymph after a TG infusion. For these a direct passage of acyl groups through the enterocyte is postulated

  11. Lipid management in ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Ines; Ach, Koussay; Chaieb, Larbi

    2015-05-01

    During Ramadan fast, Muslims must refrain from smoking, eating, drinking, having sexual activity, and consuming oral medications from sunrise to sunset. It has been previously shown that Ramadan fasting induces favourable changes on metabolic parameters, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and promotes cardiovascular benefits. Although ill people are exempted from fasting, most patients with chronic diseases are keen on performing this Islamic-ritual. During recent years, Risk stratification and treatment adjustment during Ramadan are well known and structured in several guidelines for patients with diabetes mellitus. Data related to the effect of Ramadan fast on lipid profiles are less known and several controversies have been reported. Here, we focus on lipid profile and lipid management during Ramadan taking into account comorbidities and cardiovascular risk.

  12. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  13. Bioactive and inert dental glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerian, Maziar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2017-02-01

    The global market for dental materials is predicted to exceed 10 billion dollars by 2020. The main drivers for this growth are easing the workflow of dentists and increasing the comfort of patients. Therefore, remarkable research projects have been conducted and are currently underway to develop improved or new dental materials with enhanced properties or that can be processed using advanced technologies, such as CAD/CAM or 3D printing. Among these materials, zirconia, glass or polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and glass-ceramics (GCs) are of great importance. Dental glass-ceramics are highly attractive because they are easy to process and have outstanding esthetics, translucency, low thermal conductivity, high strength, chemical durability, biocompatibility, wear resistance, and hardness similar to that of natural teeth, and, in certain cases, these materials are bioactive. In this review article, we divide dental GCs into the following two groups: restorative and bioactive. Most restorative dental glass-ceramics (RDGCs) are inert and biocompatible and are used in the restoration and reconstruction of teeth. Bioactive dental glass-ceramics (BDGCs) display bone-bonding ability and stimulate positive biological reactions at the material/tissue interface. BDGCs are suggested for dentin hypersensitivity treatment, implant coating, bone regeneration and periodontal therapy. Throughout this paper, we elaborate on the history, processing, properties and applications of RDGCs and BDGCs. We also report on selected papers that address promising types of dental glass-ceramics. Finally, we include trends and guidance on relevant open issues and research possibilities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 619-639, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bioactive compounds: historical perspectives, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Jayaprakasha, G K; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Vikram, Amit

    2009-09-23

    Mom's conventional wisdom of eating fruits and vegetables to lead a healthy life has evolved with scientific, fact-finding research during the past four decades due to advances in science of "Foods for Health". Epidemiological and prospective studies have demonstrated the vital role of fruits, vegetables, and nuts in reducing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, several meta-analyses strongly suggested that by adding one serving of fruits and vegetables to daily diet, the risk of cardiovascular diseases will be decreased up to 7%. The multidisciplinary and partnership efforts of agriculture and medical scientists across the globe stimulated interest in establishing certain interdisciplinary centers and institutes focusing on "Foods for Health". While the consumption of various healthy foods continues, several questions about toxicity, bioavailability, and food-drug interactions of bioactive compounds are yet to be fully understood on the basis of scientific evidence. Recent research on elucidation of the molecular mechanisms to understand the "proof of the concept" will provide the perfect answer when consumers are ready for a "consumer-to-farm" rather than the current "farm-to-consumer" approach. The multidisciplinary research and educational efforts will address the role of healthy foods to improve eye, brain, and heart health while reducing the risk of cancer. Through this connection, this review is an attempt to provide insight and historical perspectives on some of the bioactive compounds from the day of discovery to their current status. The bioactive compounds discussed in this review are flavonoids, carotenoids, curcumin, ascorbic acid, and citrus limonoids.

  15. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Analysis of Mammalian Endogenous Retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Rita; Mager, Dixie L

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are repetitive sequences found abundantly in mammalian genomes which are capable of modulating host gene expression. Nevertheless, most endogenous retrovirus copies are under tight epigenetic control via histone-repressive modifications and DNA methylation. Here we describe a common method used in our laboratory to detect, quantify, and compare mammalian endogenous retrovirus DNA methylation. More specifically we describe methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by quantitative PCR.

  16. International Environmental Agreements with Endogenous or Exogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhai Hong; Larry Karp

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of endogenous and exogenous risk on the equilibrium (expected) membership of an International Environmental Agreement when countries are risk averse. Endogenous risk arises when countries use mixed rather than pure strategies at the participation game, and exogenous risk arises from the inherent uncertainty about the costs and benefits of increased abate- ment. Under endogenous risk, an increase in risk aversion increases expected participation. Under exogenous risk and ...

  17. Horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists: The theory of endogenous money reassessed

    OpenAIRE

    Palley, Thomas I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Basil Moore’s book, Horizontalists and Verticalists, to reassess the theory of endogenous money. The paper distinguishes between horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists. It argues Moore’s horizontalist representation of endogenous money was an over-simplification that discarded important enduring insights from monetary theory. The structuralist approach to endogenous money retains the basic insight that the money supply ...

  18. LASER-INDUCED BIOACTIVITY IN DENTAL PORCELAIN MODIFIED BY BIOACTIVE GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANASTASIA BEKETOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of laser-liquid-solid interaction method in the bioactivity of dental porcelain modified by bioactive glass. Forty sol-gel derived specimens were immersed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, 31 and 9 specimens of which were treated with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser respectively. Untreated specimens served as controls. Incubation of specimens followed. Bioactivity was evaluated, using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. FTIR detected peaks associated with hydroxyapatite on 1 Nd:YAG- and 4 Er:YAG-treated specimens. SEM analysis revealed that Er:YAG-treated specimens were covered by granular hydroxyapatite layer, while Nd:YAG treated specimen presented growth of flake-like hydroxyapatite. TEM confirmed the results. The untreated controls presented delayed bioactivity. In conclusion, Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser treatment of the material, under certain fluencies, accelerates hydroxyapatite formation. Nd:YAG laser treatment of specific parameters causes the precipitation of flake-like hydroxyapatite in nano-scale.

  19. In vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties of bioactive glass nanoparticles/polycaprolactone composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lijun; Wang, Wenjun; Jin, Duo; Zhou, Songtao; Song, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of bioactive glass (NBG) with a diameter of 50-90 nm were synthesized using the Stöber method. NBG/PCL composites with different NBG contents (0 wt.%, 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.%) were prepared by a melt blending and thermal injection moulding technique, and characterized with XRD, FTIR, and SEM to study the effect of NBG on the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of the NBG/PCL composites. In spite of the high addition up to 40 wt.%, the NBG could be dispersed homogeneously in the PCL matrix. The elastic modulus of the NBG/PCL composites was improved remarkably from 198±13 MPa to 851±43 MPa, meanwhile the tensile strength was retained in the range of 19-21.5 MPa. The hydrophilic property and degradation behavior of the NBG/PCL composites were also improved with the addition of the NBG. Moreover, the composites with high NBG content showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity after being immersed in simulated body fluid, which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized NBG. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of freeze-cast chitosan nanocomposite scaffolds reinforced with bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhaghgouy, Masoud; Zamanian, Ali; Shahrezaee, Mostafa; Masouleh, Milad Pourbaghi

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared by freeze casting method through blending constant chitosan concentration with different portions of synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image showed that the particles size of bioactive glass (64SiO2.28CaO.8P2O5) prepared by sol-gel method was approximately less than 20 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed proper interfacial bonding between BGNPs and chitosan polymers. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images depicted a unidirectional structure with homogenous distribution of BGNPs among chitosan matrix associated with the absence of pure chitosan scaffold's wall pores after addition of only 10 wt.% BGNPs. As the BGNP content increased from 0 to 50 wt.%, the compressive strength and compressive module values increased from 0.034 to 0.419 MPa and 0.41 to 10.77 MPa, respectively. Biodegradation study showed that increase in BGNP content leads to growth of weight loss amount. The in vitro biomineralization studies confirmed the bioactive nature of all nanocomposites. Amount of 30 wt.% BGNPs represented the best concentration for absorption capacity and bioactivity behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S P

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1-X) SiO2--24.3 Na2O-26.9 CaO-2.6 P2O5, where X=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400±5°C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  3. Energy and lipid metabolism during direct and diapause development in a pierid butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Posledovich, Diana; Carlsson, Mikael; Käkelä, Reijo; Tang, Patrik; Nylin, Sören; Wheat, Christopher W; Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl

    2016-10-01

    Diapause is a fundamental component of the life cycle in the majority of insects living in environments characterized by strong seasonality. The present study addresses poorly understood associations and trade-offs between endogenous diapause duration, thermal sensitivity of development, energetic cost of development and cold tolerance. Diapause intensity, metabolic rate trajectories and lipid profiles of directly developing and diapausing animals were studied using pupae and adults of Pieris napi butterflies from a population in which endogenous diapause has been well studied. Endogenous diapause was terminated after 3 months and termination required chilling. Metabolic and post-diapause development rates increased with diapause duration, while the metabolic cost of post-diapause development decreased, indicating that once diapause is terminated, development proceeds at a low rate even at low temperature. Diapausing pupae had larger lipid stores than the directly developing pupae, and lipids constituted the primary energy source during diapause. However, during diapause, lipid stores did not decrease. Thus, despite lipid catabolism meeting the low energy costs of the diapausing pupae, primary lipid store utilization did not occur until the onset of growth and metamorphosis in spring. In line with this finding, diapausing pupae contained low amounts of mitochondria-derived cardiolipins, which suggests a low capacity for fatty acid β-oxidation. While ontogenic development had a large effect on lipid and fatty acid profiles, only small changes in these were seen during diapause. The data therefore indicate that the diapause lipidomic phenotype is developed early, when pupae are still at high temperature, and retained until post-diapause development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Ming Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.

