WorldWideScience

Sample records for end-plate surface ratio

  1. A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks under combined end force and cross-thickness bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yuebao; Fox, Mike J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending is derived, which allows any combination of positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment. The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept and, therefore, gives limit load values based on the Tresca yielding criterion. Solutions for both cases with and without crack face contact are derived when whole or part of the crack is located in the compressive stress zone. From the solution, particular global limit load solutions for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks under the same loading conditions are obtained. The solution is consistent with the limit load solution for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and positive bending due to Goodall and Webster and Lei when both the applied end force and bending moment are positive. The solution reduces to the limit load solution for plain plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending when the crack vanishes. - Highlights: → A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks in plates is derived. → Combined positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment are considered. → The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept.

  2. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  3. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  4. Effects of the partially movable control fin with end plate of underwater vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Min Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater torpedo has control fin with very low aspect ratio due to launching from limited size of cylindrical torpedo tube. If the aspect ratio of control fin of underwater vehicle is very low three-dimensional flow around control fin largely reduces control forces. In this study, the end plate was applied to reduce the three-dimensional flow effects of partially movable control fin of underwater vehicle. Through numerical simulations the flow field around control fin was examined with and without end plate for different flap angles. The pressure, vorticity, lift and torque on the control fin were analyzed and compared to experiments. The comparison have shown a reasonable agreement between numerical and experimental results and the effect of end plate on a low aspect ratio control fin. When the end plate was attached to the movable control fin, the lift increased and the actuator shaft torque did not significantly change. As this means less consumption of the actuator shaft torque compared to the control fin that has the same control force, the inner actuator capacity can be reduced and energy consumption can be saved. Considering this, it is expected to be effectively applied to the control fin design of underwater vehicles such as torpedoes.

  5. Octanol reduces end-plate channel lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Peter W.; McBurney, Robert N.; Van Helden, Dirk

    1978-01-01

    1. Post-synaptic effects of n-octanol at concentrations of 0·1-1 mM were examined in toad sartorius muscles by use of extracellular and voltage-clamp techniques. 2. Octanol depressed the amplitude and duration of miniature end-plate currents and hence depressed neuromuscular transmission. 3. The decay of miniature end-plate currents remained exponential in octanol solutions even when the time constant of decay (τD) was decreased by 80-90%. 4. The lifetime of end-plate channels, obtained by analysis of acetylcholine noise, was also decreased by octanol. The average lifetime measured from noise spectra agreed reasonably well with the time constant of decay of miniature end-plate currents, both in control solution and in octanol solutions. 5. Octanol caused a reduction in the conductance of end-plate channels. Single channel conductance was on average about 25 pS in control solution and 20 pS in octanol. 6. In most cells the normal voltage sensitivity of the decay of miniature end-plate currents was retained in octanol solutions. The lifetime of end-plate channels measured from acetylcholine noise also remained voltage-sensitive in octanol solutions. In some experiments in which channel lifetime was exceptionally reduced the voltage sensitivity was less than normal. 7. In octanol solutions, τD was still very sensitive to temperature changes in most cells although in some the temperature sensitivity of τD was clearly reduced. Changes in τD with temperature could generally be fitted by the Arrhenius equation suggesting that a single step reaction controlled the decay of currents both in control and in octanol solutions. In some cells in which τD became less than 0·3 ms, the relationship between τD and temperature became inconsistent with the Arrhenius equation. 8. As the decay of end-plate currents in octanol solutions remains exponential, and the voltage and temperature sensitivity can be unchanged even when τD is significantly reduced, it seems likely that

  6. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  7. Stress intensity factors for deep cracks emanating from the corner formed by a hole intersecting a plate surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgowan, J. J.; Smith, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (SIFs) at the end points of flaws emanating from the corner formed by the intersection of a plate with a hole were determined using stress freezing photoelasticity and a numerical technique known as the Taylor series correction method to extract the SIF values from the photoelastic data. The geometries studied were crack depth to thickness ratios of about 0.2, 0.5, and 0.75; crack depth to crack length ratios of about 1.0 to 2.0; and crack length to hole radius ratios of about 0.5 to 2.0. The SIFs were determined at the intersection of the flaw border with the plate surface (KS) and with the edge of the hole (KH). It is shown that extension of a crack emanating from a corner of intersection of a hole with a plate under monotonically increasing load is not self-similar and that as the flaw depth increases, KH decreases and KS increases. Existing theories and design criteria significantly overestimate the SIF at both the hole and the surface except for shallow flaws at the hole and deep flaws at the surface.

  8. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.W. [Dept. of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom (Hong Kong); Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E. [Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, S.P.F. [Div. of Surgery, Anaesthetics and Intensive Care, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-08-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62{+-}7.4 years, 61{+-}7.5 years, 40{+-}5.6 years and 23{+-}5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  9. Transient thermal stresses in an orthotropic rectangular plate with convective heat transfer at upper and lower surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Takanori; Ito, Masahiko; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, anisotropic materials have been used widely for reactor core elements and fast flying objects, therefore, the problem of thermal stress in anisotropic bodies has been studied actively. In this study, the unsteady plane thermal stress in an orthotropic rectangular thin plate heated by the temperature of ambient medium was analyzed, taking the heat transfer on both surfaces into account. The influence that the anisotropy of material constants and the heat transfer on both surfaces exert on the temperature and thermal stress of the plate was examined. Moreover, in order to investigate into the effect of the aspect ratio of the plate on the temperature and thermal stress, the unsteady distributions of temperature and thermal stress in an orthotropic semi-infinite band, of which the end surfaces are heated by ambient medium, were analyzed. The numerical calculation was carried out, and the results are shown. Before, it was difficult to satisfy the boundary condition related to shearing stress, accordingly, the analysis has not been performed, but in this study, it was shown that the analysis is possible. (Kako, I.)

  10. The effect of papaine on the time course of the end-plate current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, M; Kordas, M; Melik, Z

    1980-07-01

    Papaine is known to detach cholinesterases from the synaptic cleft. It could be expected that this would result in an increase of the amplitude and half-time of the end-plate current. Thus, the effect of papaine on the end-plate current. Thus, the effect of papaine on the end-plate current should be similar to the effect of anticholinesterase methanesulfonylfluoride. The end-plate current was recorded in frog skeletal muscle at various levels of membrane potential, before and after papaine was added to the bath. The effect of papaine was an increase of the half-time of the end-plate current, similarly as after treatment of the muscle by methanesulfonylfluoride. It seems that both papaine and methanesulfonylfluoride have a similar mechanism of action. In either experimental condition hydrolysis of transmitter is decreased or abolished, which results in an increase of the half-time of the end-plate current.

  11. Experimental study of prequalified status of flush end plate connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif H.M. Hassanien

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seismic design of steel structures is an essential part of the design process. Egyptian loading code development process continues in a high rate to catch up with emerging new concepts and standards. Steel design codes (ASD and LRFD are not developing in the same speed, which prevents the full utilization and application of loading code. The above reason leads to the need for evaluating flush end plate connections from prequalification point of view according to international standards. Due to the lack of sufficient experimental data on flush end-plate connections, an experimental program was conducted to investigate this topic. Six flush end-plate samples were designed according to the Egyptian code for steel construction (ECP205 ASD using different beam and column sections, bolt diameters and grades. A cyclic loading pattern defined by international standards was used in the testing process, and the performance was evaluated accordingly. Evaluation of M–Φ curves showed that in some cases flush end plate connections satisfy the strict requirements for prequalification. However, beam sections having limited depth fail to achieve prequalification criteria for the connections. Reduced web may be used to enhance the connection status and is investigated in one of the samples to evaluate its impact on connection performance and the failure mode. The proposed staggered hole configuration showed a promising performance.

  12. Behavior of four-bolt extended end-plate connection subjected to lateral loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Mashaly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A considerable number of literatures have been published on the behavior of end-plate connections in ordinary moment-resisting frames. It was found, experimentally, that this type of connection might act as either a fully-rigid or a semi-rigid connection depending mainly on the thickness of the end plate and the diameter of bolts. In recent years, due to their good ductility and their good ability of energy dissipation, extended end-plate connections are recommended to be widely used in special moment-resisting frames subjected to lateral loads. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of both the material and geometric properties of four-bolt extended end-plate connections upon their behavior when subjected to lateral loading. This is done through a parametric study upon a finite element model using the multi-purpose software package ANSYS. The parametric study takes into account 12 parameters which are expected to be effective on the behavior of the studied connection. The results are presented by the relation between the storey drift, which represents the rotation of the connection and the applied lateral load, which simulates the moment on the connection. The results verify that the chosen parameters are considered effective depending on the energy dissipation of the connection.

  13. Plate Like Convection with Viscous Strain Weakening and Corresponding Surface Deformation Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    How plate tectonic surface motions are generated by mantle convection on Earth and possibly other terrestrial type planets has recently become more readily accessible with fully dynamic convection computations. However, it remains debated how plate-like the behavior in such models truly is, and in particular how the well plate boundary dynamics are captured in models which typically exclude the effects of deformation history and memory. Here, we analyze some of the effects of viscous strain weakening on plate behavior and the interactions between interior convection dynamics and surface deformation patterns. We use the finite element code CitcomCU to model convection in a 3D Cartesian model setup. The models are internally heated, with an Arrhenius-type temperature dependent viscosity including plastic yielding and viscous strain weakening (VSW) and healing (VSWH). VSW can mimic first order features of more complex damage mechanisms such as grain-size dependent rheology. Besides plate diagnostic parameters (Plateness, Mobility, and Toroidal: Poloidal ratio) to analyze the tectonic behavior our models, we also explore how "plate boundaries" link to convective patterns. In a first model series, we analyze general surface deformation patterns without VSW. In the early stages, deformation patterns are clearly co-located with up- and downwelling limbs of convection. Along downwellings strain-rates are high and localized, whereas upwellings tend to lead to broad zones of high deformation. At a more advanced stage, however, the plates' interior is highly deformed due to continuous strain accumulation and resurfaced inherited strain. Including only VSW leads to more localized deformation along downwellings. However, at a more advanced stage plate-like convection fails due an overall weakening of the material. This is prevented including strain healing. Deformation pattern at the surface more closely coincide with the internal convection patterns. The average surface

  14. Finite element analysis of an extended end-plate connection using the T-stub approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, Ioana Cristina; Balc, Roxana [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering. 15 C Daicoviciu Str., 400020, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    Beam-to-column end-plate bolted connections are usually used as moment-resistant connections in steel framed structures. For this joint type, the deformability is governed by the deformation capacity of the column flange and end-plate under tension and elongation of the bolts. All these elements around the beam tension flange form the tension region of the joint, which can be modeled by means of equivalent T-stubs. In this paper a beam-to-column end-plate bolted connection is substituted with a T-stub of appropriate effective length and it is analyzed using the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS. The performance of the model is validated by comparing the behavior of the T-stub from the numerical simulation with the behavior of the connection as a whole. The moment-rotation curve of the T-stub obtained from the numerical simulation is compared with the behavior of the whole extended end-plate connection, obtained by numerical simulation, experimental tests and analytical approach.

  15. Three dimensional mathematical modeling of violin plate surfaces: An approach based on an ensemble of contour lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to describing the three dimensional shape of a violin plate in mathematical form. The shape description begins with standard contour lines and ends with an equation for a surface in three dimensional space. The traditional specification of cross sectional arching is unnecessary. Advantages of this approach are that it employs simple and universal description of plate geometry and yields a complete, smoothed, precise mathematical equation of the plate that is suitable for modern three dimensional production. It is quite general and suitable for both exterior and interior plate surfaces, yielding the ability to control thicknesses along with shape. This method can produce mathematical descriptions with tolerances easily less than 0.001 millimeters suitable for modern computerized numerical control carving and hand finishing.

  16. End plate marrow changes in the asymptomatic lumbosacral spine: frequency, distribution and correlation with age and degenerative changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine B.; Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Malghem, Jacques; Tavernier, Thierry; Cotten, Anne; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Vallee, Christian

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the frequency and distribution of end plate marrow signal intensity changes in an asymptomatic population and to correlate these findings with patient age and degenerative findings in the spine. MR imaging studies of the lumbosacral (LS) spine in 59 asymptomatic subjects were retrospectively reviewed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists to determine the presence and location of fat-like and edema-like marrow signal changes about the end plates of the L1-2 through L5-S1 levels. The presence of degenerative changes in the spine was recorded as was patient age. Descriptive statistics were utilized to determine the frequency and associations of end plate findings and degenerative changes in the spine. Interobserver variability was determined by a kappa score. Binomial probability was used to predict the prevalence of the end plate changes in a similar subject population. The Fisher exact test was performed to determine statistical significance of the relationship of end plate changes with degenerative changes in the spine, superior versus inferior location about the disc and age of the patient population. Focal fat-like signal intensity adjacent to the vertebral end-plate was noted in 15 out of 59 subjects by both readers, and involved 38 and 36 out of 590 end plates by readers 1 and 2, respectively. Focal edema-like signal intensity adjacent to the vertebral end plate was noted in 8 out of 59 subjects by both readers and involved 11 and 10 out of 590 end plates by readers 1 and 2, respectively. Either fat or edema signal intensity occurred most often at the anterior (p<.05) aspects of the mid-lumbar spine and was seen in an older sub-population of the study (p<.05). End plate marrow signal intensity changes are present in the lumbar spine of some asymptomatic subjects with a characteristic location along the spine and in vertebral end plates. (orig.)

  17. EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC RATIOS AND FIBRE ORIENTATION ON THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yang’s theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration in the developed Fortran computer program. It has been shown that the use of first-order displacement field provides the same accuracy as higher-order displacement field when the number of elements representing the plate structure is increased (refined mesh. However, poor precision may appear for plates with high thickness-to-side ratio h/a (thickness/side length. This discrepancy limits the application of the developed theory to thick plates (h/a<0.5. The various curves show the evolution of the dimensionless frequency (w* versus fibre orientation angle (q and illustrate the apparition of a “triple-point” phenomenon engendered by the increase of the plate aspect ratio a/b (length/width for a specific value of h/a. This point defines the maximum natural frequency and the associated fibre orientation. Also, results show that for high and/or low aspect ratios, the triple-point phenomenon does not occur. This latter is rapidly reached for thick plates than thin plates when the plate aspect ratio a/b is progressively increased.

  18. Analysis of the Behaviour of Semi Rigid Steel End Plate Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaz A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of steel-framed building structures with full strength beam to column joints is quite standard nowadays. Buildings utilizing such framing systems are widely used in design practice. However, there is a growing recognition of significant benefits in designing joints as partial strength/semi-rigid. The design of joints within this partial strength/semi-rigid approach is becoming more and more popular. This requires the knowledge of the full nonlinear moment-rotation behaviour of the joint, which is also a design parameter. The rotational behaviour of steel semi rigid connections can be studied using the finite element method for the following three reasons: i such models are inexpensive; ii they allow the understanding of local effects, which are difficult to measure accurately physically, and iii they can be used to generate extensive parametric studies. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model using ABAQUS software in order to identify the effect of different parameters on the behaviour of semi rigid steel beam to column end plate connections. Contact and sliding between different elements, bolt pretension and geometric and material non-linearity are included in this model. A parametric study is conducted using a model of two end-plate configurations: flush and extended end plates. The studied parameters were as follows: bolts type, end plate thickness and column web stiffener. Then, the model was calibrated and validated with experimental results taken from the literature and with the model proposed by Eurocode3. The procedure for determining the moment–rotation curve using finite element analysis is also given together with a brief explanation of how the design moment resistance and the initial rotational stiffness of the joint are obtained.

  19. Structure and properties of GMA surfaced armour plates

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; K. Luksa; M. Burda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the combat vehicles many materials can be used for the armour. Application of the monolithic armour plates in light combat vehicles is limited by the high armour weigh. Introduction of the layered armour plates is a way to limit the vehicle weight. In the paper test results of graded and nanostructural GMA surfaced armour plates are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Metallographic structure, chemical composition and hardness of surfaced layers were investigated in order to ex...

  20. Morphologic and radiologic data of isolated vertebral end-plates under particular consideration of radiodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unflath, U.

    1979-01-01

    The intention was to find examination techniques for macroscopico-morphological diagnosis, for quantification of the concavity and methods for roentgenologico-densitometric analysis of vertebral end-plates. The following factors were used for macromorphologic diagnosis: osteophytes, ridge constitution, ridge transition, cribriform plate and concavity. The radiodensitometric analysis comprised investigation of bone density, anisotropy and ridge mineralisation. The specimen were radiographed on a mammograph together with calcium chloride solutions of increasing concentration. Statistically significant differences in the behaviour of basal and upper plates were not observed. With reference to the factors osteophytes and ridge constitution the basal plates seem to be morphologically more variable than the upper plates. It resulted that the features absolute concavity and concavity quotient are highly appropriate factors to document the constitution of the isolated vertebral end-plates. Also the features density, anisotropy and ridge mineralisation were found to be useful for documentation. The result of data correlation was that high concavity quotients are accompanied by macroscopically medium- to small-sized pores. Density and anisotropy of the overall profiles do not show correlation, but voluminous cribriform laminae tend to develop more inhomogenic structures. As to be expected, bone density increases with macroscopic fine porosity. The higher the concavity quotient is, the smaller are the values for density, ridge mineralisation and anisotropy. Thus a high degree of vertebral end-plate concavity indicates reduced bone density and lower mineral content. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  2. Improving the performances of H-Darrieus cross-flow turbines through proper detached end plate designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Thierry; Boudreau, Matthieu; Dumas, Guy; CFD Laboratory LMFN Team

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies on H-Darrieus cross-flow turbines have highlighted the fact that their performances are highly sensitive to the detrimental effects associated with the blades tips. Wingtip devices could be designed in order to attenuate these effects, but the benefits of such devices are always impaired by their added viscous drag since they are moving with the turbine's blades. In this context, the development of fixed and detached end plates, i.e., which are not in contact with the turbine's blades, could reduce the tip losses without the undesirable added drag of typical wingtip devices moving with the blades. The case of a single stationary blade with detached end plates has first been investigated with RANS simulations in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the increase of the blade's lift. An analysis of the vorticity lines' dynamics provides crucial insights into the effects of the gap width between the blade and the detached end plate on the blade's loading and on the intensity of the tip vortices. Based on these observations, various configurations of detached end plates are tested on cross-flow turbines via RANS and DDES simulations. Preliminary results show that appropriate detached end plates can significantly increase the turbines' efficiency. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for their financial support as well as Compute Canada and Calcul Québec for their supercomputer allocations.

  3. End plate for e.g. solid oxide fuel cell stack, sets thermal expansion coefficient of material to predetermined value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    .05-0.3 mm. USE - End plate for solid oxide fuel cell stack (claimed). Can also be used in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack and direct methanol fuel cell stack. ADVANTAGE - The robustness of the end plate is improved. The structure of the end plate is simplified. The risk of delamination of the stack...

  4. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  5. Thermal performance of a phase change material on a nickel-plated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmawati, M.H.; Siow, K.S.; Rasiah, I.J.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal control becomes increasingly vital with IC chips becoming faster and smaller. The need to keep chips within acceptable operating temperatures is a growing challenge. Thermal interface materials (TIM) form the interfaces that improve heat transfer from the heat-generating chip to the heat dissipating thermal solution. One of the most commonly used materials in today's electronics industry is phase change material (PCM). Typically, the heat spreader is a nickel-plated copper surface. The compatibility of the PCM to this surface is crucial to the performance of the TIM. In this paper, we report on the performance of this interface. To that end, an instrument to suitably measure critical parameters, like the apparent and contact thermal resistance of the TIM, is developed according to the ASTM D5470 and calibrated. A brief theory of TIM is described and the properties of the PCM were investigated using the instrument. Thermal resistance measurements were made to investigate the effects of physical parameters like pressure, temperature and supplied power on the thermal performance of the material on nickel-plated surface. Conclusions were drawn on the effectiveness of the interface and their application in IC packages

  6. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  7. End plates made of a composite material for the revolving drum of a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Onishi, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to improvement of the end plates of centrifuges, especially those for centrifugal gas separators. End plates made of a composite material for the revolving drum of a centrifuge consists of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic layer. This layer consists of carbon fibers either wound helically at an angle greater than 75 0 and less than 90 0 to the center line of revolution, or wound in a hoop, and a matrix of a thermosetting resin in which the carbon fibers are buried, which [matrix] is laminated with metal layers

  8. Some aspects of thick, soft nickel plating for end shields of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thick (55 Thou) and soft (160 vickers) hardness number nickel plating over SS for RAPP end shields presented unusual problems as the thickness required was extremely large creating adhesion problems and the extremely stringent hardness conditions. A sulfamate bath with nickel anode was found suitable. The problems in thick, soft plating, the chemical and other procedures adopted to monitor the bath and the plated specimen and the other details are presented. (author). 11 refs

  9. Improving visibility of rear surface cracks during inductive thermography of metal plates using Autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Xu, Changhang; Chen, Guoming; Huang, Weiping

    2018-06-01

    Inductive thermography is one kind of infrared thermography (IRT) technique, which is effective in detection of front surface cracks in metal plates. However, rear surface cracks are usually missed due to their weak indications during inductive thermography. Here we propose a novel approach (AET: AE Thermography) to improve the visibility of rear surface cracks during inductive thermography by employing the Autoencoder (AE) algorithm, which is an important block to construct deep learning architectures. We construct an integrated framework for processing the raw inspection data of inductive thermography using the AE algorithm. Through this framework, underlying features of rear surface cracks are efficiently extracted and new clearer images are constructed. Experiments of inductive thermography were conducted on steel specimens to verify the efficacy of the proposed approach. We visually compare the raw thermograms, the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the prominent component thermography (PCT) technique and the results of AET. We further quantitatively evaluated AET by calculating crack contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results demonstrate that the proposed AET approach can remarkably improve the visibility of rear surface cracks and then improve the capability of inductive thermography in detecting rear surface cracks in metal plates.

  10. Connection between end plates and rods in a BWR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cali', G.P.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of the connection between the end plates and the rods of a BWR fuel element is analytically formulated. The behaviour of the springs coupling the rods with the upper plate is analyzed with particular detail since the deformation of these springs affects the forces at the interface of the fuel element structure components. A tool is given to design the springs according to some considerations regarding the mechanical strength of the interacting components as well as the influence of the possible geometrical unevennes of the system that can arise during the fuel element lifetime. (Cali', G.P.)

  11. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  12. Longitudinal study of vertebral type-1 end-plate changes on MR of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Newcastle General Hospital, Westgate Road, NE4 6BE, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mccall, I.W. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal evolution of type-1 end-plate changes on MRI in patients with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and to evaluate whether any correlation exists between such evolution and the change in patients' symptoms. Forty-four patients with 48 Modic type-1 end-plate changes (low TI signal and high T2 signal) were studied. All patients had an initial and a follow-up non-contrast lumbar MRI with variable intervals between the studies (12-72 months). Severity of the end-plate changes was assessed by eyeball estimation. Correlation with patients' symptoms was studied with the help of the Visual Analogue Score (VAS), Oswestry Questionnaire Score (OQS) and patients' subjective assessment. Of the 48 disc levels with type-1 changes, 18 (37.5%) converted fully to type 2 (high T1 signal and intermediate to high T2 signal), 7 (14.6%) partially converted to type 2, 19 (39.6%) became worse (i.e. type 1 changes became more extensive) and 4 (8.3%) showed no change. Higher average VAS (5.7) and OQS (42.3) scores were noted in patients where there was worsening type-1 change and lower scores (3.8 and 27, respectively) were seen in those where there was conversion to type-2 change. These trends, however, did not reach statistical significance (P values 0.16 and 0.09 for VAS and OQS, respectively). The statistical relationship was stronger after exclusion of patients with confounding factors (i.e. changes in lumbar MRI other than end-plate changes that could independently explain the evolution of patients' symptoms) with P-values of 0.08 and 0.07 for VAS and OQS, respectively. Type-1 end-plate change represents a dynamic process and in a large majority of cases either converts to type-2 change or becomes more extensive. The evolution of type-1 change relates to change in patient's symptoms, but not to a statistically significant level. (orig.)

  13. Longitudinal study of vertebral type-1 end-plate changes on MR of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, D.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mccall, I.W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal evolution of type-1 end-plate changes on MRI in patients with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and to evaluate whether any correlation exists between such evolution and the change in patients' symptoms. Forty-four patients with 48 Modic type-1 end-plate changes (low TI signal and high T2 signal) were studied. All patients had an initial and a follow-up non-contrast lumbar MRI with variable intervals between the studies (12-72 months). Severity of the end-plate changes was assessed by eyeball estimation. Correlation with patients' symptoms was studied with the help of the Visual Analogue Score (VAS), Oswestry Questionnaire Score (OQS) and patients' subjective assessment. Of the 48 disc levels with type-1 changes, 18 (37.5%) converted fully to type 2 (high T1 signal and intermediate to high T2 signal), 7 (14.6%) partially converted to type 2, 19 (39.6%) became worse (i.e. type 1 changes became more extensive) and 4 (8.3%) showed no change. Higher average VAS (5.7) and OQS (42.3) scores were noted in patients where there was worsening type-1 change and lower scores (3.8 and 27, respectively) were seen in those where there was conversion to type-2 change. These trends, however, did not reach statistical significance (P values 0.16 and 0.09 for VAS and OQS, respectively). The statistical relationship was stronger after exclusion of patients with confounding factors (i.e. changes in lumbar MRI other than end-plate changes that could independently explain the evolution of patients' symptoms) with P-values of 0.08 and 0.07 for VAS and OQS, respectively. Type-1 end-plate change represents a dynamic process and in a large majority of cases either converts to type-2 change or becomes more extensive. The evolution of type-1 change relates to change in patient's symptoms, but not to a statistically significant level. (orig.)

  14. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  15. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  16. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, C.W.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [A.S. Lexmond, C.W.M. van der Geld, The effect of fluid flow on detachment of drops from the downstream end

  17. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  18. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  19. Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of a New-Type of R/C Beam-Column Joints with End Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new-type of fabricated beam-column connections with end plates. The joint details are as follows: the concrete beams are connected to column by end plates and six high strength long bolts passing through the core area. In addition, in order to increase the stiffness and shear strength, stirrups are replaced by the steel plate hoop in the core zone. To examine the fail behavior of the fabricated beam-column connection specimens, a quasi-static test is conducted for nine full-scale models to obtain the hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, and other seismic indicators. The experimental results show that all specimens failed in bending in a malleable way with a beam plastic hinge and the hysteresis curves are excellently plump for the end plate connections. From the seismic indexes, the fabricated connection specimens exhibit better seismic performance, which can provide reference for the application of prefabricated frame structure in the earthquake area.

  20. Localized surface plate modes via flexural Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.

    2017-05-11

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are naturally generated upon excitation of metals with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. However, the concept of spoof plasmons has made it possible to generate plasmoniclike effects in microwave electrodynamics, magnetics, and even acoustics. Similarly, in this paper, the concept of localized surface plate modes (SPMs) is introduced. It is demonstrated that SPMs can be generated on a two-dimensional (clamped or stress-free) cylindrical surface with subwavelength corrugations, which resides on a thin elastic plate, under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Numerical characterization of this corrugated rigid structure shows that it is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with dispersive but uniformly negative flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmoniclike elastic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing and elastic imaging and cloaking.

  1. Localized surface plate modes via flexural Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.; Chen, P. -Y.; Guenneau, S.; Salama, Khaled N.; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are naturally generated upon excitation of metals with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. However, the concept of spoof plasmons has made it possible to generate plasmoniclike effects in microwave electrodynamics, magnetics, and even acoustics. Similarly, in this paper, the concept of localized surface plate modes (SPMs) is introduced. It is demonstrated that SPMs can be generated on a two-dimensional (clamped or stress-free) cylindrical surface with subwavelength corrugations, which resides on a thin elastic plate, under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Numerical characterization of this corrugated rigid structure shows that it is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with dispersive but uniformly negative flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmoniclike elastic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing and elastic imaging and cloaking.

  2. Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratautas, K.; Gedvilas, M.; Stankevičiene, I.; JagminienÄ--, A.; Norkus, E.; Li Pira, N.; Sinopoli, S.; Emanuele, U.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2016-03-01

    Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals. In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

  3. Stationary and non-stationary occurrences of miniature end plate potentials are well described as stationary and non-stationary Poisson processes in the mollusc Navanax inermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V

    1988-06-28

    Protractor muscles in the gastropod mollusc Navanax inermis exhibit typical spontaneous miniature end plate potentials with mean amplitude 1.71 +/- 1.19 (standard deviation) mV. The evoked end plate potential is quantized, with a quantum equal to the miniature end plate potential amplitude. When their rate is stationary, occurrence of miniature end plate potentials is a random, Poisson process. When non-stationary, spontaneous miniature end plate potential occurrence is a non-stationary Poisson process, a Poisson process with the mean frequency changing with time. This extends the random Poisson model for miniature end plate potentials to the frequently observed non-stationary occurrence. Reported deviations from a Poisson process can sometimes be accounted for by the non-stationary Poisson process and more complex models, such as clustered release, are not always needed.

  4. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  5. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  6. Effect of Fe- and Si-Enriched Secondary Precipitates and Surface Roughness on Pore Formation on Aluminum Plate Surfaces During Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanzhi; Wang, Shizhi; Yang, Qingda; Zhou, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Two twin roll casts (TRCs) and one hot rolled (HR) AA 1235 aluminum alloy plates with different microstructures are prepared. The plates were electrolyzed in a 1.2 wt% HCl solution with a voltage of 21 V and a current of 1.9 mA. The shape, size, and number of pores formed on the surfaces of these plates were analyzed and correlated with the microstructures of the plates. It is found that pores are easier to form on the alloy plates containing subgrains with a lower dislocation density inside the subgrains, rather than along the grain boundaries. Furthermore, Fe- and Si-enriched particles in the AA1235 aluminum alloys lead to the formation of pores on the surface during electrolyzing; the average precipitate sizes of 4, 3.5, and 2 μm in Alloy 1#, Alloy 2# and Alloy 3# result in the average pore sizes of 3.78, 2.76, and 1.9 μm on the surfaces of the three alloys, respectively; The G.P zone in the alloy also facilitates the surface pore formation. High-surface roughness enhances the possibility of entrapping more lubricants into the plate surface, which eventually blocks the formation of the pores on the surface of the aluminum plates in the following electrolyzing process.

  7. J-integral and limit load analysis of semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Systematic detailed non-linear finite element (FE) analyses are described for semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under tension. Limit load solutions are obtained from the FE J results through the reference stress method. The results show that the type of the relationship between J and the limit load mainly depends on the ratio a/t, where a is the crack depth and t the thickness of the plate. For a/t≤0.5, J for any position along the crack front can be predicted by the reference stress method using a single limit load value, except for the points very close to the plate surface. For a/t=0.8, J can only be approximately estimated because no single limit load value can be found to satisfy all the FE J solutions along the crack front. However, for all cases considered, the maximum J value along the crack front can still be predicted by using the global limit load in the reference stress method. The limit load data obtained from this work can be well predicted by a global limit load equation developed by Goodall and Webster

  8. Flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of flat plate pulsating heat pipes with various asymmetric and aspect ratios of the channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Dong Soo; Lee, Joo Seong; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, Yongchan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flat plate pulsating heat pipes with asymmetric and aspect ratios were tested. • Flow patterns were investigated according to channel geometry and flow condition. • Heat transfer characteristics were analyzed with various heat inputs. • Optimum asymmetric and aspect ratios were suggested for maximum thermal performance. - Abstract: The thermal performance of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) in compact electronic devices can be improved by adopting asymmetric channels with increased pressure differences and an unbalanced driving force. The objective of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of flat plate PHPs with various asymmetric ratios and aspect ratios in the channels. The thermal performance and flow pattern of the flat plate PHPs were measured by varying the asymmetric ratio from 1.0 to 4.0, aspect ratio from 2.5 to 5.0, and heat input from 2 to 28 W. The effects of the asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio on the thermal resistance were analyzed with the measured evaporator temperature and flow patterns at various heat inputs. With heat inputs of 6 W and 12 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio for the flat plate PHPs were determined to be 4.0 and 2.5, respectively. With the heat input of 18 W, the optimum asymmetric ratio and aspect ratio were determined to be 1.5 and 2.5, respectively.

  9. Air loads on a rigid plate oscillating normal to a fixed surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Tijdeman, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and experimental investigation on a rigid, rectangular plate oscillating in the proximity of a fixed surface. The plate is suspended by springs. The airloads generated by the oscillating motion of the plate are determined. Due to the fact that the plate is

  10. Pool Boiling Enhancement of R-123 Using Perforated Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae-Hyun [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we investigate the pool boiling enhancement caused by perforated plates on top of a smooth surface. We conduct tests using R-123 at atmospheric pressure. It was shown that perforated plates significantly enhanced the pool boiling of the smooth surface. The reason may be attributed to the increased bubble contact area between the plates. The results showed that the enhancement ratio was dependent on the heat flux. At high heat flux, the enhancement ratio increased as the porosity increased. However, at low heat flux, the enhancement ratio decreased as the porosity increased. For the present investigation, the optimum configuration had a pore diameter of 2.0 mm, pore pitch of 2.5 mm×5.0 mm or 5.0 mm×5.0 mm, and a gap width of 0.5 mm, which yielded heat-transfer coefficients that are close to those of GEWA-T. The optimum porosity for R-123 was significantly larger than that of water or ethanol. The reason for this may be the large liquid-to-vapor density ratio along with the small latent heat of vaporization of R-123. The perforated plates yielded smaller boiling hysteresis compared with that of the smooth surface.

  11. Effect of aspect ratio in free-swimming plunging flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Using three dimensional fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulations, we investigate the free swimming of plunging elastic rectangular plates with aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 5 in a viscous fluid with Reynolds number 250. We find that maximum velocity occurs near the first natural frequency regardless of aspect ratio, while the maximum swimming economy occurs away from the first natural frequency and corresponds to a specific swimmer bending pattern characterized by reduced displacement of the swimmer's center of mass. Furthermore, we find that swimmers with wider span are both faster and more economical than narrow swimmers. These faster speeds are due to decreased drag for low aspect ratio plunging swimmers, which is in agreement with a recently proposed vortex-induced drag model that suggests that the smaller relative size of side vortices in low aspect ratio swimmers creates less drag per unit width. Our results are useful for the design of small autonomous micro-swimming devices and also provide insights on the physics of aquatic locomotion using oscillating fins.

  12. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  13. Performance of wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors having different pipes cross sections geometries and filling ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H.; Nada, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of wickless heat pipe cross section geometry and its working fluid filling ratio on the performance of flat plate solar collectors has been investigated experimentally. Three groups of wickless heat pipes having three different cross section geometries (namely, circular, elliptical and semi-circular cross sections) were designed and manufactured. Each group of three wickless heat pipes was charged with three different distilled water filling ratios of 10%, 20% and 35%. Each wickless heat pipe was then incorporated into a prototype flat plate solar collector developed for the purpose of the present study. The prototypes wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors have been investigated experimentally at different inlet cooling water temperatures, two different cooling water mass flow rates and under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The experimental results indicate that the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors have better performance than the circular cross section ones at low water filling ratios. The optimum water filling ratio of the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipe solar collector is about 10%, while it is very close to 20% for the circular cross section one. Also, the water filling ratio corresponding to the flooding limit of the elliptical wickless heat pipe solar collector is lower than that of the circular one. At 20% water filling ratio, the semi-circular cross section wickless heat pipe solar collector has bad performance compared with that of the other cross sections

  14. Numerical Study on the Structural Performance of Steel Beams with Slant End-plate Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Zahmatkesh

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal effects can be one of the most harmful conditions that any steel structure should expect throughout its service life. To counteract this effect, a new beam, with a capability to dissipate thermally induced axial force by slanting of end-plate connection at both ends, is proposed. The beam was examined in terms of its elastic mechanical behavior under symmetric transverse load in presence of an elevated temperature by means of direct stiffness finite element model. The performance of such connection is defined under two resisting mechanisms; by friction force dissipation between faces of slant connection and by small upward crawling on slant plane. The presented numerical method is relatively easy and useful to evaluate the behavior of the proposed beam of various dimensions at different temperatures. Its applicability is evident through satisfactory results verification with those from experimental, analytical and commercially available finite element software. Based on the good agreement between theoretical and experimental methods, a series of design curves were developed as a safe-practical range for the slant end-plate connections which are depend on the conditions of the connection.

  15. Equilibrium paths of an imperfect plate with respect to its aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psotny, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The stability analysis of a rectangular plate loaded in compression is presented, a specialized code based on FEM has been created. Special finite element with 48 degrees of freedom has been used for analysis. The nonlinear finite element method equations are derived from the variational principle of minimum of total potential energy. To trace the complete nonlinear equilibrium paths, the Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is used, load versus displacement control was changed during the calculation process. The peculiarities of the effects of the initial imperfections on the load-deflection paths are investigated with respect to aspect ratio of the plate. Special attention is paid to the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode.

  16. Experiments of flow-induced in-line oscillation of a circular cylinder in a water tunnel. 2. Influence of the aspect ratio of a cantilevered circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira; Okajima, Atsushi; Kosugi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The flow-induced in-line oscillation of a cantilevered circular cylinder was experimentally studied through free-oscillation tests in a water tunnel. The response displacement amplitude at a circular cylinder tip was measured at reduced velocity from 1.0 to 4.0. A cantilevered cylinder was supported by a plate spring mounted on the water tunnel wall. The cylinder aspect ratio was varied from 5 to 21 to investigate the effect of aspect ratio on the response displacement. It is found that cylinders with aspect ratios of 5 and 10 have one excitation region, while cylinders with aspect ratios of 14 and 21 have two excitation regions. The aspect ratio, therefore, affects the amplitude of the excitation regions. The influence of end-effect was also investigated using cylinders with an end plate attached to the free end. Since the cylinders with an end plate show two excitation regions, even at an aspect ratio of 5, the flow around the free end of a cantilevered cylinder causes the end-effect. The mechanism of vibration was investigated using a cylinder with a splitter plate in wake to prevent alternate vortices. The amplitude is greater than those of a normal cylinder without a splitter plate, especially at V r =2.3 to 3.0, where a cylinder with an end plate shows the second excitation region. In order words, the alternate vortices suppress the amplitude in this range. The maximum amplitude of each excitation region decreases in proportion to C n and the amplitude of the first excitation is more sensitive to C n . (author)

  17. The decontamination of soft-plated nickel surfaces compared to alternative surface materials used in radioactive transport and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicky, H.U.; Bedenig, D.O.; Bohringer, I.M.; Petrik, F.

    1983-01-01

    Surfaces of raw, nickel-plated, and epoxy-coated spheroidal graphite cast iron, together with stainless steel, were contaminated with a modified fission product solution then conditioned by heat treatment. This was followed by a variety of simple decontamination techniques. It was shown that the ease of removal of contaminations similar to those expected on a dry storage container surface is significantly affected by the roughness of the surface. The raw cast iron surface was virtually impossible to significantly decontaminate. Highest decontamination factors were obtained on nickel-plated and epoxy-painted surfaces using steam/detergent mixtures. Stainless steel only performed well in a polished condition. In a supplementary irradiation experiment, scanning electron microscopy indicated visible decomposition of an epoxy-painted surface at a gamma dose of 3.1 X 10 6 Gy (3.1 X 10 8 rad). A nickel-plated surface did not undergo any visible changes at the same dose

  18. High yield polyol synthesis of round- and sharp-end silver nanowires with high aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekahi, A.; Marashi, S.P.H., E-mail: pmarashi@aut.ac.ir; Fatmesari, D. Haghshenas

    2016-12-01

    Long silver nanowires (average length of 28 μm, average aspect ratio of 130) with uniform diameter along their length were produced by polyol synthesis of AgNO{sub 3} in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP as preferential growth agent. Nanowires were produced with no addition of chloride salts such as NaCl or CuCl{sub 2} (or other additives such as Na{sub 2}S) which are usually used for lowering reduction rate of Ag ions by additional etchant of O{sub 2}/Cl{sup −}. Lower reduction rate was obtained by increasing the injection time of PVP and AgNO{sub 3} solutions, which was the significant factor in the formation of nanowires. Therefore, there was enough time for reduced Ag atoms to be deposited preferentially in the direction of PVP chains, resulting in high yield (the fraction of nanowires in the products) of nanowires (more than 95%) with high aspect ratio. The produced nanowires had both round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. Higher energy level of Ag atoms in borders of MTPs, which increases the dissolution rate of precipitated atoms, in addition to partial melting of MTPs at high synthesis temperatures, leads to the curving of the surfaces of exposed (111) crystalline planes in some MTPs and the formation of round-end silver nanowires. - Highlights: • Long silver nanowires with high aspect ratio of 130 were produced. • More than 95% nanowires were produced in products. • The produced nanowires had round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. • Additives were needed neither for high yield synthesis nor for round-end nanowires. • Melting and etching of MTPs in high energy borders resulted to round-end nanowires.

  19. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, van der C.W.M.; Celata, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [1], in which ethanol and water drops were created for various mass densities and gas velocities at the

  20. Development of a surface topography instrument for automotive textured steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shenghuai; Chen, Yurong; Xie, Tiebang

    2010-08-01

    The surface topography of automotive steel plate is decisive to its stamping, painting and image clarity performances. For measuring this kind of surface topography, an instrument has been developed based on the principle of vertical scanning white light microscopy interference principle. The microscopy interference system of this instrument is designed based on the structure of Linnik interference microscopy. The 1D worktable of Z direction is designed and introduced in details. The work principle of this instrument is analyzed. In measuring process, the interference microscopy is derived as a whole and the measured surface is scanned in vertical direction. The measurement accuracy and validity is verified by templates. Surface topography of textured steel plate is also measured by this instrument.

  1. Negative plate macropore surfaces in lead-acid batteries: Porosity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area, and capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V.; de O. Brito, G.A. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers, DQ-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, Km 235, CP 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    We propose an explanation for the production of an electrochemically active area during the electrochemical formation of lead-acid battery negative plates based on solid-state reactions. Our proposal is supported by experimental data. This study includes a critical review of the literature on charge/discharge mechanisms, porosity, and BET area. The critical review, through the latter two parameters, indicates the existence of both macro and micropores in positive plates, but only macropores in negative plates, with characteristic surface roughness. In the present paper the surface sulfation of the precursor is controlled using various acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions during an electrochemical formation process that does not include soaking. Our results confirm that variable roughness can be produced at the negative plate macropore surfaces. The morphological changes produced by different formation conditions are assessed by measuring the macroporosity, BET area, and capacity of single negative plates. Based on these concepts, a method was developed and applied to measure independently the contributions of geometrical surface macroporosity and roughness to the negative plate capacity. (author)

  2. Analysis of Terminal Metallic Armor Plate Free-Surface Bulging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapacki, Jr, E. J

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the bulge formed on the free-surface of the terminal metallic plate of an armor array is shown to lead to reasonable estimates of the armor array's remaining penetration/perforation resistance...

  3. Weight functions for the determination of stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.; Tan, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the weight functions for the determination of the stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends under complex stress distributions. First, a compliance analysis approach is used to calculate stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge cracks in finite width plates with built-in ends with uniform or linear stress distributions acting on the crack face. The results serve as the reference solutions for the next step in which the approaches of deriving weight functions from reference stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions developed for stress boundary conditions are extended to obtain the corresponding weight functions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends. Finite element analysis is conducted to validate the derived solutions. The weight functions derived are suitable for obtaining stress intensity factors and T-stress solutions under any complex stress field

  4. Sound Scattering by a Flexible Plate Embedded on Free Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad J. Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound wave scattering by a flexible plate embedded on water surface is considered. Linear acoustics and plate elasticity are assumed. The aim is to assess the effect of the plate’s flexibility on sound scattering and the potential in using that flexibility for this purpose. A combined sound-structure solution is used, which is based on a Fourier transform of the sound field and a finite-difference numerical-solution of the plate’s dynamics. The solution is implemented for a circular plate subject to a perpendicular incoming monochromatic sound wave. A very good agreement is achieved with a finite-difference solution of the sound field. It is shown that the flexibility of the plate dampens its scattered sound wave regardless of the type of the plate’s edge support. A hole in the plate is shown to further scatter the sound wave to form maxima in the near sound field. It is suggested that applying an external oscillatory pressure on the plate can reduce significantly and even eliminate its scattered wave, thus making the plate close to acoustically invisible. A uniformly distributed external pressure is found capable of achieving that aim as long as the plate is free edged or is not highly acoustically noncompact.

