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Sample records for endangered limestone endemic

  1. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for a widespread limestone endemic,Carex eburnea(Cyperaceae:Carexsect.Albae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Emily L; Pauley, Annabella G; Haffner, Megan L; Hay, Nikolai M; Estep, Matt C; Murrell, Zack E

    2017-08-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for a widespread limestone endemic sedge, Carex eburnea , to facilitate investigation of the genetic diversity and phylogeography of this taxon and its closest relative, C. mckittrickensis . Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from Illumina sequence data and screened for suitability. Fourteen of these primer pairs were polymorphic and generated one to seven alleles per locus. Cross-species amplifications were conducted for all four members of Carex sect. Albae . These primer pairs can be used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in future studies of C. eburnea and C. mckittrickensis , and likely in other members of Carex sect. Albae .

  2. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  3. Trichomonas gallinae in Mauritian columbids: implications for an endangered endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N; Jones, C G; Greenwood, A G; Bell, D J

    2007-07-01

    Although well known as a widespread parasitic disease of columbids and birds of prey, there have been few studies of trichomonosis in populations of wild birds. In Mauritius, trichomonosis has been highlighted as a major threat to an endangered endemic, the Pink Pigeon (Neosoenas [Columba] mayeri). In this study, we examined the role that populations of other columbids in Mauritius might be playing as infectious reservoirs of the causal flagellate protozoan, Trichomonas gallinae. We screened 296 wild individuals of three columbid species (Madagascan Turtle Dove [Streptopelia picturata], Spotted Dove [Streptopelia chinensis], and Zebra Dove [Geopelia striata]) between September 2002 and April 2004. Prevalence varied significantly among species (ranging from 19% in S. chinensis to 59% in G. striata) and between S. picturata sampled from upland and coastal sites; S. picturata from upland sites (>500 m) were significantly less likely to be infected with T. gallinae than those from lowland sites (gallinae at sites where Pink Pigeons were also present compared to those sampled at sites without Pink Pigeons. We show that T. gallinae infection prevalence is higher at sites and times of warmer temperatures and lower rainfall.

  4. A conservation framework for the Critically Endangered endemic species of the Caribbean palm Coccothrinax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    With 30 threatened species [14 Critically Endangered (CR) and 16 Endangered, sensu IUCN)] Coccothrinax (c. 54 species) is the flagship palm genus for conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Coccothrinax has its center of taxonomic diversity in these islands, with c. 51 endemic spe...

  5. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R.; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and...

  6. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-19

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and its relatives. Copyright © 2016 Gu et al.

  7. Physiological stress levels in the endemic and endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat loss and fragmentation inevitably cause biodiversity decline, a major concern for the conservation of endangered species. Primates are of particular interest, because they are highly vulnerable to forest fragmentation. In this study, we investigated faecal glucocorticoid measurements (FGCM), an indicator of ...

  8. Newly discovered populations of the Ethiopian endemic and endangered Afrixalus clarkei Largen, implications for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Jan; Jocqu?, Merlijn; Geeraert, Lore; Beenhouwer, Matthias De

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the Ethiopian amphibian fauna is limited and Southwest Ethiopia remains understudied. This part of Ethiopia, where most of the country?s remaining natural forest is situated, is known to harbour the only populations of Afrixalus clarkei (Largen), an endemic banana frog, worldwide. This species is under great threat of extinction and is therefore classified as endangered on the IUCN red list. We surveyed different potential habitats for this species outside its known rang...

  9. Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders an Endemic, Endangered Tree of India: Current Status, Improvement and the Future

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    AN Arunkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinus (Family – Fabaceae popularly known as Red Sanders is an endemic species confined to Southern parts of Eastern Ghats of India specially in Andhra Pradesh. Heartwood of Red Sanders has high demand in domestic as well as international market and the wavy grained wood is valued.  Along with its extensive use in furniture, the red dye obtained from the wood is used as colouring agent for textile, medicine and food. The heartwood can accumulate various elements and rare earth elements like strontium cadmium, zinc, copper and uranium. The wood has different uses in traditional and folklore medicines and is used for the treatment of diabetes, prickly heat, skin diseases and for various other ailments. A number of studies have been carried out to anatomically and phenotypicaly screen wavy grain at seedling stage. Morphological variability and genetic diversity studies reveal that Red Sanders harbours enormous variability. Though, macro and micro propagation protocol have been developed, further refinement is required for mass propagation. Andhra Pradesh Forest Department has also initiated different activities under tree improvement programme. Considering the wood demand, restricted distribution, slow regeneration, illegal harvest, trade and habitat destruction, the species has been categorized as endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature and has been listed in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and is also classified as a “reserved tree” under the Andhra Pradesh Preservation of Private Forest Rules, 1978. To revive the past glory of this valuable species, Government agencies, farmers, entrepreneurs and policy makers have to join hands for its protection, sustainable utilization and conservation.

  10. Conservation genetics of an endemic and endangered epiphytic Laelia speciosa (Orchidaceae).

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    Avila-Díaz, Irene; Oyama, Ken

    2007-02-01

    We used isozymes (16 loci in 11 enzymatic systems) from Laelia speciosa, an endemic and endangered epiphytic orchid of Mexico, to assess the genetic diversity and population genetic structure in nine populations distributed along its geographic range, as well as to detect those populations that are genetically unique and therefore deserve high-priority protection. On average, the genetic diversity was high (percentage of polymorphic loci, P(p) = 76%, mean number of alleles per locus, A = 3.34, the average observed heterozygosity H(O) = 0.302, the average expected heterozygosity H(E) = 0.382). Moderate levels of inbreeding ( f = 0.216, 95% confidence interval = 0.029-0.381) were found. Low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations ((p) = 0.040); however, there was a significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances among the populations (Mantel test: r(2) = 0.43, P < 0.05). Populations located within the same mountain range were genetically more similar. Private alleles were found, so proper management requires protection and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout its range. In case of reintroduction, we suggest using individuals propagated from seeds from as many capsules as possible, from close populations. An ex situ conservation strategy also is proposed.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of the narrow endemic and endangered species Heteroplexis microcephala Y. L. Chen. in China revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers

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    Shi Yancai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heteroplexis microcephala Y. L. Chen. is an endemic and endangered species found only in karst limestone regions in the Yangshuo County of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China: it is a habitat representative of species in the Heteroplexis genus. To provide basic genetic information for its conservation, in this study we evaluated the genetic variation and differentiation among six wild populations of H. microcephala by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD. The leaves of 141 individuals were sampled. Based on 12 primers, 113 DNA fragments were generated. Genetic diversity was low at the population level (Nei’s gene diversity (h=0.0579; Shannon information index (I=0.0924; percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB=23.30%, but relatively high at the species level (h=0.1701; I=0.2551; PPB=46.34%. The coefficient of genetic differentiation based on Nei’s genetic diversity analysis (0.6661 was high, indicating that there was significant genetic differentiation among populations, which was confirmed by AMOVA analysis exhibiting population differentiation among populations of 68.77%. Low gene flow among populations (0.2507 may result from several factors, such as a harsh pollination environment, population isolation and low seed dispersal distance. Limited gene flow and self-compatibility are the primary reasons for the high genetic differentiation observed for this species. We propose the collection of seeds from more populations with fewer individuals and core populations for ex situ conservation and suggest methods to increase seed germination rates.

  12. Creating new populations of Apium bermejoi (Apiaceae, a critically endangered endemic plant on Menorca (Balearic Islands

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    Rita, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apium bermejoi is a stoloniferous plant endemic to the island of Menorca (Balearic Islands. It is found only at one locality, and it is listed as Critically Endangered (according to the IUCN criteria. We describe the main results of population restoration actions undertaken under the Recovery Plan for this species, including the following: 1 introduction at two new localities (2008, 2 reinforcement of the original wild and the introduced populations, and 3 a programme for monitoring population dynamics (including both wild and introduced populations spanning four years (2006-2010. The plant material for the introduction and reinforcement projects was generated from seeds gathered in the wild. We carried out a monthly census of all of the individuals/patches and emerged seedlings, from which we assessed their survival at 3-4months. The survival rates of the planted individuals in the two new localities after three months were found to be 59.0% and 56.3%, and more than 80% of the surviving plants produced fruits. A seasonal pattern was observed based on the minimum cover values recorded in the censuses taken at the end of summer, with an increase detected during autumn, and maximal cover values recorded during May/June. The A. bermejoi populations showed large inter-annual fluctuations in both the number of patches and area of occupancy. The number of seedlings varied across the study years, and their survival was linked to specific meteorological events, such as severe storms and dry and hot spells during autumn. The initial phase of introduction for this species has been overall successful, but a final evaluation can only be made on a longterm basis.Apium bermejoi, planta estolonífera endémica de Menorca (Islas Baleares, de la que se conoce una sola localidad en el medio natural, está considerada en Peligro Crítico de extinción (según criterios UICN. Se presentan los principales resultados de las acciones de restauración de las

  13. New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae, an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands

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    Mariana C. Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of 1H, 13C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds.

  14. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    potential threats, the species is evaluated as Endangered (EN). Crotalaria trifoliolata is a bigger shrub than previously thought (up to c. 2 m high, with stems up to c. 3 cm in diam.). Molecular studies confirm that C. trifoliolata is related to the widespread C. saltiana, as predicted from morphological......Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae: Papilionoidaeae) was, for 120 years, only known from an incomplete holotype from an uncertain Ethiopian locality. In 2013 it was rediscovered in the Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Surveys in 2014 and 2015 suggest that the species is restricted...

  15. Morphology, anatomy and cytology of critically endangered endemic Asperula daphneola from, West Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Asperula daphneola, which belongs to Rubiaceae family, is only distributed on Nif Mountain. The present study investigates the species anatomically, morphologically and cytologically, laying the basis for future biosystematic studies as well as introducing this endemic taxa. A. daphneola seeds were 1.3-1.8 X 2.3-2.9 mm; ovate; seed surface was prominent and channelled; dorsal type was convex, hispid hairs all over; hylar zone type recessed; yellowish green colour. Type of pollen were stephanocolpate and had 6 colpus with tectate structure. The chromosome number in A. daphneola was counted as 2n=20.

  16. The rediscovery of Passiflora kwangtungensis Merr. (subgenus Decaloba supersection Disemma: a critically endangered Chinese endemic

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    Shawn Krosnick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora kwangtungensis is a critically endangered Chinese species known from Guangxi, Guangdong, and Jiangxi Provinces. The species belongs to Passiflora subgenus Decaloba, supersection Disemma, section Octandranthus. Field observations decreased rapidly during the 1970s to 1980s, and it was suspected that this species might have been extirpated due to repeated deforestation events throughout southern China. In recent years, however, small isolated populations of this species have been rediscovered in Hunan Province, representing new locality records for P. kwangtungensis. New herbarium collections, color photographs, and silica gel collections have provided an unexpected opportunity to examine the evolutionary significance of this species. The current study presents a revised morphological description of P. kwangtungensis based on fresh material, along with an updated distribution map. Using nrITS sequence data, preliminary insights into the phylogenetic position of P. kwangtungensis are presented. Molecular data support the placement of P. kwangtungensis within supersection Disemma section Octandranthus. However, the exact placement of P. kwangtungensis within this lineage is unclear. The nrITS data suggest that P. kwangtungensis may be sister to a clade containing Passiflora from China, Nepal, India, and Southeast Asia. Morphologically, P. kwangtungensis displays the most similarity P. geminiflora (Nepal, India and P. henryi (China. Lastly, conservation status and recommendations are made for P. kwangtungensis following the IUCN Red List Criteria, where this species is classified as CR C1+C2a(i; D.

  17. Local adaptation to temperature and precipitation in naturally fragmented populations of Cephalotaxus oliveri, an endangered conifer endemic to China.

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    Wang, Ting; Wang, Zhen; Xia, Fan; Su, Yingjuan

    2016-04-26

    Cephalotaxus oliveri is an endangered tertiary relict conifer endemic to China. The species survives in a wide range from west to east with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are main restrictive factors for distribution of C. oliveri. In order to comprehend the mechanism of adaptive evolution to climate variation, we employed ISSR markers to detect adaptive evolution loci, to identify the association between variation in temperature and precipitation and adaptive loci, and to investigate the genetic structure for 22 C. oliveri natural populations. In total, 14 outlier loci were identified, of which five were associated with temperature and precipitation. Among outlier loci, linkage disequilibrium (LD) was high (42.86%), which also provided strong evidence for selection. In addition, C. oliveri possessed high genetic variation (93.31%) and population differentiation, which may provide raw material to evolution and accelerate local adaptation, respectively. Ecological niche modeling showed that global warming will cause a shift for populations of C. oliveri from south to north with a shrinkage of southern areas. Our results contribute to understand the potential response of conifers to climatic changes, and provide new insights for conifer resource management and conservation strategies.

  18. Leaf litter is essential for seed survival of the endemic endangered tree Pouteria splendens (Sapotaceae from central Chile

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    G. J. Sotes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouteria splendens (A.DC. Kuntze, the Chilean lúcumo, is an endemic tree and the only member of the Sapotaceae family in Chile. It is considered an endangered species as a consequence of its restricted distribution and small population size. Currently, individuals of P. splendens are immersed in a heterogeneous landscape with rocky mounds and plains located in areas densely populated by humans. Natural regeneration in the species seems to be low, despite the fact that plants are able to produce fruits. The species produces brightly colored fleshy drupes. There is no information about the dispersal pattern and the fate of the seeds. In this work we investigate (i the seed dispersal pattern and (ii the effect of tree canopy and the presence of leaf litter on seed survival, both in rocky mounds and plains. Results indicated an extremely low distance of seed dispersal, with most of the seeds falling down under the canopy. Seed survival under the canopy without leaf litter was very low and even zero in rocky mounds. Nevertheless, the presence of leaf litter covering the seeds increased survival in both habitats. Outside the canopy, seed survival only increased in plains. We suggest that future conservation programs should focus on protecting both adult plants and leaf litter under trees.

  19. Phylogeography of the endangered Lesser Antillean iguana, Iguana delicatissima: a recent diaspora in an archipelago known for ancient herpetological endemism.

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    Martin, Jessica L; Knapp, Charles R; Gerber, Glenn P; Thorpe, Roger S; Welch, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Iguana delicatissima is an endangered endemic of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Phylogeographic analyses for many terrestrial vertebrate species in the Caribbean, particularly lizards, suggest ancient divergence times. Often, the closest relatives of species are found on the same island, indicating that colonization rates are so low that speciation on islands is often more likely to generate biodiversity than subsequent colonization events. Mitochondrial sequence analysis of the region spanning ND4 was performed on I. delicatissima individuals from islands across the species' range to estimate genetic divergence among geographically isolated populations. Five unique haplotypes were recovered from 46 individuals. The majority of animals carry a single common haplotype. Two of the haplotypes were only present in individuals classified as hybrids from Îles des Saintes. The final 2 haplotypes, single nucleotide substitutions, were present in animals from Îlet Chancel of Martinique and Saint Barthélemy, respectively. Despite the great distances between islands and habitat heterogeneity within islands, this species is characterized by low haplotype diversity. The low mtDNA variation of I. delicatissima suggests a single colonization coupled with rapid range expansion, potentially hastened by human-mediated dispersal. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Endangered New Caledonian endemic mushroom coral Cantharellus noumeae in turbid, metal-rich, natural and artificial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Antoine; Heintz, Tom; Hoeksema, Bert W; Benzoni, Francesca; Fernandez, Jean Michel; Fauvelot, Cécile; Andréfouët, Serge

    2015-11-15

    Since its description in 1984, little attention has been paid to the New Caledonian endemic mushroom coral Cantharellus noumeae (Fungiidae), an IUCN Red-listed, endangered coral species. Our study presents the first ever quantitative assessment conducted on C. noumeae populations for two contrasting sites in the same turbid bay. Sites differed by their substrates of artificial or natural origins. Metal concentrations of superficial sediment were measured. C. noumeae was found in high densities in metal-rich and turbid environments at both locations, reaching up to 288 individuals per 50m(2). It was 3.5 times more abundant on natural rock than on artificial substrates. Recruitment was also higher proportionally on rock (47% vs 7-14%). The composition of the associated coral communities included 30-37 species occurring in low densities. Our findings clarify the environmental niche of this species and its colonization potential, in order to eventually better characterize its conservation status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Set of Novel Microsatellite Markers Developed for Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to Yunnan, China

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    Ning Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luculia Sweet contains about five species of small trees or shrubs and is a member of the family Rubiaceae (tribe Cinchoneae. Luculia yunnanensis is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to southwest China. Only two natural populations of L. yunnanensis exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that L. yunnanensis is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-sterptavidin capture method, 24 primer sets were identified in two wild populations. Of these primers, 11 displayed polymorphisms and 13 were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, values for observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.833 and from 0.431 to 0.771, with averages of 0.389 and 0.614, respectively. These markers will be useful for further investigation of conservation of resources, selecting parental types in cross-breeding, evolution of this species at the molecular level and related research in Luculia species.

  2. The relationship between climate change and the endangered rainforest shrub Triunia robusta (Proteaceae) endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Kimura, Yoko; Accad, Arnon; Shapcott, Alison

    2017-04-19

    Threatened species in rainforests may be vulnerable to climate change, because of their potentially narrow thermal tolerances, small population sizes and restricted distributions. This study modelled climate induced changes on the habitat distribution of the endangered rainforest plant Triunia robusta, endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia. Species distribution models were developed for eastern Australia at 250 m grids and southeast Queensland at 25 m grids using ground-truthed presence records and environmental predictor data. The species' habitat distribution under the current climate was modelled, and the future potential habitat distributions were projected for the epochs 2030, 2050 and 2070. The eastern Australia model identified several spatially disjunct, broad habitat areas of coastal eastern Australia consistent with the current distribution of rainforests, and projected a southward and upslope contraction driven mainly by average temperatures exceeding current range limits. The southeast Queensland models suggest a dramatic upslope contraction toward locations where the majority of known populations are found. Populations located in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, consistent with past rainforest refugia, are likely to persist long-term. Upgrading the level of protection for less formal nature reserves containing viable populations is a high priority to better protect refugial T. robusta populations with respect to climate change.

  3. Genetic diversity of Vriesea cacuminis (Bromeliaceae): an endangered and endemic Brazilian species.

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    Ribeiro, P C C; Pinheiro, L C; Domingues, R; Forzza, R C; Machado, M A; Viccini, L F

    2013-06-13

    Data about the genetic structure can help to understand the evolutionary process of natural populations as well as to drive strategies of conservation. Vriesea cacuminis, an endemic Brazilian Bromeliad, has been found in 2 areas of Minas Gerais State. One is a legal preservation unit (Ibitipoca State Park) and the other an unprotected area (Serra Negra). The 2 areas belong to the Mantiqueira Mountain Range Complex; both are characterized by steep relief with high altitudes and by heterogenic vegetation formed by a mosaic of rocky fields and forest fragments. According to International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria, V. cacuminis is designated as "vulnerable". We examined the genetic variability and population structure of 70 individuals (3 populations) of V. cacuminis, using 16 ISSR markers. Although V. cacuminis is considered a rare species, the estimated genetic diversity was found to be relatively high (Shannon index = 0.33; percentage of polymorphic bands = 87%). The populations were found not to be structured (AMOVA test, ΦST = 0.16), probably due to the cross-breeding. Based on Bayesian analysis, this species includes one cluster containing the populations from Ibitipoca State Park and another cluster including the population from Serra Negra. This information will help determine strategies to maintain the genetic variability of these populations.

  4. Genetic isolation by distance in the endangered plant sinocalycanthus chinensis endemic to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junmin, L.; Jingjing, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis, narrowly endemic to China, is a tertiary relict species. We analyzed the genetic structure pattern of 6 populations of S. chinensis using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and the isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was tested in order to understand the relative influences of gene flow and genetic drift on population structure. The genetic diversity at species level was relatively high (P=51.00%, h =0.1397 and I=0.2191, respectively), while that at populations level was relatively low (P=18.00%, h=0.0733 and I=0.1108, respectively). High genetic differentiation was detected among populations (fi ST=0.6320). Neighbor-joining method of clustering results showed that six populations were clearly separated into eastern and western group. Mantel test showed that there was significant association between genetic distance and geographical distance (r/sup =0.8600, P=0.0470). Limited gene flow due to species traits and habitat fragmentation and the consequent genetic drift might be the 2 main causes for the genetic isolation by distance of S. chinensis populations. (author)

  5. Population genetic structure of Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae), an endangered endemic species of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Wen; Wang, De-Lian; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2005-04-01

    Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae) standing for the monotypic genus is endemic to eastern China. Its conservation status is vulnerable as most populations are small and isolated. Monimopetalum chinense is capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. The aim of this study was to understand the genetic structure of M. chinense and to suggest conservation strategies. One hundred and ninety individuals from ten populations sampled from the entire distribution area of M. chinense were investigated by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). A total of 110 different ISSR bands were generated using ten primers. Low levels of genetic variation were revealed both at the species level (Isp=0.183) and at the population level (Ipop=0.083). High clonal diversity (D = 0.997) was found, and strong genetic differentiation among populations was detected (49.06 %). Small population size, possible inbreeding, limited gene flow due to short distances of seed dispersal, fragmentation of the once continuous range and subsequent genetic drift, may have contributed to shaping the population genetic structure of the species.

  6. Herbicide treatment of invasive Vinca major growing with endangered Galium buxifolium, an island endemic

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    McEachern, Kathryn; Chess, Katie; Flagg, Karen; Niessen, Ken; Owen,; Thompson,

    2010-01-01

    appears to be moving into the native scrub where it overtops small plants, including those Galium in the smallest size classes. This observed pattern of Vinca displacement of native vegetation has been noted in other places, where it is treated as an invasive weed. We concluded that Vinca may pose a threat to the expansion of both the native scrub and the Galium population that it supports. Therefore, we worked with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and others to develop a research project investigating 1) best techniques for killing Vinca within the boundaries of an endangered plant population and 2) demographic response of Galium to the treatment. Our intent is to push Vinca back to the vertical cliff face to give the natives a chance to establish a vigorous stand. Our conservation goal is to encourage natural establishment of new Galium plants on the terrace along with expansion of the native coastal bluff scrub and Galium population. Our immediate treatment objective is to reduce live Vinca cover by 90 % on the accessible upslope portions of the habitat. Our recovery objective is no net loss of Galium plants 2006-2016.

  7. Seed propagation and re-introduction of the U.S. federally endangered Hawaiian endemic, Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. (Orchidaceae

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    Lawrence W. Zettler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. [syn = Peristylus holochila (Hbd N. Hallé] is the rarest of three orchids endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. As of 2011, 33 individual plants of this U.S. Federally endangered species remained on three islands with only one specimen known to occur on Kauai. This paper presents a summary of experiments aimed at cultivating this species from seed leading to the reintroduction of seedlings. We describe: 1 the mycorrhizal fungi acquired from P. holochila protocorms on Molokai, 2 the role of light vs. dark pretreatment on symbiotic seed germination using a mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, and 3 asymbiotic germination on three media (Murashige and Skoog, Knudson C, P723. Protocorms recovered in situ using seed packets yielded seven strains of a mycorrhizal fungus assignable to the anamorphic genus Epulorhiza Moore, but none of these strains prompted seed germination in vitro. Using the mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, no significant differences were detected between light pre-treatment vs. dark incubation on seed germination or development, but statistical differences were evident among two agar types tested. Seeds sown on acidified (pH 5.0 asymbiotic medium P723 (PhytoTechnology Labs developed to the leaf-bearing stage 351 days after sowing and incubation in darkness at 16–19 °C. Seedlings illuminated 451 days after sowing were eventually established on soil in a greenhouse (ex vitro. A total of 85 seedlings were promptly transported to Hawaii in March 2011. A minimum of 3.1 years is required for the propagation of P. holochila from seed using acidified asymbiotic medium P723.

  8. Population genetics of the endemic and endangered Vriesea minarum (Bromeliaceae) in the Iron Quadrangle, Espinhaço Range, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavor, Pâmela; van den Berg, Cássio; Jacobi, Claudia M; Carmo, Flávio F; Versieux, Leonardo M

    2014-07-01

    • Premise of the study: Knowledge about genetic variability in plant populations is one of the main branches of conservation genetics, linking genetic data to conservation strategies. Vriesea minarum is a bromeliad endemic to the Iron Quadrangle region (southeastern Brazil), occurring on mountaintop rock outcrops. It is listed as endangered due to habitat loss, particularly from iron ore mining. Thus, determining the structure and genetic diversity of V. minarum populations could help develop strategies to conserve the species.• Methods: We studied the genetic structure of 12 populations of V. minarum using 10 microsatellite loci transferred from other species of Bromeliaceae. Statistical analyses to compare and describe the genetic diversity of each population were performed, and genetic structure within and among populations, isolation by distance, and Bayesian structure were also analyzed.• Key results: Our results show high inbreeding (G IS = 0.376) and low population structure (F ST = 0.088), possibly related to high gene flow due to great pollinator efficiency and/or efficient seed dispersal, thus leading to high connectivity among populations of these fragmented rock outcrops. Two clusters were observed, corresponding to the basins of rivers São Francisco and Doce.• Conclusions: Gene flow among populations is high but, given the rate of habitat loss to mining, most populations are vulnerable and will become increasingly isolated if no action is taken to preserve them. Thus, conservation of this species depends on in situ and ex situ actions, such as controlling overexploitation and creating a germoplasm bank. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae), an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Sun, Weibang; Wang, Zhonglang; Guan, Kaiyun; Yang, Junbo

    2011-01-01

    Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae) is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species. PMID:22016620

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun Guan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species.

  11. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    to limestone habitats in the Kubayo National Forest, where it forms almost monospecific stands of up to one thousand individuals in glades and at forest margins. Predictive distribution models suggest uncertain suitability of the present habitats under future climatic conditions. Based on this and other...

  12. Diversification and microscopic structure of tissues in endemic and endangered species of Dawkinsia tambraparniei from the river Tamiraparani, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Divya Sapphire; Arumugam, Sabaridasan; Ramaiah, Soranam

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the study on the endemic and endangered species of Dawkinsia tambraparniei were confined only the areas of the river Tamiraparani. These species are under threats due to the menace of anthropogenic stress. To recognize the crisis behind the particular species, it was analyzed histologically and molecularly from the five pollutant levels of river Tamiraparani. Histologically, the microscopic examinations were also carried out from the crucial organs such as the brain, gill, heart, kidney, and liver, which confirm the spiky survivability of the endemic fish. Assessment of fish organ damages was observed highly in Kokkirakulam and Vannarapettai. Probably with conserved molecular sequences, the species can be identified out from the encountered surveillance of the particular taxa leading to the evolutionary circumstances. The phylogenetic analysis of Dawkinsia tambraparniei populations showed that Cheranmadevi and Vallandau sites populations were closely distributed. Even though the species have similarity sequences of each population were shown that the closely related with same genus but other sub-species. The observed results emphasize the conventional measures to conserve the endemic species and more effectual planning to the proximity of endurances in inhabited zone.

  13. New records of two endemic troglobitic and threatened arachnids (Amblypygi and Opiliones) from limestone caves of Minas Gerais state, southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    do Monte,Bruno; Gallão,Jonas; von Schimonsky,Diego; Bichuette,Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The endemic and threatened troglobites (organisms restricted to caves) Charinus eleonorae ( Amblypygi ) and Iandumoema uai ( Opiliones ), both from Olhos d??gua cave, located at Perua?u Caves National Park (southeast Brazil), have their distribution expanded for a new locality inside of the National Park (Lapa do Cip? cave), extending their distribution at least in 9.5km2. New information This new data suggest that these arachnids can be in a differentiation process and/or...

  14. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Lijo; Philip, Siby; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Anvar Ali, Palakkaparambil Hamsa; Tharian, Josin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS) (Cyprinidae: Puntius) endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  15. Morphological and genetic evidence for multiple evolutionary distinct lineages in the endangered and commercially exploited red lined torpedo barbs endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijo John

    Full Text Available Red lined torpedo barbs (RLTBS (Cyprinidae: Puntius endemic to the Western Ghats Hotspot of India, are popular and highly priced freshwater aquarium fishes. Two decades of indiscriminate exploitation for the pet trade, restricted range, fragmented populations and continuing decline in quality of habitats has resulted in their 'Endangered' listing. Here, we tested whether the isolated RLTB populations demonstrated considerable variation qualifying to be considered as distinct conservation targets. Multivariate morphometric analysis using 24 size-adjusted characters delineated all allopatric populations. Similarly, the species-tree highlighted a phylogeny with 12 distinct RLTB lineages corresponding to each of the different riverine populations. However, coalescence-based methods using mitochondrial DNA markers identified only eight evolutionarily distinct lineages. Divergence time analysis points to recent separation of the populations, owing to the geographical isolation, more than 5 million years ago, after the lineages were split into two ancestral stocks in the Paleocene, on north and south of a major geographical gap in the Western Ghats. Our results revealing the existence of eight evolutionarily distinct RLTB lineages calls for the re-determination of conservation targets for these cryptic and endangered taxa.

  16. Effects of photoperiod, plant growth regulators and culture media on in vitro growth of seedlings of Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. an endemic and endangered orchid from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtochilum loxense (Lindl. Kraenzl. is an endemic and seriously endangered orchid species endemic in the Loja Province (Southern Ecuador. The main goals of this research were to analyze how culture media, plant growth regulators and photoperiod affect the growth of C. loxense. Eight month old plants (approximate 1 – 1.5 cm in height obtained by in vitro germination, were cultivated on MS media or Knudson C; MS with three levels of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (2/0.5; 1/0.5 y 0.5/ 0.5 mg-1L; and three photoperiodic regimes (24/0, 16/8, 8/16 h on MS with and without plant growth regulators. No significant differences of shoot induction were observed on media with or without plant growth regulators, and all tested photoperiods. The highest growth (1.2 cm was observed in plantlets cultivated on growth regulator-free media with a 16/8 photoperiod. Also the shoot and root formation was better in this species in absence of plant growth regulators. Probably this response is due to the endogenous hormone levels in the tissues or due to the kind and concentrations of PGRs used were too low to induce positive morphogenetic responses.

  17. Isolation and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Galapagos-endemic whitespotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Alicia C; Griffiths, Sarah M; Truelove, Nathan K; Box, Stephen J; Preziosi, Richard F; Salinas de Leon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The white-spotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus) is a commercially important species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, but is classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List. For this study, 10 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using Illumina paired-end sequencing. These loci can be used for genetic studies of population structure and connectivity to aid in the management of the white-spotted sandbass and other closely-related species. The 10 characterized loci were polymorphic, with 11-49 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.575 to 0.964. This set of markers is the first to be developed for this species.

  18. New records of two endemic troglobitic and threatened arachnids (Amblypygi and Opiliones) from limestone caves of Minas Gerais state, southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Monte, Bruno Gabriel O; Gallão, Jonas Eduardo; von Schimonsky, Diego M; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    The endemic and threatened troglobites (organisms restricted to caves) Charinus eleonorae (Amblypygi) and Iandumoema uai (Opiliones), both from Olhos d'Água cave, located at Peruaçu Caves National Park (southeast Brazil), have their distribution expanded for a new locality inside of the National Park (Lapa do Cipó cave), extending their distribution at least in 9.5km(2). This new data suggest that these arachnids can be in a differentiation process and/or there are several possibilities of dispersion in the karst of Peruaçu. Indeed, a revision of their categorical status at IUCN Red List is necessary. We herein report a new distribution range (Lapa do Cipó cave) of the troglobitic species I. uai and C. eleonorae, which are, to date, known to occur in the Olhos d'Água cave, located at the Peruaçu Caves National Park (PCNP).

  19. Isolation and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Galapagos-endemic whitespotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Bertolotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The white-spotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus is a commercially important species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, but is classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List. For this study, 10 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using Illumina paired-end sequencing. These loci can be used for genetic studies of population structure and connectivity to aid in the management of the white-spotted sandbass and other closely-related species. The 10 characterized loci were polymorphic, with 11–49 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.575 to 0.964. This set of markers is the first to be developed for this species.

  20. Inferring genetic diversity and differentiation of the endangered chinese endemic plant sauvagesia rhodoleuca (ochnaceae) using microsatelite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Wei, X.; Jiang, Y. S.; Chai, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Sauvagesia rhodoleuca is one of the most endangered species in China. It has a narrow distribution in the evergreen broadleaved forest of southern China. Up to now, only six populations remained in two provinces. In this study, eight microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic diversity in these populations. We found very low levels of genetic diversity within populations of S. rhodoleuca with average observed and expected heterozygosity (HO and HE) of 0.069 and 0.186, respectively. Estimated inbreeding coefficients (FIS) within populations were high suggests the probable selfing in the species.Combination of the UPGMA dendrogram and the INSTRUCT analysis show that six extant populations could be classified into three distinct genetic groups and no pattern of isolation by distance was detected among populations. The low genetic variation within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations indicate that the management for the conservation of genetic diversity in S. rhodoleuca should aim to preserve every population. (author)

  1. Using next-generation sequencing to analyse the diet of a highly endangered land snail (Powelliphanta augusta feeding on endemic earthworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Boyer

    Full Text Available Predation is often difficult to observe or quantify for species that are rare, very small, aquatic or nocturnal. The assessment of such species' diet can be conducted using molecular methods that target prey DNA remaining in predators' guts and faeces. These techniques do not require high taxonomic expertise, are applicable to soft-bodied prey and allow for identification at the species level. However, for generalist predators, the presence of mixed prey DNA in guts and faeces can be a major impediment as it requires development of specific primers for each potential prey species for standard (Sanger sequencing. Therefore, next generation sequencing methods have recently been applied to such situations. In this study, we used 454-pyrosequencing to analyse the diet of Powelliphantaaugusta, a carnivorous landsnail endemic to New Zealand and critically endangered after most of its natural habitat has been lost to opencast mining. This species was suspected to feed mainly on earthworms. Although earthworm tissue was not detectable in snail faeces, earthworm DNA was still present in sufficient quantity to conduct molecular analyses. Based on faecal samples collected from 46 landsnails, our analysis provided a complete map of the earthworm-based diet of P. augusta. Predated species appear to be earthworms that live in the leaf litter or earthworms that come to the soil surface at night to feed on the leaf litter. This indicates that P. augusta may not be selective and probably predates any earthworm encountered in the leaf litter. These findings are crucial for selecting future translocation areas for this highly endangered species. The molecular diet analysis protocol used here is particularly appropriate to study the diet of generalist predators that feed on liquid or soft-bodied prey. Because it is non-harmful and non-disturbing for the studied animals, it is also applicable to any species of conservation interest.

  2. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Analyse the Diet of a Highly Endangered Land Snail (Powelliphanta augusta) Feeding on Endemic Earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Wratten, Stephen D.; Holyoake, Andrew; Abdelkrim, Jawad; Cruickshank, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Predation is often difficult to observe or quantify for species that are rare, very small, aquatic or nocturnal. The assessment of such species’ diet can be conducted using molecular methods that target prey DNA remaining in predators’ guts and faeces. These techniques do not require high taxonomic expertise, are applicable to soft-bodied prey and allow for identification at the species level. However, for generalist predators, the presence of mixed prey DNA in guts and faeces can be a major impediment as it requires development of specific primers for each potential prey species for standard (Sanger) sequencing. Therefore, next generation sequencing methods have recently been applied to such situations. In this study, we used 454-pyrosequencing to analyse the diet of Powelliphantaaugusta , a carnivorous landsnail endemic to New Zealand and critically endangered after most of its natural habitat has been lost to opencast mining. This species was suspected to feed mainly on earthworms. Although earthworm tissue was not detectable in snail faeces, earthworm DNA was still present in sufficient quantity to conduct molecular analyses. Based on faecal samples collected from 46 landsnails, our analysis provided a complete map of the earthworm-based diet of P . augusta . Predated species appear to be earthworms that live in the leaf litter or earthworms that come to the soil surface at night to feed on the leaf litter. This indicates that P . augusta may not be selective and probably predates any earthworm encountered in the leaf litter. These findings are crucial for selecting future translocation areas for this highly endangered species. The molecular diet analysis protocol used here is particularly appropriate to study the diet of generalist predators that feed on liquid or soft-bodied prey. Because it is non-harmful and non-disturbing for the studied animals, it is also applicable to any species of conservation interest. PMID:24086671

  3. Does timing of breeding matter less where the grass is greener? Seasonal declines in breeding performance differ between regions in an endangered endemic raptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The timing of breeding can strongly influence individual breeding performance and fitness. Seasonal declines in breeding parameters have been often documented in birds, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer studies have investigated whether seasonal declines in productivity vary in space, which would have implications for a species’ population dynamics across its distributional range. We report here on variation in the timing of breeding in the Black Harrier (Circus maurus, an endangered and endemic raptor to Southern Africa. We investigated how key breeding parameters (clutch size, nesting success and productivity varied with the timing of breeding, weather conditions (rainfall and temperature and between contrasted regions (coastal vs. interior-mountain. Black Harrier onset of breeding extended over an 8-month period, with a peak of laying between mid-August and end of September. We show a marked seasonal decline in all breeding parameters. Importantly, for clutch size and productivity these seasonal declines differed regionally, being more pronounced in interior-mountain than in coastal regions, where the breeding season was overall shorter. Timing of breeding, clutch size and productivity were also partly explained by weather conditions. In coastal regions, where environmental conditions, in particular rainfall, appear to be less variable, the timing of breeding matters less for breeding output than in interior-mountain regions, and breeding attempts thus occurred over a longer period. The former areas may act as population sources and be key in protecting the long-term population viability of this threatened endemic raptor. This study provides unique evidence for a regionally variable seasonal decline in breeding performance with implications for population biology and conservation.