  5. Nanostructuring Biomaterials with Specific Activities towards Digestive Enzymes for Controlled Gastrointestinal Absorption of Lipophilic Bioactive Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Paul; Whitby, Catherine P; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-11-01

    This review describes the development of novel lipid-based biomaterials that modulate fat digestion for the enhanced uptake of encapsulated lipophilic bioactive compounds (e.g. drugs and vitamins). Specific focus is directed towards analysing how key material characteristics affect the biological function of digestive lipases and manipulate lipolytic digestion. The mechanism of lipase action is a complex, interfacial process, whereby hydrolysis can be controlled by the ability for lipase to access and adsorb to the lipid-in-water interface. However, significant conjecture exists within the literature regarding parameters that influence the activities of digestive lipases. Important findings from recent investigations that strategically examined the interplay between the interfacial composition of the lipid microenvironment and lipolysis kinetics in simulated biophysical environments are presented. The correlation between lipolysis and the rate of solubilisation and absorption of lipophilic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is detailed. Greater insights into the mechanism of lipase action have provided a new approach for designing colloidal carriers that orally deliver poorly soluble compounds, directly impacting the pharmaceutical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides suppress nicotine-induced activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons through nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Miriam; Pillolla, Giuliano; Luchicchi, Antonio; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Yasar, Sevil; Goldberg, Steven R; Pistis, Marco

    2008-12-17

    Nicotine stimulates the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, which is believed to mediate the rewarding and addictive properties of tobacco use. Accumulating evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system might play a major role in neuronal mechanisms underlying the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Here, we investigated the modulation of nicotine effects by the endocannabinoid system on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area with electrophysiological techniques in vivo and in vitro. We discovered that pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme that catabolizes fatty acid ethanolamides, among which the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is the best known, suppressed nicotine-induced excitation of dopamine cells. Importantly, this effect was mimicked by the administration of the FAAH substrates oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), but not methanandamide, the hydrolysis resistant analog of AEA. OEA and PEA are naturally occurring lipid signaling molecules structurally related to AEA, but devoid of affinity for cannabinoid receptors. They blocked the effects of nicotine by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor transcription factor involved in several aspects of lipid metabolism and energy balance. Activation of PPAR-alpha triggered a nongenomic stimulation of tyrosine kinases, which might lead to phosphorylation and negative regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These data indicate for the first time that the anorexic lipids OEA and PEA possess neuromodulatory properties as endogenous ligands of PPAR-alpha in the brain and provide a potential new target for the treatment of nicotine addiction.

  7. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-01-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO 2 –Na 2 O–CaO–P 2 O 5 –FeO–Fe 2 O 3 and contains magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite – HAp – layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. - Highlights: • An in vitro biological characterization was carried out on ferromagnetic and bioactive composite cements. • No release of iron was revealed in the physiological solution. • Bioactivity tests show hydroxyapatite precipitates

  8. Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine

    2013-07-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion

  9. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verné, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruno, Matteo [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miola, Marta [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta [Traumatology Orthopedics and Occupational Medicine Dept., Università di Torino, Via G. Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cochis, Andrea [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Rimondini, Lia [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–FeO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and contains magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite – HAp – layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. - Highlights: • An in vitro biological characterization was carried out on ferromagnetic and bioactive composite cements. • No release of iron was revealed in the physiological solution. • Bioactivity tests

  10. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K

    2016-01-01

    factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian...... manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus...

  11. Sucessfull management of bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophtalmitis following pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare, and frequently devastating, ophthalmic disease. It occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, or those with diabetes mellitus, cancer or intravenous drugs users. Candida infection is the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. Ocular candidiasis develops within days to weeks of fungemia. The association of treatment for pancreatitis with endophthalmitis is unusual. Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition may explain endogenous endophthalmitis. We report the case of a patient with pancreatitis treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition who developed bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis that was successfully treated with vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B.

  12. Changing Endogenous Development: the Territorial Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs István Tóth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.

  13. Public Procurement of Innovation as Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Public procurement used as an innovation policy instrument has attracted attention the last decade. It has been argued that public procurement can be used to stimulate innovation from the demand-side. This paper problematizes ‘demand’ understood as a problem defined by a public procurer given...... to potential suppliers to solve. By drawing on a cross-case analysis of two similar projects the paper attempts to explicate an understanding of the role of public procurement of innovation not primarily as a ‘demand-side innovation instrument’, as such thinking might run the risk of ignoring important...... underlying mechanisms critical for success. Instead the paper views public procurement of innovation as an instrument of endogenous- exogenous knowledge conversion....

  14. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    ) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...... on the export market are less efficient than competitors on the domestic market. We estimate micro-level price cost margins (PCMs) using firm-level data extending the techniques developed by Hall (1986, 1988) and extended by Domowitz et al. (1988) and Roeger (1995) for the French manufacturing industry from......In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2...

  15. Involvement of Endogenous Retroviruses in Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sun Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For millions of years, vertebrates have been continuously exposed to infection by retroviruses. Ancient retroviral infection of germline cells resulted in the formation and accumulation of inherited retrovirus sequences in host genomes. These inherited retroviruses are referred to as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, and recent estimates have revealed that a significant portion of animal genomes is made up of ERVs. Although various host factors have suppressed ERV activation, both positive and negative functions have been reported for some ERVs in normal and abnormal physiological conditions, such as in disease states. Similar to other complex diseases, ERV activation has been observed in prion diseases, and this review will discuss the potential involvement of ERVs in prion diseases.

  16. Exogenous and endogenous landforms in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Julia

    2017-04-01

    11th graders have already learned about endogenous forces and now we are having a closer look at the exogenous forces which act on the Earth's surface. The Po River-system, for example, is responsible for the formation of the alpine region. Students are asked to find out how this works with the help of the rock-cycle scheme, several suitable maps and information on weathering and the texture of rocks, erosion, etc. We will form groups that will look at different types of rock formations (including an example in the Mediterranean region each). Depending on the number of lessons available we will add the exogenous effect of flowing water and ice (glacial over forming) to the topic. At the end every group will present their findings explaining the scientific context by using topographic examples.

  17. Unfunded pensions and endogenous labor supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly-mild restri......A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly......-mild restriction that the old be no less risk-averse than the young, extends to a neoclassical economy with endogenous labor supply....

  18. Transfer of endogenous pyrogens across artificial membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnemann, G; Linnenweber, S; Burg, M; Koch, K M

    1998-05-01

    Synthetic high-flux dialyzer membranes used in continuous veno-venous hemofiltration are permeable to middle molecular size endogenous pyrogens, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. The quantities removed by sieving are, however, negligible in vitro as well as in vivo. Adsorption of cytokines to the membrane polymer is the major mechanism of pyrogen removal. Adsorption seems to be semispecific for pro-inflammatory cytokines because levels of anti-inflammatory mediators were not changed or even increased during CVVH. Thus, CVVH may change cytokine profiles in septic patients supporting the predominance of anti-inflammatory over pro-inflammatory activity in plasma. It remains to be demonstrated whether modifications of extracorporeal blood purification systems (high-volume CVVH, plasma separation + adsorption) are able to amplify the change in cytokine profiles and whether this change influences outcome of septic patients.

  19. Bioactive vegetable proteins and peptides in lipid-lowering: nutraceutical potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David Abram; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2014-01-01

    As the last century saw a decline in the burden of nutritional deficiency and infectious disease, the global burden of chronic disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) in particular, is increasing. CVD is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Significant research efforts on the prevention and treatment of this disease have identified elevated plasma cholesterol as a primary risk factor for CVD. Although CVD progresses with hypercholesterolemia, it seems possibility to delay and ...

  20. The Role of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Neuro-Inflammation: Relevance for Bioactive Lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, G.; van Horssen, J.; Bandaru, V.V.R.; Haughey, N.J.; de Vries, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are highly expressed by brain endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These efflux pumps play an important role in maintaining brain homeostasis as they actively hinder the entry of unwanted blood-derived compounds into the central nervous

  1. The Role of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Neuro-Inflammation: Relevance for Bioactive Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Kooij, Gijs; van Horssen, Jack; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Haughey, Norman J.; de Vries, Helga E.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are highly expressed by brain endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These efflux pumps play an important role in maintaining brain homeostasis as they actively hinder the entry of unwanted blood-derived compounds into the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, their high activity at the BBB has been a major hurdle for the treatment of several brain diseases, as they prevent numerous drugs to reach their site of action within th...

  2. Bioactive Lipidic Extracts from Octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus: Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractions from an organic extract from fresh octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus were studied for biological activities such as antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. A chloroform extract obtained from octopus tentacles was sequentially fractionated using thin layer chromatography (TLC, and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Organic extract reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. Based on the results obtained, the isolated fractions obtained from octopus contain compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of cancer cell lines.

  3. Fabrication and bioactivity behavior of HA/bioactive glass composites in the presence of calcium hexaboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassyouni, Gehan T.; Beherei, Hanan H. [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: kh_rezk1966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Kenawy, Sayed H. [Ceramics Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, composites were prepared using both the synthesized nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA), bioactive glass (BG) powders (obtained by the traditional melt-quenching route) together with the purchased nano-sized calcium hexaboride (CB) with different ratios and were fired at 1250 °C. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques and compressive strength. The mechanical testing was to designate the role of the CB in improving the mechanical property of the prepared composites. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared composites was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °°C for 10 days. The effect of different ratios of the three components (CB, HA & BG) on the bioactivity properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing such property to perform in vitro imitations of in vivo conditions in the future. It can be pointed out that the Si-HA content in the composition showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity than pure hydroxyapatite which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized composites. - Highlights: • The prepared of nano-composites containing CB, HA and BG powders were achieved. • The addition of CB powder enhanced the compressive strength for all the composites. • The composites containing high BG and CB contents improved formation of bone-like apatite layer.