  5. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  6. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-01-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti–6Al–4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti–6Al–4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%–75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm. (paper)

  7. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on the chemical states of surface layers of corroded tin plates and tin-coated iron plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Akinori; Endo, Kazutoyo; Sano, Hirotoshi

    1980-01-01

    By means of the conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), we studied surface layers of ''tin'' plates and tin-coated iron plates corroded by various acids. Transmission Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were also measured. Metastannic acid was formed, when the ''tin'' plate was corroded by nitric acid solution. In corrosion by phosphoric acid solution, the X-ray diffractometry revealed the formation of tin(IV) pyrophosphate. In corrosion by various organic acid solutions, the formation of oxides was identified by the 119 Sn CEMS, but not by the X-ray diffractometry because of the too thin corrosion layer. In corrosion of tin-coated iron plates, maleic acid, malonic acid, formic acid, and oxalic acid were used. It was determined by CEMS that the corrosion products caused by these acids were tin(IV) oxides, although they could not be identified by the X-ray diffractometry. CEMS also confirmed that the surface of uncorroded tin-coated iron plate was already oxidized by air. Colorimetric determinations of Sn and Fe dissolved from tin-coated iron plates to various acid solutions confirmed that maleic acid had the strongest corrosion effect among the organic acids studied. (author)

  9. J-integral and limit load analysis of semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Systematic detailed linear and non-linear finite element (FE) analyses are performed for semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates under bending. Limit load (moment) solutions are obtained from the FE J results via the reference stress method. The FE results show that the Newman and Raju stress intensity factor equation is reasonably accurate and the Yagawa et al. J solution may significantly under estimate J for bending load. The relationship between J and the limit load is found to be dependent on the ratio a/t and a/c, where a and c are the depth and the half-length of the crack and t is the plate thickness. For a/t≤0.5 with a/c=0.2, J for any position along a crack front can be predicted by the reference stress method using a single limit load value except for the points very close to the plate surface. For all other cases, it can only be approximately estimated by the reference stress method because a limit load value that can satisfy all the FE J solutions along the crack front cannot be found. However, for all the cases examined, the maximum J along the crack front can be well predicted by the reference stress method when a proper global limit load is used. The Goodall and Webster global limit load equation is extended to any crack depth. The limit load data obtained in this paper can be well reproduced by the extended equation

  10. Transfer plate radioassay using cell monolayers to detect anti-cell surface antibodies synthesized by lymphocyte hybridomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.D.; Eisenbarth, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    A solid phase [ 125 I] Protein A radioassay for anti-cell surface antibodies is described, which employs target cell monolayers cultured on fenestrated polyvinyl chloride 96-well plates ('transfer plates'). The calibrated aperture in the bottom of each well is small enough to retain fluid contents by surface tension during monolayer growth, but also permits fluid to enter the wells when transfer plate are lowered into receptacles containing washing buffer on test sera. To assay for antibodies directed against target cell surface antigens, transfer plates bearing monolayers are inserted into microculture plates with corresponding 96-well geometry, thereby simultaneously sampling 96 wells. This assay allows rapid screening of hundreds of hybrid cell colonies for production of antibodies with desired tissue specificity. (Auth.)

  11. Fracture Surface Morphology Under Ductile Tearing of Metal Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacar, Muhammet F.; Tekoglu, Cihan; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2017-01-01

    The present work takes as offset the hypothesis that microstructural parameters, related to particle size and distribution, govern the transition between crack surface morphologies observed in experiments. The key question is; why does tearing of a given metal plate leave a specific morphology...

  12. Experimental investigation of thermal loading of a horizontal thin plate using infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of experimental investigations of the characteristics of thermal loading of a thin plate by discrete radiative heat sources. The carbon–steel thin plate is horizontally located above the heat sources. Temperature distribution of the plate is measured using an infrared camera. The effects of various parameters, such as the Rayleigh number, from 107 to 1011, the aspect ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the distance ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the number of heaters, from 1 to 24, the thickness ratio, from 0.003 to 0.005, and the thermal radiative emissivity, from 0.567 to 0.889 on the maximum temperature and the length of uniform temperature region on a thin plate are explored. The results indicate that the most effective parameters on the order of impact on the maximum temperature is Rayleigh number, the number of heat sources, the distance ratio, the aspect ratio, the surface emissivity, and the plate thickness ratio. Finally, the results demonstrated that there is an optimal distance ratio to maximize the region of uniform temperature on the plate.

  13. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  14. Accuracy of Surface Plate Measurements - General Purpose Software for Flatness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Heuvelman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Flatness departures of surface plates are generally obtained from straightness measurements of lines on the surface. A computer program has been developed for on-line measurement and evaluation, based on the simultaneous coupling of measurements in all grid points. Statistical methods are used to

  15. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  16. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via N-Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni–P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni–P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  17. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu, E-mail: mqwang1514@163.com; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-15

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via N-Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni–P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni–P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  18. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via Nsbnd Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni-P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni-P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  19. Loading Mode and Environment Effects on Surface Profile Characteristics of Martensite Plates in Cu-Based SMAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suru, Marius-Gabriel; Paraschiv, Adrian-Liviu; Lohan, Nicoleta Monica; Pricop, Bogdan; Ozkal, Burak; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    The present work reports the influence of the loading mode provided during training under constant stress, in bending, applied to lamellar specimens of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys (SMAs). During training, the specimens were bent by a load fastened at their free end, while being martensitic at room temperature and they lifted the load by one-way effect (1WE), during heating up to austenitic field. On cooling to martensite field, the lower concave surface of bent specimens was compressed, and during heating it was elongated, being subjected to a series of tension-compression cycles, during heating-cooling, respectively. Conversely, the upper convex surface of bent specimens was elongated during cooling and compressed during heating, being subjected to compression-tension cycles. Furthermore, 2WE-trained actuators were tested by means of a hydraulic installation where, this time heating-cooling cycles were performed in oil conditions. Considering that the lower concave surface of the specimens was kept in compressed state, while the upper convex surface was kept in elongated state, the study reveals the influence of the two loading modes and environments on the width of martensite plates of the specimens trained under various numbers of cycles. In this purpose, Cu-Zn-Al specimens, trained under 100-300-500 cycles, were prepared and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy (OM and SEM, respectively). The analysis also included AFM micrographs corroborated with statistical evaluations in order to reveal the effects of loading mode (tension or compression) in different environmental conditions of the specimens, on the surface profile characteristics of martensite plates, revealed by electropolishing.

  20. Torsion of surface plate of the active support table for the ATF damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Yasunori; Takeda, Shigeru; Kudo, Kikuo; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Kanazawa, Yasunori.

    1996-01-01

    Distortion of the surface plate of active support table was measured using precise tiltmeters. It is found that the surface plate is twisted when the temperature changes. The effect of this phenomenon is much smaller than the alignment tolerance of the ATF damping ring if the room temperature is controlled within 0.4degC. However, it is not negligible in the linear collider case. (author)

  1. Two-dimensional simulations of steady perforated-plate stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Altay, H. Murat

    2010-03-17

    The objective of this work is to examine the impact of the operating conditions and the perforated-plate design on the steady, lean premixed flame characteristics. We perform two-dimensional simulations of laminar flames using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for methane-air combustion, consisting of 20 species and 79 reactions. We solve the heat conduction problem within the plate, allowing heat exchange between the gas mixture and the solid plate. The physical model is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the axisymmetric compressible conservation equations. The results suggest that the flame consumption speed, the flame structure, and the flame surface area depend significantly on the equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, the distance between the perforated-plate holes and the plate thermal conductivity. In the case of an adiabatic plate, a conical flame is formed, anchored near the corner of the hole. When the heat exchange between themixture and the plate is finite, the flame acquires a Gaussian shape stabilizing at a stand-off distance, that grows with the plate conductivity. The flame tip is negatively curved; i.e. concave with respect to the reactants. Downstream of the plate, the flame base is positively curved; i.e. convex with respect to the reactants, stabilizing above a stagnation region established between neighboring holes. As the plate\\'s thermal conductivity increases, the heat flux to the plate decreases, lowering its top surface temperature. As the equivalence ratio increases, the flame moves closer to the plate, raising its temperature, and lowering the flame stand-off distance. As the mean inlet velocity increases, the flame stabilizes further downstream, the flame tip becomes sharper, hence raising the burning rate at that location. The curvature of the flame base depends on the distance between the neighboring holes; and the flame there is characterized by high concentration of intermediates, like carbon monoxide. © 2010 Taylor

  2. Surface roughness effect on the metallic bipolar plates of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Various degrees of roughness are caused by the sandblasting method. ► An improper surface modification depletes the PEMFC performance severely. ► The AC impedance are used to assess the fuel gas transfer effect. ► The Warburg resistance form in the coarse flow channel surface. - Abstract: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is a promising candidate as energy systems. However, the stability and lifetime of cells are still important issues. The effect of surface roughness on metallic bipolar plate is discussed in this paper. Various roughness on the bulk surface are obtained by the sandblasting method. The grain sizes of sand are selected as 50, 100 and 200 μm. The Ac impedance experiment results show that the bipolar plate roughness and carbon paper porosity are well matched when the surface roughness is within 1–2 μm. Superior condition decreases the contact resistance loss in the fuel cell. The high frequency resistance of the coarse surface was larger than that of the substrate by around 5 mΩ. Furthermore, a new arc was formed at the low frequency region. Hence, the unmatch roughness condition of the bipolar plate significantly increases the contact resistance and mass transfer resistance. This paper develops a sequential approach to study an optimum surface roughness by combining the whole performance (I–V) curve and AC impedance result. It benefits us to quantify the contact and mass transfer resistance exists in the PEMFC. The proposed surface treatment improves the surface effect and promotes the implement of potential metallic bipolar plate in near future

  3. New stress intensity factor solutions for an elliptical crack in a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, P.L.; Barthelet, B.

    2005-01-01

    Crack assessment in engineering structures relies first on accurate evaluation of the stress intensity factors. In recent years, a large work has been conducted in France by the Atomic Energy Commission to develop influence coefficients for surface cracks in pipes. However, the problem of embedded cracks in plates (and pipes) which is also of practical importance has not received so much attention. Presently, solutions for elliptical cracks are available either in infinite solid with a polynomial distribution of normal loading or in plate, but restricted to constant or linearly varying tension. This paper presents the work conducted at EDF R and D to obtain influence coefficients for plates containing an elliptical crack with a wide range of the parameters : relative size (2a/t ratio), shape (a/c ratio) and free surface proximity (a/d ratio where d is the distance from the center of the ellipse to the closest free surface). These coefficients were developed through extensive 3D finite element calculations : 200 geometrical configurations were modeled, each containing from 18000 to 26000 nodes. The limiting case of the tunnel crack (a/c = 0) was also analyzed with 2D finite element calculation (50 geometrical configurations). The accuracy of the results was checked by comparison with analytical solutions for infinite solids and, when possible, with solutions for finite-thickness plates (generally loaded in constant tension). (authors)

  4. Lamination and end plate design studies of SSC Low Energy Booster magnet prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.

    1993-01-01

    The LEB machine includes six kinds of laminated magnets and 4 kinds of laminations. The main quadrupole magnet and low field and high field corrector quadrupoles use the same lamination shape. The chromaticity sextupole, corrector dipole, and main dipole have different lamination designs. To test the physical design and production procedure for the magnets, it is necessary to build 2 or 3 prototypes for each kind of magnet. The ZVI plant in Moscow, manufactured all 4 kinds of lamination punching dies for the LEB magnets. Each die takes 3 to 5 months to fabricate. SSCL manufactured laser cut laminated magnet prototypes in the SSC shop at the same time. Since the LEB cycles at 10 Hz, the high frequency current and laminated end plate design causes a delamination problem on the magnet end. This problem is of concern and will be addressed

  5. Modeling, Fabrication and Characterization of Scalable Electroless Gold Plated Nanostructures for Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gyoung Gug

    The scientific and industrial demand for controllable thin gold (Au) film and Au nanostructures is increasing in many fields including opto-electronics, photovoltaics, MEMS devices, diagnostics, bio-molecular sensors, spectro-/microscopic surfaces and probes. In this study, a novel continuous flow electroless (CF-EL) Au plating method is developed to fabricate uniform Au thin films in ambient condition. The enhanced local mass transfer rate and continuous deposition resulting from CF-EL plating improved physical uniformity of deposited Au films and thermally transformed nanoparticles (NPs). Au films and NPs exhibited improved optical photoluminescence (PL) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively, relative to batch immersion EL (BI-EL) plating. Suggested mass transfer models of Au mole deposition are consistent with optical feature of CF-EL and BI-EL films. The prototype CF-EL plating system is upgraded an automated scalable CF-EL plating system with real-time transmission UV-vis (T-UV) spectroscopy which provides the advantage of CF-EL plating, such as more uniform surface morphology, and overcomes the disadvantages of conventional EL plating, such as no continuous process and low deposition rate, using continuous process and controllable deposition rate. Throughout this work, dynamic morphological and chemical transitions during redox-driven self-assembly of Ag and Au film on silica surfaces under kinetic and equilibrium conditions are distinguished by correlating real-time T-UV spectroscopy with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The characterization suggests that four previously unrecognized time-dependent physicochemical regimes occur during consecutive EL deposition of silver (Ag) and Au onto tin-sensitized silica surfaces: self-limiting Ag activation; transitory Ag NP formation; transitional Au-Ag alloy formation during galvanic replacement of Ag by Au; and uniform morphology formation under

  6. Review on Electroless Plating Ni-P Coatings for Improving Surface Performance of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zou, Jiaojuan; Lin, Naiming; Tang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    Electroless plating has been considered as an effective approach to provide protection and enhancement for metallic materials with many excellent properties in engineering field. This paper begins with a brief introduction of the fundamental aspects underlying the technological principles and conventional process of electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coatings. Then this paper discusses different electroless nickel plating, including binary plating, ternary composite plating and nickel plating with nanoparticles and rare earth, with the intention of improving the surface performance on steel substrate in recent years in detail. Based on different coating process, the varied features depending on the processing parameters are highlighted. Separately, diverse preparation techniques aiming at improvement of plating efficiency are summarized. Moreover, in view of the outstanding performance, such as corrosion resistance, abrasive resistance and fatigue resistance, this paper critically reviews the behaviors and features of various electroless coatings under different conditions.

  7. Effect of the plate surface characteristics and gap height on yield stresses of a magnetorheological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkkari, I; Syrjala, S; Kostamo, E; Kostamo, J; Pietola, M

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the plate material, surface roughness and measuring gap height on static and dynamic yield stresses of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid were investigated with a commercial plate–plate magnetorheometer. Magnetic and non-magnetic plates with smooth (Ra ∼ 0.3 μm) and rough (Ra ∼ 10 μm) surface finishes were used. It was shown by Hall probe measurements and finite element simulations that the use of magnetic plates or higher gap heights increases the level of magnetic flux density and changes the shape of the radial flux density profile. The yield stress increase caused by these factors was determined and subtracted from the measured values in order to examine only the effect of the wall characteristics or the gap height. Roughening of the surfaces offered a significant increase in the yield stresses for non-magnetic plates. With magnetic plates the yield stresses were higher to start with, but roughening did not increase them further. A significant part of the difference in measured stresses between rough non-magnetic and magnetic plates was caused by changes in magnetic flux density rather than by better contact of the particles to the plate surfaces. In a similar manner, an increase in gap height from 0.25 to 1.00 mm can lead to over 20% increase in measured stresses due to changes in the flux density profile. When these changes were compensated the dynamic yield stresses generally remained independent of the gap height, even in the cases where it was obvious that the wall slip was present. This suggests that with MR fluids the wall slip cannot be reliably detected by comparison of flow curves measured at different gap heights. (paper)

  8. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Surface on Wood Veneer via Electroless Nickel Plating Combined with Chemical Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch veneers were coated with Ni-P films by a combined process of KBH4 activation and electroless plating. The plated veneers were further chemically corroded to obtain hydrophobic surfaces on wood. The effect of chemical corrosion on the contact angle of the veneers was investigated. The hydrophobic veneers were characterized by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The surface contact angle of birch veneer before and after it was plated with Ni-P alloy coating was 41º and 121º, respectively. The contact angle reached 136.7º when the nickel-coated veneers were corroded in CuSO4 aqueous solution for 30 min. XPS analysis showed that Cu0 cluster doped with little CuO formed on the corroded surface of Ni-P alloy film after chemical corrosion. SEM and XRD showed that rough copper clusters formed on the surface of the wood veneer and revealed the reason of the surface hydrophobicity. This study provides a new pathway for fabricating hydrophobic wood.

  9. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  10. Transient thermal stresses in an orthotropic finite rectangular plate due to arbitrary surface heat-generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transient thermal stresses in an orthotropic finite rectangular plate due to arbitrary surface heat-generations on two edges are studied by means of the Airy stress function. The purposes of this paper are to present a method of determing the transient thermal stresses in an orthographic rectangular plate with four edges of distinct thermal boundary condition of the third kind which exactly satisfy the traction-free conditions of shear stress over all boundaries including four corners of the plate, and to consider the effects of the anisotropies of material properties and the convective heat transfer on the upper and lower surfaces on the thermal stress distribution. (orig.)

  11. Joint surface modeling with thin-plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S K; Ronsky, J L; Lichti, D D; Salkauskas, K; Chapman, M A; Salkauskas, D

    1999-10-01

    Mathematical joint surface models based on experimentally determined data points can be used to investigate joint characteristics such as curvature, congruency, cartilage thickness, joint contact areas, as well as to provide geometric information well suited for finite element analysis. Commonly, surface modeling methods are based on B-splines, which involve tensor products. These methods have had success; however, they are limited due to the complex organizational aspect of working with surface patches, and modeling unordered, scattered experimental data points. An alternative method for mathematical joint surface modeling is presented based on the thin-plate spline (TPS). It has the advantage that it does not involve surface patches, and can model scattered data points without experimental data preparation. An analytical surface was developed and modeled with the TPS to quantify its interpolating and smoothing characteristics. Some limitations of the TPS include discontinuity of curvature at exactly the experimental surface data points, and numerical problems dealing with data sets in excess of 2000 points. However, suggestions for overcoming these limitations are presented. Testing the TPS with real experimental data, the patellofemoral joint of a cat was measured with multistation digital photogrammetry and modeled using the TPS to determine cartilage thicknesses and surface curvature. The cartilage thickness distribution ranged between 100 to 550 microns on the patella, and 100 to 300 microns on the femur. It was found that the TPS was an effective tool for modeling joint surfaces because no preparation of the experimental data points was necessary, and the resulting unique function representing the entire surface does not involve surface patches. A detailed algorithm is presented for implementation of the TPS.

  12. Oscillatory flow at the end of parallel-plate stacks: phenomenological and similarity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xiaoan; Jaworski, Artur J

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the physics of the oscillatory flow in the vicinity of a series of parallel plates forming geometrically identical channels. This type of flow is particularly relevant to thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, where a reciprocating flow is responsible for the desirable energy transfer, but it is also of interest to general fluid mechanics of oscillatory flows past bluff bodies. In this paper, the physics of an acoustically induced flow past a series of plates in an isothermal condition is studied in detail using the data provided by PIV imaging. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the wake flow during the ejection part of the flow cycle, where either closed recirculating vortices or alternating vortex shedding can be observed. This is followed by a similarity analysis of the governing Navier-Stokes equations in order to derive the similarity criteria governing the wake flow behaviour. To this end, similarity numbers including two types of Reynolds number, the Keulegan-Carpenter number and a non-dimensional stack configuration parameter, d/h, are considered and their influence on the phenomena are discussed.

  13. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate on a thin viscous film

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Philippe  H.; Wilson, Stephen  K.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate lying on the free surface of a thin film of viscous fluid, which itself lies on top of a horizontal substrate that is moving to the right at a constant speed is considered. The focus of the present work is to describe how the competing effects of the speed of the substrate, surface tension, viscosity, and, in the case of a pinned plate, the prescribed pressure in the reservoir of fluid at its upstream end, determine the possible equilibrium positions of the plate, the free surface, and the flow within the film. The present problems are of interest both in their own right as paradigms for a range of fluid-structure interaction problems in which viscosity and surface tension both play an important role, and as a first step towards the study of elastic effects.

  14. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate on a thin viscous film

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Philippe H.

    2014-11-11

    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. A pinned or free-floating rigid plate lying on the free surface of a thin film of viscous fluid, which itself lies on top of a horizontal substrate that is moving to the right at a constant speed is considered. The focus of the present work is to describe how the competing effects of the speed of the substrate, surface tension, viscosity, and, in the case of a pinned plate, the prescribed pressure in the reservoir of fluid at its upstream end, determine the possible equilibrium positions of the plate, the free surface, and the flow within the film. The present problems are of interest both in their own right as paradigms for a range of fluid-structure interaction problems in which viscosity and surface tension both play an important role, and as a first step towards the study of elastic effects.

  15. Concentrations and activity ratios of 228Ra and 226Ra in surface seawater along the Pacific coast of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Sato, J.; Gamo, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios in surface seawater along the Pacific coast of Japan at five ports around the island of Izu-Oshima (n = 29), at Atami in Sagami Bay (n = 13), and at Umizuri Park in Tokyo Bay (n = 14). We also conducted these measurements along a transect from the open Pacific Ocean across the Kuroshio to the mouth of Tokyo Bay (n = 7). The activity ratios decreased with increasing salinity of the sampling sites. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios in surface seawater along the coast gradually decreased after at the end of autumn and were lowest in winter and the beginning of spring. The surface salinity along the coast decreased from summer into autumn and increased from winter to the beginning of spring. The activity ratios decreased with the increase of salinity. The variation in activity ratios at the three coastal sites is possibly caused by differing contributions of surface seawater from the Kuroshio and surrounding open ocean. The different patterns and ranges of variation in the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios in surface seawater at Izu-Oshima, Atami, and Umizuri Park may reflect both the amount of water from the Kuroshio and vicinity, and the local bathymetry, because continental shelf sediment is the source of Ra isotopes in surface seawater. (orig.)

  16. Plating end fittings to reduce hydrogen ingress at rolled joints in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.J.; Urbanic, V.F.; Bahurmuz, A.A.; Clendening, W.R.; Joynes, R.; McDougall, G.M.; Skinner, B.C.; Venkatapathi, S.

    1993-10-01

    Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors absorb hydrogen at a low rate from the primary heat transport water circulated through the tubes. Extra hydrogen is picked up at the rolled joints that connect the pressure tubes to out-of-core steel piping. This enhanced ingress may contribute to pressure-tube cracking at incorrectly assembled joints. The risk of pressure-tube failure has been decreased by ensuring correct joint assembly, and could be further decreased by reducing hydrogen ingress at rolled joints. This paper reviews progress toward using plated end fittings to reduce rolled-joint hydrogen ingress

  17. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."

  18. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  19. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  20. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface was studied. The analysis was performed by assuming that the sodium mist is emitted into the main flow without condensation and then grows up in the main flow and drops on the sodium surface. The effects of growth of sodium mist to the system were investigated. The model of the phenomena is the sodium deposition onto a horizontal flat plate which is placed above the sodium surface with the medium cover gas. One-dimensional analysis can be done. The rate of deposition is greatly reduced when the temperature of the flat plate is lowered. For the analysis of this phenomena, it is assumed that the sodium mist grows by condensation. One of results is that the real state may be the state between the state that the condensation of mist is made in the boundary layer and the state that the mist is condensed in the main flow. Others are that there is no effect of sodium mist condensation on the rate of deposition, and that the rate of the vaporization of sodium is given by the original and the modified model. (Kato, T.)

  1. Progress in the fabrication of high aspect ratio zone plates by soft x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divan, R.; Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N. A.; Lai, B.; Assoufid, L.; Leondard, Q.; Cerrina, F.

    2002-01-01

    Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for the hard x-ray spectral region combines the challenge of high lateral resolution (∼100 nm) with a large thickness requirement for the phase-shifting material (0.5-3 (micro)m). For achieving a high resolution, the initial mask was fabricated by e-beam lithography and gold electroforming. To prevent the collapse of the structures between the developing and electroforming processes, drying was completely eliminated. Fabrication errors, such as nonuniform gold electroplating and collapse of structures, were systematically analyzed and largely eliminated. We optimized the exposure and developing processes for 950k and 2200k polymethylmethacrylate of different thicknesses and various adhesion promoters. We discuss the effects of these fabrication steps on the zone plate's resolution and aspect ratio. Fresnel zone plates with 110 nm outermost zone width, 150 (micro)m diameter, and 1.3 (micro)m gold thickness were fabricated. Preliminary evaluation of the FZPs was done by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FZP focusing performance was characterized at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  2. Copper circuit patterning on polymer using selective surface modification and electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Tae-Jun [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Juil [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Hansung University, Seoul 136-792 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myoung-Woon [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyu Hwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jun Hyun, E-mail: jhhan@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A new simple two step method for the pattering of Cu circuits on PET substrate was proposed. • The simple patterning of the high adhesive Cu circuits was achieved by plasma treatment using a patterned mask coated with a catalyst material. • The high adhesive strength of Cu circuits was due to the nanostructure formed by oxygen plasma treatment. - Abstract: We have examined a potential new and simple method for patterning a copper circuit on PET substrate by copper electroless plating, without the pretreatment steps (i.e., sensitization and activation) for electroless plating as well as the etching processes of conventional circuit patterning. A patterned mask coated with a catalyst material, Ag, for the reduction of Cu ions, is placed on a PET substrate. Subsequent oxygen plasma treatment of the PET substrate covered with the mask promotes the selective generation of anisotropic pillar- or hair-like nanostructures coated with co-deposited nanoparticles of the catalyst material on PET. After oxygen plasma treatment, a Cu circuit is well formed just by dipping the plasma-treated PET into a Cu electroless plating solution. By increasing the oxygen gas pressure in the chamber, the height of the nanostructures increases and the Ag catalyst particles are coated on not only the top but also the side surfaces of the nanostructures. Strong mechanical interlocking between the Cu circuit and PET substrate is produced by the large surface area of the nanostructures, and enhances peel strength. Results indicate this new simple two step (plasma surface modification and pretreatment-free electroless plating) method can be used to produce a flexible Cu circuit with good adhesion.

  3. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  4. Free Vibration Analyses of FGM Thin Plates by Isogeometric Analysis Based on Classical Plate Theory and Physical Neutral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuohui Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isogeometric analysis with nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS based on the classical plate theory (CPT is developed for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM thin plates. The objective of this work is to provide an efficient and accurate numerical simulation approach for the nonhomogeneous thin plates and shells. Higher order basis functions can be easily obtained in IGA, thus the formulation of CPT based on the IGA can be simplified. For the FGM thin plates, material property gradient in the thickness direction is unsymmetrical about the midplane, so effects of midplane displacements cannot be ignored, whereas the CPT neglects midplane displacements. To eliminate the effects of midplane displacements without introducing new unknown variables, the physical neutral surface is introduced into the CPT. The approximation of the deflection field and the geometric description are performed by using the NURBS basis functions. Compared with the first-order shear deformation theory, the present method has lower memory consumption and higher efficiency. Several numerical results show that the present method yields highly accurate solutions.

  5. Improving wettability of photo-resistive film surface with plasma surface modification for coplanar copper pillar plating of IC substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Jing; Wang, Chong; Chen, Yuanming; Wang, Shouxu; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Gong, Lijun; He, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Air atmosphere plasmacould generatehydrophilic groups of photo-resistive film. • Better wettability of photo-resistive filmled tohigher plating uniformity of copper pillars. • New flow isreduced cost, simplified process and elevated productivity. - Abstract: The wettability of the photo-resistive film (PF) surfaces undergoing different pretreatments including the O_2−CF_4 low-pressure plasma (OCLP) and air plasma (AP), is investigated by water contact angle measurement instrument (WCAMI) before the bottom-up copper pillar plating. Chemical groups analysis performed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) shows that after the OCLP and wash treatment, the wettability of PF surface is attenuated, because embedded fluorine and decreased oxygen content both enhance hydrophobicity. Compared with OCLP treatment, the PF surface treatment by non-toxic air plasma displays features of C−O, O−C=O, C=O and −NO_2 by AIR-FTIR and XPS, and a promoted wettability by WCAM. Under the identical electroplating condition, the surface with a better wettability allows electrolyte to spontaneously soak all the places of vias, resulting in improved copper pillar uniformity. Statistical analysis of metallographic data shows that more coplanar and flat copper pillars are achieved with the PF treatment of air plasma. Such modified copper-pillar-plating technology meets the requirement of accurate impedance, the high density interconnection for IC substrates.

  6. Characterization of holding brake friction pad surface after pin-on-plate wear test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, N.; Gonzalez Madruga, D.; De Chiffre, L.

    2018-01-01

    This article concerns the metrological characterization of the surface on a holding brake friction material pin after a pin-on-plate (POP) wear test. The POP test induces the formation of surface plateaus that affect brake performances such as wear, friction, noise and heat. Three different...

  7. Combined Effect of Surface Roughness and Wake Splitter Plate on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circular Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisanthosh, Iyer; Arunkumar, K.; Ajithkumar, R.; Srikrishnan, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focussed on numerical investigation of flow around a stationary circular cylinder (diameter, D) with selectively applied surface roughness (roughness strips with thickness ‘k’) in the presence of a wake splitter plate (length, L). The plate leading edge is at a distance of ‘G’ from the cylinder base. For this study, the commercial software ANSYS Fluent is used. Fluid considered is water. Study was conducted the following cases (a) plain cylinder (b) cylinder with surface roughness (without splitter plate) (c) Cylinder with splitter plate (without surface roughness) and (d) cylinder with both roughness and splitter plate employed. The study Reynolds number (based on D) is 17,000 and k/δ = 1.25 (in all cases). Results indicate that, for cylinder with splitter plate (no roughness), lift coefficient gradually drops till G/D=1.5 further to which it sharply increases. Whereas, drag coefficient and Strouhal number undergoes slight reduction till G/D=1.0 and thereafter, gradually increase. Circumferential location of strip (α) does not influence the aerodynamic parameters significantly. With roughness alone, drag is magnified by about 1.5 times and lift, by about 2.7 times that of the respective values of the smooth cylinder. With splitter plate, for roughness applied at all ‘α’ values, drag and lift undergoes substantial reduction with the lowest value attained at G/D=1.0.

  8. Short communication: A comparison of biofilm development on stainless steel and modified-surface plate heat exchangers during a 17-h milk pasteurization run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shivali; Anand, Sanjeev; Metzger, Lloyd; Amamcharla, Jayendra

    2018-04-01

    Flow of milk through the plate heat exchanger (PHE) results in denaturation of proteins, resulting in fouling. This also accelerates bacterial adhesion on the PHE surface, eventually leading to the development of biofilms. During prolonged processing, these biofilms result in shedding of bacteria and cross-contaminate the milk being processed, thereby limiting the duration of production runs. Altering the surface properties of PHE, such as surface energy and hydrophobicity, could be an effective approach to reduce biofouling. This study was conducted to compare the extent of biofouling on native stainless steel (SS) and modified-surface [Ni-P-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)] PHE during the pasteurization of raw milk for an uninterrupted processing run of 17 h. For microbial studies, raw and pasteurized milk samples were aseptically collected from inlets and outlets of both PHE at various time intervals to examine shedding of bacteria in the milk. At the end of the run, 3M quick swabs (3M, St. Paul, MN) and ATP swabs (Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) were used to sample plates from different sections of the pasteurizers (regeneration, heating, and cooling) for biofilm screening and to estimate the efficiency of cleaning in place, respectively. The data were tested for ANOVA, and means were compared. Modified PHE experienced lower mesophilic and thermophilic bacterial attachment and biofilm formation (average log 1.0 and 0.99 cfu/cm 2 , respectively) in the regenerative section of the pasteurizer compared with SS PHE (average log 1.49 and 1.47, respectively). Similarly, higher relative light units were observed for SS PHE compared with the modified PHE, illustrating the presence of more organic matter on the surface of SS PHE at the end of the run. In addition, at h 17, milk collected from the outlet of SS PHE showed plate counts of 5.44 cfu/cm 2 , which were significantly higher than those for pasteurized milk collected from modified PHE (4.12 log cfu/cm 2 ). This

  9. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  10. Detachment of polystyrene particles from collector surfaces by surface tension forces induced by air-bubble passage through a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, PJ; vanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    By allowing an air-bubble to pass through a parallel plate flow chamber with negatively charged, colloidal polystyrene particles adhering to the bottom collector plate of the chamber, the detachment of adhering particles stimulated by surface tension forces induced by the passage of a liquid-air

  11. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases.

  12. Procedure and device for extracting the end of a tube inserted into a hole in a tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    When constructing heat exchangers and steam generators, particularly in the construction of steam generators for nuclear power stations, many small diameter tubes have to be secured into a very thick tube plate for instance 600 mm thick. This crimping or expanding of the tube is generally performed by rolling the internal surface of the tube inside a hole drilled right through the tube plate and slightly greater in diameter than the external diameter of the tube before the tube is rolled. To check the tubes for defects, it is necessary to extract certain tubes from the tube plate in order to move the tube to a testing and inspection point and examine the part of it that was secured in the plate hole. The invention concerns the uncrimping of these tubes [fr

  13. Orbital maneuvering vehicle end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An end effector device (A) for grasping and holding an article such as a handle (18) of a space telescope is disclosed. The device includes a V-shaped capture window (74) defined as inclined surfaces (76, 78) in parallel face plates (22, 24) which converge toward a retainer recess (54) in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers (26, 28) which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess (54) where latches (50) lock handle (18) in the recess. To align the capture window, plates (22, 24) may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base (64).

  14. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  15. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Subir; Ahmed, Hossain; Banerjee, Sourav

    2018-01-18

    Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D) in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  16. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  17. Surface stress-induced change in overall elastic behavior and self-bending of ultrathin cantilever plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, H.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Bossche, A.; Van Keulen, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, the dominant role of surface stress and surface elasticity on the overall elastic behavior of ultrathin cantilever plates is studied. A general framework based on two-dimensional plane-stress analysis is presented. Because of either surface reconstruction or molecular adsorption,

  18. Improving wettability of photo-resistive film surface with plasma surface modification for coplanar copper pillar plating of IC substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Jing; Wang, Chong; Chen, Yuanming; Wang, Shouxu; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Gong, Lijun [Research and Development Department, Guangzhou Fastprint Circuit Tech Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510663 (China); He, Wei, E-mail: heweiz@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Research and Development Department, Guangdong Guanghua Sci-Tech Co., Ltd., Shantou 515000 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Air atmosphere plasmacould generatehydrophilic groups of photo-resistive film. • Better wettability of photo-resistive filmled tohigher plating uniformity of copper pillars. • New flow isreduced cost, simplified process and elevated productivity. - Abstract: The wettability of the photo-resistive film (PF) surfaces undergoing different pretreatments including the O{sub 2}−CF{sub 4} low-pressure plasma (OCLP) and air plasma (AP), is investigated by water contact angle measurement instrument (WCAMI) before the bottom-up copper pillar plating. Chemical groups analysis performed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) shows that after the OCLP and wash treatment, the wettability of PF surface is attenuated, because embedded fluorine and decreased oxygen content both enhance hydrophobicity. Compared with OCLP treatment, the PF surface treatment by non-toxic air plasma displays features of C−O, O−C=O, C=O and −NO{sub 2} by AIR-FTIR and XPS, and a promoted wettability by WCAM. Under the identical electroplating condition, the surface with a better wettability allows electrolyte to spontaneously soak all the places of vias, resulting in improved copper pillar uniformity. Statistical analysis of metallographic data shows that more coplanar and flat copper pillars are achieved with the PF treatment of air plasma. Such modified copper-pillar-plating technology meets the requirement of accurate impedance, the high density interconnection for IC substrates.

  19. Light refraction in sapphire plates with a variable angle of crystal optical axis to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V. N.; Ignatenkov, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    The modification of sapphire by inhomogeneous plastic deformation makes it possible to obtain plates with a variable angle of inclination of the crystal optical axis to the plate surface. The refraction of light in this plate at perpendicular and oblique incidence of a parallel beam of rays is considered. The algorithm of calculating the refractive index of extraordinary ray and the birefringence is proposed.

  20. The solution of certain loss of contact between a plate and unilateral supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompornjaroensuk Yos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the loss of contact between a square plate and the unilateral supports under uniformly distributed load. Since the plate is rested on the unilateral supports, it will have the regions of lost contact between a plate and the supports due to the absence of restraining corner force at the plate corners. This leads to the mixed boundary conditions and these conditions are then written in the form of dual-series equations which can further be reduced to a Fredholm integral equation by taking advantage of finite Hankel transform technique. Numerical results are given for the deflections of free edge and deflections along the middle line of the plate with deferent values of the Poisson’s ratio. In addition, the deflection surface is also presented. From the investigation, it can be indicated that the loss of contact is decreased upon the increasing Poisson’s ratio.

  1. An investigation on the performance characteristics of solar flat plate collector with different selective surface coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhukeshwara, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.I.E.T, Davanagere, Karnataka (India); Prakash, E.S. [Department of Studies in Mechanical Engineering, U.B.D.T.C.E, Davanagere, Karnataka (India)

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, investigations are made to study performance characteristics of solar flat plate collector with different selective surface coatings. Flat plate collector is one of the important solar energy trapping device which uses air or water as working fluid. Of the many solar collector concepts presently being developed, the relative simple flat plate solar collector has found the widest application so far. Its characteristics are known, and compared with other collector types, it is the easiest and least expensive to fabricate, install, and maintain. Moreover, it is capable of using both the diffuse and the direct beam solar radiation. For residential and commercial use, flat plate collectors can produce heat at sufficiently high temperatures to heat swimming pools, domestic hot water, and buildings; they also can operate a cooling unit, particularly if the incident sunlight is increased by the use of reflector. Temperatures up to 70 C are easily attained by flat plate collectors. With very careful engineering using special surfaces, reflectors to increase the incident radiation and heat resistant materials, higher operating temperatures are feasible.

  2. Yield surfaces for perforated plates with square arrays of holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2004-01-01

    A symmetric model of a perforated plate containing a 3x3 array of circular holes, arranged in a square pattern, was chosen and elastoplastic finite element analyses were carried out to determine the limit stresses for both pitch and diagonal directions of loading, for different values of biaxiality ratios. Plane stress conditions were assumed and the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria were employed to obtain two different sets of results. Yield surfaces were constructed and 'general cut-out factors' were determined for four different ligament efficiencies. The FEM results obtained by the authors using the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria were compared with the corresponding results of [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME (1975) 146-154] and [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME (1997) 122-126], respectively. The results based on the Tresca yield criterion obtained by the present authors and those in [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME (1975) 146-154] were found to agree well with each other. In the case of the von Mises yield criterion, the agreement with [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME 122-126] is generally good. The estimates based on the Tresca yield criterion are seen to result in lower values of limit stresses and cut-out factors as compared to those based on the von Mises yield criterion. The difference is attributed to the yield criterion and the flow rule chosen for the analysis. The shape as well as the size of the yield surface was found to depend on the ligament efficiency

  3. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  4. Experimental investigation of the unsteady two-phase flow through perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, G.P.

    1985-07-01

    The coolant flow across the perforated dip-plate during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor was simulated in a one-dimensional model. Experiments with a water-air mixture as fluid were run by varying the following parameters: geometry of the dip-plate (perforation ratio, number of the holes), height of the fluid head over the dip-plate, air volumetric fraction, size of the air bubbles, acceleration of the fluid. The pressure drop across the dip-plate, the forces acting on the dip-plate and on the upper plate, acceleration and displacement of the piston, the air volumetric fraction and the size of the air bubbles were measured in a wide range of Strouhal and acceleration numbers. The flow pattern downstream the dip-plate was filmed with a high-speed camera. The following correlations were investigated: resistance coefficients as a function of the acceleration and Strouhal number, time delay of the force on the upper plate as a function of the cavitation number, and forces and impulses acting on the upper plate compared with those acting on the dip-plate. Finally, using high-speed film pictures, the formation of fluid jets downstream the dip-plate was investigated. The following relations were obtained: displacement of the mixture surface and of the jets as a function of the perforation ratio and of the air volumetric fraction, and cavitation volume as a function of the cavitation number. (orig.) [de

  5. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels.

  6. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  7. A New Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory for Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Hassaine Daouadji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical formulation, Navier’s solutions of rectangular plates based on a new higher order shear deformation model are presented for the static response of functionally graded plates. This theory enforces traction-free boundary conditions at plate surfaces. Shear correction factors are not required because a correct representation of transverse shearing strain is given. Unlike any other theory, the number of unknown functions involved is only four, as against five in case of other shear deformation theories. The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Numerical illustrations concern flexural behavior of FG plates with metal-ceramic composition. Parametric studies are performed for varying ceramic volume fraction, volume fractions profiles, aspect ratios, and length to thickness ratios. Results are verified with available results in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static bending behavior of functionally graded plates.

  8. Effect of mixed adhesive joints and tapered plate on stresses in retrofitted beams bonded with a fiber-reinforced polymer plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchikhi, A.S.; Megueni, A.; Gouasmi, S.; Boukoulda, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Interface stress distribution in beams reinforced composites jointed by homogeneous adhesive. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by using the tapered plate at edges. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by using the bi-adhesive. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by combining between the tapered plate and the bi-adhesive. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the reduction of interfacial stresses when using bonded laminates in strengthening existing structures. The presence of high interfacial stresses that develop near the end of composite known as edge effect may compromise the résistance to failure of strengthened structure. It is known that the decrease of plate thickness and fitness of adhesive (Young modulus) reduces the stress concentration at plate ends. Another way to tackle the problem is proper design of the plate end shape (tapered plate) and using mixed adhesive joints (MAJs) between the adherents. In this paper, a comprehensive finite element (FE) study has been conducted to investigate the effect of mixed adhesive joints (MAJs) and tapering plate on the interfacial stress distribution in the adhesive layer in retrofitted steel beam with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plate, This results indicate that using the correct combination of tapering plate at the end and mixed adhesive joints can reduce the magnitude of the interfacial stresses significantly

  9. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M., E-mail: moritz.leber@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shandhi, M.M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hogan, A. [Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Solzbacher, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bhandari, R.; Negi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface engineering of high aspect ratio silicon structures. - Highlights: • Multiple roughening techniques for high aspect ratio devices were investigated. • Modification of surface morphology of high aspect ratio silicon devices (1:15). • Decrease of 76% in impedance proves significant increase in surface area. - Abstract: In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several

  10. Interlaminar and ductile characteristics of carbon fibers-reinforced plastics produced by nanoscaled electroless nickel plating on carbon fiber surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Rhee, Kyong-Yop

    2002-01-15

    In this work, a new method based on nanoscaled Ni-P alloy coating on carbon fiber surfaces is proposed for the improvement of interfacial properties between fibers and epoxy matrix in a composite system. Fiber surfaces and the mechanical interfacial properties of composites were characterized by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), and impact strength. Experimental results showed that the O(1s)/C(1s) ratio or Ni and P amounts had been increased as the electroless nickel plating proceeded; the ILSS had also been slightly improved. The impact properties were significantly improved in the presence of Ni-P alloy on carbon fiber surfaces, increasing the ductility of the composites. This was probably due to the effect of substituted Ni-P alloy, leading to an increase of the resistance to the deformation and the crack initiation of the epoxy system.

