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Sample records for encyclopedias today lexicographical

  1. What is a Lexicographical Database? | Bergenholtz | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty years ago, nolexicographer used a database in the work process. Today, almost all dictionary projects incorporate databases. In our opinion, the optimal lexicographical database should be planned in cooperation between a lexicographer and a database specialist in each specific lexicographical project.

  2. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en

  3. Explaining dysfunctional effects of lexicographical communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces elements of the theory of lexicographical communication and applies them to scaffold such a framework. It is argued that indicators in dictionary articles can be regarded as lexicographic utterances that carry various types of lexicographic messages. These can be systematically and formally analysed ...

  4. Encyclopedia of Adult Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert, Ed.

    This encyclopedia contains 106 articles on adult development that were written by more than 75 specialists in such diverse fields as anthropology, communication, education, health sciences, history, and psychology. In a guide to related topics that is presented at the beginning of the encyclopedia, the 106 articles are grouped under the following…

  5.  The development of the Encyclopedia of Accounting and Finance. The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Alver

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this paper is to analyze the framework, content and principles of composing a special encyclopedia – the Encyclopedia of Accounting and Finance. The paper presents the concept of a two-volume special Encyclopedia – the Encyclopedia of Accounting and Finance – written and revised by the authors over the course of a decade. An analysis of the practical lexicographic work done by the authors of the Encyclopedia of Accounting and Finance is presented. The analysis describes how the authors composed the Encyclopedia and discusses how the components of the work relate to one another. Part of the Encyclopedia is a biographical reference book including more than 900 mini-essays. Another feature of the book is its extensive network of cross-references. Principles of lexicography were used in the process of composing the Encyclopedia of Accounting and Finance. This paper is the first to provide a comprehensive analysis of the authors’ viewpoint on the special Encyclopedia, which contains almost 8,000 entries.

  6. Encyclopedia of adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.B.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The period of adolescence involves growth, adaptation, and dramatic reorganization in almost every aspect of social and psychological development. The Encyclopedia of Adolescence offers an exhaustive and comprehensive review of current theory and research findings pertaining to this critical decade

  7. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  8. Reflections on Lexicographical User Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Tarp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The last decades have seen a growing interest in theoretical and practical problems related to lexicographical user research. Starting with a discussion of the concept of lexicographically relevant user needs, this contribution analyses, utilising the lexicographical function theory, various types of needs to be taken into account when doing this kind of research. It then discusses the positive and negative aspects of the various methods applied, i.e. questionnaires, interviews, observation, protocols, experiments, tests, and log files. With reference to both lexicographical and sociological literature, it raises a number of problems com-mon to most of the lexicographical user research conducted until now and recommends the application of scientific methods in future research. Finally, it proposes a number of alternative methods in order to obtain more knowledge about the real user needs.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, FUNCTION THEORY, DICTIONARY USAGE, USER NEEDS, USER TYPOLOGY, USER SITUATIONS, USER RESEARCH, RESEARCH METHODS, QUES-TIONNAIRES, INTERVIEWS, OBSERVATION, EXPERIMENTS, TESTS, LOG FILES

    Opsomming: Gedagtes oor leksikografiese gebruikersnavorsing. Die laaste dekades het 'n groeiende belangstelling in teoretiese en praktiese probleme betreffende leksikogra-fiese gebruikersnavorsing gesien. Deur met 'n bespreking van die konsep van leksikografies ter-saaklike gebruikersbehoeftes te begin, ontleed hierdie bydrae, met gebruikmaking van die leksiko-grafiese funksieteorie, verskillende soorte behoeftes wat in aanmerking geneem moet word wan-neer hierdie soort navorsing gedoen word. Dit bespreek dan die positiewe en negatiewe aspekte van die verskillende metodes wat benut word, d.w.s. vraelyste, onderhoude, waarneming, proto-kolle, eksperimente, toetse, en loglêers. Met verwysing na sowel leksikografiese as sosiologiese literatuur, bring dit 'n aantal probleme ter sprake tipies van die meeste leksikografiese gebruikers

  9. Encyclopedia of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2013-01-01

    TRIBOLOGY – the study of friction, wear and lubrication – impacts almost every aspect of our daily lives. The Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology is an authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science and engineering of tribology that are relevant to researchers across all engineering industries and related scientific disciplines. This is the first major reference that brings together the science, engineering and technological aspects of tribology of this breadth and scope in a single work. Developed and written by leading experts in the field, the Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology covers the fundamentals as well as advanced applications across material types, different length and time scales, and encompassing various engineering applications and technologies. Exciting new areas such as nanotribology, tribochemistry and biotribology have also been included. As a six-volume set, the Springer Encyclopedia of Tribology comprises 1630 entries written by authoritative experts...

  10. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  11. Game chromatic number of lexicographic product graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alagammai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the exact values of the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of path P2 with path Pn, star K1,n and wheel Wn. Also we give an upper bound for the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of any two simple graphs G and H.

  12. The encyclopedia of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Barkana, Rennan; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Kim, Jihn E; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, in four volumes, is a major, long-lasting, seminal reference at the graduate student level, laid out by the most prominent, respected researchers in the general field of Cosmology. These volumes will be a comprehensive review of the most important concepts and current status in the field, covering both theory and observation.

  13. Encyclopedia of Rose Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A.; Debener, T.; Gudin, S.; Byrne, D.B.; Cairns, T.; Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.; Forkmann, G.; Fruchter, M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Horst, R.K.; Jay, M.; Kwakkenbosch, T.A.M.; Pemberton, B.; Put, H.M.C.; Rajapakse, S.; Reid, M.; Schum, A.; Shorthouse, J.D.; Ueda, Y.; Vainstein, A.; Pol, van de P.A.; Zieslin, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural

  14. Who can Really be Called a Lexicographer? | Gouws | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicographers define words but still lack a clear and unambiguous understanding of the word lexicographer. This paper gives a brief discussion of the problems experienced in trying to determine exactly what a lexicographer is. The distinction between theoretical and practical lexicographers is quite clear but within both ...

  15. Encyclopedia of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bojanova, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cloud Computing provides IT professionals, educators, researchers and students with a compendium of cloud computing knowledge. Authored by a spectrum of subject matter experts in industry and academia, this unique publication, in a single volume, covers a wide range of cloud computing topics, including technological trends and developments, research opportunities, best practices, standards, and cloud adoption. Providing multiple perspectives, it also addresses questions that stakeholders might have in the context of development, operation, management, and use of clouds. Furthermore, it examines cloud computing's impact now and in the future. The encyclopedia presents 56 chapters logically organized into 10 sections. Each chapter covers a major topic/area with cross-references to other chapters and contains tables, illustrations, side-bars as appropriate. Furthermore, each chapter presents its summary at the beginning and backend material, references and additional resources for further i...

  16. Perception of Dalmatia in selected foreign lexicographic publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the perception of Dalmatia in selected foreign, primarily French, British, Italian, German and American, lexicographic publications. Knowledge related to a specific area can be gained by personal (primary experience, i.e. one's own experience of space, and by indirect (secondary experience, i.e. from textual descriptions, graphic and cartographic presentations. Geographic knowledge is a certain type of spatial cognition that contributes to creating one's own mental map of a specific area. Probability of existence of different versions of such a mental map is much higher in case of larger areas that cannot be perceived as a whole, or in case of areas that have been marked by significant changes throughout their historical and geographic development. Indirect experience has a great importance in view of unknown and less known areas, because it is gained by the use of secondary and tertiary sources of geographic information. Among those sources of geographic information are lexicographic publications, such as encyclopedias, lexicons and geographic dictionaries, marked by availability, systematic form and conciseness. The problems that occur when defining spatial extent of Dalmatia in such works derive from the fact that the origins of that Croatian region were not the result of gradual centennial development within one state. Namely, it was a region on the contact of three powerful states (Venetian Republic, Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Monarchy, and its spatial extent differed from the extent of the great Roman province of Dalmatia that stretched from the Adriatic Sea to Posavina, and from the extent of the Byzantine theme that comprised different small and territorially disconnected urban communities on the northeastern Adriatic coast.

  17. Encyclopedia of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2001-01-01

    Optimization problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems and their applications arise in all branches of science, applied science and engineering. The goal of the Encyclopedia of Optimization is to introduce the reader to a complete set of topics in order to show the spectrum of recent research activities and the richness of ideas in the development of theories, algorithms and the applications of optimization. It is directed to a diverse audience of students, scientists, engineers, decision makers and problem solvers in academia, business, industry, and government.

  18. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written......ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  19. Countable or Uncountable? That is the Question — Lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study will offer some constructive lexicographic solutions to the problems incurred by foreign learners' misconceptions of nominal countability in foreign text production. Keywords: Chinese Efl Learners, Chinese Learners' Difficulties, Data Accessibility, Data Presentation, Foreign Text Production, Lexicographic ...

  20. An Einstein encyclopedia

    CERN Document Server

    Calaprice, Alice; Schulmann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein’s life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life. An Einstein Encyclopedia contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage o...

  1. Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia; Williams, Thomas; Bracher, Katherine; Jarrell, Richard; Marché, Jordan; Palmeri, JoAnn; Green, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. It includes approx. 1850 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of 430 authors edited by an editorial board of 8 historians and astronomers. This reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. The fully corrected and updated second edition adds approximately 300 biographical sketches. Based on ongoing research and feedback from the community, the new entries will fill gaps and provide expansions. In addition, greater emphasis on Russo phone astronomers and radio astronomers is given. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the super luminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo's acolyte, Mario Guiducci.

  2. Encyclopedia of biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as an introductory guide to the scientific literature. It includes entries describing both Techniques and Systems.  In the Techniques entries, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron) through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches. In the Systems entries, biophysical approaches to specific biological systems or problems – from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors – are described. These sections, which place emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an inroad into Biophysics from a biolo...

  3. Encyclopedia of astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, William; Amils, Ricardo; Cleaves, Henderson; Pinti, Daniele; Quintanilla, José; Rouan, Daniel; Spohn, Tilman; Tirard, Stéphane; Viso, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e.g. the prevalence of exoplanets, the diversity and hardiness of life, and its increasingly likely chances for its emergence. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe. The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture. The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors inten...

  4. Encyclopedia of astrobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Quintanilla, José Cernicharo; Cleaves, Henderson James (Jim); Irvine, William M; Pinti, Daniele L; Viso, Michel; Gargaud, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of Astrobiology constitutes a joint arena where provocative discoveries are coalescing concerning, e.g. the prevalence of exoplanets, the diversity and hardiness of life, and its increasingly likely chances for its emergence. Biologists, astrophysicists, biochemists, geoscientists and space scientists share this exciting mission of revealing the origin and commonality of life in the Universe. The members of the different disciplines are used to their own terminology and technical language. In the interdisciplinary environment many terms either have redundant meanings or are completely unfamiliar to members of other disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology serves as the key to a common understanding. Each new or experienced researcher and graduate student in adjacent fields of astrobiology will appreciate this reference work in the quest to understand the big picture. The carefully selected group of active researchers contributing to this work and the expert field editors inten...

  5. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  6. Computing an element in the lexicographic kernel of a game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Kern, Walter; Kuipers, Jeroen

    The lexicographic kernel of a game lexicographically maximizes the surplusses $s_{ij}$ (rather than the excesses as would the nucleolus). We show that an element in the lexicographic kernel can be computed efficiently, provided we can efficiently compute the surplusses $s_{ij}(x)$ corresponding to a

  7. Computing an element in the lexicographic kernel of a game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Kern, Walter; Kuipers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The lexicographic kernel of a game lexicographically maximizes the surplusses $s_{ij}$ (rather than the excesses as would the nucleolus). We show that an element in the lexicographic kernel can be computed efficiently, provided we can efficiently compute the surplusses $s_{ij}(x)$ corresponding to a

  8. Innovative Approaches in the Training of Lexicographers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What kind of in-service training should the trainee lexicographer undergo if he or she ... In answer to the question which qualities a good definer should have, Landau ... valuable practical training, but I know of none that offer such opportunities.

  9. Lexicographic presentation of grammatical divergence in Sesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on existing insights from the field of theoretical lexicography this article gives an innovative application to the relation of divergence by introducing the notion of grammatical divergence. In bilingual dictionaries with English and Sesotho sa Leboa as language pair lexicographers are confronted with a real challenge ...

  10. Bilingual Dictionaries, the Lexicographer and the Translator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: This article focuses on the problems, and advantages and disadvantages of the bilin- gual dictionary from both the lexicographer's and the translator's point of view, with specific refer- ence to bilingual Zulu dictionaries. It is shown that there are many and varying problems the lexi- cographer has to deal with and ...

  11. Between designer drugs and afterburners: A Lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    typically include geographically restricted features of the natural environment, as well as ... for various kinds of in-laws, despite the relationships themselves being, biolo- ... Less obviously still, the names of certain emotions, mental states, or social ... cognitive equivalent, wherever available, is the lexicographer's first choice.

  12. Explaining dysfunctional effects of lexicographical communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    word nie; dit het naamlik gelyk of die voorbeeldsin op slegs 'n negatiewe aspek van die ... scaffold the proposed framework will be developed, after which the focus will ... tainer, the dictionary as the medium of lexicographical communication. ...... 25. This conclusion is based on the fact that LU10 is evaluated as inaccurate.

  13. Encyclopedia of radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Luther W. [Drexel Univ. College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Yaeger, Theodore E. (eds.) [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-02-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of radiation oncology. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on radiation oncology. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of radiation oncology. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list.

  14. Encyclopedia of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of imaging. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on diagnostic radiology contributing to the broad field of imaging. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of diagnostic imaging. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list. (orig.)

  15. Building the Encyclopedia of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiafico, P. A.; Patterson, D. J.

    2010-04-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a collaborative project that indexes information about species, and makes it freely accessible to anyone. In order to accomplish this, EOL is building collaborative tools and infrastructure to unify the information.

  16. Dictionary criticism in Scandinavian lexicographic journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Dictionary criticism has a long tradition in the Nordic countries in for instance academic journals and newspapers. In order to limit the scope of the paper, the examination of dictionary reviews in the Nordic countries is restricted to the Nordic lexicographic journal LexicoNordica. The examinat......Dictionary criticism has a long tradition in the Nordic countries in for instance academic journals and newspapers. In order to limit the scope of the paper, the examination of dictionary reviews in the Nordic countries is restricted to the Nordic lexicographic journal Lexico......Nordica. The examination shows that there is great variation in the way reviewers write their critiques, and reviewers address many relevant topics and do not focus on one or two topics. Another characteristic of dictionary criticism in LexicoNordica is that reviewers often compare the dictionary under review with other...... dictionaries and previous editions and where relevant compare print and online editions. Furthermore, many reviewers address outside matter and meta-texts, thereby treating dictionaries as complex lexicographic products that consist of several distinct but interrelated components. A final characteristic...

  17. CRC concise encyclopedia of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Weisstein, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the dedication of author Eric Weisstein to collecting, cataloging, and referencing mathematical facts, formulas, and definitions. He has now updated most of the original entries and expanded the Encyclopedia to include 1000 additional pages of illustrated entries. The accessibility of the Encyclopedia along with its broad coverage and economical price make it attractive to the widest possible range of readers and certainly a must for libraries, from the secondary to the professional and research levels. For mathematical definitions, formulas, figures, tabulations, and references, this is simply the most impressive compendium available.

  18. Multimedia encyclopedia of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.A.; Langlands, T.L.M.; Crooks, J.R.; Milne-Jones, S.R.; D'Urso, C.A.; Stone, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing a multimedia encyclopedia that provides a framework for students to learn nuclear science. A variety of media formats are used to present concepts, including text, static figures, animations, and video. Two special presentation formats use dynamically produced simulations to expose students to nuclear science relationships. These media types provide greater interactivity and flexibility than simple animations. Students access information through tutorials, a dictionary of nuclear science terms, biographies of notable scientists, and a timeline of nuclear science history.The tutorial organization emphasizes the interrelationships among topics. We present an overview of the encyclopedia. (author)

  19. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Spohn, Tilman; Johnson, Torrence

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Third Edition-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Cosmology & Astronomy from the Association of American Publishers-provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact-with an astounding breadth of content and breathtaking visual impact. The encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of color digital images and illustrations, and over 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve

  20. Encyclopedia of microfluidics and nanofluidics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Covering all aspects of transport phenomena on the nano- and micro-scale, the 800 entries include 300 essay entries.  The Encyclopedia gives an up to date look at the fundamentals of the field as well as many experiments and applications in growing areas such as energy devices and bioengineering applications.

  1. Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar medium, Light, Magnetisphere, Matter, Planet Earth, Public Impact, Solar Activity, Solar Heliosphere, Solar Interior, Solar Systems, Space, Stellar Astrophysics, Stellar Populations, Telescopes, Time The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics covers 30 major subject areas, such as Active galaxies, Astrometry, Astrophysical theory, Atmospheres, Binary stars, Biography, Clusters, Coordinates, Cosmology, Earth, Education, Galaxies,

  2. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  3. Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points To Consider. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    This book discusses issues to consider when purchasing an encyclopedia and provides reviews of eight print encyclopedias, six CD-ROM encyclopedias, and one online encyclopedia. Each review provides an address and discusses the history, scope and treatment, and quality and currency of the encyclopedia; for CD-ROM encyclopedias, the database…

  4. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence

    1998-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System provides a series of comprehensive and authoritative articles written by more than 50 eminent planetary and space scientists. Each chapter is self-contained yet linked by cross-references to other related chapters. This beautifully designed book is a must for the library of professional astronomers and amateur star-gazers alike, in fact for anyone who wishes to understand the nature of our solar system.Key Features* Cross-referenced throughout for easy comprehension* Superbly illustrated with over 700 photos, drawings, and diagrams, including 36 color plates* Provides 40 thematically organized chapters by more than 50 eminent contributors* Convenient glossaries of technical terms introduce each chapter* Academic Press maintains a web site for the Encyclopedia at www.academicpress.com/solar; Author-recommended web resources for additional information, images, and research developments related to each chapter of this volume, are available here

  5. The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dodge, Yadolah

    2008-01-01

    The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics presents the essential information about statistical tests, concepts, and analytical methods in language that is accessible to practitioners and students of the vast community using statistics in medicine, engineering, physical science, life science, social science, and business/economics. The reference is alphabetically arranged to provide quick access to the fundamental tools of statistical methodology and biographies of famous statisticians. The more than 500 entries include definitions, history, mathematical details, limitations, examples, references,

  6. CIRP encyclopedia of production engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhart, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The CIRP Encyclopedia covers the state-of-art of advanced technologies, methods and models for production, production engineering and logistics. While the technological and operational aspects are in the focus, economical aspects are adressed too. The definitions and short explanations for a wide variety of terms were reviewed by the CIRP-Community, representing the highest standards in research. Thus, the content is not only evaluated internationally on a high scientific level but also reflects very recent developments.

  7. Not Mere Lexicographic Cosmetics: The Compilation and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    ERENCE SKILLS, OUTER TEXTS, LEMMATA, DICTIONARY ARTICLE ..... lexicographic conventions is explained and illustrated by means of articles extracted ..... effect paradigmatic relations as in itshelo (cello) where users are referred to all.

  8. Stability, pseudostability and quasistability of vector trajectorial lexicographic optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berdysheva

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Lower bounds of stability, pseudostability and quasistability radii of lexicographic set in vector combinatorial problem on systems of subsets of finite set with partial criteria of more general kinds have been found.