  4. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication and bioactivity behavior of HA/bioactive glass composites in the presence of calcium hexaboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bassyouni, Gehan T.; Beherei, Hanan H.; Mohamed, Khaled R.; Kenawy, Sayed H.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, composites were prepared using both the synthesized nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA), bioactive glass (BG) powders (obtained by the traditional melt-quenching route) together with the purchased nano-sized calcium hexaboride (CB) with different ratios and were fired at 1250 °C. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques and compressive strength. The mechanical testing was to designate the role of the CB in improving the mechanical property of the prepared composites. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared composites was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °°C for 10 days. The effect of different ratios of the three components (CB, HA & BG) on the bioactivity properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing such property to perform in vitro imitations of in vivo conditions in the future. It can be pointed out that the Si-HA content in the composition showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity than pure hydroxyapatite which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized composites. - Highlights: • The prepared of nano-composites containing CB, HA and BG powders were achieved. • The addition of CB powder enhanced the compressive strength for all the composites. • The composites containing high BG and CB contents improved formation of bone-like apatite layer.

  6. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  7. Dynamic option pricing with endogenous stochastic arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mauricio; Montalva, Rodrigo; Pellicer, Rely; Villena, Marcelo

    2010-09-01

    Only few efforts have been made in order to relax one of the key assumptions of the Black-Scholes model: the no-arbitrage assumption. This is despite the fact that arbitrage processes usually exist in the real world, even though they tend to be short-lived. The purpose of this paper is to develop an option pricing model with endogenous stochastic arbitrage, capable of modelling in a general fashion any future and underlying asset that deviate itself from its market equilibrium. Thus, this investigation calibrates empirically the arbitrage on the futures on the S&P 500 index using transaction data from September 1997 to June 2009, from here a specific type of arbitrage called “arbitrage bubble”, based on a t-step function, is identified and hence used in our model. The theoretical results obtained for Binary and European call options, for this kind of arbitrage, show that an investment strategy that takes advantage of the identified arbitrage possibility can be defined, whenever it is possible to anticipate in relative terms the amplitude and timespan of the process. Finally, the new trajectory of the stock price is analytically estimated for a specific case of arbitrage and some numerical illustrations are developed. We find that the consequences of a finite and small endogenous arbitrage not only change the trajectory of the asset price during the period when it started, but also after the arbitrage bubble has already gone. In this context, our model will allow us to calibrate the B-S model to that new trajectory even when the arbitrage already started.

  8. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  9. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  10. Direct observation of the influence of cardiolipin and antibiotics on lipid II binding to MurJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Jani Reddy; Sauer, Joshua B.; Wu, Di; Mehmood, Shahid; Allison, Timothy M.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2018-03-01

    Translocation of lipid II across the cytoplasmic membrane is essential in peptidoglycan biogenesis. Although most steps are understood, identifying the lipid II flippase has yielded conflicting results, and the lipid II binding properties of two candidate flippases—MurJ and FtsW—remain largely unknown. Here we apply native mass spectrometry to both proteins and characterize lipid II binding. We observed lower levels of lipid II binding to FtsW compared to MurJ, consistent with MurJ having a higher affinity. Site-directed mutagenesis of MurJ suggests that mutations at A29 and D269 attenuate lipid II binding to MurJ, whereas chemical modification of A29 eliminates binding. The antibiotic ramoplanin dissociates lipid II from MurJ, whereas vancomycin binds to form a stable complex with MurJ:lipid II. Furthermore, we reveal cardiolipins associate with MurJ but not FtsW, and exogenous cardiolipins reduce lipid II binding to MurJ. These observations provide insights into determinants of lipid II binding to MurJ and suggest roles for endogenous lipids in regulating substrate binding.

  11. Biased signaling of lipids and allosteric actions of synthetic molecules for GPR119

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Helle A; Fares, Suzan; Larsen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    for 2h with the 2-MAG-lipase inhibitor JZL84 doubled the constitutive activity, indicating that endogenous lipids contribute to the apparent constitutive activity. Finally, besides being an agonist, AR231453 acted as a positive allosteric modulator of OEA and increased its potency by 54-fold at 100nM AR......231453. Our studies uncovering broad and biased signaling, masked constitutive activity by endogenous MAGs, and ago-allosteric properties of synthetic ligands may explain why many GPR119 drug-discovery programs have failed so far....

  12. Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-01-11

    Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  13. Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane R. Bienek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field.

  14. Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. (paper)

  15. Bioactive endophytes warrant intensified exploration and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Tank, David C; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol A; Eisenman, Kaury; Kingery, David; Babbs, Beatrice; Fenn, Kathleen; Greene, Joshua S; Hann, Bradley D; Keehner, Jocelyn; Kelley-Swift, Elizabeth G; Kembaiyan, Vivek; Lee, Sun Jin; Li, Puyao; Light, David Y; Lin, Emily H; Ma, Cong; Moore, Emily; Schorn, Michelle A; Vekhter, Daniel; Nunez, Percy V; Strobel, Gary A; Donoghue, Michael J; Strobel, Scott A

    2008-08-25

    A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value. We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 15-30% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive. The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

  16. Bioactive endophytes warrant intensified exploration and conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Smith

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value.We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 15-30% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive.The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

  17. Recent advances on bioactivities of black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aécio L de S; Pachikian, Barbara; Larondelle, Yvan; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2017-11-01

    Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice. Protection against osteoporosis has been suggested for the first time for black rice extracts. Because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, black rice also protects liver and kidney from injuries. One clinical study reported the interest of black rice in case of alcohol withdrawal. Several advances have been recently achieved on the understanding of the potential biological effects of black rice and its derivatives. They further confirm that black rice should be considered as a promising source of health-promoting functional foods targeting a large set of noninfectious diseases. However, more clinical studies are needed to support the findings highlighted in this review.

  18. Preparation of radiolabeled bioactive asbestos fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewson, T J; Francsechini, M P; Scheule, R K; Holian, A [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Health Science Center

    1991-01-01

    We have developed an efficient procedure to radiolabel asbestos fibers while retaining the bioactivity of the fibers. The fibers are labeled with {sup 68}Ge. The {sup 68}Ge decays into {sup 68}Ga, which then can be detected by its characteristic positron emission. Both chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, a serpentine and an amphibole, respectively, were radiolabeled successfully. Mild reaction conditions and short reaction times were found under which {similar to}90% of the added {sup 68}Ge and {sup 68}Ga bound to the fibers. The radiolabel was retained even after washing the fibers extensively with physiologic buffers. The effects of the labeling on the bioactivity of the fibers were evaluated in an in vitro assay using guinea pig alveolar macrophages as a target cell. Labeled chrysotile fibers were found to retain >95% of their ability to stimulate these cells. The labeling procedure described in this study should be useful in preparing labeled fibers to investigate both in vitro and in vivo phenomena. (author).

  19. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  20. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  1. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  2. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  3. THE PROCESSES OF ENDOGENIZING IN THE ENDOGENOUS GROWTH: THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSMAN DEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to state how the main inputs of endogenous growth, i.e. knowledge, human capital and technological progress are made endogenous by education, R&D, university-industry cooperation, learning by doing and diffusion within the production process. Competitiveness of firms and countries would increase as educated people enter into workforce; as R&D produces new technologies which are used in the production process; as theoretical knowledge meets with practice by university-industry cooperation; and as workers have more experience by learning by doing. In empirical analysis for Turkey is made by using data of 1970-2001 term it was found that a positive relationship among labour and capital factors and GNP and a negative relationship among education expenditures and foreign trade volume and capital stock.

  4. An endogenous Taylor condition in an endogenous growth monetary policy model

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Mai Vo; Gillman, Max; Minford, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The paper derives a Taylor condition as part of the agent's equilibrium behavior in an endogenous growth monetary economy. It shows the assumptions necessary to make it almost identical to the original Taylor rule, and that it can interchangably take a money supply growth rate form. From the money supply form, simple policy experiments are conducted. A full central bank policy model is derived that includes the Taylor condition along with equations comparable to the standard aggregate-demand/...

  5. Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Maarit J.; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz‐Hernandez, Cristina; Actis‐Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K.; da Silva Pinto, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

  6. Bioactivity and chemical ecology of some intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Shirwaikar, P.

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Bioactive_Com_Mar_Org_1991_29.pdf.txt stream_source_info Bioactive_Com_Mar_Org_1991_29.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  8. calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 41; Issue 2. In vitro bioactivity evaluation of α -calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for their potential use in bone regeneration. YANYAN ZHENG CHENGDONG XIONG DUJUAN ZHANG LIFANG ZHANG. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 Article ID ...

  9. Indication of bioactive candidates among body volatiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gregarious adult locusts are believed to release many bioactive volatiles from their bodies for the mediation of their biological characteristics. The determination of these bioactive body volatiles can contribute to the development of new, environmentally benign methods of locust control. An important locust, Locusta ...

  10. Bioactive Peptides in Milk Products. | Tirelli | Journal of Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some peptides produced in vitro or in vivo by enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins and whey protein can affect some biological functions of the body and therefore they are called bioactive peptides. In this paper the physiological significance of bioactive peptides is reviewed and the analytical methods for their purification and ...