  4. The rediscovery of Passiflora kwangtungensis Merr. (subgenus Decaloba supersection Disemma): a critically endangered Chinese endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosnick, Shawn E; Xun-Lin Yu; Deng, Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    Passiflora kwangtungensis is a critically endangered Chinese species known from Guangxi, Guangdong, and Jiangxi Provinces. The species belongs to Passiflora subgenus Decaloba, supersection Disemma, section Octandranthus. Field observations decreased rapidly during the 1970s to 1980s, and it was suspected that this species might have been extirpated due to repeated deforestation events throughout southern China. In recent years, however, small isolated populations of this species have been rediscovered in Hunan Province, representing new locality records for Passiflora kwangtungensis. New herbarium collections, color photographs, and silica gel collections have provided an unexpected opportunity to examine the evolutionary significance of this species. The current study presents a revised morphological description of Passiflora kwangtungensis based on fresh material, along with an updated distribution map. Using nrITS sequence data, preliminary insights into the phylogenetic position of Passiflora kwangtungensis are presented. Molecular data support the placement of Passiflora kwangtungensis within supersection Disemma section Octandranthus. However, the exact placement of Passiflora kwangtungensis within this lineage is unclear. The nrITS data suggest that Passiflora kwangtungensis may be sister to a clade containing Passiflora from China, Nepal, India, and Southeast Asia. Morphologically, Passiflora kwangtungensis displays the most similarity Passiflora geminiflora (Nepal, India) and Passiflora henryi (China). Lastly, conservation status and recommendations are made for Passiflora kwangtungensis following the IUCN Red List Criteria, where this species is classified as CR C1+C2a(i); D.

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Ulmus chenmoui (Ulmaceae), an endangered tree endemic to eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q F; He, J; Yang, J; Shi, E; Wang, D B; Xu, W X; Jeelani, N; Wang, Z S; Liu, H

    2016-05-13

    Ulmus chenmoui (Ulmaceae) is an endangered tree found on Langya Mountain, eastern China. To better understand the population genetics of U. chenmoui and conserve the species, we developed microsatellite markers. Using a suppression-polymerase chain reaction technique, 74 compound microsatellite primer pairs were designed. Twelve microsatellite markers were polymorphic in 39 individuals, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 9. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.051 to 0.769 and from 0.533 to 0.768, respectively. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for three pairs of loci (P < 0.01), which may be due to a recent population bottleneck and the small population size. Nine of the 12 loci deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.01), which could be explained by significant inbreeding rather than the presence of null alleles. These markers will provide a solid basis for future efforts in population genetic studies of U. chenmoui, which in turn will contribute to species conservation.

  6. Pollination and seedling ecology of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Periplocaceae, a commercially important, endemic and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Decalepis hamiltonii is a woody climber and annual bloomer. The flowers are characterized by nectariferous coralline corona, gynostegium and pollinia containing tetrads. The floral features such as greenish white corolla, mild fragrance, flat-shape for easy access to floral rewards, and ovary protection from the biting mouthparts of the pollinator make up cantharophilous pollination syndrome. Brachinus beetle is the principal pollinator. Thrips use floral buds to raise their offspring; they also effect pollination while collecting nectar; but they are important largely for self-pollination due to their short distance flying ability. The plant is a self-incompatible, obligate outcrosser and is substantiated by 2% natural fruit set, but each fruit produces numerous seeds. Fruits dehisce during the dry season and seed dispersal is by wind. Seeds germinate as soon as they fall in a favourable place, but only a small percentage establish seedlings. Over-exploitation, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction and seedling establishment may contribute to the endangered status of D. hamiltonii.

  7. Associations between forest fragmentation patterns and geneticstructure in Pfrimer’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), an endangered endemic to central Brazil’s dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Leonard F.; Bianchi, Carlos; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    When habitat becomes fragmented, populations of species may become increasingly isolated. In the absence of habitat corridors, genetic structure may develop and populations risk reductions in genetic diversity from increased genetic drift and inbreeding. Deforestation of the Cerrado biome of Brazil, particularly of the dry forests within the Parana˜ River Basin, has incrementally occurred since the 1970s and increased forest fragmentation within the region. We performed landscape genetic analyses of Pfrimer’s parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), a globally endangered endemic to the region, to determine if forest fragmentation patterns were associated with genetic structuring in this species. We used previously generated satellite imagery that identified the locations of Parana˜ River Basin forest fragments in 1977, 1993/94, and 2008. Behavioral data quantifying the affinity of Pfrimer’s parakeet for forest habitat was used to parameterize empirically derived landscape conductance surfaces. Though genetic structure was observed among Pfrimer’s parakeet populations, no association between genetic and geographic distance was detected. Likewise, least cost path lengths, circuit theorybased resistance distances, and a new measure of least cost path length complexity could not be conclusively associated with genetic structure patterns. Instead, a new quantity that encapsulated connection redundancy from the 1977 forest fragmentation data provided the clearest associations with pairwise genetic differentiation patterns (Jost’s D: r = 0.72, P = 0.006; FST: r = 0.741, P = 0.001). Our analyses suggest a 35-year or more lag between deforestation and its effect on genetic structure. Because 66 % of the Parana˜ River Basin has been deforested since 1977, we expect that genetic structure will increase substantially among Pfrimer’s Parakeet populations in the future, especially if fragmentation continues at its current pace.

  8. Diversity of the endophytic fungi associated with the ancient and narrowly endemic neotropical plant Vellozia gigantea from the endangered Brazilian rupestrian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity of cultivable endophytic fungal community associated with the rare, ancient and narrowly endemic Neotropical plant Vellozia gigantea present in the Brazilian Rupestrian Grasslands was assessed. Two hundred and eighty-five fungal isolates obtained were identified into 27 genera and 87 t...

  9. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  10. Molecular evidence for the predation of Critically Endangered endemic Aphanius transgrediens from the stomach contents of world wide invasive Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition among native and invasive species are difficult to study in aquatic environments. Identification of preys from semi-digested body parts sampled from stomach contents of the predator is very challenging. Recent studies were mainly based on use of DNA extracted from stomach content to identify the prey species. This study presents the molecular evidence that reveals the predation of critically endangered Aphanius transgrediens by world-wide invasive Gambusia affinis for a better understanding of the link between the invasion and the extinction of native species in freshwater ecosystems. DNA samples were extracted from semi-digested stomach contents of the invader and short fragments of mitochondrial NADH1 gene were amplified using species-specific primers designed in this study to make identification at species level. Existence of both the prey and the predator species were also confirmed using environmental DNA extracted from water samples.

  11. Characterization of six microsatellite loci in Myrica faya (Myricaceae and cross amplification in the endangered endemic M. rivas-martinezii in Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. González-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from enriched libraries in Myrica faya Ait., recently renamed Morella faya , (fayatree, firetree, or firebush in order to examine the genetic diversity in natural populations. Also, test cross-specific amplification and genetic diversity in Myrica rivas-martinezii, which is endemic on the Canary islands. Microsatellite loci were screened in 225 individuals of both species from different islands of the Canarian archipelago. All markers were successfully amplified from both Myrica species, with an average number of 6.5 and 9.3 alleles per locus in M. rivas-martinezii and M. faya , respectively. There was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between loci, and the probability of null alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.17.

  12. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from fruit extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. an endemic, endangered medicinal tree taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugandhar, P.; Savithramma, N.

    2016-02-01

    In nanotechnology, the plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has terrific application in biomedicine due to its novel properties and its eco-friendly nature. The present study deals with the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of S. alternifolium an endemic medicinal plant to Eastern Ghats. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM with EDAX and TEM. Colour change from brown to grey indicates the formation of nanoparticles and UV-VIS surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy observed at 442 nm further confirms the synthesized nanoparticles are SNPs. FTIR studies reveal that the phenols and primary amines of proteins are main responsible for reduction, stabilization and capping agents towards these SNPs. The XRD data show crystalline nature of nanoparticles and EDAX measurements reveal the (12.74 %) percentage presence of Ag metal. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopic analyses revealed that the size of synthesized SNPs ranging from 5 to 68 nm has spherical shape and they are in polydispersed condition. Further, the antimicrobial studies of synthesized SNPs show high toxicity towards different bacterial and fungal isolates. This is the first report on fruit mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from S. alternifolium.

  13. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae), a critically endangered aquatic plant endemic to Japan, and implications for its conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Takashi; Yokogawa, Masashi; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae) is a critically endangered freshwater macrophyte indigenous to central Japan, with only four small extant populations represented across its entire range. We investigated the genotypic and genetic diversity as well as the genetic structure of all extant individuals of N. submersa based on analysis of 15 microsatellite loci. Among 278 individual ramets, 52 multilocus genotypes were detected: 30 genotypes in Nikko City (NIK), 18 in Nasukarasuyama City (NAS), 3 in Mooka City (MOK), and 1 in Sakura City (SAK). The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.20 to 1.93, whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.11 to 0.33 and from 0.10 to 0.24, respectively. With the exception of SAK, all populations contained multiple clones, but our results indicated low levels of within-population genetic diversity. The populations NIK and NAS comprised few large or middle-sized genets and many small genets. The populations NIK and NAS were suggested to comprise large old, old fragmented, and/or young small genets resulting from seedling establishment. All four populations were differentiated, and gene flow between the populations was restricted (average level of gene flow (Nm) = 0.122, G' ST  = 0.639). Of the total genetic diversity, 67.20 and 9.13% were attributable to inter- and intra-population diversity, respectively. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two or three well-differentiated groups of populations. Cluster I comprised one population (NIK) and cluster II comprised the remaining populations at K = 2. The populations NIK, NAS, and the remaining populations were assigned to clusters I, II, and III, respectively, at K = 3. For conservation practices, we recommend that each cluster be regarded as a different management unit. We further suggest that artificial gene flow among MOK and SAK populations is an appropriate option, whereas NIK should not be reinforced with genotypes from the remaining populations.

  15. Low genetic diversity and local adaptive divergence of Dracaena cambodiana (Liliaceae) populations associated with historical population bottlenecks and natural selection: an endangered long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D-J; Xie, L-S; Zhu, J-H; Zhang, Z-L

    2012-09-01

    Historical population bottlenecks and natural selection have important effects on the current genetic diversity and structure of long-lived trees. Dracaena cambodiana is an endangered, long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China. Our field investigations showed that only 10 populations remain on Hainan Island and that almost all have been seriously isolated and grow in distinct habitats. A considerable amount of genetic variation at the species level, but little variation at the population level, and a high level of genetic differentiation among the populations with limited gene flow in D. cambodiana were detected using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. No significant correlation was found between genetic diversity and actual population size, as the genetic diversities were similar regardless of population size. The Mantel test revealed that there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the 10 populations. The UPGMA, PCoA and Bayesian analyses showed that local adaptive divergence has occurred among the D. cambodiana populations, which was further supported by habitat-private fragments. We suggest that the current genetic diversity and population differentiation of D. cambodiana resulted from historical population bottlenecks and natural selection followed by historical isolation. However, the lack of natural regeneration of D. cambodiana indicates that former local adaptations with low genetic diversity may have been genetically weak and are unable to adapt to the current ecological environments. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  17. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  18. Diet of the critically endangered Seychelles Scops Owl, Otus insularis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diet of the critically endangered Seychelles Scops Owl, Otus insularis. D Currie, M Hill, T Vel, R Franchette, H Hoareau. Abstract. The only data previously recorded on the diet of the critically endangered, endemic Seychelles Scops Owl, Otus insularis, is from the stomach contents of a few museum specimens and analysis ...

  19. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  20. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  1. Limestone valib eetilisi firmasid / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2008-01-01

    Endised Hansapanga investeerimisfondide analüütikud hakkavad läbi Limestone fondide pakkuma sotsiaalselt vastutustundlikku investeerimist (Socially Responsible Investing). Kommenteerivad Art Lukas ja Silver Vohu. Vt. samas: Limestone Investment Management AS

  2. SODIUM SESQUICARBONATE (AKANG) AND LIMESTONE AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ben

    the fatty product for the limestone catalyst and 78 – 92% for the sodium sesquicarbonate catalyst at equilibrium stage ... trisodiumhydrogencarbonate ..... in solubility of Limestone catalyzed palm Kernel oil monoglyceride in polar and non polar solvents. Mass of. Limestone(g). Polar solvent. Non polar solvent water ethanol.

  3. Endangered Metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Idström, Anna; Falzett, Tiber FM

    2012-01-01

    When the last speaker of a language dies, s/he takes to oblivion the memories, associations and the rich imagery this language community has once lived by. The cultural heritage encoded in conventional linguistic metaphors, handed down through generations, will be lost forever. This volume consists of fifteen articles about metaphors in endangered languages, from Peru to Alaska, from India to Ghana.The empirical data demonstrate that the assumptions of contemporary cognitive linguistic theory about "universal" metaphors and the underlying cognitive processes are still far from plausible, since

  4. Melampodium sinuatum (Asteraceae endémica del extremo sur de la península de Baja California en peligro de extinción Melampodium sinuatum (Asteraceae, an endangered endemic species to the southernmost tip of the Baja California Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Villaseñor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melampodium sinuatum Brandegee, especie endémica del extremo sur del estado de Baja California Sur, México, constituye una especie poco conocida debido a su rareza y distribución restringida. No se conoce de más de 5 sitios; todos ellos amenazados por las actividades humanas. El escaso número de individuos por población, así como la estrecha superficie que abarca su área de distribución la colocan como una especie en inminente peligro de extinción, por lo que es imperativo realizar acciones encaminadas a protegerla, las que sin lugar a dudas redundarán en beneficio de otras especies también endémicas de la región donde prospera M. sinuatum e igualmente en riesgo, debido al fuerte impacto antropocéntrico, sobre todo por actividades turísticas, y para las que no existe resguardo alguno.Melampodium sinuatum Brandegee, a species endemic to the southernmost tip of the state of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is poorly known, mostly due to its rarity and narrow geographic distribution range. Historically the species has been collected at only 5 localities and all of these are currently threatened by human activities. The scarce number of individuals per population and its narrow geographic distribution contribute to this species being critically endangered, and it is urgent to carry out activities to help it escape extinction. Without a doubt, such activities will also benefit other endemic species that grow in the vicinity and similarly lack conservation strategies to protect them from the impact of touristic activities in the region.

  5. Why oil sticks to limestone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-11-14

    A coordination chemistry analysis of oil-calcite adhesion allows waterflood chemistry controls over enhanced oil recovery from limestones to be understood. The model relies on temperature-dependent surface complexation models of calcite and oil. The primary electrostatic bridges holding oil to calcite are calculated to be [-COO-][>CaOH2+], [-COO-][>COOCa+], [>CaSO4-][-COOCa+] and [-COOCa+][>COO-] (“>” denotes calcite surface groups; “-” denotes polar oil surface groups; Mg2+ can substitute for Ca+2). The [-COO-][>CaOH2+] bridge between oil carboxylate and protonated calcite calcium sites is most sensitive to changes in waterflood chemistry. Model calculations predict that increased levels of Ca+2, Mg+2, and SO4-2, alone or in combination, will increase oil recovery from limestones by decreasing the number of [-COO-][>CaOH2+] bridges. Divalent cations decrease the local interfacial potential by decreasing the net negative charge on oil carboxylate groups; SO4-2 coordinates to protonated calcite calcium sites to decrease charge and electrostatic attraction. Increases in ionic strength should increase adhesion by increasing the net charge on each surface, though the effect will be less on calcite. The model presented here requires no fitting parameters yet accurately reproduces observed oil mobilization trends suggesting the model to be a potentially valuable tool for designing chemistries of waterfloods employed in limestones.

  6. Habitat association and conservation implications of endangered Francois' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Zeng

    Full Text Available Francois' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi is an endangered primate and endemic to the limestone forests of the tropical and subtropical zone of northern Vietnam and South-west China with a population of about 2,000 individuals. Conservation efforts are hampered by limited knowledge of habitat preference in its main distribution area. We surveyed the distribution of Francois' langur and modeled the relationship between the probability of use and habitat features in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The main objectives of this study were to provide quantitative information on habitat preference, estimating the availability of suitable habitat, and providing management guidelines for the effective conservation of this species. By comparing 92 used locations with habitat available in the reserve, we found that Francois' langur was mainly distributed along valleys and proportionally, used bamboo forests and mixed conifer-broadleaf forests more than their availability, whereas they tended to avoid shrubby areas and coniferous forests. The langur tended to occur at sites with lower elevation, steeper slope, higher tree canopy density, and a close distance to roads and water. The habitat occupancy probability was best modeled by vegetation type, vegetation coverage, elevation, slope degree, distances to nearest water, paved road, and farmland edge. The suitable habitat in this reserve concentrated in valleys and accounted for about 25% of the total reserve area. Our results showed that Francois' langur was not only restricted at the landscapes level at the regions with karst topography, limestone cliffs, and caves, but it also showed habitat preference at the local scale. Therefore, the protection and restoration of the langur preferred habitats such as mixed conifer-broadleaf forests are important and urgent for the conservation of this declining species.

  7. Acoustic Interactions with the Endangered Vaquita

    OpenAIRE

    Lande, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The vaquita (Phocoena sinus) are endemic to the northernmost portion of the Gulf of California and are the world’s most endangered cetacean. Vaquita, like other toothed whales, have the ability to echolocate, which is the use of biological sonar to investigate their environment. Acoustics allow scientists to study these animals’ behavior, biology, and population dynamics more easily. This project aimed to use Finite Element Modeling (FEM) to understand the interaction between acoustic stimuli...

  8. Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.

  9. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  10. Genetic variation in the Critically Endangered velvet worm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the genetic variation of the Critically Endangered velvet worm species Opisthopatus roseus is examined. This species is endemic to the Ngele mistbelt forest in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In recent years the forest has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities such as logging of ...

  11. In vitro multiplication of the rare and endangered slipper orchid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paphiopedilum rothschildianum is an endangered orchid species endemic to Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, and Malaysia. The vegetative propagation of this plant has always been restricted due to its slow growth and maturation rates. Thus, an in vitro tissue culture technique was explored in order to overcome this limitation.

  12. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  13. Laser Removal of Protective Treatments on Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heras, M.; Rebollar, E.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Oujja, M.; Fort, R.; Castillejo, M.

    This work presents an investigation of the laser removal of polymeric materials acting as consolidants and water-repellents on limestone used on buildings of architectural and artistic value. The removal of the consolidant Paraloid B-72 and the water-repellent product Tegosivin HL-100, applied on samples of Colmenarand Bateig limestone, was studied as a function of the laser wavelength, by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). Elimination of the coatings and subsequent surface modifications were monitored through colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing the treatments, although thermal alteration processes were induced on the calcite crystals of the limestone. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

  14. Potential degradation mechanisms of stylolitic limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Nevin; Török, Ákos; Aguilar Sanchez, Asel Maria; Wangler, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Stylolites are irregular rough surfaces formed due to the pressure-solution process and commonly developed in carbonate stones. Stylolite formation is usually accompanied by the accumulation of insoluble residues i.e. organic matter, oxides and clays on the stylolitic surfaces. The amount and the type of these clays may play a significant role in the deterioration of the host stone. This study presents the characterization of various stylolitic limestones containing different amounts of clays and used extensively as building cladding and decorative stones in Israel and in Hungary. The first case study focuses on two lithotypes from Israel, both of them are biocalcirudite-calcarenite with high amount of bioclasts. Abundance of open stylolites filled partially with organic matter and minor amounts of clays exist in the first lithotype with cream colour. The second lithotype has grey colour and contains organic matter and pyrite dispersed throughout the stone and more concentrated within the stylolites along with clay and dolomite crystal. Both lithotypes exhibit signs of decay just after a few years of exposure. The first studied Hungarian limestone is a red Jurassic carbonate (ammonitico rosso type) that was formed in pelagic marine environment. This wackestone contains abundant pelagic microfossils. The limestone has been used from Roman period in Central Europe in Hungary, Romania and Poland. The stylolites are seen as darker bedding parallel seams containing minor amounts of clay and hematite. Small amount of clay is also found in isolated nodules. The second Hungarian lithotype is also a Jurassic limestone which contains less clay than the previous one. This yellowish-white limestone is strongly cemented and contains red intersecting stylolites that do not follow the bedding planes or stratification. The main aim of this study is to understand and evaluate the damage mechanism of different stylolitic limestones. Samples were exposed to multiple thermal and wet

  15. Current Population Status of the Endangered Endemic Subspecies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on current population status, sex ratio and age structures of Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) was carried out during 2009/2010 in Maze National Park. Total count method was used in an area of 220 km2 using well trained park scouts based on silent detection. There were 372 individuals ...

  16. Neutron activation analysis of limestone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.; Van Zelst, L.

    1977-01-01

    The elemental composition of samples from limestone objects were determined by neutron activation analysis to investigate whether this technique can be used to distinguish between objects made of limestone from different sources. Samples weighing between 0.2-2 grams were obtained by drilling from a series of ancient Egyptian and medieval Spanish objects. Analysis was performed on aliquots varying in weight from 40-100 milligrams. The following elements were determined quantitatively: Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Hf, Th, Ta, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn. The data on Egyptian limestones indicate that, because of the inhomogeneous nature of the stone, 0.2-2 gram samples may not be representative of an entire object. Nevertheless, multivariate statistical methods produced a clear distinction between objects originating from the Luxor area (ancient Thebes) and objects found north of Luxor. The Spanish limestone studied appeared to be more homogeneous. Samples from stylistically related objects have similar elemental compositions while relative large differences were observed between objects having no relationship other than the common provenance of medieval Spain. (orig.) [de

  17. Rinorea calcicola (Violaceae), an endangered new species from south-eastern Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van R.; Wieringa, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rinorea calcicola, endemic to south-eastern Gabon, is described as a new species. Its most striking characteristic is the laminate fruit, a character so far only known for R. zenkeri. Rinorea calcicola has a limited distribution and appears to be restricted to limestone outcroppings. We have

  18. Rainwater quality improvement using zeolite, activated carbon, limestone and preheated 400°C limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources of clean water have decreased significantly in recent years, one of the reasons is water pollution. Utilization of rainwater as clean water resource is among the best option, especially in big cities like Jakarta. Excessive rainwater during wet season can be saved and used as the source of clean water during dry seasons. However, rainwater contains some pollutants, thus suitable treatment method should be utilized to improve its quality as clean water for daily needs. This study compared the effectiveness of zeolite, limestone, activated carbon and preheated 400°C limestone as additive to improve the rainwater quality. Results show that both limestone and preheated 400°C limestone improve all the parameters observed, meanwhile both activated carbon and zeolite had shown to have detrimental effect on water conductivity.

  19. Effect of limestone particle size on bone quality characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of different limestone particle sizes in layer diets on bone quality characteristics at end-of-lay hens. Calcitic limestone (360 g Ca/kg DM) that is extensively used in commercial poultry diets was obtained from a specific South African source. Limestone particles were graded as ...

  20. Passive acoustic monitoring of the decline of Mexico's critically endangered vaquita

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo-Legorreta, Armando; Cardenas-Hinojosa, Gustavo; Nieto-Garcia, Edwyna; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Hoef, Jay Ver; Moore, Jeffrey; Tregenza, Nicholas; Barlow, Jay; Gerrodette, Tim; Thomas, Len; Taylor, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Different institutions and agencies have provided funding during the development and implementation of the acoustic monitoring program. The vaquita (Phocoena sinus) is the world's most endangered marine mammal with ≈245 individuals remaining in 2008. This species of porpoise is endemic to the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, and has historically suffered population declines from unsustainable bycatch in gillnets. An illegal gillnet fishery for an endangered fish, the totoaba (Totoaba m...

  1. Consolidation of weathered limestone using nanolime

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Giovanni Luca; Morgan, Deborah; Odgers, David; Henry, Alison; Allen, Mollie; Ball, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Limestone sourced from Salisbury Cathedral and Bath Abbey (UK) was treated with commercially available nanolime of concentration 25 g/l. The response of the stones to the treatment was studied using a variety of analysis techniques including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, drilling resistance measurement and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Weathered and non-weathered surfaces of both types of stones were compared. All the specimens were characterised before and after the treatment to ...

  2. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  3. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  4. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  5. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  6. Calcium Oxalate: A Surface Treatment for Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tody M. Cezar

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the artificially induced surface conversion of calcium carbonate to the more durable calcium oxalate. Extensive research is being carried out on wall paintings and marble sculpture at the Opicificio delle Pietre Dure e Laboratori di Restauro in Florence, Encouraged by their work, I have researched the effectiveness of the conversion on English limestones. The treated samples have been compared to untreated samples for appearance, hardness, resistance to acid and alkali, porosity, and durability. The results have been assessed considering ease of use, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the treatment.

  7. Catalytic and Gas-Solid Reactions Involving HCN over Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    In coal-fired combustion systems solid calcium species may be present as ash components or limestone added to the combustion chamber. In this study heterogeneous reactions involving HCN over seven different limestones were investigated in a laboratory fixed-bed quartz reactor at 873-1,173 K....... The results indicate that heterogeneous oxidation of HCN is important in calciners and fluidized-bed combustors with limestone addition or when burning coals with an ash with a high catalytic activity....

  8. Adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization process - an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobley, J.D.; Chang, J.C.S.

    1981-12-01

    Adipic acid, when used as an additive in a limestone FGD system, greatly increases both SO/sub 2/ removal and limestone utilization. Most existing limestone scrubbers would benefit from adipic acid addition without major process changes. No significant operating problems or adverse environmental impacts have been identified. The adipic acid enhanced system is economically attractive. Waste dibasic acids and glycolic acid appear to provide benefits similar to adipic acid at a lower cost.

  9. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  10. Mechanical Analysis Of Limestone In Jaya, Lhong, And Lhoknga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihan .

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research about mechanical analysis of limestone in District Jaya, Lhong, and Lhoknga has been done from Dec. 2011 to Mei 2012. This study aim is to classify the limestones based on physical and mechanical tests as well as identify opportunities limestone utilization in accordance with the SII 0378-80 as a condition of quality natural stone for building. Research have been done by testing compressive strength, modulus Young, wear, specific gravity, porosity, and absorption. The result shows that the limestones are qualified natural stone for building the foundation, curbstone, stone and ornamental stone or paste.

  11. Modeling contaminant plumes in fractured limestone aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Brauns, Bentje; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    Determining the fate and transport of contaminant plumes from contaminated sites in limestone aquifers is important because they are a major drinking water resource. This is challenging because they are often heavily fractured and contain chert layers and nodules, resulting in a complex transport...... model. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to identify and employ suitable models to advance the conceptual understanding and as decision support tools for risk assessment and the planning of remedial actions....... behavior. Improved conceptual models are needed for this type of site. Here conceptual models are developed by combining numerical models with field data. Several types of fracture flow and transport models are available for the modeling of contaminant transport in fractured media. These include...... the established approaches of the equivalent porous medium, discrete fracture and dual continuum models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for contaminant plume migration in limestone geologies. Our goal was to develop and evaluate approaches for modeling the transport of dissolved contaminant...

  12. 76 FR 74778 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    .... 16439] Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and...

  13. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...-XA086 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit...

  14. 76 FR 1405 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-XA128 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five-year permit... above- named organization. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered...

  15. 76 FR 2348 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    .... 15596] Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher has been...

  16. Spontaneous succession in limestone quarries as an effective restoration tool for endangered arthropods and plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, R.; Kadlec, T.; Karešová, P.; Spitzer, L.; Kočárek, P.; Malenovský, I.; Baňař, P.; Tuf, I.H.; Hejda, Martin; Konvička, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2010), s. 139-147 ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GD206/08/H049; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia(CZ) SGA2008/005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : artificial biotopes * biodiversity conservation * landscape restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.970, year: 2010

  17. The Endemic Treponematoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The agents of human treponematoses include four closely related members of the genus Treponema: three subspecies of Treponema pallidum plus Treponema carateum. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum causes venereal syphilis, while T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, and T. carateum are the agents of the endemic treponematoses yaws, bejel (or endemic syphilis), and pinta, respectively. All human treponematoses share remarkable similarities in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, consistent with the high genetic and antigenic relatedness of their etiological agents. Distinctive features have been identified in terms of age of acquisition, most common mode of transmission, and capacity for invasion of the central nervous system and fetus, although the accuracy of these purported differences is debated among investigators and no biological basis for these differences has been identified to date. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially set a goal for yaws eradication by 2020. This challenging but potentially feasible endeavor is favored by the adoption of oral azithromycin for mass treatment and the currently focused distribution of yaws and endemic treponematoses and has revived global interest in these fascinating diseases and their causative agents. PMID:24396138

  18. The Portuguese Lioz, a Monumental Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Zenaide

    2017-04-01

    Lioz is a microcrystalline limestone which occurs in Portugal and outcrops in the Lisbon area and its neighboring counties Oeiras, Pero Pinheiro, Lameiras. The rock is whitish to light and dark pink and contains 120 million years old rudists fossils. This fossiliferous content imprints a decorative aspect to the rock contributing to its very wide use as construction material and its favorite use in churches and official monuments making it the Royal Stone in Portugal along the XVII and XVIII centuries. Lisbon has the best exposition of Lioz as a fundamental stone in several monuments, the best examples being the Jeronimos Monastery, the Belém Tower, the Cultural Center in Belém and many old churches spread in Lisbon area. Among the latter the Jesuit Church of São Roque is a special example. The fact that the rock stratigraphic sequence allows the different rock colors as white, light and dark pink and a yellow facies variety in a local occurrence (Negrais yellow) makes it a special source for decorative patterns that can be found in a few churches in Lisbon, Évora, Mafra exhibiting "embutidos" technique, of indian origin and inspired on contemporaneous Italian churches. Mafra is the place where a monumental architectural set, composed by three integrated constructions, was built in the XVIII century by king D.João V using Lioz limestone as the main rock material, in all available colors. Along the XVII and XVIII centuries, the rock was transported to some portuguese colonies, mainly as ballast to improve the navigability of the boats, and used at the destinations as construction material for monuments, official buildings and churches. Brazil and especially Salvador, in Bahia, is the best example of that, where Lioz is beautifully exposed in monuments and as true art in many churches where the Portuguese or Italian influences are very strong. All these facts make the Portuguese Lioz Limestone as very representative of the Heritage present in Portugal and its

  19. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Á. C.; Carrascal, Luis M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.

    2018-01-01

    [ES] Striking resilience of an island–endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch. Evidence regarding population trends of endangered species in special protection areas and their recovery ability from catastrophic disturbances is scarce. We assessed the population trend of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla polatzeki), a habitat specialist endemic to the pine forest of Inagua in the Canary Islands, following a devastating wildfire in July 2007. ...

  20. Litho-facies changes in Ewekoro limestone using Schlumberger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geoelectric investigations of litho-facies changes in Ewekoro limestone were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding technique to delineate the vertical and lateral limestone deposit based on maximum current electrode separation of 1.0 km. The data was interpreted using conventional partial ...

  1. Exploration for limestone deposit at Onigbedu, South–Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedele Kayode F.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Onigbedu limestone deposit was investigated using the aeromagnetic data, resistivity soundings and borings with the aim of characterizing the limestone deposit and estimating its reserves. The subsurface structural features and depth to basement were identified with the analysis of aeromagnetic data. Twenty nine boreholes were drilled for subsurface appraisal and correlation of the limestone deposit. Eighty nine Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES were acquired using the Schlumberger array. The results showed NE-SW trending lineaments that segmented the limestone. Depth to basement varied from 144.2 m to 1090 m. The VES results showed four to six layers indicating the topsoil (7-315 Ωm, clay (2-25 Ωm, shale (6-31 Ωm, limestone (20-223 Ωm, sandstone (>200 Ωm and sandy materials. The VES results correlated well with the lithological unit delineated from the borehole. The overburden thickness ranged from 3.3 m to 28 m, while the limestone thickness varies between 18.1 m and 48.3 m. The limestone reserve was estimated at 1.9 × 109 t. This study concluded that the study area had vast occurrence of the limestone deposits, which would be of economic importance, if exploited.

  2. The use of limestone powder as an alternative cement replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research paper examines the effects of partial substitution of Portland cement clinker with limestone addition on the physical and chemical properties of cement paste and hardened mortar in two ranges of blain fineness values. Laboratory tests were conducted on limestone and clinker samples before used for the ...

  3. Short Communication: Comparative effect of snail shell, limestone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Comparative effect of snail shell, limestone and oyster shell as sources of dietary calcium on performance and egg quality characteristics of laying. ... egg production, internal and external qualities of eggs of hens. The 6-week ... Key words: Laying hens, oyster shell, limestone, snail shell, egg quality ...

  4. Geochemistry of the paleocene limestones of ewekoro formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemistry of the paleocene limestones of ewekoro formation, eastern Dahomey Basin, southwestern Nigeria: implication on provenance and depositional ... Ratios of La/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co, Th/Cr, Cr/Th and Th/Sc suggested that the terrigenous inclusions in these limestones were derived mainly from intermediate to felsic ...

  5. Chemical Analysis of Some Limestone Samples from the Middle Belt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Chemical analysis of fifteen (15) limestone samples, 13 of which were locally sourced, was carried out using gravimetric as well as flame emission and uv- visible spectroscopic methods. The range of parameters ... and some other filler applications. Keywords: Industrial, Ink, Limestone, Local Source, Spectroscopy.

  6. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A. [Lab. de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs-sur-Marne (France); Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  7. Kinetic Study of Calcination of Jakura Limestone Using Power Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigation into kinetics of calcinations of some large commercial deposits of limestone in Nigeria. The study is aimed at finding kinetic parameters for the purpose of energy saving, lime kiln design, modeling and simulation of lime kiln. In this study, kinetic of Jakura limestone calcination process using power rate law has ...

  8. Effect of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different limestone particle sizes had no effect on any of the tested egg production and eggshell quality parameters. These results suggested that larger particles limestone are not necessarily essential to provide sufficient Ca2+ to laying hens for egg production and eggshell quality at end-of-lay, provided that the dietary Ca ...

  9. Hydrogen Chloride Reaction with Lime and Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Jensen, Peter I.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of solid slaked lime and limestone for binding HCl from a gas phase has been investigated in the temperature range 60-1000 °C. The binding capacity is largest in the range 500-600 °C. However, for slaked lime in the presence of water, a large binding capacity is observed also below 150...... °C. This is ascribed to the formation of a partially liquid product phase. At temperatures exceeding 500 °C the binding capacity is limited by chemical equilibrium between gas and solid. For the range of properties studied the binding capacity is independent of particle size and only depends slightly...... on specific surface area. The kinetics of the binding reaction is governed by diffusion in the solid phase which is proved to follow an unreacted grain-core model. Diffusion coefficient for mass transport in the grain is reported for the temperature range 80-250 °C....

  10. Carabidae of an Active Limestone Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Nováková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, a research was conducted on Carabid beetles in the active limestone quarry of Mokrá-Horákov. Collections were carried out on quarry terraces and quarry edges using pitfall traps. A total of 37 species with a total number of 197 specimens were captured. The most abundant species was Cicindela sylvicola (34 specimens which is protected under Decree No. 395/1992 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 175/2006 Coll., other detected species protected by this Decree included C. campestris (28 specimens and Cylindera germanica (26 specimens which also belongs to the category of vulnerable under the Red List of Threatened Species of the Czech Republic. The quarry is mostly settled by eurytopic species preferring open habitats. Species that require unshaded habitats and species indifferent to shading occurred especially on the quarry terraces and on its outskirts. Species of shaded habitats were not reported.