  9. Multi-Objective Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Lexicographic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Tao; Wu, Gang; Liu, Guang-Hong; Ling, Qing

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, to avoid the disadvantages of weight coefficients in multi-objective dynamic optimization, lexicographic (completely stratified) and partially stratified frameworks of multi-objective controller are proposed. The lexicographic framework is absolutely prioritydriven and the partially stratified framework is a modification of it, they both can solve the multi-objective control problem with the concept of priority for objective’s relative importance, while the latter one is mo...

  10. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  11. Dynamics of the Collateral Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach

    2015-01-01

    Both Umberto Eco and Charles S. Peirce have been concerned with the notion of background knowledge. Eco refers to background knowledge as the encyclopedia; Peirce’s term of reference is collateral experience. The aim of this article is to investigate the degree to which these two concepts...... are comparable. We focus on one major metaphysical issue, viz. the fact that Eco defines collateral experience, which is the first step in any process of cognition, as private, whereas Peirce, as a realist, would never accept the concept of private thoughts, feelings, etc. We suggest that freeing collateral...... experience from its nominalistic nomenclature makes possible a comparison and synthesis of Eco’s and Peirce’s conceptions when seen from the perspectives of their cognitive type, nuclear type, and molar content....

  12. The Application of the prototype theory in lexicographic practice: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed model includes three most chal-lenging but key aspects of lexicographic treatment of polysemy: sense discrimination, sense defin-ing and structure and organization of a dictionary entry. The prototype-based view of a polyse-mous structure is illustrated with a diagram representing a proposed upgrade of the ...

  13. Towards Linking User Interface Translation Needs to Lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a time of proliferating electronic devices such as smartphones, translators of user interfaces are faced with new challenges, such as the use of existing words in new contexts or in their obtaining new meanings. In this article, three lexicographic reference works available to translators in this field are compared: the ...

  14. The lexicographical handling of grammatical equivalence: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicographers compiling translating dictionaries are not exclusively concerned with semantic equivalence when selecting translating equivalents for lemmata, but often include also grammatical information in illustrative examples when the lexical item to be translated does not have an exact grammatical counterpart in the ...

  15. Structures in the communication between lexicographer and programmer: Database and interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals exclusively with e-lexicography. It intends to answer the question how much a lexicographer in charge of a new e-dictionary project should know about lexicographical structures, and how this knowledge could be communicated to the IT programmer designing the underlying database...... and the corresponding user interfaces. With this purpose, it first defines the concepts of lexicographical database, e-dictionary and e-lexicographical structure. Then it discusses some of the new ways in which lexicographical structures express themselves in the digital environment. It stresses, above all......, their dynamic character and great complexity which make it extremely difficult and time-consuming for the lexicographer to get an overview of all the structures in an e-lexicographical project. Finally, and based upon the experience from the planning and design of five e-dictionaries, it shows how...

  16. Concise encyclopedia of history of energy

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    "The Concise Encyclopedia of the History of Energy" draws together in a single volume a comprehensive account of the field from the prestigious and award-winning "Encyclopedia of Energy" (2004). This volume covers all aspects of energy history with authoritative articles authoritatively contributed and edited by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Extensively revised since the original publication of the "Encylopedia of Energy", this work describes the most interesting historical developments of the past five years in the energy sector. It is a concise desk reference for researchers and those interested in any aspect of the history of energy science. It provides eminently cost-effective access to some of the most interesting articles in "Encyclopedia of Energy". It is significantly revised to accommodate the latest trends in each field of enquiry.

  17. LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTHWESTERN DIALECTS OF THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Greshchuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of compiling the Southwestern dialect dictionaries. A survey of the history of the dialect dictionaries from the mid-nineteenth century to the present is given. The scientific background and principles of compiling the dictionaries in question are analyzed. Special attention is given to dictionary register, dictionary entry structure, description of semantic properties of registered words, illustrative material, word passport. It has been established that many aspects of the Hutsul dialects are reflected in different lexicographical works, though a big academic dictionary still needs to be written. There exist big differential dictionaries of the Boyko, Bukovynian, Upper Dniestrian dialects. The Transcarpathian and Lemko dialects are less closely studied in this respect. There have been carried out some lexicographical studies of the Podillian, Pokuttian, Southern Volynian dialects and the dialects of the Sian river basin; further research is certainly needed to provide a firm basis for compiling dictionaries of these dialects.

  18. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Reviewed by Yavuz AKBULUT

    2008-01-01

    233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

  19. Encyclopedia and library in the contemporary age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Traniello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of the Encyclopédie of Diderot and D’Alembert, which dates from 1751, the concept of library is declined in a negative sense, as a closing tool and impediment in the hands of the State, compared to the Encyclopedia, considered the book of the people. The constitution of the public library (the british Public Libraries Act is dated 1850, funded with public money, determines to change and both realities, Library and Encyclopedia, begin to interact contributing to the development of contemporary culture. Such as the Library, the Encyclopedia also supposes a work of organization of knowledge through classifications. From this point of view, both institutions seem closer in a purpose that unites them. In view of the information revolution, the Library should help reduce complexity of digital information and should play, against the vastness of the network, a role similar to what the Enlightenment Encyclopedia has assigned to itself in the face of large library collections, which were seen as points of accumulation, and also as points of the knowledge’s dispersion.

  20. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials, 2 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mel

    2002-03-01

    Smart materials--materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device--are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. Now, practictioners and researchers have an authoritative source to go to for answers about this emerging new area. Encyclopedia of Smart Materials provides A-to-Z coverage of the entire field of intelligent materials. Discussions of theory, fabrication, processing, applications, and uses of these unique materials are presented here in a collection of concise entries from the world's foremost experts in the field--including scientists, educators and engineers. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions. Illustrated with photographs, tables, line drawings, and equations, Encyclopedia of Smart Materials is the premier reference for material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, consultants, patent attorneys and students in these areas. An essential resource on the shelves of laboratories, government facilities, and academic libraries. Editor-in-Chief, Mel Schwartz has over forty years of experience with metals, ceramics, and composites, with special expertise in brazing. The holder of five patents, he has authored thirteen books and more than one hundred technical papers and articles. Reach the information you need rapidly and easily with the ONLINE edition of the Encyclopedia of Smart Materials. The online edition delivers all

  1. Forms of encoded pragmatic meaning: semantic prosody. A lexicographic perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šorli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – The present paper focuses on ways in which the pragmatic (functional meaning that arises from various contextual features, known in corpus linguistics as semantic prosody (Sinclair 1996, 2004; Louw 1993, etc. can become an integral part of lexicographic descriptions. This is especially important for the treatment of phraseology and idiomatics. The workings of semantic prosody are a good example of the ways pragmatic meaning exploits linguistic means to be codified in the text. We thus investigate the meaning that can only be studied in context, as it is completely dependent on collocation, i.e., syntagmatic relations, and therefore cannot be attributed solely to a concrete word form. Corpus analysis has yielded significant results in areas such as the lexicographic treatment of semantic prosody. We believe that in order to improve teaching pragmatics in all its complexity, it is necessary to recognise and assess various aspects of pragmatic meaning both in written and spoken language. Second/foreign language teaching/learning in particular has been strongly dependent on the inclusion of relevant information in dictionaries, in which, traditionally, pragmatic aspects of meaning have been largely neglected. Language technologies have enabled us both to study the subtleties of pragmatic meaning and to design accurate and more user-friendly (pedagogical dictionaries. We will attempt to demonstrate the value of explicit description of functional pragmatic meaning, i.e. semantic prosody, as implemented in the Slovene Lexical Database (2008-2012. A brief overview of the theoretical background is first provided, after which we describe the definition strategies employed to include pragmatics, as well as presenting a case study and arguing that explicating semantic prosody is crucial in developing pragmatic competence in (young/foreign language learners. Keywords: semantic prosody; pragmatics; lexicographic description; dictionary; lexical

  2. [Systems, boundaries and resources: the lexicographer Gerhard Wahrig (1923-1978) and the genesis of his project "dictionary as database"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrig-Burfeind, Renate; Wahrig, Bettina

    2014-09-01

    Gerhard Wahrig's private archive has recently been retrieved by the authors and their siblings. We undertake a first survey of the unpublished material and concentrate on those aspects of Wahrig's bio-ergography which stand in relation to his life project "dictionary as database", realised shortly before his death. We argue that this project was conceived in the 1950s, while Wahrig was writing and editing dictionaries and encyclopedias for the Bibliographisches Institut in Leipzig. Wahrig, who had been a wireless operator in WWII, was well informed about the development of computers in West Germany. He was influenced both by Ferdinand de Saussure and by the discussion on language and structure in the Soviet Union. When he crossed the German/German border in 1959, he experienced mechanisms of exclusion before he could establish himself in the West as a lexicographer. We argue that the transfer of symbolic and human capital was problematic due to the cultural differences between the two Germanies. In the 1970s, he became a professor of General and Applied Linguistics. The project of a "dictionary as database" was intended both as a basis for extensive empirical research on the semantic structure of natural languages and as a working tool for the average user of the German language. Due to his untimely death, he could not pursue his idea of exploring semantic networks.

  3. Some Notes and Critiques of Selected Lexicographic Texts in Bikol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louward Allen Zubiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study revolves around notes and critiques of Bikol lexicography. Based on a selection of six dictionaries, the structure and diachronic development of Bikol lexicography were analyzed. Half of the selected dictionaries were authored in full or part by Malcolm Mintz, a renowned Bikol expert. These enabled a linear analysis of changes in lexicography that have occurred within the span of four decades. The dictionaries studied include the earliest and most influential Bikol dictionary of Lisboa (1865. The study presents a preliminary description of lexicographic work done in Bikol and traces the shift in the paradigm of dictionary making from the Spanish era to the present.

  4. Lexicographical structuring: the number and types of fields, data distribution, searching and data presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2015-01-01

    This contribution will not describe the structure in existing dictionaries. Instead, it will focus on the decisions that lexicographers make when they draw up the concept for and carry out the production of one or more new dictionaries, or when they consider making changes in the data presentation...... in an existing dictionary. This part of the lexicographical work is what we call structuring, which encompasses a number of various lexicographical decisions. One of these is choosing the fields that a database should contain. Typically, for some of these field types, it will be easy to distribute data......, but for other fields it will require long considerations as there are several distribution options with different outcomes of varying usefulness. A second type of lexicographical decision to be made by the lexicographer is the predefined searching, which involves in what order searches are to be made...

  5. From Sentiment to Sentimentality: A Nineteenth-Century Lexicographical Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Banfield

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief account of the lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' in the nineteenth century, and the table of definitions which follows it, grew from my increasing sense of the shifting and ambivalent nature of the term in the literature of the period, despite the resonance and the proverbial solidity of phrases such as ‘Victorian sentiment' and ‘Victorian sentimentality'. The table is self explanatory, representing the findings of a search, among a wide range of nineteenth-century dictionaries over the period, for the changing meanings accrued by the word ‘sentiment' over time, its extensions and its modifications. The nineteenth-century lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' has its chief roots in the Eighteenth-century enlightenment, with definitions from Samuel Johnson and quotations from John Locke, chiefly based on intellect and reason. The nineteenth century generated a number of derivatives of the word over a period of time to express altered modes of feeling, thought and moral concern. The history of the word ‘sentiment' offers a psychological as well as a linguistic narrative.

  6. Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blow, M. J.; Deutschbauer, A. M.; Hoover, C. A.; Lamson, J.; Lamson, J.; Price, M. N.; Waters, J.; Wetmore, K. M.; Bristow, J.; Arkin, A. P.

    2013-03-20

    Bacteria and Archaea exhibit a huge diversity of metabolic capabilities with fundamental importance in the environment, and potential applications in biotechnology. However, the genetic bases of these capabilities remain unclear due largely to an absence of technologies that link DNA sequence to molecular function. To address this challenge, we are developing a pipeline for high throughput annotation of gene function using mutagenesis, growth assays and DNA sequencing. By applying this pipeline to annotate gene function in 50 diverse microbes we hope to discover thousands of new gene functions and produce a proof of principle `Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea?.

  7. Web-based encyclopedia on physical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papliatseyeu, Andrey; Repich, Maryna; Ilyushonak, Boris; Hurbo, Aliaksandr; Makarava, Katerina; Lutkovski, Vladimir M.

    2004-07-01

    Web-based learning applications open new horizons for educators. In this work we present the computer encyclopedia designed to overcome drawbacks of traditional paper information sources such as awkward search, low update rate, limited copies count and high cost. Moreover, we intended to improve access and search functions in comparison with some Internet sources in order to make it more convenient. The system is developed using modern Java technologies (Jave Servlets, Java Server Pages) and contains systemized information about most important and explored physical effects. It also may be used in other fields of science. The system is accessible via Intranet/Internet networks by means of any up-to-date Internet browser. It may be used for general learning purposes and as a study guide or tutorial for performing laboratory works.

  8. Kaspar Schott's "encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    2011-06-01

    In 1661, Kaspar Schott published his comprehensive textbook "Cursus mathematicus" in Würzburg for the first time, his "Encyclopedia of all mathematical sciences". It was so successful that it was published again in 1674 and 1677. In its 28 books, Schott gave an introduction for beginners in 22 mathematical disciplines by means of 533 figures and numerous tables. He wanted to avoid the shortness and the unintelligibility of his predecessors Alsted and Hérigone. He cited or recommended far more than hundred authors, among them Protestants like Michael Stifel and Johannes Kepler, but also Catholics like Nicolaus Copernicus. The paper gives a survey of this work and explains especially interesting aspects: The dedication to the German emperor Leopold I., Athanasius Kircher's letter of recommendation as well as Schott's classification of sciences, explanations regarding geometry, astronomy, and algebra.

  9. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  10. Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering. The science and tools of complexity and systems science include theories of self-organization, complex systems, synergetics, dynamical systems, turbulence, catastrophes, instabilities, nonlinearity, stochastic processes, chaos, neural networks, cellular automata, adaptive systems, and genetic algorithms. Examples of near-term problems and major unknowns that can be approached through complexity and systems science include: The structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the integration of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics as systems biology; human longevity limits; the limits of computing; sustainability of life on earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and other n...

  11. Serbian lexicography today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gortan-Premk Darinka S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three urgent tasks before the Serbian lexicographers: the vertical and horizontal defining of the contemporary Serbian language, the formation of the Serbian language corpus and the compilation of the standard descriptive dictionary: the first two tasks should be done by the Serbian linguists and by those dealing with corpora, whereas the third should be trusted to the Serbian lexicographers, both the present and the future ones. The Serbian lexicographers, the members of the Belgrade school of lexicography, who have compiled 20 volumes of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences Dictionary, six-volume Matica Srpska Dictionary, and single-volume Matica Srpska Dictionary, and outstanding Belgrade lexicologists will doubtless create a modern and reliable conception of such a dictionary, make precise working instructions based on contemporary linguistic and lexicological knowledge if the project is supported by the government. Hopefully, this extremely significant national undertaking will be completed in a few years.

  12. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    registration due today Women's Initiative: "Guiltless: Work/Life Balance" - Aug. 13 Nominations for ; -Leah Hesla In Brief Women's Initiative presents 'Guiltless: Work-Life Balance' - Thursday in One West Cowperthwaite-O'Hagan present "Guiltless: Work-Life Balance" on Thursday, Aug. 13, at 3 p.m. in One

  13. Towards lexicographic multi-objective linear programming using grossone methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cococcioni, Marco; Pappalardo, Massimo; Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.

    2016-10-01

    Lexicographic Multi-Objective Linear Programming (LMOLP) problems can be solved in two ways: preemptive and nonpreemptive. The preemptive approach requires the solution of a series of LP problems, with changing constraints (each time the next objective is added, a new constraint appears). The nonpreemptive approach is based on a scalarization of the multiple objectives into a single-objective linear function by a weighted combination of the given objectives. It requires the specification of a set of weights, which is not straightforward and can be time consuming. In this work we present both mathematical and software ingredients necessary to solve LMOLP problems using a recently introduced computational methodology (allowing one to work numerically with infinities and infinitesimals) based on the concept of grossone. The ultimate goal of such an attempt is an implementation of a simplex-like algorithm, able to solve the original LMOLP problem by solving only one single-objective problem and without the need to specify finite weights. The expected advantages are therefore obvious.

  14. The Lexicographic Treatment of Sublexical and Multilexical Items in a Northern Sotho Monolingual Dictionary: A Challenge for Lexicographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlokwe Clifford Mphahlele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries have in the past used a word-based approach in which sublexical and multilexical items were not regarded as lemmata. Metalexicography as the theoretical component of lexicography requires that sublexical and multilexical items be lemmatized and treated as independent lemmata in the macrostructure of dictionaries. One of the greater challenges for compiling a better and user-oriented Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary is to treat sublexical and multi-lexical items as macrostructural elements. Treating these items, the lexicographer faces quite a number of challenges. This article proposes possible ways in which sublexical and multilexical elements could be successfully treated in a Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary. Taking stock of these challenges, the writer comes with suggestions that would assist lexicographers in the compi-lation of a user-friendly, lexicon-based monolingual dictionary that would lead users to successful information retrieval.

    Keywords: SUBLEXICAL ITEMS, MULTILEXICAL ITEMS, AFFIXES, PREFIXAL MOR-PHEMES, SUFFIXAL MORPHEMES, INTEGRATED MICROSTRUCTURE, WORD-BASED APPROACH, LEMMATIZATION, COLLOCATIONS, COMPOUNDS, COMPLEXES, GROUP PREPOSITIONS, FIXED EXPRESSIONS, MORPHEMES, METALEXICOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS, WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES, WORD-INTERNAL FUNCTION, USER-ORIENTED MONO-LINGUAL DICTIONARY, GRAMMAR, HOMONYMOUS LEMMA, POLYSEMOUS LEMMA, DECODING, ENCODING, SEMANTIC COMMENT, SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese behandeling van subleksikale en multi-leksikale items in 'n Noord-Sotho- eentalige woordeboek: 'n Uitdaging vir leksikograwe. Woordeboeke het in die verlede 'n woordgebaseerde benadering gevolg waar-by subleksikale en multileksikale items nie as lemmas beskou is nie. Die metaleksikografie as die teoretiese komponent van die leksikografie vereis dat subleksikale en multileksikale items gelem-matiseer word en as onafhanklike lemmas in die makrostuktuur van woordeboeke

  15. Knowledge Management and Information Technology (Know-IT Encyclopedia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollock, Neal

    2002-01-01

    .... This encyclopedia is an attempt to create and distribute a knowledge-level tool. Much of it is tacit knowledge taken from the author's experience on-the-job at the Program Executive Office for Information Technology (PEO...

  16. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  17. Einstein today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.; Grangier, Ph.; Bouchet, F.R.; Brunet, E.; Derrida, B.; Cohen-Tannoudji, C.; Dalibard, J.; Laloe, F.; Damour, Th.; Darrigol, O.; Pocholle, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The most important contributions of Einstein involve 5 fields of physics : the existence of quanta (light quanta, stimulated radiation emission and Bose-Einstein condensation), relativity, fluctuations (Brownian motion and thermodynamical fluctuations), the basis of quantum physics and cosmology (cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe). Diverse and renowned physicists have appreciated the development of modern physics from Einstein's ideas to the knowledge of today. This book is a collective book that gathers their work under 7 chapters: 1) 1905, a new beginning; 2) from the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen's article to quantum information (cryptography and quantum computers); 3) the Bose-Einstein condensation in gases; 4) from stimulated emission to the today's lasers; 5) Brownian motion and the fluctuation-dissipation theory; 6) general relativity; and 7) cosmology. (A.C.)