  11. Nutrient reference values for bioactives: new approaches needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Erdman Jr., John W.; Hathcock, John

    2013-01-01

    Nutrients can be classified as either "essential" or "non-essential," the latter are also termed bioactive substances. Whereas the absence of essential nutrients from the diet results in overt deficiency often times with moderate to severe physiological decrements, the absence of bioactive substa...

  12. The ecological dynamics and trajectories of bioactive compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result revealed seven bioactive compounds with anthraquinone totally absent from all the species in the four locations. The seven bioactive compounds were apparently more in the leaves than other parts of the plants. Among the four locations alkaloid, triterpene, glycoside, carbohydrate, flavonoid and tannin were high in ...

  13. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offered a more quantitative and systematic approach to lipids research. Much of the effort has been led by a research consortium called LIPID MAPS. With funding from the National Institutes of ...

  14. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  15. The Evaluation and Utilization of Marine-derived Bioactive Compounds with Anti-obesity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiu; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic throughout the world. There is thus increasing interest in searching for natural bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effect. A number of marine compounds have been regarded as potential sources of bioactive compounds and are associated with an anti-obesity effect. Marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect and their current applications, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are summarized in this review. in order to make contributions to the development of marine-derived functional food against obesity. In this review, an overview of marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect, including marine polysaccharides, marine lipid, marine peptides, marine carotenoids is intensively made with an emphasis on their efficacy and mechanism of action. Meanwhile, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are discussed. We summarize these methods into three categories: in vitro assay (including adsorption experiments and enzyme inhibitory assay), cell line study, animal experiments and clinical experiments. In addition, a brief introduction of the current applications of marine bioactive compounds with anti-obesity activity is discussed. Marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. In the past decades, numerous novel compounds with anti-obesity activity have been obtained from marine organisms, and many of them have been applied to industrial production such as functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Further studies are needed to explore the above-mentioned facts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  17. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  18. Optimized endogenous post-stratification in forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson

    2012-01-01

    An example of endogenous post-stratification is the use of remote sensing data with a sample of ground data to build a logistic regression model to predict the probability that a plot is forested and using the predicted probabilities to form categories for post-stratification. An optimized endogenous post-stratified estimator of the proportion of forest has been...

  19. Role of endogenous substances in enhancing radioresistance background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.; Gorskaya, T.G.; Graevskaya, E.Eh.; Kozlova, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Presumable sources of endogenous were studied amines in radiosensitive tissues under the effect of radioprotective agents were studied. The data obtained support the idea that mast cells of rats, having large deposits of biogenous amines, might be one of the reserves contributing to mobilization of endogeneous protective resources of the organism treated with radioprotective agents

  20. The Endogenous-Exogenous Partition in Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.

    1975-01-01

    Within lay explanation of actions, several significant inferences are assumed to follow from the partition between endogenous and exogenous attributions. An endogenous action is judged to constitute an end in itself; an exogenous action is judged to serve as a means to some further end. (Editor/RK)

  1. Interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting in crossmodal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxi; Chen, Qi; Gao, Dingguo; Yue, Zhenzhu

    2012-08-01

    Using a cue-target paradigm, we investigated the interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting in cross-modal attention. A peripheral (exogenous) cue was presented after a central (endogenous) cue with a variable time interval. The endogenous and exogenous cues were presented in one sensory modality (auditory in Experiment 1 and visual in Experiment 2) whereas the target was presented in another modality. Both experiments showed a significant endogenous cuing effect (longer reaction times in the invalid condition than in the valid condition). However, exogenous cuing produced a facilitatory effect in both experiments in response to the target when endogenous cuing was valid, but it elicited a facilitatory effect in Experiment 1 and an inhibitory effect in Experiment 2 when endogenous cuing was invalid. These findings indicate that endogenous and exogenous cuing can co-operate in orienting attention to the crossmodal target. Moreover, the interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting of attention is modulated by the modality between the cue and the target. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Endogene opioider og deres terapeutiske anvendelse i smertebehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, A T

    1990-01-01

    Cancer patients with chronic pain and obstetric patients have participated in clinical trials of the analgesic effects of endogenous opioids. It is possible to achieve adequate relief of pain in these patients following epidural or intrathecal administration of endogenous opioids. Further investi...

  3. On the Endogeneity of the Mean-Variance Efficient Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. A.; O'Connell, Paul G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that the endogeneity of the efficient frontier in the mean-variance model of portfolio selection is commonly obscured in portfolio selection literature and in widely used textbooks. Demonstrates endogeneity and discusses the impact of parameter changes on the mean-variance efficient frontier and on the beta coefficients of individual…

  4. Centesimal composition and bioactive compounds in fruits of buriti collected in Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ribeiro Trajano Manhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between diet and the incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases has already been established. The foods that play a role in preventing and/or treating these diseases are called functional foods. Buriti can be highlighted amongst these foods since it is an excellent source of vegetable oil, which is rich in β-carotene and oleic acid. This research evaluated the potential of the pulp of this fruit as a functional food focusing on its incorporation to the diet. Buriti pulp presented 62.93% moisture, 8.25% total carbohydrates, and 2.10% protein. The lipid fraction corresponded to 13.85%, and oleic acid was the main fatty acid. It also contained 0.94% total mineral content. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that the pulp of buriti may contain bioactive compounds with functional activities, but further research is needed to assess such potential.

  5. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the triglyceride-lowering component and in vivo and in vitro evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yihui; Piao, Xianmei; Zhang, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaodan; Xu, Bing; Zhu, Jiuxin; Fang, Zhiwei; Hou, Yunlong; Lu, Yanjie; Yang, Baofeng

    2012-03-14

    In folklore, some people take the decoction of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis (CSFP) for lowering blood lipids. The present study is designed to evaluate the lipid-lowering activities of CSFP, and search for its pharmacodynamical material. CSFP was extracted by water and 75% ethanol, respectively. The extracts of CSFP for reducing serum lipid levels were evaluated on mouse model of hyperlipidemia. The optimized extract was subjected to the bioactivity-guided fractionation in which the liquid-liquid extraction, collumn chromatography, the in vivo and in vitro models of hyperlipidemia were utilized. The structure of active component was determined by ¹³C-NMR and ¹H-NMR. The 75% ethanol extract of CSFP decreased the serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia. Followed a separation process for the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP, the fraction B was proved to be an active fraction for lowering lipid in vivo and in vitro experiments, which could significantly decrease the serum TC and TG levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and remarkably decrease the increase of TG in primary mouse hepatocytes induced by high glucose and the increase of TG in HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid. The fraction B2, isolated from B on bioactivity-guided fractionation, could significantly decrease TG level in HepG2 cells. One compound with the highest content in B2 was isolated and determined as luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by NMR spectra. It could significantly reduce the TG level in HepG2 cells, and inhibited the accumulation of lipids by oil red O stain. Our results demonstrated that the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP could improve in vitro and in vivo lipid accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside might be a leading pharmacodynamical material of CSFP for lowering lipids.

  6. The lipid fraction of human milk initiates adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Yamaguchi, Rie; Nagata, Eiko; Satake, Eiichiro; Sano, Shinichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Kitsuta, Kazunobu; Nakashima, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide over the past decade. Despite evidence that human milk lowers the risk of childhood obesity, the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated the direct effect of human milk on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with donated human milk only or the combination of the standard hormone mixture; insulin, dexamethasone (DEX), and 3-isobututyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Furthermore, the induction of preadipocyte differentiation by extracted lipids from human milk was tested in comparison to the cells treated with lipid extracts from infant formula. Adipocyte differentiation, specific genes as well as formation of lipid droplets were examined. We clearly show that lipids present in human milk initiate 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In contrast, this effect was not observed in response to lipids present in infant formula. The initiation of preadipocyte differentiation by human milk was enhanced by adding the adipogenic hormone, DEX or insulin. The expression of late adipocyte markers in Day 7 adipocytes that have been induced into differentiation with human milk lipid extracts was comparable to those in control cells initiated by a standard adipogenic hormone cocktail. These results demonstrate that human milk contains bioactive lipids that can initiate preadipocyte differentiation in the absence of the standard adipogenic compounds via a unique pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Delivery of bioactive peptides and proteins across oral (buccal) mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, S; Kremer, M; Nagy, K; Squier, C

    2001-06-01

    The identification of an increasing array of highly potent, endogenous peptide and protein factors termed cytokines, that can be efficiently synthesized using recombinant DNA technology, offers exciting new approaches for drug therapy. However, the physico-chemical and biological properties of these agents impose limitations in formulation and development of optimum drug delivery systems as well as on the routes of delivery. Oral mucosa, including the lining of the cheek (buccal mucosa), floor of mouth and underside of tongue (sublingual mucosa) and gingival mucosa, has received much attention in the last decade because it offers excellent accessibility, is not easily traumatized and avoids degradation of proteins and peptides that occurs as a result of oral administration, gastrointestinal absorption and first-pass hepatic metabolism. Peptide absorption occurs across oral mucosa by passive diffusion and it is unlikely that there is a carrier-mediated transport mechanism. The principal pathway is probably via the intercellular route where the major permeability barrier is represented by organized array of neutral lipids in the superficial layers of the epithelium. The relative role of aqueous as opposed to the lipid pathway in drug transport is still under investigation; penetration is not necessarily enhanced by simply increasing lipophilicity, for other effects, such as charge and molecular size, also play an important role in absorption of peptide and protein drugs. Depending on the pharmacodynamics of the peptides, various oral mucosal delivery systems can be designed. Delivery of peptide/protein drugs by conventional means such as solutions has some limitations. The possibility of excluding a major part of drug from absorption by involuntary swallowing and the continuous dilution due to salivary flow limits a controlled release. However these limitations can be overcome by adhesive dosage forms such as gels, films, tablets, and patches. They can localize the

  8. Bioactivity of different enriched phenolic extracts of wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-03-01

    Arbutus unedo, Prunus spinosa, Rosa micrantha and Rosa canina are good sources of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins. These compounds have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to anticancer activity. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant and antitumor properties of enriched phenolic extracts (non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds enriched extract- PE and anthocyanins enriched extract- AE) of the mentioned wild fruits were evaluated and compared. PE gave higher bioactive properties than the corresponding AE. It was observed a high capacity of A. unedo phenolic extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation in animal brain homogenates (EC50 = 7.21 μg/mL), as also a high antitumor potential against NCI-H460 human cell line (non-small lung cancer; GI50 = 37.68 μg/mL), which could be related to the presence of galloyl derivatives (exclusively found in this species). The bioactivity of the studied wild fruits proved to be more related to the phenolic compounds profile than to the amounts present in each extract, and could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods.