  11. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  12. Three-beam interferogram analysis method for surface flatness testing of glass plates and wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    When testing transparent plates with high quality flat surfaces and a small angle between them the three-beam interference phenomenon is observed. Since the reference beam and the object beams reflected from both the front and back surface of a sample are detected, the recorded intensity distribution may be regarded as a sum of three fringe patterns. Images of that type cannot be succesfully analyzed with standard interferogram analysis methods. They contain, however, useful information on the tested plate surface flatness and its optical thickness variations. Several methods were elaborated to decode the plate parameters. Our technique represents a competitive solution which allows for retrieval of phase components of the three-beam interferogram. It requires recording two images: a three-beam interferogram and the two-beam one with the reference beam blocked. Mutually subtracting these images leads to the intensity distribution which, under some assumptions, provides access to the two component fringe sets which encode surfaces flatness. At various stages of processing we take advantage of nonlinear operations as well as single-frame interferogram analysis methods. Two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) is used to separate a particular fringe family from the overall interferogram intensity distribution as well as to estimate the phase distribution from a pattern. We distinguish two processing paths depending on the relative density of fringe sets which is connected with geometry of a sample and optical setup. The proposed method is tested on simulated data.

  13. Surface Aggregation of Candida albicans on Glass in the Absence and Presence of Adhering Streptococcus gordonii in a Parallel-Plate Flow Chamber: A Surface Thermodynamical Analysis Based on Acid-Base Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap; Bos; Busscher; van der Mei HC

    1999-04-15

    Adhesive interactions between yeasts and bacteria are important in the maintenance of infectious mixed biofilms on natural and biomaterial surfaces in the human body. In this study, the extended DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) approach has been applied to explain adhesive interactions between C. albicans ATCC 10261 and S. gordonii NCTC 7869 adhering on glass. Contact angles with different liquids and the zeta potentials of both the yeasts and bacteria were determined and their adhesive interactions were measured in a parallel-plate flow chamber.Streptococci were first allowed to adhere to the bottom glass plate of the flow chamber to different seeding densities, and subsequently deposition of yeasts was monitored with an image analysis system, yielding the degree of initial surface aggregation of the adhering yeasts and their spatial arrangement in a stationary end point. Irrespective of growth temperature, the yeast cells appeared uncharged in TNMC buffer, but yeasts grown at 37 degrees C were intrinsically more hydrophilic and had an increased electron-donating character than cells grown at 30 degrees C. All yeasts showed surface aggregation due to attractive Lifshitz-van der Waals forces. In addition, acid-base interactions between yeasts, yeasts and the glass substratum, and yeasts and the streptococci were attractive for yeasts grown at 30 degrees C, but yeasts grown at 37 degrees C only had favorable acid-base interactions with the bacteria, explaining the positive relationship between the surface coverage of the glass by streptococci and the surface aggregation of the yeasts. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Improving wettability of photo-resistive film surface with plasma surface modification for coplanar copper pillar plating of IC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jing; Wang, Chong; Chen, Yuanming; Wang, Shouxu; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Gong, Lijun; He, Wei

    2017-07-01

    The wettability of the photo-resistive film (PF) surfaces undergoing different pretreatments including the O2sbnd CF4 low-pressure plasma (OCLP) and air plasma (AP), is investigated by water contact angle measurement instrument (WCAMI) before the bottom-up copper pillar plating. Chemical groups analysis performed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) shows that after the OCLP and wash treatment, the wettability of PF surface is attenuated, because embedded fluorine and decreased oxygen content both enhance hydrophobicity. Compared with OCLP treatment, the PF surface treatment by non-toxic air plasma displays features of Csbnd O, Osbnd Cdbnd O, Cdbnd O and sbnd NO2 by AIR-FTIR and XPS, and a promoted wettability by WCAM. Under the identical electroplating condition, the surface with a better wettability allows electrolyte to spontaneously soak all the places of vias, resulting in improved copper pillar uniformity. Statistical analysis of metallographic data shows that more coplanar and flat copper pillars are achieved with the PF treatment of air plasma. Such modified copper-pillar-plating technology meets the requirement of accurate impedance, the high density interconnection for IC substrates.

  15. Improving surface acousto-optical interaction by high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    The acousto-optical interaction of an optical wave confined inside a waveguide and a surface acoustic wave launched by an interdigital transducer (IDT) at the surface of a piezoelectric material is considered. The IDT with high aspect ratio electrodes supports several acoustic modes that are stro......The acousto-optical interaction of an optical wave confined inside a waveguide and a surface acoustic wave launched by an interdigital transducer (IDT) at the surface of a piezoelectric material is considered. The IDT with high aspect ratio electrodes supports several acoustic modes...

  16. Coherence and polarization speckle generated by a rough-surfaced retardation plate depolarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    of position introducing random phase differences between the two orthogonal components of the electric vector. Under the assumption of Gaussian statistics with zero mean, the surface model for the depolarizer of the rough-surfaced retardation plate is obtained. The propagation of the modulated fields through...... any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix theory to show how the degree of coherence and polarization of the beam changes on propagation, including propagation in free space...

  17. Annulus Fibrosus Can Strip Hyaline Cartilage End Plate from Subchondral Bone: A Study of the Intervertebral Disk in Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkovec, Christian; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Biomechanical study on cadaveric spines. Objective Spinal bending causes the annulus to pull vertically (axially) on the end plate, but failure mechanisms in response to this type of loading are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the weak point of the intervertebral disk in tension. Methods Cadaveric motion segments (aged 79 to 88 years) were dissected to create midsagittal blocks of tissue, with ∼10 mm of bone superior and inferior to the disk. From these blocks, 14 bone-disk-bone slices (average 4.8 mm thick) were cut in the frontal plane. Each slice was gripped by its bony ends and stretched to failure at 1 mm/s. Mode of failure was recorded using a digital camera. Results Of the 14 slices, 10 failed by the hyaline cartilage being peeled off the subchondral bone, with the failure starting opposite the lateral annulus and proceeding medially. Two slices failed by rupturing of the trabecular bone, and a further two failed in the annulus. Conclusions The hyaline cartilage-bone junction is the disk's weak link in tension. These findings provide a plausible mechanism for the appearance of bone and cartilage fragments in herniated material. Stripping cartilage from the bony end plate would result in the herniated mass containing relatively stiff cartilage that does not easily resorb.

  18. XPS study of Li/Nb ratio in LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. Effect of polarity and mechanical processing on LiNbO{sub 3} surface chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryleva, E.A., E-mail: easkryleva@gmail.com; Kubasov, I.V., E-mail: kubasov.ilya@gmail.com; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V., E-mail: kiruhancev-korneev@yandex.ru; Senatulin, B.R., E-mail: borisrs@yandex.ru; Zhukov, R.N., E-mail: rom_zhuk@mail.ru; Zakutailov, K.V., E-mail: zakkonst@gmail.com; Malinkovich, M.D., E-mail: malinkovich@yandex.ru; Parkhomenko, Yu.N., E-mail: parkh@rambler.ru

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • XPS Li/Nb ratio measurement uncertainty in LNbO3 specimens was obtained. • The effect of polarization on surface chemistry was observed only on cleaves. • Li/Nb ratio on positive cleave surface is higher than on negative one. • The positive cleave surface adsorbs fluorine more efficiently than negative one. • Mechanical processing of crystals reduces surface Li/Nb. - Abstract: Different sections of congruent lithium niobate (CLN) crystals have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We have developed a method for measuring the lithium-to-niobium atomic ratio Li/Nb from the ratio of the Li1s and Nb4s spectral integral intensities with an overall error of within 8 %. Polarity and mechanical processing affect the Li/Nb ratio on CLN crystal surfaces. The Li/Nb ratio is within the tolerance (0.946 ± 0.074) on the negative cleave surface Z, and there is excess lithium (Li/Nb = 1.25 ± 0.10) on the positive surface. The positive surfaces of the 128° Y cut plates after long exposure to air exhibit LiOH formation indications (obvious lithium excess, higher Li1s spectral binding energy and a wide additional peak in the O1s spectrum produced by nonstructural oxygen). XPS and glow discharge optical electron spectroscopy showed that mechanical processing of differently oriented crystals (X, Z and 128° Y) and different polarities dramatically reduces the Li/Nb ratio. In situ fluorine adsorption experiments revealed the following regularities: fluorine adsorption only occurred on crystal cleaves and was not observed for mechanically processed specimens. Positive cleave surfaces have substantially higher fluorine adsorption capacity compared to negative ones.

  19. A Comparison of Vibroacoustic Response of Isotropic Plate with Attached Discrete Patches and Point Masses Having Different Thickness Variation with Different Taper Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sound radiation behavior of plate in air medium with attached discrete patches/point masses having different thickness variations with different taper ratio of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 is analysed. Finite element method is used to find the vibration characteristics while Rayleigh integral is used to predict the sound radiation characteristics. Minimum peak sound power level obtained is at a taper ratio of 0.6 with parabolic increasing-decreasing thickness variation for plate with four discrete patches. At higher taper ratio, linearly increasing-decreasing thickness variation is another alternative for minimum peak sound power level suppression with discrete patches. It is found that, in low frequency range, average radiation efficiency remains almost the same, but near first peak, four patches or four point masses cause increase in average radiation efficiency; that is, redistribution of point masses/patches does have effect on average radiation efficiency at a given taper ratio.

  20. Neoclassical resonant-plateau transport calculation in an effectively axisymmetrized tandem mirror with finite end plate resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanuma, I.; Kiwamoto, Y.; Adachi, S.; Inutake, M.; Ishii, K.; Yatsu, K.; Sawada, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    1987-05-01

    Calculations are made for neoclassical resonant-plateau transports in the geometry of the effectively axisymmetrized tandem mirror GAMMA 10 magnetic field, which has minimum B inbord anchors inside the axisymmetric plug/barrier mirror cells. Azimuthal drifts at the local non-axisymmetric regions are included. The radial potential profile is determined by solving selfconsistently the charge neutrality equation. A finite resistance connecting end plate to machine ground provides appropriate boundary conditions on the radial electrostatic potential distribution so that it can be determined uniquely. The calculation is consistent with experimental results of GAMMA 10. (author)

  1. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  2. Effect of processing conditions on residual stress distributions by bead-on-plate welding after surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Residual stress is important factor for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that has been observed near the welded zone in nuclear power plants. Especially, surface residual stress is significant for SCC initiation. In the joining processes of pipes, butt welding is conducted after surface machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes, and residual stress distribution due to surface machining is varied by the subsequent butt welding. In previous paper, authors reported that residual stress distribution generated by bead on plate welding after surface machining has a local maximum residual stress near the weld metal. The local maximum residual stress shows approximately 900 MPa that exceeds the stress threshold for SCC initiation. Therefore, for the safety improvement of nuclear power plants, a study on the local maximum residual stress is important. In this study, the effect of surface machining and welding conditions on residual stress distribution generated by welding after surface machining was investigated. Surface machining using lathe machine and bead on plate welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc under various conditions were conducted for plate specimens made of SUS316L. Then, residual stress distributions were measured by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). As a result, residual stress distributions have the local maximum residual stress near the weld metal in all specimens. The values of the local maximum residual stresses are almost the same. The location of the local maximum residual stress is varied by welding condition. It could be consider that the local maximum residual stress is generated by same generation mechanism as welding residual stress in surface machined layer that has high yield stress. (author)

  3. Evaluation for the effects of a ring plate device to eliminate free surface gradients in liquid metal fast breeder reactor vessel using multi-dimensional thermohydraulics computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ming Qing.

    1997-02-01

    There is a free surface at the upper plenum in a reactor vessel of LMFBR. The free surface has spatial gradient caused by the internal coolant flow. This is a disadvantageous factor to engineering from the view point of gas entrainment into coolant. To eliminate the free surface gradients, ring plates about 20 cm wide are fitted at about 1 meter under the free surface. They interfere fluid flow, and decrease the component velocity in vertical direction. To investigate the efficiency of the ring plates, analyses with the AQUA-VOF code were carried out. For contrast, three conditions were given: Case-1: Without ring plates. Case-2: Ring plates, fitted at 1.125 m under the free surface. Case-3: Ring plates, fitted at 1.5 m under the free surface. The results shown that the ring plates have a sufficiently high potential to eliminate the free surface gradients due to disperse the momentum along reactor vessel axis to radial direction. In the calculations with ring plate (Cases-2 and -3), the maximum free surface height differences and the maximum gradients of free surface were decreased to less than 15% and 64% compared with the case without ring plates, respectively. (author)

  4. Effects of End CAP and Aspect Ratio on Transmission of Sound across a Truss-Like Periodic Double Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-RAHEB, M.; WAGNER, P.

    2002-02-01

    Transmission of sound across 2-D truss-like periodic double panels separated by an air gap and in contact with an acoustic fluid on the external faces is analyzed. Each panel is made of repeated cells. Combining the transfer matrices of the unit cell forms a set of equations for the overall elastic frequency response. The acoustic pressure in the fluids is expressed using a source boundary element method. Adding rigid reflecting end caps confines the air in the gap between panels which influences sound transmission. Measured values of transmission loss differ from the 2-D model by the wide low-frequency dip of the mass-spring-mass or “msm” resonance also termed the “air gap resonance”. In this case, the panels act as rigid masses and the air gap acts as an adiabatic air spring. Results from the idealized 3-D and 2-D models, incorporating rigid cavities and elastic plates, reveal that the “msm” dip is absent in 2-D models radiating into a semi-infinite medium. The dip strengthens as aspect ratio approaches unity. Even when the dip disappears in 2-D, TL rises more steeply for frequencies above the “msm” frequency.

  5. Phytofilter - environmental friendly solution for purification of surface plate from urbanized territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkinova, O.; Shchuckin, I.

    2017-06-01

    Its proved, that phytofilters are environmental friendly solution of problem of purification of surface plate from urbanized territories. Phytofilters answer the nowadays purposes to systems of purification of land drainage. The main problem of it is restrictions, connecter with its use in the conditions of cold temperature. Manufactured a technology and mechanism, which provide a whole-year purification of surface plate and its storage. Experimentally stated optimal makeup of filtering load: peat, zeolite and sand in per cent of volume, which provides defined hydraulic characteristics. Stated sorbate and ion-selective volume of complex filtering load of ordered composition in dynamic conditions. Estimated dependences of exit concentrations of oil products and heavy metals on temperature by filtering through complex filtering load of ordered composition. Defined effectiveness of purification at phytofiltering installation. Fixed an influence of embryophytes on process of phytogeneration and capacity of filtering load. Recommended swamp iris, mace reed and reed grass. Manufactured phytofilter calculation methodology. Calculated economic effect from use of phytofiltration technology in comparison with traditional block-modular installations.

  6. Computational Model for Impact-Resisting Critical Thickness of High-Speed Machine Outer Protective Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Wang, Li Zhong; Wang, Yantao; Yuan, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The blade or surface grinding blade of the hypervelocity grinding wheel may be damaged due to too high rotation rate of the spindle of the machine and then fly out. Its speed as a projectile may severely endanger the field persons. Critical thickness model of the protective plate of the high-speed machine is studied in this paper. For easy analysis, the shapes of the possible impact objects flying from the high-speed machine are simplified as sharp-nose model, ball-nose model and flat-nose model. Whose front ending shape to represent point, line and surface contacting. Impact analysis based on J-C model is performed for the low-carbon steel plate with different thicknesses in this paper. One critical thickness computational model for the protective plate of high-speed machine is established according to the damage characteristics of the thin plate to get relation among plate thickness and mass, shape and size and impact speed of impact object. The air cannon is used for impact test. The model accuracy is validated. This model can guide identification of the thickness of single-layer outer protective plate of a high-speed machine.

  7. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ∼0.5 to ∼25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented

  8. Corrosion and drug release properties of EN-plating/PLGA composite coating on MAO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ping; Liu Yin; Guo Meiqing; Fang Haidong; Xu Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    The electroless nickel plating/poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) composite coating (EN-plating/PLGA composite coating) was fabricated on the surface of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film of the magnesium alloy AZ81 to double control the corrosion and drug release in the hanks' solution. The EN-plating was fabricated on the MAO coating to improve the corrosion resistance by overlaying most pores and micro-cracks on the surface of the MAO film. Meanwhile, a double layered organic poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)/paclitaxel (PLGA/PTX) drug releasing coating with a top layered PLGA drug controlled releasing coating on EN plating was prepared to control the drug release rate by adjusting the different lactide: glycolide (LA:GA) ratio of PLGA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the morphology and the composition of the EN-plating. The corrosion behavior of the magnesium alloy substrate and the status of the drug in the PLGA matrix were respectively evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The drug release was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometer. EN-plating coating which was composed of compact cauliflower nodules was uniform in size and defect free with no pores or cracks. EN-plating could seal the microcracks and microholes on the outer layer of the MAO coating effectively. The corrosion resistance was improved by preventing the corrosive ions from diffusing to the magnesium alloy substrate. The drug release rate of PTX exhibited a nearly linear sustained-release profile with no significant burst releases. - Research highlights: → An organic and in organic EN-plating/PLGA composite coating was first fabricated on the surface of the MAO film. → This composite coating the magnesium alloy AZ81could double control the corrosion and drug release in the hanks' solution. → The drug release rate could be controlled by LG:GA ratio and the PTX

  9. Corrosion and drug release properties of EN-plating/PLGA composite coating on MAO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Ping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu Yin [Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin 300051 (China); Guo Meiqing; Fang Haidong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu Xinhua, E-mail: xhxu_tju@eyou.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-10-10

    The electroless nickel plating/poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) composite coating (EN-plating/PLGA composite coating) was fabricated on the surface of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film of the magnesium alloy AZ81 to double control the corrosion and drug release in the hanks' solution. The EN-plating was fabricated on the MAO coating to improve the corrosion resistance by overlaying most pores and micro-cracks on the surface of the MAO film. Meanwhile, a double layered organic poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)/paclitaxel (PLGA/PTX) drug releasing coating with a top layered PLGA drug controlled releasing coating on EN plating was prepared to control the drug release rate by adjusting the different lactide: glycolide (LA:GA) ratio of PLGA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the morphology and the composition of the EN-plating. The corrosion behavior of the magnesium alloy substrate and the status of the drug in the PLGA matrix were respectively evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The drug release was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometer. EN-plating coating which was composed of compact cauliflower nodules was uniform in size and defect free with no pores or cracks. EN-plating could seal the microcracks and microholes on the outer layer of the MAO coating effectively. The corrosion resistance was improved by preventing the corrosive ions from diffusing to the magnesium alloy substrate. The drug release rate of PTX exhibited a nearly linear sustained-release profile with no significant burst releases. - Research highlights: {yields} An organic and in organic EN-plating/PLGA composite coating was first fabricated on the surface of the MAO film. {yields} This composite coating the magnesium alloy AZ81could double control the corrosion and drug release in the hanks' solution. {yields} The drug release rate could be controlled by LG

  10. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  11. SSC collider dipole magnet end mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.; Ewald, K.; Fulton, H.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Leung, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the ends of Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnets to be constructed and tested at Fermilab. Coil end clamps, end yoke configuration, and end plate design are discussed. Loading of the end plate by axial Lorentz forces is discussed. Relevant data from 40 mm and 50 mm aperture model dipole magnets built and tested at Fermilab are presented. In particular, the apparent influence of end clamp design on the quench behavior of model SSC dipoles is described

  12. Two-dimensional linear elasticity theory of magneto-electro-elastic plates considering surface and nonlocal effects for nanoscale device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional linear elastic theory of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates, considering both surface and nonlocal effects, is established for the first time based on Hamilton’s principle and the Lee plate theory. The equations derived are more general, suitable for static and dynamic analyses, and can also be reduced to the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases. As a specific application example, the influences of the surface and nonlocal effects, poling directions, piezoelectric phase materials, volume fraction, damping, and applied magnetic field (i.e., constant applied magnetic field and time-harmonic applied magnetic field) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects are first investigated based on the established two-dimensional plate theory. The results show that the ME coupling coefficient has an obvious size-dependent characteristic owing to the surface effects, and the surface effects increase the ME coupling effects significantly when the plate thickness decreases to its critical thickness. Below this critical thickness, the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. In addition, the output power density of a magnetic energy nanoharvester is also evaluated using the two-dimensional plate theory obtained, with the results showing that a relatively larger output power density can be achieved at the nanoscale. This study provides a mathematical tool which can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of nanostructures theoretically and numerically, as well as evaluating the size effect qualitatively and quantitatively.

  13. SSC collider dipole magnet end mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.; Ewald, K.; Fulton, H.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, S.M.; Leung, K.K.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the ends of Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnets to be constructed and tested at Fermilab. Coil end clamps, end yoke configuration, and end plate design are discussed. Loading of the end plate by axial Lorentz forces is discussed. Relevant data from 40 mm and 50 mm aperture model dipole magnets built and tested at Fermilab are presented. In particular, the apparent influence of end clamp design on the quench behavior of model SSC dipoles is described. 8 refs., 3 figs

  14. Large eddy simulation of turbulent flow for wall mounted cantilever cylinders of aspect ratio 6 and 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Imran; Moulinec, Charles; Prosser, Robert; Laurence, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The flow structure around wall mounted circular cylinders of finite heights is numerically investigated via large eddy simulation (LES). The cylinder aspect ratios (AR) are 6 and 10 and the Reynolds number (Re) based on cylinder diameter and free stream velocity is 20,000 for both cases. The cantilever cylinder mounted on a flat plate is chosen since it gives insight into two entirely different flow phenomena; the tip effects of the free end (which show strong three-dimensional wake structures) and the base or junction effects (due to interaction of flow between the cylinder and the flat plate). Regular vortex shedding is found in the wake of the higher aspect ratio case as was anticipated, along with a strong downwash originating from the flow over the free end of the cylinder, whereas irregular and intermittent vortex shedding occurs in the lower aspect ratio case. Pressure distributions are computed along the length of the cylinder and compared to experimental results. Lift and drag values are also computed, along with Strouhal numbers

  15. Sonocatalytic injury of cancer cells attached on the surface of a nickel-titanium dioxide alloy plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Maruyama, Hirotaka; Ogino, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates ultrasound-induced cell injury using a nickel-titanium dioxide (Ni-TiO2) alloy plate as a sonocatalyst and a cell culture surface. Ultrasound irradiation of cell-free Ni-TiO2 alloy plates with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s led to an increased generation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals compared to nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) control alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. When human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) cultured on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates were irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s and then incubated for 48 h, cell density on the alloy plate was reduced to approximately 50% of the controls on the Ni-Ti alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. These results indicate the injury of MCF-7 cells following sonocatalytic OH radical generation by Ni-TiO2. Further experiments demonstrated cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation after ultrasound irradiation of MCF-7 cells attached on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates, indicating induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface flatness measurement of quasi-parallel plates employing three-beam interference with strong reference beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    A big challenge for standard interferogram analysis methods such as Temporal Phase Shifting or Fourier Transform is a parasitic set of fringes which might occur in the analyzed fringe pattern intensity distribution. It is encountered, for example, when transparent glass plates with quasi-parallel surfaces are tested in Fizeau or Twyman-Green interferometers. Besides the beams reflected from the plate front surface and the interferometer reference the beam reflected from the plate rear surface also plays important role; its amplitude is comparable with the amplitude of other beams. In result we face three families of fringes of high contrast which cannot be easily separated. Earlier we proposed a competitive solution for flatness measurements which relies on eliminating one of those fringe sets from the three-beam interferogram and separating two remaining ones with the use of 2D Continuous Wavelet Transform. In this work we cover the case when the intensity of the reference beam is significantly higher than the intensities of two object beams. The main advantage of differentiating beam intensities is the change in contrast of individual fringe families. Processing of such three-beam interferograms is modified but also takes advantage of 2D CWT. We show how to implement this method in Twyman-Green and Fizeau setups and compare this processing path and measurement procedures with previously proposed solutions.

  17. Orbital maneuvering end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an end effector device for grasping and maneuvering objects such as berthing handles of a space telescope. The device includes a V-shaped capture window defined as inclined surfaces in parallel face plates which converge toward a retainer recess in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess where latches lock handle in the recess. To align the capture window, plates may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base. Drive means is included in the form of a motor coupled with a harmonic drive speed reducer, which provides for slow movement of the fingers at a high torque so that large articles may be handled. Novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the combined intermeshing finger structure, drive means and the harmonic drive speed reducer, which features provide the required maneuverability and strength.

  18. Performance Assessment of a Plate Beam Splitter for Deep-Ultraviolet Raman Measurements with a Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Nirmal; Angel, S Michael

    2017-06-01

    In earlier works, we demonstrated a high-resolution spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS) for deep-ultraviolet (UV) Raman measurements, and showed its ability to measure UV light-sensitive compounds using a large laser spot size. We recently modified the SHRS by replacing the cube beam splitter (BS) with a custom plate beam splitter with higher light transmission, an optimized reflectance/transmission ratio, higher surface flatness, and better refractive index homogeneity than the cube beam splitter. Ultraviolet Raman measurements were performed using a SHRS modified to use the plate beam splitter and a matching compensator plate and compared to the previously described cube beam splitter setup. Raman spectra obtained using the modified SHRS exhibit much higher signals and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and show fewer spectral artifacts. In this paper, we discuss the plate beam splitter SHRS design features, the advantages over previous designs, and discuss some general SHRS issues such as spectral bandwidth, S/N ratio characteristics, and optical efficiency.

  19. Surface preparation process of a uranium titanium alloy, in particular for chemical nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri, A.; Lefevre, D.; Massicot, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this process the uranium alloy surface is attacked with a solution of lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid. Dissolved uranium can be recovered from the solution by an ion exchange resin. Treated alloy can be nickel plated by a chemical process [fr

  20. Analysis of the thermal performance of a solar heating system using a collector with absorbing surface in plates coated with PVC; Analise do desempenho termico de um sistema de aquecimento solar utilizando coletor com superficie absorvedora em chapas de forro de PVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Edmilson Pedreira dos

    2009-08-15

    It is presented a solar collector to be used in a system for heating bath water, whose main characteristic is its low cost. The collector consists of five plates of PVC with 10 mm thick, 200 mm wide and 1400 mm length, with ao area equal to 1,4 square meters. The plates were connected in parallel to the ends of PVC tubes of 40 mm diameter and 32 mm diameter. The plates were coated on one side with aluminum sheets of soft drinks and beers cans open. The system worked on a thermosyphon and was tested in two configurations: the plates uncoated and coated with aluminum material, to determine the influence of material on the efficiency of the collector. For both configurations was used EPS plates below the surface to minimize heat losses from the bottom. The thermal reservoir of the heating system is, also, alternative and of low cost, since it was constructed from a polyethylene tank for storing water, with volume of 150 end 200 liters. It will be presented the thermal efficiency, heat loss, water temperature of the thermal reservoir at the end of the process and simulation of baths for a house with four residents. It will be demonstrated the thermal, economic and material viability of the proposed collector, whose main innovation is the use of recyclable materials, cans of beer and soft drinks, to increase the temperature of the absorber plate. (author)

  1. Hydrogen Recombination Rates of Plate-type Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hong [Kyungwon E-C Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The hydrogen mitigation system may include igniters, passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR), and venting or dilution system. Recently PAR is commonly used as a main component of HMS in a NPP containment because of its passive nature. PARs are categorized by the shape and material of catalytic surface. Catalytic surface coated by platinum is mostly used for the hydrogen recombiners. The shapes of the catalytic surface can be grouped into plate type, honeycomb type and porous media type. Among them, the plate-type PAR is well tested by many experiments. PAR performance analysis can be approached by a multi-scale method which is composed of micro, meso and macro scales. The criterion of the scaling is the ratio of thickness of boundary layer developed on a catalytic surface to representative length of a computational domain. Mass diffusion in the boundary layer must be resolved in the micro scale analysis. In a lumped parameter (LP) analysis using a system code such as MAAP or MELCOR, the chamber of the PAR is much smaller than a computational node. The hydrogen depletion by a PAR is modeled as a source of mass and energy conservation equations. Te catalytic surface reaction of hydrogen must be modeled by a volume-averaged correlation. In this study, a micro scale analysis method is developed using libraries in OpenFOAM to evaluate a hydrogen depletion rate depending on parameters such as size and number of plates and plate arrangement. The analysis code is validated by simulating REKO-3 experiment. And hydrogen depletion analysis is conducted by changing the plate arrangement as a trial of the performance enhancement of a PAR. In this study, a numerical code for an analysis of a PAR performance in a micro scale has been developed by using OpenFOAM libraries. The physical and numerical models were validated by simulating the REKO-3 experiment. As a try to enhance the performance of the plate-type PAR, it was proposed to apply a staggered two-layer arrangement of the

  2. Hydrogen Recombination Rates of Plate-type Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Gun Hong

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen mitigation system may include igniters, passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR), and venting or dilution system. Recently PAR is commonly used as a main component of HMS in a NPP containment because of its passive nature. PARs are categorized by the shape and material of catalytic surface. Catalytic surface coated by platinum is mostly used for the hydrogen recombiners. The shapes of the catalytic surface can be grouped into plate type, honeycomb type and porous media type. Among them, the plate-type PAR is well tested by many experiments. PAR performance analysis can be approached by a multi-scale method which is composed of micro, meso and macro scales. The criterion of the scaling is the ratio of thickness of boundary layer developed on a catalytic surface to representative length of a computational domain. Mass diffusion in the boundary layer must be resolved in the micro scale analysis. In a lumped parameter (LP) analysis using a system code such as MAAP or MELCOR, the chamber of the PAR is much smaller than a computational node. The hydrogen depletion by a PAR is modeled as a source of mass and energy conservation equations. Te catalytic surface reaction of hydrogen must be modeled by a volume-averaged correlation. In this study, a micro scale analysis method is developed using libraries in OpenFOAM to evaluate a hydrogen depletion rate depending on parameters such as size and number of plates and plate arrangement. The analysis code is validated by simulating REKO-3 experiment. And hydrogen depletion analysis is conducted by changing the plate arrangement as a trial of the performance enhancement of a PAR. In this study, a numerical code for an analysis of a PAR performance in a micro scale has been developed by using OpenFOAM libraries. The physical and numerical models were validated by simulating the REKO-3 experiment. As a try to enhance the performance of the plate-type PAR, it was proposed to apply a staggered two-layer arrangement of the

  3. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Presence and absence of a water film between moving air bubbles and a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyik, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of water films between an inclined Lucite plate submerged in water and air bubbles moving beneath it was measured with a small impedance probe. The instrument was calibrated with a laser interferometer built for this purpose. The bubbles released beneath the plate varied in size from 10 cc to 100 cc. At a plate inclination angle of 0.98 degree, and in tap water, an uninterrupted water film covered most of the bubbles. Some bubbles, however, dewetted the plate, and the water film covered only a forward part of the bubble. When the film was uninterrupted, its thickness was very uniform from front to rear. When the bubble dewetted the plate, a large forward section of the film had the same uniform thickness, but this was followed by a hump on the film the rear slope of which ended at the plate surface. For some of the experiments, the surface tension of the water was reduced by admixing a detergent. In these experiments, dewetting was not observed. In a second set of experiments, a hand held transparent container filled with water and a 1.3 cm3 air bubble was used to observe visually the behavior of the moving bubble and its associated water film

  5. Effects of temperature and velocity of droplet ejection process of simulated nanojets onto a moving plate's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.-H.; Chang, W.-J.; Lin, S.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses molecular dynamics simulation based on the Lennard-Jones potential to study the effects that temperature and velocity have on, the nanojet droplet ejection process, when the droplet is ejected at an angle onto a moving plate's surface. According to the analysis, it was found that the width of the spreading droplet increased as the temperature and the time were increased. Also found was an energy wave phenomenon. The contact angle of the droplet deposited on the plate decreased as the temperature was increased. Furthermore, the layer phenomena became apparent when the atoms were deposited on a moving plate. Thinner film layers were obtained as the velocity of the moving plate was increased. The contact angle on the left side of the droplet was larger than that on the right side when the plate was moving from right to left

  6. Jet-Surface Interaction - High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test: Test Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test was conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2015. There were four primary goals specified for this test: (1) extend the current noise database for rectangular nozzles to higher aspect ratios, (2) verify data previously acquired at small-scale with data from a larger model, (3) acquired jet-surface interaction noise data suitable for creating verifying empirical noise models and (4) investigate the effect of nozzle septa on the jet-mixing and jet-surface interaction noise. These slides give a summary of the test with representative results for each goal.

  7. Comparisons of Different Models on Dynamic Recrystallization of Plate during Asymmetrical Shear Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate. The DRX fraction at the lower part increases with the ascending speed ratio, while that at upper part decreases. With the increase of the offset distance, the DRX fraction slightly decreases for the whole thickness of the plate. The differences in the DRX fraction and average grain size between the upper and lower surfaces increase with the ascending speed ratio; however, it varies little with the change of the speed ratio. Experiments are conducted and the CA models have a higher accuracy than FEM models as the grain morphology, DRX nuclei, and grain growth are taken into consideration in CA models, which are more similar to the actual DRX process during hot deformation.

  8. Comparisons of Different Models on Dynamic Recrystallization of Plate during Asymmetrical Shear Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Lu, Shi-Hong; Gong, Hai; Wu, Yun-Xin

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM) coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA) are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate. The DRX fraction at the lower part increases with the ascending speed ratio, while that at upper part decreases. With the increase of the offset distance, the DRX fraction slightly decreases for the whole thickness of the plate. The differences in the DRX fraction and average grain size between the upper and lower surfaces increase with the ascending speed ratio; however, it varies little with the change of the speed ratio. Experiments are conducted and the CA models have a higher accuracy than FEM models as the grain morphology, DRX nuclei, and grain growth are taken into consideration in CA models, which are more similar to the actual DRX process during hot deformation. PMID:29342080

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging of developed thin-layer chromatography plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freye, Chris E; Crane, Nichole A; Kirchner, Teresa B; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2013-04-16

    A method for hyphenating surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is presented that employs silver-polymer nanocomposites as an interface. Through the process of conformal blotting, analytes are transferred from TLC plates to nanocomposite films before being imaged via SERS. A procedure leading to maximum blotting efficiency was established by investigating various parameters such as time, pressure, and type and amount of blotting solvent. Additionally, limits of detection were established for test analytes malachite green isothiocyanate, 4-aminothiophenol, and Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-6) M. Band broadening due to blotting was minimal (∼10%) as examined by comparing the spatial extent of TLC-spotted Rh6G via fluorescence and then the SERS-based spot size on the nanocomposite after the blotting process. Finally, a separation of the test analytes was carried out on a TLC plate followed by blotting and the acquisition of distance × wavenumber × intensity three-dimensional TLC-SERS plots.

  10. A STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF THE ECAP TO SURFACE PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman KONUK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal forming processes with shear stresses that very high plastic strains are obtained in one pass are defined as severe plastic deformation (SPD processes. Strain values can additionally be increased with additional passes throughout the process. Equal channel angular processing (ECAP is the most applied method among the SPD processes. In the presented study, an approach of application of ECAP method was used in surface plating. Previously manufactured ECAP dies using separated die design approach were used in the study. 5083 Aluminum and Ms 58 Brass alloy strips having 2 and 4 mm thickness were placed in the ECAP die side by side and processed with single and double passes in order to model the metallic plating under cold pressure welding conditions. There were no successful and full joints between the strips although some partial joints were observed. The results were discussed and some suggestions are made in order to obtain successful joints.

  11. Origin of Starting Earthquakes under Complete Coupling of the Lithosphere Plates and a Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.; Zaretskaya, M. V.; Gorshkova, E. M.; Mukhin, A. S.; Gladskoi, I. B.

    2018-02-01

    The boundary problem of rigid coupling of lithospheric plates modeled by Kirchhoff plates with a base represented by a three-dimensional deformable layered medium is considered. The possibility of occurrence of a starting earthquake in such a block structure is investigated. For this purpose, two states of this medium in the static mode are considered. In the first case, the semi-infinite lithospheric plates in the form of half-planes are at a distance so that the distance between the end faces is different from zero. In the second case, the lithospheric plates come together to zero spacing between them. Calculations have shown that in this case more complex movements of the Earth's surface are possible. Among such movements are the cases described in our previous publications [1, 2].

  12. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  13. Ultra-wideband ladder filters using zero-th shear mode plate wave in ultrathin LiNbO3 plate with apodized interdigital transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2016-07-01

    There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.

  14. Machine vision method for online surface inspection of easy open can ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Perfecto; Pastoriza, Vicente; Santamaría, Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Easy open can end manufacturing process in the food canning sector currently makes use of a manual, non-destructive testing procedure to guarantee can end repair coating quality. This surface inspection is based on a visual inspection made by human inspectors. Due to the high production rate (100 to 500 ends per minute) only a small part of each lot is verified (statistical sampling), then an automatic, online, inspection system, based on machine vision, has been developed to improve this quality control. The inspection system uses a fuzzy model to make the acceptance/rejection decision for each can end from the information obtained by the vision sensor. In this work, the inspection method is presented. This surface inspection system checks the total production, classifies the ends in agreement with an expert human inspector, supplies interpretability to the operators in order to find out the failure causes and reduce mean time to repair during failures, and allows to modify the minimum can end repair coating quality.

  15. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  16. A new surface fractal dimension for displacement mode shape-based damage identification of plate-type structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Binkai; Qiao, Pizhong

    2018-03-01

    Vibration-based nondestructive testing is an area of growing interest and worthy of exploring new and innovative approaches. The displacement mode shape is often chosen to identify damage due to its local detailed characteristic and less sensitivity to surrounding noise. Requirement for baseline mode shape in most vibration-based damage identification limits application of such a strategy. In this study, a new surface fractal dimension called edge perimeter dimension (EPD) is formulated, from which an EPD-based window dimension locus (EPD-WDL) algorithm for irregularity or damage identification of plate-type structures is established. An analytical notch-type damage model of simply-supported plates is proposed to evaluate notch effect on plate vibration performance; while a sub-domain of notch cases with less effect is selected to investigate robustness of the proposed damage identification algorithm. Then, fundamental aspects of EPD-WDL algorithm in term of notch localization, notch quantification, and noise immunity are assessed. A mathematical solution called isomorphism is implemented to remove false peaks caused by inflexions of mode shapes when applying the EPD-WDL algorithm to higher mode shapes. The effectiveness and practicability of the EPD-WDL algorithm are demonstrated by an experimental procedure on damage identification of an artificially-induced notched aluminum cantilever plate using a measurement system of piezoelectric lead-zirconate (PZT) actuator and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). As demonstrated in both the analytical and experimental evaluations, the new surface fractal dimension technique developed is capable of effectively identifying damage in plate-type structures.

  17. The technique for determination of surface contamination by uranium on U3Si2-Al plate-type fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shulan; He Fengqi; Wang Qingheng; Han Jingquan

    1993-04-01

    The NDT method for determining the surface contamination by uranium on U 3 Si 2 -Al plate-type fuel elements, the process of standard specimen preparation and the graduation curve are described. The measurement results of U 3 Si 2 -Al plate-type fuel elements show that the alpha counting method to measure the surface contamination by uranium on fuel plate is more reliable. The UB-1 type surface contamination meter, which was recently developed, has many advantages such as high sensitivity to determine the uranium pollution, short time in measuring, convenience for operation, and the minimum detectable amount of uranium is 5 x 10 -10 g/cm 2 . The measuring device is controlled by a microcomputer. Besides data acquisition and processing, it has functions of statistics, output data on terminal or to printer and alarm. The procedures of measurement are fully automatic. All of these will meet the measuring needs in batch process

  18. A software tool for simulation of surfaces generated by ball nose end milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    , for prediction of surface topography of ball nose end milled surfaces, was developed. Such software tool is based on a simplified model of the ideal tool motion and neglects the effects due to run-out, static and dynamic deflections and error motions, but has the merit of generating in output a file in a format...... readable by a surface processor software (SPIP [2]), for calculation of a number of surface roughness parameters. In the next paragraph a description of the basic features of ball nose end milled surfaces is given, while in paragraph 3 the model is described....

  19. Environmentally benign electroless nickel plating using supercritical carbon-dioxide on hydrophilically modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengsuwan, Siwach; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    Electroless Ni-P plating using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in conjunction with copolymer-based hydrophilic modification was applied to an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate. The surface of ABS substrate was hydrophilically modified by blending with a multi-block copolymer, poly(ether-ester-amide)s (PEEA), in injection molding process. The substrate was then impregnated with Pd(II)-hexafluoroacetylacetonate, Pd(hfa)2, using scCO2, followed by the electroless plating reaction. ABS/PEEA substrates with different PEEA to ABS blend ratios and different volume ratios of butadiene to the styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) matrix were prepared to investigate how the dispersed PEEA and butadiene domains affected the blend morphology and the adhesive strength of the plating metal-to-polymer contact. Increasing the PEEA copolymer to ABS blend ratio increased the mass transfer rate of the plating solution in the ABS substrate. Consequently, the metal-polymer composite layer became thicker, which increased the adhesive strength of the metal-to-polymer contact because of the anchoring effect. The butadiene domains appeared to attract the Pd catalyst precursor, and thus, the proportion of butadiene in the ABS matrix also affected the adhesive strength of the contact between the metal layer and the substrate. The ABS substrate was successfully plated with a Ni-P metal layer with an average adhesive strength of 9.1 ± 0.5 N cm-1 by choosing appropriate ABS/PEEA blend ratios and a Pd(hfa)2 concentration.

  20. Wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles: Impact of aspect ratio, incident angle, and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2018-03-01

    The so-called wake-moment coefficient C˜h and lateral wake deflection of three-dimensional windbreaks are explored in the near and far wake. Wind-tunnel experiments were performed to study the functional dependence of C˜h with windbreak aspect ratio, incidence angle, and the ratio of the windbreak height and surface roughness (h /z0 ). Supported with the data, we also propose basic models for the wake deflection of the windbreak in the near and far fields. The near-wake model is based on momentum conservation considering the drag on the windbreak, whereas the far-wake counterpart is based on existing models for wakes behind surface-mounted obstacles. Results show that C˜h does not change with windbreak aspect ratios of 10 or greater; however, it may be lower for an aspect ratio of 5. C˜h is found to change roughly with the cosine of the incidence angle, and to depend strongly on h /z0 . The data broadly support the proposed wake-deflection models, though better predictions could be made with improved knowledge of the windbreak drag coefficient.

  1. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL ROTATIONAL SPEED OF CIRCULAR SAWS FROM NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF ANNULAR PLATE WITH ANALOGOUS DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Skoblar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is suitable to reduce thickness of circular saw when trying to enhance usability of wood raw material, but reducing thickness also causes reduction of permissible rotational speed which reduces sawing speed. If one increase circular saw rotational speed over permissible one the quality of machined surfaces will reduce because of enhanced vibrations. Permissible rotational speed can be calculated from critical rotational speed which can be defined from natural frequencies of the saw. In this article critical rotational speeds of standard clamped saws (with flat disk surface and without slots are calculated by using finite element method and classical theory of thin plates on annular plates. Mode shapes and natural frequencies of annular plates are determined by using Bessel functions and by using polynomial functions. Obtained results suggest that standard clamped circular saws without slots and with relatively small teeth can be determined from classical theory of thin plates for annular plates with accuracy depending on clamping ratio.