  18. Radiochemistry - today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1980-01-01

    After a longer starting period many radiation techniques have prevailed practically. Today radiation processes are usual components of chemistry, biology, medicine, and technologies in the most common sense. This paper deals with the latest state of radiation chemistry, whereas the possible practical applications are in the foreground of discussion as to reach mainly practicians in laboratory and industry. But also physicians, pharmacists and chemical engineers should be informed about the possibilities of application of high energyy radiation. Because radiation chemistry has also enriched works of related subjects, for example physical, organic and inorganic chemistry, this paper will also be of interest for experts of these disciplines. (orig.) [de

  19. Neutrinos today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.; Bilen'kij, S.

    1987-01-01

    After the famous 1983 discovery of intermediate W, Z 0 bosons it may be stated with certainty that W, Z 0 are entirely responsible for the production of neutrinos and for their interactions. Neutrino physics notions are presented from this point of view in the first four introductory, quite elementary, paragraphs of the paper. The following seven paragraphs are more sophisticated. They are devoted to the neutrino mass and neutrino mixing question, which is the most actual problem in today neutrino physics. Vacuum neutrino oscillations, matter neutrino oscillations and netrinoless double-decay are considered. Solar neutrino physics is discussed in some detail from the point of view of vacuum and matter neutrino oscillations. The role played by neutrinos in the Universe is briefly considered. In the last paragraph there discussed the probable observation by different groups of neutrinos connected with the Supernova 1987 A: the first observation of gravitational star collapse (at least the general rehearsal of such observation) opens up a new era in astronomy of today exerimental physics and astrophysics is presented at the end of the paper in the form of a Table

  20. Psychoanalysis today

    Science.gov (United States)

    FONAGY, PETER

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the precarious position of psychoanalysis, a therapeutic approach which historically has defined itself by freedom from constraint and counted treatment length not in terms of number of sessions but in terms of years, in today's era of empirically validated treatments and brief structured interventions. The evidence that exists for the effectiveness of psychoanalysis as a treatment for psychological disorder is reviewed. The evidence base is significant and growing, but less than might meet criteria for an empirically based therapy. The author goes on to argue that the absence of evidence may be symptomatic of the epistemic difficulties that psychoanalysis faces in the context of 21st century psychiatry, and examines some of the philosophical problems faced by psychoanalysis as a model of the mind. Finally some changes necessary in order to ensure a future for psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapies within psychiatry are suggested. PMID:16946899

  1. An Approximation Algorithm for the Facility Location Problem with Lexicographic Minimax Objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Buzna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approximation algorithm to the discrete facility location problem providing solutions that are close to the lexicographic minimax optimum. The lexicographic minimax optimum is a concept that allows to find equitable location of facilities serving a large number of customers. The algorithm is independent of general purpose solvers and instead uses algorithms originally designed to solve the p-median problem. By numerical experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm allows increasing the size of solvable problems and provides high-quality solutions. The algorithm found an optimal solution for all tested instances where we could compare the results with the exact algorithm.

  2. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz AKBULUT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive reference source onsecurity and ethical issues related to informationand communication technologies. The encyclopediais consisted of 661 pages (+xvii covering a total of95 alphabetically ordered chapters on informationethics and security, which are followed by twocomprehensive sets of indexes. Each entry is anauthoritative contribution followed by in-depthdefinitions of relevant terminology and acronyms.The total number of key terms included in the encyclopedia is approximately 700. Thesource also includes more than 2000 references to existing literature on ethical andsecurity issues related to information and communication technologies. A total of 148respected scholars and leading experts all around the world contributed to the source.As indicated in the preface of the encyclopedia by editor, all entries were subjected toan initial double-blind peer review and an additional review prior to acceptance forpublication. Chapters mostly have parallel layouts beginning with a clear introductionfollowed by the theoretical background and the contribution. Each chapter concludeswith invaluable ethical implications for the field along with suggestions for furtherThe editor, Marian Quigley (PhD – Monash University, Australia; BA – ChisholmInstitute of Technology, Australia; Higher Diploma of Teaching Secondary [Art andCraft] is a former senior lecturer in the Faculty of Information Technology, MonashUniversity, Australia. She primarily works on the social effects

  3. Land of 10,000 Facts: Minnesota's New Digital Encyclopedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Huber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mnopedia is the recently created, born digital encyclopedia of the state of Minnesota. It is a project of the Minnesota Historical Society (MNHS, the state's leading cultural heritage institution and one of the largest and oldest historical societies in the nation. The MNHS has been in existence since 1849 and tells the story of Minnesota's past through exhibitions, extensive libraries and collections, twenty-six historic sites, educational programs, book publishing, and both financial and inkind assistance to county and local historical societies throughout the state. It provides a strong base for an encyclopedia to grow from.

  4. The Effect of Lexicographical Information Costs on Dictionary Making and Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    ­tinction is proposed between two general types of lexicographical information costs. Firstly, search-related costs are the efforts required by the look-up activities users have to perform when con­sulting a dictionary to find access to the data they are searching for. It is argued that the access route, article...

  5. Self-supervised Chinese ontology learning from online encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghuai; Shao, Zhiqing; Ruan, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Constructing ontology manually is a time-consuming, error-prone, and tedious task. We present SSCO, a self-supervised learning based chinese ontology, which contains about 255 thousand concepts, 5 million entities, and 40 million facts. We explore the three largest online Chinese encyclopedias for ontology learning and describe how to transfer the structured knowledge in encyclopedias, including article titles, category labels, redirection pages, taxonomy systems, and InfoBox modules, into ontological form. In order to avoid the errors in encyclopedias and enrich the learnt ontology, we also apply some machine learning based methods. First, we proof that the self-supervised machine learning method is practicable in Chinese relation extraction (at least for synonymy and hyponymy) statistically and experimentally and train some self-supervised models (SVMs and CRFs) for synonymy extraction, concept-subconcept relation extraction, and concept-instance relation extraction; the advantages of our methods are that all training examples are automatically generated from the structural information of encyclopedias and a few general heuristic rules. Finally, we evaluate SSCO in two aspects, scale and precision; manual evaluation results show that the ontology has excellent precision, and high coverage is concluded by comparing SSCO with other famous ontologies and knowledge bases; the experiment results also indicate that the self-supervised models obviously enrich SSCO.

  6. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  7. Proposals for Upgrading the Lexicographical Treatment of Prepositions in Bilingual Dictionaries for Business Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    dictionaries. The theory of lexicographical functions is used to determine which grammatical data types are needed by specific user types. The analysis focuses on a bidirectional Spanish-English business dictionary, its treatment of prepositions in entries and cross-references to the middle matter texts......A good lexicographical basis is needed for designing bilingual dictionaries that help users translate business texts. Many approaches have been suggested for including grammatical data in general dictionaries, but few have analysed the types of grammatical data relevant for bilingual specialised....... The findings show that the treatment is inconsistent and may mislead users, because their business-language competence is insufficient for producing correct translations. Bilingual dictionaries should offer a systematic treatment of prepositions and cross-reference users from entries to contrastive middle...

  8. The Effect of Lexicographical Information Costs on Dictionary Making and Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    ­tinction is proposed between two general types of lexicographical information costs. Firstly, search-related costs are the efforts required by the look-up activities users have to perform when con­sulting a dictionary to find access to the data they are searching for. It is argued that the access route, article...... structure, data distribution and cross-references may influence search-related infor­mation costs positively as well as negatively. Secondly, comprehension-related costs are the efforts connected to the user's ability to understand and interpret the data presented in a dictionary. In other words: How easy...... or difficult is it for users to understand the data presented? Examples show how textual condensation, dictionary functions and use-situations may impact on the level of comprehension-related information costs. It is thus possible to establish a framework for evaluating lexicographical information costs...

  9. Considering a Lexicographic Plan for Gabon within the Gabonese Language Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Steve Ndinga-Koumba-Binza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article raises a number of questions that should be dealt with in drawing up a lexicographic plan for Gabon. For which of the Gabonese languages should lexicographic units be established? This question entrains the issue of inventorying the Gabonese languages and their standardization as well as the issue of language planning for Gabon. What is the status of those foreign languages widely spoken in Gabon? What about French? Should Gabon keep importing its French dictionaries from France, or should the Gabonese compile their own French dictionaries, including French words and expressions exclusively used in Gabon? Finally, after trying to answer these questions, a number of suggestions are made for the establishment of a lexicographic plan for Gabon.

    Keywords: GABONESE LANGUAGE LANDSCAPE (GLL, LEXICOGRAPHIC PLAN FOR GABON, LANGUAGE DIVERSITY, LANGUAGE POLICY, LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION, GABONESE LEXICOGRAPHY, NATIONAL LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGES, FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die oorweging van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen binne die Gaboenese taallandskap. Hierdie artikel bring 'n aantal vrae ter sprake waaraan aan-dag gegee moet word by die opstel van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen. Vir watter Gaboenese tale moet leksikografiese eenhede gestig word? Hierdie vraag bring die kwessie van die inventari-sering van die Gaboenese tale en hul standaardisering ter sprake, asook die kwessie van taalbe-planning vir Gaboen. Wat is die status van daardie vreemde tale wat algemeen in Gaboen gepraat word? Wat van Frans? Moet Gaboen voortgaan om sy Franse woordeboeke uit Frankryk in te voer, of moet hy sy eie Franse woordeboeke saamstel, met insluiting van Franse woorde en uitdrukkings wat uitsluitlik in Gaboen gebruik word? Ten slotte, nadat geprobeer is om hierdie vrae te beant-woord, word 'n aantal voorstelle gemaak vir die totstandbrenging van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen.

    Sleutelwoorde: GABOENESE

  10. A Dictionary of Contemporary Slovene: Lexicographic Tradition or/and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Gantar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Proposal for a Dictionary of Contemporary Slovene, published in May 2013, has stirred many debates in both academic circles and in media. The topic central to all the debates was whether a new dictionary of Slovene should follow the tradition established by the Dictionary of Literary Slovene (published in 1970s, which was based on the structuralist theories of the Prague school, or move away from this tradition. All this lead to differing views on what a dictionary tradition is, and on the role of new lexicographic methods. By analyzing the concepts of the Dictionary of Literary Slovene and the Dictionary of New Slovene Lexis (published in 2012, as well as making an overview of scientific articles dealing with the topic of a concept for a new dictionary of Slovene, this paper attempts to establish which elements of lexicographic theory can be viewed as traditional and which represent innovation in Slovene lexicography. Simultaneously, a concept for a new dictionary is considered from three perspectives: the user, the medium, and the use of language technologies, which would facilitate language description and meet the needs of language community. As the author argues, a new dictionary of Slovene will do well to carefully consider the status of literary language in contemporary Slovene, be corpus driven and user oriented (rather than academic, incorporate various lexicographic findings, e.g. use different approaches to defining (depending on their efficiency at different word classes or categories of words, be digital born, i.e. devised with an online medium in mind, offer updates on a regular basis, and utilize various language technologies, such as automatic example extraction, in its design to facilitate dictionary compilation. Only thus will the new dictionary become a state-of-the-art lexicographic product and a worthy successor to the Dictionary of Standard Slovene.

  11. The Tshivenḓa-English Ṱahalusamaipfi/Dictionary as a Product of South African Lexicographic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulungeni Madiba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The publication of a dictionary is regarded as the result of a lexicographic process. Three subtypes of a lexicographic process have been noted, namely the primary comprehensive, the secondary comprehensive and the dictionary specific lexicographic processes. In South Africa, the three lexicography processes correspond to the respective mandates of the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB, the National Lexicography Units (NLUs and the editorial teams involved in the compilation of the specific dictionaries. This hierarchical arrangement of the lexicographic practice is supported by the government within the country's national multilingual policy which was lauded in linguistic and lexicographic circles as a triumph for cultural democracy. It is almost a decade since these planned lexicographic processes have been in place. It seems the right time to consider the products of these South African lexicographic processes which are envied by many foreign lexicographers, especially in Africa. Accordingly, the article evaluates these lexicographic processes with special reference to the Tshivend√a–English T√halusamaipfi/Dictionary. Specifically, it addresses the question: To what extent does this dictionary represent lexicographic development in the indigenous South African languages which were marginalised before the establishment of the NLUs? A few insights are drawn from modern lexicographic theories for the general improvement of future lexicographic practice in languages with limited lexicographic tools such as Venda.

    OPSOMMING: Die Tshivenda–English Thalusamaipfi / Dictionary as 'n produk van Suid-Afrikaanse leksikografiese prosesse. Die publikasie van 'n woordeboek word beskou as die resultaat van 'n leksikografiese proses. Drie ondersoorte van 'n leksikografiese proses is onderskei, naamlik die primêr omvattende, die sekondêr omvattende en die woordeboek-spesifieke leksikografiese prosesse. In Suid-Afrika stem

  12. Using hyperdocuments for knowledge management: an encyclopedia of southern appalachian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe; J.B. Jordin; W.G. Hubbard; M.C. Covington; N. Rushton

    2001-01-01

    Land managers increasingly need improved access to research knowledge that is thoroughly organized, condensed, and presented in a form that is useful for problem solving. In this paper, we describe the application of hyperdocuments for knowledge management, using an example of a newly developed hypertext encyclopedia on the southern Appalachians. The Encyclopedia of...

  13. Wikipedias: Collaborative web-based encyclopedias as complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, V.; Božičević, M.; Štefančić, H.; Domazet, M.

    2006-07-01

    Wikipedia is a popular web-based encyclopedia edited freely and collaboratively by its users. In this paper we present an analysis of Wikipedias in several languages as complex networks. The hyperlinks pointing from one Wikipedia article to another are treated as directed links while the articles represent the nodes of the network. We show that many network characteristics are common to different language versions of Wikipedia, such as their degree distributions, growth, topology, reciprocity, clustering, assortativity, path lengths, and triad significance profiles. These regularities, found in the ensemble of Wikipedias in different languages and of different sizes, point to the existence of a unique growth process. We also compare Wikipedias to other previously studied networks.

  14. A Lexicographic Method for Matrix Games with Payoffs of Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Xia Nan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The intuitionistic fuzzy set (IF-set has not been applied to matrix game problems yet since it was introduced by K.T.Atanassov. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for solving matrix games with payoffs of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs. Firstly the concept of TIFNs and their arithmetic operations and cut sets are introduced as well as the ranking order relations. Secondly the concept of solutions for matrix games with payoffs of TIFNs is defined. A lexicographic methodology is developed to determine the solutions of matrix games with payoffs of TIFNs for both Players through solving a pair of bi-objective linear programming models derived from two new auxiliary intuitionistic fuzzy programming models. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example.

  15. A lexicographic approach to language policy and recommendations for future dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.

    2008-01-01

    Language policy prevails at different levels and its formulation typically results in a prescriptive presentation of data. In their dictionaries, lexicographers have to respond to the deci­sions of language policy makers. In this regard dictionaries can adhere to a strict prescriptive policy...... by including only the prescribed forms. Dictionaries can also give a descriptive account of lan­guage use without making any recommendations or claims of correctness. Thirdly, dictionaries can be proscriptive by recommending certain forms, even if such a recommendation goes against the prescribed forms....... This article offers an overview of different levels of language policy and the prin­ciples of prescription, description and proscription. Examples are given to illustrate certain lexico­graphic applications of prescription. It is emphasised that access to relevant data is important to dictionary users...

  16. Early Portuguese lexicographic tradition: equivalents and loans in Caetano de Lima’s dictionary manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Silvestre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustive comparison between Portuguese and the main modern languages is a late phenomenon. Only at the end of seventeenth century, did Portugal feel the need for a methodical learning of foreign languages and for didactic tools with a marked lexical component, in which we include the essential bilingual dictionaries. Nevertheless, it is in the first half of the eighteenth century that the first glossaries are published, while the first bilingual dictionaries with alphabetical order and an extensive nomenclature will appear only in the second half of the century. In order to overcome this lag, Vernacular-Latin dictionaries were imported and handwritten dictionaries were compiled and adapted according to the needs of each user. Research on the origins of Portuguese-Italian lexicography has provided important information on the development of the techniques used to compile dictionaries and the contrastive analysis of languages. The first printed dictionary is an addition to Caetano de Lima’s Grammatica Italiana (1734 and it contains an appendix of hard words (where semantic peculiarities and idiomatic expressions are explained and an onomasiologic dictionary of common words. It has been described as a basic albeit functional lexicographic tool, suitable for beginners’ needs. Recently, a manuscript version of this dictionary has been identified (Diccionario de Nomes Portuguezes e Italianos Dispostos por Materias, Biblioteca Pública de Évora, CXIII-1-33, as well as the manuscript of a larger general dictionary (Diccionario Italiano-Portuguez, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, cod. 3342. This impressive lexicographic corpus is compiled about fifty years before the first printed Italian-Portuguese dictionary. The analysis demonstrates that the author tried to compile a much wider dictionary than the version that was actually published. In the manuscript, we can identify problems in some areas, such as the definition of lexical domains (due

  17. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Chemistry (edited by Joseph J. Lagowski)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1998-11-01

    Macmillan: New York, 1997. Four volumes. Figs., tables. lxxi + 1696 pp. 22.0 x 28.5 cm. $400. ISBN 0-02-897225-2. This latest addition to Macmillan's series of comprehensive core science encyclopedias (previous sets dealt with physics and earth sciences) will be of particular interest to readers of this Journal, for it is edited by longtime Journal of Chemical Education editor Joe Lagowski, assisted by a board of five distinguished associate editors. The attractively priced set offers clear explanations of the phenomena and concepts of chemistry and its materials, whether found in industry, the laboratory, or the natural world. It is intended for a broad spectrum of readers-professionals whose work draws on chemical concepts and knowledge (e.g., material scientists, engineers, health workers, biotechnologists, mathematicians, and computer programmers), science teachers at all levels from kindergarten to high school, high school and college students interested in medicine or the sciences, college and university professors, and laypersons desiring information on practical aspects of chemistry (e.g., household cleaning products, food and food additives, manufactured materials, herbicides, the human body, sweeteners, and animal communication).

  18. House of tomorrow today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenberg, J.J.N.; Ham, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The House of Tomorrow Today is a project focussing on a healthy, energy producing dwelling to be realized with today¿s proven technology. The project aims at an energy plus level based on the principles as formulated in SmartBuilding (Slimbouwen) [1] ActiveHouse [2] and HoTT [3] It can be seen as

  19. Corpus–Based Lexicographical Descriptions with a Special Focus on Pragmatics: The Case of the Slovene Lexical Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šorli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on ways in which the pragmatic (functional meaning that arises from various contextual features, known in corpus linguistics as semantic prosody, can become an integral part of lexicographical descriptions as they are represented in the Slovene Lexical Database (SLD. This is particularly important for the treatment of phraseology and idiomatics. First, the theoretical background is provided, with the focus on the prototype theory and its practical implications for monolingual lexicography. A parallel is drawn with the model of meaning analysis in the SLD. The second part begins with a brief introduction to semantic prosody and continues with an analysis of monolingual meaning descriptions in the SLD against a number of authentic corpus examples, investigating how their pragmatic components have been identified. The analysis of corpus data shows that pragmatics is an important contributor to the process of sense discrimination in works of lexical and lexicographic relevance.