  11. Field trial of a pulsed limestone diversion well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Denholm, C.; Dunn, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The use of limestone diversion wells to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) is well-known, but in many cases, acid neutralization is not as complete as would be desired. Reasons for this include channeling of the water through the limestone bed, and the slow reaction rate of the limestone gravel. A new approach to improve the performance of the diversion well was tested in the field at the Jennings Environmental Education Center, near Slippery Rock, PA. In this approach, a finer size distribution of limestone was used so as to allow fluidization of the limestone bed, thus eliminating channeling and increasing particle surface area for faster reaction rates. Also, water flow was regulated through the use of a dosing siphon, so that consistent fluidization of the limestone sand could be achieved. Testing began late in the summer of 2010, and continued through November of 2011. Initial system performance during the 2010 field season was good, with the production of net alkaline water, but hydraulic problems involving air release and limestone sand retention were observed. In the summer of 2011, a finer size of limestone sand was procured for use in the system. This material fluidized more readily, but acid neutralization tapered off after several days. Subsequent observations indicated that the hydraulics of the system was compromised by the formation of iron oxides in the pipe leading to the limestone bed, which affected water distribution and flow through the bed. Although results from the field trial were mixed, it is believed that without the formation of iron oxides and plugging of the pipe, better acid neutralization and treatment would have occurred. Further tests are being considered using a different hydraulic configuration for the limestone sand fluidized bed.

  12. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  13. Status assessment of the Saddlepeak Dewflower (Murdannia saddlepeakensis Ramana & Nandikar: Commelinaceae: an endemic spiderwort plant of Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Kumar Tagore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution and threat assessment of Murdannia saddlepeakensis Ramana & Nandikar (Commelinaceae, an endemic plant of Saddle Peak National Park, northern Andaman is presented here.  The data available from field surveys indicate that this species is Critically Endangered according to the 2011 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. 

  14. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLANC, A.; HOLMES, L.L.; HARBOTTLE, G.

    1998-01-01

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries

  15. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt - final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using : specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several districts have had placement issues : and premature failures at the beginning of 2010....

  16. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-06-11

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  17. Lutetian limestones in the Paris region: Petrographic and compositional examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A. [Lab. de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs-sur-Marne (France); Holmes, L.L.; Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists have investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemistry whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  18. Nuevas localidades y descripción del hábitat de la rana Lithobates johni, especie endémica en peligro de extinción New records and description of the habitat for the endangered endemic frog Lithobates johni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ismael Campos-Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se dan a conocer 2 localidades nuevas para Lithobates johni en el estado de Puebla, ubicadas dentro de la porción alta de la cuenca del río Tecolutla. Adicionalmente se describen las características de calidad del agua y microhábitat de las nuevas localidades de la especie.In this paper we provide 2 new records of the endemic frog Lithobates johni from the Mexican State of Puebla. These records are within the Upper Basin of Rio Tecolutla. Additionally, we describe the water quality and microhabitat of the new localities for this species.

  19. A Metagenomic Survey of Limestone Hill in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y. W.; Li, K. Y.; Chen, Y. W.; Huang, T. Y.; Chen, W. J.; Shih, Y. J.; Chen, J. S.; Fan, C. W.; Hsu, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    The limestone of Narro-Sky in Tainliao, Taiwan is of Pleistocene reef limestones interbedded in clastic layers that covered the Takangshan anticlines. Understanding how microbial relative abundance was changed in response to changes of environmental factors may contribute to better comprehension of roles that microorganisms play in altering the landscape structures. In this study, microorganisms growing on the wall of limestone, in the water dripping from the limestone wall and of soil underneath the wall were collected from different locations where the environmental factors such as daytime illumination, humidity, or pH are different. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to examine the compositions and richness of microbial community. The metagenomics were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to analyze relative abundance, diversities and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). Our results showed the soil sample has the highest alpha diversity while water sample has the lowest. Four major phyla, which are Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria, account for 80 % of total microbial biomass in all groups. Cyanobacteria were found most abundantly in limestone wall instead of water or soil of weathering limestone. The PCoA dimensional patterns of each phylum showed a trace of microbial community dynamic changes, which might be affected by environmental factors. This study provides the insights to understand how environmental factors worked together with microbial community to shape landscape structures.

  20. Converting SDAP into gypsum in a wet limestone scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, F. [Faelleskemikerne, Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The ELSAM power pool has an installed electrical capacity of approx. 5 GW{sub e}, mainly firing import coal. The major base load units are equipped with desulphurization units and three different desulphurization technologies are used: the wet limestone gypsum process, the spray dry absorption process and a sulphuric acid process. Gypsum and sulphuric acid are commercialized, whereas it has been difficult to utilize the spray dry absorption product (SDAP). The main constituents of SDAP are calcium sulphide, calcium chloride, hydrated lime and impurities mainly originating from fly ash. Sulphide can be oxidized into sulphate in acidic solution - the reaction is utilized in the wet limestone gypsum process - and the possibility of using any spare capacity in the wet limestone gypsum units to oxidize the sulphide content of SDAP into sulphate and produce usable gypsum has been investigated in the laboratory and in a 400 MW{sub e} equivalent wet limestone unit. The limestone inhibition effect of the addition of SDAP is currently being studied in the laboratory in order to determine the effect of different SDAP types (plant/coal sources) on limestone reactivity before further long-term full-scale tests are performed and permanent use of the process planned. (EG)

  1. Influence of limestone on the hydration of Portland cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Le Saout, Gwenn; Gallucci, Emmanuel; Scrivener, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the presence of limestone on the hydration of Portland cement was investigated. Blending of Portland cement with limestone was found to influence the hydrate assemblage of the hydrated cement. Thermodynamic calculations as well as experimental observations indicated that in the presence of limestone, monocarbonate instead of monosulfate was stable. Thermodynamic modelling showed that the stabilisation of monocarbonate in the presence of limestone indirectly stabilised ettringite leading to a corresponding increase of the total volume of the hydrate phase and a decrease of porosity. The measured difference in porosity between the 'limestone-free' cement, which contained less than 0.3% CO 2 , and a cement containing 4% limestone, however, was much smaller than calculated. Coupling of thermodynamic modelling with a set of kinetic equations which described the dissolution of the clinker, predicted quantitatively the amount of hydrates. The quantities of ettringite, portlandite and amorphous phase as determined by TGA and XRD agreed well with the calculated amounts of these phases after different periods of time. The findings in this paper show that changes in the bulk composition of hydrating cements can be followed by coupled thermodynamic models. Comparison between experimental and modelled data helps to understand in more detail the dominating processes during cement hydration

  2. Thermal properties of the Cobourg Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michelle

    The underground storage of used nuclear fuel in Deep Geologic Repositories (DGRs) has been a subject of research in Canada for decades. One important technical aspect of repository design is the accommodation of the mechanical impacts of thermal inputs (heating) from the fuel as it goes through the remainder of its life cycle. Placement room spacing, a major factor in project cost, will be determined by the ability of the host rock to dissipate heat. The thermal conductivity and linear thermal expansion will determine the evolution of the temperature and thermally-induced stress fields. Thermal processes must be well understood to design a successful DGR. This thesis examines the thermal properties of rocks, how they are influenced by factors such as temperature, pressure, mineralogy, porosity, and saturation; and common methods for calculating and/or measuring these properties. A brief overview of thermal and thermally-coupled processes in the context of DGRs demonstrates the degree to which they would impact design, construction, and operation of these critical structures. Several case histories of major in situ heating experiments are reviewed to determine how the lessons learned could be applied to a Canadian Underground Demonstration Facility (UDF). A mineralogy investigation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examines samples of the Cobourg Limestone from the Bowmanville and Bruce sites, and demonstrates geographical variability within the Cobourg Formation. The thermal properties of samples from the Bowmanville site are determined. A divided bar apparatus was constructed and used to measure thermal conductivity. The temperature measurement component of the divided bar apparatus was used to measure linear thermal expansion. Finally, the past investigations into the thermal impact of a DGR are reviewed, and the implications of the laboratory testing results on similar analyses are discussed.

  3. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…

  4. Scoping endangered futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2017-01-01

    , in the imaginative politics of climatic projections. To rethink the resultant political aesthetics of climate change, the article maps out the visual, experiential, and affective forms in which endangered climatic futures come to saturate public culture. Such encounters, the article suggests, constitute inter-media...... events, drawing on scientific, artistic, and mass media registers, and embodied in what Karin Knorr Cetina call scoping devices of information and visualization, involving particular ‘fateful’ time transactions. These conceptual suggestions are illustrated and elaborated by drawing on auto...

  5. A systematic compilation of endemic flora in Nigeria for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endemic species with limited geographical ranges are more susceptible to extinction than widely ranging species, and effective conservation management of endemic species requires detailed knowledge of their status and distribution.  This study was conducted to assemble a comprehensive list of flora endemic to Nigeria. While earlier reports listed as many as 205 endemic plant species, only 91 species belonging to 44 families were found in this study, with Rubiaceae accounting for the highest number of species.  The list contains 23 trees, 26 herbs, 22 shrubs, 14 epiphytic orchids and bryophytes, three vines and three ferns.  The Oban Division of the Cross River National Park houses 41 endemic plants, while other notable locations for endemic flora include Eket, Naraguta, Degema, Idanre hills, Ukpon River Forest Reserve, Calabar and Anara Forest Reserve.  Only 15 of the endemic plants are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species version 2013.2, ranging from Vulnerable to Critically Endangered.

  6. Ecological Notes On The Floristic Composition And Endemic Species Of Saint Catherine Mountains, South Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Abdel-Raouf A. [عبد الرؤوف عبد الرحمن مصطفى; Kamel, Wafaa M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study is aimed at (1) giving complete list of all plant speciec growing in Saint Catherine mountains, (2) studying the relationship between species number and the amount of precipitation at the time of study (1992 -1994), and (3) reporting on the geographical distribution of the ten most endangered and endemic species in the study area. Presence / absence tests were applied to forty-five stands distributed in Saint Catherine mountains. Distribution and ecological data (including a...

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus, at two sites in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helianthus verticillatus, the whorled sunflower, is an endangered species endemic to only a few locations in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. This sunflower is an aggressive grower and attractive to both plant enthusiasts and pollinators with its multiple, small yellow flowers in late fall. There is...

  8. A tale of two cacti-the complex relationship between peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and endangered star cactus (Astrophytum asterias)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Terry; D. Price; J. Poole

    2007-01-01

    Astrophytum asterias, commonly called star cactus, is a federally listed endangered cactus endemic to the Tamaulipan thornscrub ecoregion of extreme southern Texas, USA, and Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Only three metapopulations totaling less than 4000 plants are presently known in Texas. Star cactus, known locally as “star peyote”, is highly...

  9. Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challe, J.F.X.; Price, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Tanzania is a wild orchid biodiversity hotspot and has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The wild orchids in the study are endemic and protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Every year, however, between 2.2 and 4.1 million orchid plants consumed in Zambia

  10. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  11. Low Genetic Diversity and Strong Geographical Structure of the Critically Endangered White-Headed Langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiran; Qiao, Yu; Pan, Wenshi; Yao, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Many Asian colobine monkey species are suffering from habitat destruction and population size decline. There is a great need to understand their genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for effective species conservation. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a Critically Endangered colobine species endemic to the limestone karst forests in southwestern China. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of 390 fecal samples from 40 social groups across the main distribution areas, which represented one-third of the total extant population. Only nine haplotypes and 10 polymorphic sites were identified, indicating remarkably low genetic diversity in the species. Using a subset of 77 samples from different individuals, we evaluated genetic variation, population structure, and population demographic history. We found very low values of haplotype diversity (h = 0.570 ± 0.056) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00323 ± 0.00044) in the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the mtDNA control region. Distribution of haplotypes displayed marked geographical pattern, with one population (Chongzuo, CZ) showing a complete lack of genetic diversity (having only one haplotype), whereas the other population (Fusui, FS) having all nine haplotypes. We detected strong population genetic structure among habit patches (ΦST = 0.375, P population size and modest population expansion in the last 2,000 years. Our results indicate different genetic diversity and possibly distinct population history for different local populations, and suggest that CZ and FS should be considered as one evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) and two management units (MUs) pending further investigation using nuclear markers.

  12. A new population of the endangered Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806) (Primates: Atelidae) in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ingberman, Bianca; Kaminski, Nicholas; Fusco-Costa, Roberto; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio

    2016-01-01

    The endangered southern muriqui or mono [Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806)], is a primate endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. One known extant population is found at the southern limit of its distribution, in the state of Paraná, where it is regionally classified as Critically Endangered. Here, we report on a new population in southern Brazil. Additionally, we express our concern about the conservation status of this species in Paraná, because both populations are in small, is...

  13. Characterization of Limestone as Raw Material to Hydrated Lime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem Hwidi, Rajeb; Nuraiti Tengku Izhar, Tengku; Saad, Farah Naemah Mohd

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, limestone is essentially important for the economic growth as raw materials in the industry sector. Nevertheless, a little attention was paid to the physical, chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties of the limestone using X-ray fluorescence (X-RF), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) respectively. Raw materials (limestone rocks) were collected from Bukit Keteri area, Chuping, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia. Lab crusher and lab sieved were utilized to prepare five different size of ground limestone at (75 µm, 150 µm, 225 µm, 300, and 425 µm) respectively. It is found that the main chemical composition of bulk limestone was Calcium oxide (CaO) at 97.58 wt.% and trace amount of MnO, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 at 0.02%, 0.35%, and 0.396% respectively. XRD diffractograms showed characteristic peaks of calcite and quartz. Furthermore, main FTIR absorption bands at 1,419, 874.08 and 712.20 cm-1 indicated the presence of calcite. The micrographs showed clearly the difference of samples particle size. Furthermore, EDS peaks of Ca, O, and C elements confirmed the presence of CaCO3 in the samples.

  14. The Army and the Endangered Species Act: Who's Endangering Whom?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diner, David N

    1993-01-01

    Mankind is causing a mass extinction of plant and animal species. The Army, as steward of 25 million acres of public lands, is being asked to play an increasingly decisive role in recovering endangered species...

  15. Radial Hydraulic Flow Testing of an Argillaceous Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Luc

    This thesis describes the use of both steady state and transient radial flow tests for determining the permeability of the argillaceous Lindsay Limestone. The results obtained from this research investigation are compared with data available in the literature for similar argillaceous limestones found in the Lindsay (Cobourg) formation. The efficiency and consistency of the transient and steady state results show computational modeling using finite element programs such as COMSOL Multiphysics(TM) can be used, under the appropriate meshing scheme, to analyse test results on low permeability geomaterials. The results give a permeability range between 1x10 -22 m2 to 1.68 x 10-19 m 2 with flow along the bedding plane under unconfined conditions. The permeability of the Lindsay Limestone is of importance in understanding and predicting radionuclide spread within a proposed Deep Ground Repository for storing radioactive waste.

  16. Initial kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Shang, Lei; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The initial kinetics of direct sulfation of Faxe Bryozo, a porous bryozoan limestone was studied in the temperature interval from 873 to 973 K in a pilot entrained flow reactor with very short reaction times (between 0.1 and 0.6 s). The initial conversion rate of the limestone - for conversions...... less than 0.3% - was observed to be significantly promoted by higher SO2 concentrations and lower CO2 concentrations, whereas 02 showed negligible influence. A mathematical model for the sulfation of limestone involving chemical reaction at calcite grain surfaces and solid-state diffusion of carbonate...... ions in calcite grains is established. The validity of the model is limited to the initial sulfation period, in which nucleation of the solid product calcium sulphate is not started. This theoretical reaction-diffusion model gives a good simulation of the initial kinetics of the direct sulfation...

  17. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  18. The Ançã limestones, Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinta-Ferreira, Mário; Gil Catarino, Lídia; Delgado Rodrigues, José

    2016-04-01

    Ançã is located in the Lusitanian Basin (western Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin), in the municipality of Cantanhede, close to Coimbra, Portugal. This constitutes the northernmost Dogger (Bajocian) limestone sequence in Portugal. The use of the Ançã limestones is documented since the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. It was used for the construction of houses, palaces, churches, fine sculptures, carving, paving and for the production of lime. These limestones vary from white and very soft varieties, with very high porosity used for sculpture and carving to white and hard varieties used for masonry and as aggregates and to white to bluish with low porosity and high strength varieties, mainly used for paving. The softer and whiter variety is worldwide known as Ançã Stone (Pedra de Ançã) exhibiting a porosity of 26-29 %. It became famous after being largely used by Coimbra most famous Renaissance sculptors like João de Ruão and Nicolau de Chanterenne. The Pedra de Ançã was used mainly in the region of Coimbra, but also in several other places in Portugal, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Brazil. Some examples of heritage in Coimbra using the Pedra de Ançã are the renaissance portal of the Saint Cross Church, the tombs of the first two Portuguese kings located in this church, the altar of the Saint Cross Church or of the Old Cathedral, or in sculptures at the University of Coimbra. It is quite prone to deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric agents and to soluble salts, mainly due to its high porosity. Deteriorated surfaces needing treatment constitute difficult conservation problems, especially when consolidation and protection treatments are required. The less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones (building constructed at the end of the XIX century with the less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones. Most of the traditional quarries are abandoned and those still in activity are mainly used to produce crushed aggregates, limestone

  19. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Limestone treatment systems can be effective for remediation of acidic mine drainage (AMD) that contains moderate concentrations of dissolved O2 , Fe3+ , or A13+ (1‐5 mg‐L‐1 ). Samples of water and limestone were collected periodically for 1 year at inflow, outflow, and intermediate points within underground, oxic limestone drains (OLDs) in Pennsylvania to evaluate the transport of dissolved metals and the effect of pH and Fe‐ and Al‐hydrolysis products on the rate of limestone dissolution. The influent was acidic and relatively dilute (pH 1 mg‐L‐1 ) but was near neutral (pH = 6.2‐7.0); Fe and Al decreased to less than 5% of influent concentrations. As pH increased near the inflow, hydrous Fe and Al oxides precipitated in the OLDs. The hydrous oxides, nominally Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3, were visible as loosely bound, orange‐yellow coatings on limestone near the inflow. As time elapsed, Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3 particles were transported downflow. During the first 6 months of the experiment, Mn 2+ was transported conservatively through the OLDs; however, during the second 6 months, concentrations of Mn in effluent decreased by about 50% relative to influent. The accumulation of hydrous oxides and elevated pH (>5) in the downflow part of the OLDs promoted sorption and coprecipitation of Mn as indicated by its enrichment relative to Fe in hydrous‐oxide particles and coatings on limestone. Despite thick (~1 mm) hydrous‐oxide coatings on limestone near the inflow, CaCO3 dissolution was more rapid near the inflow than at downflow points within the OLD where the limestone was not coated. The rate of limestone dissolution decreased with increased residence time, pH, and concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3‐ and decreased PCO2. The following overall reaction shows alkalinity as an ultimate product of the iron hydrolysis reaction in an OLD:Fe2+ + 0.25 O2 +CaCO3 + 2.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-where 2 moles of CaCO3 dissolve for each mole of Fe(OH)3 produced

  1. effect of limestone particle size on bone quality of layers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 41. Effect of limestone particle size on bone quality characteristics of hens at end-of-lay. F.H. de Witt. #. , N.P. Kuleile .... 18 g), were obtained from a commercial egg producer and randomly allocated to the three treatments (n. = 23). At 70 weeks of age, ...

  2. The Solnhofen Limestone: A stony heritage of many uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Kramar, Sabina; Cooper, Barry J.

    2016-04-01

    High above the valley of the River Altmühl (Bavaria, Germany), between Solnhofen to the west and Kelheim to the east, numerous quarries give access to thinly plated limestone from the Upper Jurassic, some 150 million years before the present. The main quarry areas lie around the town of Eichstätt and between the villages of Solnhofen, Langenaltheim and Mörnsheim. Here limestone slabs have been quarried for several hundred years, some even in Roman times. Solnhofen Limestone is famous worldwide; not only because it is a beautiful building stone of high quality, but also because of the exceptionally well-preserved fossils it contains -among them the early bird Archaeopteryx. The quarry industry between Solnhofen and Eichstätt has shaped a cultural landscape, with old and new quarries sunk into the plain and numerous spoil heaps rising above it, for the rock is not all economically useful. But many of the spoil heaps and the old quarries are environmentally protected as they provide a habitat for some rare plants and animals. It is not necessary to cut the Solnhofen Limestone with a saw: it is split by hand into thin and even slabs or sheets which are used for flagstones and wall covers, which since centuries are sold world-wide. Locally it also serves as roof tiles for traditional houses. Thick slabs of especially fine quality may be found near Solnhofen and Mörnsheim and are used for lithography printing.

  3. Flora of Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone in northeastern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; J. Jesus. Sanchez-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Transects were done in desertscrub on limestone to characterize the flora of the westernmost Chihuahuan Desert. Most of the sites (15) were in the Municipios of Agua Prieta and Naco in northeastern Sonora, with single sites near Ascensión, northwestern Chihuahua and east of Douglas in southeastern Arizona. A total of 236 taxa were recorded on transects. Dicot perennial...

  4. The use of Limestone Powder as an Alternative Cement Replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    cement productivity, reduced production cost and environmental protection with a significant reduction of CO2 and ... The use of limestone filler in combination with. Portland cement is a common practice in many countries in .... in plastic bags with a content of 1350 g. Water. Throughout the investigation, tap water supplied.

  5. The Influence of Combustion-derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, J.B.; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The wet deposition of combustion-derived atmospheric pollutant species, on to freshly cut or diesel-smoked Portland and Monks Park limestone and marble samples, was carried out in a laboratory 'wetting and drying' salt spray chamber for 84 days. Along with the effect of CO2-equilibrated de......-ionized water at pH 5.5, for clean-rain base-line data, the relative effects of the Cl-, SO42- and NO3- components (5.2, 8.6 and 3.0 mg 1(-1) respectively) of an artificial acid-rain solution were studied. Using spray run-off solution rates of 0.2 mi cm(-2), day(-1) and pH values of 5.5 and 3.8, the work...... limestones, respectively. Thus the water and hydrogen ion loading effects are significant, as well as the limestone type, but the nature of the anion is not, under the given wetting and drying regime. Further work showed that the increased resistance of marble over that of limestone, to calcium loss...

  6. Melitidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from anchihaline limestone caves in New Caledonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Four new species of Melitidae (Amphipoda) are described from anchihaline limestone caves in New Caledonia. Three species are classified with Josephosella Ruffo, 1985 (J. microps n. sp., J. debilis n. sp., and J. proiecta n. sp.) and a new genus, Caledopisa, is erected for the fourth species, C.

  7. Limestone rocks analysis by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo M, G.; Ponce R, R.; Vazquez J, J.

    1996-01-01

    By request of a private company, employing basically X-ray fluorescence analysis (X RF), was established a fast and accurate method for the analysis of the major elements in limestone rocks. Additionally, for complementing analysis was determined by ion chromatography, the chlorides appearance and by atomic absorption of sodium. By gravimetry, was determined the losses by ignition and the alpha quartz. (Author)

  8. Sodium sesquicarbonate (Akang) and limestone as catalysts for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of monoglycerides from palm and palm kernel oils were carried out using sodium sesquicarbonate (akang) and lime stone as catalysts.The results showed that the maximum monoglyceride formed is in the range of 49–57% of the fatty product for the limestone catalyst and 78 – 92% for the sodium ...

  9. The age of the Nodular Limestone Formation (Late Cretaceous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    67

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... Stratigraphy and Invertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory, Center of Advanced Study, Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. *corresponding author - email: dbpathak@yahoo.com. Abstract. The age of the marine Nodular Limestone Formation of the Bagh Group is refined ...

  10. Kinetic Study of Calcination of Jakura Limestone Using Power Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The calcination of Jakura limestone was also found to be first order reaction with respect to CaCO3 concentration having average regression coefficient of 0.99. The temperature dependent terms were found using Arrhenius law and it was observed that the reaction temperature has a direct effect on the rate of reaction.

  11. influence of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS

    Sixty nine, individual caged Lohmann-Silver pullets, 17 weeks of age, were randomly ... Keywords: Lohmann-Silver, feed efficiency, egg weight, eggshell thickness, calcification. # Corresponding ... limestone in the acidic environment of the gizzard would provide more available ionic calcium (Ca2+) during night-time, which ...

  12. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  13. Holocene limestones of part of the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    Dredging on the western continental shelf of India has shown that the most common rock types outcropping on the irregular topography of the outer shelf (70-90 m) are algal limestones and shelly limestones containing superficial ooids and pelletoids...

  14. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, `resources' and `climate change' categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  15. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, ‘resources’ and ‘climate change’ categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  16. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Rona Limestone, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Cuna

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of limestones provide criteria for the evaluation of the depositional environment. For Jurassic and younger samples, the best discrimination between marine and fresh-water limestones is given by Z parameter, calculated as a linear correlation between δ13C and δ18O (‰ PDB. Rona Limestone (Upper Paleocene - Lower Eocene, outcropping on a small area in NW Transylvania (Meseş area is a local lacustrine facies. There, it divides Jibou Formation into the Lower Red Member and the Upper Variegated Member, respectively. Recently, a sequence containing a marine nannoplankton assemblage was identified in the base of Rona deposits. The main goal of our study was to characterize, based on the isotopic record, the primary environment of formation of the deposit, as well as that in which some diagenetic processes (the formation of dolomite and of green clay around the siliceous chert nodules took place. Ten samples representing limestones, dolomitic limestone, marls and the green carbonate-rich clay were studied from petrographical and mineralogical points of view, and the carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios from the carbonate (calcite component were measured. In conclusion, it was found that the procedure of extraction of CO2 we used enabled the discrimination between the isotopic prints of calcite vs. dolomite. This pleads for considering our results as a primary isotopic pattern in the bulk rock. The oxygen and carbon isotope data indicate a fresh-water depositional environment with Z<120. The δ13C mean value (-4.96 ‰ PDB is, generally, representative for fresh-water carbonates of the Tertiary period. The same environment characterized also the formation of carbonates within the green clay.

  17. Phylogenetic analyses of Begonia sect. Coelocentrum and allied limestone species of China shed light on the evolution of Sino-Vietnamese karst flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Fang; Leong, Wai-Chao; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Repin, Rimi; Kiew, Ruth; Liu, Yan; Peng, Ching-I

    2014-12-01

    The picturesque limestone karsts across the Sino-Vietnamese border are renowned biodiversity hotspot, distinguished for extremely high endemism of calciphilous plants restricted to caves and cave-like microhabitats that have functioned as biological refugia on the otherwise harsh habitats. To understand evolutionary mechanisms underlying the splendid limestone flora, dated phylogeny is reconstructed for Asian Begonia, a species-rich genus on limestone substrates represented by no less than 60 species in southern China, using DNA sequences of nrITS and chloroplast rpL16 intron. The sampling includes 94 Begonia species encompassing most major Asian clades with a special emphasized on Chinese species. Except for two tuberous deciduous species and a species with upright stems, a majority of Sino-Vietnamese limestone Begonia (SVLB), including sect. Coelocentrum (19 species sampled) and five species of sect. Diploclinium, Leprosae, and Petermannia, are rhizomatous and grouped in a strongly supported and yet internally poorly resolved clade (Clade SVLB), suggesting a single evolutionary origin of the adaptation to limestone substrates by rhizomatous species, subsequent species radiation, and a strong tendency to retain their ancestral niche. Divergence-time estimates indicate a late Miocene diversification of Clade SVLB, coinciding with the onset of the East Asian monsoon and the period of extensive karstification in the area. Based on our phylogenetic study, Begonia sect. Coelocentrum is recircumscribed and expanded to include other members of the Clade SVLB (sect. Diploclinium: B. cavaleriei, B. pulvinifera, and B. wangii; sect. Leprosae: B. cylindrica and B. leprosa; sect. Petermannia: B. sinofloribunda). Because species of Clade SVLB have strong niche conservatism to retain in their ancestral habitats in cave-like microhabitats and Begonia are generally poor dispersers prone to diversify allopatrically, we propose that extensive and continuous karstification of the

  18. Novelties in Begonia sect. Coelocentrum: B. longgangensis and B. ferox from limestone areas in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Yang, Hsun-An; Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Huang, Yu-Song; Wu, Wang-Hui; Liu, Yan

    2013-12-01

    The spectacular karst limestone landscape in Guangxi harbors high-level diversity and endemism of Begonia species, especially those of sect. Coelocentrum. In continuation of our studies in this area, we report the discovery of two attractive new species from southwestern Guangxi: Begonia longgangensis and B. ferox. Begonia longgangensis resembles B. liuyanii, also from Longgang Nature Reserve, in the broadly ovate to suborbicular leaf blade, differing by the much smaller leaves, subglabrous leaf surface, pink flowers, dichasial cymes and the remarkably long stolons sent out from rhizomes. Unexpectedly, both diploid (2n = 30) and triploid counts (2n = 45) were observed in plants collected from the type locality. Begonia ferox probably has the most prominent bullate leaves for the genus. In this aspect, it is similar to B. nahangensis reported from northern Vietnam recently, but is readily distinguishable by the ovate, chartaceous leaves with an acuminate apex; tomentose peduncle not exceeding petioles; and the much larger stature in vegetative parts. A diploid count of 2n = 30 was determined for this unique new species. All available data support the recognition of the two new species. Begonia longgangensis has remarkably long stolons and B. ferox is characterized by the prominent bullate leaves. Line drawings, color plates and comparisons are provided to aid in identification of the novelties.

  19. Soil microbial community profiles and functional diversity in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Dzantor, E. Kudjo; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Rock outcrop ecosystems, such as limestone cedar glades (LCGs), are known for their rare and endemic plant species adapted to high levels of abiotic stress. Soils in LCGs are thin (function of terrestrial ecosystems. SMC profiles and functional diversity were characterized in LCGs using community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and plate-dilution frequency assays (PDFA). Most-probable number (MPN) estimates and microbial substrate-utilization diversity (H) were positively related to soil thickness, soil organic matter (OM), soil water content, and vegetation density, and were diminished in alkaline soil relative to circumneutral soil. Soil nitrate showed no relationship to SMCs, suggesting lack of N-limitation. Canonical correlation analysis indicated strong correlations between microbial CLPP patterns and several physical and chemical properties of soil, primarily temperature at the ground surface and at 4-cm depth, and secondarily soil-water content, enabling differentiation by season. Thus, it was demonstrated that several well-described abiotic determinants of plant community structure in this ecosystem are also reflected in SMC profiles.

  20. Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Sibrell, P.L.; Belkin, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Armoring of limestone is a common cause of failure in limestone-based acid-mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems. Limestone is the least expensive material available for acid neutralization, but is not typically recommended for highly acidic, Fe-rich waters due to armoring with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings. A new AMD treatment technology that uses CO2 in a pulsed limestone bed reactor minimizes armor formation and enhances limestone reaction with AMD. Limestone was characterized before and after treatment with constant flow and with the new pulsed limestone bed process using AMD from an inactive coal mine in Pennsylvania (pH = 2.9, Fe = 150 mg/l, acidity = 1000 mg/l CaCO3). In constant flow experiments, limestone is completely armored with reddish-colored ochre within 48 h of contact in a fluidized bed reactor. Effluent pH initially increased from the inflow pH of 2.9 to over 7, but then decreased to 6 during operation. Limestone removed from a pulsed bed pilot plant is a mixture of unarmored, rounded and etched limestone grains and partially armored limestone and refractory mineral grains (dolomite, pyrite). The ???30% of the residual grains in the pulsed flow reactor that are armored have thicker (50- to 100-??m), more aluminous coatings and lack the gypsum rind that develops in the constant flow experiment. Aluminium-rich zones developed in the interior parts of armor rims in both the constant flow and pulsed limestone bed experiments in response to pH changes at the solid/solution interface. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for each...

  2. 3 CFR - The Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  3. Durability assessment of limestone subjected to surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Charalambous, Cleopatra; Ioannou, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Weathering is inevitable in existing limestone structures due to their exposure to fluctuating and aggressive environmental conditions, such as wetting/drying, and the presence of salts. Therefore, conservation treatments are often deemed necessary in order to prevent or at least delay the progress of deterioration and to strengthen weathered stones. This paper focuses on the effect of an ethanol-based laboratory produced water repellent and three water-based commercial products (water repellent, pure acrylic emulsion mixed with a water repellent with thermal insulation properties and consolidant) on the durability and other properties of three different types of limestone (massive chalk, calcarenite and bioclastic limestone). All test specimens were subjected to micro-destructive cutting tests before/after the application of the aforementioned surface treatments to investigate changes in resistance to cutting on the area close to the treated surface. They were also subjected to two cycles of salt contamination with 20% w/w Na2SO4•10H2O solution by capillary absorption through their bottom face, until 2 mm of pore space was theoretically filled with salt crystals. Drying after salt contamination took place at 70 °C. The results of the micro-destructive cutting tests showed increases in cutting resistance at the topmost area (1-2 mm below the treated surface) of the massive chalk and the calcarenite, but no significant changes in the case of the rather non-homogeneous bioclastic limestone. At the same time, the performance of each surface treatment varied from lithotype to lithotype. The laboratory produced water repellent showed a generally better performance; no signs of damage were detected due to the formation of salt crystals within the pores of the materials, i.e. subflorescence, when applied on the calcarenite and the bioclastic limestone. Very poor performance was observed for all treatments when applied on the massive chalk. This accounted for (i

  4. Geoecological characteristics of plant endemism in the Balkan part of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Bojan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex and heterogeneous geographical characteristics, Serbia is represented by a diverse flora with many endemic taxa of vascular plants. Investigation of plant endemics stored in the national herbaria and perusal of extensive literature sources indicate that 46 taxa occur exclusively within the political borders of the Republic of Serbia, while 104 taxa can also be found in adjacent countries of the Balkan Peninsula. These national and subendemics are presented in the form of a list together with their ecological and geographical characteristics. Centres of endemism are located in the southern and eastern regions of Serbia and on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. The majority of taxa are associated with mountainous regions of Kosovo, Metohija, and Central Serbia, at medium elevations between 500 and 1500 m. Most of the national endemics occur on limestones and dolomites and on soils such as cambisols, lithosols, and rankers. They are mainly under the influence of a modified mountain and moderately continental climate.

  5. Innovative Field Investigations in Limestone using a FACT-FLUTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Barrett Sørensen, Mie; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2015-01-01

    from the Water-FLUTe multilevels (Janniche et al. 2013 and 2013b) at the site. Method and technique The FLUTe Activated Carbon Technique was described e.g. in Janniche et al. (2013). The sorption of chlorinated ethenes on activated carbon was determined in laboratory experiments as described...... in Sørensen et al. (2014) to obtain equilibrium sorption coefficients (Kd) for individual and mixed chlorinated ethenes on activated carbon from aqueous solution. As the uptake on FACT in limestone aquifers will depend on transport (advection and/or diffusion and retardation by sorption) in the limestone...... matrix and fractures as well as on the sorption to activated carbon, a modeling tool was developed (Mosthaf et al. 2014) which allows for the interpretation of field data and the analysis of the influence of various aquifer parameters. The model provides a link between sorbed concentrations on the FACT...

  6. Cement substitution by a combination of metakaolin and limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, M., E-mail: mathieu.antoni@epfl.ch [EPFL-STI-IMX-Laboratoires des Materiaux de Construction, Station12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rossen, J. [EPFL-STI-IMX-Laboratoires des Materiaux de Construction, Station12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Martirena, F. [CIDEM-UCLV, Universidad Las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Scrivener, K. [EPFL-STI-IMX-Laboratoires des Materiaux de Construction, Station12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    This study investigates the coupled substitution of metakaolin and limestone in Portland cement (PC). The mechanical properties were studied in mortars and the microstructural development in pastes by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry and isothermal calorimetry. We show that 45% of substitution by 30% of metakaolin and 15% of limestone gives better mechanical properties at 7 and 28 days than the 100% PC reference. Our results show that calcium carbonate reacts with alumina from the metakaolin, forming supplementary AFm phases and stabilizing ettringite. Using simple mass balance calculations derived from thermogravimetry results, we also present the thermodynamic simulation for the system, which agrees fairly well with the experimental observations. It is shown that gypsum addition should be carefully balanced when using calcined clays because it considerably influences the early age strength by controlling the very rapid reaction of aluminates.