  2. Hard-magnetic surface layer effect on the erbium orthoferrite plate domain structure in the region of gradual spin reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, A.I.; Vojtsenya, S.V.; Yur'ev, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Rearrangement of domain structures in the erbium orthoferrite plates with hard-magnetic surface layer is investigated during gradual spin reorientation. This phenomenon is explained by means of the proposed physical models. It is shown that in these plates an approach to the temperature interval of spin reorientation causes a decrease in the density of energy of domain walls separating the internal and surface domains. This decrease results in transition to the domain structure which are close to equilibrium ones inside the crystal. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  4. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Junli; Deng, Qingqiong; Duan, Fuqing

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF) for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST) is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP) is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  5. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    Full Text Available Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  6. Back pain's association with vertebral end-plate signal changes in sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; van der Kallen, Bas F; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-02-01

    Patients with sciatica frequently experience disabling back pain. One of the proposed causes for back pain is vertebral end-plate signal changes (VESC) as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To report on VESC findings, changes of VESC findings over time, and the correlation between VESC and disabling back pain in patients with sciatica. A randomized clinical trial with 1 year of follow-up. Patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica who participated in a multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing an early surgery strategy with prolonged conservative care with surgery if needed. Patients were assessed by means of the 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain (with 0 representing no pain and 100 the worst pain ever experienced) at baseline and 1 year. Disabling back pain was defined as a VAS score of at least 40 mm. Patients underwent MRI both at baseline and after 1 year follow-up. Presence and change of VESC was correlated with disabling back pain using chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. At baseline, 39% of patients had disabling back pain. Of the patients with VESC at baseline, 40% had disabling back pain compared with 38% of the patients with no VESC (p=.67). The prevalence of type 1 VESC increased from 1% at baseline to 35% 1 year later in the surgical group compared with an increase from 3% to 11% in the conservative group. The prevalence of type 2 VESC decreased from 40% to 29% in the surgical group while remaining almost stable in the conservative group at 41%. The prevalence of disabling back pain at 1 year was 12% in patients with no VESC at 1 year, 16% in patients with type 1 VESC, 11% in patients with type 2 VESC, and 3% in patients with both types 1 and 2 VESC (p=.36). Undergoing surgery was associated with increase in the extent of VESC (odds ratio [OR], 8.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7-15.7; psciatica was highly associated with the development of VESC after 1 year. However, in contrast with the intuitive feeling

  7. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  8. Excitation of plane Lamb wave in plate-like structures under applied surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Xinsheng; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Zhengyan; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wu, Zhanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lamb waves play an important role in structure health monitoring (SHM) systems. The excitation of Lamb waves has been discussed for a long time with absorbing results. However, little effort has been made towards the precise characterization of Lamb wave excitation by various transducer models with mathematical foundation. In this paper, the excitation of plane Lamb waves with plane strain assumption in isotropic plate structures under applied surface loading is solved with the Hamiltonian system. The response of the Lamb modes excited by applied loading is expressed analytically. The effect of applied loading is divided into the product of two parts as the effect of direction and the effect of distribution, which can be changed by selecting different types of transducer and the corresponding transducer configurations. The direction of loading determines the corresponding displacement of each mode. The effect of applied loading on the in-plane and normal directions depends on the in-plane and normal displacements at the surface respectively. The effect of the surface loading distribution on the Lamb mode amplitudes is mainly reflected by amplitude versus frequency or wavenumber. The frequencies at which the maxima and minima of the S0 or A0 mode response occur depend on the distribution of surface loading. The numerical results of simulations conducted on an infinite aluminum plate verify the theoretical prediction of not only the direction but also the distribution of applied loading. A pure S0 or A0 mode can be excited by selecting the appropriate direction and distribution at the corresponding frequency.

  9. The Importance of Lower Mantle Structure to Plate Stresses and Plate Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, W. E.; Wang, X.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Plate motions and plate stresses are widely assumed as the surface expression of mantle convection. The generation of plate tectonics from mantle convection has been studied for many years. Lithospheric thickening (or ridge push) and slab pull forces are commonly accepted as the major driving forces for the plate motions. However, the importance of the lower mantle to plate stresses and plate motions remains less clear. Here, we use the joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics approach of Wang et al. (2015) to compute the tractions originating from deeper mantle convection and follow the method of Ghosh et al. (2013) to calculate gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) based on Crust 1.0 (Laske et al., 2013). Absolute values of deviatoric stresses are determined by the body force distributions (GPE gradients and traction magnitudes applied at the base of the lithosphere). We use the same relative viscosity model that Ghosh et al. (2013) used, and we solve for one single adjustable scaling factor that multiplies the entire relative viscosity field to provide absolute values of viscosity throughout the lithosphere. This distribution of absolute values of lithosphere viscosities defines the magnitudes of surface motions. In this procedure, the dynamic model first satisfies the internal constraint of no-net-rotation of motions. The model viscosity field is then scaled by the single factor until we achieve a root mean square (RMS) minimum between computed surface motions and the kinematic no-net-rotation (NNR) model of Kreemer et al. (2006). We compute plate stresses and plate motions from recently published global tomography models (over 70 based on Wang et al., 2015). We find that RMS misfits are significantly reduced when details of lower mantle structure from the latest tomography models are added to models that contain only upper and mid-mantle density distributions. One of the key reasons is that active upwelling from the Large Low Shear

  10. Effect of filling ratio on premixed methane/air explosion in an open-end pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The propagation characteristics of premixed methane/air explosion under different filling ratios (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 100% were studied using an experimental system. The results indicate that the peak overpressure showed a decreasing trend at the initial stage but then showed an increasing trend until reaching its maximum value under different filling ratios. As the explosion propagated to the open end, the overpressure showed a downtrend. At this point, the flame speed initially increased along the pipe but then dropped dramatically. In addition, the explosion overpressure and flame speed increased with the increase of filling ratio. However, when the filling ratio reached 50%, the explosion overpressure and flame speed tended to be stable and the increase was not obvious. These results will be of great importance in evaluating the explosive damage to equipment and human personnel working in coal mines or other chemical industries.

  11. Determining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The D/H isotope ratio is used to attribute boundary layer humidity changes to the set of contributing fluxes for a case following a snowstorm in which a snow pack of about 10 cm vanished. Profiles of H2O and CO2 mixing ratio, D/H isotope ratio, and several thermodynamic properties were measured from the surface to 300 m every 15 min during four winter days near Boulder, Colorado. Coeval analysis of the D/H ratios and CO2 concentrations find these two variables to be complementary with the former being sensitive to daytime surface fluxes and the latter particularly indicative of nocturnal surface sources. Together they capture evidence for strong vertical mixing during the day, weaker mixing by turbulent bursts and low level jets within the nocturnal stable boundary layer during the night, and frost formation in the morning. The profiles are generally not well described with a gradient mixing line analysis because D/H ratios of the end members (i.e., surface fluxes and the free troposphere evolve throughout the day which leads to large uncertainties in the estimate of the D/H ratio of surface water flux. A mass balance model is constructed for the snow pack, and constrained with observations to provide an optimal estimate of the partitioning of the surface water flux into contributions from sublimation, evaporation of melt water in the snow and evaporation from ponds. Results show that while vapor measurements are important in constraining surface fluxes, measurements of the source reservoirs (soil water, snow pack and standing liquid offer stronger constraint on the surface water balance. Measurements of surface water are therefore essential in developing observational programs that seek to use isotopic data for flux attribution.

  12. Fatigue test results of flat plate specimens with surface cracks and evaluation of crack growth in structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Norio; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-12-01

    Part-through surface cracks are most frequently observed in the inspection of structural components, and it is one of the important subjects in the assessment of safety to evaluate appropriately the growth of such cracks during the service life of structural components. Due to the complexity of the stress at the front free surface, the crack growth at the surface shows a different behavior from the other part. Besides, an effect of interaction is caused in the growth of multiple surface cracks. These effects should be included in the growth analysis of surface part-through cracks. Authors have carried out a series of fatigue tests on some kinds of pipes with multiple cracks in the inner surface, and subsequently the fatigue test of flat plate specimens, made of Type 304L stainless steel, with a single or double surface cracks was carried out to study the basic characteristics in the growth of multiple surface cracks. Based on the results of the flat plate test. the correction factors for the front free surface (Cs) and interaction (Ci) of surface cracks were derived quantitatively by the following empirical expressions; Cs = 0.824. Ci = (0.227(a/b) 2 (sec(PI X/2) - 1) + 1)sup(1/m). Using these two correction factors, a procedure to predict the growth of surface cracks was developed by applying the crack growth formula to both the thickness and surface directions. Besides, the crack growth predictions based on the procedure of ASME Code Sex. XI, and the above procedure without the correction of the free surface and interactions on the crack growth behaviors were compared with the test results of flat plate specimens. The crack growth behavior predicted by the procedure described in this report showed the best agreement with the test results in respects of the crack growth life and the change in the crack shape. The criteria of the ASME Code did not agree with the test results. (author)

  13. Investigations on the micro-scale surface interactions at the tool and workpiece interface in micro-manufacturing of bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Mevlut Fatih

    Micro-forming studies have been more attractive in recent years because of miniaturization trend. One of the promising metal forming processes, micro-stamping, provides durability, strength, surface finish, and low cost for metal products. Hence, it is considered a prominent method for fabricating bipolar plates (BPP) with micro-channel arrays on large metallic surfaces to be used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Major concerns in micro-stamping of high volume BPPs are surface interactions between micro-stamping dies and blank metal plates, and tribological changes. These concerns play a critical role in determining the surface quality, channel formation, and dimensional precision of bipolar plates. The surface quality of BPP is highly dependent on the micro-stamping die surface, and process conditions due to large ratios of surface area to volume (size effect) that cause an increased level of friction and wear issues at the contact interface. Due to the high volume and fast production rates, BPP surface characteristics such as surface roughness, hardness, and stiffness may change because of repeated interactions between tool (micro-forming die) and workpiece (sheet blank of interest). Since the surface characteristics of BPPs have a strong effect on corrosion and contact resistance of bipolar plates, and consequently overall fuel cell performance, evolution of surface characteristics at the tool and workpiece should be monitored, controlled, and kept in acceptable ranges throughout the long production cycles to maintain the surface quality. Compared to macro-forming operations, tribological changes in micro-forming process are bigger challenges due to their dominance and criticality. Therefore, tribological size effect should be considered for better understanding of tribological changes in micro-scale. The integrity of process simulation to the experiments, on the other hand, is essential. This study describes an approach that aims to investigate

  14. Topology Optimization of Constrained Layer Damping on Plates Using Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damping treatments have been extensively used as a powerful means to damp out structural resonant vibrations. Usually, damping materials are fully covered on the surface of plates. The drawbacks of this conventional treatment are also obvious due to an added mass and excess material consumption. Therefore, it is not always economical and effective from an optimization design view. In this paper, a topology optimization approach is presented to maximize the modal damping ratio of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment. The governing equation of motion of the plate is derived on the basis of energy approach. A finite element model to describe dynamic performances of the plate is developed and used along with an optimization algorithm in order to determine the optimal topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. The damping of visco-elastic layer is modeled by the complex modulus formula. Considering the vibration and energy dissipation mode of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment, damping material density and volume factor are considered as design variable and constraint respectively. Meantime, the modal damping ratio of the plate is assigned as the objective function in the topology optimization approach. The sensitivity of modal damping ratio to design variable is further derived and Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA is adopted to search the optimized topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed topology optimization approach. The results show that vibration energy dissipation of the plates can be enhanced by the optimal constrained layer damping layout. This optimal technology can be further extended to vibration attenuation of sandwich cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles as an

  15. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Ortiz; David Rival; David Wood

    2015-01-01

    To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 10 4 to 2 × 10 5 . Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0°...

  16. Fluid Flow and Infrared Image Analyses on Endwall Fitted with Short Rectangular Plate Fin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenyu OYAKAWA; Islam Md. DIDARUL; Minoru YAGA

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out to study fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics on the endwall fitted with arrays ( 7 × 7 ) of short rectangular plate fins of different pattern (co-angular and zigzag) for different pitch ratio. Experiments were conducted in a rectangular duct of 50 mm height for an air flow of Reynolds number ranged from 18750 to 62500 based on the equivalent diameter and air velocity of the duct. Infrared image analysis technique was employed to make clear the characteristics of local heat transfer coefficients on fin base, endwall and overall surface. Flow pattern around the short rectangular plates were visualized by inducing fluorescent dye in a water channel and longitudinal vortices were observed. Increasing the distance between plates in flow direction causes heat transfer enhancement for co-angular pattern, while decreasing the distance causes heat transfer enhancement for zigzag pattern. Zigzag pattern with pitch ratio 2 is found to be more effective in heat transfer enhancement than any other cases investigated.

  17. Chemical milling solution produces smooth surface finish on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, H. C.

    1966-01-01

    Elementary sulfur mixed into a solution of caustic soda and salts produces an etchant which will chemically mill end-grain surfaces on aluminum plate. This composition results in the least amount of thickness variation and pitting.

  18. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  19. Ultraviolet light and ozone surface modification of poly-alpha α-methylstyrene using electroless nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Fangting; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Chen Sufen; Jiang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The deposition capability of nickel on the surface of poly-α-methylstyrene microspheres was improved by combined treatment of ozone aeration and UV irradiation in aqueous ammonia. Surface properties of the treated film were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and Fourier transform infrared(FT-TR) measurements. The samples were characterized by SEM. The results indicate that after ultraviolet joint ozone treatment, the surfaces of microspheres were oxidized, and the amine and amide groups are introduced on their surface. The images of SEM show the adhesion between microspheres and nickel-phosphorus films was improved after surface modification. This was attributed to amide which could chemisorb palladium ions to catalyze electroless nickel plating on the pretreated surface of microspheres. (authors)

  20. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  1. Flocked nylon swabs versus RODAC plates for detection of multidrug-resistant organisms on environmental surfaces in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K; Rhee, Y; Schoeny, M; Lolans, K; Cheng, J; Reddy, S; Weinstein, R A; Hayden, M K; Popovich, K J

    2018-01-01

    To compare two culture methods [nylon fiber flocked swabs with broth enrichment versus RODAC ('replicate organism detection and counting') plates] for recovery of multidrug-resistant organisms, 780 environmental surfaces in 63 rooms of patients on contact precautions in four intensive care units at one hospital were examined. Among sites that had at least one positive culture, swab culture with broth enrichment detected the target organisms more frequently than RODAC plates (37.5% vs 26.0%, P = 0.06). There was moderate agreement between the two methods (κ = 0.44) with agreement better for small or flat surfaces compared to large or irregular surfaces. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On Chern ratios for surfaces with ample cotangent bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Conduché

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of density in (1, 3 for the Chern ratio of surfaces with ample cotangent bundle. In particular we prove density in (1, 2 by constructing a family of complete intersection surfaces in a product of varieties with big cotangent bundle. We also analyse the case of complete intersections in a product of curves of genus at least 2.

  3. The fatigue life and fatigue crack through thickness behavior of a surface cracked plate, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Fujibayashi, Shinpei; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu.

    1987-01-01

    Most structures have a region where stresses concentrate, and the probability of fatigue crack initiation may be higher than in other parts. Therefore, to improve the reliability of an LBB design, it is necessary to evaluate the growth and through thickness behavior of fatigue cracks in the stress concentration part. In this paper, a fatigue crack growth test at a stress concentration region has been made on 3 % NiCrMo and HT 80 steel. Stress concentration is caused by a fillet on the plate. The main results obtained are as follows : (1) Before cracking through the plate thickness, stress concentration has a remarkable effect on the fatigue crack growth behavior and it flatens the shape of a surface crack. The crack growth behavior can be explained quantatively by using the Newman-Raju equation and the stress resolving method proposed by ASME B and P Code SecXI. (2) The da/dN-ΔK relation obtained in a stress concentration specimen shows good agreement with that obtained in a surface cracked smooth specimen. (3) It is shown that stress concentration caused by a fillet has little effect on the crack growth rate after cracking through the plate thickness. (4) By using the K value based on eq. (1), (2), particular crack growth behavior and the change in crack shape after cracking through thickness can be explained quantatively. (author)

  4. Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Low Carbon Steel in Tomato Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke OLUWOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel plated low carbon steel in tomato fluid. It simulated the effect of continuous use of the material in a tomato environment where corrosion products are left in place. Low carbon steel samples were nickel electroplated at 4V for 20, 25, 30 and 35 mins using Watts solution.The plated samples were then subjected to tomato fluid environment for for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5 days for the duration of the exposure period. The result showed corrosion attack on the nickel- plated steel, the severity decreasing with the increasing weight of nickel coating on substrate. The result showed that thinly plated low carbon steel generally did not have any advantage over unplated steel. The pH of the tomato solution which initially was acidic was observed to progress to neutrality after 4 days and then became alkaline at the end of the thirty days test (because of corrosion product contamination of the tomatocontributing to the reduced corrosion rates in the plated samples after 10 days. Un-plated steel was found to be unsuitable for the fabrication of tomato processing machinery without some form of surface treatment - thick nickel plating is suitable as a protective coating in this environment.

  5. ASIC subunit ratio and differential surface trafficking in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yu-Qing; Xu, Jiangping; Hu, Youjia; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2016-01-08

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are key mediators of acidosis-induced responses in neurons. However, little is known about the relative abundance of different ASIC subunits in the brain. Such data are fundamental for interpreting the relative contribution of ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2 heteromers to acid signaling, and essential for designing therapeutic interventions to target these channels. We used a simple biochemical approach and semi-quantitatively determined the molar ratio of ASIC1a and 2 subunits in mouse brain. Further, we investigated differential surface trafficking of ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC2b. ASIC1a subunits outnumber the sum of ASIC2a and ASIC2b. There is a region-specific variation in ASIC2a and 2b expression, with cerebellum and striatum expressing predominantly 2b and 2a, respectively. Further, we performed surface biotinylation and found that surface ASIC1a and ASIC2a ratio correlates with their total expression. In contrast, ASIC2b exhibits little surface presence in the brain. This result is consistent with increased co-localization of ASIC2b with an ER marker in 3T3 cells. Our data are the first semi-quantitative determination of relative subunit ratio of various ASICs in the brain. The differential surface trafficking of ASICs suggests that the main functional ASICs in the brain are ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2a heteromers. This finding provides important insights into the relative contribution of various ASIC complexes to acid signaling in neurons.

  6. Comparative morphology, histology and growth of the dental plates of the Devonian dipnoan Chirodipterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M M; Campbell, K S

    1987-10-14

    The dental plates of the Devonian lungfish Chirodipterus australis Miles (Osteichthyes; Dipnoi) are shown to have achieved their characteristic morphology by a growth process different from that assumed for the plates of genera such as Dipterus. Each plate was thickened by the addition of layers of bone that also extended the plate labially, thus providing the base on which and into which dentine grew. Distinctive features of the dentition are: (a) labial increase of the dentine mass by the addition of blister-like denticles of simple enamel-covered dentine, which is initially ingrown by pleromic dentine and subsequently resorbed and replaced by petrodentine; (b) increase in the midline by a similar process that results in the addition of one (or possibly two) new ridges; (c) resorption of the posterior edge of the pterygoid plates and the posterior and posteromedial edges of the prearticular plates, with subsequent development over the resorbed surfaces of several generations of simple regenerative dentine; (d) resorption and redeposition of pleromic dentine and bone in a triangular region posteromedially on the pterygoid plates; (e) the formation of tuberosities that simulate teeth at a short distance in from the labial edge, by four processes: formation of an undulating plate margin, differential growth of petrodentine (hard compact dentine) within the pulp cavity, differential wear of the petrodentine and the adjacent bone plus pleromic dentine, and slightly greater growth of the petrodentine towards the occlusal surface relative to the adjacent bone and dentine; (f) expansion of the large flat surfaces of the plates by gradual replacement of the bone and dentine at the proximal ends of the furrows and also by the development of linkages of petrodentine across the furrows; (g) development of isolated tuberosities on the flat posterolateral parts of the plates. The petrodentine of the ridges, tuberosities and plateaus of the plates is indistinguishable

  7. Thermal Behaviour of Beams with Slant End-Plate Connection Subjected to Nonsymmetric Gravity Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Zahmatkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the steel structures with confining of axial expansion in fixed beams has been quite intensive in the past decade. It is well established that the thermal behaviour has a key influence on steel structural behaviours. This paper describes mechanical behaviour of beams with bolted slant end-plate connection with nonsymmetric gravity load, subjected to temperature increase. Furthermore, the performance of slant connections of beams in steel moment frame structures in the elastic field is investigated. The proposed model proved that this flexible connection system could successfully decrease the extra thermal induced axial force by both of the friction force dissipation among two faces of slant connection and a small upward movement on the slant plane. The applicability of primary assumption is illustrated. The results from the proposed model are examined within various slant angles, thermal and friction factors. It can be concluded that higher thermal conditions are tolerable when slanting connection is used.

  8. Studies on the wetting properties of plate surfaces used in pulsed extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Derong; Yang Xin; Wang Xinchang

    1991-01-01

    Many factors influence the hydrodynamic characteristics of pulsed column. Of all the factors the surface effect at liquid-liquid interfaces and liquid-solid boundaries may be the most influential factor to the state of droplets. In order to get some understanding of the behaviour of droplets in a pulsed column, the time history of wetting properties of plates under different conditions in 30% TBP (Kerosene) -HNO 3 -UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 -H 2 O systems was studied. The results show that the hydrophilic wetting behaviour of the plates changes into the hydrophobic and neutral conditions, respectively after they have been exposed to air and put in the 'open system' within about 50 days after contacting with process solutions. For the case where the access of air is prohibited at the upper organic phase boundary by a well fitting cover, or supersonic pulse cleaning is used to the cartridge, the behaviour of the metal surface stays in the original good hydrophilic wetting condition constant with time. The uranium charged liquid systems can conserve hydrophilic behaviour better than the non-charged systems under identical conditions. It is also found that the interfacial tension is unvaried with time for saturated process systems, hence it has no effects on the variation of wettability

  9. A Three End-Member Mixing Model Based on Isotopic Composition and Elemental Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon-Kee Liu Shuh-Ji Kao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A three end-member mixing model based on nitrogen isotopic composition and organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of suspended particulate matter in an aquatic environment has been developed. Mathematical expressions have been derived for the calculation of the fractions of nitrogen or organic carbon originating from three different sources of distinct isotopic and elemental compositions. The model was successfully applied to determine the contributions from anthropogenic wastes, soils and bedrock-derived sediments to particulate nitrogen and particulate organic carbon in the Danshuei River during the flood caused by Typhoon Bilis in August 2000. The model solutions have been expressed in a general form that allows applications to mixtures with other types of isotopic compositions and elemental ratios or in forms other than suspended particulate matter.

  10. Fabrication of low adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces using nano Cu/Al2O3 Ni–Cr composited electro-brush plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tianchi; Ge, Shirong; Liu, Hongtao; Sun, Qinghe; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Wei; Qi, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We fabricate a low adhesive superhydrophobic nano Cu/Al 2 O 3 composited Ni–Cr coating via brush plating. • We investigate the influence of process parameters on hydrophobic properties process. • We discuss the formation mechanism of structures on the surface and using water rebound height to explain the low adhesive force mechanism. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic nano Cu/Al 2 O 3 Ni–Cr composited coating with a low adhesive force was deposited onto the Q345 carbon steel via electro-brush plating. Surface morphologies of nano Cu/Al 2 O 3 Ni–Cr composited coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Chemical compositions were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). First of all, by adjusting different process parameters such as working voltage, relative velocity, Cu particles concentration and plating time, we obtain the most optimal parameters: working voltage is 15 V, relative velocity is 4.8 m/min, Cu particles concentration is 5 g/L and plating time is 60 s. Under the best process parameters, the water contact angle reaches to 156° and a sliding angle is less than 2° on the nano Cu/Al 2 O 3 Ni–Cr coating. Then the mechanism of the superhydrophobic and low adhesion characteristic of this surface were explained by Cassie's model. Low adhesive force can be characterized by max rebound height of water droplet. As a result, to achieve low adhesive surface it is necessary to decrease the fraction of the solid/liquid interface under the water droplet. Finally the coating was proved to have an excellent self-cleaning performance.

  11. Ultrafast Laser Engraving Method to Fabricate Gravure Plate for Printed Metal-Mesh Touch Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyuan Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in large size process, substrate material limitation due to etching solution availability, and process complexity. We developed ultra-fast laser technology to directly engrave a stainless plate, a gravure plate, to be used for fabricating 23 in. metal-mesh touch panel by gravure offset printing process. The technology employs high energy pulse to ablate materials from a substrate. Because the ultra-fast laser pulse duration is shorter than the energy dissipation time between material lattices, there is no heating issue during the ablation process. Therefore, no volcano-type protrusion on the engraved line edges occurs, leading to good printing quality. After laser engraving, we then reduce surface roughness of the gravure plate using electro-polishing process. Diamond like carbon (DLC coating layer is then added onto the surface to increase scratch resistance. We show that this procedure can fabricate gravure plate for gravure offset printing process with minimum printing linewidth 10.7 μm. A 23 in. metal-mesh pattern was printed using such gravure plate and fully functional touch panel was demonstrated in this work.

  12. Cortical surface registration using spherical thin-plate spline with sulcal lines and mean curvature as features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Park, Jun-Sung; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Na, Duk L; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-04-30

    Analysis of cortical patterns requires accurate cortical surface registration. Many researchers map the cortical surface onto a unit sphere and perform registration of two images defined on the unit sphere. Here we have developed a novel registration framework for the cortical surface based on spherical thin-plate splines. Small-scale composition of spherical thin-plate splines was used as the geometric interpolant to avoid folding in the geometric transform. Using an automatic algorithm based on anisotropic skeletons, we extracted seven sulcal lines, which we then incorporated as landmark information. Mean curvature was chosen as an additional feature for matching between spherical maps. We employed a two-term cost function to encourage matching of both sulcal lines and the mean curvature between the spherical maps. Application of our registration framework to fifty pairwise registrations of T1-weighted MRI scans resulted in improved registration accuracy, which was computed from sulcal lines. Our registration approach was tested as an additional procedure to improve an existing surface registration algorithm. Our registration framework maintained an accurate registration over the sulcal lines while significantly increasing the cross-correlation of mean curvature between the spherical maps being registered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Segregation of chain ends to polymer melt surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W.; Zhao, X.; Rafailovich, M.H.; Sokolov, J.; Composto, R.J.; Smith, S.D.; Satkowski, M.; Russell, T.P.; Dozier, W.D.; Mansfield, T.

    1993-01-01

    The conformation of polymer chains in the melt near an impenetrable boundary has recently been studied by molecular dynamics and off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Both types of calculations show an enhancement of the chain end density within a distance of approximately two polymer segment lengths of the interface relative to the bulk. In the absence of preferential interactions between monomers and the interface, the segregation arises from minimizing the loss of conformational entropy near an impenetrable boundary; i.e., by positioning an end near the surface, only one unit rather than two is reflected. In order to obtain an experimental measure of this effect, monodisperse polystyrene (PS) chains of molecular weight 63 000 with short blocks of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) at each end were prepared. The block length was kept as short as possible, while yet producing sufficient neutron scattering contrast in order to minimize any preferential surface segregation due to isotopic effects. The synthesis was carried out via living anionic polymerization of a purified styrene monomer in cyclohexane at 60 C, utilizing sec-butyllithium as the initiator. The process was terminated using degassed methanol

  14. Coupling intensity and isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate control trench motions and tectonics of the overriding plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Moresi, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Trench motions not only reflect tectonic regimes on the overriding plate but also shed light on the competition between subducting slab and overriding plate, however, major controls over trench advance or retreat and their consequences are still illusive. We use 2D thermo-mechanical experiments to study the problem. We find that the coupling intensity particularly in the uppermost 200 km and the isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate largely determine trench motion and tectonics of in the overriding plate. Coupling intensity is the result of many contributing factors, including frictional coefficient of brittle part of the subducting interface and the viscosity of the ductile part, thermal regime and rheology of the overriding plate, and water contents and magmatic activity in the subducting slab and overriding plate. In this study, we are not concerned with the dynamic evolution of individual controlling parameter but simply use effective media. For instance, we impose simple model parameters such as frictional coefficient and vary the temperature and strain-rate dependent viscosity of the weak layer between the subducting slab and overriding plate. In the coupled end-member case, strong coupling leads to strong corner flow, depth-dependent compression/extension, and mantle return flow on the overriding plate side. It results in fast trench retreat, broad overriding plate extension, and even slab breakoff. In the decoupled end-member case, weak coupling causes much weaker response on the overriding plate side compared with the coupled end-member case, and the subducting slab can be largely viewed as a conveyer belt. We find that the isostatic competition between the subducting slab and overriding plate also has a major control over trench motion, and may better be viewed in 3D models. This is consistent with the findings in previous 3D studies that trench motion is most pronounced close to the slab edge. Here we propose that the

  15. Analysis of root surface properties by fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shino; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existence of residual calculus on root surfaces by determining the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio. Thirty-two extracted human teeth, partially covered with calculus on the root surface, were evaluated by using a portable Raman spectrophotometer, and a 785-nm, 100-mW laser was applied for fluorescence/Raman excitation. The collected spectra were normalized to the hydroxyapatite Raman band intensity at 960 cm -1 . Raman spectra were recorded from the same point after changing the focal distance of the laser and the target radiating angle. In seven teeth, the condition of calculus, cementum, and dentin were evaluated. In 25 teeth, we determined the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio following three strokes of debridement. Raman spectra collected from the dentin, cementum, and calculus were different. After normalization, spectra values were constant. The fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio of calculus region showed significant differences compared to the cementum and dentin (p Raman intensity ratio decreased with calculus debridement. For this analysis, the delta value was defined as the difference between the values before and after three strokes, with the final 2 delta values close to zero, indicating a gradual asymptotic curve and the change in intensity ratio approximating that of individual constants. Fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio was effectively used to cancel the angle- and distance-dependent fluctuations of fluorescence collection efficiency during measurement. Changes in the fluorescence/Raman intensity ratio near zero suggested that cementum or dentin was exposed, and calculus removed.

  16. Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2017-09-01

    Inspired by the design of the ribbed structure of shark skin, passive drag reduction methods using stream-wise riblet surfaces have previously been developed and tested over a wide range of flow conditions. Such textures aligned in the flow direction have been shown to be able to reduce skin friction drag by 4%-8%. Here, we explore the effects of periodic sinusoidal riblet surfaces aligned in the flow direction (also known as a "wrinkled" texture) on the evolution of a laminar boundary layer flow. Using numerical analysis with the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics solver OpenFOAM, boundary layer flow over sinusoidal wrinkled plates with a range of wavelength to plate length ratios ( λ / L ), aspect ratios ( 2 A / λ ), and inlet velocities are examined. It is shown that in the laminar boundary layer regime, the riblets are able to retard the viscous flow inside the grooves creating a cushion of stagnant fluid that the high-speed fluid above can partially slide over, thus reducing the shear stress inside the grooves and the total integrated viscous drag force on the plate. Additionally, we explore how the boundary layer thickness, local average shear stress distribution, and total drag force on the wrinkled plate vary with the aspect ratio of the riblets as well as the length of the plate. We show that riblets with an aspect ratio of close to unity lead to the highest reduction in the total drag, and that because of the interplay between the local stress distribution on the plate and stream-wise evolution of the boundary layer the plate has to exceed a critical length to give a net decrease in the total drag force.

  17. Surface roughness prediction model in end milling of Al/SiCp MMC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, ... Keywords: Surface roughness (Ra), Response surface method (RSM), End milling, .... To establish the initial model and refined model, a software package MiniTab ..... The After building the regression model, a numerical optimization technique ...

  18. Effect of nanofluids on the performance of a miniature plate heat exchanger with modulated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzali, M.N.; Kanaris, A.G.; Antoniadis, K.D.; Mouza, A.A.; Paras, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of the use of a nanofluid in a miniature plate heat exchanger (PHE) with modulated surface has been studied both experimentally and numerically. First, the thermophysical properties (i.e., thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, density and surface tension) of a typical nanofluid (CuO in water, 4% v/v) were systematically measured. The effect of surface modulation on heat transfer augmentation and friction losses was then investigated by simulating the existing miniature PHE as well as a notional similar PHE with flat plate using a CFD code. Finally, the effect of the nanofluid on the PHE performance was studied and compared to that of a conventional cooling fluid (i.e., water). The results suggest that, for a given heat duty, the nanofluid volumetric flow rate required is lower than that of water causing lower pressure drop. As a result, smaller equipment and less pumping power are required. In conclusion, the use of the nanofluids seems to be a promising solution towards designing efficient heat exchanging systems, especially when the total volume of the equipment is the main issue. The only drawbacks so far are the high price and the possible instability of the nanoparticle suspensions.

  19. Gain stabilized microchannel plates and a treatment method for microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Microchannel plates having increased gain and significantly improved aging characteristics are provided by forming a thin film of a cesium compound on the channel walls. In an exemplary embodiment, a suface film of cesium hydroxide is applied to the interior wall surfaces of an MCP by saturating the plate with a solution of the compound, then allowing the solvent to evaporate. The cesium hydroxide residue on the walls subsequently is converted to cesium oxide by a high temperature bake. Microchannel plates are used in image amplifiers, radiation detectors and such like equipment. (Auth.)

  20. Drift wave turbulence studies on closed and open flux surfaces: effect limiter/divertor plates location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, T.; Scott, B.

    2007-01-01

    The field line connection of a tokamak sheared magnetic field has an important impact on turbulence, by ensuring a finite parallel dynamical response for every degree of freedom available in the system. This constitutes the main property which distinguishes closed from open flux surfaces in such a device. In the latter case, the poloidal periodicity of the magnetic field is replaced by a Debye sheath arising where the field lines strike the limiter/divertor plates. This is enough to break the field line connection constraint and allow the existence of convective cell modes, leading to a change in the character of the turbulence from drift wave- (closed flux surfaces) to interchange-type (open flux surfaces), and hence increasing the turbulent transport observed. Here we study the effect of changing the poloidal position of the limiter/divertor plates, using the three-dimensional electromagnetic gyrofluid turbulence code GEM, which has time dependently self consistent field aligned flux tube coordinates. For the closed flux surfaces, the globally consistent periodic boundary conditions are invoked, and for open flux surfaces a standard Debye sheath is used at the striking points. In particular, the use of two limiter positions simultaneously, top and bottom, is in order, such to allow a separation between the inboard and outboard sides of the tokamak. This highlights the differences between those two regions of the tokamak, where the curvature is either favourable (former) or unfavourable (latter), and further makes room for future experimental qualitative comparisons, for instance, on double null configurations of the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. (author)

  1. Alpha-event and surface characterisation in segmented true-coaxial HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, I.; Garbini, L., E-mail: luciagarbini86@gmail.com.mpg.de; Gooch, C.; Irlbeck, S.; Liu, X.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.

    2017-06-21

    A detailed study of alpha interactions on the passivation layer on the end-plate of a true-coaxial high-purity germanium detector is presented. The observation of alpha events on such a surface indicates an unexpectedly thin so-called “effective dead layer” of less than 20 µm thickness. In addition, the influence of the metalisation close to the end-plate on the time evolution of the output pulses is discussed. The results indicate that alpha contamination can result in events which could be mistaken as signals for neutrinoless double beta decay and provide some guidance on how to prevent this.

  2. Use of Large Surface MicroChannel Plates for the Tagging of Intermediate Energy Exotic Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, I., E-mail: ilombardo@lns.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Amorini, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); De Filippo, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Geraci, E.; Grassi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); La Guidara, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Libera Universita Kore, Enna (Italy); Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Politi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Verde, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Vigilante, M. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    We show the properties of the tagging system for exotic beams coupled to the CHIMERA detector. In particular, the characteristics of a newly developed large surface MicroChannel Plate will be discussed. Timing and efficiency of this instrument have been investigated. Preliminary results of tests performed with radioactive beams and alpha sources are presented.

  3. Activities of the Vastus Lateralis and Vastus Medialis Oblique Muscles during Squats on Different Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of squat exercises performed on different surfaces on the activity of the quadriceps femoris muscle in order to provide information on support surfaces for effective squat exercises. [Subjects and Method] Fourteen healthy subjects performed squat exercises for five seconds each on three different support surfaces: hard plates, foam, and rubber air discs. Their performance was measured using electromyography. As the subjects performed the squat exercises on each surface, data on the activity of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis, and the vastus medials oblique/vastus lateralis ratio, were collected. [Results] The activity of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio were found to be statistically significantly higher on rubber air discs than when the squats were performed on hard plates or foam. [Conclusion] To activate the vastus medialis obilique, and to enhance the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio, unstable surfaces that are highly unstable should be selected.

  4. Surface modification technique of structural ceramics: ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhijian; Miao Hezhuo; Si Wenjie; Qi Longhao; Li Wenzhi

    2003-01-01

    Through reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of the existed surface modification techniques, a new technique, ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating, was proposed. Using the proposed technique, the surfaces of silicon nitride ceramics were modified by Ti ion implantation, and then three kinds of ternary coatings, (Ti,Al)N, (Ti,Zr)N and (Ti,Cr)N, were deposited on the as-implanted ceramics. The coatings prepared by this technique are of high-hardness and well adhesive to the ceramic substrates. The maximal hardness measured by nanoindentation tests is more than 40 GPa. The maximal critical load by nanoscratch tests is more than 60 mN. The cutting tools prepared by this technique with the presented coatings are of excellent performance in industrial applications. The technique may be promising for the surface modification of structural ceramics. (orig.)

  5. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla–Hughes–McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed

  6. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed.

  7. Cartilage of the Intervertebral Disc Eng-Plate, A Histological, Histochemical, Fine Structure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    degeneration (Nachemson et al., 1970). These and related studies consider the end-plates to be composed of hyaline cartilage and thus homologues of articular...results of this study in rhesus indicate, that while present, the cartilage of the end-plate is quite different in structure and presumably...HZSTOLO6ZCAL,-ETCfU) I AUG 82 N 5 NUSSBAUM IUNCLASSIFDATRL8R-1222NL.rnximommmB~iIEND2 AFAMRL-TR-81 - 122 " CARTILAGE OF THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC END-PLATE A

  8. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  9. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  10. Lead plating of the low beta resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.; Corcoran, D.; Coughlin, R.; Goliak, T.; Hodgkins, D.; James, P.; Seamster, A.G.; Secora, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Plating operations were performed at the lead plating facility at SUNY, Stony Brook. Initial procedures were based on the previous experience of prototype development by Ben-Zvi and Brennan. Several attempts were made to produce satisfactory results, however the lead surfaces were consistently stained and lacked the bright metallic finish routinely achieved with the split loop resonator at SUNY. The development of a new set of procedures was initiated, aided by reports of plating success from Ben-Zvi. Controlled tests were conducted which suggested several changes in the plating parameters. Based on these results and suggestions from the staff at SUNY a new process was defined which was successful in producing the smooth reflective metallic surface known to be necessary forla optimum resonator performance. Following a successful repair of the the crack, the prototype was plated and chemically polished with the new techniques. The resultant surface was highly reflective and free of stains and particulates. The subsequent prototype cold test was successful

  11. Impact of implanted metal plates on radiation dose distribution in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Li Xingde; Niu Qingguo; Zhai Fushan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of metal plate on radiation dose distribution in surrounding tissues in cadaver specimens. Methods: Stainless steel plate, titanium plate, and muscle strip were implanted into the left thigh of a corpse, respectively. All the specimens were irradiated with 6 MV X-ray , SSD = 100 cm. The absorbed dose of surface was measured by thermoluminescent elements. Results: Surface dose distributions differed significantly among the three different materials (F = 57.35, P < 0.01), with the amounts of 1.18 Gy ± 0.04 Gy (stainless steel plate), 1.12 Gy ± 0.04 Gy (titanium plate) and 0.97 Gy ± 0.03 Gy (muscle strip), respectively. The surface absorbed doses on incident plane of stainless steel plate and titanium plate were significantly increased by 21.65% and 15.46% respectively as compared with that of muscle strip. The absorbed doses on the exit surface of stainless steel plate, titanium plate and muscle strip were 0.87 Gy ± 0.03 Gy, 0.90 Gy ± 0.02 Gy and 0.95 Gy ± 0.04 Gy, respectively (F =13.37, P <0.01). The doses on the exit surface of stainless steel plate and titanium plate were significantly lowered by 8.42% and 5.26% when compared with that of muscle strip. Using treatment planning system,the differences between dose distribution with and without metal plate were compared. Within 1 cm away from the incident plate, there was an obvious increase in the absorbed dose, while the influence was less than 5% 1 cm outside the surface. The effect of dose distribution on exit surface was less than 2%. Conclusions: The influence of metal plate on the radiotherapy dose distribution is significant. The deviations ranges from 5% to 29%. Under the same condition, the impact of stainless steel plate is much more than that of titanium alloy plate. (authors)

  12. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the pressure plate of clutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.N. Venkata Mallikarjuna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature appears in the contact surfaces of a clutch system (friction surface and pressure plate due to the relative motion between these parts during the sliding period. These high temperatures are responsible for several failures such as pressure plate crack, pressure plate warpage etc. With the help of Finite element analysis, the sliding friction process of the pressure plate and friction during clutch engagement is simulated to get temperature field characteristics and contact pressure of pressure plate.

  13. Surface residual stress evaluation in double-electrode butt welded steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estefen, S.F.; Gurova, T.; Castello, X.; Leontiev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface residual stress evaluation for double-electrode welding was studied. The stresses were monitored after each operational step: positioning, implementing of constraints, welding and constraints removal. The measurements were performed at the deposited metal, heat affected zone, base metal close to the weld joint and along the plate using the X-ray diffraction method. It was observed differences in the stress evaluations for double-electrode welding which resulted in lower bending distortions and higher values of surface residual stresses, compared with single-electrode welding. This behavior is associated with the stress distribution just after the welding processes in both heat affected zone and base metal close to the fillet for double-electrode welding. The main results from the laboratorial tests indicated lower values of the bending distortions for double-electrode welding compared with the single-electrode. In relation to the residual stress, the double-electrode welding generated, in general, higher stress values in both longitudinal and transversal directions.

  14. Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohammed Hussein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

  15. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  16. Characterization of holding brake friction pad surface after pin-on-plate wear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, N.; Gonzalez Madruga, D.; De Chiffre, L.

    2018-03-01

    This article concerns the metrological characterization of the surface on a holding brake friction material pin after a pin-on-plate (POP) wear test. The POP test induces the formation of surface plateaus that affect brake performances such as wear, friction, noise and heat. Three different materials’ surfaces have been characterized after wear from data obtained with a focus variation 3D microscope. A new surface characterization approach with plateau identification is proposed, using the number of plateau on the surface, equivalent diameter, length and breadth as measurands. The identification method is based on determining and imposing ISO 27158-2 lower plateau limit (LPL) in material probability curves; and on applying a combined criterion of height segmentation threshold and equivalent diameter threshold. The method determines the criterion thresholds for each material since LPL appears typical by material. The proposed method has allowed quantifying the surface topography at two different levels of wear. An expanded measurement uncertainty of 3.5 µm for plateau dimensions in the range 50–2000 µm and one of 0.15 µm for plateau heights up to 10 µm have been documented.

  17. Discussion about effecting of stiffener in four bolts in a row end plate connection for long span and heavy load steel structures in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Khang T.; Nguyen, Cung H.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, steel structure industry in Vietnam is in strong development. The construction of steel structure becomes larger span and heavier load. The issue spawned a number of issues arise from optimizing connections. Typical of steel connections in prefabricated steel structure that is an end plate (face plate) bolted connection. When the connection carried a heavy load, then the number of bolts is required much more. Increasing the number of rows bolts will less effective because can still not enough strength requirements, the bolts in row near rotational center will level arm reduction, then it cannot carry heavy loads. The current solution is doing multiple bolts in a row. Current standards such as EN [1], AISC [2] are no specific guidelines for calculating the connection four bolts in a row that primarily assumes the way works like a T-stub of the two bolts a row. Some articles studied T-stub four bolts in a row [3], [4], [5], [6] by component method but it has some components which weren’t considered. In this paper, in order to provide a contribution to improve the T-stub four bolts in a row, the stiffener component in T-stub will be added and compared with T-stub without stiffener by the finite element model to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing stress and displacement of T-stub. It gives ideas for the economic design of four bolts in a row end plate connection in Vietnam for future.

  18. A Note on the Inverse Reconstruction of Residual Fields in Surface Peened Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Faghidian

    Full Text Available Abstract A modified stress function approach is developed here to reconstruct induced stress, residual stress and eigenstrain fields from limited experimental measurements. The present approach is successfully applied to three experimental measurements set in surface peened plates with shallow shot peening affected zone. The well-rehearsed advantage of the proposed approach is that it not only minimizes the deviation of measurements from its approximations but also will result in an inverse solution satisfying a full range of continuum mechanics requirements. Also, the effect of component thickness as a geometric parameter influencing the residual stress state is comprehensively studied. A key finding of present study is that the plate thickness has no influence on the maximum magnitude of eigenstrain profile and compressive residual stresses within the shot peening affected zone while having a great influence on the magnitude of tensile residual stress and the gradient of linear residual stresses present in deeper regions.