  20. Domain-specific Knowledge in Lexicography: How It Helps Lexicographers and Users of Accounting Dictionaries Intended for Communicative Usage Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Dictionaries are consulted when translating specialized texts in the global marketplace and when such texts are written in a foreign language. However, studies of translation in e.g. accounting indicate that most dictionaries do not provide the help needed in communicative situations, because...... they do not take into consideration that domain-specific meanings are culture- and structure-dependent. It is proposed that this state of affairs can be improved by studying the relevant types of knowledge required of lexicographers making accounting and other specialized dictionaries: declarative......, procedural and schematic knowledge. These knowledge types are relevant when lexicographers select entry words as well as when they select equivalents and translations. Finally, it is proposed that declarative, procedural and schematic knowledge is needed when writing definitions of terms...

  1. The Effect of Lexicographical Information Costs on Dictionary Making and Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: An important aspect for any lexicographer to consider is the ease with which users will be able to acquire the necessary information from the data presented in the dictionary, whether electronic or printed. Furthermore, this aspect has high priority with users and reviewers. A distinction is proposed between two general types of lexicographical information costs. Firstly, search-related costs are the effort required by the look-up activities users have to perform when consulting a dictionary to find access to the data they are searching for. It is argued that the access route, article structure, data distribution and cross-references may influence search-related information costs positively as well as negatively. Secondly, comprehension-related costs are the effort connected to the user's ability to understand and interpret the data presented in a dictionary. In other words: How easy or difficult is it for users to understand the data presented? Examples show how textual condensation, dictionary functions and use-situations may impact on the level of comprehension-related information costs. It is thus possible to establish a framework for evaluating lexicographical information costs for the purpose of dictionary making, use, analysis and research.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, INFORMATION COSTS, ACCESS ROUTES,DISTRIBUTION STRUCTURE, CROSS-REFERENCES, TEXTUAL CONDENSATION, DICTIONARYARTICLES, SEARCH ZONES, DATA, INFORMATION, DICTIONARY FUNCTIONS,USE-SITUATIONS

    Opsomming: Die uitwerking van leksikografiese inligtingskoste op diemaak en gebruik van woordeboeke. 'n Belangrike aspek vir enige leksikograaf om in agte neem is die gemak waarmee gebruikers in staat sal wees om die nodige inligting van die data indie woordeboek, hetsy elektronies of gedruk, te verkry. Verder geniet hierdie aspek hoë voorkeurby gebruikers en resensente. 'n Onderskeid word voorgestel tussen twee algemene soorte leksikografieseinligtingskoste

  2. Parsing the Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian Language with the Method of SCD Configurations. The Lexicographic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the experience of parsing other five, sensibly different, Romanian, French, and German largest dictionaries, to \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} (Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian Language [18], using the optimal and portable parsing method of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency configurations [7], [11], [15]. The purpose of the present paper is to elaborate the lexicographic modeling of \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}}, which necessarily precedes the sense tree parsing dictionary entries. The following \\textbf{\\textit{three}} SCD configurations are described: the \\textbf{\\textit{first one}} has to separate the lexicographic segments in a \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} entry, the \\textbf{\\textit{second}} SCD-configuration concentrates on the SCD marker classes and their hypergraph hierarchy for \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} primary and secondary senses, while the \\textbf{\\textit{third}} SCD configuration hands down the same modeling process to the atomic sense definitions and their examples-to-definitions. The dependency hypergraph of the third SCD configuration, interconnected to the one of the second SCD configuration, is specified completely at the atomic sense level for the first time, exceeding the SCD configuration modeling for other five dictionaries [15], [14]. Numerous examples from \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} and comparison to \\textbf{\\textit{DLR-DAR}} Romanian thesaurus-dictionary support the proposed \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} lexicographic modeling.

  3. Types of Lexicographical Information Needs and their Relevance for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954, instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent research into lexicographical functions with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different types of situations: communicative needs, cognitive needs, and operative needs. This is a classification that is relevant and useful in general in our modern information society and therefore also relevant for information science, including lexicography.

  4. Academic librarianship today

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Intended for use by both librarians and students in LIS programs, Academic Librarianship Today is the most current, comprehensive overview of the field available today. Key features include: Each chapter was commissioned specifically for this new book, and the authors are highly regarded academic librarians or library school faculty— or both Cutting-edge topics such as open access, copyright, digital curation and preservation, emerging technologies, new roles for academic librarians, cooperative collection development and resource sharing, and patron-driven acquisitions are explored in depth Each chapter ends with thought-provoking questions for discussion and carefully constructed assignments that faculty can assign or adapt for their courses The book begins with Gilman’s introduction, an overview that briefly synthesizes the contents of the contributors’ chapters by highlighting major themes. The main part of the book is organized into three parts: The Academic Library Landscape Today, ...

  5. Mathematics Teaching Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  6. The Alchemist of Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serret, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, alchemy has involved the power of transmuting base metals such as lead into gold or producing the "elixir of life" for those wealthy people who wanted to live forever. But what of today's developments? One hundred years ago, even breaking the four-minute mile would have been deemed "magic," which is what the alchemists of the past…

  7. Preface: Catalysis Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yongdan

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Catalysis Today with the theme “Sustain-able Energy” results from a great success of the session “Catalytic Technologies Accelerating the Establishment of Sustainable and Clean Energy”, one of the two sessions of the 1st International Symposium on Catalytic Science and Techn...

  8. Educational Entrepreneurship Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M., Ed.; McShane, Michael Q., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In "Educational Entrepreneurship Today", Frederick M. Hess and Michael Q. McShane assemble a diverse lineup of high-profile contributors to examine the contexts in which new initiatives in education are taking shape. They inquire into the impact of entrepreneurship on the larger field--including the development and deployment of new…

  9. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  10. Loan Words versus Indigenous Words in Northern Sotho - A Lexicographic Perspective *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmina Nong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The aim of this article is to investigate, from a lexicographic perspective, the preferences of Northern Sotho mother-tongue speakers for loan words versus so-called 'traditional' or 'original' counterparts in the language. Results obtained from a survey conducted among 100 randomly selected mother-tongue speakers from different age and gender groups, backgrounds, places of residence, etc. will be analysed. It is shown that although the overwhelming preference of the respondents lies with the use of (more indigenous words in comparison to loan words, lexicographers should be alerted to possible, even rapid, changes in this preference pattern. The results from the survey are compared throughout with frequency counts derived from a corpus as well as with current dictionary treatment.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, LEMMATISATION, NORTHERN SOTHO (SEPEDI, LOAN WORD, SOTHOISED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, QUESTIONNAIRE, CORPUS, DESCRIPTIVENESS, PROSCRIPTIVENESS, PRESCRIPTIVENESS, PREFERENCE PATTERN

    Senaganwa: Maadingwa ge a bapetšwa le Mantšu a Setlogo go Sesotho saLeboa — Kgopolo ya Bangwalapukuntšu. Maikemišetšo a taodišwana ye ke gonyakišiša, go ya ka kgopolo ya bangwalapukuntšu, ka fao baboledi ba Sesotho sa Leboa ba diragokgetho ya mantšu magareng ga maadingwa le mantšu a setlogo polelong ye. Dipoelo tše dihweditšwego go tšwa go bakgathatema ba e lego baboledi ba Sesotho sa Leboa, banna le basadi, balekgolo (100 ba mengwaga ya go fapana, maemo a a fapanego a thuto, ba ba dulago mafelong ao afapafapanego, bj.bj. di tla fetlekwa. Go ipontšha gore le ge dipoelo tša nyakišišo ye di laetša gorebontši bja bakgathatema bo kgetha go šomiša mantšu a setlogo go ena le maadingwa, bangwadi ba dipukuntšu ba swanetše go phafošwa mabapi le diphetogo tše di ka bago gona pateroneng yakgetho ya tšhomišo ya mantšu. Dipoelo tša nyakišišo ye di bapetšwa le ka moo mantšu a tšwelelagokgafetšakgafetša go t

  11. Neologisms in the information society: analysis of its presence and absence in lexicographical school sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta PRAT SABATER

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} The flow of words among different countries and the creation of neologisms are constant in today’s Information Society and young people generally seem to be the most receptive group to acquire these new words. Some factors such as migration, the popularization of Internet and the spreading of social networks have brought new words into Spanish which become established especially in the spoken language. Therefore, our aim is to test the degree of acceptance that the words used frequently among schoolchildren and teenagers have in lexicographical works. In our study, we have selected a corpus consisting of 40 terms, sorted according to regionalisms, colloquialisms or loanwords, and we have analysed its presence or absence in different school dictionaries of both primary and secondary school, and in academic sources. We have also studied the notes that indicate the register that the terms belong to, the spelling guidelines and the pronunciation of foreign words. For the selection of the terms, we have based our search on several Facebook profiles of high school students, and online magazines such as Superpop.

  12. A New English?Arabic Parallel Text Corpus for Lexicographic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashan Al-Ajmi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Bilingual lexicographers, translation specialists and English teachers in the Arabworld do not have access to computerized corpora of parallel texts for the English–Arabic languagepair. This project has been carried out to meet this requirement by establishing the first generalparallel corpus of English texts and their Arabic translations. The first phase of the project involvedthe selection of general source texts having appropriate lexical and stylistic features. The chosensource texts deal with a variety of topics such as the environment, globalization, psychology, history,politics, drama, etc. Their Arabic translations were taken from The World of Knowledge seriespublished by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL in Kuwait.

    Keywords: PARALLEL CORPUS, LEXICOGRAPHY, TRANSLATION, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY,COLLOCATIONS, ALIGNMENT, SYNONYMS, DERIVATIVES, ANTONYMS, GLOSSARY,FREQUENCY

    Opsomming: 'n Nuwe Engels–Arabiese parallelletekskorpus vir leksikografiesetoepassings Tweetalige leksikograwe, vertaalkundiges en Engelsonderwysers in dieArabiese wêreld het nie toegang tot gerekenariseerde korpusse van parallelle tekste vir die Engels–Arabiese taalpaar nie. Hierdie projek is onderneem om in dié behoefte te voorsien deur die eerstealgemene parallelle korpus van Engelse tekste en hul Arabiese vertalings tot stand te bring. Dieeerste fase van die projek het die keuse van algemene brontekste behels wat geskikte leksikale enstilistiese eienskappe besit. Die gekose brontekste handel oor 'n verskeidenheid onderwerpe soosdie omgewing, globalisering, psigologie, geskiedenis, politiek, drama, ens. Hul Arabiese vertalingsis geneem uit The World of Knowledge-reeks gepubliseer deur die National Council for Culture, Artsand Letters (NCCAL in Koeweit.

    Sleutelwoorde: PARALLELLE KORPUS, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, VERTALING, TWEETALIGEWOORDEBOEK, KOLLOKASIES, OOREENSTEMMING, SINONIEME, AFLEIDINGS, ANTONIEME

  13. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  14. On quasistability radius of a vector trajectorial problem with a principle of optimality generalizing Pareto and lexicographic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey E. Bukhtoyarov

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A multicriterion linear combinatorial problem with a parametric principle of optimality is considered. This principle is defined by a partitioning of partial criteria onto Pareto preference relation groups within each group and the lexicographic preference relation between them. Quasistability of the problem is investigated. This type of stability is a discrete analog of Hausdorff lower semi-continuity of the multiple-valued mapping that defines the choice function. A formula of quasistability radius is derived for the case of the metric l∞. Some known results are stated as corollaries. Mathematics Subject Classification 2000: 90C05, 90C10, 90C29, 90C31.

  15. Today's markets for superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials

  16. Man and electrotechnics today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Man and electrotechnique today - this topic was discussed by experts of the VDE (Society of German Electrotechnicians) during a podium discussion directed by the TV-journalist Ruediger Proske. The discussion was centred on the popular questions of energy supply, electronics and the technical communication systems. What are the technologies' influences on our society, how can the social results for the places of employment be estimated and what role is played here by the technicians, the industry and by economy. In the debate which was partly very heated the members showed their anxiety of the negative attitude which society has been developing towards technique to cause big problems for the future.

  17. Man and electrotechnics today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Man and electrotechnique today - this topic was discussed by experts of the VDE (Society of German Electrotechnicians) during a podium discussion directed by the TV-journalist Ruediger Proske. The discussion was centred on the popular questions of energy supply, electronics and the technical communication systems. What are the technologies' influences on our society, how can the social results for the places of employment be estimated and what role is played here by the technicians, the industry and by economy. In the debate which was partly very heated the members showed their anxiety of the negative attitude which society has been developing towards technique to cause big problems for the future. (orig.) [de

  18. The library without walls: images, medical dictionaries, atlases, medical encyclopedias free on web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, E

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this article was to present the ''reference room'' of the Internet, a real library without walls. The reader will find medical encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, e-books, images, and will also learn something useful about the use and reuse of images in a text and in a web site, according to the copyright law.

  19. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  20. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  1. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  2. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  3. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  4. Digging Wikipedia : The Online Encyclopedia as a Digital Cultural Heritage Gateway and Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pentzold, C.; Weltevrede, E.; Mauri, M.; Laniado, D.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Borra, E.

    The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is both a cultural reference to store, refer to, and organize digitized and digital information, as well as a key contemporary digital heritage endeavor in itself. Capitalizing on this dual nature of the project, this article introduces Wikipedia as a digital

  5. Islamic Context of Electronic Encyclopedias in English Language: A Critical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad ur Rehman

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of Islam and Muslim world in electronic encyclopedias was conducted by using two-dimensional criteria: searching and technological capabilities, and qualitative evaluation of their content. The factors used to assess searching and technological capabilities are related to direct link, hypertext, related articles, illustration, multimedia, Boolean searching, Internet links, and search history. Content evaluation was conducted in relation to length, scope, treatment level, currency, accuracy, bias, presentation, authorship, and bibliographic documentation. The researchers identified topics that are expected to be valid indicators of the coverage and treatment of Islam and the Muslim world. Some topics are related to theological doctrines, while the others pertained to socio-historical themes. Altogether 21 topics were searched in each title. Five encyclopedias used the same terminology for certain topics, while broader or narrower terms were used for other titles. Total articles thus identified were in the range of 13 to 19. As the search was conducted for a topic, search-related data were noted. Printouts of the identified articles were obtained, and evaluated against specific criteria. It has been found that each encyclopedia has its specific strengths in regard to software and searching capabilities. In content evaluation, it was found that about 30-40% of articles in each encyclopedia had problems with regard to accuracy of information objectivity, coverage, and presentation.

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  7. Nuclear energy today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Energy is the power of the world's economies, whose appetite for this commodity is increasing as the leading economies expand and developing economies grow. How to provide the energy demanded while protecting our environment and conserving natural resources is a vital question facing us today. Many parts of our society are debating how to power the future and whether nuclear energy should play a role. Nuclear energy is a complex technology with serious issues and a controversial past. Yet it also has the potential to provide considerable benefits. In pondering the future of this imposing technology, people want to know. - How safe is nuclear energy? - Is nuclear energy economically competitive? - What role can nuclear energy play in meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets? - What can be done with the radioactive waste it generates? - Does its use increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons? - Are there sufficient and secure resources to permit its prolonged exploitation? - Can tomorrow's nuclear energy be better than today's? This publication provides authoritative and factual replies to these questions. Written primarily to inform policy makers, it will also serve interested members of the public, academics, journalists and industry leaders. (author)

  8. Women in engineering conference: capitalizing on today`s challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, S.S.; Martins, S.M. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Women in Engineering Conference: Capitalizing on Today`s Challenges, held June 1-4, 1996 in Denver, Colorado. Topics included engineering and science education, career paths, workplace issues, and affirmative action.

  9. Technical report writing today

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    "Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

  10. Knee arthrography today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.; Kallenberger, R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of knee arthrography today is demonstrated and technical problems are discussed. Among a lot of variants the position of the patient and the choice of contrast media play a great part concerning the result of the examination. Mild complications occur in 0.25% of the examinations, severe and live threatening complications are extremely rare. Diagnosis of meniscal lesions is most important for knee arthrography; arthroscopy and arthrography are complementary examinations and not mutually exclusive, they achieve combined an accuracy of 97-98%. In the same way arthrography is able to evaluate the condropathy of the femoro-tibial joint, whereas accuracy of arthroscopy in the diagnosis of patellar chondropathy is much higher. There is a great reliability of arthrography regarding the evaluation of lesions of the capsule, but accuracy in lesions of the cruciate ligaments is low. Arthrography is very suitable for evaluation of Baker-cysts, since indications for almost occuring internal derangement of the knee are even available. Knee arthrography is a complex and safe procedure with very less discomfort for the patient; it has a central position in the evaluation of lesions of the knee. (orig.) [de

  11. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  12. The Lexicographic Treatment of Days in Sepedi, or When Mother-Tongue Intuition Fails*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Since May 2001 the Sepedi National Lexicography Unit officially started the actual dictionary-writing of a pioneering Explanatory Sepedi Dictionary (PyaSsaL. The compilation is undertaken within the theoretical framework of Simultaneous Feedback, is fully corpus-based, and follows an onomasiological approach to the Sepedi lexicon. In this article the various compilation aspects are examined and illustrated by means of one onomasiological sub-field, namely the days of the week. It is shown how a balanced combination of mother-tongue intuition, data from existing (bilingual dictionaries, fieldwork results, corpus queries, and grammarians' conjectures can and should lead to a sound lexicographic treatment.

    Keywords: SEPEDI NATIONAL LEXICOGRAPHY UNIT (NLU, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK (SF, PRETORIA SEPEDI CORPUS (PSC, ONOMASIOLOGICAL APPROACH, DAYS OF THE WEEK, MOTHER-TONGUE INTUITION, FIELDWORK, QUESTIONNAIRES, INTERVIEWS, GRAMMARIANS' CONJECTURES, NOUN CLASSES, REPETITIVE INSERTED TEXTS

    Kakaretšo: Tshekatsheko ya matšatši polelong ya Sesotho sa Leboa go ya kadinyakwa tša go ngwala Pukuntšu, goba ge dikakanyo tša mmoledi wapolelo ye di sa atlege. Go thoma ka Mei 2001 Yuniti ya Bosetšhaba ya Pukuntšu ya Sesotho saLeboa e thomile semmušo go ngwala Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa (PyaSsaL. Thulaganyoya yona e laolwa ke teori ya Simultaneous Feedback, e theilwe godimo ga sešegontšu (khophase,gape e latela tsela ya go hlaloša manšu a Sesotho sa Leboa go ya ka direrwa tše di fapanego. Motaodišwaneng ye go tsinkelwa mekgwa ya go fapanafapana ya thulaganyo gape mekgwa yeo ešupetšwa ka karolwana e tee ya direrwa tša PyaSsaL, e lego matšatši a beke. Go bontšhwa ka faotekanelo ya kopanyo ya dikakanyo tša mmoledi wa Sesotho sa Leboa, tshedimošo go tšwa go dipukuntšu(tša malemepedi tšeo di šetšego di le gona, dipoelo tša nyakišišontle, diphatišišo ka garega sešegontšu, le dikakanyo tša borapopapolelo

  13. Skateboarding injuries of today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction. Objective—To describe the injury pattern of today. Methods—The pattern of injuries, circumstances, and severity were investigated in a study of all 139 people injured in skateboarding accidents during the period 1995–1998 inclusive and admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå. This is the only hospital in the area, serving a population of 135 000. Results—Three of the 139 injured were pedestrians hit by a skateboard rider; the rest were riders. The age range was 7–47 years (mean 16). The severity of the injuries was minor (AIS 1) to moderate (AIS 2); fractures were classified as moderate. The annual number of injuries increased during the study period. Fractures were found in 29% of the casualties, and four children had concussion. The most common fractures were of the ankle and wrist. Older patients had less severe injuries, mainly sprains and soft tissue injuries. Most children were injured while skateboarding on ramps and at arenas; only 12 (9%) were injured while skateboarding on roads. Some 37% of the injuries occurred because of a loss of balance, and 26% because of a failed trick attempt. Falls caused by surface irregularities resulted in the highest proportion of the moderate injuries. Conclusions—Skateboarding should be restricted to supervised skateboard parks, and skateboarders should be required to wear protective gear. These measures would reduce the number of skateboarders injured in motor vehicle collisions, reduce the personal injuries among skateboarders, and reduce the number of pedestrians injured in collisions with skateboarders. Key Words: skateboard; injury; prevention PMID:11579065

  14. [Vladimir Zederbaum" (1883-1942): Physician, journalist, contributor to the Russian "Jewish, Encyclopedia". A research report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Vol. 15 o f the "Jewish Encyclopedia" (St. Petersburg 1908-1913) contains an article on Freud, signed by Vladimir Zederbaum. The data for the article were provided by Max Eitingon. This paper addresses the question of whether Zederbaum himself was Eitingon's contact. Several archives produced a lot of information about Zederbaum's medical and journalistic activities in St. Petersburg. However, to date no connection between the two men could be established.

