WorldWideScience

Sample records for endocrinology

  1. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  2. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join Now International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development ... nurses in the art and science of pediatric endocrinology nursing. Learn More Text1 2018 PENS Call for ...

  3. Computerized tomography in endocrinology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Schmiedl, U.; Huebener, K.H.

    1987-01-05

    The role of CT in the evaluation of endocrinologic disorders is discussed and typical CT-findings in disease of the hypophysis, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the thymus and the pancreas are shown. Special interest is laid on adrenal disorders. This survey informs the clinician about the diagnostic value of CT in endocrinology.

  4. Computerized tomography in endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Schmiedl, U.; Huebener, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    The role of CT in the evaluation of endocrinologic disorders is discussed and typical CT-findings in disease of the hypophysis, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the thymus and the pancreas are shown. Special interest is laid on adrenal disorders. This survey informs the clinician about the diagnostic value of CT in endocrinology. (orig.) [de

  5. Find an Endocrinology - Thyroid Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History Resource Center Patients Thyroid Information Find an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Patient Support Links Clinical Thyroidology for ... Access Thyroid Online Access Clinical Thyroidology Online Video Endocrinology Donate Give Online Research Accomplishments Ridgway Legacy Fund ...

  6. Endocrinology in the Ramayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of a series of publications which highlight the possible endocrine conditions and interventions listed in the ancient texts. This compendium lists episodes from the Indian epic Ramayana and from the associated genealogy of Lord Rama′s dynasty, the Suryavanshis. These episodes are chosen for their relevance to endocrinology and are listed in a gland-based order. It is hoped that this communication will encourage further work on endocrine literary forensics.

  7. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. W...

  8. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  9. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.

  10. 42 CFR 493.933 - Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endocrinology. 493.933 Section 493.933 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.933 Endocrinology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for endocrinology, a program must provide a...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1212 - Condition: Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Endocrinology. 493.1212 Section 493.1212 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1212 Condition: Endocrinology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Endocrinology...

  12. Microbial Endocrinology: An Ongoing Personal Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The development of microbial endocrinology is covered from a decidedly personal perspective. Specific focus is given to the role of microbial endocrinology in the evolutionary symbiosis between man and microbe as it relates to both health and disease. Since the first edition of this book series 5 years ago, the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is additionally discussed. Future avenues of research are suggested.

  13. Peptides and the new endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwyzer, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of regulatory peptides common to the nervous and the endocrine systems (brain, gut, and skin) has brought about a revolution in our concepts of endocrinology and neurology. We are beginning to understand some of the complex interrelationships between soma and psyche that might, someday, be important for an integrated treatment of diseases. Examples of the actions of certain peptides in the periphery and in the central nervous system are given, and their biosynthesis and molecular anatomy as carriers for information are discussed.

  14. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel; Lanske, Beate; Juul, Anders; Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review. Current evidence is primarily based on small human association studies and rodent models. This highlights the need for randomized clinical trials, but also functional animal and human in vitro studies, and larger, prospective cohort studies are warranted. Given the high number of men and women suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 42 CFR 493.843 - Standard; Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Endocrinology. 493.843 Section 493.843 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.843 Standard; Endocrinology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent of...

  16. African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (AJEM) is a biomedical peer-reviewed journal with international circulation. It publishes Reports of Original Work, preferably briefly described, in the fields of endocrinology, metabolism and related subjects. Reviews are authoritative, evidence-based articles on topical ...

  17. [Endocrinology, what's new in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromati, Maria; Philippe, Jacques

    2017-01-11

    The European Society of Endocrinology has published this year a series of guidelines for hypoparathyroidism, the management of adrenal incidentalomas as well as for the long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL). For hypoparathyroidism, guidelines insist on screening for chronic complications and monitoring treatment with calcium and vitamin D; the use of recombinant PTH may provide new opportunities for the future. Concerning adrenal incidentalomas, the panel of the guidelines primarily recommends non contrast CT for the evaluation of the risk of malignancy. Patients operated on for a PPGL, should be offered an individualized follow-up plan based on assessment of their risk of tumor recurrence.

  18. Female Physicians and the Future of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelley, Elaine; Danoff, Ann; Cooper, David S; Becker, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Given that approximately 70% of current endocrinology fellows are women, female physicians will compose the majority of the future endocrinology workforce. This gender shift partly reflects an apparent waning of interest in endocrinology among male trainees. It also coincides with a projected shortage of endocrinologists overall. Female physicians face unique challenges in the workplace. To continue to attract trainees to the specialty and support their success, it is imperative that these challenges be recognized, understood, and addressed. A PubMed search using the terms "female physician" and "physician gender" covering the years 2000-2015 was performed. Additional references were identified through review of the citations of the retrieved articles. The following topics were identified as key to understanding the impact of this gender shift: professional satisfaction, work-life balance, income, parenthood, academic success, and patient satisfaction. Several changes can be predicted to occur as endocrinology becomes a female-predominant specialty. Although professional satisfaction should remain stable, increased burnout rates are likely. Work-life balance challenges will likely be magnified. The combined effects of occupational gender segregation and a gender pay gap are predicted to negatively impact salaries of endocrinologists of both genders. The underrepresentation of women in academic leadership may mean a lesser voice for endocrinology in this arena. Finally, gender biases evident in patient satisfaction measures--commonly used as proxies for quality of care--may disproportionately impact endocrinology. Endocrinology is predicted to become the most female-predominant subspecialty of internal medicine. The specialty of endocrinology should take a lead role in advocating for changes that support the success of female physicians. Strengthening and supporting the physician workforce can only serve to attract talented physicians of both genders to the

  19. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ASSOCIAZIONE MEDICI ENDOCRINOLOGI MEDICAL GUIDELINES FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID NODULES - 2016 UPDATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Garber, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME). ABBREVIATIONS: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology AME = Associazione Medici Endocrinologi BEL = best...

  20. PET-CT in endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parysow, O.; Jager, V.; Racioppi, S.; Mollerach, A.M.; Collaud, C.; Arma, I.

    2008-01-01

    PET/CT scans have reached an important place in the evaluation of endocrine tumors. The metabolic marker 18F-FDG is the most widespread over the world, and, for the time being, it is the only one available in our country. The limitations of this technique in Endocrinology include high differentiation and low aggressiveness of most endocrine tumors, and low detection rate for low cellularity and/or small lesions. Indications for PET/CT scan in these tumors should be precise, due to the fact that not all of these lesions are significantly glucose-avid and to extract the maximum diagnostic efficacy of this modality to achieve the optimum diagnostic accuracy. The most important indication is DTC with high Tg levels and negative 131-Iodine scans. It is advisable to indicate a PET/CT scan in patients with Tg > 10 ng/ml and stimulated TSH (endogenous or exogenous). The aim is to locate recurrences and metastases in order to remove them, either surgically or by any other therapy alternative to 131 I. Due to higher uptake in more aggressive lesions, this study has a high prognostic value. In patients with high Tg levels, negative 131 I scan, and abnormal FDG uptake, the practitioner must act more aggressively in order to remove the pathologic foci, while with a negative FDG -PET scan, the conduct can be expectant, with periodic follow-up. The introduction of other positron-emitting tracers like 124-Iodine, is likely to yield superior quality images and provide better diagnoses. FDG has a limited efficiency in neuroendocrine tumors, unless they show a significant level of dedifferentiation. The scan is indicated in MTC, when calcitonin levels are above 1000 pg/ml, in order to locate the tumor sites. With the introduction of more specific positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-DOPA, 68Ga DOTA, 11C methomidate, 11C-hydroxytryptophan and others, it will be possible to study the metabolic-molecular behavior of these tumors with a more accurate approach. (author) [es

  1. Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome | Maharaj | Journal of Endocrinology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... the disorder, that we now know as the polycystic ovary (or ovarian) syndrome (PCOS), in seven women with amenorrhoea, enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts and hirsutism.2 These patients were treated with ovarian wedge ...

  3. [The current state and prospectives of military endocrinology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagibovich, O A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2014-10-01

    The article is dedicated to the current state and prospectives of military endocrinology demonstrated on the examples of the endocrinology services of armed forces of Serbia, Poland, France, and USA. It is shown that this branch of military healthcare receives much attention abroad. The prospectives of military endocrinology are demonstrated in the context of two nosological forms which dominate in this section of military medicine, namely, primary hypothyroidism an diabetes mellitus.

  4. Historical view of development of comparative endocrinology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuyama, Sakae; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2011-04-01

    This article describing a brief history of development of comparative endocrinology in Japan is contributed to the journal General and Comparative Endocrinology, in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of its publication. It covers significant works in the field of comparative endocrinology that have been done by Japanese endocrinologists, focusing those achieved during the past 70 years. The contents were arranged according to the taxonomical order of the experimental animals with which individual researchers or research groups have contributed to the acquisition of important knowledge in comparative endocrinology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  6. TRANSFER FROM PEDIATRIC TO ADULT ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marybeth R; Robbins, Brett W; Augustine, Marilyn; Doyle, Jackie; Mack-Fogg, Jean; Jones, Heather; White, Patience H

    2017-07-01

    Adult and pediatric endocrinologists share responsibility for the transition of youth with type 1 diabetes from pediatric to adult healthcare. This study aimed to increase successful transfers to adult care in subspecialty practices by establishing a systematic health care transition (HCT) process. Providers from the adult and pediatric endocrinology divisions at the University of Rochester Medical Center met monthly to customize and integrate the Six Core Elements (6CEs) of HCT into clinical workflows. Young adult patients with type 1 diabetes having an outpatient visit during a 34-month pre-post intervention period were eligible (N = 371). Retrospective chart review was performed on patients receiving referrals to adult endocrinology (n = 75) to obtain (1) the proportion of patients explicitly tracked during transfer from the pediatric to adult endocrinology practice, (2) the providers' documentation of the use of the 6CEs, and (3) the patients' diabetes control and healthcare utilization during the transition period. The percent of eligible patients with type 1 diabetes who were explicitly tracked in their transfer more than doubled compared to baseline (11% vs. 27% of eligible patients; P<.01). Pediatric providers started to use transition readiness assessments and create medical summaries, and adult providers increased closed-loop communication with pediatric providers after a patient's first adult visit. Glycemic control and healthcare utilization remained stable. Successful implementation of the 6CEs into pediatric and adult subspecialty practices can result in improvements of planned transfers of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes to adult subspecialty providers. 6CEs = six core elements; AYA = adolescent and young adult; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; ED = emergency department; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; HCT = health care transition.

  7. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellowships: is the 'reproductive endocrinology' portion obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurtag, Kenan; Lebovic, Dan I

    2015-08-01

    To take inventory of the past and present and project the future direction of our field to help train the next generation of providers. Review the history of the subspecialty and factors contributing to its evolution. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility's in-vitro fertilization future is shaping the intellectual priorities and surgical skill requirements of the next generation.

  8. Role of Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketha, Siva S; Singh, Ravinder J; Ketha, Hemamalini

    2017-09-01

    The advent of mass spectrometry into the clinical laboratory has led to an improvement in clinical management of several endocrine diseases. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry found some of its first clinical applications in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, in quantitative steroid analysis, and in drug analysis laboratories. Mass spectrometry assays offer analytical sensitivity and specificity that is superior to immunoassays for many analytes. This article highlights several areas of clinical endocrinology that have witnessed the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bariatric Endocrinology: Principles of Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Campoy, J. Michael; Richardson, Bruce; Gonzalez-Cameron, David; Ebrahim, Ayesha; Strobel, Pamela; Martinez, Tiphani; Blaha, Beth; Ransom, Maria; Quinonez-Weislow, Jessica; Pierson, Andrea; Gonzalez Ahumada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, is a chronic, biological, preventable, and treatable disease. The accumulation of fat mass causes physical changes (adiposity), metabolic and hormonal changes due to adipose tissue dysfunction (adiposopathy), and psychological changes. Bariatric endocrinology was conceived from the need to address the neuro-endocrinological derangements that are associated with adiposopathy, and from the need to broaden the scope of the management of its complications. In addition to the well-established metabolic complications of overweight and obesity, adiposopathy leads to hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, dysregulation of gut peptides including GLP-1 and ghrelin, the development of an inflammatory milieu, and the strong risk of vascular disease. Therapy for adiposopathy hinges on effectively lowering the ratio of orexigenic to anorexigenic signals reaching the the hypothalamus and other relevant brain regions, favoring a lower caloric intake. Adiposopathy, overweight and obesity should be treated indefinitely with the specific aims to reduce fat mass for the adiposity complications, and to normalize adipose tissue function for the adiposopathic complications. This paper defines the principles of medical practice in bariatric endocrinology—the treatment of overweight and obesity as means to treat adiposopathy and its accompanying metabolic and hormonal derangements. PMID:24899894

  10. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. [Acne vulgaris: morphologic, endocrinologic and psychosomatic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, K; Gieler, U

    1990-12-01

    25 male patients suffering from acne vulgaris were examined by means of endocrinological, morphological, and 5 psychometric procedures in order to check the correlations and interactions between the psychological and dermatological aspects of the disease. In comparison with a control group, the acne patients did not show any striking endocrinological abnormalities; we found no correlation between the extensiveness of the lesions and the level of DHEA sulphate. All the psychological tests yielded results deviating from those achieved by the representative controls, but they were comparable with those of other patients suffering from psychosomatic diseases. The individual feeling of being "disfigured" found its expression in self-consciousness, lack of trust in his/her own body, as well as the clinically relevant difference between his/her conception of self and the ideal of self. During times of enhanced psychosocial strains subjectively assumed by the patients, the lesions increased and the patients were disturbed in social interaction and communication. Surprisingly, we did not find any correlation between the clinical status and significant psychometric findings. Our results show that in acne vulgaris, the individual experience of wanting physical attractiveness, associated with a predominantly neurotic depressive personal structure, may play a central part in a disturbed process of interaction with the environment and suggest the influence of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  12. Auxo-Endocrinological Approach to Celiac Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bozzola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a permanent genetically determined intolerance to gluten that generally presents with gastrointestinal symptoms in young children and extraintestinal manifestations (endocrinological, dermatological, neurological, etc. later. Furthermore, many studies demonstrate the close association between celiac and endocrine diseases, including growth and pubertal disorders, type I diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroid diseases, probably due to the presence of a common genetic predisposition. Follow-up for celiac children after the start of gluten-free diet is mandatory to avoid complications such as growth hormone deficiency. The present review deals with the problem of the diagnosis of endocrine-associated diseases in celiac children and gives suggestions for correct management and follow-up of these patients.

  13. Molecular and cellular endocrinology of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, M.; Conti, M.; Geremia, R.; Ziparo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the IV European Workshop on Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology of the Testis held in Capri (Italy) between the 9th and 12th April 1986. The workshop was organized in several symposia related to some of the most relevant aspects of the regulation of testicular function. Main topics were the role of cell interactions, the mechanisms of signal transduction, gene expression and metabolic response of somatic cells as well as differentiation of germ cells. One session was devoted to prostaglandins in the male reproductive system and to brief discussions on interstitial fluid and on antispermatogenic compounds. In this book only the main lectures and some selected short papers are presented. (Auth.)

  14. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones coordinate developmental, physiological, and behavioral processes within and between all living organisms. They orchestrate and shape organogenesis from early in development, regulate the acquisition, assimilation, and utilization of nutrients to support growth and metabolism, control gamete production and sexual behavior, mediate organismal responses to environmental change, and allow for communication of information between organisms. Genes that code for hormones; the enzymes that synthesize, metabolize, and transport hormones; and hormone receptors are important targets for natural selection, and variation in their expression and function is a major driving force for the evolution of morphology and life history. Hormones coordinate physiology and behavior of populations of organisms, and thus play key roles in determining the structure of populations, communities, and ecosystems. The field of endocrinology is concerned with the study of hormones and their actions. This field is rooted in the comparative study of hormones in diverse species, which has provided the foundation for the modern fields of evolutionary, environmental, and biomedical endocrinology. Comparative endocrinologists work at the cutting edge of the life sciences. They identify new hormones, hormone receptors and mechanisms of hormone action applicable to diverse species, including humans; study the impact of habitat destruction, pollution, and climatic change on populations of organisms; establish novel model systems for studying hormones and their functions; and develop new genetic strains and husbandry practices for efficient production of animal protein. While the model system approach has dominated biomedical research in recent years, and has provided extraordinary insight into many basic cellular and molecular processes, this approach is limited to investigating a small minority of organisms. Animals exhibit tremendous diversity in form and function, life-history strategies, and

  15. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... Management of diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Prediabetes: a focus on the role of diabetes education in prevention of type 2 ...

  16. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JEMDSA) is published by the South African Medical Association and publishes papers related to endocrinology, metabolism and diabetes. Other websites related to this journal: http://www.jemdsa.co.za ...

  17. Proceedings of the 16. Brazilian Congress of Endocrinology and Metabology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Studies in endocrinology and metabolism are presented. The primordial role of the use of radioisotopes in diagnosis, treatment and research is emphasized. Subjects like adrenal, gonads, diabetes, hypothalamus, parathyroid and thyroid are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Transgender Health in Endocrinology: Current Status of Endocrinology Fellowship Programs and Practicing Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge-Pitts, Caroline; Nippoldt, Todd B; Danoff, Ann; Radziejewski, Lauren; Natt, Neena

    2017-04-01

    The transgender population continues to face challenges in accessing appropriate health care. Adequate training of endocrinologists in this area is a priority. Assess the status of transgender health care education in US endocrinology fellowship training programs and assess knowledge and practice of transgender health among practicing US endocrinologists. Mayo Clinic and the Endocrine Society developed and administered a Web-based anonymous survey to 104 endocrinology fellowship program directors (PDs; members of the Association of Program Directors in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism) and 6992 US medical doctor members of Endocrine Society. There were 54 total responses from 104 PDs (51.9%). Thirty-five of these 54 programs (72.2%) provide teaching on transgender health topics; however, 93.8% respondents indicated that fellowship training in this area is important. Barriers to provision of education included lack of faculty interest or experience. The most desired strategies to increase transgender-specific content included online training modules for trainees and faculty. Of 411 practicing clinician responders, almost 80% have treated a transgender patient, but 80.6% have never received training on care of transgender patients. Clinicians were very or somewhat confident in terms of definitions (77.1%), taking a history (63.3%), and prescribing hormones (64.8%); however, low confidence was reported outside of the hormonal realm. The most requested methods of education included online training modules and presentation of transgender topics at meetings. Confidence and competence in transgender health needs to increase among endocrinologists. Strategies include the development of online training modules, expansion of formal transgender curricula in fellowship programs, and presentations at national and international meetings. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  19. Community health orientation of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: A bibliometric analysis of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanica Kaushal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endocrine and metabolic diseases especially diabetes have become focus areas for public health professionals. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM, a publication of Endocrine Society of India, is a peer-reviewed online journal, which covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. This bibliometric analysis assesses the journal from a community health perspective. Materials and Methods: Every article published in IJEM over a period of 4 years (2011-2014 was accessed to review coverage of community health in the field of endocrinology. Results: Seven editorials, 30 review articles, 41 original articles, 12 brief communications, 20 letter to editors, 4 articles on guidelines and 2 in the section "endocrinology and gender" directly or indirectly dealt with community health aspects of endocrinology. Together these amounted to 17% of all articles published through these 4 years. There were 14 articles on general, 60 pertaining to pancreas and diabetes, 10 on thyroid, 7 on pituitary/adrenal/gonads, 21 on obesity and metabolism and 4 on parathyroid and bone; all community medicine related. Conclusion: Community health is an integral part of the modern endocrinology diabetology and metabolism practice and it received adequate journal space during the last 4 years. The coverage is broad based involving all the major endocrine disorders.

  20. Community health orientation of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: A bibliometric analysis of Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Kanica; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endocrine and metabolic diseases especially diabetes have become focus areas for public health professionals. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM), a publication of Endocrine Society of India, is a peer-reviewed online journal, which covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. This bibliometric analysis assesses the journal from a community health perspective. Materials and Methods: Every article published in IJEM over a period of 4 years (2011–2014) was accessed to review coverage of community health in the field of endocrinology. Results: Seven editorials, 30 review articles, 41 original articles, 12 brief communications, 20 letter to editors, 4 articles on guidelines and 2 in the section “endocrinology and gender” directly or indirectly dealt with community health aspects of endocrinology. Together these amounted to 17% of all articles published through these 4 years. There were 14 articles on general, 60 pertaining to pancreas and diabetes, 10 on thyroid, 7 on pituitary/adrenal/gonads, 21 on obesity and metabolism and 4 on parathyroid and bone; all community medicine related. Conclusion: Community health is an integral part of the modern endocrinology diabetology and metabolism practice and it received adequate journal space during the last 4 years. The coverage is broad based involving all the major endocrine disorders. PMID:25932398

  1. Comparative endocrinology of aging and longevity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eAllard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormones regulate growth, development, metabolism, and other complex processes in multicellular animals. For many years it has been suggested that hormones may also influence the rate of the aging process. Aging is a multifactorial process that causes biological systems to break down and cease to function in adult organisms as time passes, eventually leading to death. The exact underlying causes of the aging process remain a topic for debate, and clues that may shed light on these causes are eagerly sought after. In the last two decades, gene mutations that result in delayed aging and extended longevity have been discovered, and many of the affected genes have been components of endocrine signaling pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of endocrine signaling in the regulation of aging and longevity in various animals. We begin by discussing the notion that conserved systems, including endocrine signaling pathways, regulate the aging process. Findings from the major model organisms: worms, flies and rodents, are then outlined. Unique lessons from studies of non-traditional models: bees, salmon and naked mole rats, are also discussed. Finally, we summarize the endocrinology of aging in humans, including changes in hormone levels with age, and the involvement of hormones in aging-related diseases. The most well studied and widely conserved endocrine pathway that affects aging is the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system. Mutations in genes of this pathway increase the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice. Population genetic evidence also suggests this pathway’s involvement in human aging. Other hormones including steroids have been linked to aging only in a subset of the models studied. Because of the value of comparative studies, it is suggested that the aging field could benefit from adoption of additional model organisms.

  2. Transition in endocrinology: induction of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Leo; Quinton, Richard

    2014-06-01

    flag' clinical features. These 'red flags' comprise findings indicating lack of prior 'mini-puberty' (such as cryptorchidism or micropenis), or the presence of non-reproductive congenital defects known to be associated with specific hypogonadal syndromes, e.g. anosmia, deafness, mirror movements, renal agenesis, dental/digital anomalies, clefting or coloboma would be compatible with Kallmann (or perhaps CHARGE) syndrome. In children, interventions (whether in the form or treatment or simple reassurance) have been historically directed at maximising height potential and minimising psychosocial morbidity, though issues of future fertility and bone density potential are now increasingly 'in the mix'. Apubertal adults almost invariably harbour organic hypogonadism, requiring sensitive acknowledgement of underlying personal issues and the timely introduction of sex hormone replacement therapy at more physiological doses. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Microbial endocrinology and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Microbial endocrinology is defined as the study of the ability of microorganisms to both produce and recognize neurochemicals that originate either within the microorganisms themselves or within the host they inhabit. As such, microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of the fields of microbiology and neurobiology. The acquisition of neurochemical-based cell-to-cell signaling mechanisms in eukaryotic organisms is believed to have been acquired due to late horizontal gene transfer from prokaryotic microorganisms. When considered in the context of the microbiota's ability to influence host behavior, microbial endocrinology with its theoretical basis rooted in shared neuroendocrine signaling mechanisms provides for testable experiments with which to understand the role of the microbiota in host behavior and as importantly the ability of the host to influence the microbiota through neuroendocrine-based mechanisms.

  4. Radiation endocrinology as science and its tasks in Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is known, that radiation endocrinology as science was formed comparatively not long ago and it is developing at the turn of endocrinology, medical radiology, radiobiology and immunology. Tasks of clinic radiation endocrinology for scientists of Kazakhstan are related with following problems: - radiation effects in condition of Semipalatinsk test site (Semipalatinsk, Karaganda, Pavlodar, East-Kazakhstan regions); - with definition of radiation factors (related with nuclear explosions) in ecologic systems for solution of national problems; - with contamination of Kazakhstan territory, associated with industrial radioactive materials handling ; - with goiter enemy in districts with unfavorable radiation situation; - with mass character of injuries of both the radiation exposure and the iodine deficit on territory of Republic. It was emphasised, that there is principle problem of population rehabilitation through systems of mass measures including prevention of endocrine complication in late time

  5. [Services portfolio of a department of endocrinology and clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Delgado, Almudena; Gómez Enterría, Pilar; Tinahones Madueño, Francisco

    2011-03-01

    Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition are branches of Medicine that deal with the study of physiology of body glands and hormones and their disorders, intermediate metabolism of nutrients, enteral and parenteral nutrition, promotion of health by prevention of diet-related diseases, and appropriate use of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive tools related to these disciplines. Development of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition support services requires accurate definition and management of a number of complex resources, both human and material, as well as adequate planning of the care provided. It is therefore essential to know the services portfolio of an ideal Department of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition because this is a useful, valid and necessary tool to optimize the available resources, to increase efficiency, and to improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of the Clinic of Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubeska Stratrova, S

    2013-01-01

    The Clinic of Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders was founded in 1975 by Prof d-r Alexandar Plashevski. Healthcare, educational and scientific activities in the Clinic of Endocrinology are performed in its departments. The Department for hospitalized diabetic and endocrine patients consists of the metabolic and endocrine intensive care unit, the department for diagnosis and treatment of diabetics and endocrine patients, day hospital, the department for education of diabetic patients, and the national center for insulin pump therapy. The Center for Diabetes was established in 1972 by Prof d-r Dimitar Arsov. In 1975, Prof d-r Alexandar Plasheski broadened the activities of the Center for Diabetes. It was dislocated in 1980, with new accommodation outside the clinic. Since then the Center has consisted of several organized units: two specialist outpatient clinics for diabetic patients, biochemical and endocrine laboratory, sub-departments for: diabetic foot, cardiovascular diagnosis, ophthalmology, and urgent interventions. The Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders for outclinic endocrine patients was established in 1980, and it integrates the following sub-departments: thyrology, andrology, reproductive endocrinology, obesity and lipid disorders and sub-department for osteoporosis. The educational staff of the Clinic of Endocrinology organizes theoretical and practical education about Clinical Investigation and Internal Medicine with credit transfer system course of study of the Medical Faculty, Faculty of Stomatology, postgraduate studies, specializations and sub-specializations. Symposiums, 3 congresses, schools for diabetes and osteoporosis and continuous medical education were also organized. The Clinic of Endocrinology was initiator, organizer, founder and the seat of several medical associations.

  7. The future endocrine patient. Reflections on the future of clinical endocrinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); J.A. Romijn (Johannes); W.M. Wiersinga (Wilmar)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years the future position of clinical endocrinology has been extensively discussed by Western European endocrine societies. Clinical endocrinology seems to suffer from being too intellectual, generating too little income, and lacking too few spectacular

  8. Aspects of ecological radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtbembetov, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The collection consists of works on radiation endocrinology and occupational pathology in different branches of industry - petroleum, mining, cotton, non-ferrous metallurgy as well as agriculture. Collection is intended for endocrinologists and occupational pathologists, for specialists of labour protection and occupational safety, for doctors examining of industrial and agricultural workers (author)

  9. Important Literature in Endocrinology: Citation Analysis and Historial Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study comparing two approaches to the identification of important literature in endocrinology reveals that association between ranking of cited items using the two methods is not statistically significant and use of citation or historical analysis alone will not result in same set of literature. Forty-two sources are appended. (EJS)

  10. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  11. Microbial Endocrinology in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of two seemingly disparate fields, microbiology and neurobiology, and is based on the shared presence of neurochemicals that are exactly the same in host as well as in the microorganism. The ability of microorganisms to not only respond to, but also produce, many of the same neurochemicals that are produced by the host, such as during periods of stress, has led to the introduction of this evolutionary-based mechanism which has a role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The consideration of microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms has demonstrated, for example, that the prevalent use of catecholamine-based synthetic drugs in the clinical setting contributes to the formation of biofilms in indwelling medical devices. Production of neurochemicals by microorganisms most often employs the same biosynthetic pathways as those utilized by the host, indicating that acquisition of host neurochemical-based signaling system in the host may have been acquired due to lateral gene transfer from microorganisms. That both host and microorganism produce and respond to the very same neurochemicals means that there is bidirectionality contained with the theoretical underpinnings of microbial endocrinology. This can be seen in the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis and its relevance to infectious disease. Such shared pathways argue for a role of microorganism-neurochemical interactions in infectious disease.

  12. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Endocrinology, radiology and histomorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    In 11 edentulous patients with a severe atrophy of the mandible and submitted for ridge augmentation, endocrinological, radiological and histomorphometrical studies were carried out. The results showed that metabolic bone loss, histologically in nearly all patients characterized as a disturbance in

  13. Historia de la Endocrinología en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La especialidad clínica de la endocrinología lleva ya más de medio siglo en nuestro país, y si nos ponemos a ver la actividad de algunos precursores, esta historia bien puede remontarse al siglo XIX.

    El académico Antonio Ucrós Cuellar se puso en la tarea de recopilar las actuaciones de los especialistas en problemas hormonales y en las actividades de las asociaciones científicas de este ramo de la medicina y para ello contó con la ayuda editorial de los endocrinólogos y discípulos suyos, Eric Hernández y Stella Acosta.

    Ucrós ha participado personalmente en el devenir histórico de la endocrinología en Colombia, como investigador de la problemática del bocio, como fundador de la Asociación Colombiana de Endocrinología y de la sección de endocrinología del Hospital de San José, que recientemente cumplió sus Bodas de Oro, y en la cual se han formado numerosos y distinguidos especialistas que ejercen en el país su profesión.

    Comentar esta obra viene como anillo al dedo en este número especial sobre endocrinología que publica la revista “Medicina” de la Academia. Este libro de 230 páginas recoge en su parte inicial los antecedentes históricos y los estudios sobre el bocio en el país que el autor tan elegantemente lideró, finaliza esta parte inicial con su propia versión de la endocrinología en Colombia, que comienza con él y otros eminentes especialistas como Hernán Mendoza Hoyos, Tomás Quintero, Alonso Gutiérrez, Jaime Cortázar, Efraím tero, Mario Sánchez Medina (en el campo de la diabetes, Iván Molina en Medellín, Alberto Jamis en Barranquilla, y el importante grupo de Cali donde figuraron entre otros Eduardo Gaitán, Heins Wahner (actualmente en la Clínica Mayo, William Jubiz y Matilde de Bernal, todos de talla internacional.

    Mi interés por la endocrinología se inició con las magistrales clases de Mendoza Hoyos en la Javeriana, sobre el tema de la Fisiología Endocrina

  14. The variation of estrus in endocrinological levels and behaviour in endocrinological ewes throughout the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basaran, A.; Saban, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine reproductive activity of endocrinological and behavior in Akkaraman sheep (n=20.25 years, 74±7.7 body weight) throughout the year in the Middle Anatolian (39 57 deg. N 32.53 deg. W). The onset of estrous was detected by using apron ram for 30-minute period twice a day. Blood samples collected twice a week were analyzed by Enzyme immunoassay for progesterone (p 4 ), by Radio immunoassay for estradiol. Estrus cycle lengths and estrous lengths were (mean±SD) 18.33±1.03 day, 35.16±5.95 hours, respectively. The breeding season lengths were 283±63.36 day and 229.64±63.74 day according to hormonal and behavior data, respectively (P≤0.0032). Frequency of occurrence estrus was high between August and March however the highest peak was in October. The lowest peaks were both in June and July. Plasma progesterone levels were changed between 0.01-9 ng/ml throughout the year and 0.2-0.16 ng/ml in anoestrus. P 4 level of 11-th day of luteal phase of estrus was 3.73±1.50 ng/ml (n=11). Plasma estradiol level was 8.42±2.51 pg/ml between of 1-st and 2-nd day and 3.50±1.50 pg/ml on day 15. Second peak of estradiol determined on day 11 of estrus cycle was 6.09±2.87 pg/ml (n=11)

  15. Field endocrinology of nonhuman primates: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P

    2016-08-01

    In the past few decades, research on nonhuman primate endocrinology has moved from the lab to the field, leading to a huge increase in both the breadth and depth of primate field studies. Here, I discuss the past, present, and future of primate field endocrinology. I review the history of the field, and go on to discuss methodological developments and the issues that they sometimes entail. Next, I consider ways in which we might conceptualize the role of hormones, and focus on the need to distinguish proximate from ultimate levels of explanation. Current potentially problematic issues in the field include: 1) an inability to obtain noninvasive measurements of Central Nervous System (CNS) rather than peripheral hormone concentrations; 2) research questions that become stuck (e.g., questions regarding sexual swelling expression mechanisms); 3) data dredging and post-hoc linking of hormones to any plausible variable, leading to a lack of clarity on their role in animal ecology and behavior. I finish by discussing several unanswered questions that might benefit from further research. These are how we might: 1) best obtain measurements for CNS hormone concentrations non-invasively; 2) measure hormone receptor expression alongside hormone concentrations; 3) consider the human endocrinology literature more thoroughly and perhaps take more multimarker approaches; 4) better consider the social environment, including audience and dyadic familiarity effects; and 5) apply our findings to conservation issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Rare diseases in clinical endocrinology: a taxonomic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, G; Cianferotti, L; Beck-Peccoz, P; Capezzone, M; Cetani, F; Colao, A; Davì, M V; degli Uberti, E; Del Prato, S; Elisei, R; Faggiano, A; Ferone, D; Foresta, C; Fugazzola, L; Ghigo, E; Giacchetti, G; Giorgino, F; Lenzi, A; Malandrino, P; Mannelli, M; Marcocci, C; Masi, L; Pacini, F; Opocher, G; Radicioni, A; Tonacchera, M; Vigneri, R; Zatelli, M C; Brandi, M L

    2015-02-01

    Rare endocrine-metabolic diseases (REMD) represent an important area in the field of medicine and pharmacology. The rare diseases of interest to endocrinologists involve all fields of endocrinology, including rare diseases of the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands, paraganglia, ovary and testis, disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, energy and lipid metabolism, water metabolism, and syndromes with possible involvement of multiple endocrine glands, and neuroendocrine tumors. Taking advantage of the constitution of a study group on REMD within the Italian Society of Endocrinology, consisting of basic and clinical scientists, a document on the taxonomy of REMD has been produced. This document has been designed to include mainly REMD manifesting or persisting into adulthood. The taxonomy of REMD of the adult comprises a total of 166 main disorders, 338 including all variants and subtypes, described into 11 tables. This report provides a complete taxonomy to classify REMD of the adult. In the future, the creation of registries of rare endocrine diseases to collect data on cohorts of patients and the development of common and standardized diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for each rare endocrine disease is advisable. This will help planning and performing intervention studies in larger groups of patients to prove the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of a specific treatment.

  18. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz.

  19. Fifty-Five Years of Pediatric Endocrinology and 50 Years of the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    BATTELINO, Tadej

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric endocrinology started its independent development early in the general development of this specialty, with a strong focus on research and clinical excellence. Slovenian paediatric endocrinology was an integral part of the European paediatric endocrinology from its beginnings and a founding member of the first ‘International Study Group for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents’. After the pioneering work of Prof. Lev Matajc, Prof. Ciril Kržišnik firmly integrated the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases at the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana in the international scientific community. In the last decade, the department participates in cutting-edge research and provides clinical services at highest international standards. PMID:27646909

  20. An interactive E-Learning portal in pediatric endocrinology : Practical experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg-van Koppen, L.J.C.; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, K.; Drop, S.L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on educational considerations, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) e-learning portal has been developed, providing an interactive learning environment for up-to-date information in pediatric endocrinology. From March 2011 to January 2012, five small-scale pilot studies

  1. The future endocrine patient. Reflections on the future of clinical endocrinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, S. W. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the future position of clinical endocrinology has been extensively discussed by Western European endocrine societies. Clinical endocrinology seems to suffer from being too intellectual, generating too little income, and lacking too few spectacular interventions. In this manuscript we

  2. [Endocrinology in Portugal - Census 2016. Board of the Portuguese College of Endocrinology and Nutrition of the Portuguese Medical Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joana; Afonso, António; Carvalho, Davide; Marques, Ana Paula; Martins, Teresa; Mascarenhas, Mário Rui; Pereira, Conceição; Rodrigues, Dírcea; Saraiva, Catarina; Cardoso, Helena

    2017-09-29

    On September 2016, the Board of the College of Endocrinology and Nutrition of the Portuguese Medical Association carried out a national survey, about all Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Departments of the public hospitals included in the Portuguese National Health Service and a simplified version of this survey was sent to all endocrinologists working in Portugal and registered with the Portuguese Medical Association. Data related to organizational and human resources were collected, reporting the situation by the end of year 2015. The census registered 107 individuals and 27 Departments. The ratio of endocrinologists-population was 1.4, much lower than in the other European countries (varies between 2 to 4), resulting in alarming shortages of services in some areas of Portugal and in worse quality indicators. These data suggest that actions should be taken to increase the number of endocrinologists and departments in the country. In recent years, the number of residents has significantly increased, which will make it possible to correct this situation.

  3. Shared decision making in endocrinology: present and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Ospina, Naykky Singh; Maraka, Spyridoula; Tamhane, Shrikant; Montori, Victor M; Brito, Juan P

    2016-08-01

    In medicine and endocrinology, there are few clinical circumstances in which clinicians can accurately predict what is best for their patients. As a result, patients and clinicians frequently have to make decisions about which there is uncertainty. Uncertainty results from limitations in the research evidence, unclear patient preferences, or an inability to predict how treatments will fit into patients' daily lives. The work that patients and clinicians do together to address the patient's situation and engage in a deliberative dialogue about reasonable treatment options is often called shared decision making. Decision aids are evidence-based tools that facilitate this process. Shared decision making is a patient-centred approach in which clinicians share information about the benefits, harms, and burden of different reasonable diagnostic and treatment options, and patients explain what matters to them in view of their particular values, preferences, and personal context. Beyond the ethical argument in support of this approach, decision aids have been shown to improve patients' knowledge about the available options, accuracy of risk estimates, and decisional comfort. Decision aids also promote patient participation in the decision-making process. Despite accumulating evidence from clinical trials, policy support, and expert recommendations in endocrinology practice guidelines, shared decision making is still not routinely implemented in endocrine practice. Additional work is needed to enrich the number of available tools and to implement them in practice workflows. Also, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials favours the use of this shared decision making in other settings, populations, and illnesses, the effect of this approach has been studied in a few endocrine disorders. Future pragmatic trials are needed to explore the effect and feasibility of shared decision making implementation into routine endocrinology and primary care practice. With the

  4. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Routine and new techniques in nuclearmedicine and endocrinology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, G [Landeskrankenanstalten Salzburg (Austria). Inst. fuer Nuklear medizin und Endokrinologie

    1980-10-15

    Nuclear medicine: Scintiscanning of the kidneys and the renal clearance of radionuclides give us separate information about the function of each kidney. Scintiscanning of the lungs has become very important for the diagnosis of embolisms. Scintiscanning is also an important method for the diagnosis of skeletal diseases (inflamation of neoplasms, especially metastases) or for the diagnosis of introhepatic neoplasms. New nuclear methods evaluating dynamic processes in the cardiovascular system will become of clinical relevance. Endocrinology: A number of radioimmunoassays (especially of thyroxine, triiodthyronine, TSH, ACTH, cortisol, androgeus, estrogeus, progesterone, LH, FSH and prolaction) the isolation and synthesis of hypothalamic releasing hormones, scintiscanning of the thyreoid and the adrenal glands and computed tomography give us information about the endocrine system. In particular, the new radioimmunoassay of prolactin has taught us new aspects of the function of this hormone and the etiology of hyperprolactinemia.

  6. Current situation of hospital-based endocrinology and clinical nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Gálvez Moreno, M

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Healthcare Commission of Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition did a survey in order to know the actual situation of endocrinology and clinical nutrition healthcare in Public Sanitary Systems in Spain. The survey has been more extensive than the last and it has taken up number and geographical distribution of specialists in Spain in addition to data about clinical assistance. The mean of public hospitals with endocrinologist participation has been 50%. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation. Versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihko, R.; Hammond, G.L.; Pakarinen, A.; Viinikka, L.

    1978-01-01

    The combination of the efficient steroid-separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM) and the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstanedione, androsterone and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol in 1- to 2-ml samples of both blood serum and amniotic fluid as well as in 300- to 600-mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyser, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and has decreased the experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (author)

  8. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation: versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihko, R.; Hammond, G.L.; Pakarinen, A.; Viinikka, L.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of the efficient steroid separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM), with the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstanedione, androsterone and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol from 1-2 ml samples of blood serum, amniotic fluid or 300-600 mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyzer, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and decreased experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (orig.) [de

  9. Fellowship training and board certification in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Joseph C; Segars, James H; Cedars, Marcelle; Schlaff, William D

    2015-07-01

    Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is one of the original officially recognized subspecialties in obstetrics and gynecology and among the earlier subspecialties in medicine. Recognized by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1972, fellowship programs are now 3 years in length following an obstetrics and gynecology residency. Originally focused on endocrine problems related to reproductive function, the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have recently become the larger part of training during REI fellowships. It is likely that the subspecialty of REI strengthens the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology and enhances the educational experience of residents in the field. The value of training and certification in REI is most evident in the remarkable and consistent improvement in the success of ART procedures, particularly in vitro fertilization. The requirement for documented research activity during REI fellowships is likely to stimulate a more rapid adoption (translation) of newer research findings into clinical care after training. Although mandatory reporting of outcomes has been proposed as a reason for this improvement the rapid translation of reproductive research into clinical practice is likely to be a major cause. Looking forward, REI training should emphasize and strengthen education and research into the endocrine, environmental, and genetic aspects of female and male reproduction to improve the reproductive health and fertility of all women. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of noninvasive and minimally invasive methods in endocrinology for threatened mammalian species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, David C; Dehnhard, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Endocrinology is an indispensable tool in threatened species research. The study of endocrinology in threatened species not only advances knowledge of endocrine mechanism but also contributes to conservation efforts of studied species. To this end, endocrinology has been traditionally used to understand reproductive and adrenocortical endocrine axes by quantifying excreted steroid metabolites. From these studies a large body of knowledge was created that contributed to the field of endocrinology, aided conservation efforts, and created a template by which to validate and conduct this research for other species. In this regard noninvasive hormone monitoring has become a favored approach to study the basic endocrinology of wildlife species. Due to the increased understanding of endocrine physiology of threatened species, breeding rates of captive population have improved to levels allowing for reintroduction of species to restored natural ecosystems. Although these approaches are still employed, advances in biochemical, molecular, and genomic technologies are providing inroads to describe lesser known endocrine activity in threatened species. These new avenues of research will allow for growth of the field with greater depth and breadth. However, for all approaches to endocrinology, limitations on resources and access to animals will require innovation of current methodologies to permit broad application for use in threatened species research. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceptions about Training during Endocrinology Residency Programs in India over the Years: A Cross-sectional Study (PEER India Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Deepak; Dutta, Deep; Singla, Rajiv; Surana, Vineet; Aggarwal, Sameer; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalra, Sanjay; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Tandon, Nikhil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Residents' perception on quality of endocrinology training in India is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the perceptions about endocrinology residency programs in India among current trainees as compared to practicing endocrinologists. Methods: Trainees attending a preconference workshop at the annual conference of Endocrine Society of India (ESI) were given a questionnaire designed to evaluate their perceptions on their training. These evaluated the reasons for choosing endocrinology, their experiences during residency, and career plans. Practicing endocrinologists attending ESICON with at least 5-year experience were evaluated as controls. Results: Questionnaires from 63 endocrine trainees and 78 practicing endocrinologists were analyzed. Endocrinology is perceived to be the super-specialty with the best quality of life (QOL) but fair with regard to financial remuneration. Among current trainees, 61.89%, 31.74%, and 34.91% are satisfied with training in clinical endocrinology, laboratory endocrinology, and clinical/translational research, respectively. The corresponding figures for practicing endocrinologists are 71.78%, 25.63%, and 30.75%, respectively. Exposure to national endocrinology conferences during their endocrinology residency was adequate. However, exposure to international endocrinology conferences, research publications, project writing, and grant application are limited. Laboratory endocrinology is rated as the most neglected aspect during endocrine residency. Most of the trainees want to establish their own clinical practice in the long run. Very few trainees (17.46%) wish to join the medical education services. Conclusion: There is a good perception of QOL in endocrinology in spite of average financial remuneration. There is dissatisfaction with the quality of training in laboratory endocrinology and clinical research. Very few endocrine trainees consider academics as a long-term career option in India. PMID:28459024

  12. Trends in endocrinology related research articles in a medical journal from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. V. S. H; Aravinda, Konidena

    2012-01-01

    Background: The details about the research productivity in the specialty of endocrinology from India is lacking. We plan to assess the publishing trends and the research productivity of Endocrinology related research articles published in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI). Materials and Methods: We carried the bibliometric analysis of endocrinology related articles from JAPI. The data were obtained from the JAPI website for the publications between 2000 and 2011. The articles were analyzed for the type (original article, case reports, correspondence, and pictorial image), subspecialty (diabetes, thyroid, etc.), and place of the research. Data were presented with descriptive statistics in numbers and percentages. Results: Out of a total 2977 articles published by JAPI, 312 articles belong to endocrine subspecialty. Endocrinology related articles constitute about 11.2%–23.2% of the published articles per year in JAPI and the percentage is increasing every year. Original articles (52%) and case reports (27%) constituite the majority, while the rest were letters to editor (9%) and pictorial images (12%). Diabetes (57%) and metabolic bone disorders (16%) lead the subspecialty articles, followed by thyroid (9%), adrenal and gonad (8%), and pituitary (8%). Chennai (20%), Mumbai (14%), and Delhi (9%) are the top 3 places contributing to the articles followed by Chandigarh and Varanasi. Conclusion: Majority of endocrinology related research productivity is seen in form of original articles and case reports. Diabetes is the leading disease with maximum research articles from Chennai and other glands are equally represented in the research productivity. PMID:23226637

  13. Worldwide research productivity in the field of endocrinology and metabolism--a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiyan; Ye, Ru; Zhao, Linhua; Lin, Yiqun; Huang, Wenjing; He, Xinhui; Lian, Fengmei; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, significant contributions to the study of endocrinology and metabolism have been made. The national contribution, however, has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess national efforts in the field of endocrinology and metabolism. A Web of Science search was performed using subject categories "endocrinology & metabolism" to identify articles published from 2010 to 2014. The total and per capita numbers of articles and citations were analysed for different countries. A total of 79,394 articles were published on endocrinology and metabolism from 2010 to 2014. Most were published in North America, East Asia, and Europe. The majority (82.28%) were reported by authors in high-income countries, 17.64% were published in middle-income countries, and only 0.08% were published in low-income countries. Authors in the United States published the most articles (27.38%), followed by China (7.22%), Italy (5.70%), the United Kingdom (5.6%), and Japan (5.54%). Articles published by authors in the United States had the most citations (260,934). A positive correlation was found between the number of publications and population/gross domestic product (GDP; p endocrinology and metabolism articles were published by authors from high-income countries with few from low-income countries. The United States was the most productive country. However, when population size and GDP were considered, some European countries were ranked higher.