  7. Induration and Biot’s Coefficient of Palaeogene Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2017-01-01

    specimens aids in performing fluid substitution with Gassmann’s equation. For the soft H2 specimens the shear wave could not be obtained and isoframe modelling is applied. A correlation is found; although, the Biot coefficient for the intermediate indurations H3 and H4 overlap. The dry density is found...... to very competent/slightly metamorphic rock. The Biot coefficient links to the degree of cementation in the capacity of how it relates the elastic deformations with the change in pore pressure. A hypothesis is that the degree of induration could be correlated to the magnitude of the Biot coefficient....... This is tested on 11 Copenhagen Limestone specimens of varying porosity and densities obtained from one borehole with a limestone interval of 30 m. Their induration varies from H2 to H5. Elastic wave propagation measurements are used to establish the Biot coefficient and determination of the mineralogy for H5...

  8. Time-Dependent Rock Failure in a Heterogeneous Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K.; Kemeny, J.

    2015-12-01

    Time-dependent rock failure is an important aspect in the analysis of long-term rock stability for slopes, dam and bridge foundations, and underground storage facilities. An on-going project at the University of Arizona is using Kartchner Caverns in Benson, Arizona as a natural analog to study such failure by reconstructing the process of natural cave breakdown with subcritical crack growth modeling. Breakdown is thought to occur along joints through the time-dependent failure of rock bridges: sections of intact rock separating discontinuities in a rock mass. The Escabrosa limestone composing the caverns ranges from a more homogenous, even-grained texture to a more heterogeneous texture consisting of coarse-grained veins and solution cavities set in a fine-grained matrix. To determine if the veined regions are more susceptible to fracturing and act as the nuclei of rock bridge failure, fracture toughness tests were conducted for both textures. The subcritical crack growth parameters were calculated using the constant stress-rate method. Results indicate that the more heterogeneous limestone has a higher fracture strength, fracture toughness, and subcritical crack growth index n than the more homogeneous limestone. This is in agreement with previous studies which found that a more complex and heterogeneous microstructure produces a larger microcrack process zone, leading to higher fracture energies and lower susceptibility to subcritical crack growth. Thus, despite their solution cavities, the calcite veins do not localize failure or act as planes of weakness; instead, rock bridges fail through the more homogeneous limestone matrix.

  9. Dolomitization of Quaternary reef limestones, Aitutaki, Cook Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Gray, S.C.; Richmond, B.M.; White, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    The primary reef framework is considered to have been deposited during several highstands of sea level. Following partial to local recrystallization of the limestone, a signle episode of dolomitization occurred. Both tidal and thermal pumping drove large quantities of seawater through the porous rocks and perhaps maintained a wide mixing zone. However, the isotopic, geochemical and petrographic data do not clearly indicate the extent of seawater mixing. -from Authors

  10. Effect of SO2 Dry Deposition on Porous Dolomitic Limestones

    OpenAIRE

    Olaru, Mihaela; Aflori, Magdalena; Simionescu, Bogdana; Doroftei, Florica; Stratulat, Lacramioara

    2010-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the assessment of the relative resistance of a monumental dolomitic limestone (Laspra – Spain) used as building material in stone monuments and submitted to artificial ageing by SO2 dry deposition in the presence of humidity. To investigate the protection efficiency of different polymeric coatings, three commercially available siloxane-based oligomers (Lotexan-N, Silres BS 290 and Tegosivin HL 100) and a newly synthesized hybrid nanocomposite with silsesqui...

  11. Degradation behavior of limestone concrete under limited time sodium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Ramesh, S.S.; Parida, F.C.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate safety measures are taken during design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR). However, possibility of sodium leak from secondary heat transport circuits of FBR has not been completely ruled out. In the areas housing sodium pipelines such as Steam Generator Building (SGB), spilled liquid sodium not only reacts with air causing fire but also interacts with structural concrete resulting in its degradation. The structural concrete can be protected from sodium attack using sodium resistant sacrificial concrete layer or steel/refractory liners. Moreover, design and construction of sloping floor with sodium collection pit helps in minimizing the mass of sodium accumulated on the floor and exposure period. Sacrificial concrete layer on the structural concrete should meet key factors like economy, castability, easy removal of affected concrete in the event of a sodium fire and disposability of debris apart from its good resistance against hot burning sodium. Present study is directed towards testing of limestone concrete blocks (made out of 13% ordinary portland cement, 8% water, 48% coarse limestone and 31 % fine limestone aggregates)

  12. Biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in limestone deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Bin R.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Stolz, John F.

    1987-06-01

    Studies on the microbial communities and magnetic phases of samples collected from carbonate oozes at Sugarloaf Key, FL, U.S.A. and calcareous laminated sediments from Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico have revealed the existence of magnetotactic bacteria and ultrafine-grained single domain magnetite in both environments. Magnetotactic bacteria were identified by light and electron microscopy. The single domain magnetite was detected by coercivity spectra analysis with a SQUID magnetometer and examined under the transmission electron microscope. The similarity, in terms of size and shape, between the single domain magnetite found in these sediments and the magnetite observed in the bacterial magnetosome from enriched cultures indicates the ultrafine-grained magnetite in these two marine environments was biologically formed. These results, combined with the common occurrences of ultrafine-grained magnetite in limestone deposits detected rock magnetically, suggest biogenic magnetite may be present and contribute to the magnetic remanence in these rocks. Several Cambrian limestone samples, separately collected from Siberia, China, and Kazakhstan, were examined for the presence of bacterial magnetite. Samples from the Lower Cambrian Sinskian Formation at Siberia Platform were found to contain both a large amount of apparently bacterial magnetite particles and a very stable primary magnetic component. Post-Cambrian diagenesis does not seem to affect the microgranulometry of these apparently bacterial magnetite crystals or the magnetic remanence carried by them. Assessing the potential role of biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in other Phanerozoic limestone deposits ought to be further pursued.

  13. Development of gypsum alteration on marble and limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Blackened alteration crusts of gypsum plus particulates that form on sheltered areas on marble and limestone buildings pose a challenge for rehabilitation and cleaning. Fresh marble and limestone samples exposed at monitored exposure sites present conditions of simple geometry and well-documented exposures but have short exposure histories (one to five years). The gypsum alteration crusts that develop on these samples provide insight into the early stages and rate of alteration crust formation. Alteration crusts from buildings give a longer, but less well known exposure history and present much more complex surfaces for gypsum accumulation. Integrated observations and measurements of alteration crusts from exposure samples and from buildings identify four factors that are important in the formation and development of alteration crusts on marble and limestone: (1) pollution levels, (2) exposure to rain or washing, (3) geometry of exposure of the stone surface, and (4) permeability of the stone. The combination of these factors contributes to both the distribution and the physical characteristics of the gypsum crusts which may affect cleaning decisions.

  14. Adsorption of anionic surfactants in limestone medium during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canbolat, Serhat; Bagci, Suat [Middle East Technical Univ., Dept. of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-07-15

    Foam-forming surfactant performance was evaluated by several experimental methods (interfacial tension, foam stability, corefloods) using commercial surfactants. There is considerable interest in the use of foam-forming surfactants for mobility control in water flood. To provide effective mobility control, the injected surfactant must propagate from the injection well toward the production well. One of the important parameters affecting propagation of foam-forming surfactant through the reservoir is the retention of surfactant due to its adsorption on reservoir rock. The determination of the adsorption of foam-forming surfactants in limestone reservoirs is important for the residual oil recovery efficiency. Adsorption measurements, recovery efficiencies, and surfactant and alkaline flooding experiments carried out with the representative of the selected surfactants alkaline solutions, linear alkyl benzene sulphonic acid (LABSA), sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), and NaOH in a limestone medium. These surfactants were selected with respect to their foaming ability. Calibration curves formed by pH measurements were used to determine the correct adsorption amount of the used surfactants and recovery efficiency of these surfactants compared with base waterflooding. The results showed that LABSA adsorbed more than SLES in limestone reservoirs. The recovery efficiency of SLES was higher than the recovery efficiency of LABSA, and they decreased the recovery efficiency with respect to only the water injection case. (Author)

  15. Endangered Species: An Educator's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean, M., Comp.

    Presented are two articles, an annotated bibliography, and other information useful in teaching about endangered species, especially those found in Florida. The articles provide an ethical rationale, teaching suggestions, and a discussion of the value of wildlife. Descriptions of over 100 pertinent books, periodicals, movies, and filmstrips are in…

  16. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  17. Thermo-poroelastic response of an argillaceous limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, Patrick; Najari, Meysam

    2016-04-01

    Argillaceous limestones are now being considered by many countries that intend to develop deep geologic storage facilities for siting both high-level and intermediate- to low-level nuclear fuel wastes. In deep geologic settings for high level nuclear wastes, the heating due to radioactive decay is transmitted through an engineered barrier, which consists of the waste container and an engineered geologic barrier, which consists of an encapsulating compacted bentonite. The heat transfer process therefore leads to heating of the rock mass where the temperature of the rock is substantially lower than the surface temperature of the waste container. This permits the use of mathematical theories of poroelastic media where phase transformations, involving conversion of water to a vapour form are absent. While the thermo-poroelastic responses of geologic media such as granite and porous tuff have been investigated in the literature, the investigation of thermo-poroelastic responses of argillaceous limestones is relatively new. Argillaceous limestones are considered to be suitable candidates for siting deep geologic repositories owing to the ability to accommodate stress states with generation of severe defects that can influence their transmissivity characteristics. Also the clay fraction in such rocks can contribute to long term healing type phenomena, which is a considerable advantage. This research presents the results of a laboratory investigation and computational modelling of the same that examines the applicability of the theory of thermo-poroelasticity, which extend Biot's classical theory of poroelasticity to include uncoupled heat conduction. The experimental configuration involves the boundary heating of a cylinder of the Cobourg Limestone from southern Ontario, Canada. The cylinder measuring 150 mm in diameter and 278 mm in length contains an axisymmetric fluid-filled cylindrical cavity measuring 26 mm in diameter and 139 mm in length. Thermo-poroelastic effects

  18. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-11-25

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.

  19. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2008-05-25

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  20. Endemic Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris (Carnivora: Herpestidae of East Kolkata Wetlands, India: a status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris is the only extant endemic mammal of the East Kolkata wetlands, which has been declared a RAMSAR site in 2002. Since its first description by the scientists of the Zoological Survey of India, the population of this species has dwindled to an alarming state due to reclamation of the Salt Lake City and Rajarhat expansion, as well as from other anthropogenic causes. Recently, during a field survey only a small population of this endangered mongoose was found in a single location. Immediate conservation measures are required to be taken by the concerned authorities to stop its probable extinction in the near future.

  1. Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKİN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four endemic taxa of Onobrychis Mill. genus, some of them being classified in the endangered threat category, were investigated for root and stem anatomy. Onobrychis quadrijuga, O. argyrea subsp. argyrea, O. tournefortii and O. albiflora were studied in regard to specific anatomy for the first time within the hereby study. Anatomical characters as the size and shape of the periderm, cortex, cambium cells in root and epidermis, collenchyma, cortex, cambium and pith cells in stem belonging to these four Onobrychis taxa were determined in detail. Based on the roots and stems measurements and analysis, specific anatomical differences between species were revealed.

  2. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris)

    OpenAIRE

    Patykowski, John; Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia-a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub-were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. Th...

  3. Growth dynamics of Dracaena cinnabari under controlled conditions as the most effective way to protect endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    Hubálková, Irena; Maděra, Petr; Volařík, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Dracaena cinnabari Balf. fil. is an endangered endemic species growing on the Yemeni island of Soqotra. Dracaena woodlands are considered as one of the oldest forest communities on Earth. Uncontrolled grazing unfortunately caused a lack of naturally occurring regeneration. Our two-year research was focused on the growth dynamics of Dracaena seedlings from two separate populations. One hundred of germinated seeds from two different altitudes from the island were sown and planted under the same...

  4. Reevaluation and whole distribution areas of endemic plants of Kütahya (Turkey according to new IUCN danger categoriesSpread Areas on Kütahya (Turkey of Some Endemic Plants and Reevaluation According to New IUCN Danger Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried to determine the localities of endemic taxa of Kütahya, in the inner Western part of Anatolia, and later to delineate their spread in other parts of Turkey and to reevaluate IUCN categories in light of these data. According to this, there are 291 endemic taxa and 4 rare taxa belonging to 39 families are determined in the boundaries of Kütahya. Only, 16 taxa were spread on city of Kütahya. 45 taxa were spread on Aegean region; other taxa were spread on outside of Aegean region. Most families contain more taxa are Asteraceae (43 taxa, Fabaceae (35 taxa, Scrophulariaceae (29 taxa, Lamiaceae (27 taxa and Brassicaceae (18 taxa. The endemic taxa numbers (114 taxa of endemic taxa on the Murat Mountain (the highest altitude of Kütahya are more than other localities. The phytogeographic elements of endemic plants of Kütahya are represented as follows: Irano-Turanian 93 taxa, Mediterranean 72 taxa and Europe-Siberian region 10 taxa. The threatened catagories of these endemics taxa were reevaluated and certain danger categories are updated by using literature. According to the new IUCN danger categories as follows; 2 taxa in CR (critically endangered category, 17 taxa in EN (endangered category, 30 taxa in VU (vulnerable, 28 taxa in the cd (conservation sub-category of LR (lower risk, 23 taxa in the nt (near threatened sub-cetagory of LR, 190 taxa in lc (least concern sub-category of LR and one takson in DD (data deficient categories were determined.

  5. The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cape Verde in the Eastern Atlantic is typical of many island groups in supporting a wealth of endemic species both terrestrial and marine. Marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus, commonly known as cone snails, occur in coastal tropical waters throughout the globe, but in Cape Verde their endemism reaches its apogee with 53 out of 56 species occurring nowhere else, the majority of which are restricted to single islands and frequently to single bays. However, Cape Verde is rapidly moving to a tourism-based economy with a projected boom in infrastructure development often coincidental with the shallow-water habitat of many range-restricted Conus. The conservation assessment of Conus to standards of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, found that 45.3% of 53 species assessed from Cape Verde are threatened or near-threatened with extinction compared to 7.4% of 579 species in the rest of the world. The only three Conus species globally assessed as Critically Endangered and on the cusp of extinction are all endemic to Cape Verde. Our analysis of Conus species distribution, together with spatial data of coastal protected areas and tourism development zones, identify important areas for future research and new marine protection. Our findings show that endemism with its associated risks for Conus in Cape Verde has worldwide parallels with many non-marine taxa, while our proposed strategy for Conus conservation extends beyond the confines of the country and this taxonomic group.

  6. Physical Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Affected by Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations

  7. The Endemic Plant Taxa of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park and Its Surroundings (Antalya-Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ÖZÇELİK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted in 2003-2004 in order to identify the endemic plants of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park (Antalya-Isparta and its surroundings. A total of 230 endemic taxa belonging to 29 families were determined in the national park and its surroundings. There are 229 taxa belonging to Angiospermae subdivision and 1 taxon belonging to Gymnospermae subdivision in these collected and identified endemic taxa from the research area. There is no endemic taxon in the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta divisions of the park. 218 of the 229 taxa belonging to the Angiospermae subdivision are in the Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledoneae class and other 11 are in the Liliopsida (Monocotyledoneae class. 18 taxa of the vascular plants are specific to the research area. 44 of endemic taxa are included in the endangered category. The number of priority conservation requiring taxa is 21. Endemic taxon number is almost 25% of total flora of the area. The top five families with the highest number of taxa in the study area are Lamiaceae (38, Caryophyllaceae (37, Asteraceae (26, Scrophulariaceae (20, Fabaceae (16 (Table 2. The 10 largest genera with the highest number of taxa are as follows: Silene (15, Astragalus (9, Sideritis (8, Verbascum (7, Centaurea (7, Stachys (6, Helichrysum (6, Alkanna (6, Veronica (5 and Minuartia (5. The distributions according to the phytogeographical regions of the endemic plants identified from the area is as follows: 59.565% Mediterranean elements (137 taxa, 23.478% Irano-Turanian elements (54 taxa, 0.304% Euro-Siberian elements (7 taxa and 13.913% with unknown phytogeographical region (32 taxa. The distributions of these taxa according to the conservation status is as follows: CR (Critically Endangered: 3, EN (Endangered: 22, VU (Vulnerable: 34, LR (Low Risk: 164, (cd (Conservation Dependent: 29, (lc (Least Concern: 106, (nt (Near Threatened: 29. In this study, menacing factors on the flora and vegetation of the area and

  8. Modelling of Limestone Dissolution in Wet FGD Systems: The Importance of an Accurate Particle Size Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Danish limestone types with very different particle size distributions (PSDs). All limestones were of a high purity. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data without any use of adjustable parameters. Deviations between measurements and simulations were...... attributed primarily to the PSD measurements of the limestone particles, which were used as model inputs. The PSDs, measured using a laser diffrac-tion-based Malvern analyser, were probably not representative of the limestone samples because agglomeration phenomena took place when the particles were......In wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants, the most common sorbent is limestone. Over the past 25 years, many attempts to model the transient dissolution of limestone particles in aqueous solutions have been performed, due to the importance for the development of reliable FGD simu-lation tools...

  9. Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Poulsen, S.L.; Herfort, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the hydration of blended Portland cement containing 30 wt.% Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (NCAS) glass particles either as the only supplementary cementitious material (SCM) or in combination with limestone, using 29Si MAS NMR, powder XRD, and thermal analyses. The NCAS glass...... of hydration. The hydrated glass contributes to the formation of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase, consuming a part of the Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) formed during hydration of the Portland cement. Furthermore, the presence of the glass and limestone particles, alone or in combination, results...... in an accelerated hydration for alite (Ca3SiO5), the main constituent of Portland cement. A higher degree of limestone reaction has been observed in the blend containing both limestone and NCAS glass as compared to the limestone – Portland mixture. This reflects that limestone reacts with a part of the alumina...

  10. Investigations of the properties of dredged limestone fill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Gordon, Anne

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the main findings of an integrated study carried out at the Kastrup peninsula reclamation site by Department of Geology and Geotechnical Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the study was to evaluate homogeneity and engineering properties of dredged...... limestone fill that is pumped ito ponds of the reclamation site. The work utilised a number of geophysical and geotechnical investigation techniques in the field, supplemented with laboratory testing.The study of in-situ electrical resistivities revealed larger variations in the ground conditions than were...

  11. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo Av; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival.

  12. Limestone particle size and artificial light for laying hens in the second laying cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Nunes de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of limestone particle size and the use of artificial light for laying hens in the second laying cycle. We used 240 Hisex White laying hens at 82 weeks of age in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, resulting in 10 treatments with 4 replicates of 6 birds. The variables were the five particle sizes obtained by increasing the proportion of thick limestone (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% compared with thin limestone and two lighting programs: with and without artificial light. Limestone particle size and light did not affect performance or egg quality. However, there were changes in bird feeding schedule throughout the day as a response to the lighting program. Bone quality, density and mineral content of the tibia were not affected by the treatments, but limestone particle size had a quadratic effect of on bone deformity and strength, obtaining maximum inclusion points with 63% and 59% of thick limestone, respectively. The use of large particles of limestone in the diet and the use of a lighting program does not influence the performance and quality of the eggs of laying hens in the second production cycle, but the use of a proportion of 63.3 g of average particle size (0.60 mm replacing the fine limestone (0.23 mm per 100 g of total limestone added to the diet improves bone quality in these birds.

  13. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  14. Electrokinetically Enhanced Delivery for ERD Remediation of Chlorinated Ethenes in a Fractured Limestone Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Hyldegaard, Bente Højlund; With Nedergaard, Lærke

    Leakage of the chlorinated solvents PCE and TCE into limestone aquifers from contaminated overburden and the long-lasting back diffusion from the secondary source in the limestone matrix pose a severe risk for contamination of drinking water resources. Dechlorination of PCE and TCE in limestone...... that enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) by the addition of donor and specific degraders (KB1® culture) can lead to complete dechlorination of PCE and TCE in the limestone aquifer, provided sufficient contact between specific degraders, donor and specific degraders, is obtained. Advection-based delivery...

  15. Laser removal of water repellent treatments on limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta; Fort, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    Protective and water repellent treatments are applied on stone materials used on buildings or sculptures of artistic value to reduce water intrusion without limiting the natural permeability to water vapour of the material. The effect of the wavelength associated with the laser removal of two water repellent treatments applied on limestone, Paraloid B-72, a copolymer of methyl acrylate and ethyl methacrylate, and Tegosivin HL-100, a modified polysiloxane resin, was investigated by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). The modifications induced on the surface of limestone samples by laser irradiation were studied using colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The removal of the treatments was found to be dependent on the laser irradiation conditions and on the characteristics of the coatings. The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing both treatments, but thermal alteration processes were induced on the constituent calcite crystals. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

  16. Neutralization of the Tamagawa thermal acid water with crushed limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umetsu, Yoshio (Iwate Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Iwate, (Japan))

    1989-06-30

    The Tamagawa hot spring, Akita Prefecture, is a hidrochloric and n sulfuric acid hot spring with 98{sup 0}C in water temperature, 9m{sup 3}/min in artesian flow rate and 1.2 in pH. In order to cope with projected dam construction downstream, an in situ test was carried out for the water neutralization with crushed limestone, in which test was used a plastic cylinder cone type reactor, 60{sup 0}C in angle of repose, reinforced with glass fiber. Hot spring water was introduced into the reactor from its bottom and ran as countercurrent through the reactor. In a neutralization test with a use of crushed limestone, 5 to 25mm in grain size, the neutralization rate attained to 80.5%, when acid water containing 1300mgl/sup -1/ So{sub 4}/sup 2-/ was treated at 50{sup 0}C with the residence time of five minutes. If water of the Tamagawa hot spring is 95% neutralized to 75% in neutralization rate, the dam body point 22km downstream is expectable to rise from 3 to over 4.3 in pH. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The effect of water on the sulphation of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E.J. Anthony [North China Electric Power University, Baoding City (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A series of tests was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to study the sulphation behaviour of limestone in the presence of water over the temperature range of 800-850{sup o}C. Four different Canadian limestones, all with a particle size range of 75-425 {mu}m, were sulphated using a synthetic flue gas with a composition of 15% CO{sub 2}, 3% O{sub 2}, 0% or 10% H{sub 2}O, 1750 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance N{sub 2}. Water was shown to have a significant promotional effect on sulphation, especially in the diffusion-controlled stage. However, the effect of water during the kinetic-controlled stage appeared to be much less pronounced. Based on these results, it is proposed that the presence of water leads to the transient formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} as an intermediate, which in turn reacts with SO{sub 2} at a faster rate than CaO does. Alternatively stated, it appears that H{sub 2}O acts as catalyst for the sulphation reaction of CaO. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The influence of reclamation to malaco - assemblages of limestone quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupka, J.; Svehlakova, H.; Beranek, J.; Lokajickova, B.

    2017-10-01

    Quarries fundamentally change the character of the landscape, both in the mined parts and in its immediate surroundings. Inside the mined areas, there are many different types of microbiotopes, their character is very different from the surrounding ecosystem. Destruction of original biotopes is an opportunity for settlement by new plant and animal communities. To monitor these biodiversity changes in the landscape, appropriate groups of organisms are used. Only a bioindicator that is well processable from a taxonomic point of view and its demands on the environment and its distribution are well-known, gives reliable results. For these reasons, less moving molluscs are used in many works. The territory of the southern part of the Devonian limestone of the Moravian Karst is affected by the industrial mining of limestone. There is forest quarry in Lisen, which was ended in 1997 and a few years later reclamation work was started on parts of the mined area. The study of molluscs in this model territory was used to assess the impact of reclamation methods on the malaco - assemblage’s diversity inside the quarry.

  19. A NEW SUBSPECIES OF APOLINAR’S WREN (CISTOTHORUS APOLINARI, AVES: TROGLODYTIDAE, AN ENDANGERED COLOMBIAN ENDEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STILES F. GARY

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe Cistothorus apolinari hernandezi, subsp. nov. from wet páramo of theSumapaz massif south of Bogotá, Colombia. This form differs from the nominate ofthe wetlands of the Cundinamarca-Boyacá Plateau in size, coloration, ecology, socialstructure and song and appears to be isolated from it by some 1000 m of elevationand different habitat preferences. A second population apparently occurs some 300km further northeast in the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy in Dept. Boyacá but no dataexist for intervening páramos. As a species, C. apolinari is critically endangeredbut the wetland and páramo populations face different threats and require differentconservation strategies; distinguishing the latter population formally helps callattention to this situation.

  20. Plasticity in carbon acquisition of the heterophyllous Luronium natans: an endangered freshwater species in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability...... of the species. The plasticity of photosynthesis in submerged leaves towards inorganic carbon availability was examined and the photosynthesis of submerged, floating and aerial leaves was contrasted. L. natans was shown to be plastic in inorganic carbon uptake, as it was able to effectively acclimate to changed...

  1. Revised Flora and List of Threatened and Endangered Plants for the John F. Kennedy Space Center Area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Foster, Tammy E.; Duncan, Brean W.; Quincy, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's, and the list was revised in 1990. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required a revision of this list. The revised list includes 1024 taxa of which 803 are native and 221 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Fifty taxa are endemic or nearly endemic, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of Florida. Of the 221 introduced plants, twenty-six are Category I invasive exotics and fifteen are Category II invasive exotics. Thirty-eight taxa are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on state lists. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area includes 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  2. Characterization of Microsatellites for the Endangered Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Meloni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Ruta oreojasme is an endangered species endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, where it occurs in small populations with disjunct distribution. Nothing is known about the genetic structure of these populations. Methods and Results: Using a microsatellite-enriched library method, 10 microsatellite markers have been developed from R. oreojasme, all of which showed polymorphism. The transferability of the 10 markers was tested in two other Canarian endemic species, R. microcarpa and R. pinnata, as well as in the widespread species R. montana. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the value of these newly developed microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure in R. oreojasme and show their potential applicability for population genetic studies in other Ruta species.

  3. High rates of hybridisation reveal fragile reproductive barriers between endangered Australian sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Guinea, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    species have disappeared from Ashmore, the largest of these reefs, over the last 15 years, including two critically endangered Aipysurus species that have also disappeared from neighbouring Hibernia Reef. A third Timor Sea endemic, Aipysurusfuscus, is now known only from Scott and Hibernia reefs, where......The viviparous sea snakes include 62 ecologically diverse species, many of which are of very recent evolutionary origin and have overlapping distributions. Peak sea snake diversity and endemism is recorded from the isolated emergent reefs of the Timor Sea in Northwest Australia. However, nine...... significant and asymmetrical levels of gene flow following species divergence, and highest rates of introgression from the large A. laevis population into the much smaller A. fuscus population. Population assignment analyses recovered two ancestral clusters that broadly corresponded to morphological species...

  4. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Background: For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago...

  5. Crystallographic transformation of limestone during calcination under CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Medina, Santiago

    2015-09-14

    The calcination reaction of limestone (CaCO3) to yield lime (CaO) is at the heart of many industrial applications as well as natural processes. In the recently emerged calcium-looping technology, CO2 capture is accomplished by the carbonation of CaO in a gas-solid reactor (carbonator). CaO is derived by the calcination of limestone in a calciner reactor under necessarily high CO2 partial pressure and high temperature. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been employed in this work to gain further insight into the crystallographic transformation that takes place during the calcination of limestone under CO2, at partial pressures (P) close to the equilibrium pressure (Peq) and at high temperature. Calcination under these conditions becomes extremely slow. The in situ XRD analysis presented here suggests the presence of an intermediate metastable CaO* phase stemming from the parent CaCO3 structure. According to the reaction mechanism proposed elsewhere, the exothermicity of the CaO* → CaO transformation and high values of P/Peq inhibit the nucleation of CaO at high temperatures. The wt% of CaO* remains at a relatively high level during slow calcination. Two diverse stages have been identified in the evolution of CaO crystallite size, L. Initially, L increases with CaCO3 conversion, following a logarithmic law. Slow calcination allows the crystallite size to grow up from a few nanometers at nucleation up to around 100 nm near the end of conversion. Otherwise, quick calcination at relatively lower CO2 concentrations limits CaO crystallite growth. Once calcination reaches an advanced state, the presence of CaO* drops to zero and the rate of increase of the CaO crystallite size is significantly hindered. Arguably, the first stage in CaO crystallite growth is driven by aggregation of the metastable CaO* nanocrystals, due to surface attractive forces, whereas the second one is consistent with sintering of the aggregated CaO crystals, and persists with time after full

  6. Compressive strength evolution of thermally-stressed Saint Maximin limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, J.; Griffiths, L.; Baud, P.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Heap, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Saint Maximin quarry (Oise, France) opened in the early 1600s, and its limestone has been used extensively as masonry stone, particularly during the classical era of Parisian architecture from the 17th century onwards. Its widespread use has been due to a combination of its regional availability, its high workability, and its aesthetic appeal. Notable buildings completed using this material include sections of the Place de la Concorde and the Louvre in Paris. More recently, however, it has seen increasing use in the construction of large private residences throughout the United States as well as extensions to private institutions such as Stanford University. For any large building, fire hazard can be a substantial concern, especially in tectonically active areas where catastrophic fires may arise following large-magnitude earthquakes. Typically, house fires burn at temperatures of around 600 °C ( 1000 F). Given the ubiquity of this geomaterial as a building stone, it is important to ascertain the influence of heating on the strength of Saint Maximin limestone (SML), and in turn the structural stability of the buildings it is used in. We performed a series of compressive tests and permeability measurements on samples of SML to determine its strength evolution in response to heating to incrementally higher temperatures. We observe that the uniaxial compressive strength of SML decreases from >12 MPa at room temperature to 400 °C). We anticipate that this substantial weakening is in part a result of thermal microcracking, whereby changes in temperature induce thermal stresses due to a mismatch in thermal expansion between the constituent grains. This mechanism is compounded by the volumetric increase of quartz through its alpha - beta transition at 573 °C, and by the thermal decomposition of calcite. To track the formation of thermal microcracks, we monitor acoustic emissions, a common proxy for microcracking, during the heating of an SML sample. The

  7. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  8. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  9. Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…

  10. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  11. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  12. River water quality in weathered limestone: A case study in upper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stromatolitic limestone and calcareous shale belonging to Chattisgarh Supergroup of Proterozoic age dominate the upper part of the Mahanadi river basin.X-ray diffractogram (XRD)of limestone rocks show presence of a significant amount of calcite,dolomite and ankerite.Shales of various colours contain calcite and ...

  13. Assessment of the state of conservation of a Middle Neolithic flint mine in Maastricht limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, R.P.J.; Nijland, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous Maastricht limestone ("mergel") outcrops in the provinces of Dutch and Belgian Limburg. The Upper Cretaceous in the Netherlands consists of the geological Maastricht Formation and the upper part of the Gulpen Formation. Limestones from the Maastricht Formation represent one of the

  14. Assessment of the state of conservation of a Middle Neolithic flint mine in Maastricht limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van; Nijland, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous Maastricht limestone (‘mergel’) outcrops in the provinces of Dutch and Belgian Limburg. The Upper Cretaceous in the Netherlands consists of the geological Maastricht Formation and the upper part of the Gulpen Formation. Limestones from the Maastricht Formation represent one of the

  15. Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Li, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy

  16. Oriented nucleation and growth of anhydrite during direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2008-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone (Iceland Spar) was studied at 973 K in a fixed-bed reactor. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of the sulfated limestone particles show that the sulfation process involves oriented nucleation and growth of the solid product, anhydrite. The reason...

  17. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... analysis and decision. Notable permit requirements include: Clean Water Act--Apply for construction/mining..., South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice... submitted by Pete Lien and Sons, Inc., for the purpose of mining for chemical grade limestone within mining...

  18. Adsorption and desorption of phosphate on limestone in experiments simulating seawater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absorption and desorption of phosphorus on a large block of limestone was investigated using deionized water (DIW) and seawater. The limestone had a high affinity to adsorb phosphorus in DIW. Phosphate adsorption was significantly less in seawater, and more phosphorus was desorbed in the seawate...

  19. Sierra Elvira limestone: petrophysical characteristics of an Andalusian heritage stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, I.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sierra Elvira stone” is one of the ornamental building stones most widely used in the historical monuments of eastern Andalusia. A Liassic age limestone, it appears in the central section of the Baetic Mountains and more specifically in the Middle Subbaetic domain. While the most common variety is a crinoid limestone, a micritic limestone of the same age has also been quarried, albeit in much smaller quantities. These stones form very thick beds, up to nearly 5 m deep, that run in consistently parallel lines and have a dip angle that facilitates quarrying.With petrographic, physical and mechanical properties that ensure stone strength and durability, it is a high quality building material suitable for both structural and ornamental purposes. These properties can be attributed to the minimal open porosity and concomitant excellent water resistance that characterize the stone, as well as to its high mechanical strength and low textural anisotropy, both elastic and mechanical. With such attributes, the stone can be successfully used for any number of purposes, including decorative stonework (portals, fountains, plinths, structural members (column shafts and bases or urban curbing and paving. Intervention on Sierra de Elvira limestone structures should be limited to cleaning or repair, for consolidating or protective materials are scantly effective.La “Piedra de Sierra Elvira” constituye una de las piedras ornamentales más significativas del Patrimonio Arquitectónico de Andalucía Oriental. Es una roca caliza del Lias que aflora en el Subbético Medio del sector central de las Cordilleras Béticas. El litotipo más explotado es una caliza con crinoides, en bastante menor importancia se ha extraído también otra caliza micrítica de la misma edad. Los bancos son muy potentes, en algunos casos de más de 5 m, con un paralelismo constante y un buzamiento que favorece su explotación en los frentes de cantera.Sus caracter

  20. Identification of Calcium Sulphoaluminate Formation between Alunite and Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Chan Cho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the conditions of formation of calcium sulphoaluminate (3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 by the sintering of a limestone (CaCO3 and alunite [K2SO4·Al2(SO43·4Al(OH3] mixture with the following reagents: K2SO4, CaCO3, Al(OH3, CaSO4·2H2O, and SiO2. When K2SO4, CaCO3, Al(OH3, CaSO4·2H2O were mixed in molar ratios of 1:3:6:3 and sintered at 1,200~1,300 °C, only 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and calcium langbeinite (2CaSO4·K2SO4 were generated. With an amount of CaO that is less than the stoichiometric molar ratio, 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 was formed and anhydrite (CaSO4 did not react and remained behind. With the amount of CaSO4 that is less than the stoichiometric molar ratio, the amounts of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and 2CaSO4·K2SO4 decreased, and that of CaO·Al2O3 increased. In the K2SO4-CaO-Al2O3-CaSO4-SiO2 system, to stabilize the formation of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4, 2CaSO4·K2SO4, and β-2CaO·SiO2, the molar ratios of CaO: Al2O3: CaSO4 must be kept at 3:3:1 and that of CaO/SiO2, over 2.0; otherwise, the generated amount of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 decreased and that of gehlenite (2CaO·Al2O3·SiO2 with no hydration increased quantitatively. Therefore, if all SO3(g generated by the thermal decomposition of alunite reacts with CaCO3 (or CaO, the thermal decomposition product of limestone to form CaSO4 in an alunite- limestone system, 1 mol of pure alunite reacts with 6 mol of limestone to form 1 mol of 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4 and 1 mol of 2CaSO4·K2SO4.

  1. The Energy Dissipation of Propagating Cracks in Solnhofen Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, A.; Kalthoff, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Crack propagation events are initiated in Solnhofen limestone under impact loading conditions. The Fracture energy respectively the fracture toughness and the velocity of propagating cracks are measured by means of an optimized strain gauge measuring technique. Cracks are accelerated to velocities in the range of 1500 m/s. The measured crack propagation energies/crack propagation toughnesses are significantly higher than the crack initiation energy/crack initiation toughness. Control measurements on the basis of a global energy approach by means of Charpy pendulum impact tests verify the found behaviour. The results explain characteristic peculiarities of the crack propagation behaviour of brittle fracture in rock. Keywords: Fracture energy, fracture toughness, crack propagation, crack velocity, rock

  2. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions

  3. Molecular and Morphological Tools to Distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae): A New Weevil Pest of the Endangered Century Plant, Agave eggersiana from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Lourdes Chamorro; Joshua Persson; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Jeff Keularts; Sonja J. Scheffer; Matthew L. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The agave snout weevil (AGW) or sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal is here reported for the first time in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) where it threatens Agave eggersiana Trel., a USVI endemic and endangered century-plant. We provide molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters to successfully distinguish the two known Scyphophorus...