  19. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  20. Evaluation of RANS and LES models for Natural Convection in High-Aspect-Ratio Parallel Plate Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradeneck, Austen; Kimber, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of current RANS and LES models in simulating natural convection in high-aspect ratio parallel plate channels. The geometry under consideration is based on a simplification of the coolant and bypass channels in the very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). Two thermal conditions are considered, asymmetric and symmetric wall heating with an applied heat flux to match Rayleigh numbers experienced in the VHTR during a loss of flow accident (LOFA). RANS models are compared to analogous high-fidelity LES simulations. Preliminary results demonstrate the efficacy of the low-Reynolds number k- ɛ formulations and their enhancement to the standard form and Reynolds stress transport model in terms of calculating the turbulence production due to buoyancy and overall mean flow variables.

  1. Instantaneous flow field above the free end of finite-height cylinders and prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostamy, N.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D.J.; Bugg, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PIV measurements of the flow above the free end of finite-height bodies. • Effect of cross-sectional shape of the models on the instantaneous flow. • Small-scale structures generated by the separated shear layer were revealed. • Effect of aspect ratio on the reattachment of the separated flow on the free end. -- Abstract: The flow above the free ends of surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinders and square prisms was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Cylinders and prisms with aspect ratios of AR = 9, 7, 5, and 3 were tested at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.2 × 10 4 . The bodies were mounted normal to a ground plane and were partially immersed in a turbulent zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer, where the boundary layer thickness relative to the body width was δ/D = 1.6. PIV measurements were made above the free ends of the bodies in a vertical plane aligned with the flow centreline. The present PIV results provide insight into the effects of aspect ratio and body shape on the instantaneous flow field. The recirculation zone under the separated shear layer is larger for the square prism of AR = 3 compared to the more slender prism of AR = 9. Also, for a square prism with low aspect ratio (AR = 3), the influence of the reverse flow over the free end surface becomes more significant compared to that for a higher aspect ratio (AR = 9). For the circular cylinder, a cross-stream vortex forms within the recirculation zone. As the aspect ratio of the cylinder decreases, the reattachment point of the separated flow on the free end surface moves closer to the trailing edge. For both the square prism and circular cylinder cases, the instantaneous velocity vector field and associated in-plane vorticity field revealed small-scale structures mostly generated by the separated shear layer

  2. LASER INDUCED SELECTIVE ACTIVATION UTILIZING AUTO-CATALYTIC ELECTROLESS PLATING ON POLYMER SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    . Characterization of the deposited copper layer was used to select and improve laser parameters. Several types of polymers with different melting points were used as substrate. Using the above mentioned laser treatment, standard grades of thermoplastic materials such as ABS, SAN, PE, PC and others have been......This paper presents a new method for selective micro metallization of polymers induced by laser. An Nd: YAG laser was employed to draw patterns on polymer surfaces using a special set-up. After subsequent activation and auto-catalytic electroless plating, copper only deposited on the laser tracks....... Induced by the laser, porous and rough structures are formed on the surface, which favours the palladium attachment during the activation step prior to the metallization. Laser focus detection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other instruments were used to analyze the topography of the laser track...

  3. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  4. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  5. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander [School of Engineering and Science, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia); Abou-El-Hossein, K A, E-mail: mohan.m@curtin.edu.my [Mechanical and Aeronautical Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elegebeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  6. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  7. Vertical steam generator with slab-type tube-plate with even tube bundle washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.

    1980-01-01

    A shielding plate supporting the tubes attached to the tube plate of a vertical steam generator is mounted above the tube plate. Tube sleeves are designed with a dimensional tolerance relative to the heat transfer tubes and the sleeve end and the tube plate end. A separate space is thus formed above the tube plate in which circulation or feed water is introduced to flow between the branch and the heat transfer tube. This provides intensive washing of heat transfer tubes at a critical point and prevents deposit formation, thus excluding heat transfer tube failures. (J.B.)

  8. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study on surface products of thin iron plates exposed to ambient atmosphere as a means of environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    1993-01-01

    Conversion electron and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy were applied to the analysis of thin iron plates exposed to the ambient atmosphere. The degree of corrosion of the iron plates was classified into three categories according to the kind and thickness of rust evaluated by Moessbauer spectra. The severe corrosion took place in seaside and roadside areas. The medium corrosion was observed in urban areas, and the weak corrosion occurred in suburban and mountainous areas. This fact implies that the surface products of iron plates can successfully reflect the ambient atmosphere to which the plates were exposed. (orig.)

  9. Mechanisms of growth plate maturation and epiphyseal fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, J.; Chagin, A.S.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; Wit, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal growth occurs within the long bones at the growth plate. During childhood, the growth plate matures, its total width decreases and eventually it disappears at the end of puberty with complete replacement by bone along with cessation of longitudinal growth. The exact mechanism of

  10. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  11. Numerical Study of Electrostatic Field Distortion on LPTPC End-Plates based on Bulk Micromegas Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Purba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The R&D activities for the linear collider TPC (LC-TPC are currently working on the adoption of the micro pattern devices for the gaseous amplification stage. Several beam tests have been carried out at DESY with a 5 GeV electron beam in a 1 T superconducting magnet. We worked on a large prototype TPC with an end-plate that was built, for the first time, using seven resistive bulk Micromegas modules. During experiments, reduced signal sensitivity was observed at the boundary of these modules. Electrostatic field distortion near the module boundaries was considered to be the possible major reason behind these observations. In the present work, we will explore this hypothesis through numerical simulation. Our aim has been to understand the origin of distortions observed close to the edges of the test beam modules and to explore the possibility of using the Garfield simulation framework for investigating a phenomenon as complex as distortion.

  12. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  13. A Geometrically—Nonlinear Plate Theory 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO

    1999-01-01

    An approximate plate theory developed in this paper is based on an assumed displacement field,the strains described by a Taylor series in the normal distance from the middle surface,the exact strains of the middle surface and the equations of equilibrium governing the exact configuration of the deformed middle surface,In this theory the exact geometry of the deformed middle surface is used to derive the strains and equilibrium of the plate.Application of this theory does not depend on the constitutive law.THis theory can reduce to some existing nonlinear theories through imposition of constraints.

  14. Elastic tripping analysis of corroded stiffeners in stiffened plate with irregular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Tripping of stiffeners is one of the buckling modes of stiffened panels which could rapidly lead to its catastrophic failure. Loss of thickness in the web and flange of stiffeners due to corrosion reduces elastic buckling strength. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for corroded surfaces. To estimate the remaining strength of a corroded structure, a much higher level of accuracy is required since corroded surfaces are irregular. Finite element method is employed to analyze elastic tripping stress of corroded stiffeners with irregular surfaces. Comparing the results with elastic tripping stress of un-corroded stiffener, a reduction factor is introduced. It is found that for flat-bars and angle-bars the reduction factor increases by increasing corrosion loss; however, for tee-bars remains almost unchanged. Surface roughness has no significant effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of angle-bars and flat-bars; however, it has an effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of small flat-bars. For high values of corrosion loss, reduction of tripping Euler stress is higher in flat-bars than angle-bars. Corrosion at the mid-length or ends of flat-bars is more detrimental than full length. Corrosion at the ends of angle-bars is more detrimental than full length and mid-length.

  15. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.; Bolivar Working Group

    2013-05-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end of a complex strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary fault of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify subduction features at either end of the system (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al, 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. Tearing the Atlantic plate from the rest of South America appears to cause further lithospheric instability continentward. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia but then rapidly descends to the transition zone under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab controls the tectonics of the Neogene Merida Andes, Perija, and Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate also underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the edge of the underthrust

  16. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  17. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  18. Midinfrared Surface Waves on a High Aspect Ratio Nanotrench Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Bodganov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    ameliorate surface wave propagation and even generate new types of waves. Here, we demonstrate that high aspect ratio (1:20) grating structures with plasmonic lamellas in deep nanoscale trenches, whose pitch is 1/10 – 1/35 of a wavelength, function as a versatile platform supporting both surface and guided...... bulk infrared waves. The surface waves exhibit a unique combination of properties: directionality, broadband existence (from 4 µm to at least 14 μm and beyond) and high localization, making them an attractive tool for effective control of light in an extended range of infrared frequencies....

  19. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies

  20. Similarity Solution for Combined Free-Forced Convection Past a Vertical Porous Plate in a Porous Medium with a Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the mathematical implications of the two dimensional viscous steady laminar combined free-forced convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a semi infinite fixed vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature of the fluid on the right surface of the vertical plate. To achieve numerical consistency for the problem under consideration, the governing non linear partial differential equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a similarity variable and then solved numerically under conditions admitting similarity solutions. The effects of the physical parameters of both the incompressible fluid and the vertical plate on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are studied and analysed and the results are depicted both graphically and in a tabular form. Finally, algebraic expressions and the numerical values are obtained for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.

  1. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  2. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  3. End Ordovician extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David A. T.; Hammarlund, Emma; Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.

    2014-01-01

    -global anoxia associated with a marked transgression during the Late Hirnantian. Most recently, however, new drivers for the extinctions have been proposed, including widespread euxinia together with habitat destruction caused by plate tectonic movements, suggesting that the end Ordovician mass extinctions were...

  4. Fabrication of low adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces using nano Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Ni–Cr composited electro-brush plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Xu Zhou 221116 (China); Ge, Shirong [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Xu Zhou 221116 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xu Zhou 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xu Zhou 221116 (China); Sun, Qinghe; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Wei; Qi, Jianwei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xu Zhou 221116 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • We fabricate a low adhesive superhydrophobic nano Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composited Ni–Cr coating via brush plating. • We investigate the influence of process parameters on hydrophobic properties process. • We discuss the formation mechanism of structures on the surface and using water rebound height to explain the low adhesive force mechanism. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic nano Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Ni–Cr composited coating with a low adhesive force was deposited onto the Q345 carbon steel via electro-brush plating. Surface morphologies of nano Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Ni–Cr composited coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Chemical compositions were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). First of all, by adjusting different process parameters such as working voltage, relative velocity, Cu particles concentration and plating time, we obtain the most optimal parameters: working voltage is 15 V, relative velocity is 4.8 m/min, Cu particles concentration is 5 g/L and plating time is 60 s. Under the best process parameters, the water contact angle reaches to 156° and a sliding angle is less than 2° on the nano Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Ni–Cr coating. Then the mechanism of the superhydrophobic and low adhesion characteristic of this surface were explained by Cassie's model. Low adhesive force can be characterized by max rebound height of water droplet. As a result, to achieve low adhesive surface it is necessary to decrease the fraction of the solid/liquid interface under the water droplet. Finally the coating was proved to have an excellent self-cleaning performance.

  5. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  6. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization: how to do it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Sonderegger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate osteosynthesis is one treatment option for the stabilization of long bones. It is widely accepted to achieve bone healing with a dynamic and biological fixation where the perfusion of the bone is left intact and micromotion at the fracture gap is allowed. The indications for a dynamic plate osteosynthesis include distal tibial and femoral fractures, some midshaft fractures, and adolescent tibial and femoral fractures with not fully closed growth plates. Although many lower limb shaft fractures are managed successfully with intramedullary nails, there are some important advantages of open-reduction-and-plate fixation: the risk of malalignment, anterior knee pain, or nonunion seems to be lower. The surgeon performing a plate osteosynthesis has the possibility to influence fixation strength and micromotion at the fracture gap. Long plates and oblique screws at the plate ends increase fixation strength. However, the number of screws does influence stiffness and stability. Lag screws and screws close to the fracture site reduce micromotion dramatically. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis can be achieved by applying some simple rules: long plates with only a few screws should be used. Oblique screws at the plate ends increase the pullout strength. Two or three holes at the fracture site should be omitted. Lag screws, especially through the plate, must be avoided whenever possible. Compression is not required. Locking plates are recommended only in fractures close to the joint. When respecting these basic concepts, dynamic plate osteosynthesis is a safe procedure with a high healing and a low complication rate. 

  7. Effects of Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction on MHD Free Convection Flow past a Flat Plate with Heat Source and Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    OpenAIRE

    E.Hemalatha; N. Bhaskar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the radiation and chemical reaction effects on MHD steady two-dimensional laminar viscous incompressible radiating boundary layer flow over a flat plate in the presence of internal heat generation and convective boundary condition. It is assumed that lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the upper surface with a heat source that decays exponentially. The Rosseland approximation is used to desc...

  8. Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.

  9. Fabricating cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2018-03-27

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  10. Fabricating cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2018-04-03

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The methods include providing a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  11. Disk generator with nearly shockless accelerated driver plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Marsh, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The disk generator, shown in this paper, was first conceived as a useful magnetic field source for a class of in situ plasma experiments. Initial current is supplied (from a capacitor bank) to the generator through radial coaxial cables. It enters the top plate, passes through the central post, and exists through the top of the outer cylindrical glide surface, which is insulated from the top plate. The explosive over the top plate is initiated simultaneously over its upper surface at such a time that the top plate starts its downward motion at about peak initial current. Several conditions were required for the experiments under consideration: the top or driver plate should contact the bottom plate nearly parallel to it; the generator interior should be evacuated; microjetting debris (fluff) arising from the driver plate should be held to a minimum; currents developed should be several tens of megamperes, with values of dI/dt exceeding 10 13 A/s

  12. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Radioactivity distribution measurement of various natural material surfaces with imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Suzuki, T.; Koido, S.; Uritani, A.; Yanagida, K.; Wu, Y.; Nishizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution images of natural radioactivity in natural materials such as vegetables were obtained by using Imaging Platc. In ssuch cases, it is necessary to reduce background radiation intensity by one order or more. Graded shielding is very important. Espacially, the innermost surface of a shielding box sshould be covered with acrylic rein plate. We obtained natural radioactivity distribution images of vegetable, sea food, mea etc. Most β-rays emitted from 40 K print the radioactivity distribution image. Comparison between γ-ray intensity of KCL solution measured with HPGe detector and that of natural material specimen gave the radioactivity around 0.06- 0.04Bq/g depending on the kind and the part of specimens. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Shrinkage Analysis on Thick Plate Part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isafiq M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported herein is about an analysis on the quality (shrinkage on a thick plate part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Previous researches showed that the most influential factor affecting the shrinkage on moulded parts are mould and melt temperature. Autodesk Moldflow Insight software was used for the analysis, while specifications of Nessei NEX 1000 injection moulding machine and P20 mould material were incorporated in this study on top of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS as a moulded thermoplastic material. Mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time were selected as variable parameters. The results show that the shrinkage have improved 42.48% and 14.41% in parallel and normal directions respectively after the optimisation process.

  15. Energy and exergy analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater having different obstacles on absorber plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Kocyigit, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates performance analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater (SAH) with several obstacles (Type I, Type II, Type III) and without obstacles (Type IV). Experiments were performed for two air mass flow rates of 0.0074 and 0.0052 kg/s. The first and second laws of efficiencies were determined for SAHs and comparisons were made among them. The values of first law efficiency varied between 20% and 82%. The values of second law efficiency changed from 8.32% to 44.00%. The highest efficiency were determined for the SAH with Type II absorbent plate in flow channel duct for all operating conditions, whereas the lowest values were obtained for the SAH without obstacles (Type IV). The results showed that the efficiency of the solar air collectors depends significantly on the solar radiation, surface geometry of the collectors and extension of the air flow line. The largest irreversibility was occurring at the SAH without obstacles (Type IV) collector in which collector efficiency is smallest. At the end of this study, the energy and exergy relationships are delivered for different SAHs.

  16. Fuel rod end plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeary, R.K.; Bucher, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an end plug for welded disposition within the end of a tube. It comprises a circumferentially extending, axially oriented land surface, having a radial extent defined by means of a first predetermined dimension, for disposition within the end of the tube; a circumferentially extending, axially oriented land surface, having a radial extent defined by means of a second predetermined dimension which is greater than the first predetermined dimension, for disposition outside of the end of the tube. The second land surface being disposed upstream of the first land surface; an annularly extending, radially oriented shoulder portion, defined at the downstream end of the second land surface and having a radially inward depth which is greater than the difference defined between the first and second radial dimensions of the first and second land surfaces, for engaging the end of the tube in a butt contact fashion; and annular groove means defined between the upstream end of the first land surface and the shoulder portion of the end plug, for eliminating porosity defects normally developed within a weldment defined between the tube end and the end plug when the end plug is welded within the tube end, and including a conical surface which extends radially outwardly from the innermost radial depth extent of the shoulder portion to the upstream end of the first land surface

  17. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  18. Effect of nano-scale morphology on micro-channel wall surface and electrical characterization in lead silicate glass micro-channel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Li, Fangjun; Xu, Yanglei; Bo, Tiezhu; Zhou, Dongzhan; Lian, Jiao; Li, Qing; Cao, Zhenbo; Xu, Tao; Wang, Caili; Liu, Hui; Li, Guoen; Jia, Jinsheng

    2017-10-01

    Micro-channel plate (MCP) is a two dimensional arrays of microscopic channel charge particle multiplier. Silicate composition and hydrogen reduction are keys to determine surface morphology of micro-channel wall in MCP. In this paper, lead silicate glass micro-channel plates in two different cesium contents (0at%, 0.5at%) and two different hydrogen reduction temperatures (400°C,450°C) were present. The nano-scale morphology, elements content and chemical states of microporous wall surface treated under different alkaline compositions and reduction conditions was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Meanwhile, the electrical characterizations of MCP, including the bulk resistance, electron gain and the density of dark current, were measured in a Vacuum Photoelectron Imaging Test Facility (VPIT).The results indicated that the granular phase occurred on the surface of microporous wall and diffuses in bulk glass is an aggregate of Pb atom derived from the reduction of Pb2+. In micro-channel plate, the electron gain and bulk resistance were mainly correlated to particle size and distribution, the density of dark current (DDC) went up with the increasing root-mean-square roughness (RMS) on the microporous wall surface. Adding cesiums improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, lowered the relative concentration of [Pb] reduced from Pb2+ and decreased the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a less dark current. Increasing hydrogen reduction temperature also improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, but enhanced the relative concentration of [Pb] and enlarged the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a larger dark current. The reasons for the difference of electrical characteristics were discussed.

  19. Overall Effectiveness Measurement at Engine Temperatures with Reactive Film Cooling and Surface Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    locations. The images were also used to determine the flame length . However, what is the flame length ? The flame does not suddenly end, but rather... flame length . Using this method, flame start and end locations can be identified as they are in Figure 4-6. The locations were determined where the...the flame. Thus, Da can be expressed using Equation 4-2 as a ratio of the test plate length of the flame length . = ℎ

  20. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    OpenAIRE

    LU Wenya; CHENG Xianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the p...

  1. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  2. RPC performance vs. front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, R.; Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Liberti, B.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.; Zerbini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Moving the amplification from the gas to the front-end electronics was a milestone in the development of Resistive Plate Chambers. Here we discuss the historical evolution of RPCs and we show the results obtained with newly developed front-end electronics with threshold in the fC range.

  3. Lamb wave scattering by a surface-breaking crack in a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S. K.; Al-Nassar, Y.; Shah, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    An NDE method based on finite-element representation and modal expansion has been developed for solving the scattering of Lamb waves in an elastic plate waveguide. This method is very powerful for handling discontinuities of arbitrary shape, weldments of different orientations, canted cracks, etc. The advantage of the method is that it can be used to study the scattering of Lamb waves in anisotropic elastic plates and in multilayered plates as well.

  4. Vibration analysis of orthotropic circular and elliptical nano-plates embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory and using Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjomshoa, Amin; Tahani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a continuum model based on the nonlocal elasticity theory is developed for free vibration analysis of embedded ortho tropic thick circular and elliptical nano-plates rested on an elastic foundation. The elastic foundation is considered to behave like a Pasternak type of foundations. Governing equations for vibrating nano-plate are derived according to the Mindlin plate theory in which the effects of shear deformations of nano-plate are also included. The Galerkin method is then employed to obtain the size dependent natural frequencies of nano-plate. The solution procedure considers the entire nano-plate as a single super-continuum element. Effect of nonlocal parameter, lengths of nano-plate, aspect ratio, mode number, material properties, thickness and foundation on circular frequencies are investigated. It is seen that the nonlocal frequencies of the nano-plate are smaller in comparison to those from the classical theory and this is more pronounced for small lengths and higher vibration modes. It is also found that as the aspect ratio increases or the nanoplate becomes more elliptical, the small scale effect on natural frequencies increases. Further, it is observed that the elastic foundation decreases the influence of nonlocal parameter on the results. Since the effect of shear deformations plays an important role in vibration analysis and design of nano-plates, by predicting smaller values for fundamental frequencies, the study of these nano-structures using thick plate theories such as Mindlin plate theory is essential.

  5. Boiling heat transfer in a flat slot between heating surface and perforated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, Yu.A.; Rusanov, K.V.; Tyurina, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of the experimental study of heat transfer and crisis at nitrogen boiling in a flat gap between the horizontal heating surface and perforated plate. The gap width is 1.0 to 5.6 mm, diameter of holes is 1.0 to 2.0 mm, their spacing being 3.0 to 12.0 mm. The geometrical parameters dependence of the heat transfer coefficient and crisis characteristics is invesigated, the experimental data are compared with the results reported by other authors and calculations by some well-known formulas. 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber...

  7. Effect of Six Missile-Bay Baffle Configurations and a Rocket End Plate on Ejection Releases of an MB-1 Rocket from a 0.05 Scale Model of the Convair F-106A Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, William F.; Lee, John B.

    1959-01-01

    As a continuation of an investigation of the release characteristics of an MB-1 rocket carried internally by the Convair F-106A airplane, six missile-bay baffle configurations and a rocket end plate have been investigated in the 27- by 27-inch preflight jet of the NASA Wallops Station. The MB-1 rocket used had retractable fins and was ejected from a missile bay modified by the addition of six different baffle configurations. For some tests a rocket end plate was added to the model. Dynamically scaled models (0.04956 scale) were tested at a simulated altitude of 22,450 feet and Mach numbers of 0.86, 1.59, and 1.98, and at a simulated altitude of 29,450 feet and a Mach number of 1.98. The results of this investigation indicate that the missile-bay baffle configurations and the rocket end plate may be used to reduce the positive pitch amplitude of the MB-1 rocket after release. The initial negative pitching velocity applied to the MB-1 rocket might then be reduced in order to maintain a near-level-flight attitude after release. As the fuselage angle of attack is increased, the negative pitch amplitude of the rocket is decreased.

  8. The coupling of mechanical dynamics and induced currents in plates and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.; Bialek, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    Significant mechanical reactions and deflections may be produced when electrical eddy currents induced in a conducting structure by transformer-like electromotive forces interact with background magnetic fields. Additional eddy currents induced by structural motion through the background fields modify both the mechanical and electrical dynamic behavior of the system. The observed effects of these motional eddy currents are sometimes referred to as magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness. This paper addresses the coupled structural deformation and eddy currents in flat plates and simple two-dimensional surfaces in three-space. A coupled system of equations has been formulated using finite element techniques for the mechanical aspects and a mesh network method for the electrical aspects of the problem

  9. Effect of two storage solutions on surface topography of two root-end fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Parirokh, Masoud; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2009-12-01

    The effect of different storage solutions on surface topography of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and new experimental cement (NEC) as root-end fillings was investigated. Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were cleaned, shaped and obturated in a same manner. After root-end resection, 3-mm deep root-end cavities were ultrasonically prepared. Samples were randomly divided into four test groups (A1-A2-B1-B2, n = 6). Root-end cavities in groups A and B were filled with MTA and NEC, respectively, and were then stored in 100% humidity for 24 h. The samples of groups 1 and 2 were, respectively, immersed in normal saline (NS) and phosphate buffer saline solutions for 1 week. The samples were imaged under stereomicroscope before and after immersion and were then investigated and analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). Results showed significant difference among studied groups. Surface topography of all samples was altered by crystal formation and precipitation on root-end fillings except for group A1 (MTA-NS). SEM and EDXA results showed that the composition and structure of precipitated crystals were comparable with that of standard hydroxyapatite. It was concluded that biocompatibility, sealing ability, and cementogenic activity of MTA and probably NEC may be attributed to this fundamental bioactive reaction.

  10. Transitional and turbulent flat-plate boundary layers with heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz

    2010-11-01

    We report on our direct numerical simulation of two incompressible, nominally zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers from momentum thickness Reynolds number 80 to 1950. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature solid surface and the free-stream is also simulated with molecular Prandtl number=1. Throughout the entire flat-plate, the ratio of Stanton number and skin-friction St/Cfdeviates from the exact Reynolds analogy value of 0.5 by less than 1.5%. Turbulent Prandtl number t peaks at the wall. Preponderance of hairpin vortices is observed in both the transitional and turbulent regions of the boundary layers. In particular, the internal structure of merged turbulent spots is hairpin forest; the internal structure of infant turbulent spots is hairpin packet. Numerous hairpin vortices are readily detected in both the near-wall and outer regions of the boundary layers up to momentum thickness Reynolds number 1950. This suggests that the hairpin vortices in the turbulent region are not simply the aged hairpin forests convected from the upstream transitional region. Temperature iso-surfaces in the companion thermal boundary layers are found to be a useful tracer in identifying hairpin vortex structures.

  11. Developing Open-Ended Questions for Surface Area and Volume of Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Henry; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to show open-ended questions about surface area and beam volume which valid and practice, have potential effect. This research is research development which consists of two main phases: preliminary phase (preparation phase and problem design) and formative evaluation phase (evaluation and revision phases). The…

  12. Effect of surface treatment on the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as a bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Meijun; Zhang, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    The bipolar plate is an important component of the PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) because it supplies the pathway of electron flow between each unit cell. Fe–Ni–Cr alloy is considered as a good candidate material for bipolar plate, but it is limited to use as a bipolar plate due to its high ICR (interfacial contact resistance) and corrosion problem. In order to explore a cost-effective method on surface modification, various chemical and electrochemical treatments are performed on Fe–Ni–Cr alloy to acquire the effect of the surface modification on the ICR and corrosion behavior. The ICR and corrosion resistance of Fe–Ni–Cr alloy can be effectively controlled by the chemical treatment of immersion in the mixed acid solution with 10 vol% HNO 3 , 2 vol% HCl and 1 vol% HF for 10 min at 65 °C and then was placed in 30 vol% HNO 3 solution for 5 min. The chemical treatment is more effective on reducing ICR and improving corrosion resistance than that of electrochemical methods (be carried out in the 2 mol/L H 2 SO 4 solution with the electrical potential from −0.4 V to 0.6 V) for Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as a bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. - Highlights: • The procedure of the surface treatments on Fe–Ni–Cr alloy as bipolar plate was described in detail. • Effects of various surface treatments on the interfacial contact resistivity and corrosion behavior were discussed. • The mechanism of the surface modification was particularly analyzed

  13. Evaluation of Bone Atrophy After Treatment of Forearm Fracture Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis: A Comparative Study of Locking Plates and Conventional Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takane; Thoreson, Andrew Ryan; An, Kai-Nan; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki

    2017-08-01

    Forearm diaphysis fractures are usually managed by open reduction internal fixation. Recently, locking plates have been used for treatment. In the long-term period after surgery, some patients present with bone atrophy adjacent to the plate. However, a comparison of locking and conventional plates as a cause of atrophy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term bone atrophy associated with use of locking and conventional plates for forearm fracture treatment. In this study we included 15 patients with forearm fracture managed by either locking or conventional plates and with more than 5 years of follow-up. Computed tomographic imaging of both forearms was performed to assess bone thickness and local bone mineral density and to predict bone strength without plate reinforcement based on finite element analysis. Mean patient age at surgery was 48.0 years. Eight patients underwent reduction with fixed locking plates and were followed up for a mean of 79.5 months; the remaining 7 patients were treated with conventional plates and were followed up for a mean of 105.0 months. Compared with the conventional plate group, the locking plate group had the same fractured limb-contralateral limb ratio of cortex bone thickness, but had significantly lower ratios of mineral density adjacent to the plate and adjusted bone strength. This study demonstrated bone atrophy after locking plate fixation for forearm fractures. Treatment plans for forearm fracture should take into consideration the impact of bone atrophy long after plate fixation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An imaging method of wavefront coding system based on phase plate rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Rigui; Chen, Xi; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    Wave-front coding has a great prospect in extending the depth of the optical imaging system and reducing optical aberrations, but the image quality and noise performance are inevitably reduced. According to the theoretical analysis of the wave-front coding system and the phase function expression of the cubic phase plate, this paper analyzed and utilized the feature that the phase function expression would be invariant in the new coordinate system when the phase plate rotates at different angles around the z-axis, and we proposed a method based on the rotation of the phase plate and image fusion. First, let the phase plate rotated at a certain angle around the z-axis, the shape and distribution of the PSF obtained on the image surface remain unchanged, the rotation angle and direction are consistent with the rotation angle of the phase plate. Then, the middle blurred image is filtered by the point spread function of the rotation adjustment. Finally, the reconstruction images were fused by the method of the Laplacian pyramid image fusion and the Fourier transform spectrum fusion method, and the results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. In this paper, we used Matlab to simulate the images. By using the Laplacian pyramid image fusion method, the signal-to-noise ratio of the image is increased by 19% 27%, the clarity is increased by 11% 15% , and the average gradient is increased by 4% 9% . By using the Fourier transform spectrum fusion method, the signal-to-noise ratio of the image is increased by 14% 23%, the clarity is increased by 6% 11% , and the average gradient is improved by 2% 6%. The experimental results show that the image processing by the above method can improve the quality of the restored image, improving the image clarity, and can effectively preserve the image information.

  15. Effect of the linseed oil surface treatment on the performance of resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Braj, A.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1997-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of several bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) without the linseed oil treatment of the internal electrodes will be presented. Efficiency, collected charge and cluster size distributions will be compared to the ones of a standard oiled RPC. Currents and single rate are the quantities most affected by the surface treatment of the electrodes beyond the optical/mechanical properties. A factor 4 less in currents and at least a factor 10 less in single rate is achieved using standard oiled RPCs operated in streamer mode. (orig.)

  16. Principal Component Surface (2011) for St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....

  17. Bending and splitting of spoof surface acoustic waves through structured rigid surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujun Xie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrated that a 90°-bended imaging of spoof surface acoustic waves with subwavelength resolution of 0.316λ can be realized by a 45° prism-shaped surface phononic crystal (SPC, which is composed of borehole arrays with square lattice in a rigid plate. Furthermore, by combining two identical prism-shaped phononic crystal to form an interface (to form a line-defect, the excited spoof surface acoustic waves can be split into bended and transmitted parts. The power ratio between the bended and transmitted surface waves can be tuned arbitrarily by adjusting the defect size. This acoustic system is believed to have potential applications in various multifunctional acoustic solutions integrated by different acoustical devices.

  18. Redesigned front end for the upgrade at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headrick, R.L.; Smolenski, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    We will report on beamline front-end upgrades for the 24-pole wiggler beamlines at CHESS. A new design for primary x-ray beamstops based on a tapered, water-cooled copper block has been implemented and installed in the CHESS F beamline. The design uses a horizontally tapered open-quote open-quote V close-quote close-quote shape to reduce the power density on the internal surfaces and internal water channels in the block to provide efficient water cooling. Upstream of the beam stops, we have installed a new photoelectron style beam position monitor with separate monitoring of the wiggler and dipole vertical beam positions and with micron-level sensitivity. The monitor close-quote s internal surfaces are designed to absorb the full x-ray power in case of beam missteering, and the uncooled photoelectron collecting plates are not visible to the x-ray beam. A graphite prefilter has been installed to protect the beryllium windows that separate the front end from the x-ray optics downstream. The redesigned front end is required by the upgrade of the Cornell storage ring, now in progress, which will allow stored electron and positron currents of 300 mA by 1996, and 500 mA by 1998. At 500 mA, the wiggler power output will be over 32 kW. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Irradiation of full size UMo plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacelet, H.; Lavastre, Y.; Grasse, M.; Sacristan, P.; Languille, A.

    1999-01-01

    An important development program for a UMo MTR fuel has been launched in France. The goal of the French working group is to develop a high performing and reprocessable fuel before the end of the US return policy. This paper is focussed on the fabrication of full-sized UMo plates with LEU (Low Enriched Enrichment) and their irradiation in OSIRIS reactor which was started on the 22nd of September. The results of the plates inspection are presented here as well as the irradiation conditions. (author)

  20. 129I/127I ratios in surface waters of the English Lake District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atarashi-Andoh, M.; Schnabel, C.; Cook, G.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Dougans, A.; Ellam, R.M.; Freeman, S.; Maden, C.; Olive, V.; Synal, H.-A.; Xu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to measure 129 I/ 127 I ratios in surface sea, lake, and river water samples collected in 2004 and 2005 from the English Lake District and from SW Scotland, areas which are in relatively close proximity to the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in NW England. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios in surface water collected from the shore of the Irish Sea were in the range 2.8 x 10 -6 to 8.2 x 10 -6 . These ratios are one order of magnitude higher than that of seawater collected from the Irish Sea in 1992, correlating with the increase in 129 I content of the Sellafield liquid effluent discharge over the last decade. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios in lakes in the Lake District were in the range 0.7 x 10 -6 to 6.4 x 10 -6 and decreased exponentially as a function of distance from Sellafield. Consideration of the relative variation of stable I concentrations and 129 I/ 127 I ratios suggests that Sellafield gaseous discharges may be the dominant source of 129 I to the lakes

  1. Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump with Limited Set of Plate Heat Exchanger Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one stream is heated in a THP. The length/width ratio of the plate heat exchangers on the high pressure side of a SCHP was investigated to find the optimal plate dimensions with respect to minimum area of the heat exchangers. The total heat exchanger...... area was found to decrease with an increasing length/width ratio of the plates. The marginal change in heat exchanger area was shown to be less significant for heat exchangers with high length/width ratios. In practice only a limited number of plate dimensions are available and feasible...... in the production. This was investigated to find the practical potential of a SCHP compared to a THP. Using plates optimized for a SCHP in a THP, the total required heat exchanger area increased by approximately 100% for the conditions investigated in this study, indicating that available plate dimensions influence...

  2. Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...

  3. Air bubble-induced detachment of polystyrene particles with different sizes from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Particle size was found to be an important factor in air bubble-induced detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber and generally polystyrene particles with a diameter of 806 nm detached less than particles with a diameter of 1400 nm. Particle

  4. Seismic potential of weak, near-surface faults revealed at plate tectonic slip rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikari, Matt J; Kopf, Achim J

    2017-11-01

    The near-surface areas of major faults commonly contain weak, phyllosilicate minerals, which, based on laboratory friction measurements, are assumed to creep stably. However, it is now known that shallow faults can experience tens of meters of earthquake slip and also host slow and transient slip events. Laboratory experiments are generally performed at least two orders of magnitude faster than plate tectonic speeds, which are the natural driving conditions for major faults; the absence of experimental data for natural driving rates represents a critical knowledge gap. We use laboratory friction experiments on natural fault zone samples at driving rates of centimeters per year to demonstrate that there is abundant evidence of unstable slip behavior that was not previously predicted. Specifically, weak clay-rich fault samples generate slow slip events (SSEs) and have frictional properties favorable for earthquake rupture. Our work explains growing field observations of shallow SSE and surface-breaking earthquake slip, and predicts that such phenomena should be more widely expected.

  5. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad.

  6. An optimal approach to active damping of nonlinear vibrations in composite plates using piezoelectric patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviz, M R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a nonlinear approach to studying the vibration characteristic of laminated composite plate with surface-bonded piezoelectric layer/patch is formulated, based on the Green Lagrange type of strain–displacements relations, by incorporating higher-order terms arising from nonlinear relations of kinematics into mathematical formulations. The equations of motion are obtained through the energy method, based on Lagrange equations and by using higher-order shear deformation theories with von Karman–type nonlinearities, so that transverse shear strains vanish at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. An isoparametric finite element model is provided to model the nonlinear dynamics of the smart plate with piezoelectric layer/ patch. Different boundary conditions are investigated. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches are found using a genetic algorithm to maximize spatial controllability/observability and considering the effect of residual modes to reduce spillover effect. Active attenuation of vibration of laminated composite plate is achieved through an optimal control law with inequality constraint, which is related to the maximum and minimum values of allowable voltage in the piezoelectric elements. To keep the voltages of actuator pairs in an allowable limit, the Pontryagin’s minimum principle is implemented in a system with multi-inequality constraint of control inputs. The results are compared with similar ones, proving the accuracy of the model especially for the structures undergoing large deformations. The convergence is studied and nonlinear frequencies are obtained for different thickness ratios. The structural coupling between plate and piezoelectric actuators is analyzed. Some examples with new features are presented, indicating that the piezo-patches significantly improve the damping characteristics of the plate for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations. (paper)

  7. Mechanical design and analysis of focal plate for gravity deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang

    2014-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. To conduct accurate deformation measurement for focal plate in different status, a 6-DOF hexapod platform was used for attitude adjustment. For the small adjustment range of a classic 6-DOF hexapod platform, an improved structural arrangement method was proposed in the paper to achieve ultimate adjustment of the focal plate in horizontal and vertical direction. To validate the feasibility of this method, an angle change model which used ball hinge was set up for the movement and base plate. Simulation results in MATLAB suggested that the ball hinge angle change of movement and base plate is within the range of the limiting angle in the process of the platform plate adjusting to ultimate attitude. The proposed method has some guiding significance for accurate surface measurement of focal plate.

  8. The Experiment Production And Examination Of The U3Si2-AI Mini plates For Irradiation Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Boybul; Yowono; Susworo; Permana, S.

    1998-01-01

    The fuel plates containing U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion fuel having respective loading of 3.55; 4.20; and 4.80 g/cm 3 were prepared by dispersing certain amount of U 3 Si 2 powder in the AI powder as matrix. The weight ratio of U 3 Si 2 and AI at different loading was chosen based on the 19.23 cm 3 volume basis fuel core calculation. Each fuel mixture was pressed into a fuel core having dimension of 100.20 x 60.35 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm, which was then cut into mini fuel core having dimension of 16 x 8 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm. The mini plates were prepared by picture and frame technique using AIMg2 as cladding material. The mini plates have been tested for blister, homogeneity, white spots, surface defects and their cladding thickness, revealing that out of 74 mini plates, they are ten (10) mini plates that have to be rejected due to blisters and white spots, thus of 64 mini plates can be further fabricated as samples for irradiation test

  9. Coating a polystyrene well-plate surface with synthetic hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide for cell mineral adhesion studies in a controlled environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouran, Hamid M.; Banwart, Steve A.; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide were synthesized and characterize. • Polystyrene cell culture well plates were coated with the synthetic metal oxides. • The coated well plates proven to be completely identical to the synthetic minerals. • The coating method is compatible with what occurs in aquifers with metal oxides. • This method provides a key experimental part for cell mineral adhesion studies. - Abstract: Iron and aluminium oxides are available in many climatic regions and play a vital role in many environmental processes, including the interactions of microorganisms in contaminated soils and groundwater with their ambient environment. Indigenous microorganisms in contaminated environments often have the ability to degrade or transform those contaminants, a concept that supports an in situ remediation approach and uses natural microbial populations in order to bio-remediate polluted sites. These metal oxides have a relatively high pH-dependent surface charge, which makes them good candidates for studying mineral–bacterial adhesion. Given the importance of understanding the reactions that occur at metal oxide and bacterial cell interfaces and to investigate this phenomenon further under well-characterized conditions, some of the most common iron and aluminium oxides; hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide, were synthesized and characterized and a coating method was developed to coat polystyrene well-plates as a surface exposable to bacterial adhesion with these minerals (non-treated polystyrene-12 well-plates which are used for cell cultures). The coating process was designed in a way that resembles naturally coated surfaces in aquifers. Hematite, Fe 2 O 3 , was synthesized from acidic FeCl 3 solution, while goethite, FeOOH, and aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH) 3 , were prepared from an alkaline solution of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 . They were further characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared

  10. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.

    2011-01-01

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ∼10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  11. Air bubble-induced detachment of positively and negatively charged polystyrene particles from collector surfaces in a parallel-plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles and collector surfaces were found tcr be important in particle detachment as induced by the passage of air bubbles in a parallel-plate Row chamber. Electrostatic interactions between adhering particles and passing air bubbles, however, a-ere

  12. Development of Intermediate Cooling Technology and Its Control for Two-Stand Plate Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a plate rolling production line, thermomechanically controlled processing is critical for plate quality. In this paper, a set of intermediate cooling equipment of a two-stand plate mill with super density nozzles, medium pressure, and small flow is developed. Based on a simplified dynamic model, a cooling control scheme with combined feedforward, feedback, and adaptive algorithms is put forward. The new controlled rolling process and the highly efficient control system improve the controlled rolling efficiency by an average of 17.66%. The proposed intermediate cooling system can also effectively inhibit the growth of austenite grain, improve the impact toughness and yield strength of Q345B steel plate, reduce the formation of secondary oxide scale on the plate surface and the chromatic aberration of the plate surface, and greatly improve the surface quality of the steel plate.

  13. Fission gas behaviour modelling in plate fuel during a power transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portier, S.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the identification and modelization of the phenomena which are at the origin of the release of the fission gas formed in UO 2 plate fuels during the irradiation in a power transient. In the first experimental part, samples of plate fuels, irradiated at 36 GWj/tU, have been annealed to temperatures from 1100 C to 1500 C in a device that enabled the measurement of gas release in real time. At 1300 C, post-annealing observations demonstrated a link between the measured gas releases to a rapid formation of labyrinths at the grain surface. These labyrinths, which were formed by intergranular bubble interconnection, create release paths for the gas atoms which reach the grain surface. At this stage, the available experimental results (annealing and observations) were interpreted considering that it is the spreading of the gas atoms from the grains to the grain boundaries that is at the origin of the observed releases. This interpretation generates the hypothesis that a) at the end of the basic irradiation, the gas is at the atomic state and b) during the annealing, the spreading is reduced by the intragranular bubbles of the gas atoms. The last part of the work is dedicated to the modelization of the main phenomena at the origin of the gas release. The model developed, based on the model of the gas behaviour in MARGARET PWR, highlighted the great influence of the irradiation conditions on the gas distribution at the end of the irradiation and also its influence on the fission gas release during the power transient. (author) [fr

  14. Effects of reflector and crystal surface on the performance of a depth-encoding PET detector with dual-ended readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Silin; Yang, Yongfeng; Cherry, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Depth encoding detectors are required to improve the spatial resolution and spatial resolution uniformity of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, as well as dedicated breast and brain scanners. Depth of interaction (DOI) can be measured by using dual-ended readout of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes. Inter-crystal reflectors and crystal surface treatments play important roles in determining the performance of dual-ended detectors. In this paper, the authors evaluated five LSO arrays made with three different intercrystal reflectors and with either polished or unpolished crystal surfaces. Methods: The crystal size in all arrays was 1.5 mm, which is typical of the detector size used in small animal and dedicated breast scanners. The LSO arrays were measured with dual-ended readout and were compared in terms of flood histogram, energy resolution, and DOI resolution performance. Results: The four arrays using enhanced specular reflector (ESR) and Toray reflector provided similar quality flood histograms and the array using Crystal Wrap reflector gave the worst flood histogram. The two arrays using ESR reflector provided the best energy resolution and the array using Crystal Wrap reflector yielded the worst energy resolution. All arrays except the polished ESR array provided good DOI resolution ranging from 1.9 mm to 2.9 mm. DOI resolution improved as the gradient in light collection efficiency with depth (GLCED) increased. The geometric mean energies were also calculated for these dual-ended readout detectors as an alternative to the conventional summed total energy. It was shown that the geometric mean energy is advantageous in that it provides more uniform photopeak amplitude at different depths for arrays with high GLCED, and is beneficial in event selection by allowing a fixed energy window independent of depth. A new method of DOI calculation that improved the linearity

  15. Plate Tectonics as a Far-From-Equilibrium Self-Organized Dissipative System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    A fluid above the critical Rayleigh number is far from equilibrium and spontaneously organizes itself into patterns involving the collective motion of large numbers of molecules which are resisted by the viscosity of the fluid. No external template is involved in forming the pattern. In 1928 Pearson showed that Bénard's experiments were driven by variations in surface tension at the top of the fluid and the surface motions drove convection in the fluid. In this case, the surface organized itself AND the underlying fluid. Both internal buoyancy driven flow and flow driven by surface forces can be far-from-equilibrium self-organized open systems that receive energy and matter from the environment. In the Earth, the cold thermal boundary layer at the surface drives plate tectonics and introduces temperature, shear and pressure gradients into the mantle that drive mantle convection. The mantle provides energy and material but may not provide the template. Plate tectonics is therefore a candidate for a far-from-equilibrium dissipative self-organizing system. Alternatively, one could view mantle convection as the self-organized system and the plates as simply the surface manifestation. Lithospheric architecture also imposes lateral temperature gradients onto the mantle which can drive and organize flow. Far-from-equilibrium self-organization requires; an open system, interacting parts, nonlinearities or feedbacks, an outside steady source of energy or matter, multiple possible states and a source of dissipation. In uniform fluids viscosity is the source of dissipation. Sources of dissipation in the plate system include bending, breaking, folding, shearing, tearing, collision and basal drag. These can change rapidly, in contrast to plate driving forces, and introduce the sort of fluctuations that can reorganize far-from-equilibrium systems. Global plate reorganizations can alternatively be thought of as convective overturns of the mantle, or thermal weakening of plates

  16. NINO An ultra-fast and low-power front-end amplifier/discriminator ASIC designed for the multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, F; Martemyanov, A N; Usenko, E; Wenninger, Horst; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    2004-01-01

    For the full exploitation of the excellent timing properties of the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC), front-end electronics with special characteristics are needed. These are (a) differential input, to profit from the differential signal from the MRPC (b) a fast amplifier with less than 1 ns peaking time and (c) input charge measurement by Time-Over-Threshold for slewing correction. An 8- channel amplifier and discriminator chip has been developed to match these requirements. This is the NINO ASIC, fabricated with 0.25 omegam CMOS technology. The power requirement at 40mW/channel is low. Results on the performance of the MRPCs using the NINO ASIC are presented. Typical time resolution a of the MRPC system is in the 50 ps range, with an efficiency of 99.9%.