  14. Create new research directions in comparative endocrinology from Asia and Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-15

    The Asia and Oceania Society for Comparative Endocrinology (AOSCE) was founded in 1987, when the first congress was held in Nagoya, Japan. The purpose of the AOSCE is to progress scientific activities in the field of comparative endocrinology in Asia and Oceania and to establish a deep relationship among the members. For this purpose, the AOSCE holds a congress or an intercongress symposium every 2 years, which organizes an attractive scientific program covering the latest progress in the broad aspect of comparative endocrinology. 2012 was the 25th anniversary of AOSCE. Our scientific activities have increased dramatically during the past 25 years. The 7th AOSCE congress was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2012. The theme of this congress was "Overcoming challenges in the 21st century". To overcome challenges in the 21st century, we further need to create new research directions in comparative endocrinology from Asia and Oceania. This paper describes a brief history of the AOSCE and also highlights the discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and the progress of GnIH research as one of new research directions in comparative endocrinology. In 2000, GnIH was discovered in Japan and now more than 50 laboratories are working on GnIH in the world. The discovery of GnIH has changed our understanding about regulation of the reproductive axis drastically in the past decade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in endocrinology related research articles in a medical journal from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The details about the research productivity in the specialty of endocrinology from India is lacking. We plan to assess the publishing trends and the research productivity of Endocrinology related research articles published in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI. Materials and Methods: We carried the bibliometric analysis of endocrinology related articles from JAPI. The data were obtained from the JAPI website for the publications between 2000 and 2011. The articles were analyzed for the type (original article, case reports, correspondence, and pictorial image, subspecialty (diabetes, thyroid, etc., and place of the research. Data were presented with descriptive statistics in numbers and percentages. Results: Out of a total 2977 articles published by JAPI, 312 articles belong to endocrine subspecialty. Endocrinology related articles constitute about 11.2%-23.2% of the published articles per year in JAPI and the percentage is increasing every year. Original articles (52% and case reports (27% constituite the majority, while the rest were letters to editor (9% and pictorial images (12%. Diabetes (57% and metabolic bone disorders (16% lead the subspecialty articles, followed by thyroid (9%, adrenal and gonad (8%, and pituitary (8%. Chennai (20%, Mumbai (14%, and Delhi (9% are the top 3 places contributing to the articles followed by Chandigarh and Varanasi. Conclusion: Majority of endocrinology related research productivity is seen in form of original articles and case reports. Diabetes is the leading disease with maximum research articles from Chennai and other glands are equally represented in the research productivity.

  16. Endocrinologic, neurologic, and visual morbidity after treatment for craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughrue, Michael E.; Yang, Isaac; Kane, Ari J.; Fang, Shanna; Clark, Aaron J.; Aranda, Derrick; Barani, Igor J.

    2010-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are locally aggressive tumors which typically are focused in the sellar and suprasellar region near a number of critical neural and vascular structures mediating endocrinologic, behavioral, and visual functions. The present study aims to summarize and compare the published literature regarding morbidity resulting from treatment of craniopharyngioma. We performed a comprehensive search of the published English language literature to identify studies publishing outcome data of patients undergoing surgery for craniopharyngioma. Comparisons of the rates of endocrine, vascular, neurological, and visual complications were performed using Pearson’s chi-squared test, and covariates of interest were fitted into a multivariate logistic regression model. In our data set, 540 patients underwent surgical resection of their tumor. 138 patients received biopsy alone followed by some form of radiotherapy. Mean overall follow-up for all patients in these studies was 54 ± 1.8 months. The overall rate of new endocrinopathy for all patients undergoing surgical resection of their mass was 37% (95% CI = 33–41). Patients receiving GTR had over 2.5 times the rate of developing at least one endocrinopathy compared to patients receiving STR alone or STR + XRT (52 vs. 19 vs. 20%, χ2P < 0.00001). On multivariate analysis, GTR conferred a significant increase in the risk of endocrinopathy compared to STR + XRT (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.05–5.81, P < 0.00001), after controlling for study size and the presence of significant hypothalamic involvement. There was a statistical trend towards worse visual outcomes in patients receiving XRT after STR compared to GTR or STR alone (GTR = 3.5% vs. STR 2.1% vs. STR + XRT 6.4%, P = 0.11). Given the difficulty in obtaining class 1 data regarding the treatment of this tumor, this study can serve as an estimate of expected outcomes for these patients, and guide decision making until these data are available. PMID

  17. Spanish language content on reproductive endocrinology and infertility practice websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londra, Laura C; Tobler, Kyle J; Omurtag, Kenan R; Donohue, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the use of Spanish language translation on the websites of reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) practices in the context of evidence of underuse of infertility services by minority populations. Cross-sectional survey of websites from REI practices. Not applicable. None. None. Assessment of the relationship between having a Spanish-translated website and REI practice characteristics. Variables included concurrent use of social media, size of the practice, Spanish-speaking practitioner in the practice, being a private or a university-based practice, being in a mandated insurance state, and being in an area with different levels of percentage of Hispanic population, adjusted for annual income levels of the population. Of the 376 REI practice websites analyzed, 101 (27%) offered at least some information in Spanish. We identified 97 Spanish-speaking practitioners at 71 REI practices. Having a Spanish-translated website was significantly associated with the practice's use of social media, having an international/out-of-town web page, and having a Spanish-speaking physician in the practice. The size of the practice, as measured in number of cycles reported per year, was not associated with having a translated website. In practices located in the top 60 metropolitan areas by Hispanic population, the odds of having a Spanish-translated website were only related to the percentage of Hispanic population after adjusting for state-mandated insurance and average annual income level of the Hispanic population. Sixty-six of the websites with Spanish-translated content had been automatically translated. An additional eight websites were partially translated automatically. REI practices in metropolitan areas with a higher percentage of Hispanics were more likely to reach out to this minority population by translating their website content into Spanish. These practices were also more likely to use social media. Future studies are needed to determine whether

  18. Referring Quality Assessment of Primary Health Care for Endocrinology in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Grendene, Gabriela; Szczecinski Rodrigues, Átila; Katz, Natan; Harzheim, Erno

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the quality research of endocrinology referrals in the public health system in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. From the analysis of 4,458 requests for endocrinology referrals, it was found that 15% of referrals had insufficient information for evaluation and 71% showed no clinical justification for authorization of referencing. The partial results of the study indicated that the lack of information makes it impossible to clinically regulate these requests. The use of referencing protocols associated with telemedicine tools can assist doctors in primary health care in the clinical management and make access to specialized services more equitable and timely.

  19. Influence of ovarian manipulation on reproductive endocrinology in polycystic ovarian syndrome and regularly cycling women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.L.; König, T.E.; Soleman, R.S.; Korsen, T.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Homburg, R.R.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the function of the ovarian neuronal network in humans. In many species, copulation influences endocrinology through this network. As a first step, the possible influence of ovarian mechanical manipulation on pituitary and ovarian hormones was evaluated in polycystic

  20. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  1. Endocrinology Telehealth Consultation Improved Glycemic Control Similar to Face-to-Face Visits in Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Winnie; Saxon, David R; McNair, Bryan; Sanagorski, Rebecca; Rasouli, Neda

    2016-09-01

    Rates of diabetes for veterans who receive health care through the Veterans Health Administration are higher than rates in the general population. Furthermore, many veterans live in rural locations, far from Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals, thus limiting their ability to readily seek face-to-face endocrinology care for diabetes. Telehealth (TH) technologies present an opportunity to improve access to specialty diabetes care for such patients; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding the ability of TH to improve glycemic control in comparison to traditional face-to-face consultations. This was a retrospective cohort study of all new endocrinology diabetes consultations at the Denver VA Medical Center over a 1-year period. A total of 189 patients were included in the analysis. In all, 85 patients had received face-to-face (FTF) endocrinology consultation for diabetes and 104 patients had received TH consultation. Subjects were mostly males (94.7%) and the mean age was 62.8 ± 10.1 years old. HbA1c improved from 9.76% (9.40% to 10.11%) to 8.55% (8.20% to 8.91%) (P Endocrinology TH consultations improved short-term glycemic control as effectively as traditional FTF visits in a veteran population with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Ernest Henry Starling: the history of cardiovascular endocrinology and the continuous need for developing animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2014-01-01

    The English physiologist, Ernest Henry Starling (1866–1927) (Fig. 1) in 1896, provided a quantitative explanation of the transcapillary transport of fluid. Six years later, he discovered the first hormone and introduced the concept of hormones in 1905, and at the time of the First World War, he f......’s achievements in cardiovascular physiology and endocrinology....

  3. Trends in the study of the comparative endocrinology of reproduction in vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, G.J. van

    1962-01-01

    A couple of months ago the organizers of the present Conference asked me to deliver an opening address, which would review the development of comparative endocrinology in Europe, particularly with reference to my own work and experiences. Of course I accepted this invitation with very much

  4. Endocrinology in the 21st century: unmasking the mysteries of biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The traditional concept of endocrinology has provided a model, that enabled to understand and treat endocrine diseases. Molecular and (patho)physiological differentiations of this concept will further improve the treatment of complex endocrine and metabolic diseases. Nature has lifted a tip of her

  5. Development of an e-learning portal for pediatric endocrinology : Educational considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Grijpink-Van den Biggelaar; S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); L. Schuwirth

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Global accessibility and dissemination of developments in pediatric endocrinology prompted to examine how to develop an educational interactive e-SPE web portal. Methods: A systematic approach was used to identify the relevant aspects of accessibility and dissemination. An

  6. Motivational interviewing in health care: results of a brief training in endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Biskobing, Diane; Francis, Gary L; Wickham, Edmond

    2012-09-01

    Despite the importance of lifestyle change in disease management and the growing evidence supporting motivational interviewing (MI) as an effective counseling method to promote behavioral change, to date there are few published reports about MI training in graduate medical education. The study aimed to pilot the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief MI training intervention for endocrinology fellows and other providers. We used a pretest/posttest design to evaluate a brief MI training for 5 endocrinology fellows and 9 other providers. All participants completed subjective assessments of perceived confidence and beliefs about behavioral counseling at pretest and posttest. Objective assessment of MI was conducted using fellows' audiotaped patient encounters, which were coded using a validated tool for adherence to MI before and after the training. Paired t tests examined changes in objective and subjective assessments. The training intervention was well received and feasible in the endocrinology setting. At posttest, participants reported increased endorsement of the MI spirit and improved confidence in MI skills. Objective assessment revealed relative improvements in MI skills across several domains. However, most domains, as assessed by a validated tool, did not reach competency level after the training intervention. Although more intensive training may be needed to develop MI competence, the results of our pilot study suggest that brief, targeted MI training has short-term efficacy and is well received by endocrinology fellows and other providers.

  7. The clinical endocrinology workforce: current status and future projections of supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigersky, Robert A; Fish, Lisa; Hogan, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Kutler, Stephanie; Ladenson, Paul W; McDermott, Michael; Hupart, Kenneth H

    2014-09-01

    Many changes in health care delivery, health legislation, and the physician workforce that affect the supply and demand for endocrinology services have occurred since the first published workforce study of adult endocrinologists in 2003. The objective of the study was to assess the current adult endocrinology workforce data and provide the first analysis of the pediatric endocrinology workforce and to project the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025. A workforce model was developed from an analysis of proprietary and publicly available databases, consultation with a technical expert panel, and the results of an online survey of board-certified endocrinologists. The Endocrine Society commissioned The Lewin Group to estimate current supply and to project gaps between supply and demand for endocrinologists. A technical expert panel of senior endocrinologists provided context, clinical information, and direction. The following were measured: 1) the current adult and pediatric endocrinology workforce and the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025 and 2) the number of additional entrants into the endocrinology work pool that would be required to close the gap between supply and demand. Currently there is a shortage of approximately 1500 adult and 100 pediatric full-time equivalent endocrinologists. The gap for adult endocrinologists will expand to 2700 without an increase in the number of fellows trained. An increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus further expands the demand for adult endocrinologists. The gap can be closed in 5 and 10 years by increasing the number of fellowship positions by 14.4% and 5.5% per year, respectively. The gap between supply and demand for pediatric endocrinologists will close by 2016, and thereafter an excess supply over demand will develop at the current rate of new entrants into the work force. There are insufficient adult endocrinologists to satisfy current and future demand. A number of proactive

  8. Evaluation and Referral of Diabetic Eye Disease in the Endocrinology and Primary Care Office Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fabiana Q; Adhi, Mehreen; Wai, Karen M; Olansky, Leann; Lansang, M Cecilia; Singh, Rishi P

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether endocrinologists and primary care physicians (PCP) adequately screen for ophthalmic symptoms/signs within office visits and provide timely ophthalmology referrals in patients with diabetes. Patients between the ages of 18 years and 80 years with diabetes who underwent an office visit with an endocrinologist or a PCP between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, were identified. Demographics, ophthalmic assessments, and referral information were collected. A total of 1,250 patient records were reviewed. Providers asked about ophthalmic symptoms/signs in 95.5% and 71% of endocrinology and primary care office encounters, respectively (P endocrinology and PCP visits, respectively (P < .0001). Ophthalmic complications from diabetes are not adequately screened, especially within the primary care setting, and further quality improvement measures may improve adherence to recommended screening protocols. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:930-934.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  10. Outcome of Doctors Attending the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Winter Schools 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Malcolm D C

    2017-01-01

    Since 1995, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) has hosted Winter School (WS), a 5-day interactive meeting of 25 trainees and 7 teachers designed to cover all main endocrine topics. The aim of the present study was to determine subsequent outcome in ex-WS "students." A questionnaire was sent in August 2016 to all ESPE WS participants between 2008 and 2014. Information was requested on job/training status at WS attendance and in 2016, and subsequent involvement with ESPE. Of 174 participants (144 women, 30 men) including 5 attending two WS, 129 (74.5%) responded. At the time of WS/2016 survey 58/3 participants were junior trainees, 38/21 senior trainees, and 33/101 consultants. One hundred and seventeen (90.6%) responders were still involved with endocrinology, 107 (82%) rating WS as having a strong/very strong influence on their careers. Following WS, 80/174 (46%) participants had attended at least one ESPE main meeting, 28 (16%) had been awarded ESPE fellowships, and 34 (19%) had become ESPE members. The great majority of WS participants responding to the questionnaire are still involved with endocrinology and rated WS as influential. This favourable outcome supports the continuing funding of WS and similar educational programmes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. [Gregorio Marañón, a pioneer of endocrinology, 50 years after his death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Gregorio Maranon born and dead in Madrid (1887-1960), was a Spanish physician, scientist, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer, considered one of the most brilliant Spanish intellectuals of the 20th century. He was also a Republican and fought the Primo de Rivera dictatorship, though later expressed his disagreement with communism. Maranon participated closely with the process of exile of Alfonso XIII. From a very early age he learned several foreign languages and was an avid reader, hence he became in contact with the intellectual circles of the time and cultivated a close friendship with Perez Galdos, Menendez-Pelayo, Ortega y Gasset, Pio Baroja, Unamuno, Lerroux among several outstanding and eminent figures of the famous Generation of 14. In Medical School he had great teachers such as Santiago Ramon y Cajal, and later he specialized in endocrinology and became professor of the specialty in the Complutense University in Madrid, moreover he founded the Institute of Medical Pathology and the Department of Experimental Endocrinology, henceforth he contributed to establish the relationship between endocrinology and psychology. At the beginning of the instauration of the Republic, Maranon became a member of the constituent assembly and the parliament, but soon became disillusioned of communism and left Spain before the initiation of the Civil War, remaining in France until 1942 when he returned to Spain to reestablish his private practice, and soon the medical teaching at the hospital which now bears his name. Late work about history, poetry was elaborated at his Toledo Cigarral de Menores.

  12. Microbial endocrinology: Host-microbiota neuroendocrine interactions influencing brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms, whether present as commensals within the microbiota or introduced as part of a therapeutic regimen, to influence behavior has been demonstrated by numerous laboratories over the last few years. Our understanding of the mechanisms that are responsible for microbiota-gut-brain interactions is, however, lacking. The complexity of the microbiota is, of course, a contributing factor. Nonetheless, while microbiologists approaching the issue of microbiota-gut-brain interactions in the behavior well recognize such complexity, what is often overlooked is the equal complexity of the host neurophysiological system, especially within the gut which is differentially innervated by the enteric nervous system. As such, in the search for common mechanisms by which the microbiota may influence behavior one may look for mechanisms which are shared by both host and microbiota. Such interkingdom signaling can be found in the shared production of neurochemical mediators that are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The study of the production and recognition of neurochemicals that are exactly the same in structure to those produced in the vertebrate organisms is known as microbial endocrinology. The examination of the microbiota from the vantage point of host-microbiota neuroendocrine interactions cannot only identify new microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms by which the microbiota can influence host behavior, but also lead to the design of interventions in which the composition of the microbiota may be modulated in order to achieve a specific microbial endocrinology-based profile beneficial to overall host behavior.

  13. [Assessment of a residency training program in endocrinology and nutrition by physicians: results of a survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Carmen; Palomares-Ortega, Rafael; García-Manzanares, Alvaro; Benito-López, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The current training program for resident physicians in endocrinology and nutrition (EN) organizes their medical learning. Program evaluation by physicians was assessed using a survey. The survey asked about demographic variables, EN training methods, working time and center, and opinion on training program contents. Fifty-one members of Sociedad Castellano-Manchega de Endocrinología, Nutrición y Diabetes, and Sociedad Andaluza de Endocrinología y Nutrición completed the survey. Forty-percent of them disagreed with the compulsory nature of internal medicine, cardiology, nephrology and, especially, neurology rotations (60%); a majority (>50%) were against several recommended rotations included in the program. The fourth year of residence was considered by 37.8% of respondents as the optimum time for outpatient and inpatient control and monitoring without direct supervision. The recommended monthly number of on-call duties was 3.8±1.2. We detected a positive opinion about extension of residence duration to 4.4±0.5 years. Doctoral thesis development during the residence period was not considered convenient by 66.7% of physicians. Finally, 97.8% of resident physicians would recommend residency in EN to other colleagues. Endocrinologists surveyed disagreed with different training program aspects such as the rotation system, skill acquisition timing, and on-call duties. Therefore, an adaptation of the current training program in EN would be required. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Regresión logística: Un ejemplo de su uso en Endocrinología Logistic regression: An example of its use in Endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez Alonso

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se intentó un acercamiento a la regresión logística, como una de las técnicas estadísticas multivariadas de más frecuente uso en las últimas décadas, para orientar a su uso correcto. Se consideraron cuestiones de tipo práctico como número de sujetos necesarios para aplicarla, situaciones en las que está indicado su uso, tipo de variables a las que es posible aplicarla y las formas en que puede ser incluida en el modelo, interpretación de los resultados, etc. Se mostró un ejemplo de la aplicación de esta técnica en una investigación en el campo de la Endocrinología. Se concluyó que la regresión logística resulta de gran utilidad para su aplicación en cualquier campo de la investigación médica cuando necesitamos precisar el efecto de un grupo de variables, consideradas potencialmente influyentes, sobre la ocurrencia de un determinado proceso.An approach to logistic regression , as one of the most used multivariate statistical techniques in the last decades, was made to recommend its correct use. Practical questions as the number of subjects necessary for its application, the situations in which it should be used, the type of variables to which it may be applied, the way it may be included in the model, the interpretation of the results, etc., were taken into consideration. An example of the application of this technique in the field of Endocrinology was given. It was concluded that the application of logistic regression is very useful in any field of medical research when we need to determine the effect of a group of variables, potentially considered as influential, on the ocurrence of a certain process.

  15. Animales de laboratorio en la endocrinología: Biomodelos de las enfermedades tiroideas Laboratory animals in endocrinology: Biomodels in thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Hugues Hernandorena

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos animales que se utilizan en las investigaciones sobre el tiroides ayudan al estudio de los mecanismos patogénicos que conducen a la presentación de los desórdenes de esta glándula, dan la oportunidad de explorar nuevos tratamientos y formas de prevención. El objetivo de este trabajo fue brindar una información detallada sobre los biomodelos de enfermedades que afectan el tiroides, a partir de una revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema, que comprenda los que se obtienen de forma espontánea o inducida, exponiendo los factores ambientales que influyen sobre ellos. En conclusión, se expresaron las ventajas que ofrecen estos biomodelos para los investigadores que se dedican a estudiar esta rama de la endocrinología, aunque no constituyan un reflejo exacto de lo que ocurre en el hombre y no necesariamente reúnan todas las características distintivas de la patología tiroidea en cuestión.The animal models used in the investigations on thyroid help to study the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the appearance of disorders of this gland, and give the opportunity to find new treatments and ways of prevention. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed information on the biomodels of diseases affecting the thyroid, starting from a bibliographic review on this topic, including those obtained in a spontaneous or induced way, and explaining the environmental factors influencing them. To conclude, the advantages of these biomodels for the researchers devoted to study this branch of endocrinology were stressed, although they are not an exact reflex of what happens in man and they do not necessarily have all the distinctive features of thyroid pathology.

  16. Endocrinological analysis of 122 Japanese childhood cancer survivors in a single hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Ozono, Keiichi; Hara, Junichi

    2008-01-01

    With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists. (author)

  17. Endocrinological analysis of 122 Japanese childhood cancer survivors in a single hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Hara, Junichi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2008-12-01

    With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists.

  18. Systematic reviews of diagnostic tests in endocrinology: an audit of methods, reporting, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Brito, Juan P; Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole; Tamhane, Shrikant; Erwin, Patricia J; Murad, M Hassan; Montori, Victor M

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews provide clinicians and policymakers estimates of diagnostic test accuracy and their usefulness in clinical practice. We identified all available systematic reviews of diagnosis in endocrinology, summarized the diagnostic accuracy of the tests included, and assessed the credibility and clinical usefulness of the methods and reporting. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to December 2015 for systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting accuracy measures of diagnostic tests in endocrinology. Experienced reviewers independently screened for eligible studies and collected data. We summarized the results, methods, and reporting of the reviews. We performed subgroup analyses to categorize diagnostic tests as most useful based on their accuracy. We identified 84 systematic reviews; half of the tests included were classified as helpful when positive, one-fourth as helpful when negative. Most authors adequately reported how studies were identified and selected and how their trustworthiness (risk of bias) was judged. Only one in three reviews, however, reported an overall judgment about trustworthiness and one in five reported using adequate meta-analytic methods. One in four reported contacting authors for further information and about half included only patients with diagnostic uncertainty. Up to half of the diagnostic endocrine tests in which the likelihood ratio was calculated or provided are likely to be helpful in practice when positive as are one-quarter when negative. Most diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrine lack methodological rigor, protection against bias, and offer limited credibility. Substantial efforts, therefore, seem necessary to improve the quality of diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrinology.

  19. ASSESSING REFERRALS AND IMPROVING INFORMATION AVAILABILITY FOR CONSULTATIONS IN AN ACADEMIC ENDOCRINOLOGY CLINIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Chase D; Saini, Saumya; Pothuloori, Avin; Mecchella, John N

    2017-02-01

    Outpatient specialty consultations rely on the timeliness and completeness of referral information to facilitate a valuable patient-specialist interaction. This project aimed to increase essential diagnostic information availability at the initial consultation for patients referred for common endocrine conditions frequently lacking such data-diabetes mellitus, thyroid nodule, thyrotoxicosis, and hypercalcemia. At an endocrinology clinic at an academic medical center in rural New England, providers see several thousand new patients annually, the majority of whom are referred by providers external to the clinic's healthcare system. Through consensus, endocrinology clinic providers agreed on the two or three data elements essential for a meaningful initial consultation for each. A quality improvement team employed a planned series of interventions based on previously published methods and an innovative approach: dissemination of a referral guideline, an assessment of referral adequacy in the endocrinology clinic workflow, coupled with focused requests for missing items, and a pre-visit lab appointment. Between April 2015 and March 2016, 762 referrals were reviewed. At baseline for the four conditions, referrals contained all essential elements only 27.5% (22 of 80) of the time. Over a 7-month period, the team implemented the interventions, with subsequent referrals containing all essential elements increasing to 75.5% (P<.0001), largely attributable to the pre-visit lab appointment. Incoming referrals that lack essential information are a significant problem in specialty care and may adversely affect patient experience, provider satisfaction, and clinic efficiency. Improvement may require innovative approaches, such as the potentially transferable and generalizable ones employed here. DHMC = Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center EHR = electronic health record PDSA = Plan-Do-Study-Act.

  20. Endocrinological and Cardiological Late Effects Among Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Ören

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survival rates for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL have significantly improved and late effects of therapy have been important in the follow-up of survivors. The objective of this study is to identify the endocrinological and cardiological late effects of ALL patients treated in our pediatric hematology unit. Materials and Methods: Patients treated for ALL with BFM protocols after at least 5 years of diagnosis and not relapsed were included in the study. Endocrinological late effects (growth failure, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid gland disorders, osteopenia/osteoporosis, and pubertal disorders and cardiological late effects were evaluated. The study group was evaluated with anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and laboratory testing of fasting glucose, insulin, serum lipids, thyroid functions, and bone mineral densities. Echocardiography and pulsed wave Doppler imaging were performed for analysis of cardiac functions. Results: Of the 38 ALL survivors, at least 1 adverse event occurred in 23 (60%, with 8 of them (21% having multiple problems. Six (16% of the survivors were obese and 8 (21% of them were overweight. Subjects who were overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis were more likely to be overweight or obese at last follow-up. Obesity was more frequently determined in patients who were younger than 6 years of age at the time of diagnosis. Insulin resistance was observed in 8 (21% subjects. Insulin resistance was more frequently seen in subjects who had family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperlipidemia was detected in 8 (21% patients. Hypothyroidism or premature thelarche were detected in 2 children. Two survivors had osteopenia. Cardiovascular abnormalities occurred in one of the subjects with hypertension and cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion: We point out the necessity of follow-up of these patients for endocrinological and cardiological late effects, since at least

  1. Interprofessional Collaboration with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: the Roles of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Virginia

    2017-11-01

    To discuss immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and identify opportunities for interprofessional collaboration in the management of toxicities in the areas of gastroenterology, endocrinology, and neurology. Published research and education articles in oncology, nursing, and various specialties. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors is expanding; timely management of toxicity is critical for positive patient outcomes. There are many opportunities for interprofessional collaboration in the diagnosis and treatment of immune-related adverse events. Nurses play key roles in recognizing immune-related adverse events, providing patient education, and helping to facilitate interprofessional collaboration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial endocrinology: Why the intersection of microbiology and neurobiology matters to poultry health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villageliu, Daniel N; Lyte, Mark

    2017-08-01

    The union of microbiology and neurobiology has led to a revolution in the way we view the microbiome. Now recognized as important symbionts, the microorganisms which inhabit multiple niches in mammalian and avian (chicken) hosts, such as the intestinal tract and skin, serve and influence many important physiological functions. The realization that the gut microbiome serves as a kind of "microbial organ" has important implications for many areas of biology. In this paper advances in the field of microbial endocrinology which may hold relevance for the poultry industry are examined. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Brown-Sèquard, otro Precursor de la Endocrinología.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca Rodriguez

    2008-03-01

    Admitimos que cada tejido y –más generalmente- cada célula del organismo, segregue por su propia cuenta productos o fermentos especiales que –derramados en la sangre- influyen por mediación de este líquido en todas las otras células, las cuales llegan a ser de este modo solidarias entre sí por un mecanismo diferente al del sistema nervioso… Como era frecuente que a aquellas glándulas sin conducto se les considerara un papel neutralizador de toxinas, propone su utilidad para el organismo, bien por este efecto antitóxico o por una influencia directa favorable. De cualquier manera, este sorpresivo pregón anunció el nacimiento de la endocrinología. Que -a juzgar por los avisos que hemos encontrado en el primer número de los Anales Franceses de Endocrinología en 1939- se interesaba mucho en las hormonas sexuales, las que en aquella época campeaban en la opoterapia.

  4. An interactive E-Learning Portal in Pediatric Endocrinology: Practical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenvert L. S. Drop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on educational considerations, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE e-learning portal has been developed, providing an interactive learning environment for up-to-date information in pediatric endocrinology. From March 2011 to January 2012, five small-scale pilot studies were completed to assess the usefulness of the structure and content by senior experts, fellows, residents and medical students. Altogether, 8 cases and 4 chapters were studied by a total of 71 individuals: 18 senior experts, 21 fellows, 10 medical students, 9 regional pediatricians and 13 residents, resulting in a total of 127 evaluations. Participants considered the portal content interesting and appreciated the way of learning compared to traditional learning from literature and textbooks. Special attention was paid to assess the personalized feedback given by experts to fellows and residents who completed the portal. Feedback from experts included both medical understanding and communication skills demonstrated by fellows and residents. Users highly appreciated the feedback of the medical experts, who brought perspectives from another clinic. This portal also offers educational opportunities for medical students and regional pediatricians and can be used to develop various CanMEDS competencies, e.g., medical expert, health advocate, and scholar.

  5. Financial Analysis of Behavioral Health Services in a Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Jessica L; Mehlenbeck, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    This article addresses a current need in psychological practice by describing a financially feasible model that moves toward integrated care of behavioral health services in a pediatric endocrinology clinic. Financial information (costs and revenue associated with behavioral health services) for the clinic, over an 18-month period (July 2012 to December 2013), was obtained through the hospital's financial department. The clinic meets one half day per week. Over the 18-month period, the behavioral health services generated a net gain of $3661.45 in the favor of the clinic. We determined that the psychologist and clinical psychology residents needed to see a total of four patients per half-day clinic for the clinic to "break-even." We describe one financially feasible way of integrating behavioral health services into a pediatric endocrinology clinic in the hope that this will be generalizable to other medical settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Conservation endocrinology: A noninvasive tool to understand relationships between carnivore colonization and ecological carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Testa, J.W.; Roffe, T.; Monfort, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Reproductive technology, especially the diagnosis of pregnancy by radioimmunoassay of fecal steroid metabolites, is an important component of captive propagation, but its role in our understanding of ecological interactions and in situ biological restoration has been more limited. Where large herbivores have been 'released' from predation by the extirpation of carnivores, controversy often exists about possible detrimental effects at the ecosystem level A related concern is that the reestablishment of large carnivores may decrease the availability of prey populations for human subsistence. We suggest that pregnancy assays can be a valuable tool to help distinguish between the roles of predation versus food-imposed limitations on population size and their effects on juvenile recruitment in wild species. We explored this issue through analyses of fecal progestagen concentration (FPC) levels to document pregnancy in moose (Alces alces) in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a site where wolves (Canis lupus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) are recolonizing former habitats after an absence of more than 60 years. Pregnancy was clearly discernible (mean FPC for pregnant and nonpregnant females, respectively: 10.60 vs. 2.57 ??g/g; p endocrinology can be applied to issues involving reproductive events within an ecological context. They also affirm that noninvasive and generally inexpensive endocrinological procedures will be applicable to understanding interactions between recolonizing predators and prey, an issue that will continue to arise because of global restoration efforts, and to the study of rare ungulates in remote systems where data on reproductive events are difficult to obtain.

  7. SELECTION OF ENDOCRINOLOGY SUBSPECIALTY TRAINEES: WHICH APPLICANT CHARACTERISTICS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PERFORMANCE DURING FELLOWSHIP TRAINING?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natt, Neena; Chang, Alice Y; Berbari, Elie F; Kennel, Kurt A; Kearns, Ann E

    2016-01-01

    To determine which residency characteristics are associated with performance during endocrinology fellowship training as measured by competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings of trainee performance. We performed a retrospective review of interview applications from endocrinology fellows who graduated from a single academic institution between 2006 and 2013. Performance measures included competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings. The association between applicant characteristics and measures of performance during fellowship was examined by linear regression. The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director's letter of recommendation (LoR) or experience as a chief resident was significantly associated with competency-based faculty evaluation scores (β = 0.22, P = .001; and β = 0.24, P = .009, respectively) and faculty global ratings (β = 0.85, P = .006; and β = 0.96, P = .015, respectively). The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director's LoR or experience as a chief resident were significantly associated with overall performance during subspecialty fellowship training. Future studies are needed in other cohorts to determine the broader implications of these findings in the application and selection process.

  8. Adrenal incidentaloma in adults - management recommendations by the Polish Society of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bolanowski, Marek; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Górnicka, Barbara; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Otto, Maciej; Ambroziak, Urszula; Pachucki, Janusz; Kubicka, Eliza; Babińska, Anna; Koperski, Łukasz; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Górska, Maria; Jarząb, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Glinicki, Piotr; Ruchała, Marek; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A wide use of imaging techniques results in more frequent diagnosis of adrenal incidenataloma. To analyse the current state of knowledge on adrenal incidentaloma in adults in order to prepare practical management recommendations. Following a discussion, the Polish Society of Endocrinology expert working group have analysed the available data and summarised the analysis results in the form of recommendations. Unenhanced adrenal computed tomography (CT) may be recommended as an initial assessment examination helpful in the differentiation between adenomas and "non-adenomatous" lesions. In the case of density > 10 Hounsfield units, CT with contrast medium washout assessment or MRI are recommended. However, in all patients with adrenal incidentaloma, hormonal assessment is recommended in order to exclude pheochromocytoma and hypercortisolism, notwithstanding the clinical picture or concomitant diseases. In addition, examination to exclude primary hyperaldosteronism is suggested in patients with diagnosed hypertension or hypokalaemia. Surgical treatment should be recommended in patients with adrenal incidentaloma, where imaging examinations suggest a malignant lesion (oncological indication) or with confirmed hormonal activity (endocrinological indication). The basis of the surgical treatment is laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Patients with suspected pheochromocytoma must be pharmacologically prepared prior to surgery. In patients not qualified for surgery, control examinations (imaging and laboratory tests) should be established individually, taking into consideration such features as the size, image, and growth dynamics of the tumour, clinical symptoms, hormonal tests results, and concomitant diseases.

  9. An Evaluation of Mobile Applications for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaia, Kathryn L; Farag, Sara; Chyjek, Kathy; Knopman, Jaime; Chen, Katherine T

    2017-03-01

    To identify and rate reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) mobile applications (apps) targeted toward REI providers. A list of REI apps was found in both the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores using the following seven MeSH terms: reproductive endocrinology, REI, infertility, fertility, In Vitro Fertilization, IVF, and embryology. Patient-centered apps were excluded. The remaining apps were then evaluated for accuracy using reliable references. Mobile technology. None. Accurate apps were evaluated for comprehensiveness (the extent of the ability to aid in clinical decision-making) and rated with objective and subjective components using the APPLICATIONS scoring system. Using the seven REI-related MeSH terms, 985 apps and 1,194 apps were identified in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores, respectively. Of these unique apps, only 20 remained after excluding patient-centered apps. Upon further review for applicability to REI specifically and content accuracy, only seven apps remained. These seven apps were then rated using the APPLICATIONS scoring system. Only 0.32% of 2,179 apps reviewed for this study were useful to REI providers. There is potential for further mobile resource development in the area of REI, given the limited number and varying comprehensiveness and quality of available apps.

  10. Patients' poor communication with their doctors in the first visit of the gynecological endocrinology outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Han, Zi-Yan; She, Wen-Jing; Lei, Hai-Ke

    2016-01-01

    To investigate patients' communication with their gynecologists in the first visit of the gynecological endocrinology outpatient clinics. We developed a questionnaire to evaluate 379 women' expectations of their first visit, information-giving about illness, and understanding of the consultation they encountered from April to August 2010. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Before the first visit, 55% (208/379) of participants hoped to get the doctors' special attention, and 60% (227/379) of patients expected a very satisfying consultation. During the consultation, only 34% (129/379) of patients provided their case history clearly according to physicians' inquiry, 21% (81/379) of patients understood the examination and 28% (105/379) of patients understood the therapeutic regime after doctors' explanation. Correlation analysis showed that sociodemographic characteristics such as young age (under 20 years old), low level of education (primary school or less), and lack of medical knowledge affected patients' information-giving about illness and understanding of their first visit (all ps endocrinology outpatient clinics. They could not communicate well with their doctors, which was affected by age, education, and medical background.

  11. [Cardiovascular risk factor control in a population with longstanding diabetes attending endocrinology departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi-Diaz, Cristina; Miralles-García, José M; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Pérez, María; Masramon, Xavier; De Pablos-Velasco, Pedro

    2010-12-01

    To determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending Endocrinology and Nutrition Departments in Spain. An epidemiological, cross-sectional, multicenter and observational study involving 41 Departments of Endocrinology and Nutrition in Spain. Each department selected patients with DM with over 10 years of evolution, which were treated in outpatient settings. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical data, including medication, were collected for each participant. 1159 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. 52% of the participants were patients with type 2 DM. The mean duration of DM was 19.6 years. A proportion of 37%, 44%, 27.6% and 25.5% had good control of their blood pressure (BP), low density cholesterol (LDLc), lipids and glucose, respectively, and only 4.3% did well in all factors evaluated. The percentage of poorly controlled BP was four times higher in type 2 than in type 1 DM. Obesity, low cultural level and aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with poorer control. The degree of control of CVRF in diabetic patients with long disease duration is insufficient. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Consensus statement for use and technical requirements of thyroid ultrasound in endocrinology units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Tomás; Díez Gómez, Juan José; Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Torres Cuadro, Alberto; Navarro González, Elena; Oleaga Alday, Amelia; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Reverter Calatayud, Jordi L; Argüelles Jiménez, Iñaki; Mancha Doblas, Isabel; Fernández García, Diego; Galofré, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid nodule detection has increased with widespread use of ultrasound, which is currently the main tool for detection, monitoring, diagnosis and, in some instances, treatment of thyroid nodules. Knowledge of ultrasound and adequate instruction on its use require a position statement by the scientific societies concerned. The working groups on thyroid cancer and ultrasound techniques of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition have promoted this document, based on a thorough analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies and expert consensus, in order to set the requirements for the best use of ultrasound in clinical practice. The objectives include the adequate framework for use of thyroid ultrasound, the technical and legal requirements, the clinical situations in which it is recommended, the levels of knowledge and learning processes, the associated responsibility, and the establishment of a standardized reporting of results and integration into hospital information systems and endocrinology units. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ASSOCIAZIONE MEDICI ENDOCRINOLOGI MEDICAL GUIDELINES FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID NODULES--2016 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Garber, Jeffrey R; Duick, Daniel S; Harrell, R Mack; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Paschke, Ralf; Valcavi, Roberto; Vitti, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    malignant or suspicious nodules. The present document updates previous guidelines released in 2006 and 2010 by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME).

  14. Endocrinología en la Javeriana. Recuerdos de una época.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Javeriana enseñó clínicas durante sus primeros 25 años de existencia en hospitales tradicionales de Bogotá tales como el San José, la Samaritana y el Instituto de Cancerología. La medicina en adultos era manejada por internistas generales como De Zubiría o Carrizosa o por cardiólogos como Consuegra.

    Poca cabida había para especialistas, los que con el tiempo empezaron a llegar del exterior. Cuando el Hospital San José se encargaba de la docencia en Medicina Interna, allí se rotaba por el servicio de endocrinología donde se formó como endocrinólogo el doctor Julio Gómez Afanador, quien ha sido casi que el secretario perpetuo de la Sociedad Colombiana de Endocrinología y quien es coautor de muchos de los estudios de bocio endémico y crecimiento producidos por este servicio; en 1965 él organizó una consulta de endocrinología en el Hospital San Ignacio, que a partir de 1968 empecé a dirigir.

    La endocrinología se enseñaba poco, que recuerde; hubo clases de fisiología endocrina por Hernán Mendoza y algunas pocas charlas que sobre el tema nos dio Bernardo Reyes en la Samaritana. Con mi amigo y colega Alvaro Mesa resolvimos indagar en un tema que se había puesto de moda merced a las investigaciones de los inmunólogos ingleses Deborah Doniach y su asociado el doctor Roitt: la autoinmunidad tiroidea.

    El Instituto de Cancerología nos pareció el sitio adecuado para trabajar en este proyecto que serviría para nuestra tesis de grado pues convocamos el grupo liderado por Jaime Cortázar, quien contaba con Efraím Otero como su asociado y a Jaime Ahumada como residente. Ellos habían sido pioneros en el manejo de los isótopos radioactivos en Colombia y el hecho de que aplicaran una novedosa e impactante tecnología, la gamagrafía en el diagnóstico tiroideo, les daba una aureola de científicos que sin duda nos atrajo.

    Tomando sueros de pacientes de su nutrida

  15. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: The current status of heat shock in early embryonic survival and reproductive efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium entitled “The Current Status of Heat Shock in Early Embryonic Survival and Reproductive Efficiency” was held at the Joint ADSA-CSAS-AMPA-WSAS-ASAS Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, July 15 to 19, 2012. In recent years, data has accumulated suggesting a role for...

  16. Outcomes of androgen replacement therapy in adult male hypogonadism: recommendations from the Italian society of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, A M; Balercia, G; Calogero, A E; Corona, G; Ferlin, A; Francavilla, S; Santi, D; Maggi, M

    2015-01-01

    We developed clinical practice guidelines to assess the individual risk-benefit profile of androgen replacement therapy in adult male hypogonadism (HG), defined by the presence of specific signs and symptoms and serum testosterone (T) below 12 nmol/L. The task force consisted of eight clinicians experienced in treating HG, selected by the Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus was guided by a systematic review of controlled trials conducted on men with a mean T treatments for individuals at high risk for complications, such as those with osteoporosis and/or metabolic disorders. We recommend against using TS to improve cardiac outcome and limited mobility. We recommend against using TS in men with prostate cancer, unstable cardiovascular conditions or elevated haematocrit. The task force places a high value on the timely treatment of younger and middle-aged subjects to prevent the long-term consequences of hypoandrogenism.

  17. Early and late endocrinologic complications of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation performed for hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Albayrak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is usedfor various hematologic malignancies seen in childrenand adults. There may be several complications before,during, and after the HSCT. Just one of them is endocrinologiccomplications, since endocrine system (particularlythe pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, andgonads is highly sensitive against various stress. Chemotherapyand/or total body irradiation used as preparativeregimens and immunosuppressive agents (especiallycorticosteroids used for the graft-versus-host diseasecan cause hormonal disorders. Time elapsed after theHSCT, transplantation type (autologous or allogeneic,preparative regimen choice, age, and gender determinesthe complications. A multidisciplinary management containinga specialist of endocrinology for these patients ispreferred. In this report, we reviewed the endocrinologiccomplications that observed after the HSCT in childrenand adults referring to the recent literatures. J Clin ExpInvest 2012; 3(1: 149-156

  18. Study on reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with estriol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Zhou Zhenli; Zhou Jiwen; Li Xin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with ultralente estriol for 3 years. Methods: Serum levels of six reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, T, E 2 , P) were measured with RIA in 1) 136 normal 1-5yrs post-menopausal women 2) 48 post-menopausal women treated with estriol for 3 years 3) 131 healthy women of child-bearing age during follicular and luteal phases. Results: Serum levels of the six reproductive hormones in women of child-bearing age at both follicular and luteal phases were significantly different from those in post-menopausal women (p 2 , P and T levels were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum reproductive hormones assay is important for monitoring hormone replacement therapy in aging women

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a position statement from the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Sergio Setsuo; Moreira, Carolina Aguiar; Borba, Victória Zeghbi Cochenski; Bandeira, Francisco; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss de; Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Paula, Francisco José Albuquerque de; Vanderlei, Felipe Augusto Brasileiro; Montenegro, Fábio Luiz de Menezes; Santos, Rodrigo Oliveira; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2018-02-01

    Objective To present an update on the diagnosis and treatment of hypoparathyroidism based on the most recent scientific evidence. Materials and methods The Department of Bone and Mineral Metabolism of the Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (SBEM; Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism) was invited to prepare a document following the rules set by the Guidelines Program of the Associação Médica Brasileira (AMB; Brazilian Medical Association). Relevant papers were retrieved from the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO, and the evidence derived from each article was classified into recommendation levels according to scientific strength and study type. Conclusion An update on the recent scientific literature addressing hypoparathyroidism is presented to serve as a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in Brazil.

  20. [Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. Consensus document. Andalusian Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SAEN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Fernández, P; González-Romero, S; Martín Hernández, T; Navarro González, E; Velasco López, I; Millón Ramírez, M C

    2015-09-01

    A position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy has been agreed on behalf of The Sociedad Andaluza de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SAEN), based on a review of the literature to date and all good clinical practice guidelines. The document is set out in different sections as regards the diagnosis and treatment of, overt and subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinaemia and postpartum thyroiditis. It also justifies the implementation of universal screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy, and provides practitioners who care for these patients with tool for rational decision making. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Pheochromocytoma in 8-year observation at a single endocrinological center in Wroclaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grazyna; Bucyk, Barbara; Daroszewski, Jacek; Bidzińska-Speichert, Bozena; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna; Szymczak, Jadwiga; Bednorz, Włodzimierz; Podgórski, Franciszek; Zareba-Bogdał, Elzbieta; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Filus, Alicja; Kałuzny, Marcin; Kubicka, Eliza; Syrycka, Joanna; Tupikowska, Małgorzata; Lizurej, Oskar; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is rare tumor with a highly variable clinical presentation. This report provides clinical picture, efficiency of diagnostics and treatment of pheochromocytoma in 8-years in the endocrinological center in Wroclaw. The records of 37 patients with pheochromocytoma were identified, who were treated in 2000-2007 in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Isotope Treatment in Wroclaw. There were 23 women (age 23-75 year) and 14 men (age 17-74). We studied frequency of clinical signs, usefulness of diagnostic methods and efficacy of treatment. The duration of the clinical history ranged from 2 months to 16 years. The most frequent symptoms were: hypertension paroxysmal and constant, palpitations, headache, sweating and anxiety. The most sensitive diagnostic method was increased concentration of urinary metanephrine in 24-hour urine. Computed tomography was the most widely used method for tumor localization. Adrenal pheochromocytoma was detecting by CT in all patients, predominated in right adrenal, in 1 case in urinary bladder. Surgery caused remission of hypertension in 59%, improvement in 26.8%, and no changes in 13.9% of patients. Malignancy was reported in 2 cases, 1 woman died after surgery. MEN 2A occur in 21.6%. The diagnosis of pheochromocytma is usually made after long duration of the disease. The study confirms that clinical presentation of pheochromocytoma is variable and nonspecific, this finding makes the diagnosis very difficult. The most typical symptom is paroxysmal hypertension, which is present only in 40%, other symptoms are nonspecific. The measurement of 24-hour urinary metanephrines was the best indicator. CT was almost always successful in localizing the tumor. Patients with pheochromocytoma should be consider for other endocrine diseases especially medullary carcinoma, primary hyperparathyroidism and other component of MEN 2A.

  2. Exploring the Association between Alzheimer’s Disease, Oral Health, Microbial Endocrinology and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice; Gonder, Ulrike; Robinson, Sarita J.; Crean, StJohn; Singhrao, Sim K.