  4. Geochemistry, environmental and provenance study of the Middle Miocene Leitha limestones (Central Paratethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical, major, minor, REE and trace element analyses of rock samples were performed on Middle Miocene limestones (Leitha limestones, Badenian collected from four localities from Austria (Mannersdorf, Wöllersdorf, Kummer and Rosenberg quarries and the Fertőrákos quarry in Hungary. Impure to pure limestones (i.e. limited by Al2O3 contents above or below 0.43 wt. % were tested to evaluate the applicability of various geochemical proxies and indices in regard to provenance and palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Pure and impure limestones from Mannersdorf and Wöllersdorf (southern Vienna Basin show signs of detrital input (REEs = 27.6 ± 9.8 ppm, Ce anomaly = 0.95 ± 0.1 and the presence of quartz, muscovite and clay minerals in impure limestones and diagenetic influence (low contents of, e.g., Sr = 221 ± 49 ppm, Na is not detected, Ba = 15.6 ± 8.8 ppm in pure limestones. Thus, in both limestones the reconstruction of original sedimentary palaeoenvironments by geochemistry is hampered. The Kummer and Fertőrákos (Eisenstadt–Sopron Basin comprise pure limestones (e.g., averages Sr = 571 ± 139 ppm, Na = 213 ± 56 ppm, Ba = 21 ± 4 ppm, REEs = 16 ± 3 ppm and Ce anomaly = 0.62 ± 0.05 and composed predominantly of calcite exhibiting negligible diagenesis. Deposition under a shallow-water, well oxygenated to intermittent dysoxic marine environment can be reconstructed. Pure to impure limestones at Rosenberg–Retznei (Styrian Basin are affected to some extent by detrital input and volcano-siliciclastic admixture. The Leitha limestones at Rosenberg have the least diagenetic influence among the studied localities (i.e. averages Sr = 1271 ± 261 ppm, Na = 315 ± 195 ppm, Ba = 32 ± 15 ppm, REEs = 9.8 ± 4.2 ppm and Ce anomaly = 0.77 ± 0.1 and consist of calcite, minor dolomite and quartz. The siliciclastic sources are characterized by immobile elemental ratios (i.e. La/Sc and Th/Co which apply not only for the siliciclastics, but also

  5. Colour changes by laser irradiation of reddish building limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, C.M., E-mail: c.grossi-sampedro@uea.ac.uk [School of Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Benavente, D. [Department of Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Alicante. 03690 Alicante (Spain)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • This is the first time that XPS is used to determine the cause of colour change in coloured stones when cleaned with laser at 1064 nm. • We demonstrate that the colour change in red limestones is due to a reduction in the state of oxidation of iron, in this case present as hematite. • XPS could be routinely used to analyse causes of colour changes during laser cleaning in other types of coloured building stones. - Abstract: We have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a novel method to investigate the causes of colour changes in a reddish limestone under irradiation by a Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser. We irradiated clean dry and wet surfaces of Pidramuelle Roja, a building stone frequently used in the Asturian heritage, at fluences ranging from 0.12 to 1.47 J cm{sup −2}. We measured the colour coordinates and undertook XPS analysis of the state of oxidation of iron both before and after irradiation. Visible colour changes and potential aesthetic damage occurred on dry surfaces from a fluence of 0.31 J cm{sup −2}, with the stone showing a greening effect and very intense darkening. The colour change on dry surfaces was considerably higher than on wet surfaces, which at the highest fluence (1.47 J cm{sup −2}) was also above the human visual detection threshold. The use of XPS demonstrated that the change in colour (chroma and hue) is associated with a reduction in the iron oxidation state on dry surfaces during laser irradiation. This points out to a potential routinary use of XPS to analyse causes of colour changes during laser cleaning in other types of coloured building stones.

  6. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  7. Conservation priorities in a biodiversity hotspot: analysis of narrow endemic plant species in New Caledonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien S Wulff

    Full Text Available New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot facing extreme environmental degradation. Given the urgent need for conservation prioritisation, we have made a first-pass quantitative assessment of the distribution of Narrow Endemic Species (NES in the flora to identify species and sites that are potentially important for conservation action. We assessed the distributional status of all angiosperm and gymnosperm species using data from taxonomic descriptions and herbarium samples. We characterised species as being NES if they occurred in 3 or fewer locations. In total, 635 of the 2930 assessed species were classed as NES, of which only 150 have been subjected to the IUCN conservation assessment. As the distributional patterns of un-assessed species from one or two locations correspond well with assessed species which have been classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered respectively, we suggest that our distributional data can be used to prioritise species for IUCN assessment. We also used the distributional data to produce a map of "Hotspots of Plant Narrow Endemism" (HPNE. Combined, we used these data to evaluate the coincidence of NES with mining activities (a major source of threat on New Caledonia and also areas of conservation protection. This is to identify species and locations in most urgent need of further conservation assessment and subsequent action. Finally, we grouped the NES based on the environments they occurred in and modelled the habitat distribution of these groups with a Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model (MaxEnt. The NES were separable into three different groups based primarily on geological differences. The distribution of the habitat types for each group coincide partially with the HPNE described above and also indicates some areas which have high habitat suitability but few recorded NES. Some of these areas may represent under-sampled hotspots of narrow endemism and are priorities for further field work.

  8. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of fish...

  9. 75 FR 69699 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  10. 50 CFR 451.03 - Endangered Species Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endangered Species Committee. 451.03... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS APPLICATION PROCEDURE § 451.03 Endangered Species Committee. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  11. 77 FR 51042 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  12. 78 FR 37840 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity...

  13. 78 FR 57650 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  14. 77 FR 71818 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  15. 75 FR 79387 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  16. 75 FR 20857 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  17. 75 FR 53708 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  18. 76 FR 70160 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also requires that we...

  19. 78 FR 55287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...-FF08E00000] Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such activity. The Act also...

  20. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  1. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Oliveira

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE, based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  2. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  3. Climate change hastens the conservation urgency of an endangered ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change appears to be one of the main threats to biodiversity in the near future and is already affecting the distribution of many species. Currently threatened species are a special concern while the extent to which they are sensitive to climate change remains uncertain. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) is classified as endangered and a conservation focus on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using measures of species range shift, we explored how the distribution of Przewalski's gazelle may be impacted by projected climate change based on a maximum entropy approach. We also evaluated the uncertainty in the projections of the risks arising from climate change. Modeling predicted the Przewalski's gazelle would be sensitive to future climate change. As the time horizon increased, the strength of effects from climate change increased. Even assuming unlimited dispersal capacity of gazelles, a moderate decrease to complete loss of range was projected by 2080 under different thresholds for transforming the probability prediction to presence/absence data. Current localities of gazelles will undergo a decrease in their occurrence probability. Projections of the impacts of climate change were significantly affected by thresholds and general circulation models. This study suggests climate change clearly poses a severe threat and increases the extinction risk to Przewalski's gazelle. Our findings 1) confirm that endangered endemic species is highly vulnerable to climate change and 2) highlight the fact that forecasting impacts of climate change needs an assessment of the uncertainty. It is extremely important that conservation strategies consider the predicted geographical shifts and be planned with full knowledge of the reliability of projected impacts of climate change.

  4. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E Gorman

    Full Text Available Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic, here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  5. Bird communities in three forest types in the Pernambuco Centre of Endemism, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahert W. Lobo-Araújo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pernambuco Center of Endemism (PCE in northeastern Brazil is highly fragmented and degraded. Despite its potential conservation importance the bird fauna in this area is still relatively unknown and there are many remnant fragments that have not been systematically surveyed. Here, we report the results of bird surveys in five forest fragments (one pioneer, two ombrophilous and two seasonal. In total, 162 taxa were recorded, 12 of which are endemic to the PCE. The frequency of endangered species was lower than what has been reported in studies from the same area and most of the taxa considered to be at risk of extinction were sub-species of uncertain taxonomic validity. The comparatively low number of endemic/threatened species may be due to the small size of the fragments in the present study - a consequence of the high levels of habitat loss in this region. Analysis of species richness patterns indicates that ombrophilous forest fragments are acting as refuges for those bird species that are most sensitive to environmental degradation.

  6. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel–space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods.

  7. STUDIES ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BUKIT KAMANGS’ LIMESTONE AS MINERAL SOURCE FOR LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khalil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Samples of limestone composites were measured for hardness in 5 difference colors: black, darkblue, blue, light blue and white. Limestone was then ground and particle sizes of meal were measured.The meal were mixed with other locally available materials to produce 5 difference mineral formulas:P1: 100% limestone meal, P2: 50% limestone meal + 50% fresh water oyster shell meal, P3: 35%limestone meal + 30% fresh water oyster shell meal + 35% bone meal, P4: 35% limestone meal + 30%fresh water oyster shell meal + 34.2% bone meal + 0.5% salt + 0.3% micro minerals and P5: 100% freshwater oyster shell meal. The formulas were stored for 12 weeks. Samples were taken weekly foranalyzing of moisture content and physical properties. By a feeding trial the five mineral formulas weremixed in the level of 6 % into basal diet and fed to 150 laying hens for 24 weeks. Parameters measuredincluded body weight, feed intake, egg production and FCR. Results showed that the composites ofBukit Kamangs’ limestone had difference hardness. The strongest was found by the black composite of23.4 HRc-C or 245.0 BHN. The meal products contained large particles (>0.42 mm of 17.8%. Moisturecontent of mineral formulas increased during storage, but their physical properties were no significantchanges. The highest moisture increase was found by the product of 100% limestone, but it could bereduced by mixing with oyster shell meal and bone meal. The best laying performances (P<0.05 werefound by the hens fed with diet supplemented with mineral formula containing limestone, fresh wateroyster shell and fortified with micro minerals.

  8. Rehabilitation of lands mined for limestone in the Indian desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.D.; Kumar, S.; Gough, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the Indian desert, the economics of mining is second only to agriculture in importance. However, research on the rehabilitation of land disturbed by mining has only recently received serious attention. An attempt has been made to determine both the qualitative and quantitative success of rehabilitation plans used to revegetate limestone mine spoils in an area near Barna, northwest arid India. Rehabilitation success was achieved using a combination of rainwater harvesting techniques, soil amendment application approaches, plant establishment methods and the selection of appropriate germplasm material (trees, shrubs and grasses). It is expected that the resulting vegetative cover will be capable of self-perpetuation under natural conditions while at the same time meeting the land-use needs of the local people. The minespoils have adequate levels of the major nutrients (except P, Mo and Se) for proper plant and grazing animal health. Levels of organic matter are low whereas total B concentrations are exceptionally high. Also, the population of soil fungi, Azotobactor, and nitrifying bacteria is negligible. Enhanced plant growth was achieved in treated plots, compared to control plots, where spoil moisture storage was improved by 5-45 per cent. Due to the decomposition of farmyard manure and nitrogen fixation by planted leguminous plant species, the electrical conductance of treated mine spoils increased threefold, CaCO3 content decreased from 20??0 to 5??2 per cent, and organic carbon, P, K, and biological activity increased significantly. The rehabilitation protocol used at the site appears to have been successful because plant self-regeneration is occurring. The increased diversity of woody perennials resulted in 'dominance' being better shared among species and 'evenness' being increased within the plant community elements. The early to mid-successional trends are continuing for six years following initial rehabilitation. This study developed methods for the

  9. ARD remediation with limestone in a CO2 pressurized reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Friedrich, Andrew E.; Vinci, Brian J.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a new process for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). The process treats ARD with intermittently fluidized beds of granular limestone maintained within a continuous flow reactor pressurized with CO2. Tests were performed over a thirty day period at the Toby Creek mine drainage treatment plant, Elk County, Pennsylvania in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Equipment performance was established at operating pressures of 0, 34, 82, and 117 kPa using an ARD flow of 227 L/min. The ARD had the following characteristics: pH, 3.1; temperature, 10 °C; dissolved oxygen, 6.4 mg/L; acidity, 260 mg/L; total iron, 21 mg/L; aluminum, 22 mg/L; manganese, 7.5 mg/L; and conductivity, 1400 μS/cm. In all cases tested, processed ARD was net alkaline with mean pH and alkalinities of 6.7 and 59 mg/L at a CO2 pressure of 0 kPa, 6.6 and 158 mg/L at 34 kPa, 7.4 and 240 mg/L at 82 kPa, and 7.4 and 290 mg/L at 117 kPa. Processed ARD alkalinities were correlated to the settled bed depth (pCO2 pressure (pfiltration following treatment. No indications of metal hydroxide precipitation or armoring of the limestone were observed. The surplus alkalinity established at 82 kPa was successful in treating an equivalent of 1136 L/min (five-fold dilution) of the combined three ARD streams entering the Toby Creek Plant. This side-stream capability provides savings in treatment unit scale as well as flexibility in treatment effect. The capability of the system to handle higher influent acidity was tested by elevating the acidity to 5000 mg/L with sulfuric acid. Net alkaline effluent was produced, indicating applicability of the process to highly acidic ARD.

  10. CARBONIFEROUS CORALS AND CHAETETIDS FROM EXOTIC LIMESTONE BLOCK OF THE CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR OGAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A chaetetid sponge and coral fauna from a Carboniferous exotic limestone block in the Lower Jurassic Esciorda olistostrome on the Bodrak River (Crimean Mountains are described for the first time. The Bodrak exotic block is composed of massive limestone. It contains the chaetetid Chaetetes (Boswellia sp., the tabulate coral Multithecopora sp., and poorly preserved rugose corals, including Dibunophyllum? sp., Cordibia? sp. and gen. et sp. indet. Only the fasciculate colonies of the rugose coral Lytvophyllum askynensis (Kossovaya, 2009 are confidently identified. The studied association of fossils is similar to that of the Donets Basin and the Urals and confirms the Lower Bashkirian age of the Bodrak limestone block. 

  11. Capture of SO2 by limestone in a 71 MWe pressurized fluidized bed boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tadaaki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71 MWe pressurized fluidized bed coal combustor was operated. A wide variety of coals were burnt under fly ash recycle conditions. Limestone was fed to the combustor as bed material as well as sorbent. The emission of SO^ and limestone attrition rate were measured. A simple mathematical model of SO? capture by limestone with intermittent solid attrition was applied to the analysis of the present experimental results. Except for high sulfur fuel, the results of the present model agreed with the experimental results.

  12. Passive acoustic monitoring of the decline of Mexico's critically endangered vaquita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Legorreta, Armando; Cardenas-Hinojosa, Gustavo; Nieto-Garcia, Edwyna; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Ver Hoef, Jay; Moore, Jeffrey; Tregenza, Nicholas; Barlow, Jay; Gerrodette, Tim; Thomas, Len; Taylor, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The vaquita (Phocoena sinus) is the world's most endangered marine mammal with approximately 245 individuals remaining in 2008. This species of porpoise is endemic to the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, and historically the population has declined because of unsustainable bycatch in gillnets. An illegal gillnet fishery for an endangered fish, the totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), has recently resurged throughout the vaquita's range. The secretive but lucrative wildlife trade with China for totoaba swim bladders has probably increased vaquita bycatch mortality by an unknown amount. Precise population monitoring by visual surveys is difficult because vaquitas are inherently hard to see and have now become so rare that sighting rates are very low. However, their echolocation clicks can be identified readily on specialized acoustic detectors. Acoustic detections on an array of 46 moored detectors indicated vaquita acoustic activity declined by 80% between 2011 and 2015 in the central part of the species' range. Statistical models estimated an annual rate of decline of 34% (95% Bayesian credible interval -48% to -21%). Based on results from 2011 to 2014, the government of Mexico enacted and is enforcing an emergency 2-year ban on gillnets throughout the species' range to prevent extinction, at a cost of US$74 million to compensate fishers. Developing precise acoustic monitoring methods proved critical to exposing the severity of vaquitas' decline and emphasizes the need for continual monitoring to effectively manage critically endangered species. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Avian botulism: a case study in translocated endangered Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Klavitter, John L.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Laysan Ducks are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago and are one of the world’s most endangered waterfowl. For 150 yr, Laysan Ducks were restricted to an estimated 4 km2 of land on Laysan Island in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In 2004 and 2005, 42 Laysan Ducks were translocated to Midway Atoll, and the population increased to approximately 200 by 2007. In August 2008, mortality due to botulism type C was identified, and 181 adult, fledgling, and duckling carcasses were collected from August to October. Diseased birds were found on two islands within Midway Atoll at multiple wetlands; however, one wetland contributed most carcasses. The epidemic was discovered approximately 14–21 days after the mortality started and lasted for 50 additional days. The details of this epidemic highlight the disease risk to birds restricted to small island populations and the challenges associated with managing newly translocated endangered species. Frequent population monitoring for early disease detection and comprehensive wetland monitoring and management will be needed to manage avian botulism in endangered Laysan Ducks. Vaccination may also be beneficial to reduce mortality in this small, geographically closed population.

  14. [Endemic plants for medicine use in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gang-Qiang; Li, Hai-Tao; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Li-Xia; Li, Ya-Jing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Based on plant species databases, species lists and literature records, general situation of the Chinese medicinal endemic plant (vascular plant) has been systematically summarized, and its quantity and distribution characteristics of Chinese medicinal endemic plants are presented in this paper. The results showed that 3 150 endemic species are Chinese medicinal plants belonging to 785 genera in 153 families, which includes 38 species of 22 genera in 12 families of pteridophyta, 42 species of 14 genera in7 families of gymnosperms, and 3 070 species of 749 genara in 134 families of angiosperms. The top four families involving medicinal endemic species are Asteraceae (218 species), Ranunculaceae (182 species), Labiatae (151 species), and Liliaceae (133 species). The top four provincial administration distributed medicinal endemic species are Sichuan (1 568 species), Yunnan (1 533 species), Guizhou (955 species) and Hubei (930 species).On the regional scale, the most abundant one is the southwest region (2 465 species), followed by the central region (1 226 species) and the northwest region (949 species). Localization characteristics for domestication and artificial cultivation of medicinal endemic species are more prominent due to their narrower and limited distribution areas, indicating it is possible for these species acting as local potential resource for reasonable economic development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. To eat or not to eat? The diet of the endangered iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in a human- dominated landscape in central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Rita Tinoco; Silva, Nicole; Brotas, Gonçalo; Fonseca, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their persecution by local communities are major conservation concerns. In order to prevent speculations and reduce conflicts, it is crucial to get detailed and accurate data on predators? dietary ecology, which is particularly important in human dominated landscapes where livestock densities are high. This is the case of the endangered Iberian wolf in Portugal, an endemic subspecies of the Iberian Peninsula, which has seen its population distributi...

  16. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  17. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  18. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  19. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  20. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans.

  1. Environmental impact management during construction of the limestone project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Limestone Generating Station is being constructed on the Nelson River in Northern Manitoba, and will consist of a 10 unit powerhouse, 5 gate concrete spillway and earthfill dam spanning the 1.5 km width of the Nelson River. Environmental concerns associated with the project included insufficient pre- and post-construction monitoring documenting resources present or magnitude of impacts, impacts on brook trout and lake sturgeon resources, wildlife habitat loss due to construction activities, destruction or disturbance of historic or archaeological sites, degradation of nearby water courses and fish habitat by aggregate removal, in-migration of construction personnel, and various other socio-economic impacts. An overview is provided of monitoring activities and results in the above areas, which involved numerous consultants and government agencies. The project administration and workers did not find the environmental programs, including inspection and enforcement activities, to be onerous or an impediment to the project. On the contrary, the environmental requirements assisted in the general planning for certain activities, and in the general criteria for the conduct of the activities. The work permit process was particularly useful as it defined the requirements of both parties and provided the specific standards necessary determining the acceptability of the activities. 14 refs., 1 fig

  2. Ground-water resources of Limestone County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettman, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Limestone County, located in east-central Texas, has small to plentiful ground-water supplies available, depending upon the location within the county. The Wilcox Group in the eastern part of the county has adequate supplies to meet the expected water demands in the foreseeable future. The thicker zones of the Wilcox Group can supply yields in excess of 500 gallons per minute. The Midway Group can supply yields in excess of 100 gallons per minute from the Tehuacana Member of the Kincaid Formation. This represents the largest well yields from the Midway Group in Texas. The Midway Group elsewhere in the State is mostly a poor water producer and is not considered an aquifer. The Taylor Marl and Navarro Group furnish only small quantities of ground water to wells in the western part of the county where these units crop out. The Hosston and Travis Peak Formations are present at depths in excess of 2,000 feet. These formations, which contain slightly saline water in the western part of the county, could be expected to produce water with a temperature of about 150°F that might be used for heating purposes.

  3. The influence of combustion derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, JB; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, GE

    1996-01-01

    10(-4) mu g cm(-2) s(-1), the pollutants were assessed individually and in various combinations, along with ozone as oxidant, at 84% RH with dry or water-wetted surfaces. The degradation was followed by analysis of exposed stone, for Cl-, SO42- and NO3-, and of run-off solution for Ca2+, in addition......% reaction (mass transport control) and V-D values of 2.2 and 5.3 mm s(-1), at 84% RH and on wetted surfaces, respectively. The reactivity of SO2 rose from 2.5 to 35%, and V-D from 1 to 2.9 mm s(-1), from conditions of 84% RH to those with the presence of water, NO2 and O-3. Similarly, the reactivity of NO2......, chemical constitution and transfer, smoke particle size distribution should also be considered in any possible action on limestone. Concerning naturally exposed samples, non-wetted surface reaction products tended to reduce the attack of pollutants, but had no resisting effect when wetted....

  4. Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillmore, G.K. E-mail: g.k.gillmore@bradford.ac.uk; Phillips, P.S.; Denman, A.R.; Gilbertson, D.D

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m{sup -3}) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m{sup -3} in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m{sup -3}). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system.

  5. Economics of the Endangered Species Act

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner M. Brown; Jason F. Shogren

    1998-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of our most far-reaching and controversial environmental laws. While the benefits of protecting endangered species accrue to the entire nation, a significant fraction of the costs are borne by the private landowners who shelter about 90 percent of the nearly 1,000 listed species. The pressure to know whether the social benefits of preservation exceed the private costs has thrust economics into ongoing reauthorization debate. This paper examines how ec...

  6. Coated limestone as a filler for the production of PVC-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of laboratory investigations of the possibility to obtain coated limestone for the production of PVC-products are presented in this paper. Limestone from the "Venčac" deposit (Aranđelovac, Serbia and Montenegro was used as the raw material. The investigations were carried out in two phases: obtaining the coated limestone and determination of the degree of coating. The results of the investigations showed that successful coating of the surface of the limestone particles with Ca-stearate (Ca-stearate content 3% was achieved in a vibro mill with rings and the obtained degree of coating was higher than 95%. The coating degree was determined in transmitted light by a polarization microscope applying the immersion method (water immersion.

  7. Dolomitization in the diagenetic history of the Štramberg limestones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lintnerová, O.; Knietl, M.; Reháková, D.; Skupien, P.; Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 3/1 (2008), s. 191-192 ISSN 0138-0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Štramberk Limestone * dolomitization * dedolomitization Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. Limestones in Treinta y Tres district : Aerial photo of Jose P. Varela - Isla Patrulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.; Heinzen, W.

    1981-01-01

    This work brings information of fields and laboratory samples about the outcrop in Treinta y Tres district in the framework of limestones programme carried out jointly with I.G.U and BGR through the geological German mission

  9. Systematic ichnology of microborings from the Cenozoic White Limestone Group, Jamaica, West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blissett, D.J.; Pickerill, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    The Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene White Limestone Group of Jamaica contains a common and diverse, poorly to well-preserved microboring ichnofauna, namely Centrichnus eccentricus Bromley & Martinell, Curvichnus pediformis isp. nov., Dendrorete balani Tavernier, Campbell & Golubic, Dipatulichnus

  10. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : year one interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several Districts have had placement issues and premature failures at the beginning of 2010. The...

  11. Experimental study on CO{sub 2} capture conditions of a fluidized bed limestone decomposition reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Shiying [Japan Coal Energy Center, 3-14-10 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshizo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, the decomposition conditions of limestone particles (0.25-0.50 mm) for CO{sub 2} capture in a steam dilution atmosphere (20-100% steam in CO{sub 2}) were investigated by using a continuously operating fluidized bed reactor. The results show that the decomposition conversion of limestone increased with the steam dilution percentage in the CO{sub 2} supply gas. At a bed temperature of 920 C, the conversions were 72% without steam dilution and 98% with 60% steam dilution. The conversion was 99% with 100% steam dilution at 850 C of the bed temperature. Steam dilution can decrease not only the decomposition temperature of limestone, but also the residence time required for nearly complete decomposition of CaCO{sub 3}. The hydration and carbonation reactivities of the CaO produced were also tested and the results show that both the reactivities increased with the steam dilution percentage for decomposing limestone. (author)

  12. Hydration study of limestone blended cement in the presence of hazardous wastes containing Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trezza, M.A.; Ferraiuelo, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Considering the increasing use of limestone cement manufacture, the present paper tends to characterize limestone behavior in the presence of Cr(VI). The research reported herein provides information regarding the effect of Cr(VI) from industrial wastes in the limestone cement hydration. The cementitious materials were ordinary Portland cement, as reference, and limestone blended cement. The hydration and physicomechanical properties of cementitious materials and the influence of chromium at an early age were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), conductimetric and mechanical tests. Portland cement pastes with the addition of Cr(VI) were examined and leaching behavior with respect to water and acid solution were investigated. This study indicates that Cr(VI) modifies the rate and the components obtained during the cement hydration

  13. The Effect of Limestone, Crush Rock and Asbestos/Cement Dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Limestone, Crush Rock and Asbestos/Cement Dust Particles on the Ventilatory Function Parameters of Chronically-Exposed Workers in Calabar Municipality and Akamkpa Local Government Areas of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

  14. 78 FR 40669 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Aboriginal Prickly-Apple, and Designation of Critical Habitat for Cape Sable Thoroughwort AGENCY: Fish and... public comment period on the October 11, 2012, proposed rule to list Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable...-apple) as endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to...

  15. 78 FR 65936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... rules to list the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to designate critical...

  16. Inelastic Compaction in High-Porosity Limestone Monitored Using Acoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Patrick; Schubnel, Alexandre; Heap, Michael; Rolland, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    We performed a systematic investigation of mechanical compaction and strain localization in Saint-Maximin limestone, a quartz-rich, high-porosity (37%) limestone from France. Our new data show that the presence of a significant proportion of secondary mineral (i.e., quartz) did not impact the mechanical strength of the limestone in both the brittle faulting and cataclastic flow regimes, but that the presence of water exerted a significant weakening effect. In contrast to previously published studies on deformation in limestones, inelastic compaction in Saint-Maximin limestone was accompanied by abundant acoustic emission (AE) activity. The location of AE hypocenters during triaxial experiments revealed the presence of compaction localization. Two failure modes were identified in agreement with microstructural analysis and X-ray computed tomography imaging: compactive shear bands developed at low confinement and complex diffuse compaction bands formed at higher confinement. Microstructural observations on deformed samples suggest that the recorded AE activity associated with inelastic compaction, unusual for a porous limestone, could have been due to microcracking at the quartz grain interfaces. Similar to published data on high-porosity macroporous limestones, the crushing of calcite grains was the dominant micromechanism of inelastic compaction in Saint-Maximin limestone. New P wave velocity data show that the effect of microcracking was dominant near the yield point and resulted in a decrease in P wave velocity, while porosity reduction resulted in a significant increase in P wave velocity beyond a few percent of plastic volumetric strain. These new data highlight the complex interplay between mineralogy, rock microstructure, and strain localization in porous rocks.

  17. Comparison of different modeling approaches to simulate contaminant transport in a fractured limestone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Rosenberg, L.; Balbarini, Nicola

    approaches have been developed to describe contaminant transport in fractured media, such as the discrete fracture (with various fracture geometries), equivalent porous media (with and without anisotropy), and dual porosity models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for limestone geologies...... of field data is the determination of relevant hydraulic properties and interpretation of aqueous and solid phase contaminant concentration sampling data. Traditional water sampling has a bias towards fracture sampling, however concentrations in the limestone matrix are needed for assessing contaminant...

  18. Evaluation of modeling approaches to simulate contaminant transport in a fractured limestone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Broholm, Mette Martina

    contaminant transport in fractured media, such as discrete fracture, equivalent porous media, and dual continuum models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for real limestone geologies. Our goal is therefore to develop, evaluate and compare approaches for modeling transport of contaminants...... data is the determination of relevant hydraulic properties and interpretation of aqueous and solid phase contaminant concentration sampling data. Traditional water sampling has a bias towards fracture sampling; however, concentrations in the limestone matrix are needed for assessing contaminant rebound...

  19. APPLICATION OF RESTORATION ECOLOGY PRINCIPLES TO THE PRACTICE OF LIMESTONE QUARRY REHABILITATION IN LEBANON

    OpenAIRE

    Khater, Carla; Martin, Arnaud

    2007-01-01

    National audience; Restoration ecology is an emerging science dealing with applied ecology and aiming at “helping nature to recreate itself”. This comprehensive paper presents the findings and main results related to the analysis of natural vegetation dynamics on abandoned limestone quarries in Mediterranean environment. It aims to answer three basic questions: where, when and how should intervention by ecological restoration be achieved in abandoned limestone quarries. Results show that quar...

  20. Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave 'lamp-flora', calcite speleothems and limestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faimon, Jiri; Stelcl, Jindrich; Kubesova, Svatava; Zimak, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide plus limestone fragments allows removal of organisms without corrosion of limestone and speleothem. - Mosses, algae, and cyanobacteria (lamp-flora) colonize illuminated areas in show caves. This biota is commonly removed by a sodium hypochlorite solution. Because chlorine and other deleterious compounds are released into a cave environment during lamp-flora cleansing, hydrogen peroxide was tested as an alternative agent. In a multidisciplinary study conducted in the Katerinska Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), 12 algae- and cyanobacteria taxons and 19 moss taxons were detected. The threshold hydrogen peroxide concentration for the destruction of this lamp-flora was found to be 15 vol.%. Based on laboratory experiments in stirred batch reactors, the dissolution rates of limestones and calcite speleothems in water were determined as 3.77x10 -3 and 1.81x10 -3 mol m -2 h -1 , respectively. In the 15% peroxide solution, the limestone and speleothem dissolution rates were one order of magnitude higher, 2.00x10 -2 and 2.21x10 -2 mol m -2 h -1 , respectively. So, the peroxide solution was recognised to attack carbonates somewhat more aggressively than karst water. In order to prevent the potential corrosion of limestone and speleothems, the reaching of preliminary peroxide saturation with respect to calcite is recommended, for example, by adding of few limestone fragments into the solution at least 10 h prior to its application

  1. Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Omar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. Limestone waste is obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. Using quarry waste as a substitute of sand in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of river and mining sands. This paper reports the experimental study undertaken to investigate the influence of partial replacement of sand with limestone waste (LSW, with marble powder (M.P as an additive on the concrete properties. The replacement proportion of sand with limestone waste, 25%, 50%, and 75% were practiced in the concrete mixes except in the concrete mix. Besides, proportions of 5%, 10% and 15% marble powder were practiced in the concrete mixes. The effects of limestone waste as fine aggregate on several fresh and hardened properties of the concretes were investigated. The investigation included testing of compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and permeability. It was found that limestone waste as fine aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh concretes. But the unit weight concretes were not affected. However, the good performance was observed when limestone waste as fine aggregate was used in presence of marble powder.

  2. Studies on limestone concrete as a low-activation structural material for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Mikio; Nagano, Hiroshi; Naito, Yasuhiro

    2000-01-01

    Because of low content of Li, Co and Eu, the target nuclides of activation reaction, limestone concrete is considered to be effective in reducing the decommissioning cost of nuclear plants. Induced activity calculation and structural strength test were performed for limestone concrete and the results were compared with the data obtained for sandstone concrete, which is generally used in nuclear plants. Minor elements, which are important from the viewpoint of activation, were measured with elementary analysis for limestone samples from three different quarries in Japan. Induced activity in biological shield walls (BSW) of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants was calculated with the isotope generation code ORIGEN-79 using neutron flux data obtained with the one-dimensional Sn transport code ANISN and MGCL 137-group activation cross section library based on JENDL-3. Estimated total radioactivity accumulated in limestone concrete BSW was 5 times lower than that in the sandstone concrete BSW. Structural strength were compared between limestone concrete and sandstone concrete, and limestone concrete was found to have enough compressive strength and tensile strength. (author)

  3. Reducing energy-related CO2 emissions using accelerated weathering of limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Greg H.; Knauss, Kevin G.; Langer, William H.; Caldeira, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The use and impacts of accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL; reaction: CO2+H2O+CaCO3→Ca2++2(HCO3-) is explored as a CO2 capture and sequestration method. It is shown that significant limestone resources are relatively close to a majority of CO2-emitting power plants along the coastal US, a favored siting location for AWL. Waste fines, representing more than 20% of current US crushed limestone production (>109 tonnes/yr), could provide an inexpensive or free source of AWL carbonate. With limestone transportation then as the dominant cost variable, CO2 mitigation costs of $3-$4/tonne appear to be possible in certain locations. Perhaps 10–20% of US point–source CO2 emissions could be mitigated in this fashion. It is experimentally shown that CO2 sequestration rates of 10-6 to 10-5 moles/sec per m2 of limestone surface area are achievable, with reaction densities on the order of 10-2 tonnes CO2 m-3day-1, highly dependent on limestone particle size, solution turbulence and flow, and CO2 concentration. Modeling shows that AWL would allow carbon storage in the ocean with significantly reduced impacts to seawater pH relative to direct CO2 disposal into the atmosphere or sea. The addition of AWL-derived alkalinity to the ocean may itself be beneficial for marine biota.

  4. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae: Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis, endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon’s index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested.

  5. Cryptic diversity, geographical endemism and allopolyploidy in NE Pacific seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, João; Serrão, Ester A; Anderson, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Martins, Neusa; Gouveia, Licínia; Paulino, Cristina; Coelho, Nelson C; Miller, Kathy Ann; Reed, Daniel C; Ladah, Lydia B; Pearson, Gareth A

    2017-01-23

    Molecular markers are revealing a much more diverse and evolutionarily complex picture of marine biodiversity than previously anticipated. Cryptic and/or endemic marine species are continually being found throughout the world oceans, predominantly in inconspicuous tropical groups but also in larger, canopy-forming taxa from well studied temperate regions. Interspecific hybridization has also been found to be prevalent in many marine groups, for instance within dense congeneric assemblages, with introgressive gene-flow being the most common outcome. Here, using a congeneric phylogeographic approach, we investigated two monotypic and geographically complementary sister genera of north-east Pacific intertidal seaweeds (Hesperophycus and Pelvetiopsis), for which preliminary molecular tests revealed unexpected conflicts consistent with unrecognized cryptic diversity and hybridization. The three recovered mtDNA clades did not match a priori species delimitations. H. californicus was congruent, whereas widespread P. limitata encompassed two additional narrow-endemic species from California - P. arborescens (here genetically confirmed) and P. hybrida sp. nov. The congruence between the genotypic clusters and the mtDNA clades was absolute. Fixed heterozygosity was apparent in a high proportion of loci in P. limitata and P. hybrida, with genetic analyses showing that the latter was composed of both H. californicus and P. arborescens genomes. All four inferred species could be distinguished based on their general morphology. This study confirmed additional diversity and reticulation within NE Pacific Hesperophycus/Pelvetiopsis, including the validity of the much endangered, modern climatic relict P. arborescens, and the identification of a new, stable allopolyploid species (P. hybrida) with clearly discernable ancestry (♀ H. californicus x ♂ P. arborescens), morphology, and geographical distribution. Allopolyploid speciation is otherwise completely unknown in brown

  6. Mangrove plantation over a limestone reef - Good for the ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaeda, Takashi; Barnuevo, Abner; Sanjaya, Kelum; Fortes, Miguel D.; Kanesaka, Yoshikazu; Wolanski, Eric

    2016-05-01

    There have been efforts to restore degraded tropical and subtropical mangrove forests. While there have been many failures, there have been some successes but these were seldom evaluated to test to what level the created mangrove wetlands reproduce the characteristics of the natural ecosystem and thus what ecosystem services they can deliver. We provide such a detailed assessment for the case of Olango and Banacon Islands in the Philippines where the forest was created over a limestone reef where mangroves did not exist in one island but they covered most of the other island before deforestation in the 1940s and 1950s. The created forest appears to have reached a steady state after 60 years. As is typical of mangrove rehabilitation efforts worldwide, planting was limited to a single Rhizophora species. While a forest has been created, it does not mimic a natural forest. There is a large difference between the natural and planted forests in terms of forest structure and species diversity, and tree density. The high density of planted trees excludes importing other species from nearby natural forests; therefore the planted forest remains mono-specific even after several decades and shows no sign of mimicking the characteristics of a natural forest. The planted forests provided mangrove propagules that invaded nearby natural forests. The planted forest has also changed the substratum from sandy to muddy. The outline of the crown of the planted forest has become smooth and horizontal, contrary to that of a natural forest, and this changes the local landscape. Thus we recommend that future mangrove restoration schemes should modify their methodology in order to plant several species, maintain sufficient space between trees for growth, include the naturally dominant species, and create tidal creeks, in order to reproduce in the rehabilitated areas some of the key ecosystem characteristics of natural mangrove forests.