  15. Design of Application Software : Visualization of Electronic Encyclopedia with Multimedia Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laggoune, Hayet; Madenda, Sarifuddin; Gunawan, Teddy

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a multimedia program which visualizes an electronic dictionary / encyclopedia. This program uses different types of files such as text, sound, graphic and video. These files are related to each corresponding word as defined in the dictionary. This software is easy to use and allow searching, adding, editing or deleting data from the dictionary. It can also visualizes the word contain as text, graphic, sound or video

  16. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  17. Information services today an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsh, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This essential overview of what it means to be a library and information professional today provides a broad overview of the transformation of libraries as information organizations, why these organizations are more important today than ever before, the technological influence on how we provide information resources and services in today's digital and global environment, and the various career opportunities available for information professionals. The book begins with a historical overview of libraries and their transformation as information and technology

  18. Encyclopedia of cosmology historical, philosophical, and scientific foundations of modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Norriss S

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, first published in 1993, recounts the history, philosophical assumptions, methodological ambiguities, and human struggles that have influenced the various responses to the basic questions of cosmology through the ages, as well as referencing important scientific theories.Just as the recognition of social conventions in other cultures can lead to a more productive perspective on our own behaviour, so too a study of the cosmologies of other times and places can enable us recognise elements of our own cosmology that might otherwise pass as inevitable developments.Ap

  19. Logic from A to Z the Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy glossary of logical and mathematical terms

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, John B; McCarty, David Charles; Bacon, John B

    1999-01-01

    First published in the most ambitious international philosophy project for a generation; the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Logic from A to Z is a unique glossary of terms used in formal logic and the philosophy of mathematics. Over 500 entries include key terms found in the study of: * Logic: Argument, Turing Machine, Variable * Set and model theory: Isomorphism, Function * Computability theory: Algorithm, Turing Machine * Plus a table of logical symbols. Extensively cross-referenced to help comprehension and add detail, Logic from A to Z provides an indispensable reference source for students of all branches of logic.

  20. The Japanese Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia edited and computerized to promote public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooke, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Editing the Japanese Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia has been in progress since 1989. It will be completed in 1993. The book is intended to provide raw material for the public to have his own judgement on nuclear energy. It is also useful as a 'text book' for specialists who lecture on the nuclear energy including the social effects at public seminars and meetings. Computerization of the book is also being made simultaneously. The trial use of the partly completed book has been started by some 150 of the nominated lectures through the country from August 1992. The computerized book has been well received so far by these lectures. (J.P.N.)

  1. Construction Management Meets Today's Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    1979-01-01

    Construction management--the control of cost and time from concept through construction--grew out of a need to meet the realities of today's economy. A checklist of services a construction manager provides is presented. (Author/MLF)

  2. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  3. Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mullini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

  4. Using a digital marketing platform for the promotion of an internet based health encyclopedia in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Nuclear technology today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power has returned today to contain the energy problem. It is useful to make a summary of its characteristics and its evolution over the past 50 years and its prospects. The Italy can rely on their way by revitalizing its potential not fully disappeared [it

  6. School Counseling in China Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Timothy C.; Qiong, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the development of psychological thinking in China and social influences on the practice of school counseling today. Common problems of students are described, including anxiety due to pressure to perform well on exams, loneliness and social discomfort, and video game addiction. Counseling approaches used…

  7. Earth System Monitoring Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing.  Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data.  The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding. Presents 19 authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Covers a wide range of data collection platforms, including satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and l...

  8. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  9. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  10. The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Sally

    In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

  11. Strategic planning: today's hot buttons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, R C

    1998-01-01

    The first generation of mergers and managed care hasn't slowed down group practices' need for strategic planning. Even groups that already went through one merger are asking about new mergers or ownership possibilities, the future of managed care, performance standards and physician unhappiness. Strategic planning, including consideration of bench-marking, production of ancillary services and physician involvement, can help. Even if only a short, general look at the future, strategic planning shows the proactive leadership needed in today's environment.

  12. Fast and fuzzy multi-objective radiotherapy treatment plan generation for head and neck cancer patients with the lexicographic reference point method (LRPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haveren, Rens; Ogryczak, Włodzimierz; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Keijzer, Marleen; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan

    2017-06-01

    Previously, we have proposed Erasmus-iCycle, an algorithm for fully automated IMRT plan generation based on prioritised (lexicographic) multi-objective optimisation with the 2-phase ɛ-constraint (2pɛc) method. For each patient, the output of Erasmus-iCycle is a clinically favourable, Pareto optimal plan. The 2pɛc method uses a list of objective functions that are consecutively optimised, following a strict, user-defined prioritisation. The novel lexicographic reference point method (LRPM) is capable of solving multi-objective problems in a single optimisation, using a fuzzy prioritisation of the objectives. Trade-offs are made globally, aiming for large favourable gains for lower prioritised objectives at the cost of only slight degradations for higher prioritised objectives, or vice versa. In this study, the LRPM is validated for 15 head and neck cancer patients receiving bilateral neck irradiation. The generated plans using the LRPM are compared with the plans resulting from the 2pɛc method. Both methods were capable of automatically generating clinically relevant treatment plans for all patients. For some patients, the LRPM allowed large favourable gains in some treatment plan objectives at the cost of only small degradations for the others. Moreover, because of the applied single optimisation instead of multiple optimisations, the LRPM reduced the average computation time from 209.2 to 9.5 min, a speed-up factor of 22 relative to the 2pɛc method.

  13. Web publishing today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Lie, Hakon W

    1999-01-01

    The three lectures will give participants the grand tour of the Web as we know it today, as well as peeks into the past and the future. Many three-letter acronyms will be expanded, and an overview will be provided to see how the various specifications work together. Web publishing is the common theme throughout the lectures and in the second lecture, special emphasis will be given to data formats for publishing, including HTML, XML, MathML and SMIL. In the last lectures, automatic document manipulation and presentation will be discussed, including CSS, DOM and XTL.

  14. Function-related Secondary User Needs and Secondary Data? A Critical Examination of Some Central Concepts in the Modern Theory of Lexicographical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Overgaard Ptaszynski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The aim of this article is to contribute to the development of the modern theory of lexi-cographical functions by offering a critical examination of the following concepts associated with it: primary needs, primary data, secondary needs, secondary data, function-related needs, and function-related data. By way of introduction, a presentation of the basic tenets of the theory is offered, followed by a description of the gen-eral characteristics of secondary needs and data. Next, on the basis of both a critical analysis of the theory and an examination of selected data types in existing lexicographical products, it is argued that all user needs and all data that satisfy those needs are function-related. The distinction between the concepts function-related and usage-related is thus rejected. Since this has serious implications for the relation between secondary needs and data on the one hand and primary needs and data on the other, this relation is subsequently reconsid-ered. This leads to a redefinition of all the concepts examined. It is also explained why an ideal state of lexico-graphy, where secondary needs and data do not exist, cannot be achieved in the real world.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHICAL FUNCTION, PRIMARY NEED, PRIMARY DATA, SECONDARY NEED, SECONDARY DATA, FUNCTION-RELATED NEED, FUNCTION-RELATED DATA, EXTRA-LEXICOGRAPHICAL SITUATION, INTRA-LEXICOGRAPHICAL SITUATION, COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, OPERATIVE FUNCTION, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION

    Opsomming: Funksieverwante sekondêre gebruikersbehoeftes en sekon-dêre data? 'n Kritiese ondersoek na 'n aantal kernbegrippe in die moderne teorie van leksikografiese funksies. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om by te dra tot die ontwikkeling van die moderne teorie van leksikografiese funksies deur 'n kritiese ondersoek aan te bied van die volgende begrippe wat daarmee verbind word: primêre behoeftes, primêre data

  15. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  16. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity. PMID:24891832

  17. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling of anticancer drug sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F; Monahan, John E; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E; Weber, Barbara L; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Morrissey, Michael P; Sellers, William R; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A

    2012-03-28

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumour biology and therapeutic possibilities remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacological annotation is available. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the cell lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene-expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Together, our results indicate that large, annotated cell-line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of 'personalized' therapeutic regimens.

  18. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modeling of anticancer drug sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretina, Jordi; Caponigro, Giordano; Stransky, Nicolas; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Margolin, Adam A.; Kim, Sungjoon; Wilson, Christopher J.; Lehár, Joseph; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Reddy, Anupama; Liu, Manway; Murray, Lauren; Berger, Michael F.; Monahan, John E.; Morais, Paula; Meltzer, Jodi; Korejwa, Adam; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Mapa, Felipa A.; Thibault, Joseph; Bric-Furlong, Eva; Raman, Pichai; Shipway, Aaron; Engels, Ingo H.; Cheng, Jill; Yu, Guoying K.; Yu, Jianjun; Aspesi, Peter; de Silva, Melanie; Jagtap, Kalpana; Jones, Michael D.; Wang, Li; Hatton, Charles; Palescandolo, Emanuele; Gupta, Supriya; Mahan, Scott; Sougnez, Carrie; Onofrio, Robert C.; Liefeld, Ted; MacConaill, Laura; Winckler, Wendy; Reich, Michael; Li, Nanxin; Mesirov, Jill P.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Getz, Gad; Ardlie, Kristin; Chan, Vivien; Myer, Vic E.; Weber, Barbara L.; Porter, Jeff; Warmuth, Markus; Finan, Peter; Harris, Jennifer L.; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R.; Morrissey, Michael P.; Sellers, William R.; Schlegel, Robert; Garraway, Levi A.

    2012-01-01

    The systematic translation of cancer genomic data into knowledge of tumor biology and therapeutic avenues remains challenging. Such efforts should be greatly aided by robust preclinical model systems that reflect the genomic diversity of human cancers and for which detailed genetic and pharmacologic annotation is available1. Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE): a compilation of gene expression, chromosomal copy number, and massively parallel sequencing data from 947 human cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacologic profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479 of the lines, this collection allowed identification of genetic, lineage, and gene expression-based predictors of drug sensitivity. In addition to known predictors, we found that plasma cell lineage correlated with sensitivity to IGF1 receptor inhibitors; AHR expression was associated with MEK inhibitor efficacy in NRAS-mutant lines; and SLFN11 expression predicted sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. Altogether, our results suggest that large, annotated cell line collections may help to enable preclinical stratification schemata for anticancer agents. The generation of genetic predictions of drug response in the preclinical setting and their incorporation into cancer clinical trial design could speed the emergence of “personalized” therapeutic regimens2. PMID:22460905

  19. THE REACH AND RICHNESS OF WIKINOMICS: IS THE FREE WEB-BASED ENCYCLOPEDIA WIKIPEDIA ONLY FOR RICH COUNTRIES?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds that the cent......In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds...... that the central structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard...

  20. Recursive Lexicographical Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskhakov, Fedor; Rust, John; Schjerning, Bertel

    2016-01-01

    of Bertrand price competition with cost reducing investments which we show is a DDG. We provide an exact non- iterative algorithm that finds all MPE of every stage game, and prove there can be only 1, 3 or 5 of them. Using the stage games as building blocks, RLS rapidly finds and enumerates all MPE...

  1. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied ... land, which stretches across the northern states of Nigeria and into southern .... er, the other (Abbega) was a native Margi who spoke Hausa as a second lan- .... and semantic relations between words, the identification of major dialectal.

  2. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction......, and weak normalization for Gödel’s T follows indirectly; both have been formalized in a prototypical extension of Twelf....

  3. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    This article traces the historical development of the major studies according to their type ..... for modern Russian technical vocabulary by literal transliteration, so that radio- activity is ..... tics of northwest Hausa, e.g., 'plain (land)' hwangali, cf.

  4. Lexicographic Treatment of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Thirdly, the macrostructure and microstructure of the dictionary should be ... Specific attention is given to the compilation of the amalgamated lemmalist focusing on .... Martin (ANNA: 25) distinguishes five different types of words relevant to.

  5. Etymological Aspects of Idiomatic and Proverbial Expressions in the Lexicographic Development of Sesotho sa Leboa ? A Semantic Analysis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral traditionof Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear indictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or aproverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basicallymeant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexicalitems has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb.Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differfrom the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationshipwhich lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literaland the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa.This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will giveusers detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions asused in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idiomsand proverbs will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionarieswith detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between theliteral meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative meanings.

    Keywords: DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS, ETYMOLOGY, FIGURATIVE EXPRESSION, IDIOM,LEMMATIZATION, LEXICOLOGY, METAPHOR, METAPHORIC EXPRESSION, PROVERB,SYNCHRONIC ANALYSIS, TERMINOGRAPHY.

    Opsomming: Etimologiese aspekte van idiomatiese en spreekwoordelikeuitdrukkings in die leksikografiese ontwikkeling van Sesotho sa Leboa — 'nsemantiese ontleding. Idiomatiese en spreekwoordelike uitdrukkings is belangrike komponentevan die mondelinge tradisie van Sesotho sa Leboa en

  6. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  7. Religious Renaissance in China Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Madsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derived from C. K. Yang’s classic work in the 1960s came from structural functionalism, which served to unite research in the humanities and social sciences. However, structural functionalism has been abandoned by the new generation of scholars. In the humanities, the most popular paradigm derives from Michel Foucault, but there are also scholars who use neo-Durkheimian and neo-Weberian paradigms. In the social sciences, the dominant paradigms tend to focus on state-society relations. None of these paradigms fully captures the complexity of the transformations happening in China. We recommend greater dialogue between the humanities and social sciences in search of more adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding Chinese religions today.

  8. The Coolness of Capitalism Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McGuigan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the reconciliation of cultural analysis with political economy in Marxist-inspired research on communications. It traces how these two traditions became separated with the development of a one-dimensional and consumerist cultural studies, on the one-hand, and a more classically Marxist political economy of communications, on the other hand, that was accused of holding a simplistic and erroneous concept of ideology. The paper defends a conception of ideology as distorted communication motivated by unequal power relations and sketches a multidimensional mode of cultural analysis that takes account of the moments of production, consumption and textual meaning in the circulation of communications and culture. In accordance with this framework of analysis, the cool-capitalism thesis is outlined and illustrated with reference to Apple, the ‘cool’ corporation. And, the all-purpose mobile communication device is selected as a key and urgent focus of attention for research on commodity fetishism and labour exploitation on a global scale today.

  9. Tritium. Today's and tomorrow's developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazal, S.; Amiard, J.C.; Caussade, Bernard; Chenal, Christian; Hubert, Francoise; Sene, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive hydrogen isotope, tritium is one of the radionuclides which is the most released in the environment during the normal operation of nuclear facilities. The increase of nuclear activities and the development of future generations of reactors, like the EPR and ITER, would lead to a significant increase of tritium effluents in the atmosphere and in the natural waters, thus raising many worries and questions. Aware about the importance of this question, the national association of local information commissions (ANCLI) wished to make a status of the existing knowledge concerning tritium and organized in 2008 a colloquium at Orsay (France) with an inquiring approach. The scientific committee of the ANCLI, renowned for its expertise skills, mobilized several nuclear specialists to carry out this thought. This book represents a comprehensive synthesis of today's knowledge about tritium, about its management and about its impact on the environment and on human health. Based on recent scientific data and on precise examples, it treats of the overall questions raised by this radionuclide: 1 - tritium properties and different sources (natural and anthropic), 2 - the problem of tritiated wastes management; 3 - the bio-availability and bio-kinetics of the different tritium species; 4 - the tritium labelling of environments; 5 - tritium measurement and modeling of its environmental circulation; 6 - tritium radio-toxicity and its biological and health impacts; 7 - the different French and/or international regulations concerning tritium. (J.S.)

  10. Gas market is today strategical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darricarrere, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy market, and in particular the gas market, is today seething with excitement. In France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, the energy stakes are in the center of preoccupations. This article is an interview of Y.L. Darricarrere, general director of the gas and electricity division of Total group, who explains his opinions about the opening of European and French energy markets, presents the ambitions of Total group on these markets, and comments some recent events of the European energy scene: concentration between gas and electric utilities, the Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) project of merger, the risks linked with the coming in of national companies from producing countries, like Gazprom and Sonatrach, on the European market, the restriction of access of foreign companies to hydrocarbon reserves in Russia and Latin America (come back of the 'energy nationalism'), Total's policy for anticipating the increase of the world energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. (J.S.)

  11. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Status of Hitler Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A finales del siglo XX, podía afirmarse que Hitler estaba más vivo y con más influencia que en la cumbre de su poder medio siglo antes. ¿Cómo ha alcanzado Hitler esta posición? ¿No está muerto? ¿Cómo puede ser tan prominente más de cincuenta años después de su defunción? Esta cuestión de Hitler en la actualidad posee diversos problemas históricos que están íntimamente conectados con otros morales. En este trabajo, sin embargo, pretendo concentrarme primordialmente en su dimensión histórica. A la luz del sorprendente ascenso de Hitler en la moderna conciencia histórica, esto puede llevarnos a la siguiente pregunta: ¿No hemos otorgado al dictador nazi un poder aún mayor que cuando estaba vivo y comandando sus divisiones de la Wehrmacht en el punto culminante de sus conquistas?___________________ABSTRACT:By the end of the twentieth century, it can be said, Hitler was more alive and prominent than at the height of his power a half-century before. How did Hitler become this way? Isn’t he dead? How can he become so prominent more than half a century after his death? The issue of Hitler today poses several historical problems that are deeply moral problems as well. In this work, however, I intend to concentrate primarily on their historical dimension. In light of Hitler’s astonishing rise in modern historical consciousness, this leads to the inevitable question: Have we not granted to Hitler a far greater power over us than ever he had when he was alive and commanding his Wehrmacht divisions at the farthest extent of his conquests?

  13. The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia Website blackholes.stardate.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Benningfield, D.; Preston, S.