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host. Brushing and chewing on teeth supported by already injured soft tissues leads to bacteremias. As a result, a persistent systemic inflammatory response develops to periodontal pathogens. The pathogens, and the host’s inflammatory response, subsequently lead to the initiation and progression of multiple metabolic and inflammatory co-morbidities, including AD. Insufficient levels of essential micronutrients can lead to microbial dysbiosis through the growth of periodontal pathogens such as demonstrated for P. gingivalis under low hemin bioavailability. An individual’s diet also defines the consortium of microbial communities that take up residency in the oral and gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiomes. Their imbalance can lead to behavioral changes. For example, probiotics enriched in Lactobacillus genus of bacteria, when ingested, exert some anti-inflammatory influence through common host/bacterial neurochemicals, both locally, and through sensory signaling back to the brain. Early life dietary behaviors may cause an imbalance in the host/microbial endocrinology through a dietary intake incompatible with a healthy GI tract microbiome later in life. This imbalance in host/microbial endocrinology may have a lasting impact on mental health. This observation opens up an opportunity to explore the mechanisms, which may underlie the previously detected relationship between diet, oral/GI microbial communities, to anxiety, cognition and sleep

  3. Exploring the Association between Alzheimer's Disease, Oral Health, Microbial Endocrinology and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice; Gonder, Ulrike; Robinson, Sarita J; Crean, StJohn; Singhrao, Sim K

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis , a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host. Brushing and chewing on teeth supported by already injured soft tissues leads to bacteremias. As a result, a persistent systemic inflammatory response develops to periodontal pathogens. The pathogens, and the host's inflammatory response, subsequently lead to the initiation and progression of multiple metabolic and inflammatory co-morbidities, including AD. Insufficient levels of essential micronutrients can lead to microbial dysbiosis through the growth of periodontal pathogens such as demonstrated for P. gingivalis under low hemin bioavailability. An individual's diet also defines the consortium of microbial communities that take up residency in the oral and gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiomes. Their imbalance can lead to behavioral changes. For example, probiotics enriched in Lactobacillus genus of bacteria, when ingested, exert some anti-inflammatory influence through common host/bacterial neurochemicals, both locally, and through sensory signaling back to the brain. Early life dietary behaviors may cause an imbalance in the host/microbial endocrinology through a dietary intake incompatible with a healthy GI tract microbiome later in life. This imbalance in host/microbial endocrinology may have a lasting impact on mental health. This observation opens up an opportunity to explore the mechanisms, which may underlie the previously detected relationship between diet, oral/GI microbial communities, to anxiety, cognition and sleep patterns

  4. Economic impact of and satisfaction with a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic at the endocrinology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Torres, Beatriz; López Gómez, Juan Jose; Gómez Hoyos, Emilia; Villar, Aurelia; Romero, Enrique; de Luis, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    No conclusive data exist on the value of a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic for management of nodular thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of and user satisfaction with a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic (HRTNC) in coordination with primary care. A prospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted to analyze data from 3,726 patients (mean age 61±12 years; 85% women) evaluated at an HRTNC during 2014 and 2015. Demographic data (sex and age), number of ultrasound examinations and fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNAC), referral center and consultation type were assessed. In 2014 and 2015, 3,726 neck ultrasound examinations and 926 FNACs (3.8% rated as non-diagnostic) were performed. Among the 1,227 patients evaluated for the first time, 21.5% did not require a second endocrine appointment, which resulted in mean estimated savings of 14,354.55 euros. Of all patients, 41.1% were referred from primary care, 33.4% from endocrinology, and 26.5% from other specialties. As compared to 2013, the number of thyroid ultrasound examinations requested decreased by 65.3% and 59.7% in 2014 and 2015 respectively, with mean estimated savings of 137,563.92 euros. Mean user satisfaction assessed was 4.0 points (95% confidence interval, 3.7-4.3) on a 5-point scale. HRTNCs at endocrinology departments, coordinated with primary care, are a viable, cost-effective alternative with a positive user perception. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Guideline: Treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollerslev, Jens; Rejnmark, Lars; Marcocci, Claudio; Shoback, Dolores M; Sitges-Serra, Antonio; van Biesen, Wim; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2015-08-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare (orphan) endocrine disease with low calcium and inappropriately low (insufficient) circulating parathyroid hormone levels, most often in adults secondary to thyroid surgery. Standard treatment is activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation and not replacement of the lacking hormone, as in other hormonal deficiency states. The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with guidance on the treatment and monitoring of chronic HypoPT in adults who do not have end-stage renal disease. We intend to draft a practical guideline, focusing on operationalized recommendations deemed to be useful in the daily management of patients. This guideline was developed and solely sponsored by The European Society of Endocrinology, supported by CBO (Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement) and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles as a methodological base. The clinical question on which the systematic literature search was based and for which available evidence was synthesized was: what is the best treatment for adult patients with chronic HypoPT? This systematic search found 1100 articles, which was reduced to 312 based on title and abstract. The working group assessed these for eligibility in more detail, and 32 full-text articles were assessed. For the final recommendations, other literature was also taken into account. Little evidence is available on how best to treat HypoPT. Data on quality of life and the risk of complications have just started to emerge, and clinical trials on how to optimize therapy are essentially non-existent. Most studies are of limited sample size, hampering firm conclusions. No studies are available relating target calcium levels with clinically relevant endpoints. Hence it is not possible to formulate recommendations based on strict evidence. This guideline is therefore mainly based on how patients are managed in clinical practice

  6. European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Consensus Guidelines on Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Juliane; Olivieri, Antonella; Donaldson, Malcolm; Torresani, Toni; Krude, Heiko; van Vliet, Guy; Polak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Evidence: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify key articles relating to the screening, diagnosis, and management of CH. The evidence-based guidelines were developed with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, describing both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. Consensus Process: Thirty-two participants drawn from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and five other major scientific societies in the field of pediatric endocrinology were allocated to working groups with assigned topics and specific questions. Each group searched the literature, evaluated the evidence, and developed a draft document. These papers were debated and finalized by each group before presentation to the full assembly for further discussion and agreement. Recommendations: The recommendations include: worldwide neonatal screening, approaches to assess the cause (including genotyping) and the severity of the disorder, the immediate initiation of appropriate L-T4 supplementation and frequent monitoring to ensure dose adjustments to keep thyroid hormone levels in the target ranges, a trial of treatment in patients suspected of transient CH, regular assessments of developmental and neurosensory functions, consulting health professionals as appropriate, and education about CH. The harmonization of diagnosis, management, and routine health surveillance would not only optimize patient outcomes, but should also facilitate epidemiological studies of the disorder. Individuals with CH require monitoring throughout their lives, particularly during early childhood and pregnancy. PMID:24446653

  7. Advances in conservation endocrinology: the application of molecular approaches to the conservation of endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Christopher; McDonough, Caitlin E; Felton, Rachel; Milnes, Matthew R

    2014-07-01

    Among the numerous societal benefits of comparative endocrinology is the application of our collective knowledge of hormone signaling towards the conservation of threatened and endangered species - conservation endocrinology. For several decades endocrinologists have used longitudinal hormone profiles to monitor reproductive status in a multitude of species. Knowledge of reproductive status among individuals has been used to assist in the management of captive and free-ranging populations. More recently, researchers have begun utilizing molecular and cell-based techniques to gain a more complete understanding of hormone signaling in wildlife species, and to identify potential causes of disrupted hormone signaling. In this review we examine various in vitro approaches we have used to compare estrogen receptor binding and activation by endogenous hormones and phytoestrogens in two species of rhinoceros; southern white and greater one-horned. We have found many of these techniques valuable and practical in species where access to research subjects and/or tissues is limited due to their conservation status. From cell-free, competitive binding assays to full-length receptor activation assays; each technique has strengths and weaknesses related to cost, sensitivity, complexity of the protocols, and relevance to in vivo signaling. We then present a novel approach, in which receptor activation assays are performed in primary cell lines derived from the species of interest, to minimize the artifacts of traditional heterologous expression systems. Finally, we speculate on the promise of next generation sequencing and transcriptome profiling as tools for characterizing hormone signaling in threatened and endangered species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the Association between Alzheimer’s Disease, Oral Health, Microbial Endocrinology and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Harding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host. Brushing and chewing on teeth supported by already injured soft tissues leads to bacteremias. As a result, a persistent systemic inflammatory response develops to periodontal pathogens. The pathogens, and the host’s inflammatory response, subsequently lead to the initiation and progression of multiple metabolic and inflammatory co-morbidities, including AD. Insufficient levels of essential micronutrients can lead to microbial dysbiosis through the growth of periodontal pathogens such as demonstrated for P. gingivalis under low hemin bioavailability. An individual’s diet also defines the consortium of microbial communities that take up residency in the oral and gastrointestinal (GI tract microbiomes. Their imbalance can lead to behavioral changes. For example, probiotics enriched in Lactobacillus genus of bacteria, when ingested, exert some anti-inflammatory influence through common host/bacterial neurochemicals, both locally, and through sensory signaling back to the brain. Early life dietary behaviors may cause an imbalance in the host/microbial endocrinology through a dietary intake incompatible with a healthy GI tract microbiome later in life. This imbalance in host/microbial endocrinology may have a lasting impact on mental health. This observation opens up an opportunity to explore the mechanisms, which may underlie the previously detected relationship between diet, oral/GI microbial communities, to anxiety, cognition

  9. Early studies reported extreme findings with large variability: a meta-epidemiologic study in the field of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Alahdab, Fares; Almasri, Jehad; Haydour, Qusay; Mohammed, Khaled; Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Prokop, Larry J; Alfarkh, Wedad; Lakis, Sumaya; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the presence of extreme findings and fluctuation in effect size in endocrinology. We systematically identified all meta-analyses published in 2014 in the field of endocrinology. Within each meta-analysis, the effect size of the primary binary outcome was compared across studies according to their order of publication. We pooled studies using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects method. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I(2) and tau(2). Twelve percent of the included 100 meta-analyses reported the largest effect size in the very first published study. The largest effect size occurred in the first 2 earliest studies in 31% of meta-analyses. When the effect size was the largest in the first published study, it was three times larger than the final pooled effect (ratio of rates, 3.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 5.90). The largest heterogeneity measured by I(2) was observed in 18% of the included meta-analyses when combining the first 2 studies or 17% when combing the first 3 studies. In endocrinology, early studies reported extreme findings with large variability. This behavior of the evidence needs to be taken into account when used to formulate clinical policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency and clinical and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia in an endocrinology unit in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Alejandra; Magaña-Torres, María Teresa; Guevara, Ornella; Muñoz, María Carolina; Parrilla-Alvarez, Alberto; Márquez, Yuliangelys; Medeiros, Ana; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2017-10-01

    To assess the frequency and the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in subjects attending an endocrinology unit. An observational, descriptive study evaluating 3,140 subjects attending the endocrinology unit of Centro Médico Orinoco in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, from 7 January 2013 to 9 December 2016. The index cases were selected using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. Plasma lipid levels were measured, and a molecular analysis was performed by DNA sequencing of the LDLR and APOB genes. Ten (0.32%) of the 3,140 study patients had clinical and biochemical characteristics consistent with FH. All but one were female. Three had first-degree relatives with prior premature coronary artery; and none had a personal history of this condition. Three patients were obese; three had high blood pressure; and no one suffered from diabetes. Three patients had a history of tendon xanthomas, and one of corneal arcus. LDL-C levels ranged from 191 to 486mg/dL. Two patients were on statin therapy. The genetic causes of FH were identified in four patients, and were LDLR gene mutations in three of them and an APOB gene mutation in exon 26 in the other. Approximately, one out of every 300 people attending this endocrinology unit in those four years had FH, and LDLR gene mutations were the most prevalent cause. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Diagnosis of congenital endocrinological disease in newborns with prolonged jaundice and hypoglycaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braslavsky, D; Keselman, A; Chiesa, A; Bergadá, I

    2012-03-01

    The association of prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia may be secondary to an endocrinological disease. Pituitary insufficiency and primary adrenal insufficiency are the most likely endocrine diseases that need to be ruled out. We retrospectively analysed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of thirteen patients referred to the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez between years 2003 and 2008 due to prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia secondary to pituitary insufficiency in twelve patients, and in one secondary to primary adrenal insufficiency. All patients had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Ten patients had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and six also had elevated transaminases. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency was observed in the twelve hypopituitarism patients. Hormonal replacement normalised liver function and resolved the prolonged jaundice in all the patients. None of them underwent liver biopsy. Hypoglycaemia also remitted after hormonal therapy. Prolonged or cholestatic jaundice associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia is highly likely to be due to pituitary hormone deficiency or primary adrenal insufficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment of these children reverts the prolonged jaundice and prevents morbidity and mortality due to recurrent hypoglycaemia and hormone deficiencies. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of Helisoma duryi (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksys, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Helisoma duryi is a hermaphroditic, freshwater, pulmonate snail native to North America. It has been proposed as a biological control agent against snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma sp., a parasitic trematode in man. Very little is known of the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of H. duryi. This thesis investigates vitello-genesis, endocrine control of the synthesis of albumen, a nutrient-rich fluid catabolized by developing embryos, and the possible endocrine role of the gonad. Light and electron microscopy, chemical extraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and radioimmunoassay are used to identify the yolk protein ferritin. It is proposed that ferritin synthesis, and its circulating levels, are regulated, probably indirectly, by a gonadal factor released into the blood. The rate of synthesis of albumen polysaccharides can be monitored in vitro by providing albumen gland explants with the precursor /sup 14/C-glucose and measuring /sup 14/C-polysaccharide produced. The basal synthetic activity of the gland reflects the reproductive activity of the snail.

  13. Evolutionary medicine and its implications for endocrinological issues (e.g. menopause).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Rühli, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Evolutionary medicine, which was formalized in the early 1990s, investigates evolutionary causes of recent human disease, disorders and malfunctions but also the influence of changing living conditions and modernization on health and disease. Evolutionary medicine can also provide insights into endocrinological disorders and in particular in the process of female reproductive senescence. Female reproductive senescence, i.e. menopausal transition is physiologically caused by the decline of estrogen secretion, which is associated with various somatic and psychic discomforts making this stage of life extremely uncomfortable. From the viewpoint of evolutionary medicine, these menopausal symptoms are the result from the sudden decrease of very high lifetime estrogen levels to zero during postmenopause, a situation which is quite new in our evolution and history. While women in recent developed countries experience menarche early, menopause late, few pregnancies, short periods of lactation and consequently low life time estrogen levels. The opposite is true of women living in traditional societies, whose living conditions may be interpreted as a mirror of the situation in our history. From this viewpoint we can conclude that menopausal symptoms may are the result of a mismatch between female reproductive physiology and recent living conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of infertility and polycystic ovarian disease: endocrinological and demographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, M G

    1987-09-01

    The frequency of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) as a cause of oligo-amenorrhea and infertility was determined, first by characterizing clinically occult PCOD using endocrinological methods, and secondly by estimating the frequency of overt and occult PCOD amongst infertile women residing in a particular area. Four groups of infertile women with oligo-amenorrhea due to 'functional' disorder were compared. The results show that by contrast with the groups having hyperprolactinemia or hypothalamic disorder the group with hirsutism (and therefore presumed PCOD) was closely resembled by a non-hirsute group in terms of estrogenization, LH level, LH/FSH ratio, prolactin level, body mass and responsiveness to clomiphene. The last group was therefore concluded to have a mild occult form of PCOD. The population studies revealed, first, that overt and occult PCOD accounted for 90% of patients with oligomenorrhea and 37% with amenorrhea, or 73% with oligo- or amenorrhea. Oligo- or amenorrhea accounted for 21% of couples with infertility and the annual incidence was 247 patients per million of the general population. The annual incidence of infertility due to PCOD per million was 41 with overt PCOD and 139 with occult PCOD (total 180). Of those, 140 appeared to respond well to clomiphene (78%) but 40 (22%) failed, requiring alternative therapy.

  15. Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: options and worldwide needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; de Ziegler, Nathalie; Sean, Sokteang; Bajouh, Osama; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Standardized, high-quality training in reproductive endocrinology, infertility, and assisted reproductive technologies (REI-ART) faces challenges owing to the high-tech nature of ART and the important country-to-country differences in clinical practice and regulations overseeing training. Moreover, while the training capacity of the classical by-fellowship training platforms is shrinking, an increasing demand for REI-ART specialists is coming from emerging countries. To meet this expanding need for REI-ART specialists, we propose a novel by-network model linking a reference training center to satellite practical training sites. Simulation should be used more extensively to achieve competency before initiating live clinical experience, analogous to the highly effective training systems that have been used in aviation for decades. Large ART databases that exist because of obligations to report ART activity and results constitute unique yet so far untapped sources for developing by-scenario simulation training models. Online training materials incorporating these state-of-the-art information technology tools could be developed as a means of fulfilling training needs worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Forever young: Endocrinology of paedomorphosis in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groef, Bert; Grommen, Sylvia V H; Darras, Veerle M

    2018-05-16

    The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a salamander species that does not undergo metamorphosis, resulting in the retention of juvenile characteristics in the mature breeding stage (paedomorphosis). Here we review the endocrinological studies investigating the proximate cause of axolotl paedomorphosis with a focus on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. It is well established that axolotl paedomorphosis is a consequence of low activity of the HPT axis. The pituitary hormone thyrotropin (TSH) is capable of inducing metamorphosis in the axolotl, which indicates that all processes and interactions in the HPT axis below the pituitary level are functional, but that TSH release is impaired. In metamorphosing species, TSH secretion is largely controlled by the hypothalamic neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which seems to have lost its thyrotropic activity in the axolotl. However, preliminary experiments have not yet confirmed a role for faulty CRH signalling in axolotl paedomorphosis. Other hypothalamic factors and potential pituitary inhibitors need to be investigated to identify their roles in amphibian metamorphosis and axolotl paedomorphosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Three patients with Schaaf-Yang syndrome exhibiting arthrogryposis and endocrinological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enya, Takuji; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Iba, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tomoki; Okada, Mitsuru; Ida, Shinobu; Naruto, Takuya; Imoto, Issei; Fujita, Atsushi; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Takemura, Tsukasa

    2018-03-01

    MAGEL2 is the paternally expressed gene within Prader-Willi syndrome critical region at 15q11.2. We encountered three individuals in whom truncating mutations of MAGEL2 were identified. Patients 1 and 2, siblings born to healthy, non-consanguineous Japanese parents, showed generalized hypotonia, lethargy, severe respiratory difficulty, poor feeding, and multiple anomalies including arthrogryposis soon after birth. We carried out whole-exome sequencing, which detected a MAGEL2 mutation (c.1912C>T, p.Gln638*, heterozygous). The patients' father was heterozygous for the mutation. Patient 3 was a female infant, showed respiratory difficulty reflecting pulmonary hypoplasia, generalized hypotonia, feeding difficulty and multiple anomalies soon after birth. Targeted next-generation sequencing detected a novel heterozygous mutation in MAGEL2 (c.3131C>A, p.Ser1044*). This mutation was not found in the parents. MAGEL2 mutations, first reported to be the cause of the Prader-Willi like syndrome with autism by Schaaf et al. (2013) Nature Genetics, 45: 1405-1408 show the wide range of phenotypic spectrum from lethal arthrogryposis multiplex congenital to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and mild intellectual disability (ID). Our results indicate that MAGEL2 mutations cause multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability accompanied by arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and various endocrinologic abnormalities, supporting that the view that clinical phenotypes of MAGEL2 mutations are variable. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of an e-learning portal for pediatric endocrinology: educational considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, K; Drop, S L S; Schuwirth, L

    2010-01-01

    Global accessibility and dissemination of developments in pediatric endocrinology prompted to examine how to develop an educational interactive e-SPE web portal. A systematic approach was used to identify the relevant aspects of accessibility and dissemination. An orientation at the big idea was made, executed by an analysis of the needs of student and teacher pediatric endocrinologists, a definition of the learning objectives, a research in educational literature and an exploration of ICT design specifications. The intensive collaboration between medical, educational and information technology disciplines resulted in a portal design. The portal meets requirements of adult learning, stresses interaction between partners in learning and offers direct feedback during the learning process. The portal supports the development of not only knowledge but also competences both at junior and advanced levels. When the e-SPE portal is completed, the options for summative assessment will be examined as a medium for international certification in conjunction with local and national requirements (http://espe.elearning.nl). Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Mechanisms in endocrinology: vitamin D as a potential contributor in endocrine health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Mitri, Joanna; Mathieu, Chantal; Badenhoop, Klaus; Tamer, Gonca; Orio, Francesco; Mezza, Teresa; Vieth, Reinhold; Colao, Annamaria; Pittas, Anastassios

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine diseases, such as hyperparathyroidism, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases, Addison's disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this review, we debate the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of endocrine diseases. Narrative overview of the literature synthesizing the current evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases, hand searches and authoritative texts. Evidence from basic science supports a role for vitamin D in many endocrine conditions. In humans, inverse relationships have been reported not only between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations but also with risk of T1DM, T2DM, and PCOS. There is less evidence for an association with Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroid disease. Vitamin D supplementation may have a role for prevention of T2DM, but the available evidence is not consistent. Although observational studies support a potential role of vitamin D in endocrine disease, high quality evidence from clinical trials does not exist to establish a place for vitamin D supplementation in optimizing endocrine health. Ongoing randomized controlled trials are expected to provide insights into the efficacy and safety of vitamin D in the management of endocrine disease. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Gonadal Morphology, Histology, and Endocrinological Characteristics of Immature Female Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Ryo; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Matsumoto, Rui; Nakamura, Masaru; Ueda, Keiichi; Sato, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Captive breeding of whale sharks is one of the great challenges for aquariums. However, there is limited information available related to reproductive physiology due to the difficulty of sampling and long-term observation. In the present report, we provide information on the reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, which were incidentally captured as bycatch in a set-net off the coast of Okinawa, Japan. Total lengths of three captured female whale sharks were 403, 665, and 761 cm, respectively, at the time of their death. Collected paired ovaries differed in size between right and left. However, it seems not to determine which side of ovary becomes developed. Histological observations revealed that oocytes surrounded by follicle cell layers localized in the developed ovary, and most developed oocytes exhibited yolk vesicle stage. Additionally, in the largest specimen, there were low levels of three steroid hormones (Testosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, and Estradiol-17ß) that did not show seasonal variation. The present results indicate that even the whale shark over 7 m in TL are still histologically and endocrinologically immature. We expect that the present data will provide fundamental information related to reproductive physiology of female whale sharks, and will contribute to protection activities and increased success in captive breeding of whale sharks.

  1. MRI findings and endocrinological dysfunction of apoplexy and silent hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannuki, Seiji; Bando, Kazuhiko; Shirakawa, Norihito; Matsumoto, Keizo; Bando, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Kusaka, Kazumasa.

    1993-01-01

    The study was designed to examine pathophysiology of endocrinological disturbance associated with diminished pituitary function by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The subjects were 13 patients with hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. According to clinical severity, the patients were classified as having (I) classical pituitary apoplexy (PA, n=2), (II) subacute PA (n=4), or (III) asymptomatic hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma (n=7). MR imaging and intraoperative findings revealed hemorrhagic PA in 7 patients and necrotic cyst formation in 5 patients. The cyst contents, either hemorrhagic or xanthochromic, were more accurately predicted by intensities on MR images than CT fidnings. Niveau formation was seen in 2 patients in Group I on MR images; however, MR imaging intensities differed in the two patients. In the first patient who developed classical PA during pregnancy, the upper and lower parts of the pituitary gland were seen as high intensity and iso-intensity, respectively. In the other patient, the upper and lower parts were seen as water-like and methemoglobin-like intensities, respectively. These findings have implications for the different etiology of niveau formation. In conclusion, diminished hypothalamic and pituitary function in pituitary hemorrhage seemed to be associated with disturbance of the connection between hypothalamus-anterior pituitary gland, or stalk of the pituitary gland. Hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy manifested by various clinical features seemed to be attributed to venous hemorrhagic infarction due to pituitary portal compression. Pituitary apoplexy itself seemed to compress the portal system, leading to venous hemorrhage. (N.K.)

  2. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON MENOPAUSE-2017 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobin, Rhoda H; Goodman, Neil F

    2017-07-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Position Statement is designed to update the previous menopause clinical practice guidelines published in 2011 but does not replace them. The current document reviews new clinical trials published since then as well as new information regarding possible risks and benefits of therapies available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. AACE reinforces the recommendations made in its previous guidelines and provides additional recommendations on the basis of new data. A summary regarding this position statement is listed below: New information available from randomized clinical trials and epidemiologic studies reported after 2011 was critically reviewed. No previous recommendations from the 2011 menopause clinical practice guidelines have been reversed or changed. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, SERMs, and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. New recommendations in this position statement include: 1. the use of menopausal hormone therapy in symptomatic postmenopausal women should be based on consideration of all risk factors for

  3. The neuro-endocrinological role of microbial glutamate and GABA signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mazzoli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota provides the host with multiple functions (e.g., by contributing to food digestion, vitamin supplementation and defense against pathogenic strains and interacts with the host organism through both direct contact (e.g., through surface antigens and soluble molecules, which are produced by the microbial metabolism. The existence of the so-called gut-brain axis of bi-directional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system also supports a communication pathway between the gut microbiota and neural circuits of the host, including the central nervous system. An increasing body of evidence has shown that gut microbiota is able to modulate gut and brain functions, including the mood, cognitive functions and behavior of humans. Nonetheless, given the extreme complexity of this communication network, its comprehension is still at its early stage. The present contribution will attempt to provide a state-of-the art description of the mechanisms by which gut microbiota can affect the gut-brain axis and the multiple cellular and molecular communication circuits (i.e., neural, immune and humoral. In this context, special attention will be paid to the microbial strains that produce bioactive compounds and display ascertained or potential probiotic activity. Several neuroactive molecules (e.g., catecholamines, histamine, serotonin and trace amines, will be considered, with special focus on Glu and GABA circuits, receptors and signaling. From the basic science viewpoint, microbial endocrinology deals with those theories in which neurochemicals, produced by both multicellular organisms and prokaryotes (e.g., serotonin, GABA, glutamate, are considered as a common shared language that enables interkingdom communication. With regards to its application, research in this area opens the way toward the possibility of the future use of neuroactive molecule-producing probiotics as therapeutic agents for the treatment of

  4. The Neuro-endocrinological Role of Microbial Glutamate and GABA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota provides the host with multiple functions (e.g., by contributing to food digestion, vitamin supplementation, and defense against pathogenic strains) and interacts with the host organism through both direct contact (e.g., through surface antigens) and soluble molecules, which are produced by the microbial metabolism. The existence of the so-called gut-brain axis of bi-directional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) also supports a communication pathway between the gut microbiota and neural circuits of the host, including the CNS. An increasing body of evidence has shown that gut microbiota is able to modulate gut and brain functions, including the mood, cognitive functions, and behavior of humans. Nonetheless, given the extreme complexity of this communication network, its comprehension is still at its early stage. The present contribution will attempt to provide a state-of-the art description of the mechanisms by which gut microbiota can affect the gut-brain axis and the multiple cellular and molecular communication circuits (i.e., neural, immune, and humoral). In this context, special attention will be paid to the microbial strains that produce bioactive compounds and display ascertained or potential probiotic activity. Several neuroactive molecules (e.g., catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and trace amines) will be considered, with special focus on Glu and GABA circuits, receptors, and signaling. From the basic science viewpoint, "microbial endocrinology" deals with those theories in which neurochemicals, produced by both multicellular organisms and prokaryotes (e.g., serotonin, GABA, glutamate), are considered as a common shared language that enables interkingdom communication. With regards to its application, research in this area opens the way toward the possibility of the future use of neuroactive molecule-producing probiotics as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurogastroenteric and

  5. Efficacy of a hyperglycemia treatment program in a Vascular Surgery Department supervised by Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimari, Francisca; González, Cintia; Ramos, Analía; Chico, Ana; Cubero, José M; Pérez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the strategy and efficacy of a hyperglycemia treatment program supervised by Endocrinology. All patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized at the vascular surgery department over a 12 month period were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics and hyperglycemia treatment during hospitalization, at discharge and 2-6 month after discharge were collected. Glycemic control was assessed using capillary blood glucose profiles and HbA1c at admission and 2-6 months post-discharge. A total of 140 hospitalizations of 123 patients were included. The protocol to choose the insulin regimen was applied in 96.4% of patients (22.8% correction dose, 23.6% basal-correction dose and 50% basal-bolus-correction dose [BBC]). Patients with BBC had higher HbA1c (7.7±1.5% vs. 6.7 ±0.8%; P<.001) and mean glycemia on the first day of hospitalization (184.4±59.2 vs. 140.5±31.4mg/dl; P<.001). Mean blood glucose was reduced to 162.1±41.8mg/dl in the middle and 160.8±43.3mg/dl in the last 24h of hospitalization in patients with BBC (P=.007), but did not change in the remaining patients. In 22.1% patients with treatment changes performed at discharge, HbA1c decreased from 8.2±1.6 to 6.8±1.6% at 2-6 months post-discharge (P=.019). The hyperglycemia treatment protocol applied by an endocrinologist in the hospital, allows the identification of the appropriate therapy and the improvement of the glycemic control during hospitalization and discharge, supporting its efficacy in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental influences on Adelie penguin breeding schedules, endocrinology, and chick survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninnes, C E; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E

    2011-08-01

    To understand how the social and physical environment influences behaviour, reproduction and survival, studies of underlying hormonal processes are crucial; in particular, interactions between stress and reproductive responses may have critical influences on breeding schedules. Several authors have examined the timing of breeding in relation to environmental stimuli, while others have independently described endocrine profiles. However, few studies have simultaneously measured endocrine profiles, breeding behaviour, and offspring survival across seasons. We measured sex and stress hormone concentrations (oestrogens, testosterone, and corticosterone), timing of breeding, and chick survival, in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at two colonies in two different years. Clutch initiation at Cape Bird South (CBS; year 1, ~14,000 pairs) occurred later than at Cape Crozier East (CCE; year 2, ~ 25,000 pairs); however, breeding was more synchronous at CBS. This pattern was probably generated by the persistence of extensive sea ice at CBS (year 1). Higher corticosterone metabolite and lower sex hormone concentrations at CBS correlated with later breeding and lower chick survival compared to at CCE - again, a likely consequence of sea ice conditions. Within colonies, sub-colony size (S, 50-100; M, 200-300; L, 500-600; XL, >1000 pairs) did not influence the onset or synchrony of breeding, chick survival, or hormone concentrations. We showed that the endocrine profiles of breeding Adelie penguins can differ markedly between years and/or colonies, and that combining measures of endocrinology, behaviour, and offspring survival can reveal the mechanisms and consequences that different environmental conditions can have on breeding ecology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetics in endocrinology: genetic variation in deiodinases: a systematic review of potential clinical effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Herman; Dekkers, Olaf M; Peeters, Robin P; Schoones, Jan W; Smit, Johannes W A

    2014-09-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases represent a family of selenoproteins involved in peripheral and local homeostasis of thyroid hormone action. Deiodinases are expressed in multiple organs and thyroid hormone affects numerous biological systems, thus genetic variation in deiodinases may affect multiple clinical endpoints. Interest in clinical effects of genetic variation in deiodinases has clearly increased. We aimed to provide an overview for the role of deiodinase polymorphisms in human physiology and morbidity. In this systematic review, studies evaluating the relationship between deiodinase polymorphisms and clinical parameters in humans were eligible. No restrictions on publication date were imposed. The following databases were searched up to August 2013: Pubmed, EMBASE (OVID-version), Web of Science, COCHRANE Library, CINAHL (EbscoHOST-version), Academic Search Premier (EbscoHOST-version), and ScienceDirect. Deiodinase physiology at molecular and tissue level is described, and finally the role of these polymorphisms in pathophysiological conditions is reviewed. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) polymorphisms particularly show moderate-to-strong relationships with thyroid hormone parameters, IGF1 production, and risk for depression. D2 variants correlate with thyroid hormone levels, insulin resistance, bipolar mood disorder, psychological well-being, mental retardation, hypertension, and risk for osteoarthritis. D3 polymorphisms showed no relationship with inter-individual variation in serum thyroid hormone parameters. One D3 polymorphism was associated with risk for osteoarthritis. Genetic deiodinase profiles only explain a small proportion of inter-individual variations in serum thyroid hormone levels. Evidence suggests a role of genetic deiodinase variants in certain pathophysiological conditions. The value for determination of deiodinase polymorphism in clinical practice needs further investigation. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. The polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Gerard; Dewailly, Didier; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Franks, Stephen; Gambineri, Alessandra; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Macut, Djuro; Micic, Dragan; Pasquali, Renato; Pfeifer, Marija; Pignatelli, Duarte; Pugeat, Michel; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovarian disorder associated with androgen excess in women, which justifies the growing interest of endocrinologists. Great efforts have been made in the last 2 decades to define the syndrome. The presence of three different definitions for the diagnosis of PCOS reflects the phenotypic heterogeneity of the syndrome. Major criteria are required for the diagnosis, which in turn identifies different phenotypes according to the combination of different criteria. In addition, the relevant impact of metabolic issues, specifically insulin resistance and obesity, on the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the susceptibility to develop earlier than expected glucose intolerance states, including type 2 diabetes, has supported the notion that these aspects should be considered when defining the PCOS phenotype and planning potential therapeutic strategies in an affected subject. This paper offers a critical endocrine and European perspective on the debate on the definition of PCOS and summarises all major aspects related to aetiological factors, including early life events, potentially involved in the development of the disorder. Diagnostic tools of PCOS are also discussed, with emphasis on the laboratory evaluation of androgens and other potential biomarkers of ovarian and metabolic dysfunctions. We have also paid specific attention to the role of obesity, sleep disorders and neuropsychological aspects of PCOS and on the relevant pathogenetic aspects of cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we have discussed how to target treatment choices based according to the phenotype and individual patient's needs. Finally, we have suggested potential areas of translational and clinical research for the future with specific emphasis on hormonal and metabolic aspects of PCOS. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Aberrations of the X chromosome as cause of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenetic failure, clinically noted as oligo- or a-zoospermia. Today, in approximately 20% of azoospermic patients, a causal genetic defect can be identified. The most frequent genetic causes of azoospermia (or severe oligozoospermia) are Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), structural chromosomal abnormalities and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. Consistent with Ohno's law, the human X chromosome is the most stable of all the chromosomes, but contrary to Ohno's law, the X chromosome is loaded with regions of acquired, rapidly evolving genes, which are of special interest because they are predominantly expressed in the testis. Therefore, it is not surprising that the X chromosome, considered as the female counterpart of the male-associated Y chromosome, may actually play an essential role in male infertility and sperm production. This is supported by the recent description of a significantly increased copy number variation (CNV) burden on both sex chromosomes in infertile men and point mutations in X-chromosomal genes responsible for male infertility. Thus, the X chromosome seems to be frequently affected in infertile male patients. Four principal X-chromosomal aberrations have been identified so far: (1) aneuploidy of the X chromosome as found in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY or mosaicism for additional X chromosomes). (2) Translocations involving the X chromosome, e.g. nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (XX-male syndrome) or X-autosome translocations. (3) CNVs affecting the X chromosome. (4) Point mutations disrupting X-chromosomal genes. All these are reviewed herein and assessed concerning their importance for the clinical routine diagnostic workup of the infertile male as well as their potential to shape research on spermatogenic failure in the next years. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. [Treatment of obesity in a hospital endocrinology clinic. Influence of parental body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueras Santos, L; Díaz Moro, A; Iglesias Blázquez, C; Rodríguez Fernández, C; Quiroga González, R; de Paz Fernández, J A; Rodríguez Fernández, L M

    2015-11-01

    Parental obesity is a risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to determine if parental obesity influences the adherence and success of obesity treatment in a hospital paediatric endocrinology clinic. An analytical, prospective, longitudinal study was conducted on obese children aged 4-14. An initial body mass index (BMI), and again at 6 months after receiving health, hygiene and dietary recommendations. Success was considered as a decrease of 0.5 in the BMI Z-score, and adherence to attending the 6-month review. Parental BMI was determined to identify overweight. The χ(2) test was used for qualitative variables and the T-Student test for quantitative (significance, p3). More than half (59%) of the children had one or both parents obese (41 fathers and 37 mothers were obese). Treatment was not adhered to by 25 children. Adherence was worse if both parents were obese OR 3.65 (1.3 to 10.5) (P<=.01) and adherence was better if the mother was not obese, although the father was (P=.01). The treatment had significant success in 40 patients. If the mother was the only obese one in the family, the possibility of treatment failure was greater OR 5.6 (1.4 to 22.4) (P<.01) CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of children with severe obesity have obese parents. The mother has an important influence on adherence and response to treatment for the severely obese child. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. More similar than you think: Frog metamorphosis as a model of human perinatal endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Daniel R

    2015-12-15

    Hormonal control of development during the human perinatal period is critically important and complex with multiple hormones regulating fetal growth, brain development, and organ maturation in preparation for birth. Genetic and environmental perturbations of such hormonal control may cause irreversible morphological and physiological impairments and may also predispose individuals to diseases of adulthood, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Endocrine and molecular mechanisms that regulate perinatal development and that underlie the connections between early life events and adult diseases are not well elucidated. Such mechanisms are difficult to study in uterus-enclosed mammalian embryos because of confounding maternal effects. To elucidate mechanisms of developmental endocrinology in the perinatal period, Xenopus laevis the African clawed frog is a valuable vertebrate model. Frogs and humans have identical hormones which peak at birth and metamorphosis, have conserved hormone receptors and mechanisms of gene regulation, and have comparable roles for hormones in many target organs. Study of molecular and endocrine mechanisms of hormone-dependent development in frogs is advantageous because an extended free-living larval period followed by metamorphosis (1) is independent of maternal endocrine influence, (2) exhibits dramatic yet conserved developmental effects induced by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones, and (3) begins at a developmental stage with naturally undetectable hormone levels, thereby facilitating endocrine manipulation and interpretation of results. This review highlights the utility of frog metamorphosis to elucidate molecular and endocrine actions, hormone interactions, and endocrine disruption, especially with respect to thyroid hormone. Knowledge from the frog model is expected to provide fundamental insights to aid medical understanding of endocrine disease, stress, and endocrine disruption affecting the perinatal period in humans

  12. [Evaluation of diabetic retinopathy screening using non-mydriatic fundus camera performed by physicians' assistants in the endocrinology service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcatali, M-G; Denion, E; Miocque, S; Reznik, Y; Joubert, M; Morera, J; Rod, A; Mouriaux, F

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, the High Authority for health (HAS) recommends the use of non-mydriatic fundus camera for diabetic retinopathy screening. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of screening for diabetic retinopathy using the non-mydriatic retinal camera by a physician's assistant in the endocrinology service. This is a retrospective study of all diabetic patients hospitalized in the endocrinology department between May 2013 and November 2013. For each endocrinology patient requiring screening, a previously trained physician's assistant performed fundus photos. The ophthalmologist then provided a written interpretation of the photos on a consultant's sheet. Of the 120 patients screened, 40 (33.3%) patients had uninterpretable photos. Among the 80 interpretable photos, 64 (53.4%) patients had no diabetic retinopathy, and 16 (13.3%) had diabetic retinopathy. No patient had diabetic maculopathy. Specific quality criteria were established by the HAS for screening for diabetic retinopathy using the non-mydriatic retinal camera in order to ensure sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In our study, the two quality criteria were not achieved: the rates of uninterpretable photos and the total number of photos analyzed in a given period. In our center, we discontinued this method of diabetic retinopathy screening due to the high rate of uninterpretable photos. Due to the logistic impossibility of the ophthalmologists taking all the fundus photos, we proposed that the ophthalmic nurses take the photos. They are better trained in the use of the equipment, and can confer directly with an ophthalmologist in questionable cases and to obtain pupil dilation as necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON TESTING FOR AUTONOMIC AND SOMATIC NERVE DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, Aaron I; Camacho, Pauline M; Davidson, Jaime A; Handelsman, Yehuda; Lando, Howard M; Leddy, Anne L; Reddy, Sethu K; Cook, Richard; Spallone, Vicenza; Tesfaye, Solomon; Ziegler, Dan

    2017-12-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.

  14. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THE ASSOCIATION OF TESTOSTERONE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil; Guay, Andre; Dandona, Paresh; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Faiman, Charles; Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-09-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.

  15. Combining Behavioral Endocrinology and Experimental Economics: Testosterone and Social Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral endocrinological research in humans as well as in animals suggests that testosterone plays a key role in social interactions. Studies in rodents have shown a direct link between testosterone and aggressive behavior1 and folk wisdom adapts these findings to humans, suggesting that testosterone induces antisocial, egoistic or even aggressive behavior2. However, many researchers doubt a direct testosterone-aggression link in humans, arguing instead that testosterone is primarily involved in status-related behavior3,4. As a high status can also be achieved by aggressive and antisocial means it can be difficult to distinguish between anti-social and status seeking behavior. We therefore set up an experimental environment, in which status can only be achieved by prosocial means. In a double-blind and placebo-controlled experiment, we administered a single sublingual dose of 0.5 mg of testosterone (with a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin carrier) to 121 women and investigated their social interaction behavior in an economic bargaining paradigm. Real monetary incentives are at stake in this paradigm; every player A receives a certain amount of money and has to make an offer to another player B on how to share the money. If B accepts, she gets what was offered and player A keeps the rest. If B refuses the offer, nobody gets anything. A status seeking player A is expected to avoid being rejected by behaving in a prosocial way, i.e. by making higher offers. The results show that if expectations about the hormone are controlled for, testosterone administration leads to a significant increase in fair bargaining offers compared to placebo. The role of expectations is reflected in the fact that subjects who report that they believe to have received testosterone make lower offers than those who say they believe that they were treated with a placebo. These findings suggest that the experimental economics approach is sensitive for detecting neurobiological effects as subtle

  16. Ranking of MR tomography after transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary. Retrospective comparison between endocrinology, surgery and MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewert, B.; Kaiser, W.A.; Hochstetter, A.; Solymosi, L.; Bootsveld, K.

    1994-01-01

    Postoperative magnetic resonance images of 40 patients after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma were evaluated retrospectively. The signal intensities of packing material and residual tumour were analysed. T 1 -weighted spin-echo sequences were obtained in coronal and sagittal views with and without intravenous injection of contrast media. Residual tumour demonstrated homogeneous or inhomogeneous signal intensity on the native scan with homogeneous or inhomogeneous enhancement. Packing material demonstrated a homogeneous signal intensity on the images obtained without injection of contrast media with a peripheral enhancement or alternate layers of low and intermediate signal intensity with alternate enhancement after injection of contrast media. In 5 of 54 examinations different results were found in MRI, endocrinology and surgery (two false negative and one false positive MRI in correlation with endocrinology; two residual tumours on MRI where surgery was supposed to be complete). Application of intravenous contrast media facilitates the interpretation of postoperative examination of the pituitary gland as well as comparison with preoperative examinations and the knowledge of the intraoperative procedure. (orig.) [de

  17. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and its control in type 2 diabetes: A multicenter study in endocrinology clinics of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Xu, Ming Tong; Yuan, Li; Chen, Bing; Xu, Zhang Rong; Guo, Qing Hua; Li, Qiang; Duan, Yu; Huang Fu, Jian; Wang, Yong Jian; Zhang, Miao; Luo, Zuo Jie; Zhao, Wei Gang; Wang, You Min; Yuan, Zhen Fang; Wang, Wei Qing; Wang, Peng Hua; Ran, Xing Wu; Wang, Yan Jun; Yang, Hua Zhang; Gao, Ling; Chen, Wei Qing; Ning, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of serum lipid and awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients from top-ranked endocrinology clinics in large cities of China. A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 4807 Chinese adults 40 to 75 years of age was conducted during 2010 to 2011 at 20 endocrinology clinics in top-ranked hospitals covering most of the major cities of China. Serum lipid levels were measured, and treatment of dyslipidemia was recorded and assessed. In the present study, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 67.1% in T2DM subjects. Among those with dyslipidemia, the proportion of awareness and treatment was 68.7% and 55.9%. Among participants with lipid-lowering therapy, 686 subjects achieved the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control less than 2.60 mmol/L, with the rate being 39.4%. In those patients with previous cardiovascular disease, the percentage of participants who achieved LDL-C goal (1.80 mmol/L) was 15.3%. The prevalence of dyslipidemia is high, and the awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia are relatively low in Chinese T2DM patients. This calls for the awareness and intervention of dyslipidemia in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Global Application of the Assessment of Communication Skills of Paediatric Endocrinology Fellows in the Management of Differences in Sex Development Using the ESPE E-Learning.Org Portal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine

    2017-01-01

    endocrinology. Guidelines are created for the assessment of communication between health professionals and individuals with DSD and their parents. METHODS: Paediatric endocrinology fellows worldwide were invited to study two interactive online cases (www.espe-elearning.org) and to describe a best practice...... as a separate key item to better reflect the qualitative differences in the replies and for simplicity of use by evaluators. CONCLUSIONS: E-learning can play an important role in assessing communication skills. A practical tool is provided to assess how information is shared with patients with DSD...

  19. Morbilidad en la consulta de endocrinología del Centro de Investigaciones Medicoquirúrgicas de Angola Morbidity at the Endocrinology outpatient department of the Center for Medicosurgical Research in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén S. Padrón Durán

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Los datos de la morbilidad en consulta externa pueden ser útiles para conocer las causas por las que los pacientes acuden al centro de salud, así como para planificar el ofrecimiento de consultas especiales y de exámenes complementarios. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar y analizar la morbilidad en la consulta externa de endocrinología del Centro de Investigaciones Medicoquirúrgicas de Angola (CIMECA. Se compilaron todos los diagnósticos de cada caso durante 28 meses consecutivos. Los diagnósticos específicos se clasificaron en 7 grandes grupos: 1 alteraciones de la glucemia, 2 obesidad y otros trastornos metabólicos, 3 medicina reproductiva, 4 trastornos del tiroides, 5 endocrinología pediátrica, 6 otras endocrinopatías y 7 sin endocrinopatías. Se atendieron 2 294 pacientes. Los grupos diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron: alteración de la glucemia (60,07 y obesidad y otros trastornos metabólicos (42,07; relativamente frecuentes fueron medicina reproductiva (19,4 y trastornos del tiroides (11,07. Sin embargo, los pacientes de endocrinología pediátrica (1,53 y otras endocrinopatías (0,22 fueron muy poco numerosos. Los diagnósticos específicos más comunes fueron la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 y la obesidad exógena (53,01 y 24,72 respectivamente, seguidos por las hiperlipoproteinemias (11,73. En un rango entre 4,5 y 10 % observamos bocio difuso eutiroideo, glucemia en ayunas alterada, infertilidad femenina e hiperuricemia; el resto se halló en menos del 3 % del total de casos. Lo resultados y conclusiones más importantes del estudio son: a Los grupos diagnósticos más comunes fueron las alteraciones de la glucemia y la obesidad y otros trastornos metabólicos, entre ellos la DM2 y la obesidad exógena, b Los diagnósticos de medicina reproductiva y trastornos del tiroides fueron relativamente comunes, c Los trastornos endocrinos en edades pediátricas y otras endocrinopatías fueron muy poco frecuentes, d

  20. Pharmacoeconomic assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus care on the base of Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess the development of medical care and pharmacological treatment at Endocrine Research Centre (ERC, Moscow, forthe period of 2010-2011 years.Materials and Methods. We analyzed files of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, who underwent hospitalization to ERCafter January 1, 2010. Key parameters were assessed by means of a study chart, applied for every patient file. Mean values, medians,fractions and confidence intervals (CI were calculated for studied parameters. Various methods of parametric and non-parametricstatistics were used for comparison of acquired values. Results. Files of 100 patients with T2DM, hospitalized to Endocrinology Research Centre, were analyzed to obtain clinical characteristicsand evaluate initial (prior to hospitalization and optimized (after hospitalization therapeutic schemes, as well as spendingpatterns. Mean patient age exceeded 63 years, mean duration period of T2DM was greater than 14.4 years. 86% of patients weredecompensated for glycemic metabolism. 8% were diagnosed with less than 3 diabetes complications, 66% were found to have from 3to 6 complications. Almost all studied cases (98% featured elevated blood pressure, 63% - diabetic retinopathy on different stages,59% - IHD, 51% - cataract, 49% - CKD. Lower limb angiopathy was found in 30% of cases, diabetic foot syndrome - in 15%.2 patients lost their vision due to diabetic complications and 3 patients experienced lower limb amputation. Arterial hypertension wascompensated in 14 cases from total of 98.Correction of therapy decreased fraction of patients on oral hypoglycemic agents and intermediate acting insulin (NPH, while prescriptionfrequency of short acting insulin and rapid acting human insulin analogues (as well as long acting analogues showed oppositetrend. Optimization of therapy also included prescription of hypolipidemic drugs for majority of patients, as well as various agents forcorrection of coagulation abnormalities

  1. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THE ASSOCIATION OF SGLT-2 INHIBITORS AND DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda; Henry, Robert R; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Einhorn, Daniel; Ferrannini, Ele; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; LeRoith, Derek; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Weir, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis EMA = European Medicines Agency FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration SGLT-2 = sodium glucosecotransporter 2 T1D = type 1 diabetes T2D = type 2 diabetes.