  9. Ionic-Liquid-Mediated Extraction and Separation Processes for Bioactive Compounds: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Sónia P M; E Silva, Francisca A; Quental, Maria V; Mondal, Dibyendu; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2017-05-24

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as promising media for the extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from the most diverse origins. This critical review offers a compilation on the main results achieved by the use of ionic-liquid-based processes in the extraction and separation/purification of a large range of bioactive compounds (including small organic extractable compounds from biomass, lipids, and other hydrophobic compounds, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and pharmaceuticals). ILs have been studied as solvents, cosolvents, cosurfactants, electrolytes, and adjuvants, as well as used in the creation of IL-supported materials for separation purposes. The IL-based processes hitherto reported, such as IL-based solid-liquid extractions, IL-based liquid-liquid extractions, IL-modified materials, and IL-based crystallization approaches, are here reviewed and compared in terms of extraction and separation performance. The key accomplishments and future challenges to the field are discussed, with particular emphasis on the major lacunas found within the IL community dedicated to separation processes and by suggesting some steps to overcome the current limitations.

  10. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  11. The effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract on the oxidative stability of lipids in cow and soy milk enriched with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2018-10-15

    Lipid oxidation of fish oil enriched cow milk and soy milk supplemented with rosemary extract stored at 2 °C was studied. Both peroxide value and volatile secondary lipid oxidation products were determined to monitor the progress of lipid oxidation. Rosemary extract inhibited lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product during storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary thyroid disorders in endogenous Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepomniszcze, Hugo; Pitoia, Fabian; Katz, Silvia B; Chervin, Raul; Bruno, Oscar D

    2002-09-01

    To study the prevalence of primary thyroid disorders in patients who underwent endogenous hypercortisolism. Retrospective evaluation of 59 patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) who had, at least, a record of thyroid palpation by expert endocrinologists and basal measurements of TSH by second generation assays. When available, tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine serum levels, TRH-TSH tests and anti-thyroid antibodies were also analyzed. There were two age- and gender-matched control groups. The 'goiter control group' comprised 118 healthy subjects who underwent thyroid palpation. The 'antibody control group' was composed of 40 individuals who attended the blood bank of our hospital. Antibodies against thyroperoxidase and measurements of TSH were analyzed in their blood samples. Available files of 83 CS patients admitted to our endocrine unit from 1985 to 1998 were examined. Fifty-nine patients (52 women and 7 men) with a mean age of 36.2 years (range 14-61 years) met the above requirements. Diagnosis of hypercortisolism had been established by a standard 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test and urinary free cortisol (UFC). Etiological diagnosis involved dynamic testing, measurements of ACTH levels and imaging techniques. After treatment, all but one of the patients were cured or controlled of their hypercortisolism. This was established by the finding of subnormal serum cortisol concentrations and/or subnormal 24-h UFC levels. Primary thyroid disorders were defined by the presence of one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i) goiter, (ii) positive anti-thyroid antibodies and/or (iii) primary thyroid function abnormalities. Eighteen (30.5%) patients had goiter (diffuse in 78% and nodular in 22%), 14 (23.7%) had primary subclinical hypothyroidism and 5 (8.4%) had hyperthyroidism. In 41 patients evaluated for antithyroid antibodies, it was found that 23 (56.1%) had positive titers. In a group of patients in which thyroid autoantibodies were measured

  13. Monocular channels have a functional role in endogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, William; Sekely, Liora; Klein, Raymond M; Gabay, Shai

    2018-03-01

    The literature has long emphasized the role of higher cortical structures in endogenous orienting. Based on evolutionary explanation and previous data, we explored the possibility that lower monocular channels may also have a functional role in endogenous orienting of attention. Sensitive behavioral manipulation was used to probe the contribution of monocularly segregated regions in a simple cue - target detection task. A central spatially informative cue, and its ensuing target, were presented to the same or different eyes at varying cue-target intervals. Results indicated that the onset of endogenous orienting was apparent earlier when the cue and target were presented to the same eye. The data provides converging evidence for the notion that endogenous facilitation is modulated by monocular portions of the visual stream. This, in turn, suggests that higher cortical mechanisms are not exclusively responsible for endogenous orienting, and that a dynamic interaction between higher and lower neural levels, might be involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endogenous retroviruses mobilized during friend murine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Stefano; Rosenke, Kyle; Hansen, Ethan; Hendrick, Duncan; Malik, Frank; Evans, Leonard H

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated in a mouse model that infection with a retrovirus can lead not only to the generation of recombinants between exogenous and endogenous gammaretrovirus, but also to the mobilization of endogenous proviruses by pseudotyping entire polytropic proviral transcripts and facilitating their infectious spread to new cells. However, the frequency of this occurrence, the kinetics, and the identity of mobilized endogenous proviruses was unclear. Here we find that these mobilized transcripts are detected after only one day of infection. They predominate over recombinant polytropic viruses early in infection, persist throughout the course of disease and are comprised of multiple different polytropic proviruses. Other endogenous retroviral elements such as intracisternal A particles (IAPs) were not detected. The integration of the endogenous transcripts into new cells could result in loss of transcriptional control and elevated expression which may facilitate pathogenesis, perhaps by contributing to the generation of polytropic recombinant viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  16. Role of luminal nutrients and endogenous GLP-2 in intestinal adaptation to mid-small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahly, Elizabeth M; Gillingham, Melanie B; Guo, Ziwen

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the role of luminal nutrients and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in intestinal adaptation, rats were subjected to 70% midjejunoileal resection or ileal transection and were maintained with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or oral feeding. TPN rats showed small bowel mucosal hyperpla......To elucidate the role of luminal nutrients and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in intestinal adaptation, rats were subjected to 70% midjejunoileal resection or ileal transection and were maintained with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or oral feeding. TPN rats showed small bowel mucosal...... rats was associated with a significant positive correlation between increases in plasma bioactive GLP-2 and proglucagon mRNA expression in the colon of TPN rats and ileum of orally fed rats. These data support a significant role for endogenous GLP-2 in the adaptive response to mid-small bowel resection...

  17. Bioactive and Antibacterial Coatings Based on Zein/Bioactive Glass Composites by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Meyer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the electrophoretic deposition (EPD of the natural polymer zein combined with bioactive glass (BG particles. Through the deposition of various BG compositions, namely 45S5 BG and Cu-doped BG, this work sought to demonstrate the ability of the films to potentiate the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA in contact with simulated body fluid (SBF. Following incubation in SBF, the physical and chemical surface properties of the EPD films were evaluated using different characterization techniques. The formation of HA at the surface of the coatings following immersion in SBF was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results demonstrated HA formation in all coatings after seven days of immersion in SBF. Coating morphology and degradation of the zein films were characterized using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The results confirmed EPD as a very convenient room temperature technique for production of ion releasing, bioactive, and antibacterial coatings for potential application in orthopedics.

  18. iNKT Cells and Their potential Lipid Ligands during Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunya eOpasawatchai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are a unique population of lipid reactive CD1d restricted innate-like T lymphocytes. Despite being a minor population, they serve as an early source of cytokines and promote immunological crosstalk thus bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Diseases ranging from allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer as well as infectious diseases, including viral infection, have been reported to be influenced by iNKT cells. However, it remains unclear how iNKT cells are activated during viral infection, as virus derived lipid antigens have not been reported. Cytokines may activate iNKT cells during infections from influenza and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV, although CD1d dependent activation is evident in other viral infections. Several viruses, such as dengue virus (DENV, induce CD1d upregulation which correlates with iNKT cell activation. In contrast, Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and Human papiloma virus (HPV promote CD1d downregulation as a strategy to evade iNKT cell recognition. These observations suggest the participation of a CD1d-dependent process in the activation of iNKT cells in response to viral infection. Endogenous lipid ligands, including phospholipids as well as glycosphingolipids, such as glucosylceramide have been proposed to mediate iNKT cell activation. Pro-inflammatory signals produced during viral infection may stimulate iNKT cells through enhanced CD1d dependent endogenous lipid presentation. Furthermore, viral infection may alter lipid composition and inhibit endogenous lipid degradation. Recent advances in this field are reviewed.