  17. Effects of surface roughness, MHD and couple stress on squeeze film characteristics between curved circular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumagowda, B. N.; Salma, A.; Nagarajappa, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical discussion is carried out for understanding the combined study of MHD, rough surface and couple-stress in the presence of applied magnetic field between two curved circular plates is present analysis. Modified Reynolds Equations accounting for rough surface using stochastic model of Christensen are mathematically formulated. The close form derivations for pressure, load-supporting capacity and response-film time are obtained. Our results shows that, there is an significant increase (decrease) for pressure, load-supporting capacity and squeeze film time due to the effect of azimuthal (radial) roughness parameter when compared to the Hanumagowda.et.al [14] and numerical data of load supporting capacity and response time are given in Table for engineering applications.

  18. The effect of bulk/surface defects ratio change on the photocatalysis of TiO_2 nanosheet film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fangfang; Ge, Wenna; Shen, Tong; Ye, Bangjiao; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The defect behaviors of TiO_2 nanosheet array films were studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. • Different bulk/surface defect ratios were realized by annealing at different temperature. • It was concluded that bulk defects are mainly Ti"3"+ vacancy defects. • The separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes could be significantly improved by optimizing the bulk/surface defects ratio. - Abstract: The photocatalysis behavior of TiO_2 nanosheet array films was studied, in which the ratio of bulk/surface defects were adjusted by annealing at different temperature. Combining positron annihilation spectroscopy, EPR and XPS, we concluded that the bulk defects belonged to Ti"3"+ related vacancy defects. The results show that the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes could be significantly improved by optimizing the bulk/surface defects ratio of TiO_2 nanosheet films, and in turn enhancing the photocatalysis behaviors.

  19. Electroless plating technology of integral hohlraum Cu target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiguang; Fu Qu; Wan Xiaobo; Zhou Lan; Xiao Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The electroless plating method of making integral hohlraum Cu target and corrosion-resistant technology of target's surface were researched. The actual process was as follows, choosing plexiglass (PMMA) as arbor, taking cationic activation and electroless plating Cu on the arbor surface, taking arbor surface passivation and chemical etching by C 6 H 5 N 3 solution. The technology is easy to realize and its cost is lower, so it is of great reference value for fabricating other integral hohlraum metal or alloy targets used for inertial confinement fusion study. (author)

  20. Formation of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgen Volodymyrovych PYLYPCHUK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA has long been used as a coating material in the implant industry for orthopedic implant applications. HA is the natural inorganic constituent of bone and teeth. By coating titanium (base material of implant engineering because of its lightness and durability with hydroxyapatite, we can provide higher biocompatibility of titanium implants, according to HA ability to form a direct biochemical bond with living tissues. This article reports a biomimetic approach for coating hydroxyapatite with titanium A method of modifying the surface of titanium by organic modifiers (for creating functional groups on the surface, followed by formation "self-assembled" layer of biomimetic hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF. FTIR and XPS confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surface. Comparative study of the formation of HA on the surface of titanium plates modified by different functional groups: Ti(≡OH, Ti/(≡Si-OH and Ti/(≡COOH is conducted. It was found that the closest to natural stoichiometric hydroxyapatite Ca/P ratio was obtained on Ti/(≡COOH samples. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4974

  1. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  2. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun

    2013-01-01

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on

  3. Investigation of the effect of cutting speed on the Surface Roughness parameters in CNC End Milling using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hazza, Muataz H F; Adesta, Erry Y T

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness in the end milling process by using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). An experimental investigation was conducted to measure the surface roughness for end milling. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted. The artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to simulate and study the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness

  4. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2018-03-27

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  5. Splitting in Dual-Phase 590 high strength steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Chao, Yuh J.; Li Xiaodong; Tan Jinzhu

    2008-01-01

    Charpy V-notch impact tests on 5.5 mm thick, hot-rolled Dual-Phase 590 (DP590) steel plate were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 90 deg. C to -120 deg. C. Similar tests on 2.0 mm thick DP590 HDGI steel plate were also conducted at room temperature. Splitting or secondary cracks was observed on the fractured surfaces. The mechanisms of the splitting were then investigated. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of the steel plates was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro Vickers hardness of the steel plates was also surveyed. Results show that splitting occurred on the main fractured surfaces of hot-rolled steel specimens at various testing temperatures. At temperatures above the ductile-brittle-transition-temperature (DBTT), -95 deg. C, where the fracture is predominantly ductile, the length and amount of splitting decreased with increasing temperature. At temperatures lower than the DBTT, where the fracture is predominantly brittle, both the length and width of the splitting are insignificant. Splitting in HDGI steel plates only appeared in specimens of T-L direction. The analysis revealed that splitting in hot-rolled plate is caused by silicate and carbide inclusions while splitting in HDGI plate results from strip microstructure due to its high content of manganese and low content of silicon. The micro Vickers hardness of either the inclusions or the strip microstructures is higher than that of the respective base steel

  6. Effect of machining parameters on surface finish of Inconel 718 in end milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Bapi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important criteria in machining process and selection of proper machining parameters is important to obtain good surface finish. In the present work effects of the machining parameters in end milling of Inconel 718 were investigated. Central composite design was used to design the total number of experiments. A Mathematical model for surface roughness has been developed using response surface methodology. In this study, the influence of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness was analyzed. The study includes individual effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness as well as their interaction. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find the validity of the developed model. The results show that depth of cut mostly affected the surface roughness. It is also observed that surface roughness values are comparable in both dry and wet machining conditions.

  7. Choice of crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Peng; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Yao, Rutao

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to choose the crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout (DER) DOI detector. Through Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies, we evaluated 4 crystal surface finishing options as combinations of crystal surface polishing (diffuse or specular) and reflector (diffuse or specular) options on a DER detector. We also tested one linear and one logarithm DOI calculation algorithm. The figures of merit used were DOI resolution, DOI positioning error, and energy resolution. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) choosing a diffuse type in either surface polishing or reflector would improve DOI resolution but degrade energy resolution; (2) crystal surface finishing with a diffuse polishing combined with a specular reflector appears a favorable candidate with a good balance of DOI and energy resolution; and (3) the linear and logarithm DOI calculation algorithms show overall comparable DOI error, and the linear algorithm was better for photon interactions near the ends of the crystal while the logarithm algorithm was better near the center. These results provide useful guidance in DER DOI detector design in choosing the crystal surface finishing and DOI calculation methods. (paper)

  8. A study for the improvement of top end piece structure strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1989-01-01

    As a part of the top end piece(TEP) for the 14 X 14 reload fuel, various models of top end piece structure were analysed, using the ANSYS code, under fuel assembly shipping and handling load conditions. The 3-dimensional isoparametric elements were used in each model. By rearrangement of slots and holes on the adapter plate, without violating the design requirements, and also by changing the enclosure attachment method used on the adapter plate from pin joints to through-weld, the load carrying capacity of the adapter plate was greatly strengthened. These concepts were adopted for the design of the 14 X 14 reload fuel. (Author)

  9. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  10. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Optimal Design, Reliability And Sensitivity Analysis Of Foundation Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrdá Katarína

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimal design of thickness of a plate rested on Winkler’s foundation. First order method was used for the optimization, while maintaining different restrictive conditions. The aim is to obtain a minimum volume of the foundation plate. At the end some probabilistic and safety analysis of the deflection of the foundation using LHS Monte Carlo method are presented.

  12. MTR fuel plate qualification capabilities at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Jacquet, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of BR2 in the field of MTR fuel plate testing, a dedicated irradiation device has been designed. In its basic version this device allows the irradiation of 3 fuel plates. The central fuel plate may be replaced by a dummy plate or a plate carrying dosimeters. A first FUTURE device has been built. A benchmark irradiation has been executed with standard BR2 fuel plates in order to qualify this device. Detailed neutronic calculations were performed and the results compared to the results of the post-irradiation examinations of the plates. These comparisons demonstrate the capability to conduct a fuel plate irradiation program under requested and well-known irradiation conditions. Further improvements are presently being designed in order to extend the ranges of heat flux and surface temperature of the fuel plates that can be handled with the FUTURE device. (author)

  13. Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the dynamic response of the carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded sandwich composite plate has been studied numerically with the help of finite element method. The face sheets of the sandwich composite plate are made of carbon nanotube- reinforced composite for two different grading patterns whereas the core phase is taken as isotropic material. The final properties of the structure are calculated using the rule of mixture. The geometrical model of the sandwich plate is developed and discretized suitably with the help of available shell element in ANSYS library. Subsequently, the corresponding numerical dynamic responses computed via batch input technique (parametric design language code in ANSYS) of ANSYS including Newmark’s integration scheme. The stability of the sandwich structural numerical model is established through the proper convergence study. Further, the reliability of the sandwich model is checked by comparison study between present and available results from references. As a final point, some numerical problems have been solved to examine the effect of different design constraints (carbon nanotube distribution pattern, core to face thickness ratio, volume fractions of the nanotube, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and constraints at edges) on the time-responses of sandwich plate.

  14. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  15. Electromagnetic on-aircraft antenna radiation in the presence of composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S. H-T.; Rojas, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The UTD-based NEWAIR3 code is modified such that it can model modern aircraft by composite plates. One good model of conductor-backed composites is the impedance boundary condition where the composites are replaced by surfaces with complex impedances. This impedance-plate model is then used to model the composite plates in the NEWAIR3 code. In most applications, the aircraft distorts the desired radiation pattern of the antenna. However, test examples conducted in this report have shown that the undesired scattered fields are minimized if the right impedance values are chosen for the surface impedance plates.

  16. An analytical erosion model for divertor plates and limiter experiments in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, A.; Noda, N.; Akiyama, R.; Arimoto, H.; Idei, H.; Iguchi, H.; Kaneko, O.; Kohmoto, T.; Kubo, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Morita, S.; Motojima, O.; Nishimura, K.; Okamura, S.; Takahasi, C.; Takita, Y.; Yamada, I.; Matsunami, N.; Rice, J.; Yamada, H.; Shoji, T.; Ueda, M.

    1992-01-01

    A self-consistent analytical solution for net erosion of a divertor plate which is set perpendicular to magnetic field lines is presented. The primary flux profile of hydrogen and impurities except redepositing particles is externally given as well as the return ratio of sputtered atoms to the plate. In the direction along the divertor trace, all conditions are uniform. The ionization mean free path is assumed constant to simplify equations. The analytical solution is compared with net erosion experiments carried out in compact helical system (CHS) by exposing a graphite target to a neutral beam heated plasma column introduced perpendicularly to the target along the magnetic field lines through a 2 cm slit opend on a graphite limiter. After exposure to 98 discharges, the target surface is analyzed with Rutherford backscattering method. Deposition profiles of Ti and O impurities are very well explained with the analytical predictions. (orig.)

  17. BEPLATE emdash simulation of electrochemical plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, G.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); Gray, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bullock, J.S. IV (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    BEPLATE is a FORTRAN code that uses the boundary element method to simulate the electrochemical plating of material on parts, primarily rotating axisymmetric parts. A boundary element technique is used to solve for the local current density and thus the plating rate on the part, which is used to calculate the growth in the plated layer over a user-specified time step. The surface is moved to reflect this growth, and the new surface is used to generate the local current density. This cycle is repeated until the final time specified by the analyst, producing the final plated thickness. BEPLATE includes models for the polarization effects at both the part (cathode) and anode and allows the use of symmetry planes and nonconducting shields. For electroplating simulations, the part shape is normally assumed to be axisymmetric with a centerline along the z-axis. More general part shapes can be analyzed by BEPLATE if the surface growth simulation is not needed. In either case, the shield, anode, and tank geometries are not restricted to specific shapes. This report includes the information required to run BEPLATE, specifically, a brief description of the BEPLATE system including hardware and software requirements, a description of the complete simulation process, discussion of rules for generating models, and additional reference material. This system of codes consists of model generators (PIGS or PATRAN), input processor (BEPIN), the simulation code (BEPLATE) and postprocessing codes (PATRAN or CONPLOT).

  18. Surface active properties of lipid nanocapsules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia R A Mouzouvi

    Full Text Available Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs are biomimetic nanocarriers used for the encapsulation of a broad variety of active ingredients. Similar to surface active compounds, LNCs contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in their structure. Moreover, the components of LNCs, macrogol 15 hydroxystearate (MHS and lecithin, are known for their surface active properties. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the capability of the LNCs to decrease surface tension using two techniques: drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs with diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm were successfully obtained using a phase inversion technique. The LNCs' properties, such as size and zeta potential, depend on the composition. LNCs exhibit a lower limiting surface tension compared to MHS (34.8-35.0 mN/m and 37.7-38.8 mN/m, respectively, as confirmed by both drop tensiometry and the Wilhelmy plate method. LNCs have exhibited a saturated interfacial concentration (SIC that was 10-fold higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC of MHS or the SIC of binary and ternary mixtures of LNC ingredients. The SIC of the LNC formulations depended on the mass mixing ratio of the MHS/triglycerides but not on the presence of lecithin. The CMC/SIC values measured by the Wilhelmy plate method were higher than those obtained using drop tensiometry because of the longer duration of the tensiometry measurement. In conclusion, the surfactant-like properties of the LNCs offer new possibilities for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Fundamental study on metal plating removal using pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaka, Kiminobu; Gnapowski, Sebastian; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the metal removal from metal-plated substrate using pulsed power technology is proposed. A metal-plated substrate with three metal-layers structure (Cu, Ni and Au) is used as the sample substrate. Repetitive pulsed arc discharge plasma is generated between a rod electrode and the surface of substrate. Effect of the type of electrode system on metal plating removal was investigated. The removal region is produced by the moving phenomena of the pulsed arc discharge. A part of Au layer, which is the tompost metal surface of the substrate is vaporized and removed by the repetitive pulsed arc discharges. The proposed method can be used for recycle of metal-plated substrate. (author)

  20. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  1. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  2. Polymorphism of terthiophene with surface confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Resel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The origin of unknown polymorphic phases within thin films is still not well understood. This work reports on crystals of the molecule terthiophene which were grown by thermal gradient crystallization using glass-plate substrates. The crystalline domains displayed a plate-like morphology with an extended lateral size of about 100 µm, but a thickness of only a few µm. Specular X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of a new polymorph of terthiophene. Crystal structure solution from a single crystal peeled from the film revealed a structure with an extremely large unit-cell volume containing 42 independent molecules. In contrast to the previously determined crystal structure of terthiophene, a herringbone packing motif was observed where the terminal ends of the molecules are arranged within one plane (i.e. the molecular packing conforms to the flat substrate surface. This type of molecular packing is obtained by 180° flipped molecules combined with partially random (disordered occupation. A densely packed interface between terthiophene crystallites and the substrate surface is obtained, this confirms that the new packing motif has adapted to the flat substrate surface.

  3. Application of flat plate cavitation data to the analysis of limited cavitation from an isolated triangular surface protrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated surface roughness can cause significant localized pressure reductions which can lead to premature cavitation and degradation of the cavitation performance of a marine vehicle. The characteristic velocity theory was developed to analyze the limited cavitation characteristics of isolated surface protrusions. This theory is dependent upon knowing the boundary layer velocity profile in the vicinity of the roughness and the limited cavitation number for the roughness in a uniform stream. In the investigation described in this paper, the equation for triangular surface protrusions was determined experimentally by testing sharpedged flat plates in a water tunnel. These data were then employed in the characteristic velocity theory to calculate the cavitation characteristics of a triangular protrusion in a turbulent boundary layer for comparison with experimental data

  4. A device for thermally insulating a concrete wall covered with a thermal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornille, Yvon; Felten, Paul.

    1973-01-01

    The device is characterized in that it comprises a stack of bricks of parallelepipedic shape of cellular silica, bound to one another and to a metal plate by means of a silica-mortar layer and of anchoring keys welded to the metal plate, at one end thereof, and embedded in at least two juxtaposed bricks, at the other end thereof. This can be used for unsulating the cavity located under the core of a high temperature reactor [fr

  5. Waveguide module comprising a first plate with a waveguide channel and a second plate with a raised portion in which a sealing layer is forced into the waveguide channel by the raised portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.; Liedtke, Richard; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Halligan, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing a sealing layer of malleable material to seal gaps, etc., at a joint between edges of a waveguide channel formed in a first plate and a surface of a clamping plate. A compression pad is included in the surface of the clamping plate and is dimensioned such that the upper surface of the pad is less than the area of the waveguide channel opening on the first plate. The sealing layer is placed between the waveguide plate and the clamping plate, and during assembly of the waveguide module, the compression pad deforms a portion of the sealing layer such that it ingresses into the waveguide channel opening. Deformation of the sealing layer results in the gaps, etc., to be filled, improving the operational integrity of the joint.

  6. Investigation on filter method for smoothing spiral phase plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanhang; Wen, Shenglin; Luo, Zijian; Tang, Caixue; Yan, Hao; Yang, Chunlin; Liu, Mincai; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Spiral phase plate (SPP) for generating vortex hollow beams has high efficiency in various applications. However, it is difficult to obtain an ideal spiral phase plate because of its continuous-varying helical phase and discontinued phase step. This paper describes the demonstration of continuous spiral phase plate using filter methods. The numerical simulations indicate that different filter method including spatial domain filter, frequency domain filter has unique impact on surface topography of SPP and optical vortex characteristics. The experimental results reveal that the spatial Gaussian filter method for smoothing SPP is suitable for Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) technique and obtains good optical properties.

  7. Value of the regurgitant volume to end diastolic volume ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular dimensions after valve replacement in aortic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); C. Tirtaman; E. Bos (Egbert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the value of regurgitant stroke volume (RSV) to end-diastolic volume (EDV) ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular (LV) dimensions after uncomplicated valve replacement in 34 patients with severe pure aortic insufficiency. The RSV/EDV ratio

  8. Linking plate reconstructions with deforming lithosphere to geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R. D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Seton, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    While global computational models are rapidly advancing in terms of their capabilities, there is an increasing need for assimilating observations into these models and/or ground-truthing model outputs. The open-source and platform independent GPlates software fills this gap. It was originally conceived as a tool to interactively visualize and manipulate classical rigid plate reconstructions and represent them as time-dependent topological networks of editable plate boundaries. The user can export time-dependent plate velocity meshes that can be used either to define initial surface boundary conditions for geodynamic models or alternatively impose plate motions throughout a geodynamic model run. However, tectonic plates are not rigid, and neglecting plate deformation, especially that of the edges of overriding plates, can result in significant misplacing of plate boundaries through time. A new, substantially re-engineered version of GPlates is now being developed that allows an embedding of deforming plates into topological plate boundary networks. We use geophysical and geological data to define the limit between rigid and deforming areas, and the deformation history of non-rigid blocks. The velocity field predicted by these reconstructions can then be used as a time-dependent surface boundary condition in regional or global 3-D geodynamic models, or alternatively as an initial boundary condition for a particular plate configuration at a given time. For time-dependent models with imposed plate motions (e.g. using CitcomS) we incorporate the continental lithosphere by embedding compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere within the thermal lithosphere. We define three isostatic columns of different thickness and buoyancy based on the tectonothermal age of the continents: Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. In the fourth isostatic column, the oceans, the thickness of the thermal lithosphere is assimilated using a half-space cooling model. We also

  9. Numerical modeling of intraplate seismicity with a deformable loading plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, B. D.; Capitanio, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    We use finite element modeling to investigate on the stress loading-unloading cycles and earthquakes occurrence in the plate interiors, resulting from the interactions of tectonic plates along their boundary. We model a visco-elasto-plastic plate embedding a single or multiple faults, while the tectonic stress is applied along the plate boundary by an external loading visco-elastic plate, reproducing the tectonic setting of two interacting lithospheres. Because the two plates deform viscously, the timescale of stress accumulation and release on the faults is self-consistently determined, from the boundary to the interiors, and seismic recurrence is an emerging feature. This approach overcomes the constraints on recurrence period imposed by stress (stress-drop) and velocity boundary conditions, while here it is unconstrained. We illustrate emerging macroscopic characteristics of this system, showing that the seismic recurrence period τ becomes shorter as Γ and Θ decreases, where Γ = ηI/ηL the viscosity ratio of the viscosities of the internal fault-embedded to external loading plates, respectively, and Θ = σY/σL the stress ratio of the elastic limit of the fault to far-field loading stress. When the system embeds multiple, randomly distributed faults, stress transfer results in recurrence period deviations, however the time-averaged recurrence period of each fault show the same dependence on Γ and Θ, illustrating a characteristic collective behavior. The control of these parameters prevails even when initial pre-stress was randomly assigned in terms of the spatial arrangement and orientation on the internal plate, mimicking local fluctuations. Our study shows the relevance of macroscopic rheological properties of tectonic plates on the earthquake occurrence in plate interiors, as opposed to local factors, proposing a viable model for the seismic behavior of continent interiors in the context of large-scale, long-term deformation of interacting tectonic

  10. NDE methods for determining the materials properties of silicon carbide plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderian, Shant; Kim, Yong; Johnson, Eric; Palusinski, Iwona A.

    2009-08-01

    Two types of SiC plates, differing in their manufacturing processes, were interrogated using a variety of NDE techniques. The task of evaluating the materials properties of these plates was a challenge due to their non-uniform thickness. Ultrasound was used to estimate the Young's Modulus and calculate the thickness profile and Poisson's Ratio of the plates. The Young's Modulus profile plots were consistent with the thickness profile plots, indicating that the technique was highly influenced by the non-uniform thickness of the plates. The Poisson's Ratio is calculated from the longitudinal and shear wave velocities. Because the thickness is cancelled out, the result is dependent only on the time of flight of the two wave modes, which can be measured accurately. X-Ray was used to determine if any density variations were present in the plates. None were detected suggesting that the varying time of flight of the acoustic wave is attributed only to variations in the elastic constants and thickness profiles of the plates. Eddy Current was used to plot the conductivity profile. Surprisingly, the conductivity profile of one type of plates varied over a wide range rarely seen in other materials. The other type revealed a uniform conductivity profile.

  11. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  12. Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-07-01

    This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPDδ) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPDδ) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 μm which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 μm for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct visual evidence of end-on adsorption geometry of pyridine on silver surface investigated by surface enhanced Raman scattering and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Snehasis; Forster, Stefan; Vyas, Nidhi; Schmitt, Hans-Christian; Ojha, Animesh K

    2015-12-05

    Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of neat pyridine (Py) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of Py with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) solution at different molar concentrations (X=1.5M, 1.0M, 0.50 M, 0.25 M, and 0.125 M) were recorded using 1064 nm excitation wavelength. The intensity of Raman bands at ∼1003 (ν11) and ∼1035 (ν21) cm(-1) of Py is enhanced in the SERS spectra. Two new Raman bands were observed at ∼1009 (ν12) and ∼1038 (ν22) cm(-1) in the SERS spectra. These bands correspond to the ring breathing vibrations of Py molecules adsorbed at the AgNPs surface. The value of intensity ratios (I12/I11) and (I21/I22) is increased with dilution and attains a maximum value at X=0.5M and upon further dilution (0.25 and 0.125 M) it drops gradually. The theoretically calculated Raman spectra were found to be in good agreement with experimentally observed Raman spectra. Both, experimental and theoretical investigations have confirmed that the Py interacts with AgNPs via the end-on geometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New titrimetric method for oxygen to metal ratio in uranium oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Vinod Kumar; Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    O/U ratio is of high importance to both U 3 O 8 and UO 2 powders for different reasons. In UO 2 powder it is a guiding parameter for sintering process where as for U 3 O 8 , it indicates efficiency of ammonium di-uranate (ADU) to U 3 O 8 conversion process. In the present method for O/U determination, UO 2 and U 3 O 8 powders are dissolved in 4.5 M sulphuric acid and little HF by heating on hot plate. Subsequently, optimized quantity of phosphoric acid is added on cooling, for getting sharp end point. The resultant solution is titrated with standard potassium dichromate using barium diphenylamine sulphonate (BDS) as an indicator. The expanded uncertainties calculated for UO 2 and U 3 O 8 powders are ±0.004 and ±0.006 O/U ratio units respectively at 95 % confidence level. (author)

  15. Estimate of Small Stiffness and Damping Ratio in Residual Soil Using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawadi Nor Faizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the important parameters for modeling the dynamic behavior of soils has led to rapid development of the small strain stiffness and damping ratio for use in the seismic method. It is because, the experimental determination of the damping ratio is problematic, especially for hard soils sample. Many researchers have proved that the surface wave method is a reliable tool to determine shear wave velocity and damping ratio profiles at a site with very small strains level. Surface wave methods based on Rayleigh waves propagation and the resulting attenuation curve can become erroneous when higher modes contribute to the soil’s response. In this study, two approaches has been used to determine the shear strain amplitude and damping ratio of residual soils at small strain level using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW method. One is to derive shear strain amplitude from the frequency-response curve and the other is to derive damping ratio from travel-time data. Then, the results are compared to the conventional method.

  16. Thin plate spline feature point matching for organ surfaces in minimally invasive surgery imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-03-01

    Robust feature point matching for images with large view angle changes in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a challenging task due to low texture and specular reflections in these images. This paper presents a new approach that can improve feature matching performance by exploiting the inherent geometric property of the organ surfaces. Recently, intensity based template image tracking using a Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model has been extended for 3D surface tracking with stereo cameras. The intensity based tracking is also used here for 3D reconstruction of internal organ surfaces. To overcome the small displacement requirement of intensity based tracking, feature point correspondences are used for proper initialization of the nonlinear optimization in the intensity based method. Second, we generate simulated images from the reconstructed 3D surfaces under all potential view positions and orientations, and then extract feature points from these simulated images. The obtained feature points are then filtered and re-projected to the common reference image. The descriptors of the feature points under different view angles are stored to ensure that the proposed method can tolerate a large range of view angles. We evaluate the proposed method with silicon phantoms and in vivo images. The experimental results show that our method is much more robust with respect to the view angle changes than other state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Natural Frequency of F.G. Rectangular Plate by Shear Deformation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrjerdi, Ali; Sapuan, S M; Shahzamanian, M M; Mustapha, F; Zahari, R; Bayat, M

    2011-01-01

    Natural frequency of functionally graded (F.G.) rectangular plate is carried out by using second-order shear deformation theory (SSDT). The material properties of functionally graded rectangular plates, except the Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness of the plate in accordance with the exponential law distribution. The equations of motion are obtained by energy method. Numerical results for functionally graded plates are given in dimensionless graphical forms and the effects of material properties on natural frequency are determined.

  18. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Kalita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  19. Mixed convection-radiation interaction in boundary-layer flow over horizontal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, F. S.; Hady, F. M.

    1990-06-01

    The effect of buoyancy forces and thermal radiation on the steady laminar plane flow over an isothermal horizontal flat plate is investigated within the framework of first-order boundary-layer theory, taking into account the hydrostatic pressure variation normal to the plate. The fluid considered is a gray, absorbing-emitting but nonscattering medium, and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. Both a hot surface facing upward and a cold surface facing downward are considered in the analysis. Numerical results for the local Nusselt number, the local wall shear stress, the local surface heat flux, as well as the velocity and temperature distributions are presented for gases with a Prandtl number of 0.7 for various values of the radiation-conduction parameter, the buoyancy parameter, and the temperature ratio parameter.

  20. The effect of bulk/surface defects ratio change on the photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2} nanosheet film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fangfang [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ge, Wenna [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Shen, Tong [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ye, Bangjiao [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fu, Zhengping, E-mail: fuzp@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lu, Yalin, E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information & Stop Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The defect behaviors of TiO{sub 2} nanosheet array films were studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. • Different bulk/surface defect ratios were realized by annealing at different temperature. • It was concluded that bulk defects are mainly Ti{sup 3+} vacancy defects. • The separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes could be significantly improved by optimizing the bulk/surface defects ratio. - Abstract: The photocatalysis behavior of TiO{sub 2} nanosheet array films was studied, in which the ratio of bulk/surface defects were adjusted by annealing at different temperature. Combining positron annihilation spectroscopy, EPR and XPS, we concluded that the bulk defects belonged to Ti{sup 3+} related vacancy defects. The results show that the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes could be significantly improved by optimizing the bulk/surface defects ratio of TiO{sub 2} nanosheet films, and in turn enhancing the photocatalysis behaviors.

  1. Effects of Processing Temperatures of Nickel Plating on Capacitance Density of Alumina Film Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myung-Sun; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Jeon-Kook

    2015-06-01

    We observed the effects of nickel plating temperatures for controlling the surface morphologies of the deposited nickel layers on the alumina nano-pores. The alumina nano-channels were filled with nickel at various processing temperatures of 60-90 degrees C. The electrical properties of the alumina film capacitors were changed with processing temperatures. The electroless nickel plating (ENP) at 60 degrees C improved the nickel penetration into the alumina nano-channels due to the reduced reaction rate. Nickel layers are uniformly formed on the high aspect ratio alumina pores. Due to the uniform nickel electrode, the capacitance density of the alumina film capacitors is improved by the low leakage current, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance. Alumina film capacitors made by ENP at 60 degrees C had a high capacitance density of 160 nF/cm2.

  2. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [British Energy Generation Ltd, Barnett Way, Bamwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yuebao.lei@british-energy.com

    2007-09-15

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one.

  3. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one

  4. PREPARATION OF ZEOLITE X COATINGS ON SODA-LIME TYPE GLASS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatlier

    Full Text Available Abstract The dissolution of glass in highly alkaline reaction mixtures and the impact of this phenomenon on zeolite coating formation were investigated. Coating samples were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and thermogravimetry (TG. It was demonstrated that zeolite X coatings might be prepared on soda-lime glass. Glass dissolved to some degree, up to 2% of its original mass, in the reaction mixtures for the conditions investigated. This dissolution affected the zeolite synthesis taking place on the glass surface, resulting in phases different from those obtained on inert metal surfaces in some cases, especially for the use of reaction mixtures with relatively high Si/Al ratios. The percentage of dissolution of glass plates increased with their decreasing thickness, indicating a surface phenomenon for the dissolution. The stabilities of the coatings, which varied with the synthesis conditions, benefited from the addition of extra thin layers of polyacrylic acid.

  5. Irradiation of novel MTR fuel plates in BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboomen, B.; Aoust, Th.; Beeckmans De Westmeerbeeck, A.; De Raedt, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of 1999, novel MTR fuel plates with very high-density meat are being irradiated in BR2. The purpose of the irradiation is to investigate the behaviour of these fuel plates under very severe reactor operation conditions. The novel fuel plates are inserted in two standard six-tube BR2 fuel elements in the locations normally occupied by the standard outer fuel plates. The irradiation in BR2 was prepared by carrying out detailed neutron Monte Carlo calculations of the whole BR2 core containing the two experimental fuel elements for various positions in the reactor and for various azimuthal orientations of the fuel elements. Comparing the thus determined fission density levels and azimuthal profiles in the new MTR fuel plates irradiated in the various channels allowed the experimenters to choose the most appropriate BR2 channel and the most appropriate fuel element orientation. (author)

  6. Spectroscopic measurement of target plate erosion in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filed, A R; Garcia-Rosales, C; Lieder, G; Pitcher, C S; Radtke, R [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1996-02-01

    The erosion of the graphite divertor plates in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is measured spectroscopically. Spatial profiles of the D{sup 0} and C{sup +} influxes across the outer target plate are determined from measured absolute line intensities. Plasma parameters (n{sub e}, T{sub e}) at the target, which are required to determine the appropriate photon emission efficiencies for these lines, are obtained from an in-vessel reciprocating Langmuir probe above the target plate. Yields for the erosion of the graphite by the incident D{sup +} flux are determined from the ratio of the measured C{sup +} to D{sup 0} fluxes. Over a range of moderate densities the measured yields of {<=} 4% are explicable in terms of physical sputtering alone. Chemical sputtering by low energy Franck-Condon neutrals probably contributes, however, to the total erosion. At higher densities detachment of the plasma from the targets occurs owing to formation of a MARFE near the X point. Under these conditions localized physical sputtering of the targets ceases. The impurity level (Z{sub eff}) is, however, maintained following detachment, indicating a corresponding maintenance of carbon influx, perhaps due to chemical erosion of the total graphite surface and/or an improvement in particle confinement in the detached state. (author). 26 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab.

  7. Finite element analysis of surface acoustic waves in high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2008-01-01

    This paper elaborates on how the finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with optical waves in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator which slows...

  8. DETECTION OF ORIENTED NUMBER PLATE IN VEHICLE USING AUTOCORRECTION FEATURE FROM GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURENCE MATRIX

    OpenAIRE

    Veena M.N; Shruthi S.J; Vasudev.T

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of an automatic number plate recognition system depends directly on the proper effective preprocessing of the number plate. The OCRs available for recognition are capable of reading the number plates which are in proper orientation of 00. In many situations the vehicle number plates captured may be in any different orientation like 900, 1800 and 2700. These orientations in number plates are due to declamping of number plate at one end or toppling of vehicle. Such differently...

  9. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  10. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, D.W.; Peat, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Strengthening Performance of PALF-Epoxy Composite Plate on Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siew C.; Tong, Foo S.; Doh, Shu I.; Gimbun, Jolius; Ong, Huey R.; Serigar, Januar P.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the effective strengthening potential of pineapple leaves fiber (PALF)-epoxy composite plate on reinforced concrete (RC) beam. At first the PALF is treated with alkali (NaOH) and its morphology is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composite plates made of PALF and epoxy with fiber loading ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 v/v was tested for its flexural behaviour. The composite was then used for external RC beam strengthening. The structural properties of RC beams were evaluated and all the beams were tested under four-point bending. It was found that the flexural strength increased as the fiber volume ratio increases. The maximum flexural strength (301.94 MPa) was obtained at the fiber volume ratio of 40%. The beam strengthened with PALF-epoxy composite plate has a 7% higher beam capacity compared to the control beam. Cracks formed at the edge of the plate of PALF-strengthened beams resulted in diagonal cracking. Result from this work shows that the PALF-epoxy composite plate has the potential to be used as external strengthening material for RC beam.

  12. Multipactor saturation in parallel-plate waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorolla, E.; Mattes, M.

    2012-01-01

    The saturation stage of a multipactor discharge is considered of interest, since it can guide towards a criterion to assess the multipactor onset. The electron cloud under multipactor regime within a parallel-plate waveguide is modeled by a thin continuous distribution of charge and the equations of motion are calculated taking into account the space charge effects. The saturation is identified by the interaction of the electron cloud with its image charge. The stability of the electron population growth is analyzed and two mechanisms of saturation to explain the steady-state multipactor for voltages near above the threshold onset are identified. The impact energy in the collision against the metal plates decreases during the electron population growth due to the attraction of the electron sheet on the image through the initial plate. When this growth remains stable till the impact energy reaches the first cross-over point, the electron surface density tends to a constant value. When the stability is broken before reaching the first cross-over point the surface charge density oscillates chaotically bounded within a certain range. In this case, an expression to calculate the maximum electron surface charge density is found whose predictions agree with the simulations when the voltage is not too high.

  13. Thermal Effects on Vibration and Control of Piezocomposite Kirchhoff Plate Modeled by Finite Elements Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbi, M.; Saadani, R.; Sbai, K.; Rahmoune, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element eq...

  14. Equivalent properties for perforated plates. An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepkauskas, M.M.; Yang Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Structures that contain perforated plates have been a subject of interest in the Nuclear Industry. Steam generators, condensers and reactor internals utilize plates containing holes which act as flow holes or separate structures from flow by using a 'tube bank' design. The equivalent plate method has been beneficial in analyzing perforate plates. Details are found in various papers found in the bibliography. In addition the ASME code addresses perforated plates in Appendix A-8000, but is limited to a triangular hole pattern. This early work performed in this field utilized test data and analytical approaches. This paper is an examination of an analytical approach for determining equivalent plate mechanical and thermal properties. First a patch of the real plate is identified that provides a model for the necessary physical behavior of the plate. The average strain of this patch is obtained by first applying simplified one dimensional mechanical load to the patch, determining stress as a function of position, converting the stress to strain and then integrating the strain over the patch length. This average strain is then equated to the average strain of an equivalent fictitious rectangular patch. This results in obtaining equivalent Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio for the equivalent plate in all three orthogonal directions. The corresponding equivalent shear modulus in all three directions is then determined. An orthotropic material stress strain matrix relationship is provided for the fictitious properties. By equating the real average strain with the fictitious average strain in matrix form, a stress multiplier is found to convert average fictitious stress to average real stress. This same type of process is repeated for heat conduction coefficients and coefficients of thermal expansion. Results are provided for both a square and triangular hole pattern. Reasonable results are obtained when comparing the effective Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio with ASME

  15. Effect of Abrasive Waterjet Peening Surface Treatment of Steel Plates on the Strength of Single-Lap Adhesive Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Anasiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of comparative study of shear strength of single–lap adhesive joints, depending on the method of surface preparation of steel plates with increased corrosion resistance. The method of preparing adherend surfaces is often one of the most important factors determining the strength of adhesive joints. Appropriate geometric surface development and cleaning of the surface enhances adhesion forces between adherend material and adhesive. One of the methods of shaping engineering materials is waterjet cutting, which in the AWJP – abrasive waterjet peening variant, serves to shape flat surfaces of the material by changing the roughness and introducing stresses into the surface layer. These changes are valuable when preparing adhesive joints. In the study, surface roughness parameters obtained with AWJP treatment, were analyzed in direct relation to the strength of the adhesive joint. As a consequence of the experimental results analysis, the increase in the strength of the adhesive joints was observed in a certain range of parameters used for AWJP treatment. A decrease in shear strength of adhesive joint with the most modified topography of overlap surface was observed.

  16. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges

  17. Thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam and optimization of the mode-to-pump ratio in an end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y T; Li, W J; Pan, L L; Yu, J T; Zhang, R H

    2013-01-01

    The analytical model of thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam are derived as functions of the mode-to-pump ratio and pump power in end-pumped Nd-doped lasers considering the energy transfer upconversion effects. The mode-to-pump ratio is optimized based on it. The results show that the optimum mode-to-pump ratio with the thermally induced diffraction losses is less than 0.65, and it is less than the results in which the thermally induced diffraction losses are neglected. The theoretical model is applied to a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating at 1342 nm, and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. (paper)

  18. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2014-10-28

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  19. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  20. Electroless Cu Plating on Anodized Al Substrate for High Power LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Sa-Kyun; Lee, Youn-Seoung

    2015-03-01

    Area-selective copper deposition on screen printed Ag pattern/anodized Al/Al substrate was attempted using a neutral electroless plating processes for printed circuit boards (PCBs), according to a range of variation of pH 6.5-pH 8 at 70 °C. The utilized basic electroless solution consisted of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, sodium phosphinate monohydrate, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate, ammonium chloride, and nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate. The pH of the copper plating solutions was adjusted from pH 6.5 to pH 8 using NH4OH. Using electroless plating in pH 6.5 and pH 7 baths, surface damage to the anodized Al layer hardly occurred; the structure of the plated Cu-rich films was a typical fcc-Cu, but a small Ni component was co-deposited. In electroless plating at pH 8, the surface of the anodized Al layer was damaged and the Cu film was composed of a lot of Ni and P which were co-deposited with Cu. Finally, in a pH 7 bath, we can make a selectively electroless plated Cu film on a PCB without any lithography and without surface damage to the anodized Al layer.

  1. Modeling guided wave excitation in plates with surface mounted piezoelectric elements: coupled physics and normal mode expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    Guided waves have been extensively studied and widely used for structural health monitoring because of their large volumetric coverage and good sensitivity to defects. Effectively and preferentially exciting a desired wave mode having good sensitivity to a certain defect is of great practical importance. Piezoelectric discs and plates are the most common types of surface-mounted transducers for guided wave excitation and reception. Their geometry strongly influences the proportioning between excited modes as well as the total power of the excited modes. It is highly desirable to predominantly excite the selected mode while the total transduction power is maximized. In this work, a fully coupled multi-physics finite element analysis, which incorporates the driving circuit, the piezoelectric element and the wave guide, is combined with the normal mode expansion method to study both the mode tuning and total wave power. The excitation of circular crested waves in an aluminum plate with circular piezoelectric discs is numerically studied for different disc and adhesive thicknesses. Additionally, the excitation of plane waves in an aluminum plate, using a stripe piezoelectric element is studied both numerically and experimentally. It is difficult to achieve predominant single mode excitation as well as maximum power transmission simultaneously, especially for higher order modes. However, guidelines for designing the geometry of piezoelectric elements for optimal mode excitation are recommended.