  2. Management of prediabetes: a comparison of the treatment approaches utilized by a family practice clinic and an internal medicine/endocrinology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Zachary L; Scopelliti, Emily M; Trompeter, Jessica M; Havrda, Dawn E

    2015-02-01

    To compare the management of prediabetes between a family practice clinic and internal medicine/endocrinology practice. A randomized, retrospective evaluation of the medical history in 168 eligible patients with a diagnosis of prediabetes or abnormal blood glucose (BG) at a family practice clinic (n = 78) and an internal medicine/endocrinology practice (n = 90). The internal medicine/endocrinology practice provided more counseling regarding lifestyle modifications (91.1% vs 76.9%, P = .039), specific physical activity recommendations (26.7% vs 7.7%, P = .003), and recommended more patients receive 150 minutes/week of moderate exercise (8.9% vs 1.3%, P = .038). The family practice clinic provided more written dietary information (16.9% vs 13.3%, P = .044) and specific weight loss goals (20.5% vs 6.7%, P = .015). The internal medicine/endocrinology practice initiated pharmacological therapy in more patients (51.1% vs 3.8%, P< .001) and had a significant decrease in fasting BG from baseline compared to the family practice clinic (-9.0 vs -5.6 mg/dL, P< .001). Providers are likely to initiate nonpharmacological therapy but may not provide specific education recommended by the American Diabetes Association. The integration of a multidisciplinary team to provide guideline-based nonpharmacologic counseling may be beneficial in improving outcomes in the management of prediabetes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Peace propaganda and biomedical experimentation: influential uses of radioisotopes in endocrinology and molecular genetics in Spain (1947-1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental endocrinology and one in molecular biology. For both groups foreign funds were instrumental in the early establishment of their laboratories. The combination of funding and access to previously scarce radioisotopes helped position these groups at the forefront of research in Spain.

  4. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Nutrition as a mediator of oxidative stress in metabolic and reproductive disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papalou, Olga; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kassi, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition can generate oxidative stress and trigger a cascade of molecular events that can disrupt oxidative and hormonal balance. Nutrient ingestion promotes a major inflammatory and oxidative response at the cellular level in the postprandial state, altering the metabolic state of tissues. A domino of unfavorable metabolic changes is orchestrated in the main metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, where subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial deregulation and impaired insulin response and secretion take place. Simultaneously, in reproductive tissues, nutrition-induced oxidative stress can potentially violate delicate oxidative balance that is mandatory to secure normal reproductive function. Taken all the above into account, nutrition and its accompanying postprandial oxidative stress, in the unique context of female hormonal background, can potentially compromise normal metabolic and reproductive functions in women and may act as an active mediator of various metabolic and reproductive disorders. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING: A CONSENSUS CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vivian A; Grunberger, George; Anhalt, Henry; Bailey, Timothy S; Blevins, Thomas; Garg, Satish K; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Orzeck, Eric A; Roberts, Victor Lawrence; Tamborlane, William

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use continue to hamper adoption of this valuable technology for the management of diabetes. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology convened a public consensus conference February 20, 2016, to review available CGM data and propose strategies for expanding CGM access. Conference participants agreed that evidence supports the benefits of CGM in type 1 diabetes and that these benefits are likely to apply whenever intensive insulin therapy is used, regardless of diabetes type. CGM is likely to reduce healthcare resource utilization for acute and chronic complications, although real-world analyses are needed to confirm potential cost savings and quality of life improvements. Ongoing technological advances have improved CGM accuracy and usability, but more innovations in human factors, data delivery, reporting, and interpretation are needed to foster expanded use. The development of a standardized data report using similar metrics across all devices would facilitate clinician and patient understanding and utilization of CGM. Expanded CGM coverage by government and private payers is an urgent need. CGM improves glycemic control, reduces hypoglycemia, and may reduce overall costs of diabetes management. Expanding CGM coverage and utilization is likely to improve the health outcomes of people with diabetes. A1C = glycated hemoglobin AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASPIRE = Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin Response CGM = continuous glucose monitoring HRQOL = health-related quality of life ICER = incremental cost-effectiveness ratio JDRF = Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation MARD = mean absolute relative difference MDI = multiple daily injections QALY = quality-adjusted life years RCT = randomized, controlled trial SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR = Sensor

  6. A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Emily J; Lambert, Tim; Carter, John N; Learoyd, Diana L; Twigg, Stephen; Clarke, Stephen

    2013-10-03

    Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology. Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status. For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n = 11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n = 4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n = 10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n = 2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.007). Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an observed structured clinical examination of these skills, when

  7. Practice patterns, satisfaction, and demographics of reproductive endocrinologists: results of the 2014 Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Kurt T; Nakajima, Steven T; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Price, Thomas M; Baker, Valerie L; Segars, James

    2016-05-01

    To identify the current and future state of the practice of reproductive medicine. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. None. Not applicable. The survey included 57 questions designed to assess practice patterns/metrics and professional satisfaction and morale. A total of 336/1,100 (31%) responded, and they were 38% women, 61% men, and 76% Caucasian, with a mean age of 54. Respondents averaged 2.3 jobs and averaged 53 hours of work per week: 44% work in academia and 50% in private groups. Average practice size was 5.5, with an average of 470 fresh IVF cycles performed per year. Percent effort included 63% infertility, 10% endocrinology, 10% surgery, and 9% research. Respondents performed an average of 13 major surgeries, 69 minor surgeries, and 128 oocyte retrievals per year. A total of 60% were salaried, and 40% were equity partners. Compensation was highly skewed. Greater than 84% had a positive morale and had a positive view of the future, and 92% would again choose REI as a career. The most satisfying areas of employment were patient interactions, intellectual stimulation, interactions with colleagues, and work schedule. The least satisfying areas were work schedule and financial compensation. Training was felt to be too focused on female factor infertility and basic research with insufficient training on embryology, genetics, male factor infertility, and clinical research. In the next 5 years, 57% suggested that the need for specialists would stay the same, while 20% predicted a decrease. A total of 58% felt we are training the correct number of fellows (37% felt we are training a surplus). Compared with academia, those in private practice reported higher compensation, less major surgery, more IVF, less endocrinology, and less research. Men worked more hours, conducted more surgery and IVF cycles, and had higher compensation than women. Morale was similar across age, gender, practice type, and geography. Our subspecialty has an extremely high morale. We

  8. TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale.

  9. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. WHO and national lists of essential medicines in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean: are they adequate to promote paediatric endocrinology and diabetes care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Amanda; Acosta-Gualandri, Alejandra; Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric endocrinology and diabetes is a paediatric specialty with less common conditions and higher cost medicines. Access to medicines for our specialty in low and middle income countries remains limited. We analysed the content of the WHO (children and adults) and of all available national Model Lists of Essential Medicines (EMLs) for Mexico, the Caribbean, Central and South America from a paediatric endocrinology and diabetes standpoint. A master list of medicines deemed necessary in paediatric endocrinology and diabetes was established and compared with the WHO and national EMLs, taking into account the gross national income. The WHO EMLs, which are largely recognised as an international benchmark and drive the content of the national EMLs, included many but not all medicines present on our master list. Interestingly, several national EMLs from richer countries included medicines that were not present in the WHO EMLs. Our analysis suggests that these medicines could be considered by the WHO for inclusion in their EMLs, which may promote the adoption of more medicines by individual countries. We also propose several changes to the WHO and national EMLs that could facilitate access to medicines in our specialty: age cut-off for a child using physical maturity rather than a set age limit; greater standardisation of the formatting of the national EMLs for easier comparison and collaborations between countries; greater emphasis on age-specificity and population-specificity for some medicines; and formatting of the EMLs in a disease-focused manner rather than as individual medicines. PMID:28588968

  11. Feasibility and patient acceptability of a novel artificial intelligence-based screening model for diabetic retinopathy at endocrinology outpatient services: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Lee, Pei Ying; Scheetz, Jane; Li, Zhixi; Kotowicz, Mark A; MacIsaac, Richard J; He, Mingguang

    2018-03-12

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and patient acceptability of a novel artificial intelligence (AI)-based diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening model within endocrinology outpatient settings. Adults with diabetes were recruited from two urban endocrinology outpatient clinics and single-field, non-mydriatic fundus photographs were taken and graded for referable DR ( ≥ pre-proliferative DR). Each participant underwent; (1) automated screening model; where a deep learning algorithm (DLA) provided real-time reporting of results; and (2) manual model where retinal images were transferred to a retinal grading centre and manual grading outcomes were distributed to the patient within 2 weeks of assessment. Participants completed a questionnaire on the day of examination and 1-month following assessment to determine overall satisfaction and the preferred model of care. In total, 96 participants were screened for DR and the mean assessment time for automated screening was 6.9 minutes. Ninety-six percent of participants reported that they were either satisfied or very satisfied with the automated screening model and 78% reported that they preferred the automated model over manual. The sensitivity and specificity of the DLA for correct referral was 92.3% and 93.7%, respectively. AI-based DR screening in endocrinology outpatient settings appears to be feasible and well accepted by patients.

  12. Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Dascola, Carlotta Povesi; Mirra, Virginia; Sperli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2014-07-12

    This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections.

  13. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Groen, Bart B L; Hamer, Henrike M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. To assess whether exogenous insulin administration increases muscle protein synthesis rates in young and older adults. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed and the presence or absence of an increase in muscle protein synthesis rate was reported for each individual study arm. In a stepwise manner, multiple models were constructed that excluded study arms based on the following conditions: model 1, concurrent hyperaminoacidemia; model 2, insulin-induced hypoaminoacidemia; model 3, supraphysiological insulin concentrations; and model 4, older, more insulin resistant, subjects. From the presented data in the current systematic review, we conclude that: i) exogenous insulin and amino acid administration effectively increase muscle protein synthesis, but this effect is attributed to the hyperaminoacidemia; ii) exogenous insulin administered systemically induces hypoaminoacidemia which obviates any insulin-stimulatory effect on muscle protein synthesis; iii) exogenous insulin resulting in supraphysiological insulin levels exceeding 50, 000  pmol/l may effectively augment muscle protein synthesis; iv) exogenous insulin may have a diminished effect on muscle protein synthesis in older adults due to age-related anabolic resistance; and v) exogenous insulin administered systemically does not increase muscle protein synthesis in healthy, young adults. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Kidney involvement in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: an update on clinical and molecular aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelli, C; Corbetta, S

    2017-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the third most common endocrine disease. Kidney is a target of both chronic elevated PTH and calcium in PHPT. The classic PHPT complications of symptomatic kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis have become rare and the PHPT current presentation is asymptomatic with uncertain and long-lasting progression. Nonetheless, the routine use of imaging and of biochemical determinations have revealed the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic kidney stones, hypercalciuria and reduced kidney function in asymptomatic PHPT patients. Though the pathogenesis is far from being elucidated, PHPT is associated with reduced renal function, in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate, and related increased morbidity and mortality. In the last decade, the effort of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) panel of experts highlighted that even mild reduction of kidney function is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These considerations provided the basis for the Fourth Workshop recommendations of a more extensive diagnostic workout about kidney features and of wider criteria for parathyroid surgery including asymptomatic kidney disease. Moreover, kidney involvement in PHPT is likely to be affected by variants of genes coding the key molecules regulating the calcium and ions renal handling; these features might have clinical relevance and should be considered both during diagnostic workout and follow-up. Finally, the effects of parathyroid surgery and of medical treatment on kidney involvement of PHPT are reviewed. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Embryo transfer simulation improves pregnancy rates and decreases time to proficiency in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellow embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; Csokmay, John M; Pilgrim, Justin; DeCherney, Alan H; Deering, Shad

    2017-05-01

    To design and evaluate an ET simulator to train Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) fellows' techniques of ET. Simulation model development and retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. Patients undergoing IVF. Simulation model evaluation and implementation of ET simulation training. Pregnancy rates. The REI fellow and faculty evaluation responses (n = 19/21 [90%]) of the model demonstrated realistic characteristics, with evaluators concluding the model was suitable for training in almost all evaluated areas. A total of 12 REI fellows who performed ET were analyzed: 6 before ET trainer and 6 after ET trainer. Pregnancy rates were 31% in the initial 10 ETs per fellow before simulator vs. 46% after simulator. One of six pre-ET trainer fellows (17%) had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs; whereas four of six post-ET trainer fellows had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs. The average number of ETs to obtain >40% pregnancy efficiency was 27 ETs before trainer vs. 15 ETs after trainer. Pregnancy rates were similar in the two groups after 20 ETs, and collective terminal pregnancy rates were >50% after 40 ETs. Embryo transfer simulation improved REI fellow pregnancy rates in their first 10 transfers and led to a more rapid ET proficiency. These data suggest potential value in adopting ET simulation, even in programs with a robust history of live ET in fellowship training. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Associations Between Waiting Times, Service Times, and Patient Satisfaction in an Endocrinology Outpatient Department: A Time Study and Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenzhen; Or, Calvin

    2017-01-01

    The issue of long patient waits has attracted increasing public attention due to the negative effects of waiting on patients' satisfaction with health care. The present study examined the associations between actual waiting time, perceived acceptability of waiting time, actual service time, perceived acceptability of service time, actual visit duration, and the level of patient satisfaction with care. We conducted a cross-sectional time study and questionnaire survey of endocrinology outpatients visiting a major teaching hospital in China. Our results show that actual waiting time was negatively associated with patient satisfaction regarding several aspects of the care they received. Also, patients who were less satisfied with the sociocultural atmosphere and the identity-oriented approach to their care tended to perceive the amounts of time they spent waiting and receiving care as less acceptable. It is not always possible to prevent dissatisfaction with waiting, or to actually reduce waiting times by increasing resources such as increased staffing. However, several improvements in care services can be considered. Our suggestions include providing clearer, more transparent information to keep patients informed about the health care services that they may receive, and the health care professionals who are responsible for those services. We also suggest that care providers are encouraged to continue to show empathy and respect for patients, that patients are provided with private areas where they can talk with health professionals and no one can overhear, and that hospital staff treat the family members or friends who accompany patients in a courteous and friendly way.

  17. Dissecting the workforce and workplace for clinical endocrinology, and the work of endocrinologists early in their careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Claude; Bach, Mark A; Cappola, Anne R; Seely, Ellen W; Ehrenberg, Ronald G

    2011-04-01

    The United States lacks timely reliable mechanisms for assessing the professional work of subspecialty physicians. The aim was to use early-career members of The Endocrine Society as a model to estimate subspecialty physician involvement in patient care, teaching, research, and administration among clinical, academic, federal, and pharmaceutical/biotech workplaces and to assess the workforce for research within individual workplaces. Physicians joining The Endocrine Society from 1991-2005 and residing in North America were invited to complete a Web-based survey. This report relies on 817 early-career endocrinologists or 29.6% of eligible respondents. Respondents from all types of workplaces engaged in patient care, teaching, research, and administration. The time committed to the four tasks, however, differed significantly among workplaces. Research (basic, translational, disease, patient, population, and prevention) was accomplished within all workplaces, but the scope and scale of investigative work was employer dependent. Recipients of National Institutes of Health K08/23 awards succeeded in receiving federal research project grants (P Women in academic settings earned less than men (P < 0.01) and were less likely to occupy tenure-eligible positions (P < 0.01). Web-based surveys offer a simple tool for estimating the work of subspecialty physicians and provide a framework for improving biomedical investigation. Several interventions should be considered for endocrinology: recruit physicians from underrepresented demographic groups, increase K08/23 awards, incentivize investigative careers, and improve the national infrastructure for biomedical research.

  18. Lapse in embryo transfer training does not negatively affect clinical pregnancy rates for reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresowik, Jessica; Sparks, Amy; Duran, Eyup H; Shah, Divya K

    2015-03-01

    To compare rates of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth (LBR) following embryo transfer (ET) performed by reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows before and after a prolonged lapse in clinical training due to an 18-month research rotation. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. All women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with ET performed by REI fellows from August 2003 to July 2012. Eighteen-month lapse in clinical training of REI fellows. CPR and LBR before and after the lapse in clinical training were calculated and compared per fellow and as a composite group. Alternating logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth following transfers performed before and after the lapse in training. Unadjusted odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were similar between the two time periods both for individual fellows and for the composite group. Alternate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference in CPR (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.07) or LBR (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18) after the lapse in training compared with before. A research rotation is common in REI fellowship training programs. This prolonged departure from clinical training does not appear to negatively affect pregnancy outcome following fellow ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Progress in pediatrics in 2011. Choices in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy and respiratory tract illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffarelli Carlo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Main progresses in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory tract illnesses selected from articles published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2011 were reviewed. Risk factors for gastroenteritis and appendicitis in developing countries may be useful in improving our understanding of these diseases. Childhood hearing impairment is a world-wide problem which continues to have an high prevalence in newborns. Among the mechanisms of diseases, obese children often have asthma and high hepcidin levels that may reduce serum iron concentrations. In cystic fibrosis, 18q distal deletion has been described as a novel mutation. Hypothyroidism in children with central nervous system infections may increase mortality rates. Infrared tympanic thermometer (IRTT in oral mode for the measurement of body temperature may be useful in fever screening in a busy setup. In newborns, the transmission of CMV infection through breast milk may be prevented through freezing or pasteurization. Recent advances in treatment of constipation, urinary tract infections, leukemia, pain in children with cancer, neonates with sepsis or difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation will likely contribute towards optimizing management of these common disorders. The work of the Family Pediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network aims to develop competence, infrastructure, networking and education for pediatric clinical trials.

  20. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Neurodevelopmental disorders in children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction: evidence of fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Carlé, Allan; Karmisholt, Jesper; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Andersen, Stig

    2017-07-01

    Fetal programming is a long-standing, but still evolving, concept that links exposures during pregnancy to the later development of disease in the offspring. A fetal programming effect has been considered within different endocrine axes and in relation to different maternal endocrine diseases. In this critical review, we describe and discuss the hypothesis of fetal programming by maternal thyroid dysfunction in the context of fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Thyroid hormones are important regulators of early brain development, and evidence from experimental and observational human studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in the brain caused by the lack or excess of thyroid hormone during fetal brain development. The hypothesis that such abnormalities introduced during early fetal brain development increase susceptibility for the later onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring is biologically plausible. However, epidemiological studies on the association between maternal thyroid dysfunction and long-term child outcomes are observational in design, and are challenged by important methodological aspects. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Mechanisms in endocrinology: the crosstalk between thyroid gland and adipose tissue: signal integration in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ferruccio; Marzullo, Paolo; Rotondi, Mario; Ceccarini, Giovanni; Pagano, Loredana; Ippolito, Serena; Chiovato, Luca; Biondi, Bernadette

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and thyroid diseases are common disorders in the general population and they frequently occur in single individuals. Alongside a chance association, a direct relationship between 'thyroid and obesity' has been hypothesized. Thyroid hormone is an important determinant of energy expenditure and contributes to appetite regulation, while hormones and cytokines from the adipose tissue act on the CNS to inform on the quantity of energy stores. A continuous interaction between the thyroid hormone and regulatory mechanisms localized in adipose tissue and brain is important for human body weight control and maintenance of optimal energy balance. Whether obesity has a pathogenic role in thyroid disease remains largely a matter of investigation. This review highlights the complexity in the identification of thyroid hormone deficiency in obese patients. Regardless of the importance of treating subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, at present there is no evidence to recommend pharmacological correction of the isolated hyperthyrotropinemia often encountered in obese patients. While thyroid hormones are not indicated as anti-obesity drugs, preclinical studies suggest that thyromimetic drugs, by targeting selected receptors, might be useful in the treatment of obesity and dyslipidemia. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Hormonas, cerebro y conducta. Notas para la práctica de la Psicología en la Endocrinología Hormones, brain and behavior. Notes on the psychology practice in the field of Endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Wong Carriera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas de los psicólogos en el campo de la Endocrinología y las de los propios endocrinólogos, requieren un mínimo de conocimientos sobre los efectos conductuales no endocrinos de las hormonas. La temporalidad es un concepto clave en Neurobiología, hecho que puede observarse con claridad en el efecto de las hormonas sobre la conducta, al tratarse de acciones moduladas por el período de maduración del sistema nervioso en que se ejercen. El mecanismo neural que facilita la ocurrencia de estas acciones en el tiempo es la plasticidad cerebral. Las hormonas, en su condición de factores epigenéticos, influyen en la conducta mediante los procesos de plasticidad, y provocan dos efectos principales: el organizador y el activador. El primero se refiere a la capacidad de las hormonas de influir en la citoarquitectura y estructura del cerebro de manera permanente durante el desarrollo, desde el período fetal hasta el final de la adolescencia, aunque algunos estudios sugieren que este efecto se mantiene más allá del período de la pubertad. El activador se relaciona con la activación de células diana para facilitar conductas en contextos específicos. Se trata de influencias transitorias, puntuales, que dependen de la concentración de las hormonas en cada instante. Solo conociendo la compleja relación entre el sustrato neural, las condiciones hormonales y el grado de maduración del sistema nervioso en general, y del cerebro en particular, se pueden diseñar estrategias terapéuticas correctas. El desconocimiento de estas interrelaciones lleva al riesgo de trabajar solo con la subjetividad del paciente y desconocer sus potencialidades y limitaciones.The practice of psychologists in the field of endocrinology and that of the endocrinologists as such require a minimum level of knowledge on the non-endocrine behavioral effects of hormones. Temporality is a key concept in neurobiology, a fact that can also be clearly observed in the

  3. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Diabetes mellitus, a state of low bone turnover - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygum, Katrine; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Harsløf, Torben; Vestergaard, Peter; Langdahl, Bente L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the differences in bone turnover between diabetic patients and controls. A systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline at PubMed and EMBASE. The free text search terms 'diabetes mellitus' and 'bone turnover', 'sclerostin', 'RANKL', 'osteoprotegerin', 'tartrate-resistant acid' and 'TRAP' were used. Studies were eligible if they investigated bone turnover markers in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Data were extracted by two reviewers. A total of 2881 papers were identified of which 66 studies were included. Serum levels of the bone resorption marker C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (-0.10 ng/mL (-0.12, -0.08)) and the bone formation markers osteocalcin (-2.51 ng/mL (-3.01, -2.01)) and procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide (-10.80 ng/mL (-12.83, -8.77)) were all lower in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Furthermore, s-tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase was decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes (-0.31 U/L (-0.56, -0.05)) compared with controls. S-sclerostin was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (14.92 pmol/L (3.12, 26.72)) and patients with type 1 diabetes (3.24 pmol/L (1.52, 4.96)) compared with controls. Also, s-osteoprotegerin was increased among patients with diabetes compared with controls (2.67 pmol/L (0.21, 5.14)). Markers of both bone formation and bone resorption are decreased in patients with diabetes. This suggests that diabetes mellitus is a state of low bone turnover, which in turn may lead to more fragile bone. Altered levels of sclerostin and osteoprotegerin may be responsible for this. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Care and economic impact of thyroid ultrasound examination at single visits to endocrinology clinics (the ETIEN 1 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral, Florentino; Ayala, María del Carmen; Jiménez, Ana Isabel; García, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    Routine thyroid ultrasound examination in a single medical appointment is rarely performed in Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the care and economic impact of thyroid US examination in a single endocrine appointment. A prospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted to analyze data from 2274 patients (mean age, 59±16 years; 83% females) performed at least one thyroid US in a single visit to an endocrinology clinic during 2013 and 2014. The number of endocrine acts with thyroid US, single endocrine and US acts without review, and the change in the number of thyroid US requested by endocrinologists to the radiology department and total thyroid US examinations performed at the radiology department during the study period were assessed. In 2013 and 2014, 2558 endocrine acts with thyroid US were performed, of which 42.2% were single endocrine and US appointments without a second endocrine act, with estimated savings of €58,946.40. As compared to 2012, the number of thyroid US requested by endocrinologists to the radiology department decreased by 43.3% and 86.0% in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and total thyroid US performed by the radiology department decreased by 28.1% and 68.3% respectively, with estimated savings of €94,441.36. Thyroid US examination in a single endocrine appointment allows for decreasing the number of both second endocrine acts and thyroid US examinations performed at the radiology department, thus reducing the number of unnecessary clinic visits and promoting considerable economic savings. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Skeletal muscle lipotoxicity in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: a causal mechanism or an innocent bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-02-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). One characteristic of a dysfunctional adipose tissue is the reduced expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leading to ectopic storage of fat in organs and/or tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2D that can cause lipotoxicity. Accumulation of lipids in the skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance, but the majority of previous studies do not prove any causality. Most studies agree that it is not the intramuscular lipids per se that causes insulin resistance, but rather lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols, fatty acyl-CoAs and ceramides and that it is the localization, composition and turnover of these intermediates that play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and T2D. Adipose tissue is a more active tissue than previously thought, and future research should thus aim at examining the exact role of lipid composition, cellular localization and the dynamics of lipid turnover on the development of insulin resistance. In addition, ectopic storage of fat has differential impact on various organs in different phenotypes at risk of developing T2D; thus, understanding how adipogenesis is regulated, the interference with metabolic outcomes and what determines the capacity of adipose tissue expandability in distinct population groups is necessary. This study is a review of the current literature on the adipose tissue expandability hypothesis and how the following ectopic lipid accumulation as a consequence of a limited adipose tissue expandability may be associated with insulin resistance in muscle and liver. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. La experiencia mística durante el climaterio: Un acercamiento desde la endocrinología antropológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira M. Melián

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante siglos la urdimbre entre lo empírico y lo creencial ha favorecido la identificación de la posmenopáusica con arquetipos antagónicos de transformación espiritual positivos o negativos. Entre los primeros encontramos el éxtasis místico, cuya elevada prevalencia durante el climaterio puede vincularse desde la endocrinología antropológica a cambios previos ligados al apagamiento ovárico en los ejes lácteo, óseo y adrenal que atenúan el vínculo femenino terrenal en favor del espiritual.

  7. CONSENSUS STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY ON THE COMPREHENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT ALGORITHM--2015 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Alan J; Abrahamson, Martin Julian; Barzilay, Joshua I; Blonde, Lawrence; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Bush, Michael A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Davidson, Michael B; Einhorn, Daniel; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Jellinger, Paul S; McGill, Janet B; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Rosenblit, Paul David; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2015-12-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.

  8. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-05-08

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  9. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  10. World endocrinology news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available • Actuality of the problem of metabolic syndrome: expert opinion. • Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. • Brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are characterised by impaired glucose tolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity and related metabolic defects. • Microvascular dysfunction: a potential pathophysiological role in the metabolic syndrome. • Cardiotrophin-1 is expressed in adipose tissue and it is UP-regulated in the metabolic syndrome. • Magnesium Intake, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Inflammation. • Red meat in the diet. • Relationships of maternal and paternal birth weights to features of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring: an inter-generation study in South India. • The truth about milk! • Therapeutic uses of aromatase inhibitors in men. • Reduction of body weight and co-morbidities by orlistat: The XXL - Primary Health Care Trial

  11. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). One characteristic of a dysfunctional adipose tissue is the reduced expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leading to ectopic storage of fat in organs and/or tissues involved in the pa...

  12. Endocrinology and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Charles L

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that thyroid and adrenal gland disease unquestionably can produce severe mental disturbances. Most of these are "organic" in nature, but depressive symptoms are common as well. Cautions that a connection between these diseases and suicide has not been established. Advises treating all depressed, suicidal persons with the same…

  13. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Nielsen, Trine; Pedersen, Oluf.

    2015-01-01

    Perturbations of the composition and function of the gut microbiota have been associated with metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Studies on mice have demonstrated several underlying mechanisms including host signalling through bacterial lipopolysacchari...

  14. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hansen, Morten; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid sequestrants have been used for decades for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Sequestering of bile acids in the intestinal lumen interrupts enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids, which initiate feedback mechanisms on the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in the liver, ...

  15. Structural genomics in endocrinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. W.; Romijn, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, endocrine research evolved from the phenotypical characterisation of endocrine disorders to the identification of underlying molecular pathophysiology. This approach has been, and still is, extremely successful. The introduction of genomics and proteomics has resulted in a reversal of

  16. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  17. [Endocrinology 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, V

    2001-02-15

    Long-lasting problem on the differentiation of adenohypophyseal cell, which prepares them for their specific tasks (somatotropic, lactotropic ect.), becomes elucidated after recognition of the differentiational effect of transcription factor Pit-1. Expression of that factor in somatotrops results in STH secretion, contrary to lactotrops producing prolactin. Subclinical hypothyreosis (increased TSH with normal T3 and T4) endangers vessel not because of hypercholesterolemia, but because of changes in the dynamics of the blood flow. The idea of cardiotropic effect of thyroidal hormones is supported by the finding that administration of trijodthyronine to children after the surgical correction of heart malformations (cardiopulmonary bypass) improves myocardial function--it elevates cardiac output and decreases requirements on the intensive care. Receptors for hormones in tissues are flexible, they can be "heterooligomers" for dopamine and somatostatin. Mutations of mineralocorticoid receptor may cause hypertension in pregnancy and progesterone receptors have several isoforms. Receptors can be also activated by short exposition to a hormone. Glucocorticoids have probably also membrane receptors. Diabetes mellitus "type I" needn't to be immunogenic and DM type II not only results from down-regulation of receptors and subsequent insulin resistance, but it can be also caused by defects in insulin secretion. Insulin has receptors in the brain and participates in the appetite regulation. The attempt to use "desensibilisation" by peroraly administered insulin in patients with immunogenic DM had no effect. Stress affects memory mechanisms, heavy emotional stress during gravidity can bring congenital malformations. The decrease of mental functions in aged women depends on the level of free estradiol (the fraction, which is not bound to plasma proteins). Activation of dopaminergic neurons can be achieved by neurotropic growth factors. Nesiritide is a recombinant brain natriuretic hormone successfully tested in heart failure. The role of leptin in the appetite regulation in man is still not clear, other signalling molecules may have also an effect, e.g., ghrelin, which primarily stimulates STH secretion and brings about weight gain. Sildenafil influences nitrergic neurons elsewhere than in penis, for example it has positive effects in patients with oesophageal achalasia.

  18. Endocrinology of parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Sunil K.; Gayatri, Kotni; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva K.; Krishna, S. V. S.; Meher, Lalit K.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2013-01-01

    The myometrium must remain relatively quiescent during pregnancy to accommodate growth and development of the feto-placental unit, and then must transform into a highly coordinated, strongly contracting organ at the time of labour for successful expulsion of the new born. The control of timing of labour is complex involving interactions between mother, fetus and the placenta. The timely onset of labour and delivery is an important determinant of perinatal outcome. Both preterm birth (delivery before 37 week of gestation) and post term pregnancy (pregnancy continuing beyond 42 weeks) are both associated with a significant increase in perinatal morbidity and mortality. There are multiple paracrine/autocrine events, fetal hormonal changes and overlapping maternal/fetal control mechanisms for the triggering of parturition in women. Our current article reviews the mechanisms for uterine distension and reduced contractions during pregnancy and the parturition cascade responsible for the timely and spontaneous onset of labour at term. It also discusses the mechanisms of preterm labour and post term pregnancy and the clinical implications thereof. PMID:23776853

  19. Endocrinology in ancient Sparta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoulogiannis, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the crucial link between the plant Agnus castus and human health, particularly hormonal status, with special reference to the needs of the society of ancient Sparta. The ancient Spartans used Agnus both as a cure for infertility and as a remedy to treat battle wounds. These special properties were recognized by the sanctuary of Asclepios Agnita, which was located in Sparta, as well as by medical practitioners in Sparta during the classical, Hellenistic and Roman ages.

  20. Endocrinology of Hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Kopera, Daisy; Wehr, Elisabeth; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism represents a primary clinical indicator of androgen excess. The most common endocrine condition causing hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Diagnosing PCOS is not easy as the signs and symptoms are heterogenous. The newest diagnostic guideline made by the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society in 2006, claims the presence of hyperandrogenism, and ovarian dysfunction (oligo / anovulation and / or polycystic ovaries). Obesity associated reproductive and metabolic dysfunctions may...

  1. Endocrinology Update: Hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J

    2016-12-01

    Hypopituitarism is defined as a deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones due to a decline in function of the pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus, which can result in higher risks of morbidity and mortality and decreased quality of life. Although hypopituitarism is a rare condition, it commonly develops after traumatic brain injury and in the setting of functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. The diagnosis is based on detailed investigation of symptoms of target endocrine gland function relative to the corresponding pituitary hormone deficiency. The clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism result from the degree of the specific hormone deficiency. A thorough and longitudinal history and physical examination, including visual field testing, are paramount. Management consists of prompt pharmacotherapy, surgery, and/or radiotherapy to restore normal endocrine function and quality of life. In most patients with anterior and posterior pituitary hormone deficiency, corresponding hormone replacement is the mainstay of therapy. The prognosis for patients with hypopituitarism depends on the manner of and age at presentation, degree and severity of hormonal impairment, and response to medical and surgical therapies. Patients with hypopituitarism require lifelong monitoring of serum hormone levels and symptoms of hormone deficiency or excess. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  2. Commentary: Parallel Evolution of Molecular Endocrinology as a Journal and a Discipline: Convergence of Interests with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK/NIH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Ronald; Smith, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) celebrates in 2010 its 60th year as an institute of the National Institutes of Health. NIDDK has been fundamental in providing support for research in endocrinology, fostering research to elucidate basic principles of endocrine signaling leading to understanding of diseases and disorders of hormone action. Over this time span, a move to a more molecular level in understanding of the basis of hormone action has emerged and been supported by NIDDK, with many advances finding their way into a new journal, Molecular Endocrinology. The merging of disciplines that has made this possible constitutes a major force for further progress as NIDDK moves forward over the next 60 yr. Together, NIDDK and Molecular Endocrinology have served as catalysts for advancing knowledge in the field, energizing new paradigms that have led to advances in the clinic. PMID:20660301

  3. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Paul S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Rosenblit, Paul D; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; Guerin, Chris K; Bell, David S H; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Wyne, Kathleen; Smith, Donald; Brinton, Eliot A; Fazio, Sergio; Davidson, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols. The Executive Summary of this document contains 87 recommendations of which 45 are Grade A (51.7%), 18 are Grade B (20.7%), 15 are Grade C (17.2%), and 9 (10.3%) are Grade D. These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision-making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world medical care. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for Executive Summary Recommendations. This update contains 695 citations of which 203 (29.2 %) are EL 1 (strong), 137 (19.7%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 119 (17.1%) are EL 3 (weak), and 236 (34.0%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence). This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other health care professionals, health-related organizations, and regulatory bodies can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of individuals with various lipid disorders. The recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously endorsed and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to individuals with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and youth with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions. 4S

  4. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY 2018 POSITION STATEMENT ON INTEGRATION OF INSULIN PUMPS AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Haas, Richard A; Roberts, Victor L; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2018-03-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there are no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician. AACE/ACE Task Force on Integration of Insulin Pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Chair George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE Task Force Members Yehuda Handelsman, MD, FACP, FNLA, MACE Zachary T. Bloomgarden, MD, MACE Vivian A. Fonseca, MD, FACE Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE Richard A. Haas, MD, FACE Victor L. Roberts, MD, MBA, FACP, FACE Guillermo E. Umpierrez, MD, CDE, FACP, FACE Abbreviations: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology A1C = glycated hemoglobin BGM = blood glucose monitoring CGM = continuous glucose monitoring CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion DM = diabetes mellitus FDA = Food & Drug Administration MDI = multiple daily injections T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR 3 = Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction phase 3 trial.

  5. Diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism--a scientific statement from the Department of Bone Metabolism, the Brazilian Society for Endocrinology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Francisco; Griz, Luiz; Chaves, Narriane; Carvalho, Nara Crispim; Borges, Lívia Maria; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise; Borba, Victoria; Castro, Luiz Cláudio de; Borges, João Lindolfo; Bilezikian, John

    2013-08-01

    To conduct a literature review on the diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism including the classical hipercalcemic form as well as the normocalcemic variant. This scientific statement was generated by a request from the Brazilian Medical Association (AMB) to the Brazilian Society for Endocrinology as part of its Clinical Practice Guidelines program. Articles were identified by searching in PubMed and Cochrane databases as well as abstracts presented at the Endocrine Society, Brazilian Society for Endocrinology Annual Meetings and the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Annual Meeting during the last 5 years. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were adapted from the first report of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. All grades of recommendation, including "D", are based on scientific evidence. The differences between A, B, C and D, are due exclusively to the methods employed in generating evidence. We present a scientific statement on primary hyperparathyroidism providing the level of evidence and the degree of recommendation regarding causes, clinical presentation as well as surgical and medical treatment.

  6. [Update of recommendations for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine and nutritional conditions. Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Martín, Antonia; Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; Cortés-Berdonces, María; Luque-Fernández, Inés; Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Guadalix Iglesias, Sonsoles; Fernández García, Diego; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    To update previous recommendations developed by the Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition for the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to different endocrine and nutritional diseases. Members of the Working Group on Osteoporosis and Mineral Metabolism of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the following terms associated to the name of each condition: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", and "treatment". Papers in English with publication date between 18 October 2011 and 30 October 2014 were included. The recommendations were discussed and approved by all members of the Working Group. This update summarizes the new data regarding evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine and nutritional conditions. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A review on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma by the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Gadelha, Monica R.; Boguszewski, Cesar L.; Bronstein, Marcello D.; Musolino, Nina R. de C.; Miranda, Paulo Augusto C.; Nave, Luciana A.; Vilar, Lucio; Oliveira Junior, Antonio Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are the most common pituitary tumors after prolactinomas. The absence of clinical symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion can contribute to the late diagnosis of the disease. Thus, the majority of patients seek medical attention for signs and symptoms resulting from mass effect, such as neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and hypopituitarism. Other presentations include pituitary apoplexy or an incidental finding on imaging studies. Mass effect and hypopituitarism impose high morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis and effective treatment minimizes morbidity and mortality. In this publication, the goal of the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism is to provide a review of the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NFPA, emphasizing that the treatment should be performed in reference centers. This review is based on data published in the literature and the authors' experience. (author)

  8. A review on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma by the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Gadelha, Monica R., E-mail: mgadelha@hucff.ufrj.br [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Boguszewski, Cesar L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (SEMPR/UFPN), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Araujo, Luiz Antonio de [Centro de Endocrinologia e Diabetes de Joinville (Endoville), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Bronstein, Marcello D.; Musolino, Nina R. de C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia; Miranda, Paulo Augusto C. [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Nave, Luciana A. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Servico de Endocrinologia; Vilar, Lucio [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia; Oliveira Junior, Antonio Ribeiro [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia

    2016-11-01

    Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are the most common pituitary tumors after prolactinomas. The absence of clinical symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion can contribute to the late diagnosis of the disease. Thus, the majority of patients seek medical attention for signs and symptoms resulting from mass effect, such as neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and hypopituitarism. Other presentations include pituitary apoplexy or an incidental finding on imaging studies. Mass effect and hypopituitarism impose high morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis and effective treatment minimizes morbidity and mortality. In this publication, the goal of the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism is to provide a review of the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NFPA, emphasizing that the treatment should be performed in reference centers. This review is based on data published in the literature and the authors' experience. (author)

  9. Position statement: hypoglycemia management in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita-Raya, Pedro; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Moreno-Pérez, Óscar; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; Merino-Torres, Juan Francisco; Gorgojo-Martínez, Juan José; Jódar-Gimeno, Esteban; Escalada San Martín, Javier; Gargallo-Fernández, Manuel; Soto-Gonzalez, Alfonso; González Pérez de Villar, Noemí; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Bellido Guerrero, Diego; Botella-Serrano, Marta; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; López de la Torre Casares, Martín

    2013-11-01

    To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Members of the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Recommendations were formulated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (PubMed). Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 15 February 2013 were included. For recommendations about drugs only those approved by the European Medicines Agency were included. After formulation of recommendations, they were discussed by the Working Group. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Global Application of the Assessment of Communication Skills of Paediatric Endocrinology Fellows in the Management of Differences in Sex Development Using the ESPE E-Learning.Org Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine; Alderson, Julie; Muscarella, Miriam; Magrite, Ellie; Kuiper, Martijn; Abdelgaffar, Shereen; Balsamo, Antonio; Brauner, Raja; Chanoine, Jean Pierre; Deeb, Asma; Fechner, Patricia; German, Alina; Holterhus, Paul Martin; Juul, Anders; Mendonca, Berenice B; Neville, Kristen; Nordenstrom, Anna; Oostdijk, Wilma; Rey, Rodolfo A; Rutter, Meilan M; Shah, Nalini; Luo, Xiaoping; Grijpink, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2017-01-01

    Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric endocrinology. Guidelines are created for the assessment of communication between health professionals and individuals with DSD and their parents. Paediatric endocrinology fellows worldwide were invited to study two interactive online cases (www.espe-elearning.org) and to describe a best practice communication with (i) the parents of a newborn with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and (ii) a young woman with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. The replies were analysed regarding completeness, quality, and evidence of empathy. Guidelines for structured assessment of responses were developed by 22 senior paediatric endocrinologists worldwide who assessed 10 selected replies. Consensus of assessors was established and the evaluation guidelines were created. The replies of the fellows showed considerable variation in completeness, quality of wording, and evidence of empathy. Many relevant aspects of competent clinical communication were not mentioned; 15% (case 1) and 17% (case 2) of the replies were considered poor/insufficient. There was also marked variation between 17 senior experts in the application of the guidelines to assess communication skills. The guidelines were then adjusted to a 3-level assessment with empathy as a separate key item to better reflect the qualitative differences in the replies and for simplicity of use by evaluators. E-learning can play an important role in assessing communication skills. A practical tool is provided to assess how information is shared with patients with DSD and their families and should be refined by all stakeholders, notably interdisciplinary health professionals and patient representatives. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. ADIPOSITY-BASED CHRONIC DISEASE AS A NEW DIAGNOSTIC TERM: THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Hurley, Daniel L; Garvey, W Timothy

    2017-03-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) have created a chronic care model, advanced diagnostic framework, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical practice algorithm for the comprehensive management of obesity. This coordinated effort is not solely based on body mass index as in previous models, but emphasizes a complications-centric approach that primarily determines therapeutic decisions and desired outcomes. Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD) is a new diagnostic term for obesity that explicitly identifies a chronic disease, alludes to a precise pathophysiologic basis, and avoids the stigmata and confusion related to the differential use and multiple meanings of the term "obesity." Key elements to further the care of patients using this new ABCD term are: (1) positioning lifestyle medicine in the promotion of overall health, not only as the first algorithmic step, but as the central, pervasive action; (2) standardizing protocols that comprehensively and durably address weight loss and management of adiposity-based complications; (3) approaching patient care through contextualization (e.g., primordial prevention to decrease obesogenic environmental risk factors and transculturalization to adapt evidence-based recommendations for different ethnicities, cultures, and socio-economics); and lastly, (4) developing evidence-based strategies for successful implementation, monitoring, and optimization of patient care over time. This AACE/ACE blueprint extends current work and aspires to meaningfully improve both individual and population health by presenting a new ABCD term for medical diagnostic purposes, use in a complications-centric management and staging strategy, and precise reference to the obesity chronic disease state, divested from counterproductive stigmata and ambiguities found in the general public sphere. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ABCD = Adiposity

  12. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY PROTOCOL FOR STANDARDIZED PRODUCTION OF CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES, ALGORITHMS, AND CHECKLISTS - 2017 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Camacho, Pauline; Correa, Ricardo; Figaro, M Kathleen; Garber, Jeffrey R; Jasim, Sina; Pantalone, Kevin M; Trence, Dace; Upala, Sikarin

    2017-08-01

    Clinical practice guideline (CPG), clinical practice algorithm (CPA), and clinical checklist (CC, collectively CPGAC) development is a high priority of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE). This 2017 update in CPG development consists of (1) a paradigm change wherein first, environmental scans identify important clinical issues and needs, second, CPA construction focuses on these clinical issues and needs, and third, CPG provide CPA node/edge-specific scientific substantiation and appended CC; (2) inclusion of new technical semantic and numerical descriptors for evidence types, subjective factors, and qualifiers; and (3) incorporation of patient-centered care components such as economics and transcultural adaptations, as well as implementation, validation, and evaluation strategies. This third point highlights the dominating factors of personal finances, governmental influences, and third-party payer dictates on CPGAC implementation, which ultimately impact CPGAC development. The AACE/ACE guidelines for the CPGAC program is a successful and ongoing iterative exercise to optimize endocrine care in a changing and challenging healthcare environment. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACC = American College of Cardiology ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASeRT = ACE Scientific Referencing Team BEL = best evidence level CC = clinical checklist CPA = clinical practice algorithm CPG = clinical practice guideline CPGAC = clinical practice guideline, algorithm, and checklist EBM = evidence-based medicine EHR = electronic health record EL = evidence level G4GAC = Guidelines for Guidelines, Algorithms, and Checklists GAC = guidelines, algorithms, and checklists HCP = healthcare professional(s) POEMS = patient-oriented evidence that matters PRCT = prospective randomized controlled trial.

  13. The Molecular Registry of Pituitary Adenomas (REMAH): A bet of Spanish Endocrinology for the future of individualized medicine and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Raúl M; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Sánchez-Tejada, Laura; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Robledo, Mercedes; Madrazo-Atutxa, Ainara; Mora, Mireia; Álvarez, Clara V; Lucas-Morante, Tomás; Álvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Fajardo, Carmen; Castaño, Luis; Gaztambide, Sonia; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Gálvez, María Ángeles; Salvador, Javier; Valassi, Elena; Webb, Susan M; Picó, Antonio; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Gilabert, Montserrat; Bernabéu, Ignacio; Marazuela, Mónica; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Castaño, Justo P

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are uncommon, difficult to diagnose tumors whose heterogeneity and low incidence complicate large-scale studies. The Molecular Registry of Pituitary Adenomas (REMAH) was promoted by the Andalusian Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SAEN) in 2008 as a cooperative clinical-basic multicenter strategy aimed at improving diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas by combining clinical, pathological, and molecular information. In 2010, the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) extended this project to national level and established 6 nodes with common protocols and methods for sample and clinical data collection, molecular analysis, and data recording in a common registry (www.remahnacional.com). The registry combines clinical data with molecular phenotyping of the resected pituitary adenoma using quantitative real-time PCR of expression of 26 genes: Pituitary hormones (GH-PRL-LH-FSH-PRL-ACTH-CGA), receptors (somatostatin, dopamine, GHRH, GnRH, CRH, arginine-vasopressin, ghrelin), other markers (Ki67, PTTG1), and control genes. Until 2015, molecular information has been collected from 704 adenomas, out of 1179 patients registered. This strategy allows for comparative and relational analysis between the molecular profile of the different types of adenoma and the clinical phenotype of patients, which may provide a better understanding of the condition and potentially help in treatment selection. The REMAH is therefore a unique multicenter, interdisciplinary network founded on a shared database that provides a far-reaching translational approach for management of pituitary adenomas, and paves the way for the conduct of combined clinical-basic innovative studies on large patient samples. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma or a paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouin, P F; Amar, L; Dekkers, O M; Fassnacht, M; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A P; Lenders, J W M; Lussey-Lepoutre, C; Steichen, O

    2016-05-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles. We performed a systematic review of the literature and analysed the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) database. The risk of new events persisted in the long term and was higher for patients with genetic or syndromic diseases. Follow-up in the published cohorts and in the ENS@T database was neither standardised nor exhaustive, resulting in a risk of follow-up bias and in low statistical power beyond 10 years after complete surgery. To inform patients and care providers in this context of low-quality evidence, the Guideline Working Group therefore prepared recommendations on the basis of expert consensus. Key recommendations are the following: we recommend that all patients with PPGL be considered for genetic testing; we recommend assaying plasma or urinary metanephrines every year to screen for local or metastatic recurrences or new tumours; and we suggest follow-up for at least 10 years in all patients operated on for a PPGL. High-risk patients (young patients and those with a genetic disease, a large tumour and/or a paraganglioma) should be offered lifelong annual follow-up. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Animales de experimentación como modelos de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Laboratory animals in endocrinology. Biomodels of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Hugués Hernandorena

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que los modelos animales utilizados en las investigaciones sobre la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2, ayudan al estudio de los mecanismos patogénicos que conducen a la presentación de esta enfermedad, acompañada de severa o moderada hiperglucemia, intolerancia a la glucosa y otras alteraciones metabólicas relacionadas con la misma, y dan la oportunidad de explorar nuevos tratamientos y formas de prevenir estos cuadros morbosos. Se brindó información detallada sobre los biomodelos de la DM2, a partir de una revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema, que comprendió los que se originan espontáneamente y los que se logran de forma inducida. Se expusieron los factores ambientales que influyen sobre los mismos, y se describieron aquellos en los que se pueden presentar complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus no insulinodependiente. Se concluyó que estos biomodelos contribuyen al estudio de los mecanismos que originan esa afección y son de gran utilidad para los investigadores de esta rama de la Endocrinología, aunque no constituyan un reflejo exacto de esta enfermedad en el hombre.It is known that the animal models used in the research of type 2 diabetes mellitus help to study the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the presentation of this disease, accompanied of severe or moderate hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance and other metabolic alterations related to it, and give the opportunity to explore new treatments and ways of preventing these morbid clinical pictures. Detailed information is given on the biomodels of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on a bibliographic review made on this topic that included those which are spontaneously originated and the ones obtained in an induced way. The environmental factors influencing on them are explained and the biomodels that may present chronic complications of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus are also described. It was concluded that these biomodels contribute to the study of the

  16. Disaggregating Within- and Between-Person Effects of Social Identification on Subjective and Endocrinological Stress Reactions in a Real-Life Stress Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketturat, Charlene; Frisch, Johanna U; Ullrich, Johannes; Häusser, Jan A; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several experimental and cross-sectional studies have established the stress-buffering effect of social identification, yet few longitudinal studies have been conducted within this area of research. This study is the first to make use of a multilevel approach to disaggregate between- and within-person effects of social identification on subjective and endocrinological stress reactions. Specifically, we conducted a study with 85 prospective students during their 1-day aptitude test for a university sports program. Ad hoc groups were formed, in which students completed several tests in various disciplines together. At four points in time, salivary cortisol, subjective strain, and identification with their group were measured. Results of multilevel analyses show a significant within-person effect of social identification: The more students identified with their group, the less stress they experienced and the lower their cortisol response was. Between-person effects were not significant. Advantages of using multilevel approaches within this field of research are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. On developing a thesis for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellowship: a case study of ultra-low (2%) oxygen tension for extended culture of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    Fellows in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility training are expected to complete 18 months of clinical, basic, or epidemiological research. The goal of this research is not only to provide the basis for the thesis section of the oral board exam but also to spark interest in reproductive medicine research and to provide the next generation of physician-scientists with a foundational experience in research design and implementation. Incoming fellows often have varying degrees of training in research methodology and, likewise, different career goals. Ideally, selection of a thesis topic and mentor should be geared toward defining an "answerable" question and building a practical skill set for future investigation. This contribution to the JARG Young Investigator's Forum revisits the steps of the scientific method through the lens of one recently graduated fellow and his project aimed to test the hypothesis that "sequential oxygen exposure (5% from days 1 to 3, then 2% from days 3 to 5) improves blastocyst yield and quality compared to continuous exposure to 5% oxygen among human preimplantation embryos."