    2013-01-01

    The StarDate Black Hole Encyclopedia website was developed over the past seven years to provide an extensive but easy-to-read resource for the public and students. A Spanish-language version, Enciclopedia de agujeros negros, is also available at blackholes.radiouniverso.org. Evaluation shows that the sites are used by the public, students, and astronomy professionals, and the site is among the top references in most web searches for individual black holes. The site comprises seven major subsections: Basics, Directory, Research, History, Pop Culture, News, and Resources. The Basics section introduces black holes, explains how they are discovered and studied, and covers their basis in the theory of gravity. This section also includes a six-minute video introduction, “Black Holes: Stranger than Fiction.” The Directory section contains extensive descriptions of more than 80 well-known stellar, intermediate, and supermassive black holes as well as images and vital statistics of each. The Research section takes a look at three NSF-funded projects, including the work of Andrea Ghez, Karl Gebhardt and Jenny Greene, and the LIGO project. The History section provides a timeline of black holes from Isaac Newton to the present. Some of the best and worst roles played by black holes in films, TV shows, and books are included in the Pop Culture section (and pop culture references and images are sprinkled through the rest of the site). An archive of news reports about black holes is available in the News section, which provides links to the original stories or press releases. And the Resources section offers FAQs, articles from StarDate magazine and radio programs, activities for students that are tied to national standards, a glossary, and a reading list of books and websites. We have conducted both quantitative and qualitative evaluation on the black hole websites. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0935841. Any

  14. USING MULTIMEDIA AND WEB TECHNOLOGIES IN STUDYING THE HUMANITIES. WEB-MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA «WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE AND RENAISSANCE».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alferov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of innovative information technologies in modern education. Special attention is given to the using of web-multimedia technologies in the study of humanities. As an example of using information and communication tools in the process of philological disciplines described purpose, functionality and architecture of web-multimedia encyclopedia «William Shakespeare and Renaissance» (http://shakespeare.ksu.ks.ua, developed in laboratory of the integrated learning environments of the Research Institute of IT.

  15. The richness and reach of Wikinomics: Is the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the central...... structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general, more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard of living...

  16. The Lexicographic Treatment of the Demonstrative Copulative in Sesotho sa Leboa ? An Exercise in Multiple Cross-referencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this research article an in-depth investigation is presented of the lexicographictreatment of the demonstrative copulative (DC in Sesotho sa Leboa. This one case study serves asan example to illustrate the so-called 'paradigmatic lemmatisation' of closed-class words in theAfrican languages. The need for such an approach follows a discussion, in Sections 1 and 2 respectively,of the present and missing directions in African-language metalexicography. A theoreticalconspectus of the DC in Sesotho sa Leboa is then offered in Section 3, while Section 4 examines thetreatment of the DC in the four existing desktop dictionaries for this language. The outcomes fromthe two latter sections are then used in Section 5, which analyses the problems of and options for asound lexicographic treatment of the DC in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries. The next twosections proceed with a review of the practical implementation of the DC lemmatisation suggestionsin PyaSsaL, i.e. the Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa 'Explanatory Sesotho sa Leboa Dictionary'— with Section 6 focussing on the hardcopy and Section 7 on the online version. In the process,the very first fully monolingual African-language dictionary on the Internet is introduced. Section8, finally, concludes briefly.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, PARADIGMATIC LEMMATISATION, AFRICAN LANGUAGES,SESOTHO SA LEBOA (NORTHERN SOTHO, SEPEDI, DEMONSTRATIVE COPULATIVE,CROSS-REFERENCING, CORPUS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, HARDCOPY, ONLINE, INTERNET, EXPLANATORY SESOTHO SA LEBOA DICTIONARY(PYASSAL, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK (SF

    Senaganwa: Tokelotlhalošo ya lešalašupi-leba ka mo pukuntšung ya Sesothosa Leboa — Tirišo ka go šupana go gontši. Ka go sengwalwana se sa nyakišišo,nyakišišo yeo e tseneletšego e laetšwa ka ga go lokelwa le go hlalošwa ga lešalašupi-leba ka mopukuntšung ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Thutwana ya mohuta wo ya nyakišišo e šoma bjalo ka

  17. Women in Energy: Rinku Gupta - Argonne Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    -performance clusters and supercomputers. What is the best part of your job? The best part is working with Argonne Today Argonne Today Mission People Work/Life Connections Focal Point Women in Energy: Rinku Gupta Home People Women in Energy: Rinku Gupta Women in Energy: Rinku Gupta Apr 1, 2016 | Posted by Argonne

  18. On Defining "Imaginary" Beings and Attributes: How Do Lexicographers Cope with Culturally Determined Differences in Beliefs about Cosmology, Ontology and Epistemology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Swanepoel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Members of linguistic communities often have opposing beliefs about the existence of beings denoted by lexical items or about the truth of the attributes ascribed to entities. As very little research has been forthcoming in this regard, this article focuses on how people's beliefs about existence and truth are encoded in explanatory dictionaries, and on the kind of semantics that is needed to account for these beliefs. The way in which dictionaries define issues of existence and truth against a default world view is outlined in Section 2. Section 3 indicates what happens if the default world view of lexicographic descriptions changes and how cultural biases operate in the treatment of the meaning of lexical items that denote "imaginary" beings or "imaginary" attributes. Section 4 summarizes the main findings of the article and delimits topics for further research.

    Keywords: IMAGINARY BEINGS, FABULOUS CREATURES, DEFINING ATTRIBUTES, LEXICOGRAPHIC DEFINITIONS, EXISTENCE, TRUTH, SENSE, REFERENCE, DENOTATION, IDEALIZED COGNITIVE MODELS, COGNITIVE SEMANTICS, CULTURAL BIAS, CULTURAL SENSITIVITY

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Oor die definiëring van "denkbeeldige" wesens en eienskap-pe: Hoe hanteer leksikograwe kultureel bepaalde verskille in beskouings oor die kosmologie, ontologie en epistemologie? Lede van taalgemeenskappe het dikwels opponerende beskouings oor die bestaan van wesens waarna leksikale items verwys of oor die waarheid van die eienskappe wat aan entiteite toegeskryf word. Omdat baie min navorsing in dié verband beskikbaar is, fokus hierdie artikel op hoe mense se beskouings oor die bestaan en waarheid ten opsigte hiervan in verklarende woordeboeke gekodeer word, en op die soort seman-tiek wat benodig word om hierdie opvattings te verantwoord. Die manier waarop woordeboeke kwessies van bestaan en waarheid teen 'n verstekwêreldbeskouing omskryf, word in Afdeling 2 geskets. Afdeling 3 dui aan wat gebeur indien die

  19. Connected minds technology and today's learners

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrò, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    In all OECD countries, digital media and connectedness are integral to the lives of todays learners. It is often claimed that these learners are ""new millennium learners"", or ""digital natives"", who have different expectations about education. This book contributes to the debate about the effects of technology attachment and connectedness on todays learners, and their expectations about teaching. The book sets out to answer the following questions: Can the claim that todays students are ""new millenium learners"" or ""digital natives be sustained empirically? Is there consistent research evidence demonstrating the effects of technology on cognitive development, social values, and learning expectations? What are the implications for educational policy and practice?

  20. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  1. Review of Huebert’s Libertarianism Today

    OpenAIRE

    Walter E. Block

    2010-01-01

    Libertarianism Today, by Jacob Huebert (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010), is an excellent introduction to libertarianism. In contrast to many other recent books about libertarianism, a consistent non-compromising libertarianism is defended throughout this book.

  2. The evolving DOT enterprise : today toward tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Departments of transportation (DOTs) today are being shaped by a wide range of : factors some of which are directly managed and controlled within the transportation : industry while others are external factors shaping the demand for transportatio...

  3. Encyclopedia of two-phase heat transfer and flow III macro and micro flow boiling and numerical modeling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Set III of this encyclopedia is a new addition to the previous Sets I and II. It contains 26 invited chapters from international specialists on the topics of numerical modeling of two-phase flows and evaporation, fundamentals of evaporation and condensation in microchannels and macrochannels, development and testing of micro two-phase cooling systems for electronics, and various special topics (surface wetting effects, microfin tubes, two-phase flow vibration across tube bundles). The chapters are written both by renowned university researchers and by well-known engineers from leading corporate research laboratories. Numerous "must read" chapters cover the fundamentals of research and engineering practice on boiling, condensation and two-phase flows, two-phase heat transfer equipment, electronics cooling systems, case studies and so forth. Set III constitutes a "must have" reference together with Sets I and II for thermal engineering researchers and practitioners.

  4. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL: identification of Environment Ontology terms in text and the annotation of the Encyclopedia of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Frankild, Sune P; Schnetzer, Julia; Fanini, Lucia; Faulwetter, Sarah; Pavloudi, Christina; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Leary, Patrick; Hammock, Jennifer; Schulz, Katja; Parr, Cynthia Sims; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-06-01

    The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users. The software and the corpus are available under the open-source BSD and the CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 licenses, respectively, at http://environments.hcmr.gr. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Participatory management in today's health care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

  6. Film Presentation: Projekt Zukunft/Tomorrow Today

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Projekt Zukunft/Tomorrow Today, by Deutsche Welle (2009)   Deutsche Welle TV’s weekly science journal explores the LHC at CERN with host Ingolf Baur. Please note that we will show both the German and English versions of this broadcast. Each episode is about 27 minutes long. Projekt Zukunft/Tomorrow Today will be presented on Friday, 29 October from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium Language: German version followed by the English version      

  7. The Geriatric Child in Today's Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson, Frank E.

    This paper develops the premise that there is today a new "child" in our culture developed in response to expectations of daily functioning, family relationships, societal status, economic level, medical illness, emotional needs, and financial management. This new "child" is a person who has usually passed the age of 65, and has found that the…

  8. Using Today's Headlines for Teaching Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2008-01-01

    It is a challenge to attract undergraduate students into the gerontology field. Many do not believe the aging field is exciting and at the cutting edge. Students, however, can be convinced of the timeliness, relevance, and excitement of the field by, literally, bringing up today's headlines in class. The author collected over 250 articles during…

  9. The energy of today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, E.; Bauquis, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a today state of the art concerning the energy domain in the world, offering perspectives on what could be the tomorrow world in matter of energy. They define fundamental notions, the different sources of energy and their price, the energy policies of the different countries and the problem of the consumption impact on the environment. (A.L.B.)

  10. The Genetic Code: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 12. The Genetic Code: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Jiqiang Ling Dieter Söll. General Article Volume 17 Issue 12 December 2012 pp 1136-1142. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. We, John Dewey's Audience of Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcus Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests that John Dewey's "Democracy and Education" does not describe education in an existing society, but it conveys a utopia, in the sense coined by Mannheim: utopian thought aims at instigating actions towards the transformation of reality, intending to attain a better world in the future. Today's readers of Dewey (his…

  12. Organization management today: setting the human resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper's discussion focuses on the way the world we live in is being transformed under our own very eyes by factors and forces which are so compelling and overwhelming, in their ramifications. The environment in which business and management are carried on today is becoming more and more complex by the day.

  13. Europa Heute: Filmbegleitheft (Europe Today: Film Manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Reinhold; And Others

    This teacher's guide to the German promotional film "Europe Today", suitable for use in advanced courses, concentrates on linguistic preparation required for full appreciation. The film focuses on the role of European countries as participating members of the Common Market. The manual includes information on the German film industry, a…

  14. Southern forests: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Neil Sampson

    2004-01-01

    In the 20th century, southern forests changed dramatically. Those changes pale, however, when compared to what happened to the people of the region. In addition to growing over fourfold in numbers, the South's population has urbanized, globalized, and intellectualized in 100 years. Rural and isolated in the 19th century, they are today urban and cosmopolitan. One...

  15. Identity and Diversity in Today's World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a thesis about identity and diversity. I first look at activity-based identities, identities like being a gardener, birder, citizen scientist or fan-fiction writer. These are freely chosen identities and they are proliferating at a great rate today thanks to participatory culture, the Maker Movement and digital and social…

  16. Applying Servant Leadership in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    This book illustrates how the ideal of servant leadership can be applied in your school today. With real-life scenarios, discussions, and self assessments, this book gives practical suggestions to help you develop into a caring and effective servant leader. There are 52 scenarios in this book, focusing on situations as varied as: (1) Dealing with…

  17. Primary School Leadership Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a retrospective and prospective view of primary school leadership. It begins with an analytic description of primary school leadership in the recent past. The second part looks at school leadership today, identifies contemporary issues and examines role continuities and changes. The third part looks at what the future might…

  18. After the Resistance: The Alamo Today

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay After the Resistance: The Alamo Today about the Alamo and emerging disease resistance.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  19. Secondary School Administration in Anambra State Today ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, a descriptive survey research design was used to identify the challenges that impede secondary school administration today in Anambra State. The population of the study was all the 259 public secondary school principals in the state. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A 20-item ...

  20. A systematic study on drug-response associated genes using baseline gene expressions of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Yun; Wang, Fayou; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-03-01

    We have studied drug-response associated (DRA) gene expressions by applying a systems biology framework to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data. More than 4,000 genes are inferred to be DRA for at least one drug, while the number of DRA genes for each drug varies dramatically from almost 0 to 1,226. Functional enrichment analysis shows that the DRA genes are significantly enriched in genes associated with cell cycle and plasma membrane. Moreover, there might be two patterns of DRA genes between genders. There are significantly shared DRA genes between male and female for most drugs, while very little DRA genes tend to be shared between the two genders for a few drugs targeting sex-specific cancers (e.g., PD-0332991 for breast cancer and ovarian cancer). Our analyses also show substantial difference for DRA genes between young and old samples, suggesting the necessity of considering the age effects for personalized medicine in cancers. Lastly, differential module and key driver analyses confirm cell cycle related modules as top differential ones for drug sensitivity. The analyses also reveal the role of TSPO, TP53, and many other immune or cell cycle related genes as important key drivers for DRA network modules. These key drivers provide new drug targets to improve the sensitivity of cancer therapy.

  1. Einstein today; Einstein aujourd'hui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspect, A.; Grangier, Ph. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique a Orsay, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouchet, F.R. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 75 - Paris (France); Brunet, E.; Derrida, B. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France); Cohen-Tannoudji, C. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France); Dalibard, J.; Laloe, F. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel. UMR 8552 (ENS, UPMC, CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Damour, Th. [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 91 - Bures sur Yvette (France); Darrigol, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Groupe Histoire des Sciences Rehseis, 75 - Paris (France); Pocholle, J.P. [Thales Research et Technology France, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2005-07-01

    The most important contributions of Einstein involve 5 fields of physics : the existence of quanta (light quanta, stimulated radiation emission and Bose-Einstein condensation), relativity, fluctuations (Brownian motion and thermodynamical fluctuations), the basis of quantum physics and cosmology (cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe). Diverse and renowned physicists have appreciated the development of modern physics from Einstein's ideas to the knowledge of today. This book is a collective book that gathers their work under 7 chapters: 1) 1905, a new beginning; 2) from the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen's article to quantum information (cryptography and quantum computers); 3) the Bose-Einstein condensation in gases; 4) from stimulated emission to the today's lasers; 5) Brownian motion and the fluctuation-dissipation theory; 6) general relativity; and 7) cosmology. (A.C.)

  2. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  3. EURO - Before Yesterday, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow...

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Pangsy-Kania

    2002-01-01

    The article was divided into four integrally connected parts concerning the EURO: before yesterday, yesterday, today and tomorrow. On the 1st January 2002 the common European currency became a fact. In eleven European countries there appeared jointly over 13 billion banknotes and 76 billion coins. The introduction of a common currency in the countries of the European Union is the greatest financial operation in world history with such a huge scale and degree of complication. Before yesterdayŠ...

  4. E-learning. Today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbke, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Today, new technologies revolutionize the way of handling information, exchanging knowledge and learning. The definition of the term ''e-learning'' mostly comprehends teaching and learning using a range of electronic media (Internet, CD-ROMs). However, further differentiation is necessary to describe the entire spectrum of methods included in this term. These different approaches are reflected in their implementation by the companies presented. (orig.)

  5. The Prospects of Radical Change Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavoj Žižek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, Slavoj Žižek takes the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary for reflecting on the prospects of radical change today. First, it is shown that under Stalinism, Lenin’s works were quoted out of context in an arbitrary way in order to legitimise arbitrary political measures. Marxism thereby became an ideology that justified brutal subjective interventions. Second, this contribution poses the question of the revolutionary subject and democracy today. It stresses the role of both contingency and strategy in revolutions. In political assemblages taking place on public squares, the inert mass of ordinary people is transubstantiated into a politically engaged united force. The basic political problem today is how to best reconfigure democracy. Third, this contribution analyses the “interesting times” we live in. These are times that feature multiple crises, right-wing populism à la Donald Trump and Marine Le Pen, the lower classes’ opposition to immigration, and the refugee crisis. Questions about human rights and their violation and about radical change need to be asked in this context.

  6. El parlache: resultados de una investigación lexicográfica The ‘parlache’: Results of a lexicographical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ STELLA CASTAÑEDA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La idea de realizar una investigación sobre la caracterización lexicográfica del parlache, con el fin de elaborar un diccionario, se debe al interés de profundizar en el estudio de una variedad dialectal de origen diastrático, del español colombiano, denominada parlache, que utilizan amplios sectores de la sociedad, pero en especial los jóvenes de los barrios populares y marginales de Medellín y de su Área Metropolitana. En toda sociedad se presentan cambios lingüísticos que van mostrando las transformaciones de la realidad. Ahora bien, en los sectores populares y marginales de Medellín, el surgimiento de los cambios lingüísticos fue tan acelerado, que desbordó los límites normales de este fenómeno debido a la agudización de la crisis social y al surgimiento de nuevas formas de “trabajo”, caracterizadas por un marco de trasgresión de la ley y por un amplio dominio de la cultura de la droga, en donde el sector social más afectado ha sido el de los jóvenes. Por esto, a pesar de que el parlache es una variedad dialectal muy extendida, la mayor parte de sus hablantes y los que lo usan con mayor propiedad son los jóvenes entre 15 y 26 años.The idea of carrying out an investigation on the lexicographical characterization of the parlache in order to elaborate a dictionary, was born by the interest in searching thoroughly on a dialectal variety of diastratic origin from the Colombian Spanish, called parlache, which is widely used by our society, but specifically by youth of popular and outskirt neighbourhoods of Medellin and its metropolitan area. In all the society linguistic changes are occurring which show the transformation of their reality. As a matter of fact, the occurrence of linguistic change in the popular and outskirt districts of Medellin advanced so fast that it surpassed the commonl limits of this phenomenon, due to the worsening of the social crisis, the upspring of new kinds of “work”, marked by legal

  7. Corrosion issues in nuclear industry today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattant, F.; Crusset, D.; Feron, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of global warming, nuclear energy is a carbon-free source of power and so is a meaningful option for energy production without CO 2 emissions. Currently, there are more than 440 commercial nuclear reactors, accounting for about 15% of electric power generation in the world, and there has not been a major accident in over 20 years. The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30 or 40 years, it is quite feasible that many nuclear power plants will be able to operate for longer than this. The re-emergence of nuclear power today is founded on the present generation of nuclear reactors meeting the demands of extended service life, ensuring the cost competitiveness of nuclear power and matching enhanced safety requirements. Nuclear power plant engineers should be able to demonstrate such integrity and reliability of their system materials and components as to enable nuclear power plants to operate beyond their initial design life. Effective waste management is another challenge for sustainable nuclear energy today; more precisely, a solution is needed for the management of high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste over the very long term. Most nuclear countries are currently gathering the data needed to assess the feasibility of a deep geological waste repository, including the prediction of the behaviour of materials over several thousands of years. The extended service life of nuclear power plants and the need for permanent disposal for nuclear waste are today's key issues in the nuclear industry. We focus here on the major role that corrosion plays in these two factors, and on the French approaches to these two issues. (authors)

  8. Global aromatics supply. Today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Aromatics are the essential building blocks for some of the largest petrochemical products in today's use. To the vast majority they are consumed to produce intermediates for polymer products and, hence, contribute to our modern lifestyle. Their growth rates are expected to be in line with GDP growth in future. This contrasts the significantly lower growth rates of the primary sources for aromatics - fuel processing and steam cracking of naphtha fractions. A supply gap can be expected to open up in future for which creative solutions will be required. (orig.)