  2. A locking compression plate versus the gold-standard non-locking plate with lag screw for first metatarsophalangeal fusion: A biomechanical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Daniel; Karbassi, John; Zhou, Hanbing; Burroughs, Brian; Aurigemma, Philip; Patel, Abhay R

    2018-03-01

    The treatment of end-stage first metatarso-phalangeal joint (MTP) arthritis has been arthrodesis. A dorsal non-locking plate with a lag screw has been the standard traditional fixation method. This study compares the biomechanical strength of a locking compression plate (LCP) with and without internal compression versus this known gold standard. In group 1, six matched pairs of cadaver great toes were used to compare the standard non-locking dorsal plate and 3.5mm lag screw to an anatomic locking compression plate in which a lag screw was utilized rather than the internal compression features of the plate. In group 2, another six matched pairs of cadaver great toes were used to compare the gold standard to the locking compression plate, utilizing the plate's internal compression feature instead of a lag screw. A material testing system (MTS) machine applied loads to the MTP joints and measured displacement and stiffness of the constructs. The stiffness of the constructs (Young's modulus) was calculated from the force-displacement curves, and the displacement was measured. The locking compression plate group that used the compression features of the plate, without the lag screw, had less joint displacement and higher stiffness than control (p<0.05). The same plating construct in which a lag screw was used rather than internal compression of the plate was found to be stiffer than the control (p<0.05), but displacement was not statistically significant. The results suggest that a locking compression plate alone provides the stiffest construct for a first MTP joint fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot spots on the neutralizer plates of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of hot spots on the neutralizing surfaces of tokamaks may be one of the reasons for the entry of large impurity fluxes into the plasmas of TFTR and JET (the so-called carbon catastrophe or carbon bloom) with high auxiliary heating powers. At this time it is unclear whether these hot spots are caused just by nonuniformities on the neutralizer surface or whether their appearance is the result of some more general behavior, with the surface nonuniformities only showing up as seed perturbations. In this paper it is shown that hot spots can also develop on smooth surfaces of carbon neutralizer plates as a result of the contraction of a heat flux incident on the plates

  4. Modeling of the heat transfer performance of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Yan, XiaoQing

    2009-08-01

    Considering the mutual actions between fuel particles and the metal matrix, the three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the heat transfer behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel plates. The research results indicate that the temperatures of the fuel plate might rise more distinctly with considering the particle swelling and the degraded surface heat transfer coefficients with increasing burnup; the local heating phenomenon within the particles appears when their thermal conductivities are too low. With rise of the surface heat transfer coefficients, the temperatures within the fuel plate decrease; the temperatures of the fuel plate are sensitive to the variations of the heat transfer coefficients whose values are lower, but their effects are weakened and slight when the heat transfer coefficients increase and reach a certain extent. Increasing the heat generation rate leads to elevating the internal temperatures. The temperatures and the maximum temperature differences within the plate increase along with the particle volume fractions. The surface thermal flux goes up along with particle volume fractions and heat generation rates, but the effects of surface heat transfer coefficients are not evident.

  5. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqua, Luigi; Morra, Marco

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  6. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqua, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.pasqua@unical.it [University of Calabria, Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (Italy); Morra, Marco, E-mail: mmorra@nobilbio.com [Via Valcastellana 26 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  7. Shed vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics in symmetric/asymmetric turbulent flat plate wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2018-05-01

    The near wake of a flat plate is investigated via direct numerical simulations. Many earlier experimental investigations have used thin plates with sharp trailing edges and turbulent boundary layers to create the wake. This results in large θ/DTE values (θ is the boundary layer momentum thickness toward the end of the plate and DTE is the trailing edge thickness). In the present study, the emphasis is on relatively thick plates with circular trailing edges (CTEs) resulting in θ/D values less than one (D is the plate thickness and the diameter of the CTE) and vigorous vortex shedding. The Reynolds numbers based on the plate length and D are 1.255 × 106 and 10 000, respectively. Two cases are computed: one with turbulent boundary layers on both the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (statistically the same, symmetric wake, Case TT) and the other with turbulent and laminar boundary layers on the upper and lower surfaces, respectively (asymmetric case, Case TL). The data and understanding obtained are of considerable engineering interest, particularly in turbomachinery where the pressure side of an airfoil can remain laminar or transitional because of a favorable pressure gradient and the suction side is turbulent. Shed-vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics obtained in the two cases are compared here. The upper negative shed vortices in Case TL (turbulent separating boundary layer) are weaker than the lower positive ones (laminar separating boundary layer) at inception (a factor of 1.27 weaker in terms of peak phase-averaged spanwise vorticity at the first appearance of a peak). The upper vortices weaken rapidly as they travel downstream. A second feature of interest in Case TL is a considerable increase in the peak phase-averaged, streamwise normal intensity (random component) with increasing streamwise distance (x/D) that occurs near the positive vortex cores. This behavior is observed for a few diameters in the near wake. This is counter to

  8. CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Baker, C.; Gomez, T.; Prince, P.P.; Smith, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs

  9. CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Baker, C.; Gomez, T.; Prince, P.P.; Smith, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end torus. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  11. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Electroless silver plating on PET fabric initiated by in situ reduction of polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Shipeng; Xie, Huayang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Wei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Lab of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu, Dan, E-mail: yudan@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Lab of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We propose a method to initiate electroless plating by reduction of PANI. • The shielding effective of the silver-plated fabric reaches 50–90 dB. • The silver-plated fabric has good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Novel electroless silver plating poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was prepared by a two-step procedure. In the first step, the in situ polymerized polyaniline (PANI) occurred on the fabric surface in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS). Then, Ag(0) species reduced from silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) by in situ reduction of PANI were used as catalyst to initiate electroless silver plating. Hence, this composite material was prepared by conductive polymer combined with electroless plating. The silver layer on PET fabric surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the silver layer was plated uniformly and compactly with surface resistance about 0.1 Ω/sq on average. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of silver-plated PET fabric was around 50–90 dB, which was considered to have potential applications in electromagnetic shielding materials. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was carried out to study thermal stability. The antibacterial tests demonstrated that the silver-plated fabric exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli both with 100%.

  13. Development of stress correction formulae for heat formed steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyun Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heating process such as line heating, triangular heating and so on is widely used in plate forming of shell plates found in bow and stern area of outer shell in a ship. Local shrinkage during heating process is main physical phenomenon used in plate forming process. As it is well appreciated, the heated plate undergoes the change in material and mechanical properties around heated area due to the harsh thermal process. It is, therefore, important to investigate the changes of physical and mechanical properties due to heating process in order to use them plate the design stage of shell plates. This study is concerned with the development of formula of plastic hardening constitutive equation for steel plate on which line heating is applied. In this study the stress correction formula for the heated plate has been developed based on the numerical simulation of tension test with varying plate thickness and heating speed through the regression analysis of multiple variable case. It has been seen the developed formula shows very good agreement with results of numerical simulation. This paper ends with usefulness of the present formula in examining the structural characteristic of ship's hull. Keywords: Heat input, Heat transfer analysis, Line heating, Shell plate, Stress correction, Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis

  14. An alpha particle detector based on a GPS mosaic scintillator plate for continuous air monitoring in plutonium handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Toui, Kouhei; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Morishita, Yuki; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    An alpha particle detector was developed for continuous air monitoring of radioactive contamination in working chambers at plutonium handling facilities. A 5-cm-square Gd 2 Si 2 O 7 :Ce (cerium-doped gadolinium pyro-silicate, GPS:Ce) mosaic scintillator plate for alpha particle measurements was fabricated from GPS single-crystal grains of around 550 μm diameter; the GPS grains were made of a GPS polycrystalline body grown using a top seeded solution method. The scintillator layer thickness was approximately 100 μm. The surface filling rate of the GPS grains was ca. 62%. To suppress the influence of non-uniformity of pulse heights of a photomultiplier tube, a central part of ∅ 40 mm of a 76-mm-diameter photomultiplier tube was used. In addition, 3 mm thick high-transmission glass was used as a substrate of the scintillator plate. The detector achieved energy resolution of 13% for 5.5 MeV alpha particles, detection efficiency of 61% and a radon progeny nuclide reduction ratio of 64.5%. A new alpha particle detector was developed to achieve a high radon progeny nuclide reduction ratio approaching that of a silicon semiconductor detector, with high resistance to electromagnetic noise and corrosion. - Highlights: • An alpha particle detector was developed for continuous air monitoring. • The detector comprises a mosaic scintillator plate and a photomultiplier tube. • A 5-cm-square GPS mosaic scintillator plate was fabricated. • Its respective energy resolution and detection efficiency were 13 and 61%. • The radon progeny nuclide reduction ratio of the developed detector was 64.5%.

  15. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  16. MHD Heat and Mass Transfer of Chemical Reaction Fluid Flow over a Moving Vertical Plate in Presence of Heat Source with Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Rout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the influence of chemical reaction and the combined effects of internal heat generation and a convective boundary condition on the laminar boundary layer MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a moving vertical flat plate. The lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the stream of cold fluid flows over the upper surface with heat source and chemical reaction. The basic equations governing the flow, heat transfer, and concentration are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate transformation for variables and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta fourth-order integration scheme in association with shooting method. The effects of physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically. A table recording the values of skin friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer at the plate is also presented. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with previous studies which shows good agreement as a special case of the problem.

  17. Foundation plate on the elastic half-space, deterministic and probabilistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrdá Katarína

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between the foundation plate and subgrade can be described by different mathematical - physical model. Elastic foundation can be modelled by different types of models, e.g. one-parametric model, two-parametric model and a comprehensive model - Boussinesque (elastic half-space had been used. The article deals with deterministic and probabilistic analysis of deflection of the foundation plate on the elastic half-space. Contact between the foundation plate and subsoil was modelled using contact elements node-node. At the end the obtained results are presented.

  18. Development of an optimum end-effector with a nano-scale uneven surface for non-adhesion cell manipulation using a micro-manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horade, M; Kojima, M; Kamiyama, K; Kurata, T; Mae, Y; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    In order to realize effective micro-manipulation using a micro-manipulator system, an optimum end-effector is proposed. Cell-manipulation experiments using mouse fibroblast cells are conducted, and the usability of the proposed end-effector is confirmed. A key advantage of the micro-manipulator is high-accuracy, high-speed 3D micro- and nano-scale positioning. Micro-manipulation has often been used in research involving biological cells. However, there are two important concerns with the micro-manipulator system: gripping efficiency and the release of gripped objects. When it is not possible to grip a micro-object, such as a cell, near its center, the object may be dropped during manipulation. Since the acquisition of exact position information for a micro-object in the vertical direction is difficult using a microscope, the gripping efficiency of the end-effector should be improved. Therefore, technical skill or operational support is required. Since, on the micro-scale, surface forces such as the adsorption force are greater than body forces, such as the gravitational force, the adhesion force between the end-effector and the object is strong. Therefore, manipulation techniques without adhesion are required for placed an object at an arbitrary position. In the present study, we consider direct physical contact between the end-effector and objects. First, the design and materials of the end-effector for micro-scale manipulation were optimized, and an end-effector with an optimum shape to increase the grip force was fabricated. Second, the surface of the end-effector tip was made uneven, and the adhesion force from increasing on the micro-scale was prevented. When an end-effector with an uneven surface was used, release without adhesion was successful 85.0% of the time. On the other hand, when an end-effector without an uneven surface was used, release without adhesion was successful 6.25% of the time. Therefore, the superiority of a structure with an uneven

  19. Thermal resistance of a convectively cooled plate with applied heat flux and variable internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, N.S.; Cardoso, H.P.; Oliveira Filho, O.B. de

    1981-01-01

    The conductive heat transfer in a rectangular plate with nonuniform internal heat generation, with one end convectively cooled and a part of the opposite end subjected to external heat flux is considered. The remaining part of this end as well as the other two sides are thermally insulated. The governing differential equation is solved by a finite difference scheme. The variation of the thermal resistance with Biot modulus, the plate geometry, the internal heat generation parameter and the type of profile of internal heat generation is discussed. (author) [pt

  20. End effect Keff bias curve for actinide-only burnup credit casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.H.; Lancaster, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    A conservative end effect k eff bias curve for actinide-only burnup credit for spent fuel casks is presented in this paper. The k eff bias values can be added to the uniform axial burnup analysis to conservatively bound the actinide-only end effect. A normalized axial burnup distribution for the standard Westinghouse 17 x 17 assembly design is used for calculating k eff . The end effect calculated is a strong function of burnup, and increases as cask size size decreases. The presence of poison plates increases the end effect. The bias curve presented is based on the most limiting cask configuration of a single PWR assembly with completely black poison plates. Therefore, axially uniform criticality calculations with application of the proposed k eff could eliminate the need for axially burnup dependent analyses. 7 refs., 1 fig

  1. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    slenderness and edge displacement ratio are included in the investigations presented. Capacity interaction curves are established in the bi-axial stress domain. It turns out that for certain stress ratios the imperfections dominating the ultimate capacity are not affine to the lowest classical buckling mode...... for biaxial stress. It is of great interest that short wave imperfections of a lower magnitude compared to conventionally used imperfections are seen to lower the capacity of the bi-axially loaded plates. The topic is of major concern in the flange plates of long span bridges with multi box girder...

  2. Flow over a cylinder with a hinged-splitter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Govardhan, R. N.; Arakeri, J. H.

    2009-05-01

    Previous work on rigid splitter plates in the wake of a bluff body has shown that the primary vortex shedding can be suppressed for sufficiently long splitter plates. In the present work, we study the problem of a hinged-splitter plate in the wake of a circular cylinder. The splitter plate can rotate about the hinge at the base of the cylinder due to the unsteady fluid forces acting on it, and hence the communication between the two sides of the wake is not totally disrupted as in the rigid splitter plate case. In our study, we investigate this problem in the limit where the stiffness and internal damping associated with the hinge are negligible, and the mass ratio of the splitter plate is small. The experiments show that the splitter plate oscillations increase with Reynolds numbers at low values of Re, and are found to reach a saturation amplitude level at higher Re, Re>4000. This type of saturation amplitude level that appears to continue indefinitely with Re, appears to be related to the fact that there is no structural restoring force, and has been observed previously for transversely oscillating cylinders with no restoring force. In the present case, the saturation tip amplitude level can be up to 0.45D, where D is the cylinder diameter. For this hinged-rigid splitter plate case, it is found that the splitter plate length to cylinder diameter ratio (L/D) is crucial in determining the character and magnitude of the oscillations. For small splitter plate lengths (L/D⩽3.0), the oscillations appear to be nearly periodic with tip amplitudes of about 0.45D nearly independent of L/D. The nondimensional oscillation frequencies (fD/U) on the other hand are found to continuously vary with L/D from fD/U≈0.2 at L/D=1 to fD/U≈0.1 at L/D=3. As the splitter plate length is further increased beyond L/D⩾4.0, the character of the splitter plate oscillations suddenly changes. The oscillations become aperiodic with much smaller amplitudes. In this long splitter plate

  3. Additional signals due to negative refraction in acoustic microscopy of anisotropic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.V.; Mozhaev, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    The additional V(z) oscillations and pulses are predicted in the case of positive defocusing (focus above the sample surface) in acoustic microscopy of anisotropic plates exhibiting negative refraction of acoustic rays. The relationship between these additional signals and separate points on the acoustic slowness surface of the plate material is elucidated

  4. Additional signals due to negative refraction in acoustic microscopy of anisotropic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.V. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: av_kozlov@inbox.ru; Mozhaev, V.G. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vgmozhaev@mail.ru

    2008-06-23

    The additional V(z) oscillations and pulses are predicted in the case of positive defocusing (focus above the sample surface) in acoustic microscopy of anisotropic plates exhibiting negative refraction of acoustic rays. The relationship between these additional signals and separate points on the acoustic slowness surface of the plate material is elucidated.

  5. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  6. EFFECT OF RATIO OF SURFACE AREA ON THE CORROSION RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Dody Prayitno; M. Irsyad

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and steel are used to be a construction for a building outdoor panel. Aluminum and steel are connected by bolt and nut. An atmosphere due to a corrosion of the aluminum. The corrosion possibly to cause the hole diameter of bolt and nut to become larger. Thus the bolt and nut can not enough strong to hold the panel. The panel may collapse. The aim of the research is first to answer a question where does the corrosion starts. The second is to know the effect of ratio surface area of st...

  7. Production of quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Basegmez, Suzan; Beaumont, Willem; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; De Paula Carvalho, W; Çerçi, Salim; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Dogangün, O; Dumanoglu, Isa; d'Enterria, David; Erchov, Y; Eskut, Eda; Figueiredo, D; Girgis, Semiray; Göttlicher, P; Gouskos, Loukas; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Khein, Lev; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Lebeau, Michel; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Muhl, Carsten; Musienko, Yuri; Ochesanu, Silvia; Onengüt, G; Onengut, G Jr; Ozdemir, Kadri; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Polatoz, A; Ripert, Marion; Shileev, K; Sogut, Kenan; Tiflov, B TaliV; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Uzun, Dilber

    2008-01-01

    Light transmission rate performance of $102$ irradiated quartz samples was measured to select the best quartz plates for CMS-CASTOR calorimeter. All the produced quartz plates were originally used in a previous CERN experiment, DELPHI. Three different doses of $^{60}$Co source were used with the collaboration of PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.) to study the transmission rate performance of the quartz samples after irradiation for different incident light, ranging from $250$ to $700$ nm in $5$ nm increasing steps. All samples show different decrease in the rate with wavelength for different doses. Three different steps were followed before irradiation to find out the best way of cleaning the original DELPHI Cu/Cr tracks on the samples. Results of these measurements presented here correspond to the quartz plates that will be used in one hadronic sector of CASTOR calorimeter until end of 2008. For the full calorimeter new quartz plates will be installed. We also present the light transmi...

  8. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surface on Polydopamine-coated Al Plate by Using Modified SiO{sub 2} Nanoparticles/Polystyrene Nano-Composite Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Songho; Lee, Woohee; Ahn, Yonghyun [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    A superhydrophobic Al surface has been fabricated by coating with polydopamine, followed by coating with a modified silica nanoparticles/PS composite solution. The role of polydopamine layer is to improve the adhesion of the modified silica nanoparticles. This platform is an ideal structure for attaching various nano/micro particles. Aluminum is an important industrial metal, and the superhydrophobic surface of Al plates has potential applications in various fields. Aluminum is a relatively lightweight, soft, and durable metal with good thermal conductivity and excellent corrosion resistance.

  9. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for the St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve...

  10. The limitations on applying classical thin plate theory to thin annular plates clamped on the inner boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Zietlow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimentally measured resonance frequencies of a thin annular plate with a small ratio of inner to outer radii and clamped on the inner boundary are compared to the predictions of classical thin-plate (CTP theory and a finite-element (FE model. The results indicate that, contrary to the conclusions presented in a number of publications, CTP theory does not accurately predict the frequencies of a relatively small number of resonant modes at lower frequencies. It is shown that these inaccuracies are attributable to shear deformations, which are thought to be negligible in thin plates and are neglected in CTP theory. Of particular interest is the failure of CTP theory to accurately predict the resonance frequency of the lowest vibrational mode, which was shifted approximately 30% by shear motion at the inner boundary.

  11. A Modified Kirchhoff plate theory for Free Vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates using meshfree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a modified Kirchhoff theory is presented for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM) plate based on modified radial point interpolation method (RPIM). The shear deformation effects are taken account into modified theory to ignore the locking phenomenon of thin plates. Due to the proposed refined plate theory, the number of independent unknowns reduces one variable and exists with four degrees of freedom per node. The simulated free vibration results employed by the modified RPIM are compared with the other analytical solutions to verify the effectiveness and the accuracy of the developed mesh-free method. Detail parametric studies of the proposed method are then conducted including the effectiveness of thickness ratio, boundary condition and material inhomogeneity on the sample problems of square plates. Results illustrated that the modified mesh-free RPIM can effectively predict the numerical calculation as compared to the exact solutions. The obtained numerical results are indicated that the proposed method are stable and well accurate prediction to evaluate with other published analyses.

  12. Low Temperature Steam Methane Reforming Over Ni Based Catalytic Membrane Prepared by Electroless Palladium Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Hong, Sung Chang; Kim, Sung Su

    2018-09-01

    A Pd/Ni-YSZ porous membrane with different palladium loadings and hydrazine as a reducing reagent was prepared by electroless plating and evaluated for the steam methane reforming activity. The steam-reforming activity of a Ni-YSZ porous membrane was greatly increased by the deposition of 4 g/L palladium in the low-temperature range (600 °C). With an increasing amount of reducing reagent, the Pd clusters were well dispersed on the Ni-YSZ surface and were uniform in size (∼500 nm). The Pd/Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane prepared by 1 of Pd/hydrazine ratio possessed an abundant amount of metallic Pd. The optimal palladium loadings and Pd/hydrazine ratio increased the catalytic activity in both the steam-reforming reaction and the Pd dispersion.

  13. Tuneable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy hyphenated to chemically derivatized thin-layer chromatography plates for screening histamine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengjun; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Ding, Yunlian; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng

    2017-09-01

    Reliable screening of histamine in fish was of urgent importance for food safety. This work presented a highly selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method mediated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which was tailored for identification and quantitation of histamine. Following separation and derivatization with fluram, plates were assayed with SERS, jointly using silver nanoparticle and NaCl. The latter dramatically suppressed the masking effect caused by excessive fluram throughout the plate, thus offering clear baseline and intensive Raman fingerprints specific to the analyte. Under optimized conditions, the usability of this method was validated by identifying the structural fingerprints of both targeted and unknown compounds in fish samples. Meanwhile, the quantitative results of this method agreed with those by an HPLC method officially suggested by EU for histamine determination. Showing remarkable cost-efficiency and user-friendliness, this facile TLC-SERS method was indeed screening-oriented and may be more attractive to controlling laboratories of limited resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Hainzl, Sebastian; Bedford, Jonathan; Hoechner, Andreas; Palo, Mauro; Wang, Rongjiang; Moreno, Marcos; Bartsch, Mitja; Zhang, Yong; Oncken, Onno; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten; Victor, Pia; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-21

    On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of >8.5.

  15. Asymptotical construction of a fully coupled, Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Lin; Yu Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    The variational asymptotic method is used to construct a fully coupled Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates with some surfaces parallel to the reference surface coated with electrodes. Taking advantage of the smallness of the plate thickness, we asymptotically split the original three-dimensional electromechanical problem into a one-dimensional through-the-thickness analysis and a two-dimensional plate analysis. The through-the-thickness analysis serves as a link between the original three-dimensional analysis and the plate analysis by providing a constitutive model for the plate analysis and recovering the three-dimensional field variables in terms of two-dimensional plate global responses. The present theory is implemented into the computer program VAPAS (variational asymptotic plate and shell analysis). The resulting model is as simple as an equivalent single-layer, first-order shear deformation theory with accuracy comparable to higher-order layerwise theories. Various numerical examples have been used to validate the present model

  16. Surface and Microstructural Failures of PET-Coated ECCS Plates by Salmon-Polymer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Zumelzu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new types of knowledge-intensive, multilayer containers consist of steel plates protected against corrosion by nanometric electrolytic chromium (Cr0 and chromium oxide (Cr2O3 layers chemically bonded to polyethylene terephthalate (PET polymer coating to preserve food. It was observed that after emptying the cans, the salmon adhered to the polymer coating, changing its color, and that this adhesion increased with longer storage times. This work was aimed at determining the product-container interactions and their characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD, confocal Raman and micro-Raman imaging and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. The zones of adhesion showed surface changes, variations in crystallinity and microstructural degradation of the PET coating. In addition, localized damages altering the functional properties of the multilayer system were observed as microcracking in the chromium layers that protect the steel. The degradation undergone was evaluated and characterized at a surface and microstructural level to establish the failure mechanisms, which were mainly associated with the activity of the adhered muscle and its biochemical components. Finally, a recommendation is done to preserve the useful life and functionality of cans for the preservation and efficient use of resources with an impact on recycling and environmental conservancy.

  17. Active gas discharge cleaning for superconducting lead-plated resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malev, M.D.; Weisser, D.C.

    1985-06-01

    Lead-plating for superconducting RF resonators historically has been directed toward reducing grain size and eliminating spikes on the surface. Investigations were made of degassing lead-plated surfaces under RF resonant electron discharge or multipacting. The mass-spectra of the residual atmosphere showed that decomposition of hydrocarbons on the surface took place. Discolouration of the lead surface, due to the formation of a carbon layer, was easily observed. A method of cleaning surfaces by ion bombardment employing chemically active gases, was proposed and tested. An RF discharge, initiated by multipacting at pressure 10 -2 - 10 -1 torr was used. The first step, discharge treatment in a CO 2 atmosphere, assures oxidation of carbon and hydrocarbons into gaseous compounds which are removed by pumping. During the second step, discharge treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere, lead oxides are reduced to metal

  18. Fabrication of resistive plate chamber using bakelite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neog, Himangshu; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, Rudranarayan; Rudra, Sharmili; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Now a days Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is one of the most important detectors in the High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. RPC is a gas filled detector utilizing a constant and uniform electric field produced between two parallel electrode plates made of a material with high bulk resistivity e.g. glass or bakelite. RPC has good time resolution (1-2 ns) and spatial resolution (∼ cm). The high resistance of RPC plate limits the spark size produced after the ionization of gas due to the passing charged particle. This contribution discusses building of a RPC using bakelite (local sources) and the measurement of the surface resistivity of the detector

  19. New technology of lead-tin plating of superconducting RF resonators for the ANU LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, N.R.; Weisser, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The RF accelerating resonators for the ANU superconducting LINAC have been re-plated with lead-tin and their performance substantially improved. The re-plating was at first derailed by the appearance of dendrites on the surface. This problem was overcome by a new combination of two techniques. Rather than the standard process of chemically stripping the old Pb and hand polishing the Cu substrate the unsatisfactory Pb surface was mechanically polished and then re-plated. This is enormously easier, faster and doesn't put at risk the thin cosmetic electron beam welds or the repaired ones. Reverse pulse plating was then used to re-establish an excellent superconducting surface. Average acceleration fields of 3.5 to 3.9 MV/m have been achieved. The re-plated resonators will double the energy gain of the accelerator significantly extending capability of the facility research. Lead-tin plating provides fast adequate results with modest equipment and at relatively low cost. SUNY re-plated six high-beta SLRs with 2 microns of Pb-Sn using a modern, commercial, methane-sulfonate process (Lea Ronal Solderon MHS-L) and a simple open-air procedure. This proven success motivated ANU to adopt MSA chemistry and to re-plate the first SLR in November 1998 followed by re-plating all twelve SLRs by November 2002. This increased the booster energy gain by almost 100%

  20. Development of a virtual probe tip with an application to high aspect ratio microscale features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauza, Marcin B.; Hocken, Robert J.; Smith, Stuart T.; Woody, Shane C.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement of microscale features remains a challenging metrology problem. For example, to assess a high aspect ratio small hole it is currently common to cut a cross section and measure the features of interest using an atomic force microscope, scanning probe microscope, or scanning electron microscope. Typically, these metrology tools may be suitable for surface finish measurement but often lack the capability for dimensional metrology. The aim of this article is to discuss the development of a high aspect-ratio microscale probe for measurement of microscale features. A 700:1 high aspect ratio probe shank is fabricated with a 7 μm diameter, and attached at one end to an oscillator. The oscillator produces a standing wave in the oscillating probe shank as opposed to conventional probes that use a microscale sphere on the end of a comparatively rigid shank. As a result of the standing wave formed in steady state vibration, the free end of the shank generates an amplitude of oscillation greater than the probe shank diameter. Thus, the probe does not require a spherical ball to serve as the contact point and simply uses the contact diameter of the free end of the vibrating shank. This methodology is referred to as a virtual probe tip. The virtual probe tip in conjunction with a nanopositioning scanner is used to measure surface profile measurements over traverse lengths of 130 μm. In this article, results from profiles of a 500 nm step height and a ruby sphere of diameter 1 mm are presented. Experiments in this article indicate the ability to repeatedly resolve surface features of less than 5 nm while maintaining bandwidths greater than 1 kHz. Furthermore, adhesion problems often encountered with micrometer scaled probes were not observed during profile measurements with this virtual probe

  1. Crustal Structure of the Tengchong Intra-plate Volcanic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Rongyi; Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2015-09-01

    We here provide an overview of our current understanding of the crustal structure of Tengchong in southwest China, a key intra-plate volcanic area along the Himalayan geothermal belt. Given that there is hitherto a lack of information about the near-surface structure of intra-plate volcanic areas, we present the first seismic reflection and velocity constraints on the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanoes. Our near-surface seismic images reveal the existence of dome-shaped seismic reflectors (DSRs) in the shallow crust between intra-plate volcanic clusters in Tengchong. The two DSRs are both ~2 km wide, and the shallowest parts of the DSRs are found at the depth of 200-300 m. The velocity model shows that the shallow low-velocity layer (<4 km/s) is anomalously thick (~1 km) in the region where the DSRs are observed. The presence of DSRs indicates significant levels of intra-plate magmatism beneath the along-axis gap separating two volcano clusters. Along-axis gaps between volcano clusters are therefore not necessarily an indicator of lower levels of magmatism. The seismic images obtained in this technically challenging area for controlled-source seismology allow us to conclude that shallow crustal structures are crucial for understanding the along-axis variations of magmatism and hydrothermal activities in intra-plate volcanic areas.

  2. Experimental and numerical study of the wave run-up along a vertical plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Bernard; Kimmoun, O.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Results from experiments on wave interaction with a rigid vertical plate are reported. The 5m long plate is set against the wall of a 30m wide basin, at 100m from the wavemaker. This set-up is equivalent to a 10m plate in the middle of a 60m wide basin. Regular waves are produced, with wavelength...... on extended Boussinesq equations. In most of the experimental tests, despite the large distance from the wavemaker to the plate and the small amplitude of the incident wave, no steady state is attained by the end of the exploitable part of the records....

  3. Investigation of free vibration characteristics for skew multiphase magneto-electro-elastic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M. C.; Kattimani, S.

    2018-04-01

    This article presents the investigation of skew multiphase magneto-electro-elastic (MMEE) plate to assess its free vibration characteristics. A finite element (FE) model is formulated considering the different couplings involved via coupled constitutive equations. The transformation matrices are derived to transform local degrees of freedom into the global degrees of freedom for the nodes lying on the skew edges. Effect of different volume fraction (Vf) on the free vibration behavior is explicitly studied. In addition, influence of width to thickness ratio, the aspect ratio, and the stacking arrangement on natural frequencies of skew multiphase MEE plate investigated. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the effect of skew angle on the non-dimensional Eigen frequencies of multiphase MEE plate with simply supported edges.

  4. Electroless silver plating on PET fabric initiated by in situ reduction of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Shipeng; Xie, Huayang; Wang, Wei; Yu, Dan

    2015-10-01

    Novel electroless silver plating poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was prepared by a two-step procedure. In the first step, the in situ polymerized polyaniline (PANI) occurred on the fabric surface in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS). Then, Ag(0) species reduced from silver nitrate (AgNO3) by in situ reduction of PANI were used as catalyst to initiate electroless silver plating. Hence, this composite material was prepared by conductive polymer combined with electroless plating. The silver layer on PET fabric surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the silver layer was plated uniformly and compactly with surface resistance about 0.1 Ω/sq on average. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of silver-plated PET fabric was around 50-90 dB, which was considered to have potential applications in electromagnetic shielding materials. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was carried out to study thermal stability. The antibacterial tests demonstrated that the silver-plated fabric exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli both with 100%.

  5. Time-lapse 3-D measurements of a glucose biosensor in multicellular spheroids by light sheet fluorescence microscopy in commercial 96-well plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Vincent; Chennell, George; Sparks, Hugh; Lana, Tobia; Kumar, Sunil; Carling, David; Sardini, Alessandro; Dunsby, Chris

    2016-11-25

    Light sheet fluorescence microscopy has previously been demonstrated on a commercially available inverted fluorescence microscope frame using the method of oblique plane microscopy (OPM). In this paper, OPM is adapted to allow time-lapse 3-D imaging of 3-D biological cultures in commercially available glass-bottomed 96-well plates using a stage-scanning OPM approach (ssOPM). Time-lapse 3-D imaging of multicellular spheroids expressing a glucose Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor is demonstrated in 16 fields of view with image acquisition at 10 minute intervals. As a proof-of-principle, the ssOPM system is also used to acquire a dose response curve with the concentration of glucose in the culture medium being varied across 42 wells of a 96-well plate with the whole acquisition taking 9 min. The 3-D image data enable the FRET ratio to be measured as a function of distance from the surface of the spheroid. Overall, the results demonstrate the capability of the OPM system to measure spatio-temporal changes in FRET ratio in 3-D in multicellular spheroids over time in a multi-well plate format.

  6. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.-C.; Lee, S.-C.; Dai, S.-B.; Tien, S.-L.; Chang, C.-C.; Fu, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 deg. C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications

  7. Selective Electroless Nickel Plating on PMMA using Chloroform Pre-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Nicholas

    In the past 5 years, we have discovered that chloroform promotes the adhesion of thin gold films to Poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces. Based on this new understanding of the interaction of chloroform with PMMA and metal atoms, we were curious to see if chloroform would promote the adhesion of Nickel to PMMA deposited by electroless plating. My goal was to selectively electroless plate Nickel onto PMMA. Chloroform was spun-cast onto 1 inch square PMMA substrates. I used electrical tape to shield one half of the PMMA from the chloroform during spin-casting; this allowed for a direct comparison of treated vs. untreated. The samples were then put through hydrochloric acid and a series of baths provided by Transene Company Inc. to electrolessly deposit nickel on the sample. After many trials, there was a clear distinction in the adhesion strength of the Nickel to the plain PMMA surface vs. the chloroform pre-treated surface. Showing that it is possible to create chloroform sites via spin-casting for electroless nickel plating on PMMA opens up the challenge to better understand the chemistry taking place and to perfect the electroless plating process.

  8. The effect of bulk/surface defects ratio change on the photocatalysis of TiO2 nanosheet film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Ge, Wenna; Shen, Tong; Ye, Bangjiao; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

    2017-07-01

    The photocatalysis behavior of TiO2 nanosheet array films was studied, in which the ratio of bulk/surface defects were adjusted by annealing at different temperature. Combining positron annihilation spectroscopy, EPR and XPS, we concluded that the bulk defects belonged to Ti3+ related vacancy defects. The results show that the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes could be significantly improved by optimizing the bulk/surface defects ratio of TiO2 nanosheet films, and in turn enhancing the photocatalysis behaviors.

  9. Onset and end of the summer melt season over sea ice: thermal structure and surface energy perspective from SHEBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Boulder, CO (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth Systems Research Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division (NOAA/ESRL/PSD), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Various measurements from the Surface Heat Flux of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment have been combined to study structures and processes producing the onset and end of summer melt over Arctic sea ice. The analysis links the surface energy budget to free-troposphere synoptic variables, clouds, precipitation, and in-ice temperatures. The key results are (1) SHEBA melt-season transitions are associated with atmospheric synoptic events (2) onset of melt clearly occurs on May 28, while the end of melt is produced by a sequence of three atmospheric storm events over a 28-day period producing step-like reductions in the net surface energy flux. The last one occurs on August 22.; (3) melt onset is primarily due to large increases in the downwelling longwave radiation and modest decreases in the surface albedo; (4) decreases in the downwelling longwave radiation occur for all end-of-melt transition steps, while increases in surface albedo occur for the first two; (5) decreases in downwelling shortwave radiation contribute only to the first end-of-melt transition step; (6) springtime free-tropospheric warming preconditions the atmosphere-ice system for the subsequent melt onset; and (7) melt-season transitions also mark transitions in system responses to radiative energy flux changes because of invariant melt-season surface temperatures. The extensive SHEBA observations enable an understanding of the complex processes not available from other field program data. The analysis provides a basis for future testing of the generality of the results, and contributes to better physical understanding of multi-year analyses of melt-season trends from less extensive data sets. (orig.)

  10. Investigation of heave response of the deepwater octagonal FDPSO using various heave plate configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenfang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shisheng

    2017-12-01

    Heave plates can be employed to control undesirable heave motion amplitudes of the deepwater octagonal Floating, Drilling, Production, Storage, and Offloading (FDPSO) platform. Numerical simulations and model tests were applied to analyze and investigate the hydrodynamic response and the feasibility of the heave plate configurations. The diameter and the depth below the free surface of a single-layer heave plate, as well as the spacing of two-layer heave plates, were considered as the primary variables when studying the effect of heave plates on FDPSO hydrodynamics. The analysis results indicate that the heave plate diameter significantly affects the heave hydrodynamics, and heave performance could be improved with an increased diameter. In addition, increasing the depth below the free surface of a single-layer heave plate does not effectively suppress the heave motion within the range of draft depths tested. The target FDPSO obtained better heave characteristics with increased spacing between the two-layer heave plates. Furthermore, the global performances of the octagonal FDPSO with these typical heave plate configurations were comparatively analyzed. The results indicate that from a hydrodynamic point of view, the single-layer heave plate configuration has an advantage over the two-layer heave plate configuration.

  11. Linear theory period ratios for surface helium enhanced double-mode Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.; King, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Linear nonadiabatic theory period ratios for models of double-mode Cepheids with their two periods between 1 and 7 days have been computed, assuming differing amounts and depths of surface helium enhancement. Evolution theory masses and luminosities are found to be consistent with the observed periods. All models give Pi 1 /Pi 0 approx. =0.70 as observed for the 11 known variables, contrary to previous theoretical conclusions. The composition structure that best fits the period ratios has the helium mass fraction in the outer 10 -3 of the stellar mass (T< or =250,000 K) as 0.65, similar to a previous model for the triple-mode pulsator AC And. This enrichment can be established by a Cepheid wind and downward inverted μ gradient instability mixing in the lifetime of these low-mass classical Cepheids

  12. Fem Simulation of Triple Diffusive Natural Convection Along Inclined Plate in Porous Medium: Prescribed Surface Heat, Solute and Nanoparticles Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.

  13. Jet-Surface Interaction: High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test, Nozzle Design and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford; Dippold, Vance

    2015-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio (JSI-HAR) nozzle test is part of an ongoing effort to measure and predict the noise created when an aircraft engine exhausts close to an airframe surface. The JSI-HAR test is focused on parameters derived from the Turbo-electric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) concept aircraft which include a high-aspect ratio mailslot exhaust nozzle, internal septa, and an aft deck. The size and mass flow rate limits of the test rig also limited the test nozzle to a 16:1 aspect ratio, half the approximately 32:1 on the TeDP concept. Also, unlike the aircraft, the test nozzle must transition from a single round duct on the High Flow Jet Exit Rig, located in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, to the rectangular shape at the nozzle exit. A parametric nozzle design method was developed to design three low noise round-to-rectangular transitions, with 8:1, 12:1, and 16: aspect ratios, that minimizes flow separations and shocks while providing a flat flow profile at the nozzle exit. These designs validated using the WIND-US CFD code. A preliminary analysis of the test data shows that the actual flow profile is close to that predicted and that the noise results appear consistent with data from previous, smaller scale, tests. The JSI-HAR test is ongoing through October 2015. The results shown in the presentation are intended to provide an overview of the test and a first look at the preliminary results.

  14. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  15. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  16. Detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to air bubbles in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, CG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1999-01-01

    The detachment of polystyrene particles adhering to collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to a passing air bubble has been studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Particle detachment decreased linearly with increasing air bubble velocity and

  17. Design of the Flow Plates for a Dual Cooled Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2009-01-01

    In a dual cooled fuel assembly, the array and position of fuels are changed from those of a conventional PWR fuel assembly to achieve a power uprating. The flow plate provides flow holes to direct the heated coolant into/out of the fuel assembly and structural intensity to insure that the fuel rod is axially restrained within the spacer grids. So, flow plates of top/bottom end pieces (TEP/BEP) have to be modified into proper shape. Because the flow holes' area of a flow plate affects pressure drop, the flow holes' area must be larger than/equal to that of conventional flow plates. And design criterion of the TEP/BEP says that the flow plate should withstand a 22.241 kN axial load during handling lest a calculated stress intensity should exceed the Condition I allowable stress. In this paper, newly designed flow plates of a TEP/BEP are suggested and stress analysis is conducted to evaluate strength robustness of the flow plates for the dual cooled fuel assembly

  18. The influence of surface microchemistry in protective film formation on multi-phase magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray-Munro, J.E.; Luan, B.; Huntington, L.

    2008-01-01

    The high strength:weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited their use in the automotive and aerospace industries, where exposure to harsh service conditions is unavoidable. The simplest way to avoid corrosion is to coat the magnesium-based substrate by a process such as electroless plating, which is a low-cost, non line of sight process. Magnesium is classified as a difficult to plate metal due to its high reactivity. This means that in the presence of air magnesium very quickly forms a passive oxide layer that must be removed prior to plating. Furthermore, high aluminium content alloys are especially difficult to plate due to the formation of intermetallic species at the grain boundaries, resulting in a non-uniform surface potential across the substrate and thereby further complicating the plating process. The objective of this study is to understand how the magnesium alloy microstructure influences the surface chemistry of the alloy during both pretreatment and immersion copper coating of the substrate. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning Auger microscopy has been used to study the surface chemistry at the various stages of the coating process. Our results indicate that the surface chemistry of the alloy is different on the aluminum rich β phase of the material compared to the magnesium matrix which leads to preferential deposition of the metal on the aluminum rich phase of the alloy

  19. Propagation of semi-elliptical surface cracks in ferritic and austenitic steel plates under thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1989-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of crack growth under thermal and thermomechanical fatigue loading are presented. The experiments were performed with a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and an austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNi 18 11. A plate containing a semi-elliptical surface crack is heated up to a homogeneous temperature and cyclically cooled down by a jet of cold water. On the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics stress-intensity factors are calculated with the weight function method. The prediction of crack growth under thermal fatigue loading using data from mechanical fatigue tests is compared with the experimental result. (orig.) [de

  20. Correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun

    2014-03-01

    We analytically calculate the correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate inside a dilute m:-n electrolyte. We do this by calculating the electrostatic Green's function in the presence of a nonlinear background potential, the latter having been obtained using the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We consider the general case where the dielectric constants of the plate and the electrolyte are distinct. The following generic results emerge from our analyses: (1) If the distance to the plate Δz is much larger than a Gouy-Chapman length, the plate surface will behave effectively as an infinitely charged surface, and the dielectric constant of the plate effectively plays no role. (2) If Δz is larger than a Gouy-Chapman length but shorter than a Debye length, the correlation potential can be interpreted in terms of an image charge that is three times larger than the source charge. This behavior is independent of the valences of the ions. (3) The Green's function vanishes inside the plate if the surface charge density is infinitely large; hence the electrostatic potential is constant there. In this respect, a strongly charged plate behaves like a conductor plate. (4) If Δz is smaller than a Gouy-Chapman length, the correlation potential is dominated by the conventional image charge due to the dielectric discontinuity at the interface. (5) If Δz is larger than a Debye length, the leading order behavior of the correlation potential will depend on the valences of the ions in the electrolyte. Furthermore, inside an asymmetric electrolyte, the correlation potential is singly screened, i.e., it undergoes exponential decay with a decay width equal to the Debye length.

  1. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  2. Experimental investigation of the unsteady one-phase flow through perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadei, F.

    1982-07-01

    The flow of the coolant through the perforated dip-plate during a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor was simulated in a one-dimensional model. Several experiments with water as fluid and with various perforation ratios of the dip-plate and different initial heights of the fluid head over the dip plate were run. The pressure drop through the dip-plate and the forces acting on the dip-plate and on the upper plug of the reactor vessel in a wide range of the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were measured. The flow pattern downstreams the perforated plate was filmed with high-speed cameras. The resistance coefficients for the unsteady flow of the coolant through the perforated plate were obtained as a function of the acceleration. The forces acting on the upper plug and their time integral were compared with those acting on the dip-plate. Finally, using the high-speed film pictures the formation of fluid jets downstream the dip-plate was investigated. (orig.) [de

  3. Determination of transfer parameters in corrugated plates exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lima Filho, S. da.