  18. A path model analysis on predictors of dropout (at 6 and 12 months) during the weight loss interventions in endocrinology outpatient division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Spadaccini, Daniele; Riva, Antonella; Allegrini, Pietro; Edera, Chiara; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Naso, Maurizio; Nichetti, Mara; Gozzer, Carlotta; Vigo, Beatrice; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2018-02-22

    This study aimed to identify the dropout rate at 6 and 12 months from the first outpatient visit, and to analyze dropout risk factors among the following areas: biochemical examinations, anthropometric measures, psychological tests, personal data, and life attitude such as smoking, physical activity, and pathologies. This is a retrospective longitudinal observational study. Patients undergo an outpatient endocrinology visit, which includes collecting biographical data, anthropometric measurements, physical and pathological history, psychological tests, and biochemical examinations. The sample consists of 913 subjects (682 women and 231 men), with an average age of 50.88 years (±15.80) for the total sample, with a BMI of 33.11 ± 5.65 kg/m 2 . 51.9% of the patients abandoned therapy at 6 months after their first visit, and analyzing the dropout rate at 12 months, it appears that 69.5% of subjects abandon therapy. The main predictor of dropout risk factors at 6 and 12 months is the weight loss during the first 3 months (p dropout at 12 months. Patients who introduced physical activity had a reduction of - 17% (at 6 months) and -13% (at 12 months) of dropout risk (p dropout vs. other categories of worker (i = 0.58; p Dropout risk at 12 months decrease in patients with a previous history of cancer, Endocrine and psychic and behavioral disorders (p dropout.

  19. [Clinical recommendations for sport practice in diabetic patients (RECORD Guide). Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo-Fernández, Manuel; Escalada San Martín, Javier; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Marco Martínez, Amparo; Botella-Serrano, Marta; Tejera Pérez, Cristina; López Fernández, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Sporting activity is becoming a common practice in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This situation requires both a preliminary medical assessment and a wide range of changes in treatment which have scarcely been addressed in medical literature. To prepare a clinical guideline on the medical approach to patients with diabetes who practice sport regularly. An expert panel from the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) reviewed the most relevant literature in each of the sections. Based both on this review and on data from the experience of a number of athletes with DM, a number of recommendations were agreed within each section. Finally, the Working Group and representatives of the SEEN jointly discussed all these recommendations. The guideline provides recommendations ranging from medical assessment before patients with DM start to practice sport to actions during and after physical activity. Recommendations are also given on aspects such as the impact of sport on blood glucose control, training schemes, or special risk situations. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Clinical practice guidelines for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine and nutritional conditions. Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; García Martín, Antonia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Luque Fernández, Inés; Varsavsky, Mariela; Guadalix Iglesias, Sonsoles; Cano Rodriguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María Dolores; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Cortés Berdonces, María; Fernández García, Diego; Calleja Canelas, Amparo; Palma Moya, Mercedes; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Jimenez Moleón, José J; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine diseases and nutritional conditions. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology, a methodologist, and a documentalist. Recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed), using the following terms associated to the name of each condition: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", and "treatment". Papers in English with publication date before 18 October 2011 were included. Current evidence for each disease was reviewed by two group members, and doubts related to the review process or development of recommendations were resolved by the methodologist. Finally, recommendations were discussed in a meeting of the Working Group. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations for evaluation and management of endocrine and nutritional diseases associated to low bone mass or an increased risk of fracture. For each disease, the associated risk of low bone mass and fragility fractures is given, recommendations for bone mass assessment are provided, and treatment options that have shown to be effective for increasing bone mass and/or to decreasing fragility fractures are listed. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. The Brazilian consensus for the clinical approach and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in adults: recommendations of the thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbi, Jose A; Teixeira, Patrícia F S; Maciel, Lea M Z; Mazeto, Glaucia M F S; Vaisman, Mario; Montenegro Junior, Renan M; Ward, Laura S

    2013-04-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) despite normal levels of thyroid hormones, is highly prevalent in Brazil, especially among women and the elderly. Although an increasing number of studies have related SCH to an increased risk of coronary artery disease and mortality, there have been no randomized clinical trials verifying the benefit of levothyroxine treatment in reducing these risks, and the treatment remains controversial. This consensus, sponsored by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism and developed by Brazilian experts with extensive clinical experience with thyroid diseases, presents these recommendations based on evidence for the clinical management of SCH patients in Brazil. After structuring the clinical questions, the search for evidence in the literature was initially performed in the MedLine-PubMed database and later in the Embase and SciELO - Lilacs databases. The strength of evidence was evaluated according to the Oxford classification system and established based on the experimental design used, considering the best available evidence for each question and the Brazilian experience. The topics covered included SCH definition and diagnosis, natural history, clinical significance, treatment and pregnancy, and the consensus issued 29 recommendations for the clinical management of adult patients with SCH. Treatment with levothyroxine was recommended for all patients with persistent SCH with serum TSH values > 10 mU/L and for certain patient subgroups.

  2. Endocrinología y Cáncer. Cuarenta años de la consulta en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Mesa Arévalo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente artículo está basado en la monografía originalmente titulada “Experiencia de cuarenta años en la detección del cáncer y su alteración con alteraciones endocrinas y metabólicas”, fruto del estudio realizado por Álvaro Mesa sobre el fichero de historias clínicas que Jaime Cortázar, fundador del servicio y del “Laboratorio de Endocrinología e Isótopos” llevó personalmente durante el periodo estudiado (1951-1991. Dicho trabajo participó en uno de los premios destinados a galardonar los mejores esfuerzos científicos sobre el tema del cáncer.

    Se publica en esta oportunidad por su valor intrínseco e histórico, y como un homenaje a los médicos de este servicio, algunos de los cuales ya han muerto o están retirados. Aunque actualmente este es dirigido por Gloria Garavito, y cuenta con la colaboración de Ernesto Moscoso y Tatiana López, la relación de pacientes analizados aquí pertenecen a la época de Jaime Cortázar, Efraim Otero Ruiz, Jaime Ahumada, Álvaro Mesa y Carlos Eduardo (Eddie Cortès Boshell, fallecidos estos dos últimos.

    El Instituto Nacional de Cancerología se ha interesado por muchos años en dar adecuada atención a los pacientes con cáncer, confirmado o con sospecha de tenerlo. Hacia los años treinta fue el primer centro del país en usar la radioterapia, procedimiento que con los años y con el avance de la ciencia, se vio complementado con diversos tipos de cirugía, cobaltoterapia, y en años recientes, quimioterapia y hormonoterapia.

    Han sido múltiples los estudios estadísticos llevados a cabo por diversos investigadores del Instituto, al igual que sus publicaciones. Sus aspectos históricos pueden ser consultados en dos obras de Efraim Otero Ruiz, una extensa y hermosamente publicada, “Setenta años del Cáncer en Colombia, Historia del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología”(1 y su obra más reciente “La medicina nuclear, temprana historia y reminiscencias

  3. Effects of potassium iodide (KI) protective dose on the course of thyroid diseases diagnosed at the Outpatient Endocrinologic Clinic in Lodz, 1986, before Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewinski, A.; Wajs, E.; Sewerynek, E.

    1991-01-01

    2521 patients of the Lodz Outpatient Endocrinologic Clinic (2290 females, 231 males; inhabitants of the central region of Poland were included in the study. The obtained results indicate that: 1) KI administration neither increased the number of exacerbations of hyperthyroidism nor affected the onset of new cases of that disease in 1986. 2) The same can be said about the cases of thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. 3) No increase of ATMA or ATG antibodies ''prevalence, as well as no elevation of those antibodies'' titres after KI prophylactic dose were observed in the patients with Grave's disease and chronic thyroiditis, when compared to persons who did not take Lugol's iodine. 4) The course of the majority of diseases diagnosed in 1986, evaluated with use of the, so called, test for analysis of trends, became unchanged. 5) There were adverse side effects noted after KI in 32 patients out of all the examined 774 patients (i.e., in 4.13%); five of the affected patients required medical care. 6) After iodine tincture; side effects occurred in three patients in the group of 35 patients included in the examination, i.e., in 8.57%; none of the affected patients required medical care. 7) Our results, comprising the four year observation period after Chernobyl accident, do not indicate any increased incidence of malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland, what confirms the apparent theoretical data; much longer observation time is necessary to reveal phenomena of scholastic type (10-15 years). (author). 30 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  4. CONSENSUS STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY ON THE QUALITY OF DXA SCANS AND REPORTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Angelo A; Binkley, Neil; Petak, Steven M; Camacho, Pauline M

    2018-02-01

    High-quality dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are necessary for accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of therapy; however, DXA scan reports may contain errors that cause confusion about diagnosis and treatment. This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus statement was generated to draw attention to many common technical problems affecting DXA report conclusions and provide guidance on how to address them to ensure that patients receive appropriate osteoporosis care. The DXA Writing Committee developed a consensus based on discussion and evaluation of available literature related to osteoporosis and osteodensitometry. Technical errors may include errors in scan acquisition and/or analysis, leading to incorrect diagnosis and reporting of change over time. Although the International Society for Clinical Densitometry advocates training for technologists and medical interpreters to help eliminate these problems, many lack skill in this technology. Suspicion that reports are wrong arises when clinical history is not compatible with scan interpretation (e.g., dramatic increase/decrease in a short period of time; declines in previously stable bone density after years of treatment), when different scanners are used, or when inconsistent anatomic sites are used for monitoring the response to therapy. Understanding the concept of least significant change will minimize erroneous conclusions about changes in bone density. Clinicians must develop the skills to differentiate technical problems, which confound reports, from real biological changes. We recommend that clinicians review actual scan images and data, instead of relying solely on the impression of the report, to pinpoint errors and accurately interpret DXA scan images. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; BMC = bone mineral content; BMD = bone mineral density; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; ISCD = International

  5. Follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, in accordance with the European society of endocrinology guidelines: Could we be safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, V; Scillitani, A; Arosio, M; Chiodini, I

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) published new guidelines on the management of adrenal incidentalomas. At the same time Lopez and coworkers published on the Annals of Internal Medicine an important study showing that even patients with non-functioning adrenal tumors have an increased risk of incident diabetes. In consideration of previous data and of the results of the study of Lopez and coworkers, some points emerge from the ESE Guidelines that deserve attention. Firstly, it must be observed that the term "autonomous cortisol secretion," introduced by the ESE Panel in the place of the commonly used "subclinical hypercortisolism," seems questionable, since the guidelines do not suggest determining the adrenocorticotroph hormone levels that could give the certain proof of a truly autonomous cortisol secretion. Secondly, the ESE Guidelines suggest against repeated hormonal workup in AI patients with a normal hormonal secretion at initial evaluation, but also in those with a "possible autonomous cortisol secretion," if in the absence of comorbidities potentially related to hypercortisolism. Thirdly, the ESE Guidelines suggest against further imaging during follow-up in patients with an adrenal mass below 4 cm in size with clear benign features on imaging studies. Considering the available literature data that are briefly summarized in this comment, we believe that no sufficient evidence is available to date for giving sharp-cutting recommendations about the uselessness of a biochemical and morphological follow-up in AI patients, even in those with initially benign and not hypersecreting adrenal adenomas. However, if a recommendation has to be given on the basis of the present evidences, we should suggest to biochemically and morphologically follow-up AI patients for at least 5 years.

  6. A synopsis on current practice in the diagnosis and management of patients with Turner syndrome in Turkey: A survey of 18 pediatric endocrinology centers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Ahmet; Abacı, Ayhan; Pirgon, Özgür; Dündar, Bumin; Tütüncüler, Filiz; Çatlı, Gönül; Anık, Ahmet; Kılınç Uğurlu, Aylin; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2018-04-27

    A comprehensive survey was conducted courtesy of the Turkish Turner study group to evaluate the shortcomings of clinical care in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) in Turkey. A structured questionnaire prepared by the Turner study group in Turkey, which covers relevant aspects of the care of patients with TS, was sent to all pediatric endocrinology centers. Eighteen centers (41%) returned the questionnaire. In the majority of the centers, diagnostic genetic testing, screening for Y chromosomal material, protocols regarding the timing and posology of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, thrombophilia screening, fertility information, and screening for glucose intolerance, thyroid, and coeliac diseases in patients with TS were in line with the current consensus. Thirteen centers (72.2%) performed GH stimulation tests. Only four centers (22.2%) used oxandrolone in patients with TS with very short stature. The majority of the centers relied on bone age and breast development to assess estrogen adequacy, though together with variable combinations of oestrogen surrogates. Two centers (11.1%) reported performing serum estradiol measurements. Eight centers (44.4% ) routinely conducted cardiac/thoracic aorta magnetic resonance imaging. Screening for hearing, dental, and ophthalmologic problems were performed by thirteen (72.2%), six (33.3%), and ten (55.6 %) centers, respectively. Psychiatric assessments were made by four centers (22.2%) at diagnosis, with only one center (5.6% ) requiring annual reassessments. Although we found some conformity between the current consensus and practice of the participating centers in Turkey regarding TS, further improvements are mandatory in the multi-disciplinary approach to address co-morbidities, which if unrecognized, may be associated with reduced quality of life, and even mortality.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis Among Jordanian Postmenopausal Women Attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hyassat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among Jordanian postmenopausal women attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics (NCDEG, and to determine the potential associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted at (NCDEG in Amman, Jordan. A total of 1079 Jordanian postmenopausal women aged between 45 and 84 years were included in this study that was conducted during the period between April 2013 and December 2014. All patients underwent bone mineral density measurement through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan. DEXA scan was interpreted in terms of T score as per World Health Organization guidelines. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was 37.5% and 44.6%, respectively. The maximum prevalence of osteoporosis was observed at the lumbar spine (32.4% followed by the left femoral neck (14.4%, while the maximum prevalence of osteopenia was observed at the left femoral neck (56.1% followed by the lumbar spine (41.3%. Patients with longer menopausal duration, normal or overweight body mass index, high parity, physical inactivity, positive family history of osteoporosis, inadequate sun exposure, high daily caffeine intake, low daily calcium intake, and delay in the age of menarche were all positively associated with osteoporosis. On the other hand, women with type 2 diabetes mellitus had lower risk of osteoporosis. There is a high prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among Jordanian postmenopausal women. Necessary steps are needed for more public education and a wider dissemination of information about osteoporosis and its prevention.

  8. The Brazilian consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism: recommendations by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Scheffel, Rafael S; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza; Mazeto, Glaucia M F S; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de; Graf, Hans; Vaisman, Mario; Maciel, Lea M Z; Ramos, Helton E; Tincani, Alfio José; Andrada, Nathalia Carvalho de; Ward, Laura S

    2013-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased synthesis and release of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome resulting from excessive circulating thyroid hormones, secondary to hyperthyroidism or due to other causes. This article describes evidence-based guidelines for the clinical management of thyrotoxicosis. This consensus, developed by Brazilian experts and sponsored by the Department of Thyroid Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, aims to address the management, diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyrotoxicosis, according to the most recent evidence from the literature and appropriate for the clinical reality of Brazil. After structuring clinical questions, search for evidence was made available in the literature, initially in the database MedLine, PubMed and Embase databases and subsequently in SciELO - Lilacs. The strength of evidence was evaluated by Oxford classification system was established from the study design used, considering the best available evidence for each question. We have defined 13 questions about the initial clinical approach for the diagnosis and treatment that resulted in 53 recommendations, including the etiology, treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and surgery. We also addressed hyperthyroidism in children, teenagers or pregnant patients, and management of hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and various other causes of thyrotoxicosis. The clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism usually offers no difficulty and should be made with measurements of serum TSH and thyroid hormones. The treatment can be performed with antithyroid drugs, surgery or administration of radioactive iodine according to the etiology of thyrotoxicosis, local availability of methods and preferences of the attending physician and patient.

  9. [Endocrinological diseases, metabolic diseases, sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Sexuality is regularly evaluated in media surveys. Relations between sexual problems and some chronic pathologies as diabetes or metabolic syndrome have been brought to light. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest. Hormones play an important role in sexual function and relation between hormonal status and metabolic data are now well established. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. The endocrinology of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes.

  11. Environmental endocrinology of salmon smoltification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Stefansson, S.O.; McCormick, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Smolting is a hormone-driven developmental process that is adaptive for downstream migration and ocean survival and growth in anadromous salmonids. Smolting includes increased salinity tolerance, increased metabolism, downstream migratory and schooling behavior, silvering and darkened fin margins, and olfactory imprinting. These changes are promoted by growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, cortisol, thyroid hormones, whereas prolactin is inhibitory. Photoperiod and temperature are critical environmental cues for smolt development, and their relative importance will be critical in determining responses to future climate change. Most of our knowledge of the environmental control and endocrine mediation of smolting is based on laboratory and hatchery studies, yet there is emerging information on fish in the wild that indicates substantial differences. Such differences may arise from differences in environmental stimuli in artificial rearing environments, and may be critical to ocean survival and population sustainability. Endocrine disruptors, acidification and other contaminants can perturb smolt development, resulting in poor survival after seawater entry. ?? 2010.

  12. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and natriuretic peptides are routinely used in human medicine for the evaluation of myocardial damage and heart failure. Recently, these markers have also been introduced in veterinary medicine. Comparison between human and equine cardiac biomarker studies sho...

  13. Endocrinological disturbances in diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Shalaby, E.; Atia, H.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Hammad, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus were extensively studied from various points of view. The aim was to elucidate the possible interaction of insulin, glucagon, prolactin, growth hormone, T 3 , and T 4 in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Forty patients with diabetic retinopathy (group II) and twenty age-matched controls (group I) were investigated. Plasma levels of both insulin and glucagon were significantly elevated in group II versus group I, whereas other hormones were insignificantly changed. This shows the role that might be played by T 3 , T 4 , growth hormone, and prolactin in the established cases of diabetic retinopathy. (author)

  14. Endocrinologic complications of cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has become one of the leading causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The risk and time of onset of GH deficiency depend mainly on the dose delivered to the hypothalamo-pituitary region: GH deficiency is infrequent after doses under 20 grays and nearly constant after doses above 45 grays. For a given dose, a younger age at the time of irradiation and administration of the dose over a shorter time period increase the risk of GH deficiency. GH secretion can be adequately evaluated using rapid stimulation tests and is usually well correlated with growth, except in patients with radiation-induced precocious puberty or growth delay due to radiation-induced cartilage lesions [fr

  15. Endocrinologic complications of cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1989-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has become one of the leading causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The risk and time of onset of GH deficiency depend mainly on the dose delivered to the hypothalamo-pituitary region: GH deficiency is infrequent after doses under 20 grays and nearly constant after doses above 45 grays. For a given dose, a younger age at the time of irradiation and administration of the dose over a shorter time period increase the risk of GH deficiency. GH secretion can be adequately evaluated using rapid stimulation tests and is usually well correlated with growth, except in patients with radiation-induced precocious puberty or growth delay due to radiation-induced cartilage lesions [fr

  16. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, W Timothy; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brett, Elise M; Garber, Alan J; Hurley, Daniel L; Jastreboff, Ania M; Nadolsky, Karl; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Plodkowski, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres to published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent review of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers that include 160 specific statements (85 [53.1%] strong [Grade A]; 48 [30.0%] intermediate [Grade B], and 11 [6.9%] weak [Grade C], with 16 [10.0%] based on expert opinion [Grade D]) that build a comprehensive medical care plan for obesity. There were 133 (83.1%) statements based on strong (best evidence level [BEL] 1 = 79 [49.4%]) or intermediate (BEL 2 = 54 [33.7%]) levels of scientific substantiation. There were 34 (23.6%) evidence-based recommendation grades (Grades A-C = 144) that were adjusted based on subjective factors. Among the 1,790 reference citations used in this CPG, 524 (29.3%) were based on strong (evidence level [EL] 1), 605 (33.8%) were based on intermediate (EL 2), and 308 (17.2%) were based on weak (EL 3) scientific studies, with 353 (19.7%) based on reviews and opinions (EL 4). The final recommendations recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuanced clinical decision-making that addresses real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientific approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. A1C = hemoglobin A1c AACE = American

  17. Essential learning tools for continuing medical education for physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows: the Midwest Reproductive Symposium International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gretchen G; Jeelani, Roohi; Beltsos, Angeline; Kearns, William G

    2018-04-01

    Essential learning tools for continuing medical education are a challenge in today's rapidly evolving field of reproductive medicine. The Midwest Reproductive Symposium International (MRSi) is a yearly conference held in Chicago, IL. The conference is targeted toward physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows engaged in the practice of reproductive medicine. In addition to the scientific conference agenda, there are specific sessions for nurses, mental health professionals, and REI fellows. Unique to the MRSi conference, there is also a separate "Business Minds" session to provide education on business acumen as it is an important element to running a department, division, or private clinic.

  18. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITYEXECUTIVE SUMMARYComplete Guidelines available at https://www.aace.com/publications/guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, W Timothy; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brett, Elise M; Garber, Alan J; Hurley, Daniel L; Jastreboff, Ania M; Nadolsky, Karl; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Plodkowski, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres to published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent review of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers that include 160 specific statements (85 [53.1%] strong [Grade A], 48 [30.0%] intermediate [Grade B], and 11 [6.9%] weak [Grade C], with 16 [10.0%] based on expert opinion [Grade D]) that build a comprehensive medical care plan for obesity. There were 133 (83.1%) statements based on strong (best evidence level [BEL] 1 = 79 [49.4%]) or intermediate (BEL 2 = 54 [33.7%]) levels of scientific substantiation. There were 34 (23.6%) evidence-based recommendation grades (Grades A-C = 144) that were adjusted based on subjective factors. Among the 1,788 reference citations used in this CPG, 524 (29.3%) were based on strong (evidence level [EL] 1), 605 (33.8%) were based on intermediate (EL 2), and 308 (17.2%) were based on weak (EL 3) scientific studies, with 351 (19.6%) based on reviews and opinions (EL 4). The final recommendations recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuanced clinical decision-making that addresses real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientific approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. A1C = hemoglobin A1c AACE = American

  19. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE - EXECUTIVE SUMMARYComplete Appendix to Guidelines available at http://journals.aace.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Paul S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Rosenblit, Paul D; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; Guerin, Chris K; Bell, David S H; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Wyne, Kathleen; Smith, Donald; Brinton, Eliot A; Fazio, Sergio; Davidson, Michael; Zangeneh, Farhad; Bush, Michael A

    2017-04-02

    The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Each Recommendation is based on a diligent review of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. The Executive Summary of this document contains 87 Recommendations of which 45 are Grade A (51.7%), 18 are Grade B (20.7%), 15 are Grade C (17.2%), and 9 (10.3%) are Grade D. These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world medical care. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for Executive Summary Recommendations. This update contains 695 citations of which 202 (29.1 %) are evidence level (EL) 1 (strong), 137 (19.7%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 119 (17.1%) are EL 3 (weak), and 237 (34.1%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence). This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other healthcare professionals, regulatory bodies and health-related organizations can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of patients with various lipid disorders. These recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously recommended and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to patients with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and pediatric patients with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions. A1C = hemoglobin A1C ACE = American College of

  20. Tratamiento de la Enfermedad de Graves con I131: Primeros casos en la Unidad de Endocrinología Pediátrica del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Perú: Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ernesto SÁNCHEZ POVIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la respuesta al tratamiento con I131 y sus complicaciones, en niños y adolescentes con enfermedad de Graves. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Graves y que recibieron tratamiento con I131 atendidos hasta 1999 en la Unidad de Endocrinología Pediátrica del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Se registraron datos demográficos, peso tiroideo, captación de yodo, dosis de I131 recibida y evolución clínica y de función tiroidea. Resultados: Se incluyeron 13 pacientes: 1 varón y 12 mujeres. El peso glandular promedio obtenido fue 47,56 +10,70 gramos. La dosis inicial calculada fue 3,92 + 0,95 mCi, con un total de 4,47 + 1,66 mCi y tiempo medio de seguimiento de 2,76 años. Diez pacientes recibieron 1 sola dosis, 2 pacientes dos dosis y un paciente tres dosis, remitiendo el 100%. Los pacientes que recibieron una sola dosis, mostraron remisión del cuadro en 13,13 semanas y el tiempo promedio de remisión de toda la muestra fue 24,62 semanas. La prevalencia de hipotiroidismo a los 6 meses de iniciado el tratamiento fue 66,66%, y 83,33% a las 257 semanas. Conclusión: I131 fue 100% eficaz en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Graves de los niños y adolescentes en esta pequeña serie de casos. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:8-14.

  1. Brazilian guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes: a position statement from the Brazilian Diabetes Society (SBD), the Brazilian Cardiology Society (SBC) and the Brazilian Endocrinology and Metabolism Society (SBEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia; Moreira, Rodrigo Oliveira; Faludi, André; Izar, Maria Cristina; Schaan, Beatriz D; Valerio, Cynthia Melissa; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Chacra, Ana Paula; Malachias, Marcus Vinicius Bolivar; Vencio, Sérgio; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Betti, Roberto; Turatti, Luiz; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Sulzbach, Marta; Bertolami, Adriana; Salles, João Eduardo Nunes; Hohl, Alexandre; Trujilho, Fábio; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Miname, Marcio Hiroshi; Zanella, Maria Teresa; Lamounier, Rodrigo; Sá, João Roberto; Amodeo, Celso; Pires, Antonio Carlos; Santos, Raul D

    2017-01-01

    Since the first position statement on diabetes and cardiovascular prevention published in 2014 by the Brazilian Diabetes Society, the current view on primary and secondary prevention in diabetes has evolved as a result of new approaches on cardiovascular risk stratification, new cholesterol lowering drugs, and new anti-hyperglycemic drugs. Importantly, a pattern of risk heterogeneity has emerged, showing that not all diabetic patients are at high or very high risk. In fact, most younger patients who have no overt cardiovascular risk factors may be more adequately classified as being at intermediate or even low cardiovascular risk. Thus, there is a need for cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with diabetes. The present panel reviews the best current evidence and proposes a practical risk-based approach on treatment for patients with diabetes. The Brazilian Diabetes Society, the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, and the Brazilian Endocrinology and Metabolism Society gathered to form an expert panel including 28 cardiologists and endocrinologists to review the best available evidence and to draft up-to-date an evidence-based guideline with practical recommendations for risk stratification and prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. The guideline includes 59 recommendations covering: (1) the impact of new anti-hyperglycemic drugs and new lipid lowering drugs on cardiovascular risk; (2) a guide to statin use, including new definitions of LDL-cholesterol and in non-HDL-cholesterol targets; (3) evaluation of silent myocardial ischemia and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes; (4) hypertension treatment; and (5) the use of antiplatelet therapy. Diabetes is a heterogeneous disease. Although cardiovascular risk is increased in most patients, those without risk factors or evidence of sub-clinical atherosclerosis are at a lower risk. Optimal management must rely on an approach that will cover both cardiovascular disease prevention in

  2. Endocrinologic control of normal canine ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W

    2009-07-01

    In dogs, the termination of the 3-10-month obligate anoestrus involves selection of a cohort of LH-sensitive follicles, presumably from a wave of dominant small antral follicles that would otherwise undergo atresia. The number and size of such follicles appears to increase, especially during the last 50 days of anoestrus when the already elevated concentrations of FSH become further elevated. The final selection and eventual terminal development of these follicles is caused by an increased frequency of high-amplitude LH pulses at the end of anoestrus. Concomitant increases in FSH are typically small or negligible. High concentrations of FSH in anoestrus are likely to be important in maintaining, if not stimulating, overlapping waves of dominant follicles throughout anoestrus, their expression of aromatase activity and basal oestradiol secretion sufficient to suppress LH by negative feedback. An attractive hypothesis is that late anoestrus increases in LH-stimulate synthesis of precursor androgen for already available FSH-dependent aromatase. After 7 or more days of elevated LH, and perhaps 2-5 days of semi-autonomous growth, with maximal oestradiol production reached, follicle capacity to further increase oestradiol becomes limited and excess progesterone becomes increasingly secreted. The pre-ovulatory LH surge and oestrus onset are then triggered - often synchronously and in concert with the terminal maturation of the follicles - by central effects of the large decrease in the oestrogen to progestin ratio. Follicular endocrine and paracrine events during and following the LH surge are likely similar to those reported for other species. The prolonged luteal phase lengths of 55-75 days in non-pregnant bitches bracket the 64 +/- 1 day in pregnancy and represent a genetically programmed luteal cell lifespan approximating gestation length as occurs in the luteal phase of hysterectomized animals of most polyoestrous artiodactyls and rodents. The 30-40-day slow regression after day 20 to 30 involves periodic cell death, diminution in cell size, low levels of apoptosis and minimal or modest involvement of endogenous prostaglandin F (PGF) production. The canine corpus luteum (CL) is dependent on both LH and prolactin as stimulating luteotrophins by day 15, and as required luteotrophins by days 20-25, if not earlier. Thereafter, both luteotrophins likely have cellular mechanisms of action similar to those reported for other species. Progesterone secretion during pregnancy is greatly enhanced by characteristic, and probably relaxin-stimulated, increases in prolactin concentration starting at or after day 25, and persisting to term. Near term, foetoplacental maturation results in the placental release of large, luteolytic amounts of PGF for 1-2 days pre-partum. Pre-partum luteolysis, like that induced by exogenous prostaglandin, likely involves a cascade enhanced by the removal of progesterone inhibition of PGF release and some degree of intra-luteal PGF synthesis. That a likely twofold or greater increase in progesterone production by the CL of pregnancy does not result in significantly higher serum progesterone than in non-pregnant metoestrus relates to several biological changes, including a large increase in plasma volume of distribution, increased metabolism of progesterone by increased uterine, placental and mammary masses and increased liver clearance and excretion of progesterone and progesterone metabolite. Anoestrus length and ovarian cycle intervals, variable within and among bitches, are likely affected by neuroendocrine components of an endogenous circannual cycle, albeit only photo-entrained in the Basenji breed. This may be modified by the prior luteal phase, exposure to oestrus female pheromones and as yet unknown mechanisms that likely operate via inhibitory opioidergic and/or stimulatory dopaminergic hypothalamic pathways affecting late anoestrus increases in LH.

  3. African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uk. ISSN: 1116-6495. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  4. Late neuro endocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, S.; Bernier, J.; Sklar, C.; Constine, L.

    1997-01-01

    When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field in children and adults, a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are more common than has been appreciated in the past. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands usually occurs months to years after treatment, and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. Primary brain tumors represent the largest group of malignant solid tumors in children. The survival rates of 50 reported in the literature are achieved at the expense of late occurring effects. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose-dependent. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur at doses as low as 18 Gy in conventional fractionation, and is the most common neuroendocrine problem in children. In patients treated with > 40 Gy on the HPA, deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulation hormone, and adrenocorticotropin (> 50 Gy), hyperprolactinemia can be seen, especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA can be treated efficiently, provided that an early detection of these endocrine dysfunctions abnormalities is done. (authors)

  5. Reproductive Endocrinology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Maria C; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Christiansen, Ole B

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptions may be important in patients experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This review focuses on data available on RPL and the endocrine system to investigate relevant, and perhaps modifiable, endocrine factors of importance for the disorder. Evidence indicates that some hor...

  6. Adolescent Endocrinology for Counselors of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerill K.

    1973-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempted to outline a program, aimed at the middle and junior high school student, which would inform students of the extent, type and variation of physiological changes of early adolescence in order to relieve anxiety and augment self-acceptance through assurance. (Author/RK)

  7. Endocrinology Meets Metabolomics: Achievements, Pitfalls, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Janina; Haid, Mark; Cecil, Alexander; Prehn, Cornelia; Artati, Anna; Möller, Gabriele; Adamski, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    The metabolome, although very dynamic, is sufficiently stable to provide specific quantitative traits related to health and disease. Metabolomics requires balanced use of state-of-the-art study design, chemical analytics, biostatistics, and bioinformatics to deliver meaningful answers to contemporary questions in human disease research. The technology is now frequently employed for biomarker discovery and for elucidating the mechanisms underlying endocrine-related diseases. Metabolomics has also enriched genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in this area by providing functional data. The contributions of rare genetic variants to metabolome variance and to the human phenotype have been underestimated until now. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Smolt physiology and endocrinology: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids is a suite of behavioral, morphological, and physiological changes that are preparatory for downstream migration and seawater entry. The timing of smolt development varies among species, occurring soon after hatching in pink and chum salmon and after one to several years in Atlantic salmon. In many species the transformation is size dependent and occurs in spring, mediated through photoperiod and temperature cues. Smolt development is stimulated by several hormones including growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, cortisol, and thyroid hormones, whereas prolactin is generally inhibitory. Increased salinity tolerance is one of the most important and tractable changes, and is caused by alteration in the function of the major osmoregulatory organs, the gill, gut, and kidney. Increased abundance of specific ion transporters (Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/Cl− cotransporter and apical Cl− channel) in gill ionocytes results in increased salt secretory capacity, increased growth and swimming performance in seawater, and higher marine survival.

  9. The Changing Concept of Gut Endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are released from enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are expressed, which make the gut the largest endocrine organ in the body. At present, it is feasible to conceive the hormones under 5 headings: the structural homology groups most...

  10. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... practice healthy and growing. Topics covered will include: marketing your practice, prevention of patient drop out, improvement of patient and personnel satisfaction and ways to ensure the future of your practice. Also, ...

  11. Aplications of Nuclear Medicine in endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jales, R.L.C.

    1981-01-01

    A scanning of thyroid has been undertaked by using radioactive isotopes. Clinical procedures performed in the nuclear medicine field were cited along with its principles and interpretation. (Author) [pt

  12. Avian reproductive anatomy, physiology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Christal G; Orosz, Susan E

    2002-09-01

    Although many environmental cues influence reproductive activity, the seasonal breeder responds most strongly to long day length. THE MALE BIRD: Testicular interstitial cells secrete testosterone, which influences reproductive behavior such as territorial aggression and song. Other changes observed in seasonal breeders include testicular hypertrophy and enlargement of the ductus deferens and seminal glomus. THE FEMALE BIRD: Early changes associated with rising estrogen levels in the hen include osteomyelosclerosis and hypercalcemia. Ovulation is then induced by LH, which is followed by eggshell calcification, which is under the control of progesterone. Sources of calcium for shell production include intestinal absorption from the diet, renal control of calcium levels, and mobilization of bone calcium stores. During oviposition, PGF2 alpha and vasotocin stimulate powerful uterine contractions [32] in the presence of calcium. Incubation is associated with falling LH levels and rising prolactin levels. If the hen actually enters reproductive quiescence at this time, then molt will follow. Molt is associated with the total regression of the reproductive tract.

  13. Endocrinological-radiological aspects of galactorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenstedt, D.; Boettcher, H.D.; Osmers, F.; Muenster Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The extrapuerperal secretion of the mammary glands is not a pathological image sui generis, but principally a symptom of a different disease to be detected. On the one hand this procedure must consider differential-diagnostic assessments of the endocrinium and primarily consider disorders of the prolactine metabolism or release. On the other hand, morphologic intraductal processes must be excluded by means of concerted X-ray diagnostics. A clearly defined diagnostic programme permits the concerted treatment of mammary gland secretion according to the causes. Only the systematic progress of the examination offers a sufficient degree of security that fundamental pathologic findings as pituitary adenomas or intraductal carcinomas are not overlooked. (orig.) [de

  14. Endocrinology of anorexia nervosa in young people: recent insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is among the most prevalent chronic medical conditions in young adults. It has acute as well as long-term consequences, some of which, such as low bone mineral density (BMD), are not completely reversible even after weight restoration. This review discusses our current understanding of endocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa. Recent findings Anorexia nervosa is characterized by changes in multiple neuroendocrine axes including acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (likely mediated by fibroblast growth factor-1), relative hypercortisolemia, alterations in adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and gut peptides including ghrelin, PYY and amylin. These changes in turn contribute to low BMD. Studies in anorexia nervosa have demonstrated abnormalities in bone microarchitecture and strength, and an association between increased marrow fat and decreased BMD. One study in adolescents reported an improvement in BMD following physiologic estrogen replacement, and another in adults demonstrated improved BMD following risedronate administration. Brown adipose tissue is reduced in anorexia nervosa, consistent with an adaptive response to the energy deficit state. Summary Anorexia nervosa is associated with widespread physiologic adaptations to the underlying state of undernutrition. Hormonal changes in anorexia nervosa affect BMD adversely. Further investigation is underway to optimize therapeutic strategies for low BMD. PMID:24275621

  15. Skin abnormality and hairloss: the reproductive endocrinological viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive androgen production may cause changes in female skin, such as hirsutism and acne. The administration of antiadrogenic hormone such as cyproteron acetate, may eliminate the hyperandrogenic effect on the skin. Hairloss may also caused either by hyper-androgenemia or by low estrogen level. The administration of either antiandrogen or estrogen may reduce hairloss. Virilization, which includes excessive growth of hair and clitoris enlargement, deepened voice, muscle hypertrophy and mammary hypoplasia are also associated with hyperandrogenemia. Antiandrogen treatment could eliminate these impacts of virilization. In contrast, cellulite was supected to be due to androgen deficiency, and the use of topical testosterone could eliminate it. It is concluded that skin and/or hairloss are associated with hormonal changes in women. The treatment with antiandrogenic hormones may reduce or cure these abnormalities. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 258-63Keywords: Hirsutism, virilization, acne, cellulite, hairloss, androgen, estrogen

  16. Nutritional and endocrinologic evaluation of patients with craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Mônica Cristina; Berbel Júnior, Alfredo Sérgio; Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; de Castro, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Lesions of hypothalamus or adjacent brain structures by the craniopharyngioma (CP) and/or its treatment, as well as changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones, are possible pathogenic factors for the obesity observed in CP patients. This study assessed anthropometric measurements, food intake, and biochemical markers of CP patients. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, circumferences, body composition, food intake evaluation, basal glucose, lipids, insulin, ghrelin, PYY, and HOMA-IR calculation were obtained from CP children (n = 10, 4F, aged 12 ± 4.2yr) and CP adults (n = 27,13F aged 42 ± 13 yr) and from 32 gender and age matched controls. Overweight/obesity was observed in 51.4% of the patients at the diagnosis and increased to 86.5% at the time of the study. Obesity was more frequent in patients with grade 2 hypothalamic involvement. Most anthropometric measurements were similar in patients and controls. Caloric intake was lower in CP adults, without difference between children. Lipid intake was higher in CP patients. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were lower in CP children, with no difference between adult groups. There were no differences in micronutrients intake as well as in insulin and PYY levels, and HOMA-IR between patients and controls. HDL-c was lower in CP adults and ghrelin higher in CP children. There is a high rate of overweight/obesity in CP patients at the diagnosis and throughout the follow-up period. Obesity was associated with degree of hypothalamic involvement but not with caloric intake. Obesity and a lipid rich diet may have contributed to the dyslipidemia observed in CP patients. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes distress and related factors in South African adults with type 2 diabetes · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Samantha Ramkisson, Basil Joseph Pillay, Benn Sartorius, 35-39 ...

  18. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adrenocortical function in hospitalised patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis receiving a rifampicin-based regimen - a pilot study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. WD Francois Venter, Vanessa R Panz, Charles Feldman, Barry I Joffe, 16-21.

  19. society for endocrinology, metabolism and diabetes of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-05-29

    May 29, 1971 ... children, the effective renin activity was equivalent to 24 ng angiotensinjmlj4 h ..... D confirmed the suspicion that her osteomalacia was nutritional. ... Studies on patients with anorexia nervosa demonstrate· that food restri~tion ...

  20. Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute Program in Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneyer, Alan; Brown, Melissa; Schwartz, Lawrence; Yadava, Nagendra; and Jerry, D Joseph

    2012-04-24

    Specific Aim - To determine the role of TGFBeta superfamily ligands in regulating Beta-cell function, proliferation, and survival (Drs. Schneyer and Brown) Specific Aim - To determine the feasibility of using respiratory activity and extracellular acidification rates of myoblasts to decipher the state of insulin resistance in cultured myoblastsMyoblast physiology (Drs. Schwartz and Yadava)

  1. Endocrinology and the brain: corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Carolina; Armando, Natalia G; Dos Santos Claro, Paula A; Silberstein, Susana

    2017-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key player of basal and stress-activated responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and in extrahypothalamic circuits, where it functions as a neuromodulator to orchestrate humoral and behavioral adaptive responses to stress. This review describes molecular components and cellular mechanisms involved in CRH signaling downstream of its G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CRHR1 and CRHR2 and summarizes recent findings that challenge the classical view of GPCR signaling and impact on our understanding of CRHRs function. Special emphasis is placed on recent studies of CRH signaling that revealed new mechanistic aspects of cAMP generation and ERK1/2 activation in physiologically relevant contexts of the neurohormone action. In addition, we present an overview of the pathophysiological role of the CRH system, which highlights the need for a precise definition of CRHRs signaling at molecular level to identify novel targets for pharmacological intervention in neuroendocrine tissues and specific brain areas involved in CRH-related disorders. © 2017 The authors.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion.

  3. endocrinological problems: what can be learned at the bedside

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burning, photophobia, epiphora, corneal ulceration and marked ... chair is asked to hold one leg out straight in a horizontal position ..... borne in mind that oral pigmentation occurs in argyria ... indicate the state of circulatory collapse which has.

  4. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual coexistence of Addison's disease and phaeochromocytoma · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H Atmaca, F Gokosmanoglu, EK Kan, GC Ecemis, CT Bahadir, 164-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201009.2013.10872324 ...

  5. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis and management of Addison's disease: insights gained from a large South African cohort · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. IL Ross, NS Levitt, 86-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201009.2011.10872256 ...

  6. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleep: a serious contender for the prevention of obesity and non-communicable diseases · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Dale E. Rae, Irshaad Ebrahim, Laura C. Roden, 48-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16089677.2016.1150574 ...

  7. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  8. Endocrinology of Species Differences in Sexually Dichromatic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana K. Hews; Vanessa S. Quinn

    2003-01-01

    Many animals have conspicuous social signals. Often these signals are expressed in one sex and function in the context of mate choice, intrasexual competition, or both (Andersson 1994; Bradbury and Vehrencamp 1998). A more complete understanding of sex-specific signals will come from integrative studies within a phylogenetic context (Ryan, Autumn, and Wake 1998)....

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY Dual RAAS blockade has dual effects on outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Makani and colleagues report that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with harm despite previous studies showing that this approach decreases blood pressure and albuminuria. Do these results imply that we should abandon surrogate markers? Or should we become more

  10. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Achievement of Glycaemic, Blood Pressure and LDL Cholesterol Targets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Attending a South African Tertiary Hospital Outpatient Clinic · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Y Pinchevsky, V Shukla, N Butkow, FJ Raal, ...

  11. Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes: Abstracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-11

    Sep 11, 1974 ... Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of. Cape Town ... insulin release from the pancreas, has not yet been identified and one of these peptides ..... B. University exocrine insufficiency was compared with controls.

  12. Recent advances in the endocrinology of the sebaceous gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Attila G; Oláh, Attila; Bíró, Tamás; Tóth, Balázs István

    2017-01-01

    The sebaceous gland, long considered an evolutionary relic with little-to-no physiological relevance in humans, has emerged in recent decades as a key orchestrator and contributor to many cutaneous functions. In addition to the classical physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, a more novel, neuro-immune modulatory role has also emerged. As part of the complex intercellular communication network of the integumentary system, the sebaceous gland acts as a "relay station" in the skin for many endocrine factors. This review aims to offer a comprehensive overview of endocrine effects and subsequent interactions on this much maligned mini-organ.

  13. Reproductive Endocrinology: Pregnancy and fertility after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2009-05-01

    Increases in rates of bariatric surgery are staggering, and many obese individuals who undergo such procedures are women of reproductive age. So, how does the surgery affect women's fertility and pregnancy outcomes thereafter? A new systemic review aimed to find out.

  14. [Gynecologic and endocrinologic sequelae of bulimia--hormonal changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Szendei, György; Haász, Péter

    2002-10-06

    Gynecological problems are one of the most frequent somatic complications of eating disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of improper eating habits causing menstrual disturbances, anovulation and related hormonal changes. Latent bulimia nervosa is in the focus of attention since amenorrhea is considered as a diagnostic criterion of anorexia nervosa. Subjects of the BITE (Bulimia Investigation Test, Edinburgh) test were infertile patients (n = 34) of the gynecological outpatient departments after medical examination, blood-test (LH, FSH, androstenedione, DHEAS, progesterone, testosterone, SHBG, prolactin) and ultrasonic examination (uterus and ovaries). Symptoms and severity subscales of the BITE test and body mass index (BMI) were close correlation (p = 0.003, p = 0.033). In comparison with previous results, EDNOS (Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified) prevalence was 48%. Of hormonal changes, low LH and FSH levels (6/6) and hyperandrogenism (5/6) were significant in patients with subclinical eating disorders (n = 6) by infertile women as compared with the "normal" infertile group (n = 18; 7/18, 8/18). The recent results suggests that unsatisfactory nutrition (bulimic binges, "crash diet") is as relevant in hormonal dysfunction, menstrual disturbances and infertility as pathologically low weight in anorexia nervosa. Excessive application of contraceptives in therapy has to be taken into consideration.