  7. An Unusual Process of Accelerated Weathering of a Marly Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, L.; Rizzo, G.; Algozzini, G.

    2003-04-01

    This work deals with a singular case of stone deterioration, which occurred during the restoration of the Cathedral of Cefalù. In particular, a significant process of stone decohesion started after a consolidation treatment on ashlars of the external face of the cloister portico. A study was carried out to characterize the stone and to investigate the deterioration process. Petrographical, chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples taken from the wall. The results indicate that the medieval monument was built using a Pliocene marly limestone, called "trubo", quarried from outcrops of the environs of Cefalù. The rock is soft and uniformely cemented. The carbonatic fraction of the rock is due to foraminifera shells; the rock also contains detritic quartz, feldspate and glauconite. The clay minerals, mainly illite and montmorillonite, are widespread in the rock in the form of thin layers. The use of such a stone in a building of relevant artistic value is definitely unusual. In fact, the "trubo" is a rock subjected to natural decay because of its mineralogical composition and fabric; as effect of natural weathering, in the outcrops the rock disaggregates uniformely, producing silt. In the cloister this effect was magnified by extreme environmental conditions (marine spray, severe excursions of both relative humidity and temperature). Furthermore, after soluble salts removing and subsequent consolidation with ethyl silicate, a significant acceleration of the decay process was observed, producing friable scales detach for a depth of about 3 cm into the ashlars. The stone appeared corroded and uneven. Experimental tests were performed in laboratory in order to evidence any origin of incompatibility between such stone composition and the treatments carried out, which on the other hand are the most generally adopted in restoration interventions.

  8. Flora and threatened and endangered plants of John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required revision of this list. The revised list includes 1045 taxa of which 850 are native and 195 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Forty six taxa are endemic or nearly endemic to Florida, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of central Florida. Seventy three taxa (69 native) are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on Federal or state lists. Taxa of special concern occur in all major habitats, but many are restricted to hammocks and hardwood swamps that constitute a minor proportion of the terrestrial vegetation. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area include 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  9. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status.

  10. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    .... (C). Canavalia pubescens awikiwiki Proposed--Endangered Proposed. (C). Cyanea asplenifolia haha Proposed--Endangered Proposed. (C). Cyanea duvalliorum haha Proposed--Endangered... Proposed. Cyanea horrida haha nui Proposed--Endangered... Proposed. Cyanea kunthiana haha Proposed--Endangered Proposed. (C...

  11. The lonely endemic Palni Hills Rudraksha Tree Elaeocarpus blascoi Weibel (Magnoliopsida: Malvales: Elaeocarpaceae, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanaraj Felix Irudhayaraj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on exploration, phenology, floral morphology and seed biology of little known endemic species Elaeocarpus blascoi Weible were conducted in the forest areas of Palni hills. This study confirmed that only three individual existing in the wild; one mature individual available in the wild, whereas the other two individuals are under the conservation of NGO. The considerable percentage of tender shoots, flowers and fruits were infested by unidentified insects (aphids/ticks. The seed germination percentage in the natural habitat is very poor. The distribution and survival of species in the wild is questionable. The threat status of the species needs to be reassessed and updated as Endangered in the IUCN list and effective strategies to be developed to protect the species from further extinction.

  12. Nomination of the Globigerina Limestone of the Maltese Islands as a "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, JoAnn

    2016-04-01

    The Maltese Islands consist of two main islands, Malta and Gozo, as well as a small number of islets, and lie in the central Mediterranean Sea approximately 90 km south of Sicily. Although only 316 square kilometres in size, the Islands contain a rich concentration of archaeological sites and historic buildings, as well as vernacular architecture and modern buildings, for the most part built of the local Globigerina Limestone, which is one of the few natural resources of the Islands. This stone can be described as a typical "soft limestone", very easy to carve and shape. It forms part of the large family of Oligo-Miocene "soft limestones" widely diffused in the Mediterranean Basin. The Maltese Globigerina Limestone Formation is one of five main Formations, and varies in thickness from 20 to over 200 m. The material used for building is located stratigraphically in the lower part of the Globigerina Limestone Formation, called the Lower Globigerina Limestone. This Formation is stratified into thick beds at outcrop. Sections where bioturbation is concentrated often also occur. This limestone is fine-grained, yellow to pale grey in colour, almost wholly composed of the tests of globigerinid planktonic foraminifera. Petrographically, Globigerina Limestone can be described as a bioclastic packstone, with bioclastic wackestones also occurring. This limestone has always been used as the predominant building material in the Islands. The Maltese prehistoric Temples, which were constructed approximately 6000 years ago, bear testimony to this. Between 1530 and 1798 the Order of the Knights of St John built kilometres of fortifications in this same material to protect the Island from the expanding Ottoman Empire. Fortifications, impressive churches, auberges and palaces were built of this stone during this period. The capital city of Valletta, a rich and dense manifestation of Baroque architecture in Globigerina Limestone, is included on the UNESCO World Heritage List, as are

  13. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  14. COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW AND ENDANGERED PUPFISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard environmental assessment procedures are assumed to protect aquatic species, including endangered ones. However, it is not known if endangered species are adequately protected by these procedures. To test the validity of this assumption, static acute toxicity tests were c...

  15. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....11). The Department of Commerce has authority over some threatened and endangered marine mammals, fish and reptiles. (b) Possible loss of values: The major potential impacts on threatened or endangered...

  16. Outstanding micro-endemism in New Caledonia: More than one out of ten animal species have a very restricted distribution range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, Maram; Grandcolas, Philippe; Pellens, Roseli

    2017-01-01

    New Caledonia is a biodiversity hotspot, with an extremely high number of endemic species with narrow distribution ranges that are at high risk of extinction due to open-cast nickel mining, invasive species and seasonal man-induced fires. Mentions of micro-endemism permeate the literature on the biota of this archipelago. However, so far there has been no research comparing distribution range in different animal groups. The aim of this study is to examine the implication of different sampling effort variables in order to distinguish micro-endemicity from data deficiency, and evaluate the distribution range, frequency, and extent to which micro-endemism is common to several groups of organisms. We compiled a dataset derived from publications in Zoologia Neocaledonica, comprising 1,149 species, of which 86% are endemic to New Caledonia. We found that the sampling effort variables that were best correlated with distribution range were the number of sampling dates and the number of collectors per species. The median value of sampling dates was used to establish a cut-off point for defining adequately sampled species. We showed that, although only 52% of species were sampled adequately enough to determine their distribution range, the number of species with a very narrow distribution range was still high. Among endemics from New Caledonia, 12% (116 species) have ranges ≤5.2km2 and 3.9% (38 species) have ranges between 23 and 100 km2. Surprisingly, a similar trend was observed in non-endemic species: 22% occurred in areas ≤ 5.2 km2, and 8% in areas 23-100 km2, suggesting that environmental dissimilarity may play an important role in the distribution of these species. Micro-endemic species were predominant in 18 out of 20 orders. These results will contribute to a re-assessment of the IUCN red list of species in this archipelago, indicating that at least 116 species are probably critically endangered.

  17. Effective stress law for the permeability and deformation of four porous limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Meng, F.; Wang, X.; Baud, P.; Wong, T. F.

    2017-12-01

    The effective stress behavior of a rock is related to the geometric of its pore space. In a microscopically homogeneous assemblage, effective stress coefficients for permeability, volumetric strain and porosity change are predicted to be equal to or less than unity. Experimental measurements are in basic agreement with this prediction, with exceptions particularly in clay-rich sandstones, for which effective stress coefficient for permeability up to 7 was documented. Little is known about carbonates, but Ghabezloo et al. [2009] studied the permeability of an oolitic limestone (from Nimes, France) with 17% porosity and reported effective stress coefficients up to 2.4. We investigated this phenomenon in Indiana, Leitha, Purbeck, and Thala limestones with porosities of 13-30%. Measurements were made at room temperature on water-saturated samples at confining and pore pressures of 7-15 MPa and 1-3 MPa, respectively. Unlike previous studies limited to the permeability, we also determined the effective stress coefficients for volumetric strain and porosity change. Indiana limestone is oolitic, and not surprisingly its behaviour was similar to Nimes limestone, with an effective stress coefficient for permeability of 2.5. Our Indiana limestone data showed that whereas the effective stress coefficient for volumetric strain was 1. Measurements on Purbeck and Thala limestones are consistent with these inequalities, with effective stress coefficients for permeability and porosity change >1 and that for volumetric strain Berryman [1992] analyzed theoretically a rock made up of two porous constituents. Our new data are in agreement with inequalities he derived for these effective stress coefficients. For comparison, we also studied Leitha limestone predominately made up of macropores. Our measurements showed that in this case all three effective stress coefficients were <1, as predicted for a microscopically homogeneous assemblage.

  18. Field and laboratory experiments on high dissolution rates of limestone in stream flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattanji, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Mariko; Song, Wonsuh; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Takaya, Yasuhiko; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2014-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed to examine dissolution rates of limestone in stream flow. Field experiments were conducted in three stream sites (A-C) with different lithological or hydrological settings around a limestone plateau in the Abukuma Mts., Japan. Sites A and B are allogenic streams, which flow from non-limestone sources into dolines, and site C has a karst spring source. Tablets made of limestone from the same plateau with a diameter of 3.5 cm and a thickness of 1 cm were placed in the streams for 3 years (2008-2011) where alkalinity, pH and major cation concentrations were measured periodically. The saturation indices of calcite (SIc) of stream water were - 2.8 ± 0.4 at site A, - 2.5 ± 0.4 at site B and - 0.5 ± 0.4 at site C. Annual weight loss ratios for tablets were extremely high at site A (0.11-0.14 mg cm- 2 d- 1), high at site B (0.05 mg cm- 2 d- 1), and low at site C (0.005 mg cm- 2 d- 1). The contrasting rates of weight loss are mainly explained by chemical conditions of stream water. In addition, laboratory experiments for dissolution of limestone tablets using a flow-through apparatus revealed that flow conditions around the limestone tablet is another important factor for dissolution in the stream environment. These results revealed that limestone dissolves at a rapid rate where water unsaturated to calcite continuously flows, such as in an allogenic stream.

  19. The Influence of Limestone And Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaran Danny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradations, filler and liquid asphalt mixed and solidified in a heat state. Limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture is used because both materials included in the most numerous sedimentary rock. Concrete asphalt mixture with the filler combination of limestone and calciumhydroxide is made with optimum asphalt 5.4%, one variation level of limestone (15%, and calcium hydroxide (15%, and three variation levels of fillers (5%, 7.5%, and 15% to get optimum asphalt levels and filler levels that are compatible with flood condition. Based on optimum asphalt 5.4% towards aggregate total weight and combined level of limestone and calcium hydroxide suitable for the conditions, 8.75 % towards fine aggregate weight. The characteristic value of limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture in maximum condition is VIM 4.55%, VMA 18.83%, stability 1031.26 kg and flow 4.93 mm, where the characteristic value meets the established specifications standard by Pekerjaan Umum Bina Marga. From the result, it is showed that the use of the mixture can decrease the value of stability and increase the value of flow, compared with asphalt and filler with normal levels.

  20. Reduced genetic diversity in endemic Brazilian Lymania spp (Bromeliaceae) populations and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamponét, V C C; Alves, T F; Martinez, R A; Corrêa, R X; Gaiotto, F A

    2013-10-10

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of two sympatric species of Lymania (Bromeliaceae), both endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia (Brazil). Lymania azurea has a restricted occurrence, while Lymania smithii has a wider distribution. Our aim was to provide genetic data to contribute to the design of more efficient conservation strategies for these bromeliads, possibly justifying inclusion in the official Brazilian list of Endangered Species. Up to now, L. azurea has been classified by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment as "data deficient". We sampled four populations of L. azurea throughout its distribution area in southern Bahia and two populations of L. smithii in the same region. Genotyping was performed with 48 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the Jaccard genetic similarity index, L. smithii has greater diversity than L. azurea. An analysis of molecular variation showed greater genetic variance within than between populations for both species. L. azurea was found to have 20% inbreeding, probably due to population fragmentation, with L. smithii showing only 10%. When we analyzed pairs of populations of L. azurea within a conservation unit, we found low population structure (ФST = 0.098), apparently due to a large degree of gene flow between them. In disturbed areas, we found a higher ФST (0.372). We found low genetic variability for L. azurea, probably as a consequence of habitat fragmentation, supporting the need for its inclusion in the Brazilian list of endangered flora.

  1. ESUSA: US endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.

  2. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (a) The list in this section contains the names of all species of plants which have been...

  3. 75 FR 11193 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...] Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... employees and their designated agents to conduct enhancement of survival activities for a plant that was recently added to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants (Phyllostegia hispida). The Endangered...

  4. 75 FR 63196 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... (Panthera tigris) to worldwide locations for the purpose of enhancement of the species. The permit numbers... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish and... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA...

  5. 78 FR 13642 - Endangered Species; File No. 17506

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC518 Endangered...

  6. 76 FR 58471 - Endangered Species; File No. 15634

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The SWFSC proposes to conduct research on... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA714 Endangered...

  7. 78 FR 22517 - Endangered Species; File No. 16549

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Permit Holder is issued a five... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes...

  8. 78 FR 22239 - Endangered Species; File No. 16556

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts... operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the...

  9. 76 FR 22877 - Endangered Species; File No. 15566

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with...

  10. 78 FR 57132 - Endangered Species; File No. 16230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... authorization for incidental take of sea turtles listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) associated with..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). This permit authorizes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC289 Endangered...

  11. 75 FR 78227 - Endangered Species; File No. 14400

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... black abalone, a species listed as endangered on February 13, 2009. The objective of this monitoring is...) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent...

  12. 76 FR 66042 - Endangered Species; File No. 1551

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA785 Endangered...

  13. 75 FR 22106 - Endangered Species; File No. 14510

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The purpose of the proposed research..., (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is...

  14. 78 FR 3882 - Endangered Species; File No. 13543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XJ40 Endangered...

  15. 77 FR 1062 - Endangered Species; File No. 16146

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Dr. Hart is authorized to study green, hawksbill... for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species...

  16. 77 FR 55194 - Endangered Species; File No. 17095

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    .... The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Permit Holder is issued a five-year... operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the...

  17. 77 FR 24686 - Endangered Species; File No. 15634

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA714 Endangered...

  18. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  19. 75 FR 26715 - Endangered Species; File No. 1596

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 29, 2009 (74 FR 38585), is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 1596-02 authorizes the SWFSC to capture... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW36 Endangered...

  20. 77 FR 21751 - Endangered Species; File No. 16645

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The permit application is for the incidental take of ESA... appointment in the following office: Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315.... Mail: Submit written comments to Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315...

  1. 75 FR 26715 - Endangered Species; File No. 10022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No... for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species...

  2. 78 FR 59657 - Endangered Species; File No. 17304

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No... operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the...

  3. 78 FR 31519 - Endangered Species; File No. 13543

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... organization. The requested modification has been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 13543 authorizes the permit... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set...

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or contribute to the taking of any endangered or threatened species of plants, fish, or wildlife. (b...

  5. 78 FR 27255 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  6. 75 FR 7443 - Endangered Species; File No. 14381

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ...-named organization. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The researchers will... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes...

  7. 77 FR 31586 - Endangered Species; File No. 16556

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The NEFSC requests a five-year permit... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC037 Endangered...

  8. 77 FR 40588 - Endangered Species; File No. 16598

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB054 Endangered...

  9. 78 FR 41034 - Endangered Species; File No. 18102

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... applied in due form for a permit pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The... also available upon written request or by appointment in the following office: Endangered Species... written comments to Endangered Species Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315...

  10. 75 FR 13488 - Endangered Species; File No. 14949

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The purpose of the research is to provide... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV33 Endangered...

  11. 76 FR 32144 - Endangered Species; File No. 15677

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts..., (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is...

  12. 76 FR 48146 - Endangered Species; File No. 1551

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... subject modification to Permit No. 1551- 02 is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 1551, issued on July 24, 2008... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA620 Endangered...

  13. 76 FR 27306 - Endangered Species; File No. 15661

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The CNMI Division of Fish and Wildlife proposes to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA425 Endangered...

  14. 76 FR 19052 - Endangered Species; File No. 14344

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...-named organization. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit authorizes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA340 Endangered...

  15. 76 FR 45230 - Endangered Species; File No. 15802

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant proposes to monitor smalltooth... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA603 Endangered...

  16. 75 FR 53278 - Endangered Species; File No. 14759

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts...) was applied for in good faith; (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered species...

  17. 77 FR 34061 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...-FF09A30000] Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and...

  18. 77 FR 10724 - Endangered Species; File No. 16253

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The SEFSC... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set...

  19. 75 FR 61133 - Endangered Species; File No. 14176

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    .... The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant is authorized to conduct a... such endangered or threatened species; and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth...

  20. 78 FR 2659 - Endangered Species; File No. 16645

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... written request or by appointment in the following office: Endangered Species Conservation Division... GA DNR. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit authorizes take of ESA...

  1. 76 FR 77781 - Endangered Species; File No. 15802

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). On July 28, 2011 (76 FR 45230), notice was... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA603 Endangered...

  2. 78 FR 39258 - Endangered Species; File No. 18069

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant requests a five-year... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC725 Endangered...

  3. 77 FR 72326 - Endangered Species; File No. 17381

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant requests a 5-year permit to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC372 Endangered...

  4. 77 FR 57559 - Endangered Species; File No. 13330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB144 Endangered...

  5. 75 FR 9868 - Endangered Species; File No. 14622

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU82 Endangered...

  6. 77 FR 67341 - Endangered Species; File No. 15809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC325 Endangered...

  7. 76 FR 45781 - Endangered Species; File No. 15552

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA601 Endangered...

  8. 76 FR 22677 - Endangered Species; File No. 14949

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Dr. Diez was issued a 5-year permit... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA382 Endangered...

  9. 78 FR 44096 - Endangered Species; File No. 17381

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The above... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set...

  10. 78 FR 38952 - Endangered Species; File No. 17506

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Ms. Holloway-Adkins has been issued a 5-year... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with...

  11. 75 FR 13256 - Endangered Species; File No. 14176

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of..., and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant is seeking a five... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV28 Endangered...

  12. 75 FR 13255 - Endangered Species; File No. 15338

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... form for a permit pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The Permit... of the ESA and Federal regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or... regulations governing permits for threatened and endangered species are promulgated at 50 CFR 222.307. Species...

  13. 78 FR 50396 - Endangered Species; File No. 17405

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC519 Endangered...

  14. 76 FR 77780 - Endangered Species; File No. 10022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA867 Endangered...

  15. 78 FR 26323 - Endangered Species; File No. 17183

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC078 Endangered...

  16. 78 FR 5779 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC322 Endangered...

  17. 77 FR 58812 - Endangered Species; File No. 16733

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The SEFSC requests a five-year permit to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC253 Endangered...

  18. 76 FR 18725 - Endangered Species; File No. 16174

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA348 Endangered...

  19. 77 FR 30261 - Endangered Species; File No. 16306

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Maine Department... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA712 Endangered...

  20. 78 FR 16255 - Endangered Species; File No. 17022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC059 Endangered...

  1. 77 FR 15997 - Endangered Species; File No. 15672

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ...-named individual. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act..., and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five year permit... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2...

  2. 77 FR 61745 - Endangered Species; File No. 16803

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The SWFSC... to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes...

  3. 78 FR 38013 - Endangered Species; File No. 15661

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA425 Endangered...

  4. 77 FR 13096 - Endangered Species; File No. 16598

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB054 Endangered...

  5. 77 FR 65673 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The Riverbanks Zoo and Garden is requesting a permit to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC322 Endangered...

  6. 78 FR 17355 - Endangered Species; File No. 17787

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant proposes to gather life... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC576 Endangered...

  7. 78 FR 15706 - Endangered Species; File No. 17316

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2...

  8. 75 FR 21601 - Endangered Species; File No. 14604

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with...

  9. 76 FR 51945 - Endangered Species; File No. 16548

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Springfield Science Museum is... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA648 Endangered...

  10. Karyotype analysis of Ethiopian endemic Kniphofia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image analysis was used to study the karyotype of six Ethiopian Kniphofia species: K. foliosa, K. hildebrandtii, K. insignis, K. isoetifolia, K. schimperi and K. pumila. The first five are endemic to Ethiopia. All have somatic chromosome number of 2n = 12, and follow the same karyotype formula: 1m + 3sm + 2st. There was ...

  11. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; David, Reginald E.; Jacobi, James D.; Banko, Winston E.

    2001-01-01

    Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures. Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Avian recovery is difficult to implement in Hawai‘i because a variety of challenging biological factors limit bird populations. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats. Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline. If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations

  12. Capsule report: Adipic acid-enhanced lime/limestone test results at the EPA alkali scrubbing test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.; Wang, S.C.

    1982-04-01

    The fifth in a series of reports describing the results of the Shawnee Lime and Limestone Wet Scrubbing Test Program, the report describes the results of adipic acid-enhanced limestone wet scrubbing systems. A primary objective of the program was to enhance sulfur oxide removal and improve the reliability and economics of lime and limestone wet scrubbing systems by use of adipic acid as a chemical additive.

  13. Limestones as a paleobathymeter for reconstructing past seismic activities: Muroto-misaki, Shikoku, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryu, Y.; Maemoku, H.; Yamada, T.; Maeda, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Muroto-misaki (Cape Muroto) is located at the southern tip of the eastern half of Shikoku, southwestern Japan and is ~ 100 km north of the Nankai Trough where the Philippine Sea Plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate. Therefore, the Muroto-misaki area has been seismically uplifted. Sedimentologic analyses were conducted on Holocene limestones that occur along the coast from Muroto-misaki to Meoto-iwa, located ~ 13 km north of the cape. The limestones are limited to less than 9.2 m in elevation. The limestones are up to 4.4 m in mean diameter, up to 0.5 m in thickness, and consist mainly of fossilized sessile organisms, including annelids, corals, bryozoans, encrusting foraminifers, barnacles, nongeniculate coralline algae, and, to a lesser extent, molluscs and peyssonneliacean algae. Acicular and equant cements are minor components. Acicular cements are found in semi-closed spaces between coralline algal crusts and their substrates. The modal composition of limestones was determined by a point-counting technique. Based on the biotic composition, the Holocene limestones can be classified into six types (Types I to VI). A comparison of the vertical distribution of these rock types with that of modern sessile organisms indicates that the top of Type I limestone, which is characterized by the occurrence of hermatypic corals, corresponds approximately to the mean low water springs when the limestones formed. A difference in the highest occurrence of Type I limestone between two sites may represent the variation in the total amount of uplift over the last 1000 to 1500 years, which resulted in an apparent northward decline of paleo-mean low water springs at a rate of ~ 10 cm/km. Therefore, the Holocene limestones are a good paleobathymeter to reconstruct past seismic activities in this area. This study shows that warm temperate carbonate deposits are as excellent recorders of geologic events, such as the timing and scale of repeated coseismic uplifts and

  14. The Significance of Podpe limestone in the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, Sabina; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mirtič, Breda; Mladenović, Ana; Rožič, Boštjan; Skaberne, Dragomir; Zupančič, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Podpeč limestone is characterized by its dark grey, or nearly black colour, with white fossil shells of the Lithiotis. These beds, which have been dated as Lower Jurassic, occur in southern and south-western Slovenia, and are particularly common in areas southwest of Ljubljana. The main quarry, which is not active, is located next to the village of Podpeč near Ljubljana, and has been declared as a geological natural value of national importance; as such, it is officially protected as a natural monument. In the close vicinity of the village there are some other smaller quarries, but all of them have been abandoned. With its very low porosity (0.9%) and water absorption (0.13 - 0.30 % by mass), but relatively high compressive strength (185 MPa), this limestone is quite durable, although its colouring becomes somewhat bleached when situated outdoors. The use of Podpeč limestone was first documented in the case of the Roman period in Slovenia, when it was used for funerary stelae, votive altars, boundary stones, and other artefacts. At the end of the 5th Century AD, with the fall of the Roman Empire, stone-cutting ceased at Podpeč for the next few centuries. Before 1850 Podpeč limestone had no special value. Only very few portals or pilasters made of this stone are known, and no evidence has been found in churches. However, towards the end of the 19th Century Podpeč limestone became better-known, although before the first half of the 20th Century there were no significant stonecutting workshops in Podpeč. After this, stone was supplied progressively from the main quarry. Large numbers of buildings in Ljubljana and central Slovenia have sills, lintels and jambs made of Podpeč limestone. Production stopped in 1967. The internationally renowned Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik (1872-1957) used Podpeč limestone in various Slovenian buildings - the central stadium in Ljubljana, the National University Library, many altars and churches (Bogojina, the Ši\\vska and

  15. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Gamma radiation influence on Cladonia substellata (lichen) and its effects on limestone rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Helena P. de B.; Colaco, Waldeciro; Pereira, Eugenia C.; Silva, Nicacio H. da

    2009-01-01

    The lichens play an important role in decomposition of the rocky substrate, through the chemical weathering of their substances. This work aimed to determine the influence of gamma Ray on usnic acid production of Cladonia substellata and the influence of chelates formation in limestone rocks. Samples with 2.5 g of C. substellata were packed on paper envelopes for irradiation submission to gamma on a Co-60 source. They received 10 different doses: 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 80 Gy. Lichen irradiation was conducted on the gamma irradiator (Co-60), and packed over powdered limestone. Lichen samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and rocky samples by X-Ray Diffractometry. The X-ray diffractogram obtained from the analysis of limestone not subjected to the action of lichen - control sample was compared with limestone subjected to C. substellata irradiated at doses 10, 30 and 80Gy. Increased production of the usnic acid and changes on the rocky samples were noted. We realized that C. substellata increments the usnic acid biosynthesis as the gamma radiation dose is increased, but there is a limit to it. The chelating effect of the usnic acid on limestone was proportional to the produced amount of the substance, which could be extrapolated to natural conditions, where excessive radiation may influence pedogenesis and ecological succession. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation influence on Cladonia substellata (lichen) and its effects on limestone rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helena P. de B., E-mail: barrosleny@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nuclear Energy Dept. Energetical and Nuclear Technologies Post-Graduation Program; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nuclear Energy Dept.; Pereira, Eugenia C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Geographical Sciences Dept.; Silva, Nicacio H. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Biochemistry Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The lichens play an important role in decomposition of the rocky substrate, through the chemical weathering of their substances. This work aimed to determine the influence of gamma Ray on usnic acid production of Cladonia substellata and the influence of chelates formation in limestone rocks. Samples with 2.5 g of C. substellata were packed on paper envelopes for irradiation submission to gamma on a Co-60 source. They received 10 different doses: 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 80 Gy. Lichen irradiation was conducted on the gamma irradiator (Co-60), and packed over powdered limestone. Lichen samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and rocky samples by X-Ray Diffractometry. The X-ray diffractogram obtained from the analysis of limestone not subjected to the action of lichen - control sample was compared with limestone subjected to C. substellata irradiated at doses 10, 30 and 80Gy. Increased production of the usnic acid and changes on the rocky samples were noted. We realized that C. substellata increments the usnic acid biosynthesis as the gamma radiation dose is increased, but there is a limit to it. The chelating effect of the usnic acid on limestone was proportional to the produced amount of the substance, which could be extrapolated to natural conditions, where excessive radiation may influence pedogenesis and ecological succession. (author)

  18. The effects of lichen cover upon the rate of solutional weathering of limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy de la Rosa, J. P.; Warke, P. A.; Smith, B. J.

    2014-09-01

    The contribution of lichens to the biomodification of limestone surfaces is an area of conflict within bioweathering studies, with some researchers suggesting a protective effect induced by lichen coverage and others a deteriorative effect induced by the same organisms. Data are reported demonstrating the potential role of endolithic lichen, in particular of Bagliettoa baldensis, in the active protection of Carboniferous limestone surfaces from rainfall-induced solutional weathering. During a 12-month microcatchment exposure period in the west of Northern Ireland, average dissolutional losses of calcium are greater from a lichen-free limestone surface compared with a predominantly endolithic lichen-covered surface by just under 1.25 times. During colder winter months, the lichen-free surface experiences calcium loss almost 1.5 times greater than the lichen-covered surface. Using extrapolation to upscale from the micro-catchment sample scale, for the year of sample exposure, the rate of calcium loss is 1.001 g m- 2 a- 1 from lichen-covered limestone surfaces and 1.228 g m- 2 a- 1 from lichen-free bare limestone surfaces. This research has implications for our understanding of karst environments, the contribution of lichens to karren development and the conservation of lichen-colonised dimension stone within a cultural setting.

  19. Actinobacterial diversity in limestone deposit sites in Hundung, Manipur (India and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam eNimaichand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on actinobacterial diversity in limestone habitats are scarce. This paper reports profiling of actinobacteria isolated from Hundung limestone samples in Manipur, India using ARDRA as the molecular tool for preliminary classification. A total of 137 actinobacteria were clustered into 31 phylotypic groups based on the ARDRA pattern generated and representative of each group was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Generic diversity of the limestone isolates consisted of Streptomyces (15 phylotypic groups, Micromonospora (4, Amycolatopsis (3, Arthrobacter (3, Kitasatospora (2, Janibacter (1, Nocardia (1, Pseudonocardia (1 and Rhodococcus (1. Considering the antimicrobial potential of these actinobacteria, 19 showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the bacterial and candidal test pathogens, while 45 exhibit biocontrol activities against at least one of the rice fungal pathogens. Out of the 137 actinobacterial isolates, 118 were found to have at least one of the three biosynthetic gene clusters (PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS. The results indicate that 86% of the strains isolated from Hundung limestone deposit sites possessed biosynthetic gene clusters of which 40% exhibited antimicrobial activities. It can, therefore, be concluded that limestone habitat is a promising source for search of novel secondary metabolites.

  20. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Anacacho Limestone, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, C.S.; Sullivan, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Anacacho Limestone is exposed in outcrops between the cities of San Antonio and Del Rio, Texas. A detailed study of four outcrops (Blanco Creek section, Sabinal River section, Seco Creek section, Hondo Creek section) shows that the Anacacho Limestone rests on the Upson Clay (which contains fauna of early Campanian age) and is overlain by the Corsicana Marl (which contains fauna of early Maastrichtian age). An unconformity within the Anacacho Limestone is used herein to separate the limestone into a lower member and an upper member. The lower Anacacho member contains fauna of early Campanian age, whereas the upper Anacacho member contains fauna of middle Campanian age. The lower Anacacho member consists predominantly of wackestones to packstones, which are overlain by packstones to grainstones capped by the unconformity. This unconformity is interpreted as a marine flooding surface, delineating a transition from carbonate grainstones deposited in shallow water (reef) that now comprises the Anacacho Mountains. The environment, however, was open to marine water throughout deposition of the Anacacho Limestone. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic relationships among one non-endemic and two endemic Mediterranean Triplefin Blennies (Pisces, Blennioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertjes, G.J; Kamping, A; van Delden, W.; Videler, J.J

    Three triplefin blennies occur sympatrically in the Mediterranean Sea; Tripterygion tripteronotus and T melanurus are endemic, whereas T delaisi is also found in the Eastern Atlantic. Although very similar in morphology, ecology and behaviour, some striking differences exist among reproductive

  2. Porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone, Bear Creek Valley and Chestnut Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstrand, P.M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Geology Dept.; Menefee, L.S. [Appalachian State Univ., Boone, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology; Dreier, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-12-01

    Matrix porosity data from deep core obtained in Bear Creek Valley indicate that porosities in the Maynardville Limestone are lithology and depth dependent. Matrix porosities are greater in the Cooper Ridge Dolomite than in the Maynardville Limestone, yet there is no apparent correlation with depth. Two interrelated diagenetic processes are the major controlling factors on porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone; dissolution of evaporate minerals and dedolomitization. Both of these diagenetic processes produce matrix porosities between 2.1 and 1.3% in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and upper part of the Maynardville Limestone (Zone 6) to depths of approximately 600 ft bgs. Mean matrix porosities in Zones 5 through 2 of the Maynardville Limestone range from 0.8 to 0.5%. A large number of cavities have been intersected during drilling activities in nearly all zones of the Maynardville Limestone in Bear Creek Valley. Therefore, any maynardville Limestone zone within approximately 200 ft of the ground surface is likely to contain cavities that allow significant and rapid flow of groundwater. Zone 6 could be an important stratigraphic unit in the Maynardville Limestone for groundwater flow and contaminant transport because of the abundance of vuggy and moldic porosities. There are large variations in the thickness and lithology in the lower part of the Maynardville (Zones 2, 3, and 4 in the Burial Grounds region). The direction and velocity of strike-parallel groundwater flow may be altered in this area within the lower Maynardville Limestone.

  3. Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually. The experimental treatments were: i L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05. The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05. The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05. The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05. Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.

  4. 78 FR 61451 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Taylor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... endangered species under the Act because it is currently in danger of extinction throughout the species... (Beason 1995, p. 1). There are 42 subspecies of horned lark worldwide (Clements et al. 2011, entire...

  5. A review of the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae and their host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnacca, K.N.; Foote, D.; O'Grady, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae is one of the best examples of rapid speciation in nature. Nearly 1,000 species of endemic drosophilids have evolved in situ in Hawaii since a single colonist arrived over 25 million years ago. A number of mechanisms, including ecological adaptation, sexual selection, and geographic isolation, have been proposed to explain the evolution of this hyperdiverse group of species. Here, we examine the known ecological associations of 326 species of endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae in light of the phylogenetic relationships of these species. Our analysis suggests that the long-accepted belief of strict ecological specialization in this group does not hold for all taxa. While many species have a primary host plant family, females will also oviposit on non-preferred host plant taxa. Host shifting is fairly common in some groups, especially the grimshawi and modified mouthparts species groups of Drosophila, and the Scaptomyza subgenus Elmomyza. Associations with types of substrates (bark, leaves, flowers) are more evolutionarily conserved than associations with host plant families. These data not only give us insight into the role ecology has played in the evolution of this large group, but can help in making decisions about the management of rare and endangered host plants and the insects that rely upon them for survival. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  6. Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic aquatic sites in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Williamson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is an emerging environmental bacterium in Australia and West Africa. The primary risk factor associated with Buruli ulcer is proximity to slow moving water. Environmental constraints for disease are shown by the absence of infection in arid regions of infected countries. A particularly mysterious aspect of Buruli ulcer is the fact that endemic and non-endemic villages may be only a few kilometers apart within the same watershed. Recent studies suggest that aquatic invertebrate species may serve as reservoirs for M. ulcerans, although transmission pathways remain unknown. Systematic studies of the distribution of M. ulcerans in the environment using standard ecological methods have not been reported. Here we present results from the first study based on random sampling of endemic and non-endemic sites. In this study PCR-based methods, along with biofilm collections, have been used to map the presence of M. ulcerans within 26 aquatic sites in Ghana. Results suggest that M. ulcerans is present in both endemic and non-endemic sites and that variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profiling can be used to follow chains of transmission from the environment to humans. Our results suggesting that the distribution of M. ulcerans is far broader than the distribution of human disease is characteristic of environmental pathogens. These findings imply that focal demography, along with patterns of human water contact, may play a major role in transmission of Buruli ulcer.