  9. Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Simpson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gandhi’s example has inspired countless political struggles worldwide over the past century. We might then ask how his thought has been transferred and translated when taken out of the particular historical and geographic context in which he lived. How have Gandhi’s ideas been changed or altered when adopted in different contexts? Which aspects of Gandhi’s thinking remain most relevant to struggles for social and environmental justice today? These are just a few of the questions that were discussed at the “Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Workshop” hosted by Reed College in Portland Oregon (USA, on April 16th, 2016.

  10. Nature and history today: the ecological crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano ESPINOSA RUBIO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, the Nature-History relations are the ecological ones: we are living in a global eco-bio-techno-noos-sphere and that means that ecological crisis is a crisis of civilization too. Above all, the climate change and its social and political consequences will have a great impact in our lives, and we must respond without losing our rights. In the intellectual way, we need new narrations in order to affront the situation and perhaps the theory of the lesser evil is one of the better answers that we can find.

  11. Ideologies in the Swedish health sector today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1982-01-01

    Sweden has a long tradition of social democracy and corporate cooperation. Social problems are treated as technological questions that always should be solved through rational and neutral means. Today Sweden faces a crisis of economy as well as a crisis of medicine. In the spirit of consensus, th...... system of primary care and prevention. However, in the context of the current economic crisis, the struggle against health hazards and cuts in public spending has intensified and the gap between the ideology of technological rationalism and reality has widened....

  12. The ASME Code today -- Challenges, threats, opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since its modest beginning as a single volume in 1914 the ASME Code, or some of its parts, is recognized today in 48 of the United States and all providence's of Canada. The ASME Code today is composed of 25 books including two Code Case books. These books cover the new construction of boilers and pressure vessels and the new construction and In-Service-Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components. The ASME accredits all manufacturers of boilers and pressure vessels built to the ASME Code. There are approximately 7650 symbol stamps issued throughout the world. Over 23% of the symbol stamps have been issued outside the USA and Canada. The challenge to the ASME Code is to be accepted as the world standard for pressure boundary components. There are activities underway to achieve that goal. The ASME Code is being revised to make it a more friendly document to entities outside of North America. To achieve that end there are specific tasks underway which are described here

  13. Gilson, Krapiec and Christian Philosophy Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tarasiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author undertakes an attempt to answer the following question: is Christian philosophy possible today? The question seems to be of great importance due to the fact that what Christians who try to do philosophy usually encounter is bitter criticism which comes to them from two sides at once: that of academy and that of the Church. In short, for academy their philosophy is too Christian, and for the Church it is too academic. Being indebted to the insights of Étienne Gilson and Mieczyslaw A. Krapiec (the original Polish spelling: Mieczysław Albert Krąpiec, pronounced: myechisuaf albert krompyetz, the author comes to the conclusion thatChristian philosophy is possible today only if: 1 it isnot identified with the art of persuasion, as its final end lies in gaining understanding rather than being convincing, 2 itis the work of a Christian, and 3 it has thereal world as its object and metaphysics as its method. ForChristian philosophy—which in essence consists indoing philosophy by Christians in order to get morerational understanding of their religious faith—shouldbe identified with theperfection of the intellect achieved by practicingthe classical philosophy of being.

  14. Lecture programme The reality of science today

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    What are the new challenges and realities facing scientific research? What is its place in society today? To answer these questions, the History and Philosophy of Sciences Unit of Geneva University, in collaboration with ASPERA, the European network for astroparticle physics research, has organised a programme of lectures entitled La réalité de la science d’aujourd’hui, enjeux et défis de la diversité. This series of lectures will provide researchers and members of the public with a snapshot of the state of science today from the perspective of laboratories and institutes, and on subjects such as funding policy and technological and legal impact. The first lecture will be given by science historian Dominique Pestre (EHESS & Centre Koyré, Paris), renowned for his contributions to the analysis of science past and present, and notably one of the authors of the work "History of CERN". He will discuss the modern methods of producing scientific knowledge which have been develop...

  15. KISWAHILI VERBS: A LEXICOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    reveals the non-correspondence between form and meaning in language. ... near mirror image of the lexicon claimed to be part of a native speaker's compe- .... cographers do not take much trouble in their study of the forms they enter into ...... The way we interpret somesha is 'make someone read' but actually the book is ...

  16. The Compilation of Multilingual Concept Literacy Glossaries at the University of Cape Town: A Lexicographical Function Theoretical Approach Die samestelling van veeltaligekonsep-geletterheidswoordelyste by die Universiteit van Kaapstad: 'n Leksikografiesefunksieteoretiese benadering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Nkomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article proposes a lexicographical approach to the compilation of multilingual concept literacy glossaries which may play a very important role in supporting students at institutions of higher education. In order to support concept literacy, especially for students for whom English is not the native language, a number of universities in South Africa are compiling multilingual glossaries through which the use of languages other than English may be employed as auxiliary media. Terminologies in languages other than English are developed by translating English terms or coining new terms in these languages to exploit the native language competence of most students. The glossary project at the University of Cape Town (UCT which was conceived under the auspices of the Multilingualism Education Project (MEP is discussed. It is shown that the UCT glossaries are compiled using methods consistent with those employed in modern lexicography or proffered in lexicographical theory. The lexicographical function theory is specifically used to account for the glossaries and their production. It is suggested that modern lexicography can provide useful guidance for the production of glossaries, given that the earliest glossaries constitute the humble beginnings of lexicography.

    Hierdie artikel stel 'n leksikografiese benadering tot die samestelling van meertaligekonsep-geletterheidswoordelyste voor wat 'n baie belangrike rol kan speel by die ondersteuning van studente by instellings vir hoër onderwys. Om konsepgeletterdheid te ondersteun, veral vir studente vir wie Engels nie die moedertaal is nie, stel 'n aantal universiteite in Suid-Afrika meertalige woordelyste saam waardeur die gebruik van ander tale as Engels as hulpmedia aangewend kan word. Terminologieë in ander tale as Engels word ontwikkel deur Engelse terme te vertaal of nuwe terme in hierdie tale te skep om die moedertaalvaardigheid van die meeste

  17. Liver transplantation:Yesterday,today and tomorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Abbasoglu

    2008-01-01

    With the advances in technical skills,management of postoperative complications and improvements in immunosuppressive drugs,liver transplantation is the standard treatment for many patients with chronic liver disease.Today,shortage of donor organs seems to be the major limiting factor for the application of liver transplantation.This review focuses on five issues that are challenging to clinical practice of liver transplantation and relevant to gastroenterologists.These include living donor liver transplantation,recurrent viral hepatitis,non-heart-beating donors,hepatocellular carcinoma,and ABO incompatible livertransplantation.Living donor and non-heart beating donor transplantations were initiated as a solution to increase the donor organ pool and it is expected that there will be an increase in the number of these donors.Recurrent hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma following liver transplantation are among major problems and ongoing research in these diseases may lead to better outcomes in these recipients.

  18. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  19. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  20. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  1. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-01

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  2. Guarani Paraguayo [Encyclopedia entry

    OpenAIRE

    Drude, S.

    2005-01-01

    Guaraní , Paraguaisches Guaraní, Eigen-Bez. Avañe’ẽ, Sprache in Paraguay (über 3,5 Mio. Sprecher, 95 % der Bev.), NO-Argentinien (bis zu 1 Mio. Sprecher) und S-Brasilien. Das zu den Tupí-Guaraní-Sprachen zählende G. ist eine der größten → Indianersprachen S-Amerikas (nach Ketschua und vor Aimara) und die einzige, die überwiegend von Nicht-Indianern gebraucht wird. Seit den 1990-Jahren ist das G. in Paraguay als Nationalsprache anerkannt und wird auch in Schulen verwendet. Das G. wurde durch d...

  3. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-15

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  4. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  5. Encyclopedia of well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbrandes, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 16 chapters of this book aim to provide students, trainees and engineers with a manual covering all well-logging measurements ranging from drilling to productions, from oil to minerals going by way of geothermal energy. Each chapter is a summary but a bibliography is given at the end of each chapter. Well-logging during drilling, wireline logging equipment and techniques, petroleum logging, data processing of borehole data, interpretation of well-logging, sampling tools, completion and production logging, logging in relief wells to kill off uncontrolled blowouts, techniques for high temperature geothermal energy, small-scale mining and hydrology, logging with oil-base mud and finally recommended logging programs are all topics covered. There is one chapter on nuclear well-logging which is indexed separately. (UK)

  6. Microsoft Encarta 99 Encyclopedia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, a future is envisioned in which the Internet will be the logical culmination of the ultimate potential of compu- ters as accessible, user-friendly reference .... The microstructure. In this article the central focus is on the ways in which Encarta 99 guides the user to the required information and not on the information itself.

  7. Two encyclopedia contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh

    2003-01-01

    censoring; Cox regression model; counting process; event history analysis; intensity process; multi-state model; non-parametric inference; parametric models; survival analysis; Cox's proportional hazards model; hazard function, regression model; time-dependent covariate; time scale...

  8. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  9. Elderly Adi women of Arunachal Pradesh: "living encyclopedias" and cultural refugia in biodiversity conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  10. Elderly Adi Women of Arunachal Pradesh: "Living Encyclopedias" and Cultural Refugia in Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  11. From Fayol's Mechanistic to Today's Organic Functions of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews Fayol's original five managerial functions, demonstrates that they are still being taught in today's management courses, and offers a new set of organic management functions more applicable to today's turbulent business environment.

  12. How Readers Shape the Content of an Encyclopedia: A Case Study Comparing the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890 with Wikipedia (2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spree

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How knowledge is negotiated between the makers of encyclopedias and their audiences remains an ongoing question in research on encyclopedias. A comparative content analysis of the published answers of letters to the editor of the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (Korrespondenzblatt from 1885 and the discussion pages of the article potato of the German Wikipedia (2013 reveals continuities as well as changes in the communication between encyclopedia producers and their audiences. The main reasons why readers and editors communicate are the need for updated factual information, an exchange on editorial principles and the intellectual exchange of ideas on ideological and philosophical questions in relation to the encyclopedic content. Editors and readers attach a lot of importance to the process of verifying information through bibliographical references. Whereas, for the editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon the leading role of experts remains undisputed, Wikipedians work in a contradictory situation. They are on the one hand exposing knowledge production to a permanent process of negotiation, thereby challenging the role of experts, on the other hand relying strongly on bibliographical authorities. Whilst the reasons for the communication between readers and editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon and among Wikipedia contributors coincide, the understanding of the roles of readers and editors differ. The editors of the Korrespondenzblatt keep up a lecturing attitude. As opposed to this, administrators in Wikipedia want to encourage participation and strive to develop expertise among the participating contributors. Albeit power relations between administrators, regular authors, occasional authors and readers continue to exist they are comparatively flat and transient. Regardless of these differences, the comparison between Meyers Konversationslexikon and Wikipedia indicates that the sine qua non for activating an upwards spiral of quality

  13. FROM PAST TILL TODAY AZERBAIJANIAN MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatira Ahmedli CAFER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Azerbaijanian music was found after archelogical excavations. In the first literature The Book of Dede Korkut, then in Nizami's and Fuzuli's literal works a vast of information could be found about the Medieval Age music. The first phase of Azerbaijanian musical history contains arts of bards, laters phases contains classical modes. The researches of Azerbaijanian modes extend to the Medieval Age. The expand of 19th century European music affected Azerbaijanian culture, too. The early years of 20th century is reckoned as a new rising period in Azerbaijanin music. Uzeyir Hacibeyov composed Leyli and Majnun in that period which was the first opera of the East. Meanwhile, several musical high schools, conservatories, symphony orchestras, national instrumental orchestras, and theatres were established. The smphonic music which was established in 1920's had a major development in between 1940 and 1960. In between 1960 and 1980, younger generation, too, participated in artistic activities, alongside the older generation. In 1988-1994 Armenians invaded Karabagh and commited several genocides which some of the most known are called 20 January and Khojaly genocides. In that period, Azerbaijanian composes divided into three stages as 20 January, Karabagh, and Khojaly. Today, Azerbaijanian music is well known all over the world, while being played in lots of festivals in the whole world.

  14. Introduction: The Continued Importance of Smallholders Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Vadjunec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Smallholders remain an important part of human-environment research, particularly in cultural and political ecology, peasant and development studies, and increasingly in land system and sustainability science. This introduction to the edited volume explores land use and livelihood issues among smallholders, in several disciplinary and subfield traditions. Specifically, we provide a short history of smallholder livelihood research in the human-environment tradition. We reflect on why, in an age of rapid globalization, smallholder land use and livelihoods still matter, both for land system science and as a reflection of concerns with inequality and poverty. Key themes that emerge from the papers in this volume include the importance of smallholder farming and land-use practices to questions of environmental sustainability, the dynamic reality of smallholder livelihoods, the challenges of vulnerability and adaptation in contemporary human-environment systems, and the structural and relative nature of the term “smallholder.” Overall these contributions show that smallholder studies are more pertinent than ever, especially in the face of global environmental change. Additionally, we argue that questions of smallholder identity, social difference, and teleconnections provide fertile areas of future research. We conclude that we need to re-envision who the smallholder is today and how this translates into modern human-environment smallholder studies.

  15. Field primatology of today: current ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, K C; Riley, E P

    2010-09-01

    As members of professional organizations such as American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), primatologists must adhere to a set of nonhuman primate-focused principles outlined in resolutions and policy statements on, for example, the ethical treatment of nonhuman primates. Those of us that work in the field must also address issues such as the protection of primate health in the wild and the conservation of wild primate populations. Moreover, we increasingly find ourselves in complex situations where we must balance human and nonhuman primate needs and interests. The selection of commentary pieces in this edition of the American Journal of Primatology originated from presentations given in the symposium, Field Primatology of Today: Navigating the Ethical Landscape, held at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) in September 2009. The goals of that symposium and these resulting commentary pieces are threefold: (1) to revive a discussion of key contemporary ethical issues faced by field primatologists, (2) to highlight the need for centrally placed ethical considerations in various facets of our professional lives, particularly research and teaching, and (3) to consider what a comprehensive ethical code that addresses all of these issues might look like. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Augmented Reality in Sports: Today and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer BOZYER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change experienced in the field of Information Technologies makes the informati cs more tangible in daily life. Today, it became possible to encounter with the informatics applications almost all the disciplines. As a matter of course, many informatics applications are put into the practice regarding the sports discipline. Because of the condition that the power of information processing has increased and the studies on wearable technol ogies in addition to the expert system design, augmented reality (AR has become a topic which gains imp ortance in the field of sports. There are many studies that are conducted with the aim of increasing the efficiency of physical activities done in many sports branches, ensuring a more fair management of competitions and providing the opportunity for spectators to watch the competitions in a more comfortable and efficient way. In this study; the information about the current augmented reality practices th at are used in various sports branches has been given and the mobile and interactive augmented reality practices which are possible to be seen in future have been mentioned. In addition, there is an augmented reality practice which is designed with the aim of ensuring that the shoots of sports people who are interested in archery, are more stable and of ensuring that the trainings and exercises are more efficient by stating to the sports people whether he or she is in the right position for shoot which is c alled as T shape seen at the time of releasing the arrow.

  17. Academic dishonesty today, unethical practices tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuke, Rebekah D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the most current published literature on the topics of academic dishonesty, unethical professional practices, and research that studied the correlation between these 2 areas of interest. Literature was retrieved by utilizing key words such as academic dishonesty, cheating, workplace dishonesty, and unethical behavior. Multiple research databases were used and a reference librarian in locating relevant research studies resulting in 16 research articles reviewed and 7 articles referenced within the literature review. Upon completion, it became apparent that nursing educators should be concerned that nursing students found to be academically dishonest today may have a higher incidence of displaying unethical practices as a registered nurse tomorrow. It also became clear that the nursing profession needs to conduct its own research in this field to verify findings discovered by other professions such as engineering, business, and psychology. Finally, recommendations were given on how nursing educators should handle the topic of ethics in nursing programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Poliomyelitis in Landsteiner's time and today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwick, H G

    1991-01-01

    At a meeting of the Royal and Imperial Association of Physicians in Vienna on December 18, 1908 Dr. Karl Landsteiner reported on the successful experimental transmission of poliomyelitis from man to ape in a study which he undertook together with Erwin Popper. In a scientific article that was published shortly after the meeting, Landsteiner wrote that "the poliomyelitis virus belongs to the group of filterable micro-organisms". Soon, Landsteiner's results were confirmed by other colleagues. During a congress in Washington 1912 Landsteiner declared that the development of a vaccine against poliomyelitis might prove difficult but was certainly possible in his opinion. It took another 45 years before the first polio vaccine was available (1955 Salk) and another 5 years until the oral vaccine (1960 Sabin) was implemented. The incidence of poliomyelitis decreased dramatically in industrial countries as a result of vaccination. Today, poliomyelitis is still an enormous threat in developing countries. Together with many national and international institutions the WHO fights this situation very hard by means of vaccination campaigns. The incidence of side effects and insufficient reactions is small with both vaccines. New techniques in the field of molecular biology and a good knowledge of the poliovirus make it likely that further improvements on the vaccines which are currently available will take place.

  19. The transition of new technology to solve today`s problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamin, R.A. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Trenton, NJ (United States); Martin, C.J.; Turner, L.M. [Defense Fuel Supply Center, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the development of methods to predict the degradation of F-44 in storage. The Low Pressure Reactor (LPR) has greatly enhanced the stability prediction capabilities necessary to make informed decisions concerning aviation fuel in storage. This technique has in the past been primarily used for research purposes. The Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, Trenton, NJ, has used this technique successfully to assist the Defense Fuel Supply Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA, in stability assessments of F-44. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrochemical Detector (HPLC/EC) antioxidant determination technique has also aided in making stability predictions by establishing the amount of inhibitor currently in the product. This paper will address two case studies in which the above new technology was used to insure the rapid detection and diagnosis of today`s field and logistic problems.

  20. Fixing health care from the inside, today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Steven J

    2005-09-01

    Today, you are about as safe in a U.S. hospital as you would be parachuting off a bridge or a building. But it doesn't have to be that way. Right now, some hospitals are making enormous short-term improvements, with no legislation or market reconfiguration and little or no capital investment. Instead of waiting for sweeping changes in market mechanisms, these institutions are taking an operations approach to patient care. In case after detailed case, the article describes how doctors, nurses, technicians, and managers are radically increasing the effectiveness of patient care and dramatically lowering its cost by applying the same capabilities in operations design and improvement that drive the famous Toyota Production System. They are removing ambiguity in the output, responsibilities, connections, and methods of their work processes. These changes-which can be done in the course of an ordinary workday, sometimes in a matter of hours-are designed to make the following crystal clear: Which patient gets which procedure (output); Who does which aspect of the job (responsibility); Exactly which signals are used to indicate that the work should begin (connection); and Precisely how each step is carried out (method). Equally important, managers are being transformed from rescuers who arrive with ready-made solutions into problem solvers who help colleagues learn the experimental method. Thus, these hospitals are breaking free of the work-around culture that routinely obscures the root causes of so many problems, creates so much waste, and leads to so many unnecessary deaths.