  15. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY Autoimmune thyroid disease: old and new players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effraimidis, Grigoris; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2014-01-01

    The last 10 years have seen some progress in understanding the etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The female preponderance can now be explained - at least in part - by fetal microchimerism and X-chromosome inactivation. The number of identified susceptibility genes for AITD is increasing

  16. Persisting challenges in plasma endocrinology: reference values and endocrine tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Pereira Arias, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of plasma hormone concentrations is of fundamental importance for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases. Although hormone analyses are performed in huge numbers in all hospitals on a daily basis, the interpretation of the resulting plasma hormone concentrations can be

  17. Radiation exposure to staff and patients during two endocrinological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova-Popova, J.; Vassileva, J.; Saltirov, I.; Petkova, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to obtain information about the exposure to patient and staff during percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy and to search for a correlation between these parameters. The collected data for each procedure consist of the total air kerma-area product, P KA , cumulative dose, CD, fluoroscopy time, FT, number of images acquired, as well as clinical patient data. Average, minimum, maximum and median values were calculated for 38 patients. Mean values and median in parentheses were as follows: 355 (383) cGy cm 2 (P KA for PCNL); 433 (286) cGy cm 2 (P KA for URS); 42 (37) mGy (CD for PCNL); 12 (7) mGy (CD for URS); 3.5 (3.0) min (FT for PCNL); 1.4 (1.3) min (FT for URS). The typical operator doses for PCNL and URS were assessed to be 66.1 μSv and 34.3 μSv, respectively, while the maximum doses for the same type of procedures were 152.6 μSv and 124.1 μSv. Good correlation was observed between the staff dose and P KA for both procedures, while the correlation of staff dose with CD and FT was found to be weak. While applying principles of radiation protection and normal load in the clinic, there is no possibility to exceed the new annual dose limit for eye lens of 20 mSv per year averaged over 5 years. The correlation of P KA with FT and CD was also explored and no significant interconnection was observed. (authors)

  18. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetics of obesity: the role of the melanocortin 4 receptor · EMAIL FREE ... The role of hormone therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis · EMAIL FREE ... Serum resistin levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and their relationship to ...

  19. Reproductive endocrinology of wild, long-lived raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Julio; López, Lidia; Tanferna, Alessandro; Sergio, Fabrizio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    The last decades have witnessed a surge of studies analyzing the role of sex hormones on the behavior and ecology of wild bird populations, allowing a more integrated view of the evolution of avian physiology and life histories. Despite a marked progress, field studies show a considerable bias towards research on specific phylogenetic groups, neglecting a significant fraction of the class Aves. Here we analysed changes in the circulating levels of sex steroids in relation to reproductive behaviour in wild black kites (Milvus migrans), a long-lived and socially monogamous Accipitridae raptor. Males and females displayed a single seasonal peak of circulating testosterone (males) and estradiol (females) during pre-laying and laying. Absolute male testosterone levels were low even at the seasonal maximum and remained below detection limits in females. The latter results supports the idea that avian species establishing long-term pair bonds require lower amounts of circulating androgens for reproduction. Circulating progesterone showed a single seasonal peak in females and males, but their timing (during Incubation and Post-brooding respectively) did not overlap. The fact that females black kites perform the majority of incubation and males provide the majority of care to fledglings suggests that progesterone is involved in the expression of parental behaviors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Historia clinica de un caso de endocrinología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Olaya Restrepo

    1951-09-01

    de la Distrofia adiposo-genital de Babinsky-Frolich. Consiste en un sujeto, hombre o mujer, estadísticamente es más frecuente en los hombres, que presenta algunas de las modalidades características del Síndrome de Frolich, tan conocido y estudiado por, todos los investigadores. Sobre esta base endocrina, se injertan tres, distintivos somáticos que le dan cierta individualidad al Síndrome de Lawrence. Son ellos: LA POLIDACTILIA, LA RETINITIS PIGMENTARIA Y EL BOCIO. Se presentan a continuación los dos casos anteriormente descritos entre nosotros, que aparecen publicados ambos, en el BOLETIN CLINICO, Organo de la Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Antioquia.

  1. Case Report: Challenges of endocrinology practice in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing countries, like Nigeria, non-communicable diseases including endocrine disorders are on the increase. However, not much attention is paid to this group of diseases because of the enormous burden posed by infections. Despite this threat, endocrine disorders still constitute a significant cause of morbidity and ...

  2. Endocrinology of pregnancy in the dog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen-Onclin, K; Verstegen, J

    2008-08-01

    Pregnancy regulation in the dog is not yet fully elucidated. Since plasma progesterone concentrations are similar in pregnant versus non-pregnant animals, it is a poor reflection on CL function and progesterone metabolism. Increased progesterone secretion by the CL in pregnant animals follows implantation and relaxin secretion by the feto-placental units. Progesterone is absolutely required to maintain pregnancy and no placental sources of progesterone have been identified. Pregnancy can be artificially maintained by progesterone administration. Prolactin secretion appears to be increased in response to the increase in relaxin production and occurs independent of estrogen production by the CL. The respective roles of LH, FSH and prolactin are still unclear, with considerable conflicting evidence among studies. However, it appears that prolactin is absolutely required, whereas LH is either permissive or facilitates CL function during pregnancy. Pre-implantation events are still poorly defined in the bitch, and no embryonic factors have been isolated or purified, preventing early pregnancy diagnosis. Parturition occurs following luteolysis, which results from the release of prostaglandin F(2alpha), which begins 36h prepartum in a process similar to that observed in other species. The role of estrogens at the time of parturition remains undefined.

  3. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-08-01

    identified (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei. The objective of this work was to evaluate frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of diabetic patients taken care in the service of endocrinology of the University Hospital Walter Cantídio of the Federal University of the Ceará. Samples had been collected of 48 diabetic patients, men and women, with various situations of glicemic control. Clinical materials had been collected with aid of swab and harvested in plates of Petri contend Sabouraud agar dextrose with cloranfenicol and incubated to 37°C. The grown were identified by the used classic tests in mycology. In the following, these Candida strains were submitted to tests to detect phospholipase and proteinase enzymes. Of these, 15 samples (31,35% presented positive culture for the genera Candida. The species more frequent was C. albicans with 80%, followed by C. tropicalis (13.3% and C. guilliermondii (6.7%. Asfor the research on the enzymatic activity of Candida sp. it was observed that 86.6% presented activity of proteinase and 80% of phospholipase. It was concluded with these results that C. albicans is more frequent and that Candida spp. isolated species have strong enzymatic activity.

  4. Prevalência da retinopatia diabética no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy at the Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the Santa Casa de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Souza Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de retinopatia diabética encontrada na população de diabéticos tipo 1, acompanhada no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, entre 29 de agosto de 2000 e 17de agosto de 2001, e sua relação com o sexo, a idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico do diabete e a duração do diabete. MÉTODO: Foi realizado mapeamento de retina, biomicroscopia de fundo e retinografia em 81 pacientes, 41 do sexo feminino e 40 do masculino, a fim de detectar e classificar a retinopatia diabética nessa população. RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes variou entre 4 e 23 anos (média = 12,0 ± 12,0, a idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico, entre 6 meses e 15 anos (média = 3,4 ± 5,8 e a duração do diabete, entre 7 meses e 20 anos (média = 5,8 ± 4,4. A retinopatia diabética foi observada em 14 pacientes (17,3%, 7 (8,6% com a forma não proliferativa muito leve, 5 (6,2% com forma não proliferativa leve, 1 (1,2% com forma proliferativa de alto risco e 1 (1,2% com forma proliferativa avançada. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da retinopatia diabética na nossa amostra é 17,3%. Não há diferença entre os portadores e não portadores de retinopatia diabética quanto a sexo e idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico. Quanto maior a duração da diabete, maior a prevalência da retinopatia diabética.PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy found in a type I diabetic population, accompanied at the Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the "Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo", between August 29, 2000 and August 17, 2001, and it's relationship with sex, the patient's age on occasion of the diagnosis of diabetes and the duration of diabetes. METHODS: Retinal mappings, biomicroscopic fundus and retinography were accomplished in 81 patients, 41 female and 40 male, in order to detect and to classify the diabetic retinopathies in that

  5. Diagnóstico da Síndrome de Turner: a experiência do Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia - Rio de Janeiro, de 1970 a 2008 Diagnosis of Turner's Syndrome: the experience of the Rio de Janeiro State Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology between 1970 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica de Paula Jung

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a experiência no diagnóstico da Síndrome de Turner (ST, focalizando a distribuição dos cromossomos, a idade, os sinais e sintomas característicos, conforme as fases da vida (lactância, infância, adolescência e adulta. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo com 178 pacientes, atendidos de 1970 até 2008. Para análise estatística das diferenças percentuais usou-se o Epi-Info-2000 e para as diferenças entre as médias de idades o teste t de Student e o ANOVA. RESULTADOS: os cariótipos encontrados foram: 79 com 45,X (35,4%, 36 com isocromossomo Xq (20,2% e 63 com outros mosaicos (35,4%. A média de idade do diagnóstico foi de 12,6 anos, sendo menor naquelas com 45,X. Tiveram o diagnóstico feito na lactância 11,3% das pacientes, 25,3% na infância, 51,1% na adolescência e 12,4% na fase adulta. Daquelas diagnosticadas antes dos cinco anos de idade, 70,6% apresentaram 45,X. Os sinais que levaram à suspeita diagnóstica na lactância foram o pescoço alado e o linfedema congênito de pés/mãos associados às dismorfias típicas; na infância e adolescência foi a baixa estatura. Cubitus valgus foi encontrado em 72,5% das pacientes e orelhas anômalas em 65% das pacientes diagnosticadas com menos de um ano de idade. CONCLUSÃO: o diagnóstico da ST é desnecessariamente atrasado, levando-se em consideração que algumas características típicas podem já estar presentes desde o nascimento.OBJECTIVES: to describe the Rio de Janeiro State Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology's experience in diagnosing Turner Syndrome (TS, focusing on the distribution of chromosomes, age, and typical signs and symptoms, according to life stage (breast feeding, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. METHODS: a descriptive study was conducted of 178 patients, attending the Institute between 1970 and 2008 for the purposes of statistical analysis of the percentage differences using Epi-Info-2000 and of the differences between the mean ages using

  6. ЕПОНІМІЙНА МЕДИЧНА ТЕРМІНОЛОГІЯ У ГАЛУЗІ КЛІНІЧНОЇ ТА ЕКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНОЇ ЕНДОКРИНОЛОГІЇ/ EPONYMIC MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY IN CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ENDOCRINOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія БИЦКО

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Быцко Н.И., Семенко И.В. Эпонимическая медицинская терминология в клинической и экспериментальной эндокринологии. Специальные эпонимические исследования специальностей медицины позволяют отобразить пути формирования системы клинической терминологии с различных позиций: исторических, научных, культурологических и лингвосемантических. В медицинской терминосистеме достаточно распространены клинические термины, касающиеся клинической и экспериментальной эндокринологии. Таким образом, исследования данной медицинской специальности на уровне лингвистических наблюдений позволяют визуализировать не только лингвистические аспекты специализированных терминов, но и помогают специалистам данной области медицины в совершенстве владеть их этимологией. Ключевые слова: лингвистика, ономастика, эпонимический термин, клиническая термінологія, эндокринологический термин. Bytsko N., Semenko I. Eponymic medical terminology in clinical and experimental endocrinology. Special eponymic re- searches in different branches of medicine will allow to trace in details the ways of creating clinical terminological systems from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. The scope of clinical

  7. Extensive expertise in endocrinology: UK stance on adult GH replacement: the economist vs the endocrinologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalet, S M

    2013-10-01

    In the UK, through the use of a forced economic model, endocrinologists are in the curious position of offering GH replacement to some patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) but withholding it from other patients with even more severe GHD. This approach is counter-intuitive to endocrine practice in treating endocrine deficiency states. For all other endocrine deficiencies, one would opt for treating those with the most severe biochemical evidence of deficiency first. If this endocrine approach was applied to adult GH replacement in an era of rationing, one would start with the GHD patients with a pathologically low IGF1 level. Given that the prevalence of subnormal IGF1 levels in a GHD population is age-dependent, this would result in GH replacement being offered to more young adult onset (AO) GHD and childhood onset GHD adults, and less often to middle-aged and elderly AO GHD adults. This in itself has the added advantage that the skeletal benefits appear more real in the former cohort of patients.

  8. 78 FR 64956 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... treatment of metabolic disorders associated with lipodystrophy, including diabetes mellitus and/or... than can be reasonably accommodated during the scheduled open public hearing session, FDA may conduct a... 7 days in advance of the meeting. FDA is committed to the orderly conduct of its advisory committee...

  9. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The sexually dimorphic role of androgens in human metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Lina; Kempegowda, Punith; Arlt, Wiebke; O'Reilly, Michael W

    2017-09-01

    Female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency manifest with an overlapping adverse metabolic phenotype, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the impact of androgens on metabolic target tissues in an attempt to unravel the complex mechanistic links with metabolic dysfunction; we also evaluate clinical studies examining the associations between metabolic disease and disorders of androgen metabolism in men and women. We conceptualise that an equilibrium between androgen effects on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle underpins the metabolic phenotype observed in female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency. Androgens induce adipose tissue dysfunction, with effects on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and fat mass expansion, while anabolic effects on skeletal muscle may confer metabolic benefits. We hypothesise that serum androgen concentrations observed in female androgen excess and male hypogonadism are metabolically disadvantageous, promoting adipose and liver lipid accumulation, central fat mass expansion and insulin resistance. © 2017 The authors.

  10. Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Hadar; Debelius, Justine W; Knight, Rob; Koren, Omry

    2015-07-01

    The new field of microbiome research studies the microbes within multicellular hosts and the many effects of these microbes on the host's health and well-being. We now know that microbes influence metabolism, immunity and even behavior. Essential questions, which are just starting to be answered, are what are the mechanisms by which these bacteria affect specific host characteristics. One important but understudied mechanism appears to involve hormones. Although the precise pathways of microbiota-hormonal signaling have not yet been deciphered, specific changes in hormone levels correlate with the presence of the gut microbiota. The microbiota produces and secretes hormones, responds to host hormones and regulates expression levels of host hormones. Here, we summarize the links between the endocrine system and the gut microbiota. We categorize these interactions by the different functions of the hormones, including those affecting behavior, sexual attraction, appetite and metabolism, gender and immunity. Future research in this area will reveal additional connections, and elucidate the pathways and consequences of bacterial interactions with the host endocrine system. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 77 FR 61609 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. FDA intends to make background material available to the... nature of the evidence or arguments they wish to present, the names and addresses of proposed...

  12. Present Concepts in Internal Medicine. Volume 13, Number 1. Endocrinology Research Symposium,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    osteoporosis 5t 41 M 0.99 0.91 Idiopathic osteoporosis of 10 yrs. duration 6 22 F 0.87 1.97 Diabetes melitus , idopathicstress fractures 7 25 F 1.58...If neceesry and Identify by block number) Cushing’s disease; Acromegaly; Secretory pituitary adenomata; Vitamin D; Somatomedin; Diabetes Mellitus...computer in the management and study of diabetes mellitus; studies of the trophi properties of gastrin on the gut; and gastrin in the human small bowel. It

  13. Endocrinology and hormone therapy in breast cancer: Endocrine therapy in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine therapy remains important in premenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Ovarian ablation, used alone, is effective in delaying recurrence and increasing survival in such women. When added to chemotherapy, it is less clear that it is effective perhaps because of the endocrine ablative effect of chemotherapy. Trials comparing ovarian ablation with or without tamoxifen to CMF-type chemotherapy suggest that the endocrine therapy is equivalent to or better than this chemotherapy in women whose tumors have estrogen and/or progesterone receptor. Tamoxifen is also effective in preventing recurrence and prolonging survival in the adjuvant setting in premenopausal women. While most of the available data deals with tamoxifen given alone, it appears to have a similar beneficial effect when added to chemotherapy in the premenopausal adjuvant setting. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors should not be used in premenopausal women

  14. Overview of current and emerging issues in endocrinological complications of thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. de Sanctis de Sanctis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical advances in the treatment of thalassaemia major (TM patients have helped to increase substantially the life expectancy of patients. The TM patients today represent the first generation of adult thalassemics. As patients enter puberty, they begin to experience a variety of endocrine abnormalities, presumably the results of chronic anaemia and tissue iron deposition from the chronic transfusion therapy. In patients with TM, the anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical stresses. Recent reports have documented a frequency of severe growth hormone deficiency in 13%-32% of adult patients with TM. The prevalence of impaired adrenal function in TM patients has been reported from 0 to 33%, depends on the age of the population studied, although clinical adrenal insufficiency (AI is rare. Thyroid dysfunction has been observed in 13-60% of patients, but its severity is variable in different series. Acquired central hypothyroidism (CH is a rare complication. 治疗重型地中海贫血患者的临床进展已经有助于大幅提高患者的寿命期望。 今天,重型地中海贫血患者代表成年地中海贫血的第一代。 随着病人进入青春期,他们开始经历各种内分泌功能障碍,这些障碍可能是慢性输血治疗导致的慢性贫血和组织铁沉淀结果。 重型地中海贫血患者中,脑下垂体前叶腺对自由基压力尤其敏感。 最近的报告记录了13% - 32% 的重型地中海贫血成年患者严重缺乏生长激素的频率。 尽管临床肾上腺功能不全(AI是十分罕见。但是有报告称重型地中海贫血患者受损的肾上腺皮质功能患病率为0到33%,这个患病率取决于所研究人群的年龄。 对13% - 60%的病人进行了甲状腺机能障碍观察,但是其严重性在不同的系列中不一样。 后天中枢性甲状腺功能减退是一种罕见的并发症。

  15. Endocrinological outcomes following endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery in 113 patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sauradeep; Rajaratnam, Simon; Chacko, Geeta; Chacko, Ari George

    2014-11-01

    To describe outcomes and complications in patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly using the 2010 consensus criteria for biochemical remission. Retrospective review of 113 treatment naïve patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery with the endoscopic (n=66) and the endonasal microscopic technique (n=47). Cure was defined if the age and sex-adjusted IGF-1 level was normal and either the basal GH was transsphenoidal surgery did not differ significantly overall (28.8% versus 36.2%). On univariate analysis, a preoperative GH level Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first line of treatment for patients with acromegaly, but invasive adenomas will frequently require adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Angelo; Mawhinney, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed.

  17. 78 FR 63224 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA (Morquio A syndrome). Morquio A syndrome is a rare congenital... Agency's Web site at http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/default.htm and scroll down to the appropriate...Committees/Calendar/default.htm . Scroll down to the appropriate advisory committee meeting link. Procedure...

  18. Endocrinological Assessment Of Children With Significant Short Stature Using Radioimmunoassay Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaly, Isis; Hafez, Mona; Shousha, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of clinical diagnosis in a group of children with significant short stature, height <-2.5 standard deviation below the mean for age and sex. Forty-nine children-l 8 female and 31 males-were included, mean age was 11.14 yr. (range 1.18 to 19 yr.). Clinical diagnosis, axiological measurements, thyroid profile, growth hormone, autoantibody screening for celiac disease were assessed. The patients were classified into 5 groups: Group I. familial short stature (FSS)and constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP), (12%); group II. growth hormone deficiency (GHD), 54%; group III. Laron type of dwarfism (LTD) (10%); group IV. growth hormone neurosecretory disorder (GHND, 16%); group V. celiac disease (GSE, 8%). From this study the group with short normal variant (FSS-CDGP), uncommonly presents with significant short stature. Cranial CT scan should performed in any child with the diagnosis of GHD to exclude organic causes of GHD. In the group of GHND, a normal GH values to provocative tests does not guarantee sufficient GH secretion and should not be used to exclude these children from hGH treatment. Further investigations by measurement of integrated GH and IGFI may aid in the diagnosis of this disorder. Celiac disease may present only by short stature, therefore antibody screening tests should be a routine investigation for all children presented with unexplained short stature. Patient with GHD showed significant improvement of their GV SDS during treatment with hGH (p=0.021). Also children with GSE showed significant catch up growth after gluten withdrawal from the diet (p=0.029). (Authors)

  19. Hand X-ray in pediatric endocrinology: Skeletal age assessment and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age assessment (SAA is a clinical procedure which is used in determining the SA of children and adolescents. Bone development is influenced by a number of factors, including nutrition, hormonal secretions, and genetics. There are several factors to be borne in mind when using methods of assessing skeletal maturity. These include: Variability among methods, degree of variability in the estimation of skeletal maturation, sources of low accuracy, and dispersion of the values of skeletal maturation. Currently, the main clinical methods for SAA are the Greulich and Pyle (GP and Tanner and Whitehouse (TW methods. The GP method has the advantage of being quick and easy to use. A well-trained radiologist takes few minutes to determine the bone age (BA from a single hand radiograph. The method of TW, however, seems to be more reliable than the GP method. In recent years, the increasing speed in computer sciences and reduction of their cost has given the opportunity to create and use computerized BA estimation system. Despite the fact that the number of automated systems for BAA have increased, most are still within the experimental phase. The use of automated BA determination system, cleared for clinical use in Europe (BoneXpert, has been validated for various ethnicities and children with endocrine disorders. Ultrasound imaging has some limitations that include operator dependence, lower intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of assessment and difficulties with standardization of documentation and imaging transfer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is noninvasive alternative tool for SA assessment in children. However, few studies have been reported on this topic, and further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of MRI BAAs. In conclusion, at present radiographic methods for the assessment of BA remain the gold standards. Whatever method one adopts, it is essential to minimize the causes of imprecision by taking care to consider the quality of the X-ray. Moreover, it is imperative to assume a correct hand positioning because poor positioning can change the appearance of some bones. It is also preferable to employ scoring methods to these techniques and percentiles rather than BA in years and months. In addition, the possible differences in maturation among different population should be kept in mind.

  20. Late neuro endocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie sur la sphere neuroendocrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieri, S.; Bernier, J. [Ospedale San Giovanni (Switzerland); Sklar, C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Constine, L. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) is included in the treatment field in children and adults, a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances are more common than has been appreciated in the past. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands usually occurs months to years after treatment, and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. Primary brain tumors represent the largest group of malignant solid tumors in children. The survival rates of 50 reported in the literature are achieved at the expense of late occurring effects. Radiation-induced abnormalities are generally dose-dependent. Growth hormone deficiency and premature sexual development can occur at doses as low as 18 Gy in conventional fractionation, and is the most common neuroendocrine problem in children. In patients treated with > 40 Gy on the HPA, deficiency of gonadotropins, thyroid stimulation hormone, and adrenocorticotropin (> 50 Gy), hyperprolactinemia can be seen, especially among young women. Most neuroendocrine disturbances that develop as a result of HPA can be treated efficiently, provided that an early detection of these endocrine dysfunctions abnormalities is done. (authors)

  1. Metabolic and endocrinologic complications in beta-thalassemia major: a multicenter study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Reza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of transfusion and chelation therapy has dramatically extended the life expectancy of thalassemic patients. The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of prominent thalassemia complications. Methods Two hundred twenty patients entered the study. Physicians collected demographic and anthropometric data and the history of therapies as well as menstrual histories. Patients have been examined to determine their pubertal status. Serum levels of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphate, iPTH were measured. Thyroid function was assessed by T3, T4 and TSH. Zinc and copper in serum were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Bone mineral density (BMD measurements at lumbar and femoral regions have been done using dual x-ray absorptiometry. The dietary calcium, zinc and copper intakes were estimated by food-frequency questionnaires. Results Short stature was seen in 39.3% of our patients. Hypogonadism was seen in 22.9% of boys and 12.2% of girls. Hypoparathyroidism and primary hypothyroidism was present in 7.6% and 7.7% of the patients. About 13 % of patients had more than one endocrine complication with mean serum ferritin of 1678 ± 955 micrograms/lit. Prevalence of lumbar osteoporosis and osteopenia were 50.7% and 39.4%. Femoral osteoporosis and osteopenia were present in 10.8% and 36.9% of the patients. Lumbar BMD abnormalities were associated with duration of chelation therapy. Low serum zinc and copper was observed in 79.6% and 68% of the study population respectively. Serum zinc showed significant association with lumbar but not femoral BMD. In 37.2% of patients serum levels of 25(OH D below 23 nmol/l were detected. Conclusion High prevalence of complications among our thalassemics signifies the importance of more detailed studies along with therapeutic interventions.

  2. The Neuro-endocrinological Role of Microbial Glutamate and GABA Signaling.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota provides the host with multiple functions (e.g., by contributing to food digestion, vitamin supplementation and defense against pathogenic strains) and interacts with the host organism through both direct contact (e.g., through surface antigens) and soluble molecules, which are produced by the microbial metabolism. The existence of the so-called gut-brain axis of bi-directional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system also supports a commu...

  3. Endocrinologic and psychological effects of short-term dexamethasone in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C M; Emans, S J; DuRant, R H; Mantzoros, C; Grace, E; Harper, G P; Majzoub, J A

    2000-09-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have hyperactivity of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sometimes accompanied by elevations of cortisol. We examined whether the normal effects of short-term dexamethasone treatment upon HPA axis suppression and appetite stimulation are observed in these patients. Five young women with AN and ten healthy female controls received one week of high-dose oral dexamethasone (2 mg/m2/d) preceded and followed by hormonal evaluation of sensitivity to glucocorticoids and psychological assessments. No differences in hormone levels of the HPA axis were observed between the two groups and control groups at baseline, after dexamethasone suppression, or following ACTH stimulation testing. However, fasting insulin levels were significantly lower in the AN group, both before and after dexamethasone therapy and their serum leptin levels were also significantly lower. The AN group had significantly lower scores on the Anorexia Nervosa Subtest and the Beck Depression Inventory after dexamethasone compared to controls. On daily analog scales, AN patients had higher anxiety scores while on dexamethasone. Normal sensitivity to glucocorticoids was observed in all parameters examined except for mild abnormalities in pancreatic beta-cell function. These data suggest that AN may represent a state of partial glucocorticoid resistance, as in other states of restricted food intake. Furthermore, these pilot data, including the effects of dexamethasone upon psychological outlook in AN, suggest that glucocorticoids are not an effective therapy for these patients.

  4. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  5. Contextualized analysis of a needs assessment using the Theoretical Domains Framework: a case example in endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazure, Patrice; Bartel, Robert C; Biller, Beverly M K; Molitch, Mark E; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Ross, Judith L; Bernsten, Brock D; Hayes, Sean M

    2014-07-24

    The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is a set of 14 domains of behavior change that provide a framework for the critical issues and factors influencing optimal knowledge translation. Considering that a previous study has identified optimal knowledge translation techniques for each TDF domain, it was hypothesized that the TDF could be used to contextualize and interpret findings from a behavioral and educational needs assessment. To illustrate this hypothesis, findings and recommendations drawn from a 2012 national behavioral and educational needs assessment conducted with healthcare providers who treat and manage Growth and Growth Hormone Disorders, will be discussed using the TDF. This needs assessment utilized a mixed-methods research approach that included a combination of: [a] data sources (Endocrinologists (n:120), Pediatric Endocrinologists (n:53), Pediatricians (n:52)), [b] data collection methods (focus groups, interviews, online survey), [c] analysis methodologies (qualitative - analyzed through thematic analysis, quantitative - analyzed using frequencies, cross-tabulations, and gap analysis). Triangulation was used to generate trustworthy findings on the clinical practice gaps of endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, and general pediatricians in their provision of care to adult patients with adult growth hormone deficiency or acromegaly, or children/teenagers with pediatric growth disorders. The identified gaps were then broken into key underlying determinants, categorized according to the TDF domains, and linked to optimal behavioral change techniques. The needs assessment identified 13 gaps, each with one or more underlying determinant(s). Overall, these determinants were mapped to 9 of the 14 TDF domains. The Beliefs about Consequences domain was identified as a contributing determinant to 7 of the 13 challenges. Five of the gaps could be related to the Skills domain, while three were linked to the Knowledge domain. The TDF categorization of the needs assessment findings allowed recommendation of appropriate behavior change techniques for each underlying determinant, and facilitated communication and understanding of the identified issues to a broader audience. This approach provides a means for health education researchers to categorize gaps and challenges identified through educational needs assessments, and facilitates the application of these findings by educators and knowledge translators, by linking the gaps to recommended behavioral change techniques.

  6. Etiology of Hirsutism in Women Referring to Endocrinology Clinic in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajieh Shahbazian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study is carried out aiming to determine the prevalence of various causes of hirsutism in patients referred to the endocrine clinic of Golestan Hospital in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 520 patients suffered from hirsutism whiting the age range of 10-50 year old participated based on Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism classification system.Results: Out of 520 patients under study, 274 ones (52.7% had PCO, 176 ones (33.8% suffered from idiopathic hirsutism, 24 persons (4.6% had hyperprolactinemia, 22 persons (4.2% had hirsutism caused by drugs consumption, 11 ones (2.1% had hypothyroidism, 9 patients (1.7% had cushing as well as 3 persons (0.57% having Late Onset Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (LOCAH and 1 person (0.19% had ovarian tumor. Conclusion: Results of this study show that PCO and idiopathic hirsutism constitute totally 86% of hirsutism causes.

  7. Exploring the Association between Alzheimer’s Disease, Oral Health, Microbial Endocrinology and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Alice; Gonder, Ulrike; Robinson, Sarita J.; Crean, StJohn; Singhrao, Sim K.

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates ...

  8. Jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) in the diet of broiler breeder pullets: physiological and endocrinological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E

    1993-09-01

    The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.

  9. Endocrinologic complications of cranial irradiation. Complications endocriniennes de l'irradiation cranienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R. (Hopital des Enfants Malades 75 - Paris (FR))

    1989-09-01

    Cranial irradiation has become one of the leading causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The risk and time of onset of GH deficiency depend mainly on the dose delivered to the hypothalamo-pituitary region: GH deficiency is infrequent after doses under 20 grays and nearly constant after doses above 45 grays. For a given dose, a younger age at the time of irradiation and administration of the dose over a shorter time period increase the risk of GH deficiency. GH secretion can be adequately evaluated using rapid stimulation tests and is usually well correlated with growth, except in patients with radiation-induced precocious puberty or growth delay due to radiation-induced cartilage lesions.

  10. [Endocrinology of cancer and age: early and late stages of ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M

    2017-01-01

    Processes important for hormone-mediated carcinogenesis are present on different, even very early, ontogenesis stages. Early shifts in hormone-metabolic status often display opposite correlations with the risk of most common age-associated non-communicable pathologies (namely, hormone-dependent cancers and cardiovascular diseases). Additional known contradiction is the raise of reproductive system tumors incidence in the age associated with lower production of mitogenic hormones. Consequently, one should take into account production of steroids in target tissues themselves, recognize the importance of progenotoxic effect, which, apart from mitogenic function, is characteristic for estrogens and their derivatives, as well as the role of endocrine-genotoxic switchings forming so called basic triad, which is born under the influence of age-associated endocrine shifts and environmental factors. Aside from steroids-related system of increased cancer risk, attention should be paid to non-steroid ones (in particular insulin resistance- and inflammatory cytokines-associated), with their close connection to immune system functional state, low-grade chronic inflammation, obesity phenotype, and pro-/anti-inflammatory lipid factors ratio. In total, it confirms and importance of timely preventive interventions on both ontogenesis stages, early and late ones, which are often separated by several decades.

  11. Polycystic ovarian disease: endocrinological parameters with specific reference to growth hormone and somatomedin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdl, W

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three women (22-38 years old) with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) were included in this study. The criteria for diagnosis were: an LH/FSH ratio greater than 2.0; polycystic ovaries, diagnosed by means of palpation and ultrasound; androgenism and menstrual cycle abnormalities. Using endocrine parameters, we attempted to define distinct forms of PCOD. The patients were placed in three groups according to serum levels of testosterone (T) and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha OHP) and the estrone/androstendione (E1/delta 4A) ratio. Patients in group I (n = 18) had an elevated T level (greater than 1.0 ng/ml) and a 17 alpha OHP level under 4.0 ng/ml. This type of POCD was called the "androgen" type. Patients in group II (n = 7) had normal T- and 17 alpha OHP levels under 4.0 ng/ml and an elevated (E1/delta 4A) ratio. This type of PCOD was called the "estrogen" type. Group III (n = 8) comprised patients with 17 alpha OHP levels over 4.0 ng/ml. This type of PCOD was called the "adrenocortical" type. In two patients of this group, a modified ACTH test revealed late-onset congenital hyperplasia. The endocrine parameters of the patients with PCOD were compared with those of 17 adult without signs of PCOD. Statistical evaluation was done by variance analysis. Women with acromegaly often show signs of androgenism as well as menstrual cycle abnormalities. This may indicate an association between the growth factors human growth hormone (HGH) and somatomedin-C (Sm-C) and the biosynthese and metabolism of steroid hormone. Recent experiments have demonstrated such associations. Our study showed an association between the HGH and Sm-C levels and abnormal steroid hormone concentrations in women with androgen type PCOD (group I). These patients had a significantly decreased HGH level, a significantly decreased HGH/Sm-C ratio, and an increased average Sm-C level. These data suggest that elevated Sm-C levels can, by a negative-feedback mechanism, inhibit pituitary HGH production. We discuss the possible mechanisms causing elevation of plasma Sm-C, HGH, steroid hormones, excessive food intake, and possibly prolactin seem responsible for the clinical manifestation of increased Sm-C production in adolescence and for its level in the fertile years of patients.

  12. Immunohistochemical Study on the Fetal Rat Pituitary in Hyperthermia-lnduced Exencephaly(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi G., Watanabe; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  13. Thyrotropic Activity of Various Adenohypophyseal Hormones of the Bullfrog(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    MAKOTO, SAKAI; YOICHI, HANAOKA; SHIGEYASU, TANAKA; HIROAKI, HAYASHI; SAKAE, KIKUYAMA; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University

    1991-01-01

    The effects of adenohypophyseal hormones of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) origin on the in vitro release of thyroxine (T_4) from the thyroid of prometamorphic larvae were studied. The bullfrog thyrotropin (TSH) preparation was 4 times as potent as bovine TSH in this model. Bullfrog luteinizing hormones (LHS) (I-IV) and follicle-stimulating hormones (FSHS) (I-IV), which were classified according to their isoelectric points, were tested for their thyrotropic activity and demons-trated about 1...

  14. Leadership training in Endocrinology fellowship A survey of program directors and recent graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    Program Directors and Recent Graduates presented at/ published to SAMHS and Universities Research Forum (SURF) 2017, San Antonio, TX 16 June 2017 m...Research Division may pay for your basic journal publishing charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for...efforts. LINDA STEEL-GOODWIN, Col, USAF, BSC Director , Clinical Investigations & Research Support Warrior Medics - Mission Ready - Patient Focused

  15. Endocrinological aspects in the therapy of testicular affections in children suffering from acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffel, W.; Grulich, M.; Liedtke, B.

    1990-01-01

    Orchidectomy or testicular irradiation with 24 to 30 Gy are recommended for testicular involvement in boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But, recommended radiation doses for the only occulty involved other testis differ, i.e. they range from 12 to 24 Gy. Low dose (12 or 15 Gy) 'preventive' testicular irradiation was delivered to 5 of 14 patients; only one of these 5 experienced a further testicular relapse. According to our observation, in contrast to higher doses, the dose limitation allows spontaneous pubertal development including normal testosteron production and normal development of the masculine stature. (author)

  16. Endocrinology research-reflecting on the past decade and looking to the next.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Kevan C; Majzoub, Joseph A; Melmed, Shlomo; Pendergrass, Merri; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The inaugural issue of this journal, published in November 2005, included articles on thyroid cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, pituitary adenomas and obesity. 10 years later, we are still publishing articles on these topics (and many others). Although a great deal of progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the endocrine system over the past 10 years, many challenges still remain. For this Viewpoint, we have asked five of our Advisory Board Members to comment on the progress and challenges from the past 10 years. They were also asked to offer their thoughts on where money should be spent going forward, and their predictions for what advances might be achieved in the next 10 years.

  17. Utilizing a Rat Delayed Implantation Model to Teach Integrative Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisert, Rodney D.; Smith, Michael F.; Schmelzle, Amanda L.; Green, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    In this teaching laboratory, the students are directed in an exercise that involves designing and performing an experiment to determine estrogen's role in regulating delayed implantation (diapause) in female rats. To encourage active participation by the students, a discussion question is provided before the laboratory exercise in which each…

  18. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: Alterations in uteroplacental hemodynamics during melatonin supplementation in sheep and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of the placenta in transferring nutrients and wastes among the maternal and fetal circulations is vital to ensuring proper fetal development. This articles summarizes previous research from our laboratory examining umbilical and uterine blood flow during dietary melatonin supplementat...

  19. Regulatory Decisions on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Should be Based on the Principles of Endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Colborn, Theo; Hayes, Tyrone B.; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee; Myers, John Peterson; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    For years, scientists from various disciplines have studied the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the health and wellbeing of humans and wildlife. Some studies have specifically focused on the effects of low doses, i.e. those in the range that are thought to be safe for humans and/or animals. Others have focused on the existence of non-monotonic dose-response curves. These concepts challenge the way that chemical risk assessment is performed for EDCs. Continued discussions have clarified exactly what controversies and challenges remain. We address several of these issues, including why the study and regulation of EDCs should incorporate endocrine principles; what level of consensus there is for low dose effects; challenges to our understanding of non-monotonicity; and whether EDCs have been demonstrated to produce adverse effects. This discussion should result in a better understanding of these issues, and allow for additional dialogue on their impact on risk assessment. PMID:23411111

  20. Reading Habits of Third-Year Medical Students during an Integrated Endocrinology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark; Mahanaimi, David; Lev-Zion, Rafael; Sidi, Aviel; Glick, Shimon

    1998-01-01

    Independent reading by medical students beyond formal classroom activities is considered central to medical education. This study examines self-directed study among third-year students in a six-year medical program. Students averaged 151 minutes daily on independent study using lecture notes, textbooks, and reading articles. Suggests ways to…

  1. Contextualized analysis of a needs assessment using the Theoretical Domains Framework: a case example in endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is a set of 14 domains of behavior change that provide a framework for the critical issues and factors influencing optimal knowledge translation. Considering that a previous study has identified optimal knowledge translation techniques for each TDF domain, it was hypothesized that the TDF could be used to contextualize and interpret findings from a behavioral and educational needs assessment. To illustrate this hypothesis, findings and recommendations drawn from a 2012 national behavioral and educational needs assessment conducted with healthcare providers who treat and manage Growth and Growth Hormone Disorders, will be discussed using the TDF. Methods This needs assessment utilized a mixed-methods research approach that included a combination of: [a] data sources (Endocrinologists (n:120), Pediatric Endocrinologists (n:53), Pediatricians (n:52)), [b] data collection methods (focus groups, interviews, online survey), [c] analysis methodologies (qualitative - analyzed through thematic analysis, quantitative - analyzed using frequencies, cross-tabulations, and gap analysis). Triangulation was used to generate trustworthy findings on the clinical practice gaps of endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, and general pediatricians in their provision of care to adult patients with adult growth hormone deficiency or acromegaly, or children/teenagers with pediatric growth disorders. The identified gaps were then broken into key underlying determinants, categorized according to the TDF domains, and linked to optimal behavioral change techniques. Results The needs assessment identified 13 gaps, each with one or more underlying determinant(s). Overall, these determinants were mapped to 9 of the 14 TDF domains. The Beliefs about Consequences domain was identified as a contributing determinant to 7 of the 13 challenges. Five of the gaps could be related to the Skills domain, while three were linked to the Knowledge domain. Conclusions The TDF categorization of the needs assessment findings allowed recommendation of appropriate behavior change techniques for each underlying determinant, and facilitated communication and understanding of the identified issues to a broader audience. This approach provides a means for health education researchers to categorize gaps and challenges identified through educational needs assessments, and facilitates the application of these findings by educators and knowledge translators, by linking the gaps to recommended behavioral change techniques. PMID:25060235

  2. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender content on reproductive endocrinology and infertility clinic websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Harold Y; Yin, Ophelia; Monseur, Brent; Selter, Jessica; Collins, Lillian J; Lau, Brandyn D; Christianson, Mindy S

    2017-07-01

    To assess geographical distribution and practice characteristics of fertility clinics inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. Cross-sectional analysis. Not applicable. None. None. Prevalence and geographical distribution of fertility clinic websites with LGBT-specific content, indicated by keywords and home page cues specific to the LGBT patient population. Assessment of relationship between LGBT-specific content and clinic characteristics, including U.S. region, clinic size, private versus academic setting, and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage. Of 379 websites analyzed, 201 (53%) contained LGBT content. Clinics with the highest proportion of LGBT website content were in the Northeast (59/82, 72%) and West (63/96, 66%), while the lowest proportion was in the Midwest (29/74, 39%) and South (50/127, 39%). Most frequently used terms included lesbian (72%), LGBT/LGBTQ (69%), and gay (68%), while less used terms included trans/transgender (32%) and bisexual (15%). Larger clinic size was associated with LGBT-specific website content (odds ratio, 4.42; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-9.67). Practice type and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage were not associated with a clinic website having LGBT content. Over half of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member fertility clinics included LGBT content on their websites, yet those in the Midwest and South were significantly less likely to do so. Predictive factors for having LGBT website content included location in northeastern and western regions and increasing clinic size. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether inclusion of LGBT content on clinic websites impacts use of reproductive services by the LGBT patient population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcultural Endocrinology: Adapting Type-2 Diabetes Guidelines on a Global Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; González-Rivas, Juan P; Florez, Hermes; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2016-12-01

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) needs to be prevented and treated effectively to reduce its burden and consequences. White papers, such as evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) and their more portable versions, clinical practice algorithms and clinical checklists, may improve clinical decision-making and diabetes outcomes. However, CPG are underused and poorly validated. Protocols that translate and implement these CPG are needed. This review presents the global dimension of T2D, details the importance of white papers in the transculturalization process, compares relevant international CPG, analyzes cultural variables, and summarizes translation strategies that can improve care. Specific protocols and algorithmic tools are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactive case-based learning improves resident knowledge and confidence in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Kara N; Tiegs, Ashley W; Uquillas, Kristen; Nachtigall, Margaret; Fino, M Elizabeth; Winkel, Abigail F; Lerner, Veronica

    2017-06-01

    Resident physicians' scores on the REI section of the CREOG exam are traditionally low, and nearly 40% of house staff nation-wide perceive their REI knowledge to be poor. We aimed to assess whether an interactive case-based group-learning curriculum would narrow the REI knowledge gap by improving understanding and retention of core REI concepts under the time constraints affecting residents. A three-hour case-based workshop was developed to address four primary CREOG objectives. A multiple-choice test was administered immediately before and after the intervention and 7 weeks post-workshop, to evaluate both knowledge and confidence. Following the intervention, residents self-reported increased confidence with counseling and treatment of PCOS, ovulation induction cycle monitoring, counseling and treatment of POI, and breaking bad news related to infertility (p < 0.05). The multiple-choice exam was re-administered 7 weeks post-intervention, and scores remained significantly improved compared to pre-workshop scores (p < 0.05). At that time, all residents either strongly agreed (91.7%) or agreed (8.3%) that the case-based interactive format was preferable to traditional lecture-based teaching. In conclusion, a nontraditional curriculum aimed at teaching core REI concepts to residents through interactive case-based learning can be successfully integrated into a residency curriculum, and significantly improves knowledge and confidence of critical concepts in REI.

  5. POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLINS: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To fully elucidate the action of crustacean hormones, or their agonists, on vitellogenesis and reproduction, it has become increasingly important to develop sensitive assays that indicate a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on easily measured endpoints. Because of the relative ab...

  6. Effects of the insecticide fipronil on reproductive endocrinology in the fathead minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA receptors play an important role in neuroendocrine regulation in fish. Disruption of the GABAergic system by environmental contaminants could interfere with normal regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis, leading to imp...

  7. When endocrinology and democracy collide: emotions, cortisol and voting at national elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waismel-Manor, Israel; Ifergane, Gal; Cohen, Hagit

    2011-11-01

    Faced with stressful experiences, such as uncertainty or novelty, the adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoid hormones to help us cope with stress. Since many decision-making situations are stressful, there is reason to believe that voting is a stressful event. In this study, we asked voters in Israel's national election (N=113) to report on their general affective state immediately before entering the polling place using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and to provide us with a saliva sample through which we could evaluate their cortisol levels. Compared to a second sample of voters who reported their affective state on election night (N=70), we found that voters at the ballot box had higher positive and negative affect. Moreover, our voters at the polling place exhibited cortisol levels that were significantly higher than their own normal levels obtained on a similar day, and significantly higher than those of a second control group sampled the day after the elections (N=6). Our data demonstrate that elections are exciting, yet stressful events, and it is this stress, among other factors, that elevates the cortisol levels of voters. Since elevated cortisol has been found to affect memory consolidation, impair memory retrieval and lead to risk-seeking behavior, we discuss how these outcomes of elevated cortisol levels may affect voting in general and the field of electoral studies in particular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Endocrinological and behavioural adaptations to experimentally induced physical stress in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-Roelfsema, E. de

    2007-01-01

    The major objective of this thesis is to find parameters to diagnose early overtraining (a stress-related disorder) in horses. Diagnosing overtraining remains still a major challenge. In man, a decrease in performance despite normal training, is indicative for the syndrome. The diagnosis is made by

  9. Genetics in endocrinology: genetic variation in deiodinases: a systematic review of potential clinical effects in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, H.; Dekkers, O.M.; Peeters, R.P.; Schoones, J.W.; Smit, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases represent a family of selenoproteins involved in peripheral and local homeostasis of thyroid hormone action. Deiodinases are expressed in multiple organs and thyroid hormone affects numerous biological systems, thus genetic variation in deiodinases may affect multiple

  10. 76 FR 23324 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 31, rm... Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-Lipid (ACCORD Lipid) trial as they relate to the efficacy and safety of the... cholesterol goal. The ACCORD Lipid study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled add-on trial...

  11. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Peter Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of the endosonographer. Moreover, EUS is also by far the best and most sensitive imaging technique to detect and assess the follow-up of pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 disease. It furthermore enables the preoperatively localization of insulinomas and critical structures in their neighborhood, and may be relevant in planning surgical strategy. A positive EUS in a case of insulinoma furthermore confirms the endocrine diagnosis, especially considering the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia factitia by oral antidiabetics. It can be supplemented by EUS-FNA. Again, it has to be considered that EUS may reveal false positive and false negative results, and the quality of the findings largely depends on the endosonographer's skills and experience. The most important technical details together with the advantages and limitations of EUS, and the pathognomonic characteristic of benign and malignant disorders of the adrenals and pancreas are presented here. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. 78 FR 67364 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor developed as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. FDA intends to make background material available to the...

  13. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Diabetic cardiomyopathy: pathophysiology and potential metabolic interventions state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, Eylem; Gulsin, Gaurav; Neubauer, Stefan; McCann, Gerry P

    2018-04-01

    Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes contributes to the development of heart failure through a variety of mechanisms, including disease-specific myocardial structural, functional and metabolic changes. This review will focus on the contemporary contributions of state of the art non-invasive technologies to our understanding of diabetic cardiomyopathy, including data on cardiac disease phenotype, cardiac energy metabolism and energetic deficiency, ectopic and visceral adiposity, diabetic liver disease, metabolic modulation strategies and cardiovascular outcomes with new classes of glucose-lowering therapies. © 2018 The authors.