  7. Prediction of building limestone physical and mechanical properties by means of ultrasonic P-wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concu, Giovanna; De Nicolo, Barbara; Valdes, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic P-wave velocity as a feature for predicting some physical and mechanical properties that describe the behavior of local building limestone. To this end, both ultrasonic testing and compressive tests were carried out on several limestone specimens and statistical correlation between ultrasonic velocity and density, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity was studied. The effectiveness of ultrasonic velocity was evaluated by regression, with the aim of observing the coefficient of determination r(2) between ultrasonic velocity and the aforementioned parameters, and the mathematical expressions of the correlations were found and discussed. The strong relations that were established between ultrasonic velocity and limestone properties indicate that these parameters can be reasonably estimated by means of this nondestructive parameter. This may be of great value in a preliminary phase of the diagnosis and inspection of stone masonry conditions, especially when the possibility of sampling material cores is reduced.

  8. The use of CTAB as an addition of DAP for improvement resisting acid rain on limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feigao; Li, Dan

    2017-11-01

    The effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed by reacting limestone with mixture of diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the consolidation and protection of carbonate stones was investigated. Different concentration of CTAB was used in the experiments with mild condition in order to study how the CTAB affect the structure of HA. Moreover, the strengthening effect was evaluated with artificially limestone samples. The result of BET and XRD both showed that the structure of HA remained almost unchanged except its crystallinity was affected and specific surface area was decreased as the consequence of the addition of CTAB. A double application (as both coupling agent and consolidant) was also investigated, in which the samples were coated with DAP then followed by self-made product. The Scotch Tape test and hardness test both proved the cohesion between consolidant and limestone powder as well as its ability against acid rain were increased, which were ascribed to HA and CTAB.

  9. Elemental analysis of some West Malaysian limestones using neutron activation, delayed neutron and electron microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Kamaluddin, B.; Mahat, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Limestone stratigraphy in Malaysia has been and is dependent almost entirely in palaeontology. However fossil localities are sporadic and as such a new fossil discovery mean the necessity for a complete re-appraisal of the stratigraphy. The almost complete dependence upon palaeontology results from the difficulties of stratigraphy correlation of isolated outcrops, from the cover of tropical vegetation and from the often complex folding and faulting which has been imposed on the geosyn-clinical rocks by the Indonesian-Thai-Malayan orogeny. So by studying the elemental composition of limestones accurately, we would be able to correlate outcrops and other stratigraphic samples independent of fossil finds. The use of delayed neutron analysis would also determine the concentration of uranium and thorium accurately. This study, in conjunction with thermoluminescence and fission track studies, would able us to date the age of the limestones

  10. Properies of binder systems containing cement, fly ash, and limestone powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittiya Kaewmanee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash and limestone powder are two major widely available cement replacing materials in Thailand. However, the current utilization of these materials is still not optimized due to limited information on properties of multi-binder systems. This paper reports on the mechanical and durability properties of mixtures containing cement, fly ash, and limestone powder as single, binary, and ternary binder systems. The results showed that a single binder system consisting of only cement gave the best carbonation resistance. A binary binder system with fly ash exhibited superior performances in long-term compressive strength and many durability properties except carbonation and magnesium sulfate resistances, while early compressive strength of a binary binder system with limestone powder was excellent. The ternary binder system, taking the most benefit of selective cement replacing materials, yielded, though not the best, satisfactory performances in almost all properties. Thus, the optimization of binders can be achieved through a multi-binder system.

  11. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, D.R. [LG& E Power Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  12. Techniques for Source Zone and Plume Characterization of Tetrachloroethene in Fractured Limestone Aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Mosthaf, Klaus; Janniche, Gry S.

    Characterization of chlorinated solvents in fractured limestone aquifers is essential for proper development of site specific conceptual models and subsequent risk assessment and remediation. High resolution characterization is challenged by the difficulties involved in collection of intact core...... fractured limestone aquifers. The two sites represent different scales (source and plume) and contaminant levels (DNAPL and dissolved). The scope of the investigations was to evaluate different techniques for characterization of the contaminant distribution in the limestone aquifers and to obtain...... of the FACT field measurements, which allows the conversion of discrete activated carbon concentrations to aqueous concentrations at given hydraulic parameters and FACT parameters. The passive groundwater sampling with snap samplers resulted in significantly different concentration levels and concentration...

  13. Effects of Particle Size Distribution on the Burn Ability of Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila E. SULEIMAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of particle size reduction on the burn ability of Limestone was investigated using the limestone obtained from Obajana Cement Mines. Limestone samples were grinded and were classified into following particles size distribution: 90µm, 200µm, 250µm and 500µm graduated in different sieve sizes. The decomposition rates of these samples were monitored under the same temperature condition in a pre-heated furnace of 1000°C and at constant time interval of 0-35 minutes. From the results of the investigation, the material with particle size distribution of 90µm has the fastest reaction rate of 0.1369g/min and highest lime conversion of 52.0 weight percent; loss on ignition being 48 weight percent. This reaction rate increases as the particle size decreases from 500µm to 90µm.

  14. Investigations of a Cretaceous limestone with spectral induced polarization and scanning electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sara; Sparrembom, Charlotte; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of varying bedrock properties is a common need in various contexts, ranging from large infrastructure pre-investigations to environmental protection. A direct current resistivity and time domain induced polarization (IP) survey aiming to characterize properties of a Cretaceous...... limestone was carried out in the Kristianstad basin, Sweden. The time domain IP data was processed with a recently developed method in order to suppress noise from the challenging urban setting in the survey area. The processing also enabled extraction of early decay times resulting in broader spectra......-ray spectroscopy, and the results showed that varying amounts of pyrite, glauconite and clay matrix were present at different levels in the limestone. The local high IP anomalies in the limestone could be caused by these minerals otherwise the IP responses were generally weak. There were also differences...

  15. National Wildlife. Special Issue: Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, John, Ed.

    This is the first special issue in the 12-year history of "National Wildlife," and is devoted entirely to endangered species of animals and plants in the United States. An overview of the problem stresses the impact of man's haphazard development, suburban sprawl, and urban pollution upon a fragile environment, resulting in dozens of…

  16. Micropropagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. is an endangered herb, the tuberous roots of which are source of medicinally important steroidal saponins. In the present study, propagation of C. borivilianum using a bench top stirred bioreactor with liquid medium via multiple shoot culture has been reported. One week old ...

  17. Fire and the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Michael J. Lacki; Daniel R. Cox

    2009-01-01

    Fire and Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) have coexisted for millennia in the central hardwoods region, yet past declines in populations of this endangered species, and the imperative of fire use in oak silviculture and ecosystem conservation, call for an analysis of both the risks and opportunities associated with using fires on landscapes in...

  18. Does the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis, is an endangered teleost confined to three South African estuaries. Its abundance within these systems is low and distributions are patchy. Consequently, monitoring population sizes is labour- intensive. The aim of this study was to establish if Knynsa seahorses are ...

  19. CONSERVATION METHODS OF ENDANGERED SPECIES GUNDU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    conservation as well as some measures that can be employed in saving some endangered species from extinction. The paper also recommends ... breeding of fish and other aquatic animals. In the past, aquaria were only used for ... a baby boy through artificial insemination of sperm obtained from her late husband who.

  20. Genetic diversity among endangered rare Dalbergia cochinchinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hocvan

    Dalbergia cochinchinensis is a species of legume in the Fabaceae family. This species is popular and valuable in Vietnam and is currently listed on the Vietnam Red List and on the IUCN Red List as endangered. Genetic diversity of the 35 genotypes of D. cochinchinensis species were evaluated by using 52 markers ...

  1. Genetic diversity among endangered rare Dalbergia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity among endangered rare Dalbergia cochinchinensis (Fabaceae) genotypes in Vietnam revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ... The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 (OPR15, OPB05, RA142, OPR08, UBC348, OPE14 and OPO04) to 8 (OPP19) and their sizes ranged from 250 ...

  2. Microsatellite markers for the critically endangered elm species Ulmus gaussenii (Ulmaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi-Fang; Yang, Jie; He, Jia; Wang, Dan-Bi; Shi, En; Xu, Wei-Xiang; Jeelani, Nasreen; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-20

    The Anhui elm Ulmus gaussenii is listed as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and is endemic to China, where its only population is restricted to Langya Mountain in Chuzhou, Anhui Province. To better understand the population genetics of U. gaussenii, we developed 12 microsatellite markers using an improved technique. The 12 markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from two to nine. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.021 to 0.750 and 0.225 to 0.744, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.157 to 0.960. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for two pairs of loci, and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found in nine loci. These microsatellite markers will contribute to the studies of population genetics in U. gaussenii, which in turn will contribute to species conservation and protection.

  3. Development and Characterization of Nine Microsatellites for an Endangered Tree, Pinus wangii (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Dou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pinus wangii is an endemic and endangered species in southwestern China, and microsatellite primers were developed to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing repeats (FIASCO protocol, nine sets of microsatellite primers were developed in P. wangii. One population with 26 individuals of P. wangii, as well as 11 individuals each for two congeneric species, P. taiwanensis and P. squamata, were used to test their polymorphism and transferability. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven with an average of 3.7, and the observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.91 and 0 to 0.75, respectively. Conclusions: We developed nine sets of polymorphic microsatellite loci that are suitable for investigating genetic diversity and population structure of P. wangii, and these markers may be useful for other Pinus species.

  4. Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A.N.; Simovich, M.A.; Pepino, D.; Schroeder, K.M.; Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history phases. Because diapausing cysts are abundant and present at all times, they provide an underutilized opportunity for both species identification and genetic studies. However, methods for extracting DNA from cysts are technically challenging because of their structure and size. Here we present a protocol for extracting DNA from B. sandiegonensis cysts in sufficient quantities for "DNA Barcoding", microsatellite analysis and other genotyping and sequencing applications. The technique will aid in population genetic studies and species identification (since taxonomic keys only distinguish among adults), and will be applicable to other crustaceans with similar diapausing cysts. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  5. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  6. Ecology and Conservation of the Critically Endangered Tree Species Gymnocladus assamicus in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, B.I.; Khan, M.L.; Arunachalam, A.; Das, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered leguminous tree species endemic to Northeast India. Mature pods of the trees yield soap material and are collected by local people for domestic purposes and religious activities. G. assamicus grows on hill slopes and along banks of streams. Male and hermaphrodite flowers are borne by separate individual trees. Altogether 28 mature trees were documented from nine populations. Of these, very few regenerating trees were found. This species regenerates only through seeds. The major constraints to natural regeneration are over harvesting of mature fruits, habitat destruction, grazing, predation of seeds by scatter-hoarding animals, poor percentage of seed germination due to their hard-waxy seed coats, and the lack of seed dispersal. Effective conservation initiatives should emphasize sustainable harvesting of mature pods, awareness among local people, and preservation of surviving individuals of the species. Nonetheless, reintroduction of the species to suitable ecological habitats is also recommended.

  7. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  8. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Craven

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Species richness, endemism and areas that are rich in both species and endemic species were assessed and mapped for Namibia. High species diversity corresponds with zones where species overlap. These are particularly obvious where there are altitudinal variations and in high-lying areas. The endemic flora of Namibia is rich and diverse. An estimated 16% of the total plant species in Namibia are endemic to the country. Endemics are in a wide variety of families and sixteen genera are endemic. Factors that increase the likelihood of endemism are mountains, hot deserts, diversity of substrates and microclimates. The distribution of plants endemic to Namibia was arranged in three different ways. Firstly, based on a grid count with the phytogeographic value o f the species being equal, overall endemism was mapped. Secondly, range restricted plant species were mapped individually and those with congruent distribution patterns were combined. Thirdly, localities that are important for very range-restricted species were identified. The resulting maps o f endemism and diversity were compared and found to correspond in many localities. When overall endemism is compared with overall diversity, rich localities may consist of endemic species with wide ranges. The other methods identify important localities with their own distinctive complement of species.

  9. Endemicity of cholera in Nigeria: A mathematical model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic equilibrium. In other words, it is not possible for multiple endemic equilibria to exist if the reproduction number ...

  10. Endemics and Pseudo-Endemics in Relation to the Distribution Patterns of Indian Pteridophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Fraser-Jenkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Of c. 530 Pteridophytes reported as endemic to the India in recent decades (about half the total number of c. 950-1000 known Indian species, the great bulk are mistaken, particularly those from the Indo-Himalaya. Only 47 endemic Indian ferns, less than 10% of those reported previously, are accepted here. But this figure includes several that are rather doubtfully endemic, mainly due to unresolved taxonomic doubt, or because they may be expected to occur in adjacent Countries. Thus 8 are taxonomically dubious, requiring further study, and a further 7, all from N.E. India, may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India. The c. 483 mistaken pseudo-endemics arose mainly due to naming of erroneous 'new species' thought to be endemic, or due to not knowing the range of species outside political India, combined with insufficient investigative taxonomic research. In the present paper previous reports of endemics are listed and their status is reappraised along with a new list of accepted endemics. Quite opposite to previous conclusions, the great majority of endemic Indian Pteridophytes are peninsular-Indian to south-Indian ferns (27, plus 5 more taxonomically dubious, with far fewer being N.E. Indian (7, all of which may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India and W. Himalayan (2, plus 1 taxonomically dubious; the floristically Malesian Nicobar Islands have (3, plus 2 more taxonomically dubious. These numbers are only to be expected as N.E. India is an intimate part of the Sino-Himalayan and S.E. Asian flora, connected without barriers to Tibet and China or to Myanmar by two mountain chains, while S. India is more isolated geographically since more ancient times and has a partly Malesian fern-flora. Some details of Indian endemics in relation to phytogeographical elements are given. Endemic species: Huperzia - 1, Selaginella - 9, Isoetes - 1, Osmunda - 1, Arthromeris - 1, Phymatosorus - 1, Oreogrammitis - 2, Trichomanes - 1, Pteris - 1, Cyathea

  11. Improvement of operational properties of shell limestone building materials by polysulfide solution impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSALIMOV Ismail Alexandrovich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of studies on the effectiveness of impregnation with polysulfide solutions of shell limestone used as facing and wall material, as well as for the manufacture of road products are presented. Modification of the limestone with the impregnating composition «Akvastat» created by the authors which is sulfur-containing water-based solution of calcium polysulfide containing alcohols and surfactants, can significantly reduce water absorption and increase durability of limestone. Impregnating composition on the basis of calcium polysulfide possesses density of 1.22–1.24 g/cm3, the infiltrant penetrates into the pore structure of limestone to a depth of 4 cm or more, depending on the density and structure of the sample. While the material is drying, sulfur nanoparticles are crystallized from the polysulfide solution in its pores. They partially fill pore space and form protective durable insoluble hydrophobic coating that impedes the penetration of water into the pores of the limestone, but preserves its vapor permeability, which is important for wall and decoration materials. The evaluation of protective coatings was performed with laser particle size analyzer, scanning probe microscope and a diffractometer. It showed that the average size of the particles forming the protective coating is in the range of 20–25 nm, the particles shape is spherical, the particles are elemental sulfur with orthorhombic structure of the crystal lattice. The processing of shell limestone with calcium polysulphide solution provides formation of coating based on nanosized sulfur on the surface of stone pores. The coating partially fills the pore space and, as it is hydrophobic, reduces the water absorption of the samples by a factor of 5–8, increases their average density by 22–27%, strength in 1,2–1,3 times, the softening factor by 6–19%, that makes possible to predict the increase of the durability of building materials based on shell limestone to 1

  12. Pliocene Te Aute limestones, New Zealand : expanding concepts for cool-water shelf carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.S.; Winefield, P.R.; Hood, S.D.; Caron, V.; Pallentin, A.; Kamp, P.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acceptance of a spectrum of warm- through cold-water shallow-marine carbonate facies has become of fundamental importance for correctly interpreting the origin and significance of all ancient platform limestones. Among other attributes, properties that have become a hallmark for characterising many Cenozoic non-tropical occurrences include: (1) the presence of common bryozoan and epifaunal bivalve skeletons; (2) a calcite-dominated mineralogy; (3) relatively thin deposits exhibiting low rates of sediment accumulation; (4) an overall destructive early diagenetic regime; and (5) that major porosity destruction and lithification occur mainly in response to chemical compaction of calcitic skeletons during moderate to deep burial. The Pliocene Te Aute limestones are non-tropical skeletal carbonates formed at paleolatitudes near 40-42 degrees S under the influence of commonly strong tidal flows along the margins of an actively deforming and differentially uplifting forearc basin seaway, immediately inboard of the convergent Pacific-Australian plate boundary off eastern North Island, New Zealand. This dynamic depositional and tectonic setting strongly influenced both the style and subsequent diagenetic evolution of the limestones. Some of the Te Aute limestones exhibit the above kinds of 'normal' non-tropical characteristics, but others do not. For example, many are barnacle and/or bivalve dominated, and several include attributes that at least superficially resemble properties of certain tropical carbonates. In this regard, a number of the limestones are infaunal bivalve rich and dominated by an aragonite over a calcite primary mineralogy, with consequently relatively high diagenetic potential. Individual limestone units are also often rather thick (e.g., up to 50-300 m), with accumulation rates from 0.2 to 0.5 m/ka, and locally as high as 1 m/ka. Moreover, there can be a remarkable array of diagenetic features in the limestones, involving grain alteration and

  13. Differences between silica and limestone concretes that may affect their interaction with corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, C.; Haquet, J. F.; Piluso, P.; Bonnet, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent Molten Core Concrete Interaction tests performed at Argonne National Laboratory and at CEA Cadarache have shown that, whereas the ablation of limestone-rich concretes is almost isotropic, the ablation of silica-rich concretes is much faster towards the sides than towards the bottom of the cavity. The following differences exists between limestone-rich and silica-rich concretes: limestone concretes liberate about twice as much gas, at a given ablation rate than siliceous concretes (more than 50% more at constant heat flux) and this can affect pool hydraulics and crust stability: limestone concrete has a higher liquidus temperature than siliceous concrete and molten limestone concrete has a larger diffusion coefficient and can more easily dissolve a corium crust than siliceous melt; limestone aggregates are destroyed by de-carbonation at around 1000 K while silica aggregates melt only above 2000 K, so that floating silica aggregates can form cold spots increasing corium solidification near the interface; de-carbonation of limestone leads to a significant shrinkage of concrete melt volume compared to the cold solid that hampers the mechanical stability of overlying crusts; the chemical composition of molten mortar (sand + cement) and concrete (sand + gravel + cement) is close for limestone-rich concretes while it is different for siliceous concretes, so that the melt composition may vary significantly in case of non-simultaneous melting of the siliceous concrete constituents; molten silicates have a large viscosity, so that transport properties are different for the two types of concretes. The small range of plant concrete compositions that have been considered for MCCI experiments has not yet been found sufficient to determine which of the above-mentioned differences is paramount to explain the observed difference in ablation patterns. Separate Effect Tests using specially-designed 'artificial concretes' and prototypic corium would provide the necessary

  14. Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, M; Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Herfort, D

    2012-01-01

    M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012).......M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012)....

  15. Carbonate Minerals with Magnesium in Triassic Terebratula Limestone in the Term of Limestone with Magnesium Application as a Sorbent in Desulfurization of Flue Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanienda-Pilecki, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the results of studies of Triassic (Muschelkalk) carbonate rock samples of the Terebratula Beds taken from the area of the Polish part of the Germanic Basin. It is the area of Opole Silesia. The rocks were studied in the term of possibility of limestone with magnesium application in desulfurization of flue gases executed in power plants. Characteristic features of especially carbonate phases including magnesium-low-Mg calcite, high-Mg calcite, dolomite and huntite were presented in the article. They were studied to show that the presence of carbonate phases with magnesium, especially high-Mg calcite makes the desulfurization process more effective. Selected rock samples were examined using a microscope with polarized, transmitted light, X-ray diffraction, microprobe measurements and FTIR spectroscopy. The results of studies show a domination of low magnesium calcite in the limestones of the Terebratula Beds. In some samples dolomite and lower amounts of high-Mg calcite occurred. Moreover, huntite was identified. The studies were very important, because carbonate phases like high-Mg calcite and huntite which occurred in rocks of the Triassic Terebratula Beds were not investigated in details by other scientists but they presence in limestone sorbent could influence the effectiveness of desulfurization process.

  16. Controlling Endemic Cholera with Oral Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Nizam, Azhar; Ali, Mohammad; Yunus, Mohammad; Shenvi, Neeta; Clemens, John D

    2007-01-01

    Background Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. Methods and Findings We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%–98%) reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%–99%) reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%–95%) reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of ≤ 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. Conclusions Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of ≤ 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%–70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data. PMID:18044983

  17. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs.We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population.Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  18. Acclimatization of the endangered Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa (H.B.K. Schltr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Mireya Ortega-Loeza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation could be an alternative for the conservation of the endemic and endangered Mexican epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa (H.B.K. Schltr. The goal of this study was to develop a protocol that would enhance acclimatization of in vitro – derived L. speciosa plantlets – a critical stage in propagation and subsequent conservation. Observations of stomata opening during ex vitro acclimatization, and the time of in vitro culture (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 days in greenhouse conditions (pre-acclimatization, on the survival and development of seedlings during the ex vitro acclimatization were carried out. In addition, the effect of different levels of nutrients (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%-strength salts and sucrose (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g l−1 in the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS on the same parameters were measured. Plantlets incubated 20 days in greenhouse conditions before ex vitro acclimatization also displayed the best growth with a survival rate of 97.5%, related with high stomata opening. Plantlets on MS containing 100%-strength salts (with 20 days of pre-acclimatization, 40 g l−1 sucrose had the highest rate (97.5–100% of survival and vigor when acclimatized. By improving micropropagation through acclimatization, the sustainable management of L. speciosa now more likely, benefitting the conservation of this endangered species.

  19. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits.

  20. Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Kaiser's Mountain Newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farasat

    Full Text Available Species often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in an endemic and critically endangered stream breeding mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri, within its entire range in southwestern Iran. We identified two geographic regions based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 779 bp mtDNA (D-loop in 111 individuals from ten of twelve known breeding populations. This analysis revealed a clear divergence between northern populations, located in more humid habitats at higher elevation, and southern populations, from drier habitats at lower elevations regions. From seven haplotypes found in these populations none was shared between the two regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of N. kaiseri indicates that 94.03% of sequence variation is distributed among newt populations and 5.97% within them. Moreover, a high degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.94, P = 0.002. The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.61, P = 0.002 following controlling for environmental distance suggests an important influence of geographic divergence of the sites in shaping the genetic variation and may provide tools for a possible conservation based prioritization policy for the endangered species.

  1. Panmixia in a Critically Endangered Fish: The Totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Quiñonez, Fausto; De-Anda-Montañez, Juan A; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth; Garza, John Carlos; García-De León, Francisco J

    2016-11-01

    Conservation of the evolutionary legacy of endangered species is a key component for long-term persistence. Totoaba is a long-lived fish endemic to the Gulf of California and is considered critically endangered. There is currently a debate concerning its conservation status and whether it can be used as a fishery resource. Unfortunately, basic information on biological and genetic population structure of the species is lacking. We sampled 313 individuals and employed 16 microsatellite loci and 3 mitochondrial DNA markers (16S, 547 pb; COI, 619 pb; control region, 650 pb) to assess population structure and demography of totoaba in the Gulf of California, with samples from locations that encompass nearly all of its recognized geographic distribution. We could not reject a hypothesis of panmixia for totoaba, using nuclear or mitochondrial markers. Demographic analysis of mtDNA suggests a sudden population expansion model. The results have important implications for totoaba conservation because poaching is a significant conservation challenge and could have additive negative effects over the single population of totoaba in the Gulf of California. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Conservation of the endangered freshwater mussel Solenaia carinata (Bivalvia, Unionidae in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Cao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity and economic and ecological value of freshwater mussels, relatively little is known about their biology (especially for species outside of Europe and North America. Solenaia carinata is an endangered freshwater mussel, is endemic to China and is now only distributed in Poyang Lake basin. However, its conservation status is not clear. Thus, for this study, surveys were conducted at 41 sites along the lower reaches of the Ganjiang River to study the conservation status of S. carinatus. The results showed that S. carinata had a restricted distribution and extremely low density. In addition, the habitat sediments where S. carinata was located were mainly composed of silt (particle size <0.0625 mm. RDA analysis showed that the density of S. carinata was correlated to dissolved oxygen, temperature, turbidity and chlorophyll-a. Microsatellite analysis showed that S. carinata had a low genetic diversity (mean HO: 0.419; mean HE: 0.484; mean PIC: 0.430. At the same time, we firstly report the glochidia of S. carinata and describe its morphological characteristic. Surprisingly, its reproduction period and morphological characteristics were different from that of others freshwater mussels. Therefore, this study clarified the resource conditions, endangered status and threat factors for S. carinata and it provided a theoretical basis for the conservation and management of its resources.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  5. Lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Portland Base Bed and Portland Whit Bed limestone as related to durability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Engering, S.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Koch, R.; Lorenz, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Base Bed and Whit Bed Portland limestone and the presumed relationships between these characteristics and the durability of this building stone. As Portland limestone probably will be used as a stone for several

  6. Lithofacies and Petrophysical Properties of Portland Base Bed and Portland Whit Bed Limestone as Related to Durability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Engering, S.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Koch, R.; Lorenz, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Base Bed and Whit Bed Portland limestone and the presumed relationships between these characteristics and the durability of this building stone. As Portland limestone probably will be used as a stone for several

  7. Extensive yellow crusts below limestone overhangs: a new taxon close to a minute epiphytic lichen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Moniri, M. H.; Malíček, Jiří; Košnar, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2017), s. 368-376 ISSN 0107-055X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Caloplaca substerilis * limestone rocks * Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 0.847, year: 2016

  8. The effect of limestone powder, fly ash and silica fume on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self-compacting repair mortars (SCRM) are preferred for the rehabilitation and repair of reinforced concrete structures especially at narrow mould systems. Self compactability and stability are susceptible to ternary effects of chemical and mineral admixture type and their content. In this study, the effect of limestone powder ...

  9. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  10. Integrated iron(II) oxidation and limestone neutralisation of acid mine water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric iron (II) oxidation rates exceeding 100 g/(l.d) were achieved by dosing powdered limestone to a bio-reactor treating artificial acid mine water. Neutralisation and partial sulphate removal were achieved as well. The rate is highly...

  11. Thermal effects induced by laser ablation in non-homogeneous limestone covered by an impurity layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocean, Alexandru; Pelin, Vasile; Cazacu, Marius Mihai; Cocean, Iuliana; Sandu, Ion; Gurlui, Silviu; Iacomi, Felicia

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports preliminary results concerning thermal effects induced by urban/industrial air pollutants deposited on a limestone rock when heated by pulsed laser in the cleaning process. The process of laser cleaning treatment of the crust is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4, finite element analysis software. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy techniques have been used to analyze the chemical composition of the samples. Two elements found as being present into the dust and in the crust, such as iron and magnesium particles are used for simulation in COMSOL. Therefore, the profiles heat evolutions on the crust surface and inside limestone are obtained as thermal interactions between the three components (iron, magnesium and limestone), simulating the non-homogeneous materials. It has been observed that iron impurities caused by the dust deposition may damage the limestone through a process of overheating, as a consequence of a high thermal conduction phenomenon, recorded for the region with iron impurities and sizes of micrometric order are localized. The thermal contact between the three components results in plots that reflect their thermal interactions.

  12. Soft-sediment ichnotaxa from the Cenozoic White Limestone Group, Jamaica, West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blissett, D.J.; Pickerill, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Jamaica, the third largest of the Greater Antillean islands, exposes various lithological units that are dominated by Cenozoic carbonate rocks including those of the mid-Cenozoic White Limestone Group. This Group is comprised of six formations, the Troy, Swanswick, Somerset, Moneague, Montpelier and

  13. Piedramuelle Limestone in the building heritage of Oviedo, Spain, and adjacent towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenes Van den Eynde, Victor; Mateos, Felix Javier; Valdeon, Luis; Rojo, Araceli

    2017-04-01

    The Piedramuelle limestone has a very important representation in the building heritage of Oviedo, historical capital of Asturias (Spain) and surrounding towns. This argillaceous limestone has been quarried since the High Middle Ages until the beginning of the XX century. The main mineralogical components are carbonates (mainly calcite and sometimes ankerite, 70-90%), quartz (5-15%), terrigenous minerals (6-15%) and iron oxides (building heritage mainly for ornamental details, while the coarse-grained one is found in the bigger blocks and ashlars of the buildings. Some of the buildings constructed with Piedramuelle limestone are the Cathedral, the Old University and the Palaces from the XVII and XVIII centuries. The ambiance and historical architecture of Oviedo and adjacent towns is closely linked with the textures and colors of this stone. Nowadays, the Piedramuelle limestone is not exploited anymore, being the quarries exhausted. This represents an issue from a conservation point of view, since there is not a suitable stone for replacement. In order to preserve and maintain the building heritage of these towns, it is very important to prospect and protect the remaining outcrops still able to supply this characteristic stone.

  14. Data for moisture measurements during vertical absorption in building porous materials such as brick and limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelides, Chris; Arampatzis, George

    2018-04-01

    This article contains the datasets obtained from experiments in laboratory related to moisture propagation in building porous materials. The datasets contain moisture measurements and corresponding time measurements during vertical infiltration experiment in brick and limestone samples. Moisture measurements were carried out using a γ-ray device and water volume absorption was recorded by a computer controlled digital scale.

  15. The application of rock mass classification systems to limestone mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G.; Baek, H.; Kim, D.; Kang, S.; Kang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Rock mass classification procedure is an important part in solving most rock engineering problem. Well known rock mass classification systems include the rock mass rating (RMR) and the Q-system. These systems have been applied for various works, mostly in civil engineering applications rather than mining purposes. To assess the stability of the mine openings in underground limestone mines, RMR and Q values were estimated from 142 locations of 7 underground mine sites in Korea. Unsupported span derived from the estimated RMR and Q values were compared to measured mine opening span. The results showed that the span derived from RMR was more conservative than those from Q values. This difference might have been resulted from different parameters which each classification system uses, and also their sensitivity to the rock behaviors. Although the both rock mass classification systems have been modified and improved continuously, the results vary with site conditions. The critical span curves proposed by Lang(2001), often called as the Mathews' stability graph method, are used to calculate the unsupported span. These curves were modified for underground limestone mines in Korea. It has led to a reasonable conclusion for assessing the stability of wide underground openings in six limestone mines. Nevertheless, additional research seems to be necessary for other mine sites. The database should be required for calculating the unsupported span. To obtain more data, in ten mine sites the survey was conducted. It will be contributed to Limestone Mine Site Characterization Model(LSCM) for Korea.

  16. Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave "lamp-flora", calcite speleothems and limestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimon, Jirí; Stelcl, Jindrich; Kubesová, Svatava; Zimák, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    Mosses, algae, and cyanobacteria (lamp-flora) colonize illuminated areas in show caves. This biota is commonly removed by a sodium hypochlorite solution. Because chlorine and other deleterious compounds are released into a cave environment during lamp-flora cleansing, hydrogen peroxide was tested as an alternative agent. In a multidisciplinary study conducted in the Kateinská Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), 12 algae- and cyanobacteria taxons and 19 moss taxons were detected. The threshold hydrogen peroxide concentration for the destruction of this lamp-flora was found to be 15 vol.%. Based on laboratory experiments in stirred batch reactors, the dissolution rates of limestones and calcite speleothems in water were determined as 3.77 x 10-3 and 1.81 x 10-3 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. In the 15% peroxide solution, the limestone and speleothem dissolution rates were one order of magnitude higher, 2.00 x 10-2 and 2.21 x 10-2 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. So, the peroxide solution was recognised to attack carbonates somewhat more aggressively than karst water. In order to prevent the potential corrosion of limestone and speleothems, the reaching of preliminary peroxide saturation with respect to calcite is recommended, for example, by adding of few limestone fragments into the solution at least 10 h prior to its application.

  17. Conceptualization of flow and transport in a limestone aquifer by multiple dedicated hydraulic and tracer tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Brauns, Bentje; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    2018-01-01

    behavior including fracture-matrix interaction in hydrogeological units of a limestone aquifer in eastern Denmark was characterized by designing, conducting and interpreting six depth-specific tracer tests involving natural- and forced-gradient conditions with multiple tracers representing different...

  18. Use of limestone obtained from waste of the mussel cannery industry for the production of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, Paloma; Marmol, Isabel; Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Various types of cement-SiO 2 -CaCO 3 mortar were prepared by replacing quarry limestone aggregate with limestone obtained as a by-product from waste of the mussel cannery industry. The CaCO 3 aggregate consists mainly of elongated prismatic particles less than 4 μm long rather than of the rounded particles of smaller size (2-6 μm) obtained with quarry limestone. The mechanical and structural properties of the mortars were found to be influenced by aggregate morphology. Setting of the different types of mortar after variable curing times was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) techniques. Mortars with a high content in mussel shell limestone exhibited a more packed microstructure, which facilitates setting of cement and results in improved mortar strength. The enhanced mechanical properties of the new mortars allow the cement content in the final mortar composition to be decreased and production costs to be reduced as a result

  19. The Quilon Limestone (Kerala Basin/India) - an archive for Miocene Indo-Pacific seagrass beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Rögl, Fred; Coric, Stjepan

    2010-05-01

    The Quilon Formation of the Kerala Basin (SW India) is characterized by carbonate rocks which belong to the Warkalli Group and are interbedded between siliciclastic formations. It comprises at least 2 horizons of fossiliferous limestone with marine fauna. The lower limestone horizon is characterized by colonial corals, while the upper horizon represents a larger foraminiferal Pseudotaberina malabarica facies which is well developed at the type locality, the coastal cliffs of Ashtamudi Lake at Padappakkara in SW India. The sediment there is either a weakly cemented carbonate sand rich in foraminifers and gastropods or a fossiliferous limestone. Facies and faunal composition clearly indicate a seagrass environment. Recent seagrasses have their centre of generic richness in the Indo-Pacific where they cover wide areas in the tidal and shallow subtidal zones. However, their geological record is only fragmentary and their palaeobiogeographic record has a big gap in the Western Indo-Pacific region. The newly reported nannoplankton flora and planktonic foraminifers from the Quilon Formation demonstrate that the deposition of the studied seagrass bed occurred in nannoplankton biozone NN3. This timing suggests a formation during the closure of the Tethyan Seaway. It designates the Quilon Limestone as an early Western Indo-Pacific seagrass bed and documents an important step in the history of seagrass communities. The large discoidal soritid foraminifer Pseudotaberina malabarica is considered as proxy for Miocene seagrass communities in the Indo-Pacific region.

  20. Effects of limestone petrography and calcite microstructure on OPC clinker raw meals burnability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Matteo; Marinoni, Nicoletta; Della Porta, Giovanna; Marchi, Maurizio; Dapiaggi, Monica

    2017-10-01

    Limestone represents the main raw material for ordinary Portland cement clinker production. In this study eight natural limestones from different geological environments were chosen to prepare raw meals for clinker manufacturing, aiming to define a parameter controlling the burnability. First, limestones were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray Powder Diffraction and Optical Microscopy to assess their suitability for clinker production and their petrographic features. The average domains size and the microstrain of calcite were also determined by X-Ray Powder Diffraction line profile analysis. Then, each limestone was admixed with clay minerals to achieve the adequate chemical composition for clinker production. Raw meals were thermally threated at seven different temperatures, from 1000 to 1450 °C, to evaluate their behaviour on heating by ex situ X-Ray Powder Diffraction and to observe the final clinker morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results indicate the calcite microstrain is a reliable parameter to predict the burnability of the raw meals, in terms of calcium silicates growth and lime consumption. In particular, mixtures prepared starting from high-strained calcite exhibit a better burnability. Later, when the melt appears this correlation vanishes; however differences in the early burnability still reflect on the final clinker composition and texture.

  1. Radiological significance of Egyptian limestone and alabaster used for construction of dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.; Makhluf, V.