  19. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Endogenous T-Cell Therapy: Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Cassian; Lizee, Greg; Schueneman, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy represents a robust means of augmenting the tumor-reactive effector population in patients with cancer by adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded T cells. Three approaches have been developed to achieve this goal: the use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytess extracted from patient biopsy material; the redirected engineering of lymphocytes using vectors expressing a chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor; and third, the isolation and expansion of often low-frequency endogenous T cells (ETCs) reactive to tumor antigens from the peripheral blood of patients. This last form of adoptive transfer of T cells, known as ETC therapy, requires specialized methods to isolate and expand from peripheral blood the very low-frequency tumor-reactive T cells, methods that have been developed over the last 2 decades, to the point where such an approach may be broadly applicable not only for the treatment of melanoma but also for that of other solid tumor malignancies. One compelling feature of ETC is the ability to rapidly deploy clinical trials following identification of a tumor-associated target epitope, a feature that may be exploited to develop personalized antigen-specific T-cell therapy for patients with almost any solid tumor. With a well-validated antigen discovery pipeline in place, clinical studies combining ETC with agents that modulate the immune microenvironment can be developed that will transform ETC into a feasible treatment modality.

  1. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  2. Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Babaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer arises from a series of genetic and epigenetic changes, which result in abnormal expression or mutational activation of oncogenes, as well as suppression/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of coding genes or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with oncogenic properties can be caused by translocations, gene amplifications, point mutations or other less characterized mechanisms. One such mechanism is the inappropriate usage of normally dormant, tissue-restricted or cryptic enhancers or promoters that serve to drive oncogenic gene expression. Dispersed across the human genome, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs provide an enormous reservoir of autonomous gene regulatory modules, some of which have been co-opted by the host during evolution to play important roles in normal regulation of genes and gene networks. This review focuses on the “dark side” of such ERV regulatory capacity. Specifically, we discuss a growing number of examples of normally dormant or epigenetically repressed ERVs that have been harnessed to drive oncogenes in human cancer, a process we term onco-exaptation, and we propose potential mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.

  3. Role of endogenous thiols in protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, O.

    Aminothiols represent the most important group of radioprotective compounds. The most effective compounds administered at an optimal dose and time before irradiation are able to provide a protection in mice with a dose reduction factor (DRF) of about 2-2.5. The working mechanism can partly be explained as a scavenging process of radicals induced in water and partly as a chemical repair process of injured DNA. The endogenous aminothiol which has far-out the highest intracellular concentration is glutathione (GSH). The importance of intracellular GSH in determining cellular radiosensitivity has been shown by irradiating cells that had very low GSH levels. Such cells appear to have a high radiosensitivity, especially in hypoxic conditions. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that induction of a high GSH level (100-200% above the normal level) provides only a small protection. In vitro experiments with DNA indicate that thiols with a high positive charge condense in the vicinity of DNA and are effective protectors, whereas thiols with a negative charge are kep away from it and are poor protectors. In comparison with the most effective exogenous aminothiols like cysteamine and WR1065, GSH is not an effective radioprotector. Putative explanations for this relatively poor protective ability of GSH are presented.

  4. Endogenous Retroviruses: With Us and Against Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas J.; Rosenkrantz, Jimi L.; Carbone, Lucia; Chavez, Shawn L.

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian genomes are scattered with thousands of copies of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), mobile genetic elements that are relics of ancient retroviral infections. After inserting copies into the germ line of a host, most ERVs accumulate mutations that prevent the normal assembly of infectious viral particles, becoming trapped in host genomes and unable to leave to infect other cells. While most copies of ERVs are inactive, some are transcribed and encode the proteins needed to generate new insertions at novel loci. In some cases, old copies are removed via recombination and other mechanisms. This creates a shifting landscape of ERV copies within host genomes. New insertions can disrupt normal expression of nearby genes via directly inserting into key regulatory elements or by containing regulatory motifs within their sequences. Further, the transcriptional silencing of ERVs via epigenetic modification may result in changes to the epigenetic regulation of adjacent genes. In these ways, ERVs can be potent sources of regulatory disruption as well as genetic innovation. Here, we provide a brief review of the association between ERVs and gene expression, especially as observed in pre-implantation development and placentation. Moreover, we will describe the roles ERVs may play in somatic tissues, mostly in the context of human disease, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and schizophrenia. Lastly, we discuss the recent discovery that some ERVs may have been pressed into the service of their host genomes to aid in the innate immune response to exogenous viral infections.

  5. Enterococcus faecalis Endogenous Endophthalmitis from Valvular Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Barge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 74-year-old female, with a mitral heart valve, who presented with pain and blurred vision in the right eye for 2 days. Her visual acuity was light perception (LP in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Slit lamp examination showed corneal edema and hypopyon, and a view of the right fundus was impossible. Echography showed vitreous condensation. One day after presentation, the patient developed acute lung edema requiring hospitalization, so she was not submitted to vitreous tap and intravitreal treatment. The cardiac and systemic evaluations revealed a mitral endocarditis secondary to Enterococcus faecalis. The patient improved systemically with treatment with gentamicin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Her visual acuity remained as no LP, and her intraocular pressure (IOP has been controlled with brimonidine bid despite developing a total cataract with 360° posterior synechia. A cardiac source for endogenous endophthalmitis should be considered in the presence of a prosthetic cardiac valve. The treatment and followup must be made in cooperation with a cardiologist specialist, but the ophthalmologist can play a key role in the diagnosis.

  6. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  8. Bioactivity and Functionality of Bonghwa Sweetfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Sung, Nak Yun; Jeong, Pil Mun

    2010-04-01

    - Smoked sweetfish had higher contents of calories, carbohydrate, protein, fat sodium, and calcium than unsmoked sweetfish - DHA and EPA which are omega-3 fatty acid and have therapeutic effects on arthritis and high blood pressure - Proteins and peptide from sweetfish had various bioactivities such as antioxidation, hypertensive, especially for antiinflammatory, and whitening effects. However no anticancer effect was observed - The proteins and peptide suppressed nitric oxide and cytokines (a-TNF, IL-6, IL-1 beta), and prostaglandin (PGE2) productions, and mRNA related iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2), which are related to inflammation - The proteins and peptide prevented tyrosinase formation, which is related formation of melanin, and also showed preventive effects of melanin synthesis, antioxidation and anti-aging effects. Thus, the proteins and peptides from sweetfish may be useful source for cosmetics

  9. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  10. Bioactivity and Functionality of Bonghwa Sweetfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Sung, Nak Yun; Jeong, Pil Mun

    2010-04-15

    - Smoked sweetfish had higher contents of calories, carbohydrate, protein, fat sodium, and calcium than unsmoked sweetfish - DHA and EPA which are omega-3 fatty acid and have therapeutic effects on arthritis and high blood pressure - Proteins and peptide from sweetfish had various bioactivities such as antioxidation, hypertensive, especially for antiinflammatory, and whitening effects. However no anticancer effect was observed - The proteins and peptide suppressed nitric oxide and cytokines (a-TNF, IL-6, IL-1 beta), and prostaglandin (PGE2) productions, and mRNA related iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2), which are related to inflammation - The proteins and peptide prevented tyrosinase formation, which is related formation of melanin, and also showed preventive effects of melanin synthesis, antioxidation and anti-aging effects. Thus, the proteins and peptides from sweetfish may be useful source for cosmetics

  11. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  12. Characterization,Mechanical, and In Vitro Bioactivity Properties of Hydroxyapatite/Bioactive Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Kahatan Sabree

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive ceramic materials can help bone reparation and regeneration by offering support to bone growth. Biological hydroxyapatite powder was prepared by burning animal bone followed by studying the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA/ (20wt.%, and 40wt.% of binary bioactive glass (70% SiO2- 30% CaO in order to evaluate the influence of composition on the compressive strength and hardness. HA-composite material exhibited increasing density, microhardness, and compressive strength with increasing amount of glass addition. X-ray diffraction after sintering at 1200°C showed no alter of HA to secondary phases while the hydroxyapatite/ bioactive glass composites contained a HA phase and different amounts of wollastonite phase, depending on the amount of bioglass added. In vitro tests, the samples were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF for ten days in order to evaluate the change in compression strength, weight loss, and pH. The HA composite reinforced with 40 wt % bioglass showed highest compression strength, and lowest weight loss

  13. Liver lipid molecules induce PEPCK-C gene transcription and attenuate insulin action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoxun

    2007-01-01

    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) plays key roles in gluconeogenesis, glyceroneogenesis, and cataplerosis. Experiments were designed to examine the effects of endogenous lipid molecules from rat livers on the expression of PEPCK-C gene in primary rat hepatocytes. The lipid extracts prepared from livers of Zucker fatty, lean, and Wistar rats induced the expression levels of PEPCK-C transcripts. Insulin-mediated reduction of PEPCK-C gene expression was attenuated by the same treatment. The lipid extracts induced the relative luciferase activity of reporter gene constructs that contain a 2.2-kb 5' promoter fragment of PEPCK-C gene, but not the construct that contains only the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of its mRNA. The estimated half life of PEPCK-C transcripts in the presence of the lipid extract is the same as that in the absence of it. My results demonstrate for the first time that endogenous lipid molecules induce PEPCK-C gene transcription and attenuate insulin action in liver

  14. Measurement of the incorporation of orally administered arachidonic acid into tissue lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulmacz, R.J.; Sivarajan, M.; Lands, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of a stable isotope method to monitor the mixing of dietary arachidonic acid with endogenous arachidonic acid in tissue lipids was evaluated. Rats were fed octadeuterated arachidonic acid during a 20-day period, and the entry of the dietary acid into lipid esters of various tissues was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of their fatty acids. The rats were maintained on a fat-free diet from weaning until 63 days old to enhance the ratio of the dietary acid to endogenous arachidonate. Three separate forms of eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids could be distinguished by GC-MS: octadeuterated arachidonic acid (recent dietary origin), unlabeled arachidonic acid (maternal origin) and unlabeled 4,7,10,13-eicosatetraenoic acid (originating from palmitoleic acid). The total eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids contained about 90% arachidonate from recent dietary origin in lung, kidney, heart and fat, 70% in muscle and liver and 27% in brain. The n-7 isomer of eicosatetraenoic acid was estimated to make up 6% or less of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in lung, kidney, brain, muscle and heart tissue lipids, but it comprised around 15% of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in liver. The unlabeled arachidonic acid of maternal origin thus comprised only about 10% of the eicosatetraenoic acid in all tissues examined except muscle and brain, where it was 24% and 70% of the eicosatetraenoic acid, respectively