  14. Clinical, endocrinological, and computerized tomography scans for symmetrical calcification of the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldscheider, H.G.; Lischewski, R.; Claus, D.; Streibl, W.; Waiblinger, G.; Ulm Univ., Schwendi/Dietenbronn; Ulm Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Symmetrical calcification of the basal ganglia was found in 2 promille of 8000 computerized tomography (CT) scans. Of 19 cases, only 2 were detectable on conventional skull films. The less prominent calcifications were most often found in the region of the pallidum, the knee of the internal capsule. Also, the lesions were generally symmetrical. Thus these factors must be considered basic morphological characteristics of the pathophysiological process. Additional neurological disorders were present in 6 patients. Neurological symptoms in the remaining 13, when present, depended on the extent of the lesion. The most common finding was tremor, although disturbances of fine motor control, transient lateralizing signs, and seizures were also noted. No particular constellation of symptoms or signs permitted accurate clinical localization of the lesions. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2009-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology (HRE) is the study of the mechanisms that link variation in reproductive traits with variation in local habitats. Empirical and theoretical contributions from biological anthropology, physiology, and demography have established the foundation necessary for developing a comprehensive understanding, grounded in life history theory (LHT), of temporal, individual, and populational variation in women's reproductive functioning. LHT posits that natural selection leads to the evolution of mechanisms that tend to allocate resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction, and survival such that fitness is locally maximized. (That is, among alternative allocation patterns exhibited in a population, those having the highest inclusive fitness will become more common over generational time.) Hence, strategic modulation of reproductive effort is potentially adaptive because investment in a new conception may risk one's own survival, future reproductive opportunities, and/or current offspring survival. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is the principal neuroendocrine pathway by which the human female modulates reproductive functioning according to the changing conditions in her habitat. Adjustments of reproductive investment in a potential conception are manifested in temporal and individual variation in ovarian cycle length, ovulation, hormone levels, and the probability of conception. Understanding the extent and causes of adaptive and non-adaptive variation in ovarian functioning is fundamental to ascertaining the proximate and remote determinants of human reproductive patterns. In this review I consider what is known and what still needs to be learned of the ecology of women's reproductive biology, beginning with a discussion of the principal explanatory frameworks in HRE and the biometry of ovarian functioning. Turning next to empirical studies, it is evident that marked variation between cycles, women, and populations is the norm rather than an aberration. Other than woman's age, the determinants of these differences are not well characterized, although developmental conditions, dietary practices, genetic variation, and epigenetic mechanisms have all been hypothesized to play some role. It is also evident that the reproductive functioning of women born and living in arduous conditions is not analogous to that of athletes, dieters, or even the lower end of the "normal range" of HPO functioning in wealthier populations. Contrary to the presumption that humans have low fecundity and an inefficient reproductive system, both theory and present evidence suggest that we may actually have very high fecundity and a reproductive system that has evolved to be flexible, ruthlessly efficient and, most importantly, strategic. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Comparative endocrinological responses to short transportation of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Aveni, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of short transportation on β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol changes, 12 healthy stallions of Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus) were studied before and after transportation of 50 km. Blood samples were collected 1 week before transportation in basal conditions, immediately before loading and after transportation and unloading, on their arrival at the breeding station. Compared to basal and before values, donkeys showed an increase in circulating ACTH (P donkeys. Horses facing forward (direction of travel) showed higher (P donkeys; horses facing backward (the opposite direction of travel) showed lower (P donkeys and only of cortisol in horses, suggesting that transportation for donkeys may be more stressful than horses. © 2012 The Authors Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Look at Me! The socio-neuro-endocrinology of eye-contact, dominance and status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terburg, D.

    2012-01-01

    The terms approach and avoidance are used to describe appetitive motivation and fear of punishment. In a social context fear is indeed linked to avoidance, but approach motivation is also expressed with anger and aggression as means to achieve goals at the expense, or through social correction, of

  18. Selective progesterone receptor modulators 3: use in oncology, endocrinology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2008-10-01

    A number of synthetic steroids are capable of modulating progesterone receptors with a spectrum of activities ranging from pure antagonism to a mixture of agonism and antagonism. The best known of these are mifepristone (RU 486), asoprisnil (J 867), onapristone (ZK 98299), ulipristal (CDB 2914), Proellex() (CDB 4124), ORG 33628 and ORG 31710. Outside reproduction selective modulators of progesterone receptors have been under investigation for a large variety of indications, for example in oncology as adjuvants in breast, cervical, endometrial, ovarian and prostate cancer, as well as inoperable meningioma and leiomyosarcoma. In addition, they have been used as antiglucocorticoids. It is therefore useful to review the results obtained in these conditions. A careful evaluation of existing major review papers and of recently published articles was carried out for the indications under review, focusing not only on mifepristone but also on those other selective modulators of progesterone receptors for which data are available. In preliminary studies selective modulators of progesterone receptors had some activity on a number of neoplasias. Their antiglucocorticoid activity has been tested with some success in Cushing's syndrome, several psychiatric conditions (e.g., mood disorders and Alzheimer's disease) and acute renal failure. Finally they are being used in a gene regulator system.

  19. Mechanisms in endocrinology: micro-RNAs: targets for enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Bjerre Hokland, Lea; Chen, Li; Kauppinen, Sakari; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-03-01

    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed micro-RNAs (miRNAs) has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of miRNA biology and their role in bone formation and discusses their potential use in future therapeutic applications for metabolic bone diseases.

  20. 76 FR 55689 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ..., including cholesterol) by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, which is an enzyme involved... chronic kidney disease who did not have a history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization...

  1. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended.

  2. National health programs in the field of endocrinology and metabolism - Miles to go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanishree Shriraam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine and metabolic diseases of childhood obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, iodine deficiency disorders, vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis are major public health problems. Different programs including National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Stroke address these problems although some are yet to be addressed. National surveys have shown high prevalence of these disorders and their risk factors. Most of the programs aim at awareness raising, lifestyle modification, (primary prevention and screening (secondary prevention for the disease conditions as these are proven to be cost-effective compared to late diagnosis and treatment of various complications. Urgent concerted full scale implementation of these programs with good coordination under the umbrella of National Rural Health Mission is the need of the moment. The referral system needs strengthening as are the secondary and tertiary levels of health care. Due attention is to be given for implementation of these programs in the urban areas, as the prevalence of these conditions is almost equal or even higher among urban poor people where primary and secondary prevention measures are scarcely available and treatment costs are sky-high.

  3. Historical figures at the office of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Martínez, José J

    2014-01-01

    Some historical figures have suffered endocrine diseases. This review relates those whose diseases have been published in the scientific literature. It takes a biographical summary and describes the disease process in those considered most relevant by the nature of the disease or the importance of the figure in the Spanish and Latin American context: the Pharaoh Akhenaten, Maximinus I, Bodhidharma, Sancho I of Leon, William the Conqueror, Enrique IV of Castile, Henry VIII, Mary Tudor, Carlos II of Spain, Pio Pico, Pedro II of Brazil, Eisenhower and J. F. Kennedy. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. LC-MS/MS in endocrinology: what is the profit of the last 5 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, Mariëtte Theodora; Endert, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Currently, chromatography (GC but more commonly HPLC) is the analytical method of choice for several hormones, either because the immunoassays suffer from extensive crossreactivity or because chromatography permits simultaneous measurements of hormones. However, sometimes the conventional detection

  5. Joseph Davidovich Levit – the oretician and practitioner of national endocrinology (90th birthday anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Levit

    2016-12-01

    The main works of Dr. Joseph Levit, as well as his scientific biography may serve not only as a source of useful information, but also as an incentive for independent research for both the younger generation and the seasoned experts in various fields of medical science.

  6. Impact of vinclozolin on reproductive behavior and endocrinology in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.

  7. Útero, Psiquis and climatery: an approach since the anthropological endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira M. Melián

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The female gonadal cycle has been ancestrally linked to traits of an emotional and mutable mood, partly attributed to moon phases. This would pave the way along centuries to consider menstruation as something impure and, in the western civilization, even evil (note sexualization of sin in Christian culture. In this context and until the pathophysiology of menopause was approached with a scientific perspective, cessation of fertility and phenotypic changes associated with ovarian quenching have fostered a magical and prejudicial vision as a state related to disequilibrium, lunacy or harm. Historical portraits of women with this psychological profile through time as prophets, mystic, witches have turned in today’s hysterical, depressive or emotionally labile diagnoses. This fact reveals the impact of long standing beliefs based on myths and cosmic phenomena on the contemporary collective subconscious. An impact that, in conjunction with cultural, social and biological issues, even today, modulate the medical nosological categories.

  8. 75 FR 47821 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (SCOUT) (M01- 392), for new drug application (NDA) 20-632, MERIDIA (sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate) Capsules, sponsored by Abbott Laboratories, for...

  9. Hacia nuevas concepciones sobre la Endocrinología Tiróidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. de Nogales Q.

    1949-04-01

    Full Text Available Es evidente que el acuciante estímulo que el hombre siente de explicarse y llegar a comprender el significado y el sentido de los hechos que observa, le conducen a tomar una posición definida ante ellos, una posición de auténtica beligerancia, elaborando teorías y doctrinas que unas veces se van incorporando al acervo de nuestra cultura y otras a la pletórica historia de nuestros errores. Pero no es menos cierto que el impulso que el hombre siente de saber se satisface con frecuencia en corto circuito. Cuando hemos logrado que una teoría nos aclare algunos puntos esenciales de una enfermedad determinada, (pues de patología nos ocupamos, y por lo tanto nos hemos asegurado de que contiene parte de verdad, entonces para otros aspectos de aquel proceso nos permitimos forzar las interpretaciones y aun cuando para ellos la teoría resulte dudosa, racionalizamos y a forciori los hacemos eritrar en la explicación del conjunto. En esta situación estaba hace poco el exoftalmos, dentro de la doctrina de los hipertiroidismos, en esta situación permanecen todavía los 'distiroidismos", los estados designados como inestabilidades tiroideas, síndromes disociados, enfermedad de Graves sin tiroides" etc., etc., todos ellos merecedores de severa revisión.

  10. Reproductive endocrinology of the dog : effects of medical and surgical intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between different reproductive hormones were studied in the dog 1) around the time of ovulation, 2) during spontaneous and aglepristone-induced parturition, 3) before and after gonadectomy in both males and females, and 4) before and after chemical castration with the GnRH-agonist

  11. Effects of atrazine on endocrinology and physiology in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Osborn, Hannah L

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to certain environmental contaminants such as agricultural pesticides can alter normal endocrine and reproductive parameters in wild fish populations. Recent studies have found widespread pesticide contamination across the rivers that discharge into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Potential impacts on native fish species exposed to known endocrine disrupting chemicals such as atrazine, simazine, and diuron have not been assessed. In the present study, the authors examined the endocrine and physiological effects of short-term, acute exposure of environmentally relevant concentrations of analytical grade atrazine in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in a controlled laboratory experiment. Expression of hepatic vitellogenin was not affected, supporting results of previous studies that showed that atrazine does not have a direct estrogenic effect via mediation of estrogen receptors. The lack of effect on brain cytochrome P19B (CYP19B) expression levels, combined with increases in testosterone (T) and 17β estradiol and a stable T:17β estradiol ratio, does not support the hypothesis that atrazine has an indirect estrogenic effect via modulation of aromatase expression. Gill ventilation rate, a measure of oxidative stress, did not change in contrast to other studies finding enhanced osmoregulatory disturbance and gill histopathology after atrazine exposure. To more closely reflect field conditions, the authors recommend that laboratory studies should focus more on examining the effects of commercial pesticide formulations that contain additional ingredients that have been found to be disruptive to endocrine function. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Endocrinological implications of the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Londoño-Palacio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS is a multisystemic disease, it also affects the endocrine system. Normal production of hormones can be influenced by the presence of intermittent hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative stress; for example, subjects with obesity and OSAHS have much higher leptin levels than obese subjects without OSAHS. This article discusses the relationship between sleep apnea and obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2, neuroendocrine disorders and osteoporosis.

  13. Studies on reproductive endocrinology and factors influencing fertility in dairy and draught buffaloes in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, B.M.A.O.; De Silva, L.N.A.; Karunaratne, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of calving data on state farms and a field survey in village herds were used in conjunction with radioimmunoassay for plasma and milk progesterone, rectal palpation and other clinical observations to study reproductive functions of river type (Murrah) and indigenous (Lanka) buffaloes. A marked seasonality of calvings and conceptions was observed in both types, with the highest percentage of conceptions occurring 2-5 months after the annual peak in rainfall. In Murrah buffaloes on two state farms the mean ages at first calving were 51.0 and 52.1 months, and the calving interval 17.5 months. Progesterone profiles during the postpartum period showed ovarian inactivity to be the major problem. Most animals remained anoestrous for 100-200 days, but conceived at the first or second postpartum ovulation. Treatment with GnRH during anoestrus had no beneficial effect. Hormonal changes during normal and prostaglandin-synchronized oestrous cycles, pregnancy and the peripartal period were basically similar to those in cattle, with some differences in absolute values. Gestation length (mean+-SD) was 309.9+-8.8 days. In Lanka buffaloes under village conditions marked differences in fertility were evident between certain districts and agro-ecological zones. Mean ages at first calving ranged from 41.4-49 months, calving intervals from 13-23.5 months, and annual calving rates from 42-75%. Ovarian inactivity was the major problem in areas with poor fertility, and was influenced by suckling management and usage for draught and milk. At one village location with high fertility 70% of the animals had calving to first service intervals less than 60 days, first service conception rate of 65.5% and 1.4 services per conception. The mean (+-SD) interval from calving to first elevation of progesterone in milk was 55.2+-18.6 days, the calving interval 393.7+-79.8 days, and the gestation length 316.9+-9.9 days. (author)

  14. Endocrinological issues and hormonal manipulation in children and men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitzer, Matthew S; Paduch, Darius A

    2013-02-15

    47, XXY or Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the most common chromosomal aberration in males, is characterized by either absolute or relative hypogonadism with frequent decline in serum testosterone (T) following the onset of puberty. Decreased T levels are the result of testicular dysfunction with decrease in size of Leydig cells, and loss of germs and Sertoli cells leading to tubular hyalinization. Increase in estradiol results from over-expression of aromatase CYP19. Deficient androgen production and observed varied response of end-organs to T leads to delayed progression of puberty with decreased facial/body hair, poor muscle development, osteoporosis, and gynecomastia. It is possible that hypogonadism and excessive estradiol production contribute to emotional and social immaturity, and specific learning disabilities in KS. Based on the authors' experience and literature review, early fertility preservation and hormonal supplementation may normalize pubertal development, prevent metabolic sequelae of hypogonadism, and have a positive effect on academic and social development. No randomized clinical trials are available studying the effects of T supplementation on reproductive or cognitive issues in KS. Aggressive T supplementation (topical gel) and selective use of aromatase inhibitors may be considered at the onset of puberty with careful follow-up and titration to reach age-specific high-normal physiologic serum values. The decision to institute hormonal therapy should be part of a multidisciplinary approach including physical, speech, behavioral, and occupational therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radioisotopic methods of investigation in endocrinology. Radioizotopnye metody issledovaniya v endokrinologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenchenko, A F; Matveenko, E G; Livshits, I B; Seregin, V V; Spesivtseva, V G

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of research on iodine metabolism both under normal and pathological conditions employing the method of clinical dynamic radiometry. Possible uses of radioisotopes are indicated for evaluating the function of the parathyroid glands, the pancreas, and the pituitary-adrenal system. Data are given on the practical use of radio-immune, radio-receptor methods as well as the competitive bonding method for determining a number of hormonal and other biologically active metabolites and substances with low antigen activity in various pathological states both clinically and in experiments. The use of neutron-activation methods in biology and medicine is demonstrated. The book is intended for endocrinologists, biologists, and scientific associates interested in the study of the functional state of endocrine glands by radioisotopic methods. 46 figures, 16 tables.

  16. Biology and endocrinology of ovulation, pregnancy and parturition in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W; McCann, J P; Temple, M

    1989-01-01

    There is considerable variation among bitches in commonly encountered intervals between cycles (5-12 months), durations of anoestrus (1-8 months), durations of follicular phase pro-oestrus (3-21 days) and periovulatory oestrous behavior (3-21 days), intervals from preovulatory LH surge to oestrus onset (-2 to 5 days), and intervals from fertile mating to parturition (57-68 days). The extent of variation within bitches ranges from slight to great. However, there appears to be very little variation in the intervals from LH surge to ovulation (2 days), to post-ovulatory oocyte maturation (approximately 4 days), to implantation (approximately 18 days), to selected developmental stages of pregnancy, or to parturition (64-66 days). There are no tests diagnostic of early pregnancy. The onset times of persistent pregnancy-specific changes have been estimated, including radio-opaque fetal details (Day 46), elevated blood prolactin values (Day 35), elevated blood relaxin values (Day 25), echogenic heart beats (Day 24) and embryonic vesicles (Day 19), and potentially palpable uterine enlargements (Day 21). As in humans, there is an anaemia of pregnancy involving a 30% reduction in haematocrit and an increased incidence of insulin resistance during the second half of gestation. Ovarian progesterone is required throughout pregnancy. LH and prolactin are luteotrophic in the pregnant bitch as well as during the 2-month luteal phase of the non-pregnant bitch. Parturition follows a luteolysis which occurs during an increase in prostaglandin F-2 alpha that begins 36 h pre partum. Factors regulating the duration of anoestrus are not known but termination of anoestrus is associated with increased pulsatile secretion of LH.

  17. Reproductive endocrinology of the dog : effects of medical and surgical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    de Gier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between different reproductive hormones were studied in the dog 1) around the time of ovulation, 2) during spontaneous and aglepristone-induced parturition, 3) before and after gonadectomy in both males and females, and 4) before and after chemical castration with the GnRH-agonist deslorelin in males. Additionally, the effect of trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, on progesterone production was studied. The most important conclusions from thes...

  18. Синдром поликистозных яичников: лабораторная диагностика гиперандрогенного статуса женщины (обзор статьи «The polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology», октябрь 2014 года)

    OpenAIRE

    РЫКОВА О.В.

    2015-01-01

    В статье представлены современные лабораторные аспекты оценки гиперандрогении согласно вышедшему в октябре 2014 г. документу Европейского общества эндокринологов по вопросам диагностики и лечения синдрома поликистозных яичников «The polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology»....

  19. Serial clinical, colpo-cytological and endocrinological evaluations of Cerdocyon thous bitches from the Rio de Janeiro zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Veríssimo Monteiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas avaliações clínicas, colpo-citológicas e endocrinológicas de duas fêmeas de cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous pertencentes à Fundação RIOZOO, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, durante um período de 10 meses. As fêmeas, consideradas clinicamente saudáveis, foram alojadas em recintos diferentes, cada uma com dois machos. Os recintos, de substrato arenoso distavam cerca de 500 m um do outro. A técnica colpo-citológica utilizada nas fêmeas de cachorro-do-mato segue os mesmos métodos para cachorros domésticos. É interessante ressaltar que não foi observado nenhum eritrócito nos esfregaços vaginais analisados, em qualquer fase do ciclo estral, em ambas as fêmeas. A diferenciação dos tipos celulares vaginais durante as diferentes fases do ciclo estral segue os mesmos padrões demonstrados por cadelas domésticas. Os níveis de estradiol e progesterona seguiram os mesmos padrões que ocorre nas fêmeas de cachorros domésticos. A progesterona atingiu níveis máximos (46 ng/ml por volta do décimo dia de gestação. A variação do estradiol demonstrou que, ainda que as fêmeas possam apresentar picos deste hormônio, durante o ano, tão altos como durante a época reprodutiva, a reprodução ocorre, realmente, no final do inverno e primavera. É impossível inferir, neste trabalho, se a presença do macho próximo à fêmea durante o ano todo poderia induzir a produção de estradiol, redundando no que seria considerado um artifício de cativeiro.

  20. Stress-related endocrinological and psychopathological effects of short- and long-term 50Hz electromagnetic field exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemerszky, Renáta; Zelena, Dóra; Barna, István; Bárdos, György

    2010-01-15

    It is believed that different electromagnetic fields do have beneficial and harmful biological effects. The aim of the present work was to study the long-term consequences of 50 Hz electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure with special focus on the development of chronic stress and stress-induced psychopathology. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) for 5 days, 8h daily (short) or for 4-6 weeks, 24h daily (long). Anxiety was studied in elevated plus maze test, whereas depression-like behavior of the long-treated group was examined in the forced swim test. Some days after behavioral examination, the animals were decapitated among resting conditions and organ weights, blood hormone levels as well as proopiomelanocortin mRNA level from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland were measured. Both treatments were ineffective on somatic parameters, namely none of the changes characteristic to chronic stress (body weight reduction, thymus involution and adrenal gland hypertrophy) were present. An enhanced blood glucose level was found after prolonged ELF-EMF exposure (p=0.013). The hormonal stress reaction was similar in control and short-term exposed rats, but significant proopiomelanocortin elevation (pfloating time; p=0.006) were found following long-term ELF-EMF exposure. Taken together, long and continuous exposure to relatively high intensity electromagnetic field may count as a mild stress situation and could be a factor in the development of depressive state or metabolic disturbances. Although we should stress that the average intensity of the human exposure is normally much smaller than in the present experiment.

  1. Endocrinological Responses to the Administration of Nicotine: Interactions with Drug Initiation, Conditioned Effects, and Conditions of Stress, Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-07

    Benowitz, Kuyt and Jacob, 1982; Feyerabend S Russe l l , 1978). 273 10 Measurement of hematocrit was performed as follows: 1) after centrifugation of...Incentives, Washington, D.C.: Winston. Feyerabend , C. , & Russell, M. A. H. (1978). Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate can plasma...s Feyerabend , c. (1978). Cigarette smoking: A dependence on high-nicotine boll. Drug Metabolism Review, 8_, 29-57. Russell, M. A. H. , Wilson, C

  2. Endocrinological Responses to the Administration of Nicotine: Interactions with Drug Initiation, Conditioned Effects, and Conditions of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-27

    of u r ina ry a l k a l i n a t i o n ; Becke t t , Rowland & Tr iggs , 1965; Beckett fi T r i g g s , 1967; Feyerabend fi Rus se l l , 1978...Matsukura, Sakamoto, Takahashi , Matsuyama fi Muranaka, 1979; Russel l fi Feyerabend , 1978). Nicot ine when a<aministered in low t o moderate doses in man...1975; Kumar, Cooke, Lader fi Russell, 1977; Russell, Wilson, Patel, Cole & Feyerabend , 1973; Schacditer, 1977). In addition, it should be noted

  3. Inhalation dose due to presence of 131I in air above septic tank system of an endocrinology hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J. W.; Grabowska, S.; Nowak, T.; Bogacz, J.; Gaca, P.; Bartyzel, M.; Budzanowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present here measurements of the 131 I concentration for both: Gaseous and aerosol fraction of 131 I in the air above the septic tank containing wastes from medical application of this isotope. Aerosols were collected using air filters, whereas gaseous forms of iodine were trapped in KI impregnated charcoal double layer cartridge. Besides an active method (pumping of the air through system of filters) an attempt for using a passive method (charcoal traps) for monitoring of radio-iodine is described. For better characterisation of a site the external kerma was determined by means of G - M and TLD techniques as well as the activity kept in the septic tank was measured by gamma spectrometry. Results show that the activity of the aerosol fraction can be neglected compared to that of the gaseous fraction. He measured activity of air is low, on the level of 1 Bq m -3 , even during simulated failure of the ventilation system. Estimated inhalation dose for the serviceman of septic tanks is low (∼10%) compared with external dose obtained by such person due to gamma radiation from the tank (on the level ∼500 nSv h -1 ). Therefore, the concept of passive monitoring of the iodine in air was abandoned. Also estimated is the efficiency of 131 I reduction by a charcoal filter of the ventilation system and 131 I input to the environment by the ventilation chimney. (authors)

  4. Assessing the links among environmental contaminants, endocrinology, and parasites to understand amphibian declines in montane regions of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Christopher J; Ralicki, Hannah F; Laurencio, David; Crocker-Buta, Sarah; Malone, John H

    2018-01-01

    Amphibians inhabiting montane riparian zones in the Neotropics are particularly vulnerable to decline, but the reasons are poorly understood. Because environmental contaminants, endocrine disruption, and pathogens often figure prominently in amphibian declines it is imperative that we understand how these factors are potentially interrelated to affect montane populations. One possibility is that increased precipitation associated with global warming promotes the deposition of contaminants in montane regions. Increased exposure to contaminants, in turn, potentially elicits chronic elevations in circulating stress hormones that could contribute to montane population declines by compromising resistance to pathogens and/or production of sex steroids regulating reproduction. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining contaminant levels, stress and sex steroid levels, and nematode abundances in male drab treefrogs, Smilisca sordida, from lowland and montane populations in Costa Rica. We found no evidence that montane populations were more likely to possess contaminants (i.e., organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides or benzidine and chlorophenoxy herbicides) than lowland populations. We also found no evidence of elevational differences in circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, estradiol or progesterone. However, montane populations possessed lower androgen levels, hosted more nematode species, and had higher nematode abundances than lowland populations. Although these results suggested that nematodes contributed to lower androgens in montane populations, we were unable to detect a significant inverse relationship between nematode abundance and androgen level. Our results suggest that montane populations of this species are not at greater risk of exposure to contaminants or chronic stress, but implicate nematodes and compromised sex steroid levels as potential threats to montane populations.

  5. The behaviour of the endocrinological parameters cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone and prolactin after UVA and UVB whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicke, M.

    1986-01-01

    With two groups, each with 8 healthy subjects UV whole-body irradiation was carried out with uniformly 30 J/cm 2 UVA or respectively UVB at the level of the individual minimal erythema dose. Every subject received serial irradiations once a day for four days. The determination of the serum hormone level was accomplished by means of radioimmunoassays. The results show a weakly significant decline of cortisol 4 and 24 hours after 2 serial UVB irradiations. 3,5 and 7 days after the end of the irradiation series the cortisol values have increased, but by the seventh day statistically only weakly significant. With UVA irradiation there was also a weakly significant increase in cortisol levels three days after the end of the irradiation series. The serum levels of the other hormones showed no statistically significant changes. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Inhalation dose due to presence of 131I in air above septic tank system of an endocrinology hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietelski, J W; Grabowska, S; Nowak, T; Bogacz, J; Gaca, P; Bartyzel, M; Budzanowski, M

    2005-01-01

    We present here measurements of the 131I concentration for both: gaseous and aerosol fraction of 131I in the air above the septic tank containing wastes from medical application of this isotope. Aerosols were collected using air filters, whereas gaseous forms of iodine were trapped in KI impregnated charcoal double layer cartridge. Besides an active method (pumping of the air through system of filters) an attempt for using a passive method (charcoal traps) for monitoring of radio-iodine is described. For better characterisation of a site the external kerma was determined by means of G-M and TLD techniques as well as the activity kept in the septic tank was measured by gamma spectrometry. Results show that the activity of the aerosol fraction can be neglected compared to that of the gaseous fraction. He measured activity of air is low, on the level of 1 Bq m(-3), even during simulated failure of the ventilation system. Estimated inhalation dose for the serviceman of septic tanks is low ( approximately 10%) compared with external dose obtained by such person due to gamma radiation from the tank (on the level approximately 500 nSv h(-1)). Therefore, the concept of passive monitoring of the iodine in air was abandoned. Also estimated is the efficiency of 131I reduction by a charcoal filter of the ventilation system and 131I input to the environment by the ventilation chimney.

  7. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: DIAGNOSIS OF RECURRENCE IN CUSHING DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleseriu, Maria; Hamrahian, Amir H; Hoffman, Andrew R; Kelly, Daniel F; Katznelson, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    Recurrence of hypercortisolemia after initial treatment of Cushing disease (CD) is more common than previously thought, with a third of patients suffering a recurrence over their lifetime. Awareness of this high rate and delayed timeline (sometimes decades) of potential recurrence is critical and patients with CD should be monitored at regular intervals throughout their lives. In this manuscript, we review the complex evaluation needed for defining CD remission versus persistent disease after surgery, and focus on challenges in diagnosing early recurrent hypercortisolemia. Late night salivary cortisol appears to be an earlier predictor of recurrence when compared with urinary free cortisol (UFC) excretion. We also review the criteria suggested to define recurrence of hypercortisolemia in patients treated with medical therapy. Further research is needed to determine the optimal way to evaluate a patient with CD recurrence as well as the riskbenefit ratio of treatment in early, mild recurrent disease. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AI = adrenal insufficiency CD = Cushing disease CDDT = coupled dexamethasone desmopressin test CR = circadian rhythm CRH = corticotropin-releasing hormone GC = glucocorticoid GCR = global clinical response HPA = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal LDDST = low-dose dexamethasone suppression test LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol ODST = overnight dexamethasone suppression test TSS = trans-sphenoidal surgery.

  8. Combination of Didactic Lectures and Review Sessions in Endocrinology Leads to Improvement in Student Performance as Measured by Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ayisha; Cozine, Cassy; Rizvi, Farwa

    2013-01-01

    There can be no single best way of learning, and each teaching mode has its own merits and demerits. Didactic lectures in and of themselves are insufficient, whereas a problem-based tutorial alone can be as ineffective. This study was conducted to determine if a problem-based review after didactic lectures would lead to better student performance.…

  9. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THYROID DYSFUNCTION CASE FINDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, James V; Garber, Jeffrey R; Woeber, Kenneth A; Cobin, Rhoda; Klein, Irwin

    2016-02-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be readily diagnosed and can be treated in a safe, cost-effective manner. Professional organizations have given guidance on how and when to employ thyroid-stimulating hormone testing for the detection of thyroid dysfunction. Most recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force did not endorse screening for thyroid dysfunction based on a lack of proven benefit and potential harm of treating those with thyroid dysfunction, which is mostly subclinical disease. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) is concerned that this may discourage physicians from testing for thyroid dysfunction when clinically appropriate. Given the lack of specificity of thyroid-associated symptoms, the appropriate diagnosis of thyroid disease requires biochemical confirmation. The Thyroid Scientific Committee of the AACE has produced this White Paper to highlight the important difference between screening and case-based testing in the practice of clinical medicine. We recommend that thyroid dysfunction should be frequently considered as a potential etiology for many of the nonspecific complaints that physicians face daily. The application and success of safe and effective interventions are dependent on an accurate diagnosis. We, therefore, advocate for an aggressive case-finding approach, based on identifying those persons most likely to have thyroid disease that will benefit from its treatment.

  10. Unifying quantitative life-history theory and field endocrinology to assess prudent parenthood in a long-lived seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, W.H.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Piatt, John F.; Mangel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Can field measurements of stress hormones help us to assess the prudent parent hypothesis in a long-lived seabird? Organism: Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla. Location: Duck and Gull Islands, Cook Inlet, Alaska, Methods: We examined the statistical relationship between the stress hormone corticosterone and mortality in black-legged kittiwakes. We built a demographic model of the kittiwake life cycle to determine whether the mortality rates associated with persisting in a breeding attempt despite high corticosterone caused the birds to sacrifice more lifetime reproductive output than they gain from one year's breeding. Results: The probability of apparent mortality increased with corticosterone, suggesting some birds incurred increased mortality risk for the sake of breeding. For Duck Island (low reproductive success), it appears birds sacrificed more lifetime reproductive success than a prudent parent would. On Gull Island, it appears most but possibly not all birds were behaving in ways consistent with theory, although definitive statements require larger samples of highly stressed birds. ?? 2010 William H. Satterthwaite.

  11. Fertility patients and their prescriptions: a two-year audit of patient-pharmacist interactions in a reproductive endocrinology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed pharmacy performance and satisfaction as reported by patients during ovulation induction therapy. Materials and methods Patients (n = 1269 receiving gonadotropin prescriptions for intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer in 2007–2008 were prospectively interviewed by nurses and/or completed a structured questionnaire to evaluate pharmacy performance. "Community" (n = 12 and "specialty" (n = 2 pharmacy status (C vs. S was defined by each pharmacy, and all pharmacies were selected by patients before cycle start. Patient comments about their pharmacy were classified into five types: i Dispensing error-gonadotropin, ii Dispensing error-non gonadotropin, iii Mistake in prescribed medical equipment/supplies, iv Counselling/communication inaccuracy, and v Inventory problem or other. Results 391 pharmacy concerns were reported from 150 fertility patients during the study period. The majority (75.9% of patients selected a S pharmacy to fill their prescriptions, and this pharmacy type was identified in 2.8% of adverse pharmacy encounters (p n = 11, and related to operating hours and medication delivery logistics. Conclusion Fertility patients reported a disproportionate and significantly higher number of adverse pharmacy encounters from C pharmacies compared to S pharmacies. Although no licensing mechanism in Ireland currently recognises special training or certification in any area of pharmacy practice, informal self-designations by pharmacies remain a useful discriminator. Level of familiarity with fertility medicines and availability of inventory are important characteristics to be considered when counselling fertility patients about pharmacy choice. Those who select a C pharmacy should be advised to allow extra time for inventory verification, order confirmation, and additional counselling. Additional study is needed to determine if a minimum volume of fertility-related prescriptions is necessary to assure competence in this particular field of pharmacy practice.

  12. 78 FR 22270 - Joint Meeting of the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ..., indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes... Evaluated for Cardiovascular Outcomes and Regulation of Glycemia in Diabetes (RECORD) trial, for new drug...

  13. Consensus document of the Neuroendocrinology area of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition on management of hypopituitarism during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Eva; Recio-Córdova, José María; Bernabéu-Morón, Ignacio; Fajardo-Montañana, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    The transition period from child to adult represents a crucial phase in the growth process where multiple physical and psychosocial changes occur. It has been arbitrarily defined as the period extending from late puberty to full adult maturity (i.e., from mid to late teenage years until 6-7 years after achievement of final height). The aim of this guideline is to emphasize the importance of adequate hormone replacement during this period and to review reassessment of pituitary function. In patients with GH deficiency diagnosed in childhood, an attempt is made to answer when to retest GH secretion, when to treat and how they should be monitored. Thyroxine, glucocorticoid, and sex steroid replacement are also reviewed. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Giovine, Angela; Branchi, Igor; Bouret, Sebastien; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Bergonzelli, Gabriela; Malagodi, Marithé; Gradini, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the γ2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity “Pituitary gigantism: Update on Molecular Biology and Management”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an update on the mechanisms leading to pituitary gigantism, as well as to familiarize the practitioner with the implication of these genetic findings on treatment decisions. Recent findings Prior studies have identified gigantism as a feature of a number of monogenic disorders, including mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene, multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 4, McCune Albright Syndrome, Carney Complex, and the paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma and pituitary adenoma association (3PA) due to succinate dehydrogenase defects. We recently described a previously uncharacterized form of early-onset pediatric gigantism caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 and we termed it X-LAG (X-linked acrogigantism). The age of onset of increased growth in X-LAG is significantly younger than other pituitary gigantism cases, and control of growth hormone excess is particularly challenging. Summary Knowledge of the molecular defects that underlie pituitary tumorigenesis is crucial for patient care as they guide early intervention, screening for associated conditions, genetic counseling, surgical approach (partial or total hypophysectomy), and choice of medical management. Recently described microduplications of Xq26.3 account for more than 80% of the cases of early-onset pediatric gigantism. Early recognition of X-LAG may improve outcomes, as successful control of growth hormone excess requires extensive anterior pituitary resection and are difficult to manage with medical therapy alone. PMID:26574647

  16. Y-27632 enhances differentiation of blastocyst like cystic human embryoid bodies to endocrinologically active trophoblast cells on a biomimetic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totey Satish M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trophoblast differentiation and formation of the placenta are important events linked to post-implantation embryonic development. Models mimicking the biology of trophoblast differentiation in a post-implantation maternal microenvironment are needed for understanding disorders like placental-ischemia or for applications in drug-screening, and would help in overcoming the ethical impasse on using human embryos for such research. Here we attempt to create such a model by using embryoid bodies (EBs and a biomimetic platform composed of a bilayer of fibronectin and gelatin on top of low-melting agarose. Using this model we test the hypothesis that cystic-EBs (day 30 that resemble blastocysts morphologically, are better sources as compared to noncytic EBs (day 10, for functional trophoblast differentiation; and that the Rho kinases inhibitor Y27632 can enhance this differentiation. Non/cytic EBs with/out Y27632 were grown on this platform for 28 days, and screened from secretion and expression of trophoblast and other lineage markers using ECLIA, RT-PCR, and Immunofluorescence. All EBs attached on this surface and rapidly proliferated into hCG and progesterone (P2 secreting functional trophoblast cells. However, the cells derived from cytic-EBs and cytic-EBs+ Y27632 showed the maximum secretion of these hormones and expressed IGF2, supporting our hypothesis. Also Y27632 reduced extraembryonic endoderm and trophoblast lineage differentiation from early noncystic-EBs, whereas, it specifically enhanced the induction of trophoblast and multinucleated syncitiotrophoblast differentiation from late cystic-EBs. In vivo trophoblast differentiation can be replicated in fibronectin based biomaterials, using cytic-EBs and by maneuvering the Rho-ROCK pathways. Response of EBs to a compound may vary temporally, and determination of their right stage is crucial for applications in directed-differentiation or drug-screening.

  17. Assessing the links among environmental contaminants, endocrinology, and parasites to understand amphibian declines in montane regions of Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Leary

    Full Text Available Amphibians inhabiting montane riparian zones in the Neotropics are particularly vulnerable to decline, but the reasons are poorly understood. Because environmental contaminants, endocrine disruption, and pathogens often figure prominently in amphibian declines it is imperative that we understand how these factors are potentially interrelated to affect montane populations. One possibility is that increased precipitation associated with global warming promotes the deposition of contaminants in montane regions. Increased exposure to contaminants, in turn, potentially elicits chronic elevations in circulating stress hormones that could contribute to montane population declines by compromising resistance to pathogens and/or production of sex steroids regulating reproduction. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining contaminant levels, stress and sex steroid levels, and nematode abundances in male drab treefrogs, Smilisca sordida, from lowland and montane populations in Costa Rica. We found no evidence that montane populations were more likely to possess contaminants (i.e., organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides or benzidine and chlorophenoxy herbicides than lowland populations. We also found no evidence of elevational differences in circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, estradiol or progesterone. However, montane populations possessed lower androgen levels, hosted more nematode species, and had higher nematode abundances than lowland populations. Although these results suggested that nematodes contributed to lower androgens in montane populations, we were unable to detect a significant inverse relationship between nematode abundance and androgen level. Our results suggest that montane populations of this species are not at greater risk of exposure to contaminants or chronic stress, but implicate nematodes and compromised sex steroid levels as potential threats to montane populations.

  18. Global Application of the Assessment of Communication Skills of Paediatric Endocrinology Fellows in the Management of Differences in Sex Development Using the ESPE E-Learning.Org Portal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric endocrin...

  19. Progress in pediatrics in 2015: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, haematology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, oncology and pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Di Mauro, Dora; Mastrorilli, Carla; Mirra, Virginia; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2016-08-27

    This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature. Epidemiological studies have evidenced the high incidence of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in patients with Down syndrome. Documentation of novel risk factors for celiac disease are of use to develop strategies for prevention in the population at-risk. Diagnostic criteria for non-celiac gluten sensitivity have been reported. Negative effect on nervous system development of the supernumerary X chromosome in Klinefelter syndrome has emerged. Improvements have been made in understanding rare diseases such as Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Eltrombopag is an effective therapy for immune trombocytopenia. Children with sickle-cell anemia are at risk for nocturnal enuresis. Invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes are still common despite of vaccination. No difference in frequency of antibiotic prescriptions for acute otitis media between before the publication of the national guideline and after has been found. The importance of timing of iron administration in low birth weight infants, the effect of probiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis and perspectives for managing jaundice and cholestasis in neonates have been highlighted. New strategies have been developed to reduce the risk for relapse in nephrotic syndrome including prednisolone during upper respiratory infection. Insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral palsy, arterial ischemic stroke and acute encephalitis may drive advances in treatment. Recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary feeding have been updated. Novel treatments for rhabdomyosarcoma should be considered for paediatric patients. Control of risk factors for bronchiolitis and administration of pavilizumab for preventing respiratory syncytial virus infection may reduce hospitalization. Identification of risk factors for hospitalization in children with wheezing can improve the management of this disease. Deletions or mutations in genes encoding proteins for surfactant function may cause diffuse lung disease.

  20. Progress in pediatrics in 2015: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, haematology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, oncology and pulmonology

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Di Mauro, Dora; Mastrorilli, Carla; Mirra, Virginia; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese chil...

  1. Recommendations for treatment of hypothyroidism with levothyroxine and levotriiodothyronine: a 2016 position statement of the Italian Society of Endocrinology and the Italian Thyroid Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, B; Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Lenzi, A; Mariotti, S; Pacini, F; Pontecorvi, A; Vitti, P; Trimarchi, F

    2016-12-01

    Levothyroxine (L-T4) is recommended as lifelong replacement therapy for hypothyroidism. Recent clinical and experimental data support the addition of levotriiodothyronine (L-T3) treatment in some selected hypothyroid patients when their symptoms persist and their quality of life remains impaired despite adequate L-T4 monotherapy. An increase in L-T3 prescriptions has been recently observed in Italy due to availability of different L-T3 formulations, making it possible to clinicians to prescribe L-T3 alone or in combination with L-T4. The aim of the present position statement was to define the correct clinical indications, schedule, duration of treatment and contraindications of combined treatment with L-T4 and L-T3 in hypothyroid patients in an attempt to guide clinicians and to avoid potential adverse effects of overtreatment.

  2. [Recommendations of the Spanish Paediatric Endocrinology Society Working Group on Obesity on eating habits for the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo Atance, E; Bahíllo Curieses, P; Bueno Lozano, G; Feliu Rovira, A; Gil-Campos, M; Lechuga-Sancho, A M; Ruiz Cano, R; Vela Desojo, A

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and early mortality. This paper summarises the currently available evidence on the implications of dietary factors on the development and prevention of obesity in paediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations are: promote the consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and reduce those with a high-glycaemic-index, avoid intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fat may provide up to 30-35% of the daily energy intake and saturated fat should provide no more than 10% of daily energy intake; reduce cholesterol intake, avoid formula milk with a high protein content during the first year; promote higher fibre content in the diet, reduce sodium intake, and have at least four meals a day, avoiding regular consumption of fast food and snacks. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Vasily shervinsky – Russian Doctor, scientist, therapeutist and pathologist, Honored scientist of the RSFSR and the founder of the Russian Endocrinology school

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, N.

    2013-01-01

    Шервинский Василий Дмитриевич ? русский врач, ученый, терапевт и патолог, заслуженный деятель науки РСФСР и основоположник русской эндокринологии.

  4. The Method of Loci as a Mnemonic Device to Facilitate Learning in Endocrinology Leads to Improvement in Student Performance as Measured by Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ayisha; Rizvi, Farwa; Syed, Anjum; Shahid, Aqueel; Manzoor, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that the way knowledge is structured in memory determines the ability to retain, recall, and use it to solve problems. The method of loci (MOL) is a mnemonic device that relies on spatial relationships between "loci" (e.g., locations on a familiar route or rooms in a familiar building) to arrange and…

  5. VII All-Russia Scientific and Practical Congress Healthcare priority national project, problems facing pediatric endocrinology in connectionwith its implementation, 1-2 June 2009, Sankt-Peterburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Olegovich Emel'yanov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available В Санкт-Петербурге 1-2 июня 2009 г. состоялась VII Все- российская научно-практическая конференция задачи детской эндокринологии в реализации национального проекта здоровье??, организованная Эндокринологическим научным центром, Министерством здравоохранения и социального развития Российской Федерации, комитетом по здравоохранению правительства Санкт-Петербурга, ГОУ ДПО ?Санкт-Петербургская медицинская академия постдипломного образования?, Общественной организацией ?Российская Ассоциация эндокринологов?, профессиональной медицинской ассоциацией эндокринологов Санкт-Петербурга. В конференции приняли участие более 300 человек: эндокринологи из большинства российских регионов, главные детские эндокринологи, специалисты здравоохранения.

  6. Diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and related metabolic disorders: Consensus statement from the Study Group of Liver and Metabolism, Chinese Society of Endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries, affecting 20%–33% of the general population. Large population-based surveys in China indicate a prevalence of approximately 15%–30%. Worldwide, including in China, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased rapidly in parallel with regional trends of obesity, type2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, NAFLD has contributed significantly to increased overall, as well as cardiovascular and liver-related, mortality in the general population. In view of rapid advances in research into NAFLD in recent years, this consensus statement provides a brief update on the progress in the field and suggests preferred approaches for the comprehensive management of NAFLD and its related metabolic diseases. PMID:23560695

  7. Advances in paediatrics in 2016: current practices and challenges in allergy, autoimmune diseases, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Di Mauro, Dora; Mastrorilli, Carla; Montella, Silvia; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2017-09-16

    This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated. New diagnostic tools are available for ascertaining brucellosis, celiac disease and viral infections. The usefulness of aCGH as first-tier test is confirmed in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel information have been provided on the safety of milk for infants. Recent advances in the treatment of common disorders, including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, hypo-glycemia in newborns, atopic dermatitis, constipation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, regurgitation, short stature, secretions in children with cerebral palsy have been reported. Antipyretics treatment has been updated by national guidelines and studies have excluded side effects (e.g. asthma risk during acetaminophen therapy). Vaccinations are a painful event and several options are reported to prevent this pain. Adverse effects due to metabolic abnormalities are reported for second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  8. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, evidence has accumulated that both wildlife species and humans are exposed to ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Some are persistent in our bodies; others are nonpersistent but are produced in large quantities. Hitherto, the bulk of research in this area has been carr...

  9. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle

    2011-01-01

    carried out by basic and experimental scientists and wildlife researchers. Relatively few clinical scientists have been engaged in research on this topic to date. The aim of this statement is to have pediatric endocrinologists consider the issue of endocrine disrupters in their clinical work and research....

  10. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: MANAGEMENT OF ACROMEGALY PATIENTS: WHAT IS THE ROLE OF PRE-OPERATIVE MEDICAL THERAPY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleseriu, Maria; Hoffman, Andrew R; Katznelson, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Acromegaly is a complex disease characterized by growth hormone (GH) excess originating in most cases from a pituitary tumor. The goals of treatment include removing the tumor or reducing tumor burden, normalizing GH secretion and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, and preserving normal pituitary function if possible. Surgery by an experienced neurosurgeon is still considered first-line therapy, especially in cases with small tumors. In the last few decades, significant progress in the development of selective pharmacologic agents has greatly facilitated the management of active acromegaly, with agents such as somatostatin-receptor ligands (SRLs), GH-receptor antagonists, and dopamine agonists. In addition to adjuvant treatment, pre-operative medical therapy and primary therapy in de novo patients are increasingly employed. A United States National Library of Medicine PubMed search (through July 2014) was conducted for the following terms: acromegaly, pre-operative medical therapy, somatostatin-receptor ligands, and somatostatin analogs. Articles not in English and those not in peer-reviewed journals were excluded. In reviewing pertinent articles, focus was placed on biochemical and other postoperative outcomes of medical therapy. An analysis of the full effect of pre-operative use of SRLs on surgical outcomes (remission rates and peri-operative complications) is limited by heterogeneity of methodology, low overall surgical cure rates, and different study designs. The assumption that SRL use prior to surgery reduces peri-operative surgical risk has yet to be proven. A variable degree of tumor shrinkage with preoperative SRLs is observed. Likewise, SRL treatment 3 months before surgery may improve surgical remission rates in the short term; however, positive results do not persist in the long term. We consider that medical therapy before surgery could play a role in carefully selected patients, but treatment should be individualized. Primary medical therapy with a SRL may be considered in patients with macroadenomas without local mass effects on the optic chiasm, as SRLs have been shown to reduce tumor size and control GH hypersecretion. However, the data are insufficient to support general use of a SRL prior to surgery in order to improve post-surgery biochemical outcomes. Theoretically, patients with severe cardiac and respiratory complications due to acromegaly could potentially benefit from pre-operative SRLs in order to reduce peri-operative morbidity. Further investigation and investment in large randomized long-term clinical trials are needed to define the precise role and duration of pre-surgical medical treatment in acromegaly patients.