    1984-01-01

    In this work is presented a experimental study about the forced convenction problem in vee-corrugated exchangers, with flow in the transversal sense, and parallel plates exchangers in which the isotermal plate is equivalent to the absobing one and the other plate is adiabatic. Global values of the transfer coefficients were experimentally obtained by application of the Naphthalene Sublimation Technique in accordance with the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The results were expressed in terms of Sh sup(-) /Sc sup(0,4) that according to the analogy is equal the Nu sup(-) / Pr sup(0,4) in function of the Reynolds number. The ratio between the lenght of the channel and the average spacing between plates L/2a was ranged in all the exchangers. Parameters of transfer to angles of 45 0 and 31 0 were determined in the corrugated plates exchangers. The experimental results obtained were analyzed and compared among them. Finally practical applications of these results are presented to heat exchangers with similars geometric characteristics. (Author) [pt

  4. Divergent plate motion drives rapid exhumation of (ultra)high pressure rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Gerya, Taras

    2018-06-01

    Exhumation of (ultra)high pressure [(U)HP] rocks by upper-plate divergent motion above an unbroken slab, first proposed in the Western Alps, has never been tested by numerical methods. We present 2D thermo-mechanical models incorporating subduction of a thinned continental margin beneath either a continental or oceanic upper plate, followed by upper-plate divergent motion away from the lower plate. Results demonstrate how divergent plate motion may trigger rapid exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks directly to the Earth's surface, without the need for significant overburden removal by erosion. Model exhumation paths are fully consistent with natural examples for a wide range of upper-plate divergence rates. Exhumation rates are systematically higher than the divergent rate imposed to the upper plate, and the modeled size of exhumed (U)HP domes is invariant for different rates of upper-plate divergence. Major variations are instead predicted at depth for differing model scenarios, as larger amounts of divergent motion may allow mantle-wedge exhumation to shallow depth under the exhuming domes. The transient temperature increase, due to ascent of mantle-wedge material in the subduction channel, has a limited effect on exhumed continental (U)HP rocks already at the surface. We test two examples, the Cenozoic (U)HP terranes of the Western Alps (continental upper plate) and eastern Papua New Guinea (oceanic upper plate). The good fit between model predictions and the geologic record in these terranes encourages the application of these models globally to pre-Cenozoic (U)HP terranes where the geologic record of exhumation is only partly preserved.

  5. Lift to Drag Ratio Analysis in Magnetic Levitation with an Electrodynamic Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation (MagLev) using simple permanent magnets and conductive tracks. Our investigations used a circular Halbach array with a 1 Tesla variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above or below a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields, which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed a four-inch diameter Electrodynamic Wheel using twelve Neodymium permanent magnets and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW. These forces can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW to produce magnetic levitation without coils and complex control circuitry. We achieved full levitation of the non-magnetic aluminum and copper plates. Our results confirm the expected behavior of lift to drag ratio as proportional to (L/R) ω, with L and R being the inductance and resistance of the track plate, and ω being the angular velocity of the magnetic flux. Supported by grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.

  6. Particle deposition on face-up flat plates in parallel airflow under the combined influences of thermophoresis and electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Handol; Yook, Sejin; Han, Seogyoung

    2012-01-01

    The deposition velocity is used to assess the degree of particulate contamination of wafers or photomasks. A numerical model was developed to predict the deposition velocity under the combined influences of thermophoresis and electrophoresis. The deposition velocity onto a face-up flat plate in parallel airflow was simulated by varying the temperature difference between the plate's surface and ambient air or by changing the strength of the electric field established above the plate. Both attraction and repulsion by thermophoresis or electrophoresis were considered. When the plate's surface was colder than ambient air, the surface of the face-up plate could be at risk of contamination by charged particles even with a repulsive applied electric force. When the temperature of the plate's surface was higher than the ambient temperature, the degree of particulate contamination on the surface of the face-up plate could be remarkably reduced in the presence of an electric field. The effect of repulsive thermophoresis, however, is expected to be reduced for very fine particles of high electric mobility or for micrometer-sized particles with large gravitational settling speed when the charged particles are influenced by an attractive electric force.

  7. Development of linseed oil-free bakelite resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bose, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Saha, S.; Viyogi, Y.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we would like to present a few characteristics of the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) made of a particular grade of bakelite paper laminates (P-120, NEMA LI-1989 Grade XXX), produced and commercially available in India. This particular grade is used for high voltage insulation in humid conditions. The chambers are tested with cosmic rays in the streamer mode using argon, tetrafluroethane and isobutane in 34:59:7 mixing ratio. In the first set of detectors made with such grade, a thin coating of silicone fluid on the inner surfaces of the bakelite was found to be necessary for operation of the detector. Those silicone coated RPCs were found to give satisfactory performance with stable efficiency of >90% continuously for a long period as reported earlier. Results of the crosstalk measurement of these silicone coated RPC will be presented in this paper. Very recently RPCs made with the same grade of bakelite but having better surface finish are found to give equivalent performance even without any coating inside. Preliminary results of this type of RPCs are also being presented.

  8. ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF NICKEL-BASED MAGNETIC ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED BY PD-FREE ELECTROLESS PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Jia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based magnetic activated carbon was synthesized from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The effect of plating solution volume on metallic ratio and adsorption capacity were evaluated. The effect of metallic ratio on specific area, pore volume, and magnetic properties were investigated. The morphologies of activated carbon before and after plating were observed by SEM, and the composition of the layer was analyzed by EDS analysis. The results showed that the metallic ratio was increased with the increase of the plating solution volume. The magnetic activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and a high iodine number. Those values reached 142.5 mg/g and 1035 mg/g, respectively. The specific area and pore volume decreased from 943 m2/g to 859 m2/g and 0.462 ml/g to 0.417 ml/g, respectively. And the layer was more compact and continuous when the metallic ratio reached 16.37 wt.%. In the layer, there was about 97 wt.% nickel and 3 wt.% phosphorus, which indicates that the layer was a low-phosphorus one. At the same time, magnetism was enhanced, making the product suitable for some special applications.

  9. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Surface Roughness in a Microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob; Byun, Sung Jun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) results for a laminar flow in a microchannel with rough surface are presented. The surface roughness is modeled as an array of rectangular modules placed on the top and bottom surface of a parallel-plate channel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, and roughness size are presented in terms of the Poiseuille number. The roughness distribution characterized by the ratio of the roughness height to the spacing between the modules has a negligible effect on the flow and friction factors. Finally, a significant increase in the Poiseuille number is observed when the surface roughness is considered, and the effects of roughness on the microflow field mainly depend on the surface roughness.

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of CO adsorption on the surface of single phase hexagonally plate ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Amin; Firooz, Azam Anaraki [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtian, Javad, E-mail: j.beheshtian@srttu.edu [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abbas Ali [Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, 11155-4563 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • HRTEM images indicated a single crystal with a [0 0 1] direction growth. • DFT calculations were performed to reveal structure and electronic properties of ZnO. • The CO sensor response was close to obtained theoretical results. - Abstract: A simple low temperature hydrothermal method has been investigated for synthesis of single phase hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure. The synthesized ZnO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) photoluminescence spectrum (PL) and ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis) to investigate the surface morphology, crystallographic phase, optical properties and used as a sensor for detection of CO gas molecules. It was observed that the ZnO microstructures were uniform size, single phase and symmetrical, with a hexagonal shape and height of ∼250 nm. The optical band gap value of this sample was calculated to be about 3.22 eV, which show a red shift with theoretical method. High-resolution TEM images indicate that all the microstructures are single crystals with a [0 0 1] direction growth. We studied the gas response of this sample to 500 ppm CO over a temperature range of 200–400 °C and compared with theoretical results. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the structure and electronic properties of ZnO with simulating the adsorption process of CO gas on the ZnO (1 0 1) surface. The theoretical results were in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Simulating faults and plate boundaries with a transversely isotropic plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, W.; Moresi, L. N.; Velic, M.; Jadamec, M. A.; May, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    In mantle convection simulations, dynamically evolving plate boundaries have, for the most part, been represented using an visco-plastic flow law. These systems develop fine-scale, localized, weak shear band structures which are reminiscent of faults but it is a significant challenge to resolve the large- and the emergent, small-scale-behavior. We address this issue of resolution by taking into account the observation that a rock element with embedded, planar, failure surfaces responds as a non-linear, transversely isotropic material with a weak orientation defined by the plane of the failure surface. This approach partly accounts for the large-scale behavior of fine-scale systems of shear bands which we are not in a position to resolve explicitly. We evaluate the capacity of this continuum approach to model plate boundaries, specifically in the context of subduction models where the plate boundary interface has often been represented as a planar discontinuity. We show that the inclusion of the transversely isotropic plasticity model for the plate boundary promotes asymmetric subduction from initiation. A realistic evolution of the plate boundary interface and associated stresses is crucial to understanding inter-plate coupling, convergent margin driven topography, and earthquakes.

  12. Tentative investigation on neutron mirror fabrication with electroless nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiang; Morita, Shin-ya; Yamagata, Yutaka; Takeda, Shin; Kato, Jun-ichi; Hino, Masahiro; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics becomes highly required due to the rapid development of neutron technology. In this paper, we attempt to fabricate the neutron mirror by using a metal substrate made of electroless nickel plating to take place of glass concerning about mirror's optical performance and manufacturing method. A new manufacture process chain of neutron mirror is proposed by following the steps of fast milling and precision cutting of aluminium/stainless, electroless nickel plating, ultra-precision cutting by diamond tools, super-smooth polishing and super mirror coating to obtain high form accuracy and good surface roughness time-efficiently. Some tentative investigations are carried out. A workpiece (□ 50 x 50 mm 2 ) with flat surface made of electroless nickel plating is machined by ultra-precision cutting and polishing. The surface roughness with 0.728 nm rms (0.588 nm Ra) is acquired. According to results of reflectometry, the neutron beam can be reflected effectively with high intensity and little scattering. (author)

  13. Open reduction and internal fixation of osteoporotic acetabular fractures through the ilio-inguinal approach: use of buttress plates to control medial displacement of the quadrilateral surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Robin E

    2015-01-01

    The number of acetabular fractures in the geriatric population requiring open reduction and internal fixation is increasing. Fractures with medial or anterior displacement are the most frequent types, and via the ilio-inguinal approach buttress plates have proved helpful to maintain the quadrilateral surface or medial acetabular wall. Seven to ten hole 3.5 mm reconstruction plates may be used as buttress plates, placed underneath the usual pelvic brim plate. This retrospective study presents our results with this technique in 13 patients at a minimum follow-up of 12 months (average, 31 months). 85% of the patients had a good result. The early onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis necessitated total hip arthroplasty in two patients (15%) at 12 and 18 months follow-up, respectively. This treatment option should be considered in the surgeon's armamentarium when fixing these challenging cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  15. Comparison of conventional reconstruction plate versus direct metal laser sintering plate: an in vitro mechanical characteristics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pusheng; Ouyang, Hanbin; Deng, Yuping; Yang, Yang; Xu, Jing; Huang, Wenhua

    2017-09-02

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has helped to achieve several advances in the medical field, particularly as far as fabrication of implants is concerned. But the application of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) bone plate is quite limited due to the indeterminate mechanical property. The purposes of this study were to characterize the biomechanical properties of the polished DMLS reconstruction plate and to compare these with the properties of commonly applied implants and to find whether the mechanical performance of DMLS plate meets the requirements for clinical application. In this study, we fabricated two groups of plates by DMLS and computer numerical control (CNC) techniques. After that, we polished all samples and investigated their roughness, components, hardness, static bending, and torsional performance. Moreover, cyclic bending tests and fractographic analysis were conducted. Statistical comparisons of the group by means of monotonic test data were made, and a qualitative comparison was performed to assess failures in fatigue. We found no differences in surface roughness or components after polishing, but the DMLS plate hardness is 7.42% (p direct application of these AM instruments in the operating room requires further validation including animal and clinical experiment.

  16. Anterior cervical fusion: the role of anterior plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Scott D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of cervical pathology requires a clear understanding of the biomechanical benefits and limitations of cervical plates, their indications, and their associated complications. The use of anterior cervical plates has evolved significantly since their early application in cervical trauma. They have become widely used for anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylosis. Plate design has undergone significant refinement and innovation, from the initial unlocked plates requiring bicortical purchase to the latest rotationally and translationally semiconstrained dynamic plates. Excellent clinical results have been reported for single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion with or without plate fixation; however, the addition of an anterior cervical plate clearly leads to earlier fusion and better clinical results in longer fusions. Longer fusions should ideally consist of corpectomies and strut grafting because the decreased number of fusion surfaces tends to lead to higher fusion rates. Although anterior plate fixation leads to higher fusion rates in fusions of three or more levels, the associated pseudarthrosis rate is still high. The use of dynamic plates, through increased load sharing across the graft and decreased stress shielding, may improve fusion rates, particularly in long fusions. Nevertheless, adjuvant posterior fixation is recommended for fusions of more than three vertebral levels. Anterior plate fixation may be of particular benefit in the management of traumatic injuries, in revision settings, and in the treatment of smokers. Complications unique to plate fixation include hardware breakage and migration as well as ossification of the adjacent disk levels.

  17. Can Silicon-Smelting Contribute to the Low O/Si Ratio on the Surface of Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Hogancamp, J.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Boyce, J. W.

    2018-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft collected data that provided important insights into the structure, chemical makeup, and compositional diversity of Mercury. Among the many discoveries about Mercury made by MESSENGER, several surprising compositional characteristics of the surface were observed. These discoveries include elevated sulfur abundances (up to 4 wt.%), elevated abundances of graphitic carbon (0-4.1 wt.% across the surface with an additional 1-3 wt.% graphite above the global average in low reflectance materials), low iron abundances (less than 2 wt.%), and low oxygen abundances (O/Si weight ratio of 1.20+/-0.1). These exotic characteristics likely have important implications for the thermochemical evolution of Mercury and point to a planet that formed under highly reducing conditions. In the present study, we focus specifically on the low O/Si ratio of Mercury, which is anomalous compared to all other planetary materials. A recent study that considered the geochemical implications of the low O/Si ratio reported that 12-20% of the surface materials on Mercury are composed of Si-rich, Si-Fe alloys. They further postulated that the origin of the metal is best explained by a combination of space weathering and graphite-induced smelting that was facilitated by interaction of graphite with boninitic and komatiitic parental liquids. The goal of the present study is to assess the plausibility of smelting on Mercury through experiments run at the conditions that McCubbin et al. indicated would be favorable for Si-smelting.

  18. Induced surface stress at crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, K.

    2002-05-01

    Changes of the surfaces stress Δτ (s) can be studied by observing the bending of thin crystalline plates. With this cantilever method one can gain the induced change of surface stress Δτ (s) from the bending of plates with the help of elasticity theory. For elastic isotropic substrates the relevant relations are known. Here the relations are generalized to elastic anisotropic crystals with a C 2v - Symmetry. The equilibrium shapes of crystalline plates oriented along the (100)-, (110)-, or (111)-direction which are clamped along one edge are calculated with a numeric method under the load of a homogeneous but pure isotropic or anisotropic surface stress. The results can be displayed with the dimensionality, so that the effect of clamping can be described in a systematic way. With these tabulated values one can evaluate cantilever experiments exactly. These results are generalized to cantilever methods for determining magnetoelastic constants. It is shown which magnetoelastic constants are measured in domains of thin films with ordered structures. The eigenshape and the eigenfrequency of plates constraint through a clamping at one side are calculated. These results give a deeper understanding of the elastic anisotropy. The induced surface stress of oxygen on the (110)-surface of molybdenum is measured along the principle directions Δτ [001] and Δτ [ anti 110] . The anisotropy of the surface stress is found for the p(2 x 2)-reconstruction. Lithium induces a tensile surface stress on the Molybdenum (110)-surface up to a coverage of Θ = 0, 3 monolayer. For a higher coverage the induced stress drops and reaches a level of less than -1, 2 N/m at one monolayer. It is shown, that cobalt induces a linear increasing stress with respect to the coverage on the (100)-surface of copper with a value of 2, 4GPa. The copper (100)-surface is bombarded with accelerated ions in the range between 800-2200 eV. The resulting induced compressive stress (Δτ (s) < 0) of the order

  19. Procedure for definition of end-effector orientation in planar surfaces robot applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Jelena Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of user-friendly and at the same time powerful robot programming methods is the subject of significant efforts undertaken by the international robotics community. For the purpose of facilitating robot programming, with regard to the most common present-day applications in industry, it would be useful to develop programming procedures for frequently used manipulator tasks which could be easily implemented and used as ready-made application software. Important class of industrial robot applications involves end-effector trajectories in planar surfaces. Development of robot programming language procedure intended for determination of object plane normal with respect to frame of interest, as well as programming of end-effector orientation is presented in this paper. This procedure can be used as integral part of task oriented robot programing applications as well as a procedure for explicit programming languages, and it is illustrated in practical example with the robot Lola 15.

  20. Customization of flexographic printing plates related to uvc-induced changes in the crosslinking degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tomašegović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the swelling properties of photopolymer flexographic printing plates related to the variations of UVC post-treatment have been analysed. The aim of the research was to interconnect the changes in the crosslinking degree of the photopolymer material occurring due to the modified UVC radiation of the printing plate and the changes of its surface free energy crucial in the graphic reproduction process. Changes in the crosslinking degree in the photopolymer materials have been analysed by the swelling experiments. Results have proven that the partial dissolution of the photopolymer material caused by the immersion of the printing plates in various solvents is in the direct relation with the changes of the dispersive surface free energy. UVC post-treatment, used for the crosslinking termination and the definition of the surface properties of printing plates, is therefore directly affecting the resistivity of the printing plate in the solvent environment. By calculating the correlation coefficients for the weight loss of the photopolymer material in solvents and the dispersive surface free energy, the relation between the crosslinking degree and the UVC post-treatment has been established.

  1. Surface strengthening using a self-protective diffusion paste and its application for ballistic protection of steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, D.C.; Solberg, J.K.; Borvik, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with surface strengthening of steel plates using a self-protective diffusion paste. During the surface strengthening process, a paste containing carbon, boron or similar is applied on the steel surface. In addition to serving as a source for the various diffusion ingredients, the paste protects the steel against contact with the environment, so no packing or gas protection is necessary. Thus, the handling is in general very simple, and the surface strengthening process can be performed in a conventional air furnace. The method provides the same type of surface strengthening that is obtained by more conventional methods. In this work, the main focus will be surface strengthening by carburizing, but also boronizing and boronizing followed by carburizing have been tested out. The methods have been applied to increase the ballistic resistance of the low-strength carbon steel NVE36 (with nominal yield stress of 355 MPa) against impacts from small-arms bullets. An empirical model combining diffusion depth, heat-treatment temperature and soaking time was established on the basis of a series of experimental data. By means of this equation, the various heat-treatment parameters can be predicted when others are chosen. Ballistic perforation tests using 7.62 mm APM2 bullets showed that the low-strength carbon steel after surface strengthening obtained a ballistic limit higher than that of Hardox 400, which is a wear steel with a yield stress of about 1200 MPa.

  2. Device for the selective positioning of a component on a tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for the selective positioning of a component on a tube plate. It particularly applies to the positioning of a guide tube head successively opposite all the tubes of the tube bundle of a nuclear reactor steam generator. The large number of tubes in the tube bundle of the steam generator in a pressure water nuclear power station must be checked periodically for any likely corrosion. This check is effected with a Foucault current probe which is inserted in each tube in turn and is connected to a probe signal processing unit. The probe is placed in a flexible guide tube brought in turn in front of each tube of the bundle to be checked. The invention concerns a device to move the opening of a tube guide for a Foucault current detector over the entire surface of the tube plate, thereby providing access to all the tubes whilst limiting the interventions to a single positioning and a single withdrawal of the apparatus for testing all the bundle. Between the two interventions at the beginning and end of the operation, all displacements are remote controlled from outside the dangerous radioacive area [fr

  3. Weighted anisotropic Korn's inequality for a junction of a plate and a rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, S A

    2004-01-01

    Korn's inequality is proved for an elastic body obtained by attaching to a plate several rods with clamped farther ends. The thickness of the plate and the diameters of the rods are characterized by a single small parameter h, which also gauges the distinctions in the elastic properties of the elements of the junction. The selection of the weighted anisotropic norms distinguishing the longitudinal and transverse directions in the plate and in a rod ensures the asymptotic accuracy of the inequality, which is substantiated by examples of particular constructions. New results on single plates and rods are obtained in the course of the proof.

  4. The baffle influence on sound radiation characteristics of a plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic radiation characteristics of the baffle plates and unbaffle plates are calculated and compared by single-layer potential and double-layer potential. Based on the boundary integral equation, the sound pressure integral equation of the baffle and the baffle are deduced respectively. According to the boundary compatibility condition, the sound pressure and the vibration velocity of the plates are obtained. Further, the dynamic equation of the structure is substituted into the vibration equation in the form of the baffle plate and the baffle plate. The sound pressure difference and the displacement of a plate surface are in the form of the vibration mode superposition and the acoustic radiation impedance of the double integral form is obtained, which determines vibration mode coefficient and sound radiation parameters. The effect of the baffle on the acoustic radiation characteristics of the thin plate is analyzed by comparing the acoustic radiation parameters with the simple and simple rectangular plate in water.

  5. Sound insulation performance of plates with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Kaijun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sound insulation performance of a thin plate with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches. Piezoelectric patches are periodically bonded on the surfaces of the plate in a collocated fashion, and are interconnected via an inductive circuit network. This piezoelectric system is termed as piezo-electromechanical (PEM plate in the paper. Homogenization methods are involved under a sub-wavelength assumption to analytically develop the dynamical equations for the PEM plate. The dispersion relationships and energy densities of the wave modes propagating in the PEM plate are studied; the sub-wavelength assumption is verified for the simulations in this paper. The coincidence frequency of the PEM plate is researched, and results show that the coincidence frequency of the PEM plate will disappear at certain circumstances; mathematical and physical explanations are made for this phenomenon. The disappearance of the coincidence frequency is used to optimize the value of inductance, for the purpose of improving the sound transmission loss of the PEM plate.

  6. Experimental study of gas entrainment from surface swirl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudjed, B., E-mail: brahim.moudjed@cea.fr; Excoffon, J.; Riva, R.; Rossi, L., E-mail: lionel.rossi@cea.fr

    2016-12-15

    Gas entrainment from surface swirls is characterized using water experiments. A free surface shear flow is generated in an open channel flow. A suction nozzle is set at the bottom of the test section to induce a downward flow and provoke gas entrainment. An important originality of these experiments is the possibility to change the inlet condition so as to generate different turbulent shear flows. This is done by adding obstacles of different sizes and shapes at the end of a flat plate separating the inlet flow from a “stagnant” water area. Velocity fields and profiles, measured with the PIV technique, are provided both to describe the inlet conditions corresponding to various geometries and flow rates, and to characterize the temporal average shear flow generated within the centre part of the channel. Gas entrainment mappings are established from direct observations of the different flow configurations. These new results show that the threshold for the suction velocities required to entrain gas are similar for the configurations with small obstacles and the flat plate configuration triggering a standard shear flow. Increasing the size of the obstacles promotes gas entrainment and reduces the threshold values of the suction velocity to trigger gas entrainment. Shadowgraphy with image processing is used to present new results characterizing the geometrical properties of surface swirls and the quantity of gas entrained. Inlet configurations with obstacles generate larger surface swirls which move upstream from the suction nozzle centre whereas they are situated downstream with the flat plate configuration. Moreover, dimensionless power laws are found to be good approximations for the surface swirl width and the quantity of gas entrained. In addition to provide new insights about gas entrainment in analytical configurations relevant to Sodium cooled fast nuclear reactor, these results should provide different test cases for the validation of MCFD codes.

  7. Energy dissipation characteristics of sharp-edged orifice plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Wanzheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss coefficient, relating directly to the energy dissipation ratio, is an important index of this energy dissipater. In this article, this coefficient and its affecting parameters were analyzed by theoretical considerations, and their relationships were obtained by numerical simulations. It could be concluded that the energy loss coefficient of sharp-edged orifice plate and its backflow region length were mainly dominated by the contraction ratio of the orifice plate. Sharp-edged orifice plate’s energy loss coefficient and its backflow region length all increase slightly with the increase in its thickness. When Reynolds number is in the range of 9.00×104–10.3×106, Reynolds number has little impacts on energy loss coefficient and backflow region length. Two empirical expressions, relating to backflow region length and energy loss coefficient, respectively, were presented.

  8. Effects of commercial cladding on the fracture behavior of pressure vessel steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Bolt, S.E.; Cook, K.V.; Corwin, W.R.; Oland, B.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Robinson, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this program is to determine the effect, if any, of stainless steel cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states similar to those produced by thermal shock conditions. Preliminary results from testing at temperature 10 deg. C and 60 deg. C below NDT have shown that (1) a tough surface layer (cladding and/or HAZ) has arrested running flaws under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured, and (2) the residual load-bearing capacity of clad plates with large subclad flaws significantly exceeded that of an unclad plate. (author)

  9. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  10. Quality control of nuclear fuel plates using digital image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Renato; Radd, Ulrich; Coronado, Harold; Olivares, Luis

    2003-01-01

    The Chilean Atomic Energy Commission (CCHEN) has developed the technology requires to manufacture low enriched uranium-235 nuclear fuel elements used in non-power reactor applications and in research. These fuel plates are assembled in two nuclear facilities located at La Reina (RECH-1) and Lo Aguirre where the present work was developed. Furthermore since high quality standards have been met, these facilities are able to export these nuclear fuel plates to foreign countries. Each MTR fuel elements consists of 16 low enriched uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) fuel plates. A stringent quality assurance program requires among others, homogeneity measurements of uranium surface density values of these fuel plates, which are traditionally accomplished with optical densitometry methods. We have implemented and alternative technique which uses computer vision to determine uranium surface density values in these fuel plates. Both techniques are compared. Advantages of machine vision methods include considerable time saving and a complete quantitative evaluation of uranium densities as compared to the sparse technique involved in the optical densitometry method (Au)

  11. Biomechanical and biological aspects of defect treatment in fractures using helical plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, S M; Regazzoni, P; Fernandez, A A D

    2014-01-01

    . Its application is fairly simple: The helical plate is modified conventional long and small plate that is twisted between its ends about 90 degrees. The twist is applied using "bending irons" (4, 5, 8) whereby the force required is small and the exact degree of twist is not critical. Therefore the twist is applicable operating bending irons by hand. Assuming a situation where a plate bridging a defect or non-union has failed the broken plate is replaced by a similar implant: At the distal end of the bone fracture and opposite to the surgical approach a small incision allows to slide in the helical plate in such a way that proximally the plate ends on the same side of the limb as the replaced plate. Ideally the two plate ends meet and the application of the helical plate does not ask for an additional surgical exposure at this location. Otherwise a small minimally invasive exposure is required. The helical plate is then fixed to the main bone fragments using a couple of locked screws. The following case demonstrates the use and efficiency of the helical plate saving a situation where multiple attempts using conventional plates had failed. The successful final treatment of this case was performed by A. A. D. Fernandez.

  12. CMS Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Upgrade R&D Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Akgun, Ugur; Onel, Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Due to an expected increase in radiation damage in LHC, we propose to replace the active material of the CMS Hadronic EndCap calorimeters with radiation hard quartz plate. Quartz is proven to be radiation hard with radiation damage tests using electron, proton, neutron and gamma beams. However, the light produced in quartz is from Cerenkov process, which yields drastically fewer photons than scintillators. To increase the light collection efficiency we pursue two separate methods: First method: use wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, which have been shown to collect efficiently the Cerenkov light generated in quartz plates. A quartz plate calorimeter prototype with WLS fibers has been constructed and tested at CERN that shows this method is feasible. Second proposed solution is to treat the quartz plates with radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl, doped zinc oxide, or doped CdS. Another calorimeter prototype has been constructed with p-terphenyl deposited quartz plates, and showed superior calorimeter...

  13. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported.

  14. Positron emission zone plate holography for particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is a powerful non-invasive technique that has been used extensively for tracking a single particle. In this paper, we present a study of zone plate holography method in order to track multiple particles, mainly two particles. The main aim is to use as small number of events as possible in the order to make it possible to track particles in fast moving industrial systems. A zone plate with 100% focal efficiency is simulated and applied to the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data for multiple particle tracking. A simple trajectory code was employed to explore the effects of the nature of the experimental trajectories. A computer holographic reconstruction code that simulates optical reconstruction was developed. The different aspects of the particle location, particle activity ratios for enabling tagging of particles and zone plate and hologram locations are investigated. The effect of the shot noise is investigated and the limitations of the zone plate holography are reported

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing plate structure for a nuclear reactor is described; such structure comprising a pair of malleable metallic non-fissionable matrix plates having confronting surfaces which are pressure bonded together and fully united to form a bonded surface, and elongated malleable wire-like fissionable fuel members separately confined and fully enclosed between the matrix plates along the interface to afford a high fuel density as well as structural integrity and effective retention of fission products. The plates have separate recesses formed in the confronting surfaces for closely receiving the wire-like fissionable fuel members. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are made of a maleable uranium alloy capable of being formed into elongated wire-like members and capable of withstanding pressure bonding. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are completely separated and isolated by fully united portions of the interface

  16. Thimble grip fuel assembly handling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salton, R.B.; Hornak, L.P.; Marshall, J.R.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for lifting a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor. The fuel assembly consists of a top nozzle and control rod guide tubes. The apparatus having a gripping means comprised of: a life plate, an actuating plate having a plurality of apertures, the actuating plate disposed in spaced relationship below the lift plate and vertically movable relative thereto; gripping members operably associated with the lift and actuating plates, the gripping members comprising: (a) a vertical rod fixedly secured near its top end to the lift plate and projecting downward therefrom through an associated aperture in the actuating plate, the rod having a first frustoconical surface formed near its lower end, (b) a generally cylindrical, elastically deformable vertical sleeve having a bore therethrough with a first inner diameter, the sleeve having a first bevelled inside surface near the top end and a second bevelled inside surface at the bottom end of the sleeve, and (c) a vertical gripper actuator disposed about the rod

  17. Compounded natural convection enhancement in a vertical parallel-plate channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Assunta [Dipartimento di Energetica, Termofluidodinamica Applicata e Condizionamenti Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Campo, Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Vermont, 33 Colchester Ave., Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Manca, Oronzio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) 81031 (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    This paper addresses the natural convection behavior of air when heated in single vertical, parallel-plate channels. To enhance the heat transfer two passive schemes are combined: (1) an equidistant short plate is inserted at the inlet and (2) two parallel, colinear insulated plates are appended at the exit. The channel plates are symmetrically heated with a uniform heat flux. The computational procedure is made by solving the full elliptic Navier-Stokes and energy equations with the finite-volume methodology in an I-type computational domain that is much larger than the physical domain. Within the framework of a ''proof-of-concept'' the controlling Grashof number based on the heated plate height ranges between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6}. The numerical velocity, pressure and temperature fields are post-processed to compute the quantities of engineering interest such as the induced mass flow rate, the pressure at the channel mid-plane and the temperature along the plates. In addition, the Nusselt number and the average Nusselt number, both based on the heated plate height, are presented in graphical form. At the end, optimal channel configurations expressed in terms of the highest average Nusselt number are obtained for the pair of pre-assigned Grashof numbers. (author)

  18. Swelling of U-7Mo/Al-Si dispersion fuel plates under irradiation – Non-destructive analysis of the AFIP-1 fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachs, D.M., E-mail: daniel.wachs@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Robinson, A.B.; Rice, F.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Characterization and Advanced PIE Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Kraft, N.C.; Taylor, S.C. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Lillo, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Design and Analysis Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Woolstenhulme, N.; Roth, G.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have proven to be a significant impediment to the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. The addition of silicon to the aluminum matrix was previously demonstrated to reduce interaction layer growth in mini-plate experiments. The AFIP-1 project involved the irradiation, in-canal examination, and post-irradiation examination of two fuel plates. The irradiation of two distinct full size, flat fuel plates (one using an Al-2wt%Si matrix and the other an Al-4043 (∼4.8 wt% Si) matrix) was performed in the INL ATR reactor in 2008–2009. The irradiation conditions were: ∼250 W/cm{sup 2} peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ∼3.5e21 f/cm{sup 3} peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the in-canal and post-irradiation non-destructive examinations that were performed on these fuel plates. It further compares additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in contemporary campaigns in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. Except for a brief indication of accelerated swelling early in the irradiation of the Al-2Si plate, the fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density through the maximum burnup.

  19. The Effect of Growth Temperature and V/III Flux Ratio of MOCVD Antimony Based Semiconductors on Growth Rate and Surface Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramelan Ari Handono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Alx Ga1-x Sb layers on GaSb and GaAs substrates have been grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMAl, TMGa and TMSb. Nomarski microscope and a profiler were employed to examine the surface morphology and growth rate of the samples. We report the effect of growth temperature and V/III flux ratio on growth rate and surface morphology. Growth temperatures in the range of 520°C and 680°C and V/III ratios from 1 to 5 have been investigated. A growth rate activation energy of 0.73 eV was found. At low growth temperatures between 520 and 540°C, the surface morphology is poor due to antimonide precipitates associated with incomplete decomposition of the TMSb. For layers grown on GaAs at 580°C and 600°C with a V/III ratio of 3 a high quality surface morphology is typical, with a mirror-like surface and good composition control. It was found that a suitable growth temperature and V/III flux ratio was beneficial for producing good AlGaSb layers. Undoped AlGaSb grown at 580°C with a V/III flux ratio of 3 at the rate of 3.5 μm/hour shows p-type conductivity with smooth surface morphology

  20. Vibration reduction of composite plates by piezoelectric patches using a modified artificial bee colony algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghashochi-Bargh

    Full Text Available In Current paper, power consumption and vertical displacement optimization of composite plates subject to a step load are carried out by piezoelectric patches using the modified multi-objective Elitist-Artificial Bee Colony (E-ABC algorithm. The motivation behind this concept is to well balance the exploration and exploitation capability for attaining better convergence to the optimum. In order to reduce the calculation time, the elitist strategy is also used in Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The voltages of patches, plate length/width ratios, ply angles, plate thickness/length ratios, number of layers and edge conditions are chosen as design variables. The formulation is based on the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT and Hamilton's principle. The performance of the new ABC approach is compared with the PSO algorithm and shows the good efficiency of the new ABC approach. To check the validity, the transient responses of isotropic and orthotropic plates are compared with those available in the literature and show a good agreement.

  1. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. An immunoassay for dibutyl phthalate based on direct hapten linkage to the polystyrene surface of microtiter plates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dibutyl phthalate (DBP is predominantly used as a plasticizer inplastics to make them flexible. Extensive use of phthalates in both industrial processes and other consumer products has resulted in the ubiquitous presence of phthalates in the environment. In order to better determine the level of pollution in the environment and evaluate the potential adverse effects of exposure to DBP, immunoassay for DBP was developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A monoclonal antibody specific to DBP was produced from a stable hybridoma cell line generated by lymphocyte hybridoma technique. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA employing direct coating of hapten on polystyrene microtiter plates was established for the detection of DBP. Polystyrene surface was first oxidized by permanganate in dilute sulfuric acid to generate carboxyl groups. Then dibutyl 4-aminophthalate, which is an analogue of DBP, was covalently linked to the carboxyl groups of polystyrene surface with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC. Compared with conjugate coated format (IC(50=106 ng/mL, the direct hapten coated format (IC(50=14.6 ng/mL improved assay sensitivity after careful optimization of assay conditions. The average recovery of DBP from spiked water sample was 104.4% and the average coefficient of variation was 9.95%. Good agreement of the results obtained by the hapten coated icELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further confirmed the reliability and accuracy of the icELISA for the detection of DBP in certain plastic and cosmetic samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stable and efficient hybridoma cell line obtained is an unlimited source of sensitive and specific antibody to DBP. The hapten coated format is proposed as generally applicable because the carboxyl groups on modified microtiter plate surface enables stable immobilization of aminated or hydroxylated hapten with EDC. The developed

  3. Expression of cell adhesion and differentiation related genes in MC3T3 osteoblasts plated on titanium alloys: role of surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sista, Subhash; Wen, Cuie; Hodgson, Peter D.; Pande, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the cellular and molecular events that take place at the cell–material interface of implants used for bone repair. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the initial stages of osteoblast interactions with the surface of the implant material is fundamental in deciding the fate of the cells that come in contact with it. In this study, we compared the relative gene expression of markers that are known to be associated with cell adhesion and differentiation in MC3T3 osteoblast cells, at various time points after plating the cells on surfaces of titanium (Ti) and its two alloys, titanium–zirconium (TiZr) and titanium–niobium (TiNb) by using Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Our analysis indicated that expression of adhesion supporting genes was higher on TiZr surface as compared to Ti and TiNb. The behavior of these genes is possibly driven by a higher surface energy of TiZr. However no significant difference in the expression of differentiation related genes could be seen between the two alloys, although on both substrates it was higher as compared to unalloyed Ti. We propose that substrate composition of the alloys can influence the adhesion and differentiation related gene expression and that Ti alloys are better substrates for inducing osteogenesis as compared to unalloyed Ti. - Highlights: ► Methodology for comparing gene expression in osteoblasts plated on Ti, TiZr or TiNb ► Alloys with higher surface energy (TiZr) induce cell adhesion genes more efficiently ► Alloyed Ti is superior to unalloyed Ti to induce osteoblast differentiation genes

  4. EFFECT OF VARIOUS POROUS STRUCTURES ON THE SHLIOMIS MODEL BASED FERROFLUID LUBRICATION OF THE FILM SQUEEZED BETWEEN ROTATING ROUGH CURVED CIRCULAR PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimit R Patel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been made to analyze the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication of a squeeze film between rotating rough curved circular plates where the upper plate has a porous facing. Different models of porosity are treated. The stochastic modeling of Christensen and Tonder has been employed to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. The related stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is numerically solved to obtain the pressure distribution, leading to the calculation of load carrying capacity. The results presented in graphical form establish that the Kozeny-Carman model is more favorable as compared to the Irmay one from the design point of view. It is observed that the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication performs relatively better than the Neuringer-Rosensweig one. Although the bearing suffers due to transverse surface roughness, with a suitable choice of curvature parameters and rotational ratio, the negative effect of porosity and standard deviation can be minimized by the ferrofluid lubrication at least in the case of negatively skewed roughness.

  5. Closed solutions to a differential-difference equation and an associated plate solidification problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layeni, Olawanle P; Akinola, Adegbola P; Johnson, Jesse V

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct and novel formalisms for deriving exact closed solutions of a class of variable-coefficient differential-difference equations arising from a plate solidification problem are introduced. Thereupon, exact closed traveling wave and similarity solutions to the plate solidification problem are obtained for some special cases of time-varying plate surface temperature.

  6. The fatigue life and fatigue-crack-through-thickness behavior of a surface-cracked plate, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Matsui, Kentaro; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu

    1989-01-01

    The LBB (leak-before-break) design is one of the most important subjects for the evaluation and the assurance of safety in pressure vessels, piping systems, LNG carriers and various other structures. In the LBB design, it is necessary to evaluate precisely the lifetime of steel plate. Furthermore, the change in crack shape that occurs during the propagation after through thickness is of paramount importance. For this reason, in a previous report, the authors proposed a simplified evaluation model for the stress intensity factor after cracking through thickness. Using this model, the crack propagation behavior, crack-opening displacement and crack shape change of surface-cracked smooth specimens and surface-cracked specimens with a stress concentration were evaluated quantitatively. The present study was also done to investigate the fatigue crack propagation behavior of surface cracks subjected to combined tensile and bending stress. Estimation of fatigue crack growth was done using the Newman-Raju formula before through thickness, and using formula (7) and (8) after through thickness. Crack length a r at just through thickness increases with increasing a bending stress. Calculated fatigue crack shape showed very good agreement with experimental one. It was also found that particular crack growth behavior and change in crack shape after cracking through thickness can be explained quantitatively using the K value based on Eqs. (7) and (8). (author)

  7. Sound propagation through a rarefied gas. Influence of the gas–surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalempa, Denize; Sharipov, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-equilibrium gas properties due to sound propagation. ► Influence of gas–surface accommodation coefficients. ► Heat transfer due to thermo-acoustic waves. ► Reciprocal relations. ► Range of validity of the Navier–Stokes equations. - Abstract: Acoustic waves propagating through a rarefied gas between two plates induced by both oscillation and unsteady heating of one of them are considered on the basis of a model of the linearized Boltzmann equation. The gas flow is considered as fully established so that the dependence of all quantities on time is harmonical. The problem is solved for several values of two main parameters determining its solution, namely, the gas rarefaction defined as the ratio of the distance between the plates to the equivalent free path of gaseous molecules, and the oscillation parameter given as the ratio of the intermolecular collision frequency to the wave frequency. The reciprocal relation for such flows is obtained and verified numerically. An influence of the gas–surface accommodation coefficients on the wave characteristics is analyzed by employing the Cercignani–Lampis scattering kernel to the boundary conditions.

  8. Effect of machining parameters on surface integrity of silicon carbide ceramic using end electric discharge milling and mechanical grinding hybrid machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Zhang, Yanzhen; Cai, Baoping; Li, Xiaopeng; Zheng, Chao

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid process that integrates end electric discharge (ED) milling and mechanical grinding is proposed. The process is able to effectively machine a large surface area on SiC ceramic with good surface quality and fine working environmental practice. The polarity, pulse on-time, and peak current are varied to explore their effects on the surface integrity, such as surface morphology, surface roughness, micro-cracks, and composition on the machined surface. The results show that positive tool polarity, short pulse on-time, and low peak current cause a fine surface finish. During the hybrid machining of SiC ceramic, the material is mainly removed by end ED milling at rough machining mode, whereas it is mainly removed by mechanical grinding at finish machining mode. Moreover, the material from the tool can transfer to the workpiece, and a combination reaction takes place during machining.

  9. Global Dynamic Numerical Simulations of Plate Tectonic Reorganizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, G.; Quevedo, L.; Butterworth, N.; Matthews, K. J.; Müller, D.

    2010-12-01

    We use a new numerical approach for global geodynamics to investigate the origin of present global plate motion and to identify the causes of the last two global tectonic reorganizations occurred about 50 and 100 million years ago (Ma) [1]. While the 50 Ma event is the most well-known global plate-mantle event, expressed by the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, a prominent plate reorganization at about 100 Ma, although presently little studied, is clearly indicated by a major bend in the fracture zones in the Indian Ocean and by a change in Pacific plate motion [2]. Our workflow involves turning plate reconstructions into surface meshes that are subsequently employed as initial conditions for global Boundary Element numerical models. The tectonic setting that anticipates the reorganizations is processed with the software GPlates, combining the 3D mesh of the paleo-plate morphology and the reconstruction of paleo-subducted slabs, elaborated from tectonic history [3]. All our models involve the entire planetary system, are fully dynamic, have free surface, are characterized by a spectacular computational speed due to the simultaneous use of the multi-pole algorithm and the Boundary Element formulation and are limited only by the use of sharp material property variations [4]. We employ this new tool to unravel the causes of plate tectonic reorganizations, producing and comparing global plate motion with the reconstructed ones. References: [1] Torsvik, T., Müller, R.D., Van der Voo, R., Steinberger, B., and Gaina, C., 2008, Global Plate Motion Frames: Toward a unified model: Reviews in Geophysics, VOL. 46, RG3004, 44 PP., 2008 [2] Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. Pacific absolute plate motion since 145 Ma: An assessment of the fixed hot spot hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, B06101, 2008 [3] L. Quevedo, G. Morra, R. D. Mueller. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Crustal Dynamics, Proceeding 9th World Congress and 4th Asian

  10. Numerical Study on the Effect of Distribution Plates in the Manifolds on the Flow Distribution and Thermal Performance of a Flat Plate Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel García-Guendulain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow maldistribution represents a problem of particular interest in the engineering field for several thermal systems. In flat plate solar collectors, the thermal efficiency strongly depends on the flow distribution through the riser tubes, where a uniform distribution causes a uniform temperature distribution and therefore a higher efficiency. In this work, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD numerical analysis has been carried out using the commercial software FLUENT®, in order to determine the flow distribution, pressure drop and hence the thermal efficiency of a solar collector with distribution flow plates inside the manifolds. The obtained numerical solution for this type of thermal systems has been validated with experimental results available in literature for laminar and turbulent flow. Four distribution plate configurations were analyzed. Results show that using two distribution plates in each of both manifolds improves the flow uniformity up to 40% under the same operating conditions when distribution plates are not used. Besides, it is shown that there exists an increase in the overall pressure drop which is practically negligible for the tilt angles commonly employed in the installation of flat plate solar collectors in Mexico. The use of closed end distribution plates on the dividing and combining manifolds allows the thermal efficiency to become close to the ideal thermal efficiency which is obtained with a uniform flow distribution.

  11. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compac