    2011-01-01

    The natural radionuclides in limestone and alabaster found in Assuit Governorate in Upper Egypt have been investigated by passive gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured γ-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data from other countries. The radiation hazard parameters related to the exposure of limestone and alabaster have also been calculated. The obtained results of radium equivalent Raeq, level index Iγr, the external hazard index H ex and absorbed dose rate in limestone (90.44, 0.63, 0.17, 39.94) and (70.86, 0.50, 0.13, 31.55) are lower than the acceptable level 370 Bqkg -1 for radium equivalent Ra eq , 1 for level index Iγr, the external hazard index H e≤ I and 59 (nGy.h -1 ) for absorbed dose rate. So limestone and alabaster can be used as building construction without exceeding the proposed radioactivity criterion level. (author)

  2. 230Th/234U dating of coral limestones and vertical uplift at Djibouti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Hugues; Hoang, C.T.; Lalou, Claude

    1980-01-01

    Coral limestones sampled from marine terraces along the Afar coast have been dated by the 230 Th/ 234 U method. The ages confirm the stratigraphic unity of these formations and the existence of the paleo sea level dated 124 000 years ago in this region. These results permit to deduce the uplift rates of this littoral [fr

  3. Effects of addition of adipic acid to a limestone-gypsum FGD installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middlekamp, J.; Broek, S.; Kock, A.F.J.M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    Addition of organic buffers such as adipic acid to the scrubber liquor of limestone-sludge Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) installations is common practice in the USA. Major effects are an increased SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, better limestone utilization and improved operational performance of the FGD installations. For application of these organic buffers under Western European conditions, where lime stone-gypsum FGD systems are installed for desulphurization, the impact of these compounds on both the gypsum quality and the performance of the wastewater treatment systems is an important issue. From research work on pilot-plant scale performed at the laboratories of KEMA on behalf of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies, the addition of organic buffers also showed positive effects on the limestone-gypsum process. Adipic acid was found to be the most promising additive. At Hoogovens Technical Services (HTS E&E) adipic acid was considered to be a good additive in limestone-gypsum FGD installation of the 600 MWe coal fired Amer-9 power station of the Production Company EPZ was carried out to establish the following items: effect on SO{sub 2} absorption; effect on net power consumption of the FGD installation; influence on the gypsum quality; influence on the wastewater quality and performance of the wastewater treatment system; influence on process control of the FGD installation; loss of adipic acid through chemical degradation and wastewater discharge. This paper describes the highlights of this program. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Fossil non-calcareous Algae from insoluble residues of algal limestones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de J.J.

    1969-01-01

    Dissolution of algal limestones in a 1-10% HCL solution delivers flocks of well preserved non-calcareous algae and sometimes some other plant remains as well. Non-calcareous algae of Cambrian, Carboniferous, Jurassic and Paleogene age were obtained in this manner. Slides of these fossils together

  5. Attrition of limestones by impact loading in fluidized beds: The influence of reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, Fabrizio [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The extent of attrition associated with impact loading was studied for five different limestones pre-processed in fluidized bed under different reaction conditions. The experimental procedure was based on the measurement of the amount and the particle size distribution of the debris generated upon impact of sorbent samples against a target at velocities between 10 and 45 m/s. The effect of calcination, sulfation and calcination/re-carbonation on impact damage was assessed. Fragmentation by impact loading of the limestones was significant and increased with the impact velocity. Lime samples displayed the largest propensity to undergo impact damage, followed by sulfated, re-carbonated and raw limestones. Fragmentation of the sulfated samples followed a pattern typical of the failure of brittle materials. On the other hand, the behaviour of lime samples better conformed to a disintegration failure mode, with extensive generation of very fine fragments. Raw limestone and re-carbonated lime samples followed either of the two patterns depending on the sorbent nature. The extent of particle fragmentation increased after multiple impacts, but the incremental amount of fragments generated upon one impact decreased with the number of successive impacts. (author)

  6. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  7. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  8. Limestone cliff - face and cave use by wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ring - tailed lemurs live in a range of habitats in southwestern Madagascar. To date, much of the knowledge of ring - tailed lemur ecology, biology and behavior come from riverine gallery forests sites. Recent years have seen an expansion of comprehensive research on this resilient species, including areas of limestone ...

  9. Hydrobiogeochemical interactions in 'anoxic' limestone drains for neutralization of acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E.I.; Cravotta, C.A.; Savela, C.E.; Nord, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Processes affecting neutralization of acidic coal mine drainage were evaluated within 'anoxic' limestone drains (ALDs). Influents had pH???3.5 and dissolved oxygen treatment step is indicated to promote Al removal before diverting acidic mine water into alkalinity-producing materials. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Transient Catalytic Activity of Calcined Dolomitic Limestone in a Fluidized Bed during Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Šyc, Michal; Svoboda, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 4065-4071 ISSN 0887-0624 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluidized- bed gasification * woody biomass * limestone Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.091, year: 2016

  11. Limestone neutralisation of arsenic-rich effluent from a gold mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available of limestone treatment is 45.8% less than that of lime. The acidity can be removed from 33.5 to 0.06 g/L (as CaCO3). The study also showed no significant differences in the TCLP characteristics of the resultant sludge when water is treated with lime...

  12. Brachiopods from the Upper Triassic reef habitats of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Dachstein Limestone, Hochschwab, Austria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siblík, Miloš; Bryda, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 3 (2005), s. 411-435 ISSN 0035-6883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Brachiopods * Upper Triassic * Dachstein Limestone Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.569, year: 2005

  13. Performance Monitoring: Evaluating an Organic Carbon-Limestone PRB for Treatment of Heavy Metals and Acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2004, researchers from the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) have annually evaluated performance of an organic carbon-limestone permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system installed in 2003 by EPA Region 6 at the Delatte Metals Superfund site in Ponc...

  14. Decomposition and reduction of N2O over Limestone under FBC Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker; Vaaben, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    The addition of limestone for sulfur retention in FBC has in many cases been observed to influence the emission of N2O. The catalytic activity of N2O over calcined Stevns Chalk for decomposition of N2O in a laboratory fixed bed quartz reactor was measured. It was found that calcined Stevns Chalk ...

  15. Biological iron(II) oxidation as pre-treatment to limestone neutralisation of acid water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (II) should be oxidised to iron (III) before the neutralisation of acid water with limestone, otherwise the oxidation will occur downstream of the neutralisation plant with the formation of acid (reactions 1 and 2). This study aimed...

  16. Effect of Limestone Powder on Acid Attack Characteristics of Cement Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua LIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acid resistance of cement pastes containing limestone powder with two different water-binder (w/b ratios exposed to acetic (pH = 4 and sulfuric acid (pH = 2 solutions respectively were investigated in this paper. Limestone powder, fly ash and silica fume were also added to the cement paste mixture at different proportions. Static and flowing aqueous environments were set in this experiment. Strength and microstructure of the pastes after acid attack were investigated by using strength test, X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The experimental results show that the erosion degree depends not only on pH value of the solution and w/b ratio of the pastes, but also on the content of limestone powder. Acetic acid reacts with calcium hydroxide and carbonate thus dissolving the pastes, while sulfuric acid consumed calcium hydroxide, and generated gypsum and ettringite. The consumption of calcium hydroxide in the flowing solution group is higher than that in the static solution because the flowing sulfuric acid solution has negative effect upon the gypsum crystallization. Fly ash and silica fume are beneficial to limestone cement paste because of the less calcium hydroxide formation, which is among the hydrates vulnerable to acid erosion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6231

  17. Limestone and Zeolite as Alternative Media in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Laboratory-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, K.; Jaque, I.; Ayala, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic is well known for its chronic toxicity. Millions of people around the world are currently at risk, drinking water with As concentrations above 10 ppb, the WHO drinking water guideline. Although different treatment options exist, they are often limited by elevated costs and maintenance requirements. Constructed wetlands are a natural water treatment system, capable to remove metals and metalloids -including As- via different physical, chemical and biological processes. The use of alternative supporting media to enhance As removal in subsurface flow wetlands has been recommended, but not sufficiently studied. Limestone and zeolite have been identified as effective supporting media in subsurface flow wetlands aiming As removal. However, there are still key aspects to be addressed, such as the implications of using these media, the speciation in the solid phase, the role of vegetation, etc. This study investigated the performance of limestone and zeolite in three types of experiments: batch, column and as main supporting media in a bench scale horizontal subsurface flow wetland system. Synthetic water resembling a contaminated river in Chile (As concentration=3 mg/L, Fe concentration= 100 mg/L, pH=2) was used in all experiments. In the batch experiments, the As concentration, the mass of media and the contact time were varied. The column system consisted of three limestone columns and three zeolite columns, operated under a hydraulic loading of 20 mm/d. The wetland system consisted of twelve PVC cells: six filled with zeolite and six with limestone. Phragmites australis were planted in three cells of each media type, as control cells. From the batch experiments, maximum As sorption capacities as indicated by Langmuir model were 1.3 mg/g for limestone and 0.17 mg/g for zeolite, at 18 h contact time and 6.3 g/L medium concentration. EDS and XPS analyses revealed that As and Fe were retained in zeolite at the end of the batch experiments. Zeolite and limestone

  18. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  19. Investigations of a Cretaceous limestone with spectral induced polarization and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sara; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Lindskog, Anders; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Dahlin, Torleif; Rosqvist, Håkan

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of varying bedrock properties is a common need in various contexts, ranging from large infrastructure pre-investigations to environmental protection. A direct current resistivity and time domain induced polarization (IP) survey aiming to characterize properties of a Cretaceous limestone was carried out in the Kristianstad basin, Sweden. The time domain IP data was processed with a recently developed method in order to suppress noise from the challenging urban setting in the survey area. The processing also enabled extraction of early decay times resulting in broader spectra of the time decays and inversion for Cole-Cole parameters. The aims of this study is to investigate if large-scale geoelectrical variations as well as small-scale structural and compositional variations exist within the Kristianstad limestone, and to evaluate the usefulness of Cole-Cole inverted IP data in early time ranges for bedrock characterization. The inverted sections showed variations within the limestone that could be caused by variations in texture and composition. Samples from a deep drilling in the Kristianstad basin were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the results showed that varying amounts of pyrite, glauconite and clay matrix were present at different levels in the limestone. The local high IP anomalies in the limestone could be caused by these minerals otherwise the IP responses were generally weak. There were also differences in the texture of the limestone at different levels, governed by fossil shapes and composition, proportions of calcareous cement and matrix as well as amount of silicate grains. Textural variations may have implications on the variation in Cole-Cole relaxation time and frequency factor. However, more research is needed in order to directly connect microgeometrical properties in limestone to spectral IP responses. The results from this study show that it is possible to recover

  20. The Öland limestone - A Swedish stone used for more than one thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Wickström, Linda; Mikaelsson, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The second largest island in Sweden is the home of the "Öland limestone", a condensed and bedded limestone whose origin dates back to Lower Ordovician, i.e. about 480 M years ago. Öland is a part of the palaeocontinent Baltica that, at the time, was situated at low latitudes with deposition of the calcareous sediments in a cool water environment. The limestone on Öland represents a proximal ramp tectonic setting, with the oldest sediments deposited in the west and younger sediments deposited towards east and southeast. Fluctuating sea-levels have created erosional hard grounds such as the Flowery sheet. These hardgrounds are recognised by their vivid colours and trace fossils, and can be traced all over Baltica, but is maybe best represented on Öland. Ordovician limestones are present in many places in Sweden, but it is the occurrence on Öland that is the most renowned in a building stone perspective. One reason for this is the favourable trading location, an island off the Swedish East coast in middle of the trading routes between the Baltic countries and the continent. Other reasons are the pleasant aesthetical values with numerous orthoceratites and other fossils. The limestones on Öland differ in colour. From the red varieties (with oxidized iron) to brownish and grey. The bedding is mostly in the cm-scale which easily enables very exploitable thickness of slabs. Every mm limestone represents about 1000 years of deposition. The limestone has most likely been used in a very crude way for many thousand years, but archaeological evidence of a more industrialized usage is just a little more than 1000 years. It is known from the literature that the first official Swedish king, Gustav Vasa (16th century), desired this stone. At the time it was called "Öland marble", and the king "imported" specialists to process it further at the Royal Stone workshop on northern Öland. Remnants of tools and working sites still remain in an outdoor museum. Export of the

  1. In vitro propagation of endangered Dianthus taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of recent researches regarding the in vitro culture of 30 endangered Dianthus taxa is presented in this paper. Various in vitro protocols developed for selected rare and threatened Dianthus taxa are analysed in order to provide a useful synthesis of the data obtained with the main principles, techniques and recommendations for futher research and practice. The recapitulated data presented in this review can be used as a tool for the micropropagation of other endangered Dianthus taxa, enabling their propagation and obtaining a sufficient amount of plants for reintroduction. In addition, the obtained results represent the basis for ex situ conservation of the investigated taxa, especially for medium-term and long-term conservation (cryopreservation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  2. Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Del-Molino, David; Sánchez-Barreiro, Fatima; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love

    2018-03-01

    Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooperation and the Endangered Species Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973 set the stage for some of the nations most polemic environmental battles. One of these is in the Colorado River Basin which is home to four native and rare fish species. Acrimonious confrontation has characterized the consultations under the ESA regarding these fish species. In 1983, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced that no new water depletions such as for hydropower plants, from the Upper Colorado River Basin would be allowed. This created no small stir among basin states and water developers and a negotiated solution was sought. The result was the Recovery Implementation Program for Endangered Fish Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This paper reports that models of political negotiation indicate conceptually, that the Recovery Program with its decisions made by unanimity of consensus, its open process and sharing of information, its shared budget and users fees, is a vehicle of political compromise and cooperation

  4. Comparison of Limestone and Ground Fish for Treatment of Nutritional Rickets in Children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Bommersbach, Tanner J; Pettifor, John M; Isichei, Christian O; Fischer, Philip R

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether children with calcium-deficiency rickets respond better to treatment with calcium as limestone or as ground fish. Nigerian children with active rickets (n = 96) were randomized to receive calcium as powdered limestone (920 mg of elemental calcium) or ground fish (952 mg of elemental calcium) daily for 24 weeks. Radiographic healing was defined as achieving a score of 1.5 or less on a 10-point scale. The median (range) age of enrolled children was 35 (6-151) months. Of the 88 children who completed the study, 29 (66%) in the ground fish group and 24 (55%) in the limestone group achieved the primary outcome of a radiographic score of 1.5 or less within 6 months (P = .39). The mean radiographic score improved from 6.2 ± 2.4 to 1.8 ± 2.2 in the ground fish group and from 6.3 ± 2.2 to 2.1 ± 2.4 in the limestone group (P = .68 for group comparison). In an intention to treat analysis adjusted for baseline radiographic score, age, milk calcium intake, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, the response to treatment did not differ between the 2 groups (P = .39). Younger age was associated with more complete radiographic healing in the adjusted model (aOR 0.74 [95% CI 0.57-0.92]). After 24 weeks of treatment, serum alkaline phosphatase had decreased, calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased, and bone mineral density increased in both groups, without significant differences between treatment groups. In children with calcium-deficiency rickets, treatment with calcium as either ground fish or limestone for 6 months healed rickets in the majority of children. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Different Modeling Approaches to Simulate Contaminant Transport in a Fractured Limestone Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosthaf, K.; Rosenberg, L.; Balbarini, N.; Broholm, M. M.; Bjerg, P. L.; Binning, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to understand the fate and transport of contaminants in limestone aquifers because they are a major drinking water resource. This is challenging because they are highly heterogeneous; with micro-porous grains, flint inclusions, and being heavily fractured. Several modeling approaches have been developed to describe contaminant transport in fractured media, such as the discrete fracture (with various fracture geometries), equivalent porous media (with and without anisotropy), and dual porosity models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for limestone geologies. Given available field data and model purpose, this paper therefore aims to develop, examine and compare modeling approaches for transport of contaminants in fractured limestone aquifers. The model comparison was conducted for a contaminated site in Denmark, where a plume of a dissolved contaminant (PCE) has migrated through a fractured limestone aquifer. Multilevel monitoring wells have been installed at the site and available data includes information on spill history, extent of contamination, geology and hydrogeology. To describe the geology and fracture network, data from borehole logs was combined with an analysis of heterogeneities and fractures from a nearby excavation (analog site). Methods for translating the geological information and fracture mapping into each of the model concepts were examined. Each model was compared with available field data, considering both model fit and measures of model suitability. An analysis of model parameter identifiability and sensitivity is presented. Results show that there is considerable difference between modeling approaches, and that it is important to identify the right one for the actual scale and model purpose. A challenge in the use of field data is the determination of relevant hydraulic properties and interpretation of aqueous and solid phase contaminant concentration sampling data. Traditional water sampling has a bias

  6. Low-Temperature Curing Strength Enhancement in Cement-Based Materials Containing Limestone Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Dale P; Stutzman, Paul E; Zunino, Franco

    2017-06-01

    With the ongoing sustainability movement, the incorporation of limestone powder in cementitious binders for concrete in the U.S. has become a subject of renewed interest. In addition to accelerating the early age hydration reactions of cementitious systems by providing additional surfaces for nucleation and growth of products, limestone powder is also intriguing based on its influence on low-temperature curing. For example, previous results have indicated that the utilization of limestone powder to replace one quarter of the fly ash in a high volume fly ash mixture (40 % to 60 % cement replacement) produces a reduction in the apparent activation energy for setting for temperatures below 25 °C. In the present study, the relationship between heat release and compressive strength of mortars at batching/curing temperatures of 10 °C and 23 °C is investigated. For Portland-limestone cements (PLC) with limestone additions on the order of 10 %, a higher strength per unit heat release is obtained after only 7 d of curing in lime water. Surprisingly, in some cases, the absolute strength of these mortar cubes measured at 7 d is higher when cured at 10 °C than at 23 °C. Solubilities vs. temperature, reaction stoichiometries and enthalpies, and projected phase distributions based on thermodynamic modeling for the cementitious phases are examined to provide some theoretical insight into this strength enhancement. For a subset of the investigated cements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are conducted on 7-d paste specimens produced at the two temperatures to examine differences in their reaction rates and the phases produced. The strength enhancement observed in the PLC cements is related to the cement hydration products formed in the presence of carbonates as a function of temperature.

  7. Unsustainable human-induced injuries to the Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Yang, Shih Chu; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2017-03-15

    The Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis) is endemic to inshore and estuarine waters of central western Taiwan. It numbers fewer than 75 individuals, is declining and faces a myriad of human threats. Data from a long-term photo-identification program on these dolphins allowed major injuries to be examined quantitatively. A large proportion (57.7%) of individuals had suffered major human-induced injuries that likely compromised their health, survivorship or reproductive potential and thus, the future of this subspecies. Considering major injuries as "takes", the injury rate (1.13 dolphins/year) for the population was 8-8.5 times higher than its Potential Biological Removal rate. Observations of new injuries and fishing gear entanglements on several dolphins showed that fisheries continue to be the predominant cause of these major injuries. Unless immediate action is taken to reduce harmful fisheries, extinction is imminent for Taiwan's only endemic dolphin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mapping the ecological dimensions and potential distributions of endangered relic shrubs in western Ordos biodiversity center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Geng-Ping; Li, Hui-Qi; Zhao, Li; Man, Liang; Liu, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Potential distributions of endemic relic shrubs in western Ordos were poorly mapped, which hindered our implementation of proper conservation. Here we investigated the applicability of ecological niche modeling for endangered relic shrubs to detect areas of priority for biodiversity conservation and analyze differences in ecological niche spaces used by relic shrubs. We applied ordination and niche modeling techniques to assess main environmental drivers of five endemic relic shrubs in western Ordos, namely, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, Amygdalus mongolica, Helianthemum songaricum, Potaninia mongolica, and Tetraena mongolica. We calculated niche overlap metrics in gridded environmental spaces and compared geographical projections of ecological niches to determine similarities and differences of niches occupied by relic shrubs. All studied taxa presented different responses to environmental factors, which resulted in a unique combination of niche conditions. Precipitation availability and soil quality characteristics play important roles in the distributions of most shrubs. Each relic shrub is constrained by a unique set of environmental conditions, the distribution of one species cannot be implied by the distribution of another, highlighting the inadequacy of one-fits-all type of conservation measure. Our stacked habitat suitability maps revealed regions around Yellow River, which are highly suitable for most species, thereby providing high conservation value.

  9. Mechanical vs. Beetle-mediated Self-pollination in (Malvaceae, an Endangered Shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra N. Krakos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental hand pollinations of the endangered, Hawaiian, endemic, Gossypium tomentosum Nutt. Ex. (Malvaceae showed that it was self-compatible, but self-pollination resulted in reduced reproductive output. Field observations and pollen tube analyses using fluorescence microscopy showed that mechanical self-pollination in this species included a mechanism known as bending stigmas. A receptive stigma bent backwards and contacted dehiscent anthers in 7% of flowers found on 17 G. tomentosum plants. The yellow flowers were nectarless and were not visited by most anthophilous insects in situ except for the introduced, nitidulid beetle, Aethina concolor Macleay. Collections and insect GI-tract dissections showed that A. concolor carried and ate the pollen of the host flower. Field observations recorded regular contact between beetles and stigma lobes as these insects exited the flowers effecting self-pollination. Behavioral experiments showed that the beetles responded positively to a yellow visual cue. Under some circumstances, an introduced pollen vector may help maintain a low level of reproductive success in an insular endemic.

  10. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

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    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  11. 77 FR 76065 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Kendall Warm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...-772-2374. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or plant... western Wyoming, was first listed as endangered in 1970 under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of...

  12. 76 FR 61733 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    .... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the Endangered... (Saguinus bicolor), Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), Francois langur (Trachypithecus francoisi), Lion...

  13. 77 FR 74506 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... by the applicant over a 3-year period. Applicant: Utah State University-Intermountain Herbarium.../herbarium specimens of endangered and threatened species (excluding animals) previously legally accessioned...

  14. Groundwater monitoring of an open-pit limestone quarry: groundwater characteristics, evolution and their connections to rock slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eang, Khy Eam; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Fujinaga, Ryota; Kondo, Megumi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar

    2018-03-06

    Groundwater flow and its geochemical evolution in mines are important not only in the study of contaminant migration but also in the effective planning of excavation. The effects of groundwater on the stability of rock slopes and other mine constructions especially in limestone quarries are crucial because calcite, the major mineral component of limestone, is moderately soluble in water. In this study, evolution of groundwater in a limestone quarry located in Chichibu city was monitored to understand the geochemical processes occurring within the rock strata of the quarry and changes in the chemistry of groundwater, which suggests zones of deformations that may affect the stability of rock slopes. There are three distinct geological formations in the quarry: limestone layer, interbedded layer of limestone and slaty greenstone, and slaty greenstone layer as basement rock. Although the hydrochemical facies of all groundwater samples were Ca-HCO 3 type water, changes in the geochemical properties of groundwater from the three geological formations were observed. In particular, significant changes in the chemical properties of several groundwater samples along the interbedded layer were observed, which could be attributed to the mixing of groundwater from the limestone and slaty greenstone layers. On the rainy day, the concentrations of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - in the groundwater fluctuated notably, and the groundwater flowing along the interbedded layer was dominated by groundwater from the limestone layer. These suggest that groundwater along the interbedded layer may affect the stability of rock slopes.

  15. Calcium levels and limestone particle size in the diet of commercial layers at the end of the first production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of dietary calcium levels and limestone particle size distribution on first-cycle layer performance and egg quality. A completely randomized experimental design in 4x3 factorial arrangement (four Ca levels - 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5%; and three limestone particle size distributions - 100% fine, 50% fine and 50% coarse, 30% fine and 70% coarse was applied, totaling 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. The treatments did not influence the most of evaluated performance and internal and external egg quality parameters. However, limestone particle size distribution quadratically affected with percentage of defective eggs, with the lowest percentage obtained with the distribution 61.75% fine limestone and 38.25% coarse limestone. Increasing dietary Ca levels significantly increased eggshell weight per surface area and the percentage of Ca excreted in the feces. It was concluded that the combination of the highest dietary Ca level (4.5% with 50% replacement of fine-particle limestone by coarse limestone results in better eggshell and increases the number of marketable eggs.

  16. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

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    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

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    Beatrice Autino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Autino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  19. Design and performance of limestone drains to increase pH and remove metals from acidic mine drainage, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Watzlaf, George R.

    2002-01-01

    Data on the construction characteristics and the composition of influent and effluent at 13 underground, limestone-filled drains in Pennsylvania and Maryland are reported to evaluate the design and performance of limestone drains for the attenuation of acidity and dissolved metals in acidic mine drainage. On the basis of the initial mass of limestone, dimensions of the drains, and average flow rates, the initial porosity and average detention time for each drain were computed. Calculated porosity ranged from 0.12 to 0.50 with corresponding detention times at average flow from 1.3 to 33 h. The effectiveness of treatment was dependent on influent chemistry, detention time, and limestone purity. At two sites where influent contained elevated dissolved Al (>5 mg/liter), drain performance declined rapidly; elsewhere the drains consistently produced near-neutral effluent, even when influent contained small concentrations of dissolved Fe^+ (ion flux normalized by initial mass and purity of limestone at each of the drains ranged from 0.008 to 0.079 year-1. Data for alkalinity concentration and flux during 11-day closed-container tests using an initial mass of 4kg crushed limestone and a solution volume of 2.3 liter yielded dissolution rate constants that were comparable to these long-term field rates. An analytical method is proposed using closed-container test data to evaluate long-term performance (longevity) or to estimate the mass of limestone needed for a limestone treatment. This method condisers flow rate, influent alkalinity, steady-state alkalinity of effluent, and desired effluent alkalinity or detention time at a future time(s) and aplies first-order rate laws for limestone dissolution (continuous) and production of alkalinity (bounded).

  20. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  1. Complete chloroplast DNA sequence from a Korean endemic genus, Megaleranthis saniculifolia, and its evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Park, Chong-wook; Kim, Ki-Joong

    2009-03-31

    The chloroplast DNA sequences of Megaleranthis saniculifolia, an endemic and monotypic endangered plant species, were completed in this study (GenBank FJ597983). The genome is 159,924 bp in length. It harbors a pair of IR regions consisting of 26,608 bp each. The lengths of the LSC and SSC regions are 88,326 bp and 18,382 bp, respectively. The structural organizations, gene and intron contents, gene orders, AT contents, codon usages, and transcription units of the Megaleranthis chloroplast genome are similar to those of typical land plant cp DNAs. However, the detailed features of Megaleranthis chloroplast genomes are substantially different from that of Ranunculus, which belongs to the same family, the Ranunculaceae. First, the Megaleranthis cp DNA was 4,797 bp longer than that of Ranunculus due to an expanded IR region into the SSC region and duplicated sequence elements in several spacer regions of the Megaleranthis cp genome. Second, the chloroplast genomes of Megaleranthis and Ranunculus evidence 5.6% sequence divergence in the coding regions, 8.9% sequence divergence in the intron regions, and 18.7% sequence divergence in the intergenic spacer regions, respectively. In both the coding and noncoding regions, average nucleotide substitution rates differed markedly, depending on the genome position. Our data strongly implicate the positional effects of the evolutionary modes of chloroplast genes. The genes evidencing higher levels of base substitutions also have higher incidences of indel mutations and low Ka/Ks ratios. A total of 54 simple sequence repeat loci were identified from the Megaleranthis cp genome. The existence of rich cp SSR loci in the Megaleranthis cp genome provides a rare opportunity to study the population genetic structures of this endangered species. Our phylogenetic trees based on the two independent markers, the nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK sequences, strongly support the inclusion of the Megaleranthis to the Trollius. Therefore, our

  2. Lithofacies palaeogeography and biostratigraphy of the lowermost horizons of the Middle Triassic Hallstatt Limestones (Argolis Peninsula, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A. Pomoni

    2013-07-01

    Taking into consideration the present location of the Hallstatt Formation, in the context of the Hellenides, an area suitable for the deposition of the Hallstatt Limestones, should be located between the sub-Pelagonian (western part of the Pelagonian zone and Pindos geotectonic zones, which during the Triassic corresponded to a platform slope and a deep ocean, respectively. The widespread Middle Triassic Han Bulog Limestones (ammonoid-bearing pelagic limestones from Triassic successions of the Eastern Alps (Dinarides, Hellenides may have formed partly in similar slope environments.

  3. Discovery of a possible hybrid of the Critically Endangered Forest Owlet Athene blewitti and Spotted Owlet Athene brama (Aves: Strigiformes from northern Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Pande

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Forest Owlet Athene blewitti is considered to be critically endangered and at an extremely high risk of extinction. It was recently rediscovered after 113 years and little is known about this endemic species, which has a very limited distribution in central India. In early February 2004, the Earth Lovers Association (ELA and the International Birding and Research Centre in Eilat (IBRCE arranged an expedition to the Melghat Tiger Reserve (MTR and mapped all known and newly discovered territories of Forest and Spotted owlets (A. brama

  4. Genetic diversity of central and peripheral populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, an endangered tree species endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Jiang, J M; Chen, Y T

    2014-06-17

    Our objective was to examine the genetic diversity of central and peripheral populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, to elucidate whether the central-peripheral hypothesis applies to these populations. We analyzed 392 individuals from nine natural populations using eight pairs of polymorphic SSR primers. The results showed that the mean numbers of observed and expected alleles in peripheral populations were higher than in central populations. Common widespread and rare local (RL) alleles were observed in all populations. However, common local alleles were found in five populations and rare widespread alleles were only found in three. The total numbers of the four types of alleles were higher in peripheral than in central populations, and the quantity of the RL allele was obviously higher in the peripheral populations than in the central populations. Both the observed and expected heterozygosities were higher in peripheral populations compared with the central populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation of the peripheral populations was 0.3045, which was significantly higher than that of the central populations. The gene flow between central populations was greater than one, but less than one between peripheral populations. This indicates that frequent gene flow exists between central populations, while terrain and habitat fragmentation prevent gene flow between peripheral populations. A Mantel test indicated that there was no relationship between genetic and geographical distance of T. ciliata var. pubescens.

  5. Reproductive ecology of Syzygium alternifolium (Myrtaceae, an endemic and endangered tropical tree species in the southern Eastern Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium alternifolium is a semi-evergreen mass-flowering tree species of dry deciduous forest in the southern Eastern Ghats of India. It is a mass bloomer with flowering during dry season. The floral traits suggest a mixed pollination syndrome involving entomophily and anemophily together called as ambophily. Further, the floral traits suggest generalist pollination system adapted for a guild of pollinating insects. The plant is self-incompatible and obligate out-crosser. The flowers are many-ovuled but only a single ovule forms seed and hence, fruit and seed set rates are the same. Natural fruit set stands at 11%. Bud infestation by a moth, flower predation by the beetle, Popillia impressipyga and bud and flower mounds significantly limit fruit set rate. The ability of the plant to repopulate itself is limited by the collection of fruits by locals due to their edible nature, short viability of seeds, high seedling mortality due to water stress, nutrient deficiency and erratic rainfall or interval of drought within the rainy season. Therefore, S. alternifolium is struggling to populate itself under various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Further studies should focus on how to assist the plant to increase its population size in its natural area taking into account the information provided in this paper.

  6. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 78 FR 57076 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Neosho Mucket and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... address the topic in the Taxonomy, Life History, and Distribution section for Rabbitsfoot and under Factor... citations omitted from the proposed rule that pertain to historical and modern rabbitsfoot records in the... definition of threatened or endangered. According to the best available science, the Neosho mucket and...

  8. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ..., biology, and habitat of this coho salmon ESU, see ``Endangered and Threatened Species: Final Listing...: Viability of Coho Populations South of San Francisco Bay and Their Contribution to the Evolutionary Legacy...'' populations that are ephemeral and do not contribute to the evolutionary legacy of the CCC coho salmon ESU...

  9. 75 FR 61690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat for the Endangered North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    .... 100924467-0467-02] RIN 0648-XZ26 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat for the...-month determination on how to proceed with a petition to revise critical habitat for the North Atlantic... petition seeks to revise the existing critical habitat designation by expanding the areas designated as...

  10. 77 FR 43905 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Diamond Darter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... following finding related to these criteria: Diamond darter is endangered by water quality degradation... remain near the bottom of their riverine habitats with little effort (Evans and Page 2003, p. 64). The..., p. 285; Evans 2008b, p. 1). Kentucky has been fairly well surveyed by numerous researchers without...

  11. 78 FR 5385 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Four Central Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...'s Lane Cave contain the Tooth Cave ground beetle. The unit contains all the primary constituent... of Austin. This HCP covers adverse impacts to the endangered Tooth Cave ground beetle (Rhadine... Transportation (formally Texas Turnpike Authority Division) as mitigation for impacts to the Tooth Cave ground...

  12. 78 FR 45074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Diamond Darter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ..., such as acid mine drainage from abandoned mined lands, continue to be a significant source of water..., erosion and sedimentation, timber harvesting, water quality degradation, and poor wastewater treatment as... have determined that the diamond darter is endangered by water quality degradation; habitat loss; a...

  13. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  14. Fault architecture and growth in clay-limestone alternations: insights from field observations in the SE Basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, M.; Roche, V.; Homberg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Callovo-Oxfordian (COX) clayey formation is currently studied by Andra in 'Meuse/Haute- Marne' (MHM), eastern Paris basin (France), for hosting a disposal of high level and intermediate, long-lived radioactive waste. As an independent organisation performing safety reviews for the Nuclear Safety Authority, IRSN conducts studies in support of the review of this disposal project. This nearly 130 m-thick clayey formation is surrounded by two 250 m-thick limestone formations. In such limestone/clay alternations, tectonic fracturing is often observed within limestones and propagates in some cases to clay layers. Such a propagation through the COX within or close to the disposal area could diminish its containment ability by creating preferential pathways of radioactive solute towards limestones. Nevertheless, minor to moderate fracturing is difficult to investigate in hectometre scale multilayer systems such as COX: seismic reflexion surveys only provide data on major faults, drilling data are too localised and clays have a 'bad-land' aspect at surface. The aim of this study is to provide a model of fracturing across clay-limestone alternations so as to strengthen the assessment of their possible development. We thus investigated fracturing within decametre-sized clay-limestone alternations, located in the South-Eastern Basin (France), to determine the evolution of fault architecture during its growth. After analysis of the possible scale effects using data from other analogous fields, an application to the COX in MHM is presented. We studied minor normal faults that reflect various stages of development, from simple fault planes restricted to limestones to complex fault zones propagated across several clay-limestone layers. The analysis of the fault characteristics, the construction of displacement profiles and the results obtained using numerical models enlighten fault growth processes, i.e. nucleation

  15. High Resolution Hydraulic Profiling and Groundwater Sampling using FLUTe™ System in a Fractured Limestone Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt

    aqui-fer/bedrock. A wide range of innovative and current site investigative tools for direct and indirect docu-mentation and/or evaluation of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) presence were combined in a multiple lines of evidence approach. One scope of the investigations was to evaluate...... innovative investi-gation methods for characterization of the source zone hydrogeology and contamination, including FLUTe system hydraulic profiling and Water-FLUTe multilevel groundwater sampling, in fractured bryo-zoan limestone bedrock. High resolution hydraulic profiling was conducted in three cored......-FLUTes for multilevel groundwater monitoring, sampling (under two flow conditions) and analysis. Coring for discrete subsampling was a challenge in the limestone, due to core-loss and potential DNAPL loss caused by high drilling water pressure. Hence, the water-FLUTe data proved to be an essential link in the source...

  16. Soil-gas diffusivity fingerprints of the dual porosity system in fractured limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claes, Niels; Chamindu, D.T.K.K.; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2010-01-01

    processes are mostly limited to hydrogeological (water and solute) transport studies with very poor attention to the gaseous phase transport studies (Kristensen et al. 2010). This study characterizes fractured limestone soils for gas diffusion based on three different gas diffusivity fingerprints. The first...... fingerprint is a two-parameter exponential model, which mainly describes the gas diffusivity in the limestone matrix while taking both fracture connectivity and matrix pore connectivity into account. With the second fingerprint, we make a close observation of the tortuous matrix pore network by means...... of a modified Buckingham (1904) pore connectivity factor (X*). The third fingerprint of the fracture network involves the average angle of diffusion α (Moldrup et al. 2010), a parameter which characterizes the average angle at which the fractures are penetrating the sample....

  17. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870 0 C (950 to 1600 0 F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium

  18. Physico-chemical investigations of limestones from different localities in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabadzhiev, Dimitrios M.; Stefov, Viktor; Boev, Blazho

    2001-01-01

    Physico-chemical investigations were carried out for limestone samples at different localities in the Republic of Macedonia: mine for nonmetals O graiden , Strumica (sample-granulation below: 4, 10, 20, 32, 40, 63 and 90 gm), A.D. M ikrogranulat , Gostivar, mine 'Banjani' - Skopje, mine 'Toplica' near Demir Hisar and from the separation of GP Mavrovo, Skopje, located near Pletvar. Investigation of samples from the previously mentioned localities were carried out using different methods: volumetry, gravimetry, UV-VIS and infrared spectroscopy, as well as atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and flame photometry. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that all granulometric classes of the limestone samples from 'Ograzhden', Strumica, are of the best quality. (Original)

  19. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  20. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.