  11. Diabetes in older people: position statement of The Hong Kong Geriatrics Society and the Hong Kong Society of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C W; Lee, J Sw; Tam, K F; Hung, H F; So, W Y; Shum, C K; Lam, C Y; Cheng, J N; Man, S P; Auyeung, T W

    2017-10-01

    Following a survey on the clinical practice of geriatricians in the management of older people with diabetes and a study of hypoglycaemia in diabetic patients, a round-table discussion with geriatricians and endocrinologists was held in January 2015. Consensus was reached for six domains specifically related to older diabetic people: (1) the considerations when setting an individualised diabetic management; (2) inclusion of geriatric syndrome screening in assessment; (3) glycaemic and blood pressure targets; (4) pharmacotherapy; (5) restrictive diabetic diet; and (6) management goals for nursing home residents.

  12. CONSENSUS STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY ON THE COMPREHENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT ALGORITHM - 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Alan J; Abrahamson, Martin J; Barzilay, Joshua I; Blonde, Lawrence; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Bush, Michael A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Jellinger, Paul S; McGill, Janet B; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Rosenblit, Paul D; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2018-01-01

    A1C = hemoglobin A1C; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ADVANCE = Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation; AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; apo B = apolipoprotein B; ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BAS = bile acid sequestrant; BCR-QR = bromocriptine quick release; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CCB = calcium channel blocker; CHD = coronary heart disease; CKD = chronic kidney disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; ER = extended release; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IMPROVE-IT = Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-P = low-density lipoprotein particle; Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes; NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SU = sulfonylurea; SGLT2 = sodium glucose cotransporter-2; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose; T2D = type 2 diabetes; TZD = thiazolidinedione; VADT = Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial.

  13. A comprehensive approach to identify reliable reference gene candidates to investigate the link between alcoholism and endocrinology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten A Taki

    Full Text Available Gender and hormonal differences are often correlated with alcohol dependence and related complications like addiction and breast cancer. Estrogen (E2 is an important sex hormone because it serves as a key protein involved in organism level signaling pathways. Alcoholism has been reported to affect estrogen receptor signaling; however, identifying the players involved in such multi-faceted syndrome is complex and requires an interdisciplinary approach. In many situations, preliminary investigations included a straight forward, yet informative biotechniques such as gene expression analyses using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. The validity of qRT-PCR-based conclusions is affected by the choice of reliable internal controls. With this in mind, we compiled a list of 15 commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs as potential reference gene candidates in rat biological models. A comprehensive comparison among 5 statistical approaches (geNorm, dCt method, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder was performed to identify the minimal number as well the most stable reference genes required for reliable normalization in experimental rat groups that comprised sham operated (SO, ovariectomized rats in the absence (OVX or presence of E2 (OVXE2. These rat groups were subdivided into subgroups that received alcohol in liquid diet or isocalroic control liquid diet for 12 weeks. Our results showed that U87, 5S rRNA, GAPDH, and U5a were the most reliable gene candidates for reference genes in heart and brain tissue. However, different gene stability ranking was specific for each tissue input combination. The present preliminary findings highlight the variability in reference gene rankings across different experimental conditions and analytic methods and constitute a fundamental step for gene expression assays.

  14. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, H; Papini, E; Paschke, R

    2010-01-01

    decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied. These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes...... in this area are expected, periodic revisions are inevitable. We encourage medical professionals to use this information in conjunction with their best clinical judgment. Any decision by practitioners to apply these guidelines must be made in light of local resources and individual patient circumstances....

  15. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Paschke, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied.These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes in this area...... are expected, periodic revisions are inevitable. We encourage medical professionals to use this information in conjunction with their best clinical judgment. Any decision by practitioners to apply these guidelines must be made in light of local resources and individual patient circumstances....

  16. Klinefelter’s Syndrome: 18 years’ experience of a pediatric endocrinology unit = Síndrome de Klinefelter: 18 anos de experiência de uma unidade de endocrinologia pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira, Filipa

    2011-01-01

    Conclusões: atraso global do desenvolvimento, juntamente com características físicas da Síndrome de Klinefelter em uma criança, justifica a solicitação de cariótipo, dada a elevada prevalência dessa síndrome, especialmente se estiveram presentes problemas de socialização e dificuldades de aprendizagem. Este estudo destaca a necessidade de uma maior conscientização para o diagnóstico, bem como a importância da abordagem multidisciplinar no cuidado e na educação desses pacientes

  17. Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy: A Comment from the Italian Society of Endocrinology and the Italian Thyroid Association to the 2017 American Thyroid Association Guidelines-"The Italian Way".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Mario; Chiovato, Luca; Pacini, Furio; Bartalena, Luigi; Vitti, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    The 2017 American Thyroid Association guidelines for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum were published six years after the previous ones. They provide comprehensive clinical recommendations for the whole spectrum of thyroid diseases, as well as for optimal iodine intake during pregnancy, postpartum, and lactation. The present position statement mainly regards the recommended flow chart for therapeutic decision making in pregnant women being diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Here, we comment on the major biochemical and clinical situations and the corresponding therapeutic recommendations. In particular, we welcome the critical revision of the thyrotropin (TSH) reference range in pregnancy, and we agree that there is no need to treat thyroid peroxidase antibody-negative women with a serum TSH ranging from 2.5 μIU/mL to the upper limit of the reference range. This recommendation will hopefully reduce the huge proportion of healthy pregnant women in whom, according to the previous guidelines, levothyroxine therapy had to be initiated. On the other hand, we are concerned with the recommendation to only "consider treatment" in thyroid peroxidase antibody-negative pregnant women with a serum TSH ranging from the upper limit of the reference range to 10.0 μIU/mL. This is because thyroid antibodies may be falsely negative during gestation, and serum negative chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is a well-known clinical entity even outside pregnancy. Based on these and other arguments, we recommend treatment with levothyroxine in pregnant women with TSH levels ranging between the upper limit of the reference range and 10.0 μIU/mL independently from their thyroid antibody status.

  18. Clinical Medicine: Endocrinology and Diabetes: Gender-associated Differences in Weight Gain, Insulin Requirement and Metabolic control in Newly Insulin-treated Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Secondary Sulfonylurea Failure–-a One-year Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Biesenbach

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the present study was to determine differences between male and female type 2 diabetic patients concerning body weight, metabolic control, insulin requirement and prevalence of vascular diseases during the first year insulin therapy. Patients and Methods We investigated 102 newly insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients (60 female with secondary sulfonylurea failure. Observation period was the first year insulin therapy. We compared BMI, HbA1c, lipids and insulin requirement at the begin and after one year, C-peptide and prevalence of vascular diseases at the start of insulin therapy. Results At the start of insulin substitution, omen had a higher BMI (27 + 3 versus 25 + 3; p < 0.05. Women also required a higher insulin dose than did men (28 + 6 versus 24 + 6 IU/day Mean HbA1c and cholesterol levels were similar in both groups whereas triglycerides were higher in women (244 + 88 versus 203 + 76 mg/dl; p < 0.05. Both groups achieved a similar gain in body weight after one year (+2.5% versus +2.6%; NS. HbA1c decreased from 9.2 + 1.1 to 7.4% + 0.9% (–19% in women and from 9.4 + 1.1 to 7.5% + 1.0% (–20% in men. The prevalence of vascular diseases was not significantly different in both groups. Conclusions At the start of insulin therapy female type 2 diabetic patients showed a significant higher BMI and a higher insulin requirement than male patients. The metabolic control was similar in men and women, only the triglycerides were higher in the female patients. Weight gain and increase of needed insulin as well as prevalence of macroangiopathy were the same in both groups.

  19. Aplicación de la Espectrometría de Masas Maldi tof/tof a la Endocrinología, Inmunología y Patología del paiche Arapaima gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Cueva Távara, Mario David

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN El pez amazónico gigante “paiche” Arapaima gigas es una especie prometedora para la piscicultura tropical debido a sus características anatómicas, sin embargo, su completa domesticación es problemática debido a la falta de información biológica. Los progresos recientes en el campo de la biotecnología molecular, llamados “omicas”, están revolucionando la ictiología básica y aplicada; en particular la proteómica por espectrometría doble masa MALDI TOF/TOF, que permite la detección...

  20. Comparison between a single dose of goserelin (depot) and multiple daily doses of leuprolide acetate for pituitary suppression in IVF treatment: a clinical endocrinological study of the ovarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos A C

    2002-07-01

    Compare the efficacy and safety of two different GnRHa, used for pituitary suppression in IVF cycles. A total of 292 patients using depot goserelin (Group 1) and 167 using daily leuprolide acetate (Group 2) were compared. Days required to achieve pituitary function suppression, duration of ovarian stimulation, total dose of HMG, number of aspirated follicles, number of oocytes retrieved, and presence of functional ovarian cyst were analyzed. The time taken to achieve downregulation was similar. The mean number of ampoules used for superovulation was higher in Group 1; however, this difference was observed only for patients >40 years old that started GnRHa in the follicular phase. There was no difference between the two groups in the duration of superovulation, in the number of follicles aspirated, and the number of oocytes retrieved. In the group of patients with >40 years the incidence of ovarian cysts was higher in Group 2. Both routes of GnRHa have similar effects for pituitary suppression and ovulation induction in assisted reproductive technology. Therefore the long-acting GnRHa is an excellent option, as only a single subcutaneous dose is necessary, decreasing the risk of the patient to forget its use and, most important, it does not interfere in the patient's quality of life.

  1. Consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature: a summary of the Growth Hormone Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, P; Rogol, A D; Deal, C L; Saenger, P; Reiter, E O; Ross, J L; Chernausek, S D; Savage, M O; Wit, J M

    2008-11-01

    Our objective was to summarize important advances in the management of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Participants were 32 invited leaders in the field. Evidence was obtained by extensive literature review and from clinical experience. Participants reviewed discussion summaries, voted, and reached a majority decision on each document section. ISS is defined auxologically by a height below -2 sd score (SDS) without findings of disease as evident by a complete evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist including stimulated GH levels. Magnetic resonance imaging is not necessary in patients with ISS. ISS may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems, but true psychopathology is rare. In the United States and seven other countries, the regulatory authorities approved GH treatment (at doses up to 53 microg/kg.d) for children shorter than -2.25 SDS, whereas in other countries, lower cutoffs are proposed. Aromatase inhibition increases predicted adult height in males with ISS, but adult-height data are not available. Psychological counseling is worthwhile to consider instead of or as an adjunct to hormone treatment. The predicted height may be inaccurate and is not an absolute criterion for GH treatment decisions. The shorter the child, the more consideration should be given to GH. Successful first-year response to GH treatment includes an increase in height SDS of more than 0.3-0.5. The mean increase in adult height in children with ISS attributable to GH therapy (average duration of 4-7 yr) is 3.5-7.5 cm. Responses are highly variable. IGF-I levels may be helpful in assessing compliance and GH sensitivity; levels that are consistently elevated (>2.5 SDS) should prompt consideration of GH dose reduction. GH therapy for children with ISS has a similar safety profile to other GH indications.

  2. The role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome: review and joint opinion statement by members of the Italian Society for Endocrinology, Italian Society for Neurosurgery, and Italian Society for Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecori Giraldi, Francesca; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Tortora, Fabio; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria; Cappabianca, Paolo; Mantero, Franco

    2015-02-01

    In the management of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) provides information for the endocrinologist, the neurosurgeon, and the neuroradiologist. To the endocrinologist who performs the etiological diagnosis, results of IPSS confirm or exclude the diagnosis of Cushing's disease with 80%-100% sensitivity and over 95% specificity. Baseline central-peripheral gradients have suboptimal accuracy, and stimulation with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), possibly desmopressin, has to be performed. The rationale for the use of IPSS in this context depends on other diagnostic means, taking availability of CRH and reliability of dynamic testing and pituitary imaging into account. As regards the other specialists, the neuroradiologist may collate results of IPSS with findings at imaging, while IPSS may prove useful to the neurosurgeon to chart a surgical course. The present review illustrates the current standpoint of these 3 specialists on the role of IPSS.

  3. Guidelines for the use of radioiodine in the management of hyperthyroidism: a summary. Prepared by the Radioiodine Audit Subcommittee of the Royal College of Physicians Committee on Diabetes and Endocrinology, and the Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, J H

    1995-01-01

    Radioiodine (131I) therapy is indicated in patients with nearly all causes of hyperthyroidism. It may safely be given to patients of all age groups but is less often given to children under 10 years old. It is completely contraindicated in pregnancy and while breast feeding, but there is no increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or solid tumours. Administration of radioiodine must conform to regulations and definitions laid down by ARSAC And POPUMET. Medical staff authorising therapy must hold an ARSAC licence. The recommended strategy is to give an activity sufficient to render the patient rapidly euthyroid and maintain that state or achieve no more than a low rate of hypothyroidism in subsequent years. A range of activity (300-800 MBq) is suggested depending on the clinical state. Antithyroid drugs may be given before or after (or both) radioiodine if necessary. Full written information should be given to the patient and written consent obtained. A structured follow-up should be used ensuring regular measurement of TSH or FT4. Close cooperation with the patient's general practitioner is recommended throughout the assessment, treatment and follow-up. Shared care with a computer based follow-up system is recommended.

  4. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME - PART 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies have shown that both obese and lean women with PCOS have some degree of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is implicated in the ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS by disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Given the association with insulin resistance, all women with PCOS require evaluation for the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and the possible risk of clinical events, including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Obese women with PCOS are at increased risk for MetS with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 31 to 35%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 7.5 to 10%). Rates of progression from normal glucose tolerance to IGT, and in turn to T2DM, may be as high as 5 to 15% within 3 years. Data suggest the need for baseline oral glucose tolerance test every 1 to 2 years based on family history of T2DM as well as body mass index (BMI) and yearly in women with IGT. Compared with BMI- and age-matched controls, young, lean PCOS women have lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size, higher very-low-density lipoprotein particle number, higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, and borderline lower LDL size. Statins have been shown to lower testosterone levels either alone or in combination with oral contraceptives (OCPs) but have not shown improvement in menses, spontaneous ovulation, hirsutism, or acne. Statins reduce total and LDL cholesterol but have no effect on HDL, C-reactive protein, fasting insulin, or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in PCOS women, in contrast to the general population. There have been no long-term studies of statins on clinical cardiac outcomes in women with PCOS. Coronary calcification is more prevalent and more severe in PCOS than in controls. In women under 60 years of age undergoing coronary angiography, the presence of polycystic ovaries on sonography has been associated with more arterial segments with >50% stenosis, but the relationship between PCOS and actual cardiovascular events remains unclear. Therapies for PCOS are varied in their effects and targets and include both nonpharmacologic as well as pharmacologic approaches. Weight loss is the primary therapy in PCOS--reduction in weight of as little as 5% can restore regular menses and improve response to ovulation- inducing and fertility medications. Metformin in premenopausal PCOS women has been associated with a reduction in features of MetS. Clamp studies using ethinyl estradiol/drosperinone combination failed to reveal evidence of an increase in either peripheral or hepatic insulin resistance. Subjects with PCOS have a 1.5-times higher baseline risk of venous thromboembolic disease and a 3.7-fold greater effect with OCP use compared with non-PCOS subjects. There is currently no genetic test to screen for or diagnose PCOS, and there is no test to assist in the choice of treatment strategies. Persistent bleeding should always be investigated for pregnancy and/or uterine pathology--including transvaginal ultrasound exam and endometrial biopsy--in women with PCOS. PCOS women can have difficulty conceiving. Those who become pregnant are at risk for gestational diabetes (which should be evaluated and managed appropriately) and the microvascular complications of diabetes. Assessment of a woman with PCOS for infertility involves evaluating for preconceptional issues that may affect response to therapy or lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes and evaluating the couple for other common infertility issues that may affect the choice of therapy, such as a semen analysis. Women with PCOS have multiple factors that may lead to an elevated risk of pregnancy, including a high prevalence of IGT--a clear risk factor for gestational diabetes--and MetS with hypertension, which increases the risk for pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. Women should be screened and treated for hypertension and diabetes prior to attempting conception. Women should be counseled about weight loss prior to attempting conception, although there are limited clinical trial data demonstrating a benefit to this recommendation. Treatment for women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility should begin with an oral agent such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor.

  5. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  6. Hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving total parenteral nutrition: a multicenter study. (Study group on the problem of hyperglycemia in parenteral nutrition; Nutrition area of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Maria Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; Del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among hospitalized patients. Treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin is potentially associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypoglycemia (capillary blood glucose parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective multicenter study involved 19 Spanish hospitals. Noncritically ill adults who were prescribed TPN were included, thus enabling us to collect data on capillary blood glucose and insulin dosage. The study included 605 patients of whom 6.8% (n = 41) had at least one capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL and 2.6% (n = 16) had symptomatic hypoglycemia. The total number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 d of TPN was 0.82. In univariate analysis, hypoglycemia was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes, a lower body mass index (BMI), and treatment with intravenous (IV) insulin. Patients with hypoglycemia also had a significantly longer hospital length of stay, PN duration, higher blood glucose variability, and a higher insulin dose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a lower BMI, high blood glucose variability, and TPN duration were risk factors for hypoglycemia. Use of IV insulin and blood glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. The occurrence of hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving PN is low. A lower BMI and a greater blood glucose variability and TPN duration are factors associated with the risk for hypoglycemia. IV insulin and glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consensus on the management of advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the Working Group of Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology (SEEN) and the Spanish Task Force Group for Orphan and Infrequent Tumors (GETHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan C; Santamaría Sandi, Javier; Capdevila, Jaume; Navarro González, Elena; Zafón Llopis, Carles; Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, Teresa; Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Riesco Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Grande, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    In Spain medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) would not exceed 80 new cases per year and less than half of them would be good candidates for systemic treatment with novel agents. Relevant literature was reviewed, including PubMed searches supplemented with additional articles. The consensus summarizes the clinical outcomes in terms of activity and toxicity of each of the available drugs. A brief summary of the minimum requirements in terms of follow up and genetic counseling around MTC is also included. Only those patients with objective imaging progression in the last 12-14 months with large volume of disease are clear candidates to start systemic treatment. However, those patients with low disease volume should be considered for 'wait and see' strategy until symptoms of the disease appear. Multidisciplinary approach for the management of MTC patient is mandatory nowadays. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME--PART 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AES) aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2015. PCOS has been defined using various criteria, including menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM). General agreement exists among specialty society guidelines that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological) and polycystic ovaries. There is need for careful clinical assessment of women's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, emphasizing the accuracy and validity of the methodology used for both biochemical measurements and ovarian imaging. Free testosterone (T) levels are more sensitive than the measurement of total T for establishing the existence of androgen excess and should be ideally determined through equilibrium dialysis techniques. Value of measuring levels of androgens other than T in patients with PCOS is relatively low. New ultrasound machines allow diagnosis of PCOM in patients having at least 25 small follicles (2 to 9 mm) in the whole ovary. Ovarian size at 10 mL remains the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone are useful for determining a diagnosis of PCOS. Correct diagnosis of PCOS impacts on the likelihood of associated metabolic and cardiovascular risks and leads to appropriate intervention, depending upon the woman's age, reproductive status, and her own concerns. The management of women with PCOS should include reproductive function, as well as the care of hirsutism, alopecia, and acne. Cycle length >35 days suggests chronic anovulation, but cycle length slightly longer than normal (32 to 35 days) or slightly irregular (32 to 35-36 days) needs assessment for ovulatory dysfunction. Ovulatory dysfunction is associated with increased prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, in addition to infertility. In PCOS, hirsutism develops gradually and intensifies with weight gain. In the neoplastic virilizing states, hirsutism is of rapid onset, usually associated with clitoromegaly and oligomenorrhea. Girls with severe acne or acne resistant to oral and topical agents, including isotretinoin (Accutane), may have a 40% likelihood of developing PCOS. Hair loss patterns are variable in women with hyperandrogenemia, typically the vertex, crown or diffuse pattern, whereas women with more severe hyperandrogenemia may see bitemporal hair loss and loss of the frontal hairline. Oral contraceptives (OCPs) can effectively lower androgens and block the effect of androgens via suppression of ovarian androgen production and by increasing sex hormone-binding globulin. Physiologic doses of dexamethasone or prednisone can directly lower adrenal androgen output. Anti-androgens can be used to block the effects of androgen in the pilosebaceous unit or in the hair follicle. Anti-androgen therapy works through competitive antagonism of the androgen receptor (spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, flutamide) or inhibition of 5α-reductase (finasteride) to prevent the conversion of T to its more potent form, 5α-dihydrotestosterone. The choice of antiandrogen therapy is guided by symptoms. The diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents is particularly challenging given significant age and developmental issues in this group. Management of infertility in women with PCOS requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of anovulation as well as currently available treatments. Many features of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularities, and hyperinsulinemia, are common in normal puberty. Menstrual irregularities with anovulatory cycles and varied cycle length are common due to the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in the 2- to 3-year time period post-menarche. Persistent oligomenorrhea 2 to 3 years beyond menarche predicts ongoing menstrual irregularities and greater likelihood of underlying ovarian or adrenal dysfunction. In adolescent girls, large, multicystic ovaries are a common finding, so ultrasound is not a first-line investigation in women PCOS as first-line monotherapy or in combination with OCPs and anti-androgen medications. In lean adolescent girls, a dose as low as 850 mg daily may be effective at reducing PCOS symptoms; in overweight and obese adolescents, dose escalation to 1.5 to 2.5 g daily is likely required. Anti-androgen therapy in adolescents could affect bone mass, although available short-term data suggest no effect on bone loss.

  9. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules: Executive Summary of recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, H; Papini, E; Paschke, R

    2010-01-01

    decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied. These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes...... in this area are expected, periodic revisions are inevitable. We encourage medical professionals to use this information in conjunction with their best clinical judgment. Any decision by practitioners to apply these guidelines must be made in light of local resources and individual patient circumstances....

  10. Beginnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2012-01-01

    in the history of gastrointestinal endocrinology from classic studies of digestive juice secretion over peptide chemistry, immunochemistry, and molecular genetics to modern receptor pharmacology and drug development. From shadowy beginnings, gastrointestinal endocrinology has emerged as a central discipline...

  11. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi ... 2Department of Medicine, Endocrinology unit, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching .... mellitus who received medical care from endocrinology clinic.

  12. Impaired microvascular reactivity and endothelial function in patients with Cushing's syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durovcová, V.; Prázný, M.; Ježková, J.; Horová, E.; Hána, V.; Kvasnička, J.; Pecen, Ladislav; Marek, J.; Škrha, J.; Kršek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2008), P400 ISSN 1479-6848. [European Congress of Endocrinology. 03.05.2008-07.05.2008, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  13. The eyes have it: A brief history of crustacean neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Penny M

    2012-02-01

    To help celebrate the 50th anniversary of General and Comparative Endocrinology, the history of only a small portion of crustacean endocrinology is presented here. The field of crustacean endocrinology dates back to the decades prior to the establishment of General and Comparative Endocrinology and the first article about crustacean endocrinology published in this journal was concerned with the anatomy of neurosecretory and neurohemal structures in brachyuran crabs. This review looks at the history of neuroendocrinology in crustaceans during that time and tries to put perspective on the future of this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vasomotor Symptoms Monitoring with a Commercial Activity Tracking Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-31

    Endocrinology and management. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 142, 121‐131, doi:http...dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.08.015 (2014). 3 Freedman, R. R. Menopausal hot flashes: Mechanisms, endocrinology , treatment. The Journal of Steroid...8986.2008.00770.x (2009). 7 Santoro, N., Epperson, C. N. & Mathews, S. B. Menopausal Symptoms and Their Management. Endocrinology and Metabolism

  15. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis,Elias; Dobs,Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Evgenia Gourgari,1 Elias Spanakis,2 Adrian Sandra Dobs3 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a des...

  16. 78 FR 16860 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Neuronal... Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Member Conflict: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and...

  17. Genetic Counseling: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis as a clinical and diagnostic problem: molecular pathology and... Article: GENETICS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Genetic counseling for congenital ... March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation Also in Spanish ...

  18. An unusual coexistence of Addison's disease and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-17

    Jul 17, 2013 ... Case Study: An unusual coexistence of Addison's disease and phaeochromocytoma. 164 ... strongly positive. ... Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun, Turkey.

  19. Oxford textbook of women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2010-01-01

    ... psychiatric disorders, the biological and endocrinological concomitants of mental health, and eating disorders, perinatal psychiatric disorders, and the long term effects of abuse - helping readers...

  20. Estudo da procedência dos pacientes e dos tipos de tireoidopatias encontradas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia do HSL-PUCRS nos anos de 2005 e 2006 = Study of the origin of patients and types of thyroidopathies observed in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department of Hospital São Lucas – PUCRS from 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia, Yara Roesch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar a procedência e as características clínicas dos pacientes em acompanhamento no ambulatório de tireoidopatias do HSL-PUCRS entre 2005-2006. Métodos: Realizado estudo retrospectivo, sendo que do total de 824 consultas agendadas no período de 1º de julho de 2005 a 31 de julho de 2006 foram revisados aleatoriamente os prontuários de 432 pacientes. Destes, 185 apresentaram as patologias em estudo, sendo seus dados protocolados. Os resultados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva, teste do qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher. Resultados: A distribuição das doenças em estudo segundo ordem de freqüência foram: tireoidite de Hashimoto (51,9% dos casos, doença de Graves (35,1%, bócio multinodular tóxico (9,7% e adenoma tóxico (3,2%. Foram procedentes de Porto Alegre 37,3% dos pacientes e 61,1% eram de outros locais. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05 quanto à presença de auto-anticorpos entre as doenças mediadas pela auto-imunidade e aquelas em que não há envolvimento da mesma. Os pacientes com tireoidite de Hashimoto realizaram reposição de hormônios em 94,8% dos casos e os portadores de doença de Graves realizaram terapia medicamentosa anteriormente ao iodo-radioativo em 37 casos (56,9%. Conclusões: Os pacientes eram procedentes, em sua grande maioria, de locais próximos à região metropolitana. Acredita-se que seja menos oneroso o deslocamento do paciente a centros de atendimento de nível terciário do que a implementação de um serviço altamente especializado nessas regiões

  1. Vitamin D Supplementation Guidelines for General Population and Groups at Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency in Poland—Recommendations of the Polish Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and the Expert Panel With Participation of National Specialist Consultants and Representatives of Scientific Societies—2018 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rusińska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionVitamin D deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency confers a significant risk for both skeletal and non-skeletal disorders and a number of lifelong negative health outcomes. The objectives of this evidence-based guidelines document are to provide health care professionals in Poland, an updated recommendation for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency.MethodsA systematic literature search examining the prevention and treatment strategies for vitamin D deficiency was conducted. Updated recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system describing the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. Twenty-seven contributors representing different areas of expertise and medical specialties, including pediatricians, geriatricians, endocrinologists, epidemiologists, nephrologists, gynecologists and obstetricians evaluated the available published evidence related to vitamin D, formulated the goals of this document and developed a common consolidated position. The consensus group, representing six national specialist consultants and eight Polish and international scientific organizations/societies, participated in the process of grading evidence and drawing up the general and specific recommendations.ResultsThe updated recommendations define the diagnostic criteria for the evaluation of vitamin D status and describe the prevention and treatment strategies of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and in groups at increased risk of the deficiency. Age- and weight-specific recommendations for prevention, supplementation and treatment of vitamin D deficiency are presented, and detailed practice guidance is discussed regarding the management in primary and specialized health care.ConclusionVitamin D deficiency remains still highly prevalent in Poland, in all age groups. Currently, there is a great necessity to implement a regular supplementation with recommended doses and to develop an effective strategy to alleviate vitamin D deficiency in the population. These updated recommendations are addressed to health professionals and the authorities pursuing comprehensive health policies and should also be included in public health programs aimed at preventing a broad spectrum of chronic diseases.

  2. Relevance of the radioimmunological determination of FSH, LH, and prolactine for the diagnosis and therapy of gynaecological-endocrinological discuses, studied in the patients of the hormone consultant ward of the gynaecological hospital of the University of Cologne, 1973 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschler, E.

    1978-01-01

    The physiology of the hypophysical gonadotrophins in women is described. The group of the patients is classified, and the normal curves for FSH, LH and HPR in the serum are shown. The author tries in the main part to bring the gonadotrophins in the various syndromes which brought the patients into the clinic, for a 'hormone consultation', in connection with other clinical findings and to compare also the individual syndromes with each other. We can see that the gonadotrophin determination can, in correct indication, be a valuable diagnostic aid which, even if used only once, is highly reliable, thanks to the accuracy of the radio immune-systems used today. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Estudo da procedência dos pacientes e dos tipos de tireoidopatias encontradas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia do HSL-PUCRS nos anos de 2005 e 2006 = Study of the origin of patients and types of thyroidopathies observed in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department of Hospital São Lucas – PUCRS from 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia, Yara Roesch

    2006-01-01

    Conclusões: Os pacientes eram procedentes, em sua grande maioria, de locais próximos à região metropolitana. Acredita-se que seja menos oneroso o deslocamento do paciente a centros de atendimento de nível terciário do que a implementação de um serviço altamente especializado nessas regiões

  4. Clinical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian; Skakkebæk, Anne; Høst, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, new clinically important information regarding Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has been published. We review aspects of epidemiology, endocrinology, metabolism, body composition, and neuropsychology with reference to recent genetic discoveries.......Recently, new clinically important information regarding Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has been published. We review aspects of epidemiology, endocrinology, metabolism, body composition, and neuropsychology with reference to recent genetic discoveries....

  5. Aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillas, Jacqueline; Burman, Pia; McCormack, Ann; Petersenn, Stephan; Popovic, Vera; Dekkers, Olaf; Raverot, Gerald

    2018-06-01

    The European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) survey reported on the largest cohort of 125 aggressive pituitary tumours (APT) and 40 pituitary carcinomas (PC). Whilst the survey focused on treatment effectiveness, all pathological data were not explored in detail. Here, we comment on some interesting pathological findings, notably the difference between APT and PC. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship (FAST-SF)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1975 Section: General Biology. Moudgal, Prof. Nuggehalli Raghuveer Ph.D. (Madras), FNA. Date of birth: 4 March 1931. Date of death: 8 May 2011. Specialization: Biochemical Endocrinology, Immuno Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology Last known address: 202D, Mantri Pride Apartments, No.

  7. Lipopeptides as therapeutics: applications and in vivo quantitative analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemenová, J.; Sýkora, D.; Maletínská, L.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), s. 215-230 ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : immunomethods * LC-MS * lipopeptides Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2016

  8. 78 FR 56239 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproductive Sciences... and Related Clinical Sciences Study Section. Date: October 10-11, 2013. Time: 8:00 am to 6:00 pm...: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproductive Sciences Integrated Review Group; Integrative Nutrition...

  9. The effects of liraglutide in mice with diet-induced obesity studied by metabolomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bugáňová, M.; Pelantová, H.; Holubová, M.; Šedivá, B.; Maletínská, L.; Železná, B.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Kačer, P.; Kuzma, M.; Haluzík, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2017), s. 93-104 ISSN 0022-0795 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : NMR metabolomics * obesity type 2 * diabetes mellitus * liraglutide * mouse urine Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes , hormones) Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  10. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-1 in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: rapid transition to exercise - induced amenorrhea Endocrinology 142: 2381- 2389...and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: rapid transition to exercise - induced amenorrhea Endocrinology 142...Spain. p. 155, 1992 Williams, N.I., A.L. Caston, and J.L. Cameron. Induction and reversal of exercise - induced amenorrhea : Temporal correlation

  11. Inpatient glycemic management in internal medicine: an observational multicenter study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shujie; Zhang, Ning; Fish, Anne Folta; Yuan, Xiaodan; Liu, Lin; Li, Fan; Fang, Zhaohui; Lou, Qingqing

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among inpatients in internal medicine, and specifically, to assess the glycemic management of inpatients in non-endocrinology departments in three large urban hospitals in China. A multicenter observational study was conducted using electronic health records, and a survey of 1939 patients who were admitted to internal medicine units and followed until discharge. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, or impaired fasting glucose were included. Aspects of glycemic management examined were (a) hyperglycemia, (b) endocrinology consultation for hyperglycemia and (c) hypoglycemia. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in internal medicine was 45.7% (886 out of 1939). A total of 741 (83.6%) patients were treated by non-endocrinology departments; of those, 230 (31.1%) were in poor glycemic control and needed an endocrinology consultation. Yet only 57 (24.8%) received one. In 4 cases, the physician did not follow the consultants' advice. Among the remaining 53 consulted patients, 35 (66.1%) were still in poor glycemic control, yet only about half received a second consultation. Finally, among patients treated in non-endocrinology departments, 58 (7.8%) had hypoglycemia; less than half retested their blood glucose after treatment. The majority of patients with hyperglycemia were in non-endocrinology departments. Their glycemic management was poor; the endocrinology consultation rate was low and the result was suboptimal. Also, the management of hypoglycemia was not ideal. Therefore, improving glycemic management is urgently needed in Chinese hospitals.

  12. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  13. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  14. RJHS V2(3).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    diabetics, macrovascular benefits have only been clearly seen in type 1 diabetics ... Keywords Glycemic control· Hyperglycemia· Type 2 diabetes·Glucose .... as the American Diabetes Association (ADA) ..... Endocrinology position statement on.

  15. The Jewish contribution to medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... period of Jewish medicine in Germany included the renowned immunologists ... work in endocrinology where his classic experiment of inducing myxoedema in .... feeding, Alois Epstein (1849 - 1918), the founder of the world-.

  16. Sensitive Dual Color in vivo Bioluminescence Imaging Using a New Red Codon Optimized Firefly Luciferase and a Green Click Beetle Luciferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Bologna, Italy, 2 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, 3 Department of...and approved by the Bioethics Committee of Leiden University, The Netherlands (Animal protocol 08158). Allanimals received humane care in compliance

  17. Novel approaches to lipid-lowering therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lines, ezetimibe is recommended as an add-on therapy for patients on ... 2 Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism ... acting at the level of protein translation via RNA interference in the.

  18. Survivorship Care for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will see specialists (in cardiology , endocrinology , fertility , nutrition , psychology , and/or pulmonology , for example) who will monitor ... time since diagnosis/treatment, personal and family health history, and health habits Types of Late Effects Late ...

  19. Fourth congress of the South African Society of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This seminar contains 68 papers. Sixty three papers were indexed. Five papers were considered out of scope for INIS. The implementation of nuclear medicine in the following fields were discussed: neurology, cardiology, monoclonal antibodies, endocrinology, nuclear medicine physics, and radiopharmacy

  20. Celiac Family Health Education Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Transplant Center Services Endocrinology Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Newborn Medicine Surgery Pulmonary and Respiratory Diseases Urology Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center Learn more Go to ...

  1. Datta, Dr Asoke Gopal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .D. (Calcutta), FNA. Date of birth: 20 January 1928. Date of death: 9 December 2005. Specialization: Enzymology and Biochemical Endocrinology Last known address: 9A, Ballygunge Place, Kolkata 700 019. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Acute Adrenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    presented to us with a history of anorexia, progressive darkening of the face ... to us in an acute hypoadrenal state and was found to have Systemic lupus erythematosus with renal involvement. .... Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Saunders: ...

  3. Simultaneous control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 3Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an. Jiaotong .... guideline from the American Diabetes Association as. HbA1c <7%, BP ..... Animal insulin.

  4. EFFECT TN EWES OF OESTROGEN PRIMING AND GnRH ON LH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclicvariationsintheincreasedresponsivenessof thepituitaryto luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ( LH RH) induced by LHRH . Endocrinology 9l , 13. COPPINGS, R.J. & MALVEN, P.V.. 1976. Biphasic effect of oestradiol on LH release mechanisms.

  5. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology.

  6. Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. Parathyroid hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker R. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  8. Parathyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia, and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  9. Osteitis fibrosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  10. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and its binding proteins 1 and 3 in last trimester intrauterine growth retardation with increased pulsatility index in the umbilical artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Main, K; Andersson, A M

    1996-01-01

    The interrelationships between maternal hormone levels and placental dysfunction in mothers bearing children with intrauterine growth retardation remain unclear. We have examined some endocrinological aspects of intrauterine growth retardation and, in particular, tested whether low levels of GH...

  11. Anti-diabetic and spermatogenic activity of Cocculus hirsutus (L) Diels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... lete or relative insufficiency of insulin secretion and insulin action (Balkau .... do not stimulate the pancreas and do not elevate circul- ating insulin levels. .... Physiology, section 7, Endocrinology, Am. Physiol. soc. Washington,.

  12. Neuroendocrine immune interaction in fish: differential regulation of phagocyte activity by neuroendocrine factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with physical, chemical and biological disturbances depends on an extensive repertoire of physiological, endocrinological and immunological responses. Fish provide intriguing models to study bi-directional interaction between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. Macrophages and

  13. 78 FR 8128 - Request for Nominations of Experts to the EPA Office of Research and Development's Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Program; Homeland Security Research Program; Human Health Risk Assessment Research Program; Safe and... --atmospheric physics Biology --biogeochemistry --cell biology --endocrinology (endocrine disruptors... analysis --uncertainty analysis Nanotechnology Public Health --children's health --community health...

  14. Dutta Gupta, Prof. Aparna

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Insect Molecular Physiology, Integrated Insect Pest Management, Comparative Physiology, Endocrinology Address: Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, A.P.. Contact: Office: (040) 2313 4560. Residence: 78930 46218. Mobile: 93910 74729

  15. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test Images Blood test References Kaiser U, Ho KKY. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  16. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas have housing options that provide a supportive environment for those trying to stay sober. Permanent and ... Hurd, MD, Professor of Endocrinology and Health Care Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  17. 77 FR 61614 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ....gov . Name of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Fellowships: Brain...: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproduction. Date: November 8, 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...

  18. 78 FR 12331 - Request for Nominations for Voting and/or Nonvoting Consumer Representatives on Public Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., arrhythmia, angina, congestive heart failure, diuresis, and biostatistics. Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs..., clinical toxicology, clinical pharmacology, pharmacy, dentistry, and related specialties. Peripheral and... biology, rDNA, virology, bacteriology, epidemiology or biostatistics, allergy, preventive medicine...

  19. Goswami, Prof. Ravinder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Autoimmune Endocrine Disorders, Sporadic Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism and Metabolic Bone Disorders including Vitamin D Deficiency Address: Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, U.T.. Contact: Office: (011) 2659 4272

  20. Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management September 20, 2011 This Web cast is supported by an unrestricted ... Moran, MD Professor, Pediatric Endocrinology University of Minnesota Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management September 20, 2011 ...

  1. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directions that come with your meter. Get the supplies ready, including a new test strip and disposable ... Endocrinology and Health Care Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  2. Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism Mimicking Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Illeez Memetoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone of unknown etiology, may mimic ankylosing spondylitis both clinically and radiologically. Spinal complaints may be the first sign of any endocrinological disorder.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 184 ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... presenting as a hypertensive emergency in pregnancy, Abstract PDF ... Assessing maths literacy skills in type 1 diabetic children and their caregivers ...

  4. 78 FR 28230 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproductive Sciences Integrated Review Group; Integrative and Clinical... . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience Integrated Review Group; Clinical..., DC 20037. Contact Person: Samuel C Edwards, Ph.D., Chief, Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience...

  5. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl- hydoxylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... which is regulated by HIF prolyl-dydoxylase -mediated degradation. Taken together, our results ..... Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of gene ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Endocrinology, 148(5):.

  6. Omega 3 mastné kyseliny v diabetologii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, Suppl.B (2011), B60-B64 ISSN 1212-7299 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Omega-3 PUFA * sea fish * cardiovascular disease Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  7. 77 FR 31029 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Diseases and Microbiology Integrated Review Group; Bacterial Pathogenesis Study Section. Date: June 20...: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproductive Sciences Integrated Review Group; Integrative and Clinical..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Integrated Review Group...

  8. Professional Internet Information Source Used as Educational Resource for Patients with Insulin-Treated Diabetes in the Czech Republic: A 5-Year Analysis of Operations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, J.; Brabec, Marek; Brožová, K.; Cibulková, I.; Janíčková Žďárská, D.; Hartmann, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 3 (2016), s. 153-154 ISSN 0043-5325 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : diabetes * patient web page * statistical modeling Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2016

  9. 75 FR 80830 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Committee: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproductive Sciences Integrated Review Group; Pregnancy... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review... and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda...

  10. Taking warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MA: Elsevier; 2016:702-737. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. Coumadin (warfarin sodium) Information. Updated September 2016. Bmsmedinfo. ... Hurd, MD, Professor of Endocrinology and Health Care Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  11. Disease: H00603 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pertension caused by the activating S810L mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor is cortisone related. ... JOURNAL ... Endocrinology 144:528-33 (2003) DOI:10.1210/en.2002-220708

  12. Radioimmunoassay in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ametov, A S

    1982-01-01

    A wide application of radioimmunoassay in clinical practice is shown. The main theoretical aspects of radioimmunoassay and the fields of application in clinical practice - endocrinology, oncology, allergology, cardiology, pharmacology, pediatrics, hematology, obstetrics and gynecology, are presented.

  13. 15ŕ-Hydroxytestosterone produced in vitro and in vivo in the sea lamprey, .I.Petromyzon marinus./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryan, M. B.; Scott, A. P.; Černý, Ivan; Yun, S. S.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2003), s. 418-426 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : steroid * androgen * endocrinology Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.736, year: 2003

  14. Optimal management of Graves orbitopathy: a multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, M. R.; van Zeijl, C. J. J.; Boelen, A.; Kloos, R.; Saeed, P.; Vriesendorp, T. M.; Mourits, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Graves' thyroid disease is a relatively common disorder in endocrinology and general internal medicine practice. Graves' hyperthyroidism is mediated by circulating stimulating autoantibodies. Up to 60% of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism develop some form of Graves' orbitopathy. Immune

  15. Studies on hormonal pattern in sheep during oestrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, M.H.G.

    1986-01-01

    This work was carried out at the animal experimental station, department of animal production , faculty of agriculture, zagazig university, (Benha branch). Plasma progesterone radioimmunoassays (RIA) technique was developed at home in laboratories of endocrinology research unit, atomic energy establishment

  16. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version ... Cholesterol and triglycerides are important ...

  17. Growth hormone, growth factors, and acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, D.K.; Tolis, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are: Biochemistry and Physiology of GH and Growth Factors, Pathology of Acromegaly, Clinical Endocrinology of Acromegaly, Nonsurgical Therapy of Acromegaly, and Surgical Therapy of Acromegaly.

  18. 75 FR 48698 - Medicare, Medicaid and CLIA Programs; COLA (Formerly the Commission on Office Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine Chemistry, Urinalysis..., Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine Chemistry, Urinalysis, Endocrinology, Toxicology. Hematology. Immunohematology...

  19. Celiac Family Health Education Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by U. S. News & World Report Centers Brain Center Heart Center Orthopedic Center Pediatric Transplant Center Services Endocrinology ... today . Conditions Inguinal Hernia ACL Tear Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Go to all conditions» Treatments Ear Molding ...

  20. Deciding about an IUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2017 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Copper T IUD. Association of ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 134. Hormonal IUD. Association of ...

  1. Radioiodine therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:644-645. Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 96. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 184 ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... in Aging Male questionnaire for the clinical detection of androgen deficiency in ... Vol 12, No 2 (2007), Retinopathy in diabetic patients evaluated at a ...

  3. Pelvic laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not go away Nausea and vomiting Severe abdominal pain ... Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. ... pain in women of childbearing age. Cochrane Database Syst ...

  4. Shanbhag, Prof. Bhagyashri Achut

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (Karnatak), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 2 November 1950. Specialization: Comparative Endocrinology & Reproduction (Vertebrates), Herpetology and Animal Behaviour Address: FF-4, Trigunatmika Apts., Haliyal Road, Dharwad 580 001, ...

  5. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, I.S.; Roubos, E.W.; Mangoni, M.L.; Yoshizato, K.; Vaudry, H.; Kloepper, J.E.; Pattwell, D.M.; Maderson, P.F.A.; Paus, R.

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a

  6. Celiac Family Health Education Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by U. S. News & World Report Centers Brain Center Heart Center Orthopedic Center Pediatric Transplant Center Services Endocrinology ... today . Conditions Inguinal Hernia ACL Tear Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Go to all conditions» Treatments Baclofen Pump ...

  7. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org . Laurence M. Demers, PhD. Distinguished Professor of Pathology and Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University College of ... 2010. Brzyski, R. and Jensen, J. (Revised 2007 March) Female Reproductive Endocrinology, Introduction. Merck Manual for Healthcare ...

  8. Case Report: Hyperthyroidism - an unusual feature of thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa Vol. 11 (2) 2002: pp. 80-83. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  9. 17-hydroxycorticosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level of cortisol. The urine volume and urine creatinine are often done with 17-OHCS test at ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  10. 76 FR 34717 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Teen-LABS. Date: July 15, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 2 p.m... Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition...

  11. Recent advances in nuclear medicine. Proceeding of the First World Congress of Nuclear Medicine, September 30--October 5, 1974, Tokyo, and Kyoto Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Papers were presented on the use of radioisotopes in the fields of gastroenterology, hematology, oncology, cardiology, pulmonary disease, vascular disease, neurology, endocrinology, and other aspects of nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts were prepared for 49 papers.

  12. Intact brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) in diets of weaned piglets: Effects on performance, gut bacteria and morphology and plasma oxidative status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michiels, J.; Skřivanová, E.; Missotten, J.; Ovyn, A.; Mrázek, Jakub; De Smet, S.; Dierick, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2012), s. 1101-1111 ISSN 0931-2439 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : antioxidant * gut function * weaning piglets Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.254, year: 2012

  13. 76 FR 77228 - Request for Nominations of Experts to the Office of Research and Development's Board of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... and internationally recognized scientists, engineers, and social scientists having experience and expertise in one or more of the following areas: Atmospheric Sciences (atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics, aerosol chemistry, aerosol physics); Analytical Chemistry; Green Chemistry; Endocrinology...

  14. Women and sexual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your provider may recommend that you use estrogen tablets or cream to put in and around your ... Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  15. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, Stephanie C.; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G.; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S.; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A.; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Bisson, William H.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be

  16. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  17. Evaluation of the patients with Grave’s ophthalmopathy after the corticosteroids treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević-Petrović Mirjana; Šarenac Tatjana; Srećković Sunčica; Petrović Marko; Vulović Dejan; Janićijević Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Graves’ ophthalmopthy is one of the most common causes of exophthalmos as well as the most common manifestation of Graves’ disease. The treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy includes ophthalmological and endocrinological therapy. The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy treated with corticosteroids. Methods. Evaluation of 21 patients was performed in the Ophthalmology Clinic and Endocrinology Clinic, Clinical Centre Kragujev...

  18. Pseudotumor Cerebri Resulting in Empty Sella Syndrome and Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    A 17 year old male was referred to pediatric endocrinology with concerns for stalled puberty in the setting of known PTC. He was diagnosed with PTC...size led to a preliminary laboratory evaluation. This resulted In a referral to pediatric endocrinology for significantly low testosterone and an...studies were reviewed and a partially empty sella was appreciated by a pediatric radiologist on retrospective evaluation (Image 1 ). There were no

  19. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, C. A.; Copeland, B. T.; Morath, V.; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, A.; Pomper, M.G.; Bařinka, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 7 (2017), s. 749-764 ISSN 0270-4137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1513; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : monoclonal antibody * glutamate carboxypeptidase II * NAALADase Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  20. Srovnání faktorů ovlivňujících vznik nadváhy a obezity u sedmiletých dětí a adolescentů

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis is based on a study of seven year old children Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) processed by Institute of Endocrinology sponsored by WHO Europe and MZ ČR and on a study of adolescents Childhood Obesity Prevalence And Treatment (COPAT) organized by Institute of Endocrinology sponsored by Norway grants and MŠMT ČR. These studies were focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents and on factors possibly related to origin of...