  15. Endogenous sphingomyelin segregates into submicrometric domains in the living erythrocyte membrane[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carquin, Mélanie; Pollet, Hélène; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Cominelli, Antoine; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N’kuli, Francisca; Emonard, Hervé; Henriet, Patrick; Mizuno, Hideaki; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that trace insertion of exogenous fluorescent (green BODIPY) analogs of sphingomyelin (SM) into living red blood cells (RBCs), partially spread onto coverslips, labels submicrometric domains, visible by confocal microscopy. We here extend this feature to endogenous SM, upon binding of a SM-specific nontoxic (NT) fragment of the earthworm toxin, lysenin, fused to the red monomeric fluorescent protein, mCherry [construct named His-mCherry-NT-lysenin (lysenin*)]. Specificity of lysenin* binding was verified with composition-defined liposomes and by loss of 125I-lysenin* binding to erythrocytes upon SM depletion by SMase. The 125I-lysenin* binding isotherm indicated saturation at 3.5 × 106 molecules/RBC, i.e., ∼3% of SM coverage. Nonsaturating lysenin* concentration also labeled sub­micrometric domains on the plasma membrane of partially spread erythrocytes, colocalizing with inserted green BODIPY-SM, and abrogated by SMase. Lysenin*-labeled domains were stable in time and space and were regulated by temperature and cholesterol. The abundance, size, positioning, and segregation of lysenin*-labeled domains from other lipids (BODIPY-phosphatidylcholine or -glycosphingolipids) depended on membrane tension. Similar lysenin*-labeled domains were evidenced in RBCs gently suspended in 3D-gel. Taken together, these data demonstrate submicrometric compartmentation of endogenous SM at the membrane of a living cell in vitro, and suggest it may be a genuine feature of erythrocytes in vivo. PMID:24826836

  16. Extended synaptotagmins are Ca2+-dependent lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijia; Liu, Yinghui; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Paine, Alex; Rathore, Shailendra S; Shen, Jingshi

    2016-04-19

    Organelles are in constant communication with each other through exchange of proteins (mediated by trafficking vesicles) and lipids [mediated by both trafficking vesicles and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs)]. It has long been known that vesicle trafficking can be tightly regulated by the second messenger Ca(2+), allowing membrane protein transport to be adjusted according to physiological demands. However, it remains unclear whether LTP-mediated lipid transport can also be regulated by Ca(2+) In this work, we show that extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), poorly understood membrane proteins at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, are Ca(2+)-dependent LTPs. Using both recombinant and endogenous mammalian proteins, we discovered that E-Syts transfer glycerophospholipids between membrane bilayers in the presence of Ca(2+) E-Syts use their lipid-accommodating synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid binding protein (SMP) domains to transfer lipids. However, the SMP domains themselves cannot transport lipids unless the two membranes are tightly tethered by Ca(2+)-bound C2 domains. Strikingly, the Ca(2+)-regulated lipid transfer activity of E-Syts was fully recapitulated when the SMP domain was fused to the cytosolic domain of synaptotagmin-1, the Ca(2+)sensor in synaptic vesicle fusion, indicating that a common mechanism of membrane tethering governs the Ca(2+)regulation of lipid transfer and vesicle fusion. Finally, we showed that microsomal vesicles isolated from mammalian cells contained robust Ca(2+)-dependent lipid transfer activities, which were mediated by E-Syts. These findings established E-Syts as a novel class of LTPs and showed that LTP-mediated lipid trafficking, like vesicular transport, can be subject to tight Ca(2+)regulation.

  17. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10 5 -10 6 M -1 ) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction

  18. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-06-24

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sup -1}) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction.

  19. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in systems with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2003-02-01

    Systems with long-range persistence and memory are shown to exhibit different precursory as well as recovery patterns in response to shocks of exogenous versus endogenous origins. By endogenous, we envision either fluctuations resulting from an underlying chaotic dynamics or from a stochastic forcing origin which may be external or be an effective coarse-grained description of the microscopic fluctuations. In this scenario, endogenous shocks result from a kind of constructive interference of accumulated fluctuations whose impacts survive longer than the large shocks themselves. As a consequence, the recovery after an endogenous shock is in general slower at early times and can be at long times either slower or faster than after an exogenous perturbation. This offers the tantalizing possibility of distinguishing between an endogenous versus exogenous cause of a given shock, even when there is no “smoking gun”. This could help in investigating the exogenous versus self-organized origins in problems such as the causes of major biological extinctions, of change of weather regimes and of the climate, in tracing the source of social upheaval and wars, and so on. Sornette et al., Volatility fingerprints of large stocks: endogenous versus exogenous, cond-mat/0204626 has already shown how this concept can be applied concretely to differentiate the effects on financial markets of the 11 September 2001 attack or of the coup against Gorbachev on 19 August 1991 (exogenous) from financial crashes such as October 1987 (endogenous).

  20. Endogenous synthesis of corticosteroids in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Higo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain synthesis of steroids including sex-steroids is attracting much attention. The endogenous synthesis of corticosteroids in the hippocampus, however, has been doubted because of the inability to detect deoxycorticosterone (DOC synthase, cytochrome P450(c21. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of P450(c21 was demonstrated using mRNA analysis and immmunogold electron microscopic analysis in the adult male rat hippocampus. DOC production from progesterone (PROG was demonstrated by metabolism analysis of (3H-steroids. All the enzymes required for corticosteroid synthesis including P450(c21, P450(2D4, P450(11β1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD were localized in the hippocampal principal neurons as shown via in situ hybridization and immunoelectron microscopic analysis. Accurate corticosteroid concentrations in rat hippocampus were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In adrenalectomized rats, net hippocampus-synthesized corticosterone (CORT and DOC were determined to 6.9 and 5.8 nM, respectively. Enhanced spinogenesis was observed in the hippocampus following application of low nanomolar (10 nM doses of CORT for 1 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results imply the complete pathway of corticosteroid synthesis of 'pregnenolone →PROG→DOC→CORT' in the hippocampal neurons. Both P450(c21 and P450(2D4 can catalyze conversion of PROG to DOC. The low nanomolar level of CORT synthesized in hippocampal neurons may play a role in modulation of synaptic plasticity, in contrast to the stress effects by micromolar CORT from adrenal glands.

  1. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  2. In vivo Anomalous Diffusion and Weak Ergodicity Breaking of Lipid Granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, J.-H.; Tejedor, V.; Burov, S.

    2011-01-01

    Combining extensive single particle tracking microscopy data of endogenous lipid granules in living fission yeast cells with analytical results we show evidence for anomalous diffusion and weak ergodicity breaking. Namely we demonstrate that at short times the granules perform subdiffusion...... according to the laws of continuous time random walk theory. The associated violation of ergodicity leads to a characteristic turnover between two scaling regimes of the time averaged mean squared displacement. At longer times the granule motion is consistent with fractional Brownian motion....

  3. Demonstration of endogenous imipramine like material in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehavi, M.; Ventura, I.; Sarne, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The extraction and partial purification of an endogenous imipramine-like material from rat brain is described. The endogenous factor obtained after gel filtration and silica chromatography inhibits [ 3 H] imipramine specific binding and mimics the inhibitory effect of imipramine on [ 3 H] serotonin uptake in both brain and platelet preparations. The effects of the endogenous material are dose-dependent and it inhibits [ 3 H] imipramine binding in a competitive fashion. The factor is unevenly distributed in the brain with high concentration in the hypothalamus and low concentration in the cerebellum

  4. Amplification and chromosomal dispersion of human endogenous retroviral sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, P.E.; Martin, M.A.; Rabson, A.B.; Bryan, T.; O'Brien, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences have undergone amplification events involving both viral and flanking cellular sequences. The authors cloned members of an amplified family of full-length endogenous retroviral sequences. Genomic blotting, employing a flanking cellular DNA probe derived from a member of this family, revealed a similar array of reactive bands in both humans and chimpanzees, indicating that an amplification event involving retroviral and associated cellular DNA sequences occurred before the evolutionary separation of these two primates. Southern analyses of restricted somatic cell hybrid DNA preparations suggested that endogenous retroviral segments are widely dispersed in the human genome and that amplification and dispersion events may be linked

  5. Strategies for the photo-control of endogenous protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechun, Katherine E; Arndt, Katja M; Woolley, G Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Photo-controlled or 'optogenetic' effectors interfacing with endogenous protein machinery allow the roles of endogenous proteins to be probed. There are two main approaches being used to develop optogenetic effectors: (i) caging strategies using photo-controlled conformational changes, and (ii) protein relocalization strategies using photo-controlled protein-protein interactions. Numerous specific examples of these approaches have been reported and efforts to develop general methods for photo-control of endogenous proteins are a current focus. The development of improved screening and selection methods for photo-switchable proteins would advance the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  7. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  8. Thermoluminescence as a probe in bioactivity studies; the case of 58S sol-gel bioactive glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Goudouri, Ourania Menti; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Kitis, George

    2011-01-01

    The formation of a carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer on the surface of bioactive materials is the main reaction that takes place upon their immersion in physiological fluids. To date, all techniques used for the identification of this HCAp formation are rather time consuming and not well suited to detailed and rapid monitoring of changes in the bioactivity response of the material. The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of using thermoluminescence (TL) for the discrimination between different bioactive responses in the case of the 58S bioactive glass. Results provided strong indications that the 110 deg. C TL peak of quartz can be used effectively in the study of the bioactive behaviour of 58S bioactive glass, since it is unambiguously present in all samples and does not require deconvolution analysis. Furthermore, the intensity of the 110 deg. C TL peak is proven to be very sensitive to the different bioactive responses, identifying the loss of silica which takes place at the first stages of the sequence. The discontinuities of the 110 deg. C TL peak intensity plot versus immersion time at 8 and 1440 min provide experimental indications regarding the timescale for both the beginning of amorphous CaP formation as well as the end of crystalline hydroxyl-apatite formation respectively, while the spike in the sensitization of the 110 deg. C TL peak, which was observed for immersion times ranging between 20 and 40 min, could be an experimental feature indicating the beginning of the crystalline HCAp formation.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  10. Bioactive proteins against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Sitohy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is likely that both human nutrition and the nutrition of livestock are benefited by the presence of bioactive proteins within their respective diet regimes. Bioactive proteins have been defined as specific protein fragments that positively impact bodily functions or conditions and may, ultimately, influence overall human health. The ingestion of bioactive proteins may have an effect on the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. According to their functional properties, bioactive proteins may be classified as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, opioid, immune-modulatory, mineral binding and anti-oxidative. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and active peptides that can be obtained from various food protein sources. They have a physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements; in other wordsthey have the acquisition of nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance. Objective: This study aims to specify and characterize the extent and mode of action of bioactive proteins in their native form, (glycinin, glycinin basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin against specific main pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. We will be using standard media while identifying the main constituents responsible for this action. Methods: Glycinin, basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, They were thencompared to the properties of penicillin. Methylated soybean protein and also methylated chickpea protein (MSP and MCP, with isoelectric points around pI 8, were prepared by esterifying. 83 % of their free carboxyl groups and their interactions with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Results: The three divisions of cationic proteins exhibited antibacterial

  11. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    lipids endogenous to the cell, and the BPI-like proteins (including the Takeout-like proteins of arthropods), which act on exogenous lipids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin infections like dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis but also bloodstream infections. Understanding the lipid metabolism in Malassezia is essential to understand its life style as skin commensal and p...

  13. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  14. Studies on changes in fatty acid composition and content of endogenous antioxidants during gamma irradiation of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarathnam, N.; Osawa, T.; Namiki, M.; Kawakishi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerated aging effects, induced by y irradiation, were investigated on the fatty acid composition of lipids and on the content of endogenous antioxidants of four Indica and four Japonica rice seeds with and without intact hull. While the linoleic acid content of the phospholipids decreased gradually with the increase in irradiation doses, there was a corresponding increase in the linoleic acid content of the free fatty acids. Such changes were drastic, especially in the case of Japonica rice seeds irradiated without intact hull. However, the neutral lipids were found to be resistant to γ irradiation. The α-tocopherol content was found to decrease (markedly) in rice seeds irradiated with or without hull, especially in the Japonica rice seeds. At a dose of 15 kGy only traces of a-tocopherol could be detected in Japonica and Indica rice seeds irradiated with and without intact hull. Oryzanol, a relatively weaker anti-oxidant, was found to be more resistant to oxidative damage than a-tocopherol. At 15 kGy, the oryzanol content ranged from 59 μg to 170 μg/g lipid in rice seeds irradiated with intact hull, while the corresponding value for rice seeds irradiated without hull was 52 μg to 153 μg/g lipid. The overall susceptibility to oxidative damage was less in Indica rice seeds, indicating that the antioxidative defense system offered better protection in overcoming oxidative stress in Indica rice hull than in Japonica rice hull

  15. Peptidomic Analysis of Fetal Heart Tissue for Identification of Endogenous Peptides Involved in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Liang, Dong; Cheng, Qing; Cao, Li; Wu, Yun; Wang, Yan; Han, Shuping; Yu, Zhangbin; Cui, Xianwei; Xu, Tianhui; Ma, Dingyuan; Hu, Ping; Xu, Zhengfeng

    2017-06-01

    Tetralogy of fallot (TOF) is one of the most prevalent types of congenital heart diseases. As a category of bioactive molecules, peptides have been proved to participate in various biological processes. However, the role of endogenous peptides in the pathogenesis of TOF has not been studied. In this study, we performed a comparative peptidomic profile in the fetal heart of TOF and the control group for the first time by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our data demonstrated that a total of 201 peptides derived from 176 precursor proteins were differentially expressed in the heart tissues of TOF fetuses compared with normal controls, including 41 upregulated peptides and 160 downregulated peptides. After analyzing the characteristics of these differentially expressed peptides and their precursor proteins, we found that these peptides were potentially involved in different biological processes, especially cardiogenesis and congenital anomaly of the cardiovascular system. Interestingly, we detected several extracellular matrix-derived peptides involved in our differentially expressed peptidomic profile. In summary, our study constructed a comparative peptidomic profile from the heart tissues of TOF fetuses and normal controls, and it identified a series of peptides that could potentially participate in heart development and TOF formation. The emergence of our peptidomics study indicated a new perspective to explore the pathogenesis of abnormal heart morphology, especially TOF.

  16. Effect of harmane, an endogenous β-carboline, on learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Utkan, Tijen; Gocmez, Semil Selcen; Hudson, Alan; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of acute harmane administration upon learning and memory performance of rats using the three-panel runway paradigm and passive avoidance test. Male rats received harmane (2.5, 5, and 7.5mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min. before each session of experiments. In the three panel runway paradigm, harmane did not affect the number of errors and latency in reference memory. The effect of harmane on the errors of working memory was significantly higher following the doses of 5mg/kg and 7.5mg/kg. The latency was changed significantly at only 7.5mg/kg in comparison to control group. Animals were given pre-training injection of harmane in the passive avoidance test in order to determine the learning function. Harmane treatment decreased the retention latency significantly and dose dependently, which indicates an impairment in learning. In this study, harmane impaired working memory in three panel runway test and learning in passive avoidance test. As an endogenous bioactive molecule, harmane might have a critical role in the modulation of learning and memory functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Polysarcosine-Based Lipids: From Lipopolypeptoid Micelles to Stealth-Like Lipids in Langmuir Blodgett Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphiles and, in particular, PEGylated lipids or alkyl ethers represent an important class of non-ionic surfactants and have become key ingredients for long-circulating (“stealth” liposomes. While poly-(ethylene glycol (PEG can be considered the gold standard for stealth-like materials, it is known to be neither a bio-based nor biodegradable material. In contrast to PEG, polysarcosine (PSar is based on the endogenous amino acid sarcosine (N-methylated glycine, but has also demonstrated stealth-like properties in vitro, as well as in vivo. In this respect, we report on the synthesis and characterization of polysarcosine based lipids with C14 and C18 hydrocarbon chains and their end group functionalization. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analysis reveals that lipopeptoids with a degree of polymerization between 10 and 100, dispersity indices around 1.1, and the absence of detectable side products are directly accessible by nucleophilic ring opening polymerization (ROP. The values for the critical micelle concentration for these lipopolymers are between 27 and 1181 mg/L for the ones with C18 hydrocarbon chain or even higher for the C14 counterparts. The lipopolypeptoid based micelles have hydrodynamic diameters between 10 and 25 nm, in which the size scales with the length of the PSar block. In addition, C18PSar50 can be incorporated in 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC monolayers up to a polymer content of 3%. Cyclic compression and expansion of the monolayer showed no significant loss of polymer, indicating a stable monolayer. Therefore, lipopolypeptoids can not only be synthesized under living conditions, but my also provide a platform to substitute PEG-based lipopolymers as excipients and/or in lipid formulations.

  18. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Chaparro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS and ionomics (ICP-MS analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds, nutrients (42, lipids (76, and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%, however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation, bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation, medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation, and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation. Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class. Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits.

  19. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Holm, David G.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Heuberger, Adam L.

    2018-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS) and ionomics (ICP-MS) analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds), nutrients (42), lipids (76), and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%), however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation), bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation), medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation), and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation). Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class). Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits. PMID:29876353

  20. The Different Effects Of Endogenous And Exogenous Sex Hormones On Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shafiee Sabet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sexual dimorphism is seen in ischemic stroke. Women have lower stroke incidence than men until an advanced age, when the epidemiology of ischemic stroke shifts and incidence rises dramatically in women. This could indicate the role of sex hormones in pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. This Review summarizes the sex differences related to stroke, and the effects of endogenous and exogenAous hormones on the cerebrovasculature of the male and female brain. Methods: We conducted a vast review to analyze possible associations between exposure to endogenous and exogenous female and male steroid hormones and the risks of cerebrovascular diseases. This association is discussed in the context of the effects of sex hormone levels on the progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular tone, and various risk factors including patient's lipid profile, arterial blood pressure and diabetes. Their therapeutic potentials is also reviewed. Results: There is a debate on the role of androgens. A large array of data testifies in favor of a variety of neuroprotective androgen effects in men mostly, but in many cases in women as well. Testosterone supplementation in low to normal levels in hypogonadal men has mostly been shown to benefit the subjects receiving it, but administration in supraphysiological doses however, along with anabolic steroid abuse, seems to adversely affect both the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in men. Its effects in women have yet to be researched in depth. Due to the lower stroke incidence observed in pre-menopausal women and robust preclinical evidence of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of estrogen, researchers have focused on the potential benefits of hormones to reduce ischemic brain injury. However, hormone therapy to postmenopausal females increases the risk and severity of ischemic stroke. Moreover, while estrogen treatment is neuroprotective in younger females, estrogen paradoxically increases