  1. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  2. "What Today's University Students Have Taught Us”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Head

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, more students in the US are attending university than ever before. An unprecedented number of these students were born digital—meaning digital technologies have been a constant feature in their lives. For these young adults, information literacy competencies are always being formed, practiced, and learned. Project Information Literacy (PIL is a series of ongoing quantitative and qualitative research studies in the US that investigates what it is like to be a university student in the digital age. This research study has investigated how students find information and conduct research—in their words and through their experiences—for coursework, use in their everyday lives, and, once they graduate, in the workplace and their communities. Since 2008, more than 11,000 university students at nearly 60 US higher education institutions have been surveyed or interviewed, making PIL the largest study of information literacy ever conducted. Results from PIL’s studies have concluded students’ information competencies are put to the test in the vast information landscape they inhabit. Furthermore, finding and using information is exponentially more complex than it was a generation ago, especially since the information landscape has shifted from one of scarce resources to one of overload. In this keynote, five research takeaways were presented from PIL’s eight studies: (1 Students find research more difficult than ever before, (2 getting started is the hardest part of research, (3 frustrations begin with finding context, i.e., big picture, information-gathering, language, and situational context, (4 search strategies are based on predictability, familiarity, and efficiency, and (5 evaluation is the one information skills most learn to use. Discussion included implications of these findings for teaching, learning, work, and librarianship in the 21st century.

  3. CONFIGURATIONS OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA AND THE MODEL READER IN A TEXTBOOK OF MISIONES, ARGENTINA / CONFIGURACIONES DE LA ENCICLOPEDIA Y EL LECTOR MODELO EN UN TEXTO ESCOLAR DE MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilán Fernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze, from the conceptual categories of Encyclopedia and Model Reader raised by Umberto Eco, a fragment of the school handbook Misiones 4, text required reading during the last two decades in schools in the State of Misiones, Argentina. The hypothesis to guide our analysis consider that the text fragment -but also the entire textbook Misiones 4- reinforces and configures an encyclopedia "official" that promotes the historical continuity -forgetting conflicts and tensions- between the Jesuit province of 18th century and the Argentine state of 20th century, postulating, at the same, a Reader Model that adheres to a simplified pedagogical and religious local memory.

  4. DOW AGROSCIENCES TODAY AND NEW REVOLUTIONARY SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujević

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dow AgroSciences LLC, based in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, is a top tier agricultural company providing innovative crop protection, pest and vegetation management, seed, and agricultural biotechnology solutions to serve the world's growing population. Global sales for Dow AgroSciences, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Company, are $3.8 billion. The company's roots in the agricultural marketplace date back to 1950 as the agricultural unit of The Dow Chemical Company and as part of Eli Lilly and Company's agricultural business. In 1989, the DowElanco joint venture was formed, and the company continued to develop new products and acquire strategic businesses. DowElanco acquired majority ownership in Mycogen Seeds in 1996; in 1997, The Dow Chemical Company acquired 100 percent of DowElanco and the company was renamed Dow AgroSciences. Other significant acquisitions include acetochlor herbicide, Cargill Hybrid Seeds, several Brazilian seed companies and the agricultural chemicals business of Rohm and Haas. Dow AgroSciences is positioned for the future through focused implementation of its strategy which revolves around productivity, portfolio management and innovation. This focus allows the company to grow through an ambitious innovation program that maximizes the products being sold today and creates new, revolutionary solutions that will surprise customers in the future. D Dow AgroSciences is committed to sustainable chemistry and has a competitive advantage in our natural products discovery capability. We've won a prestigious award for technical innovation incorporating "green" chemistry principles into chemical design, manufacture and use. Dow AgroSciences offers a full range of seeds for corn, sunflowers, canola, cotton, soybeans and alfalfa. In addition, we have developed seeds specifically bred for nutritional quality. Dow AgroSciences uses conventional breeding techniques and tools of biotechnology to produce oils that are low in

  5. Radioactive waste today - an asset tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrand, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    possibility that extracted thorium could be stored in the form of thorium oxide and later used as fuel in nuclear power plants. If this is feasible, then today's radioactive waste could be tomorrow's asset. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Deterrence Today Roles, Challenges and Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2007-07-01

    deterrence in reassuring traditional allies confronting new hostile proliferators. In practice, however, extending deterrence in response to proliferation threats raises a number of difficult questions and will require adaptation of traditional approaches. But in other situations, what role, if any, deterrence - though not necessarily nuclear deterrence - should play is itself an open question. This applies perhaps most to possible efforts by the United States and other countries to bring to bear deterrence or other complementary strategies aimed at shaping a terrorist adversary's strategic calculus to help meet the threat of use of a nuclear weapon or other WMD attack by al- Qaeda and its Jihadist allies. Here, too, new thinking will be required to define and implement such complementary strategies for influencing the calculations of terrorist adversaries. But questions about the applicability - or at least complexities - of deterrence also are reflected in today's expressions of concern that some new nuclear powers may be 'non-deterrable' as well as that an asymmetric balance of stakes is creating a new deterrence equation outside of Europe. Regarding Russia, Moscow no longer is an adversary of the West but nor is it a friend - and moving beyond deterrence to a non-adversarial relationship so far has been more rhetoric than reality. As for China, the U.S. extended nuclear deterrent continues to play a role in helping to avoid a confrontation over Taiwan as well as in reassuring those officials in Asia that are uncertain about the ultimate impact of China's rise. That said, it would be preferable to mute the role of nuclear deterrence in the U.S.-China strategic relationship and, as with Russia, to develop a non-adversarial relationship between the United States and China. From an American perspective, the following essay addresses this new, more complex agenda of the early 21. century. Specifically, it turns first to the challenge of extending

  7. Deterrence Today Roles, Challenges and Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    deterrence in reassuring traditional allies confronting new hostile proliferators. In practice, however, extending deterrence in response to proliferation threats raises a number of difficult questions and will require adaptation of traditional approaches. But in other situations, what role, if any, deterrence - though not necessarily nuclear deterrence - should play is itself an open question. This applies perhaps most to possible efforts by the United States and other countries to bring to bear deterrence or other complementary strategies aimed at shaping a terrorist adversary's strategic calculus to help meet the threat of use of a nuclear weapon or other WMD attack by al- Qaeda and its Jihadist allies. Here, too, new thinking will be required to define and implement such complementary strategies for influencing the calculations of terrorist adversaries. But questions about the applicability - or at least complexities - of deterrence also are reflected in today's expressions of concern that some new nuclear powers may be 'non-deterrable' as well as that an asymmetric balance of stakes is creating a new deterrence equation outside of Europe. Regarding Russia, Moscow no longer is an adversary of the West but nor is it a friend - and moving beyond deterrence to a non-adversarial relationship so far has been more rhetoric than reality. As for China, the U.S. extended nuclear deterrent continues to play a role in helping to avoid a confrontation over Taiwan as well as in reassuring those officials in Asia that are uncertain about the ultimate impact of China's rise. That said, it would be preferable to mute the role of nuclear deterrence in the U.S.-China strategic relationship and, as with Russia, to develop a non-adversarial relationship between the United States and China. From an American perspective, the following essay addresses this new, more complex agenda of the early 21. century. Specifically, it turns first to the challenge of extending deterrence to U.S. allies and

  8. Words in a cultural context* | Kavanagh | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes by considering the implications for lexicographers developing dictionaries in multicultural South Africa. Keywords: communication, cross-cultural communication, cultural information, culture, curriculum, dictionaries for special purposes, dictionary, dictionary design, encyclopedia, encyclopedic ...

  9. Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University

    2013-03-01

    Wayne Reeve of Murdoch University on "Genomics Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB): a resource for microsymbiont genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  10. Mechanical vapor compression refrigeration for low temperature industrial applications today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    If the super conductor industry settles out at a temperature of -100 0 F or above, mechanical refrigeration will be vying for the cooling business. Today there very definitely is a break point in the application of equipment at approximately -120 0 F or 189 0 K. Other technologies are generally utilized below this level. However, with market potential comes invention and breakthroughs in refrigeration can also occur. Today standard refrigeration systems are cost effective, reliable and produced in the millions for high temperature applications of +10 0 F to +40 0 F evaporator temperature. Lower temperatures require additional hardware, consume additional power and are produced today in limited quantities for special applications

  11. The role of Einstein's general relativity theory in today's physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicak, J.

    The relationships are discussed of the general relativity theory to other fields of today's physics. Recent results are reported of studies into gravitational radiation, relativistic astrophysics, cosmology and the quantum theory. (Z.M.)

  12. The University as an Institution Today: Topics for Reflection | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, in both the developing and industrialized worlds, the vital role of higher ... However, as the end of the second millennium draws near, we must reflect upon the ... Its philosophy, missions, functions, objectives, structures, and service to ...

  13. Yesterday's, today's and tomorrow's nuclear tests of India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.; Le Guelte, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the historical aspects that led India and Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons and to perform nuclear weapon tests: weapons acquisition: today's military capacity, help from foreign countries; motivations: nuclear programs, geo-political aspects; results and potentialities; consequences for the non-proliferation systems and for the cut-off convention and test-ban treaties; and the geo-strategic consequences of todays's military nuclear capacity of India and Pakistan. (J.S.)

  14. Announcing the Sociation Today Urban Sociology and Reprint Collection Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Conklin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available "Sociation Today" is happy to announce the Urban Sociology Reprint Series. Other reprints will be focused on DuBois and his work available on-line, while the Max Weber video now has its own page. Articles printed in the current and past issues of Sociation Today have been gathered together in one place so they can be viewed conviently. The MENU link to the left will direct you to the proper place, as will the link above (for the urban reprints. The files will enable you to see the articles on a specific topic in one place, and also will enable the professor to assign the articles easily in classes. As an open access journal, Sociation Today's goal remains to provide scholars, the public and students with refereed articles exploring the nature of society and its interactions at no charge, unlike traditional journals and JSTOR.

  15. The AFIT of Today is the Air Force of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    marketing 5/11/2012 9 The AFIT of today is the Air Force of tomorrow. 1 Air University: The Intellectual and Leadership Center of the Air Force Aim High...Center of the Air Force Aim High…Fly - Fight - Win The AFIT of Today is the Air Force of Tomorrow. LS Accomplishments • Initiated market -based, fee-for...USAFA Swarming Formation Flying Sponsor: SMC Space Traffic Control Iridium and Globalstar Modems Sponsor: AFRL/RV; SMC/ STP CubeSat Plume Detector

  16. The U.S. Constitution in Today's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    A comparative study of constitutions and governments in world history is a key to deeper understanding of the U.S. Constitution. While many countries have constitutions, the United States is among a minority of nations in today's world that has a constitutional government. Many nations' constitutions truly guarantee few protections of individual…

  17. Grave New World? Workplace Skills for Today's College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Today's college graduates face an uncertain and demanding job market in which they are likely to encounter evolving skill needs, reduced hiring, and heightened competition from experienced laid off workers and globally available labor. These realities underscore the importance expressed by educators and practitioners of identifying attributes new…

  18. Organizing a Ground Crew for Today's Helicopter Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Karen Levin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between college students and their parents is far closer than it was when most of today's educators were in school. Tapping into the upside and managing the potential drawbacks of highly involved parents is taking on great importance on an increasing number of campuses. Whether people call them "helicopter parents" or…

  19. The power of data: structural bioinformatics yesterday and today

    KAUST Repository

    Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The protein structure database was established in 1971. At the time it contained seven structures, today there are more than 100,000. The improvement is not only a matter of quantity, but also of quality. Did we effectively exploit this information

  20. Today's College Students: Going First Class on the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    There is a sense among today's students that they are passengers on a sinking ship, even though they are optimistic about their own futures. A new curriculum including interdisciplinary study, majors in problems rather than disciplines, career internships, and theses is proposed to counter student attitudes. (MSE)

  1. Important techniques in today's biomedical science research that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for best evidence has driven researchers into multidisciplinary, collaborative approaches which have become mainstay in today's biomedical science. The multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches to research in research-intensive academic medical centres in the USA and in other countries of affluence has ...

  2. Surrounded by Water: Talking to Learn in Today's Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Wenger, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore the importance of talk and interaction for learning, particularly in relation to new K-12 standards and the prominent role of academic language in today's educational contexts. The article concludes with a detailed example of a Grade 6 teacher's use of content and language objectives to address the needs and strengths of all…

  3. Russia Today : Ruslands internationale spreekbuis voor 'soft power'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft van Ermel, Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    The tense current relations between Russia, Ukraine and the West are characterised by a true media war. This media war is fought in the old as well as in the new media, for example on television. One of the players in this game is the Russian English language television station Russia Today (since

  4. What Do Young People Today Really Think about Jesus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the key findings of a recent study investigating young people's knowledge and understanding of Jesus and demonstrates how young people today appear to be experiencing the same difficulties when engaging with the figure of Jesus in the religious education classroom as they did almost 40 years ago. It concludes by suggesting…

  5. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project...

  6. Some Distinctive Features of Jesuit Higher Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The nation's Catholic colleges and universities are recommitting themselves to making their founding visions come alive in increasingly effective and innovative ways. This article describes the Jesuit tradition of higher education, discussing its origins and how it is reflected in the reality and practice of Jesuit higher education today. This is…

  7. National Guard > About the Guard > Today in Guard History

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Guard About Us By the Numbers Contact Us FAQ Federal Mission History Join Us Leaders Director of Program Training & Technology Battle Lab (T3BL) Civil Support Simulation Exercises Regional Training March Today in Guard History Leadership CNGB VCNGB SEA DANG DARNG Joint Staff J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-5 J-6 J

  8. Education of Women in Today's World: Implications for Counsellors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result for research questions two revealed that all the items listed were accepted as problems of women in education sector. The third research question also revealed that all the items listed were accepted as things which education has done in the lives of women in Today's World, implications for Counsellors were also ...

  9. Voces (Voices): A Profile of Today's Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Latinos are the youngest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. It is imperative that institutional leaders and decision makers have a better understanding of Latino students today in order to shape the policies and practices to serve college students in the future. Currently, disparate statistics about Latino students in higher…

  10. Entrepreneurialism for Canadian Principals: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the various elements of Canadian educational entrepreneurialism as manifested yesterday, today, and tomorrow and in relation to the social and political influences of the time. This discussion is informed by the findings of the International Study of the Preparation of Principals (ISPP) and represents an expansion of the…

  11. Moments for Movement: Photostories from the 1980s Resonate Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barndt, Deborah; Erickson, Kris

    2017-01-01

    This chapter offers an intergenerational reflection on the production of photostories in the Toronto-based Moment Project of the 1980s, considering how its features of co-creation, creative forms, and critical social content could be reinvented with the new digital media forms integral to today's social movements.

  12. Visions of Students Today: A Message from the Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, G. W.; Richlin, L.; Cox. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    In Michael Wesch's (2007) now widely seen video "A Vision of Students Today" (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o), a camera pans across a large, traditional classroom where college students hold up messages about themselves as members of the current generation of learners, who have been dubbed Millennials (Howe & Strauss, 2000). The video…

  13. Approaches to the Study of Pragmatism in Today's China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengbing, Wang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the key approaches to pragmatism is not only a logical requirement of the development of pragmatism itself, but also necessary for Chinese pragmatism to progress. There are three major necessary and feasible approaches to the study of pragmatism, which will play a very important role in the development of Pragmatism in today's China:…

  14. Filial obligations today : moral practice, perception and ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuifbergen, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the meaning of filial obligations in Dutch society today. The thesis consists of a general introduction, two quantitative sociological studies, two qualitative studies, an ethical analysis and a general discussion. In the introduction, the background for the research questions

  15. Interfaith Education: A New Model for Today's Interfaith Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheila C.; Arenstein, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    With societal changes rapidly transforming cultures that had been largely homogenous, today's multi-cultural--and in particular interfaith--families need new educational strategies to help them understand their cultural roots and identify and clarify what aspects of their heritages they wish to nurture and transmit to their children. This paper…

  16. Dance, Sexuality, and Education Today: Observations for Dance Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of sexuality and dance education from multiple perspectives including public schools (K-12), private studios, conservatories, and higher education. Among innumerable potential topics emanating from this review of sexuality and dance education in the 21st century, this article focuses on today's…

  17. Chemistry Today and Tomorrow-The Central, Useful, and Creative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Chemistry Today and Tomorrow – The Central, Useful and Creative Science. Uday Maitra. Book Review Volume 2 ... Author Affiliations. Uday Maitra1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  18. Data Mining Approaches for Genomic Biomarker Development: Applications Using Drug Screening Data from the Cancer Genome Project and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Covell

    Full Text Available Developing reliable biomarkers of tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance can guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and influence pre-therapy clinical decisions. A popular strategy for developing biomarkers uses characterizations of human tumor samples against a range of cancer drug responses that correlate with genomic change; developed largely from the efforts of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE and Sanger Cancer Genome Project (CGP. The purpose of this study is to provide an independent analysis of this data that aims to vet existing and add novel perspectives to biomarker discoveries and applications. Existing and alternative data mining and statistical methods will be used to a evaluate drug responses of compounds with similar mechanism of action (MOA, b examine measures of gene expression (GE, copy number (CN and mutation status (MUT biomarkers, combined with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, for hypothesizing biological processes important for drug response, c conduct global comparisons of GE, CN and MUT as biomarkers across all drugs screened in the CGP dataset, and d assess the positive predictive power of CGP-derived GE biomarkers as predictors of drug response in CCLE tumor cells. The perspectives derived from individual and global examinations of GEs, MUTs and CNs confirm existing and reveal unique and shared roles for these biomarkers in tumor cell drug sensitivity and resistance. Applications of CGP-derived genomic biomarkers to predict the drug response of CCLE tumor cells finds a highly significant ROC, with a positive predictive power of 0.78. The results of this study expand the available data mining and analysis methods for genomic biomarker development and provide additional support for using biomarkers to guide hypothesis-driven basic science research and pre-therapy clinical decisions.

  19. Wind power today: 1999 Wind Energy program highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, Pat

    2000-04-06

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview for the Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy for the 21st century. Content objectives include: Educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain DOE wind energy program objectives and goals; describe program accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  20. Energy financing in today's world - a banker's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackrell, Ian

    1991-01-01

    If the world runs on energy, the energy industry runs on finance. Supplying the industry's huge appetite for funds -on the scale and in the form required - has always posed a major challenge to the international banking community. But in some respects that challenge is greater today than it has ever been, not only because of the industry's escalating requirements but also because of the way bank's attitudes have been changing in the recent past. One reason for this is the rapidly evolving scene within the energy business in response to the harsher competitive conditions and the greater uncertainties of tomorrow. However, the other major factor is that banking itself has been undergoing significant change as a result of severe pressures and constraints, both internal and external. Some of the key global trends and issues affecting energy financing in today's world are considered here. (author)

  1. Energy financing in today's world - a banker's viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackrell, Ian [Barclays Bank plc, London (GB)

    1991-07-01

    If the world runs on energy, the energy industry runs on finance. Supplying the industry's huge appetite for funds -on the scale and in the form required - has always posed a major challenge to the international banking community. But in some respects that challenge is greater today than it has ever been, not only because of the industry's escalating requirements but also because of the way bank's attitudes have been changing in the recent past. One reason for this is the rapidly evolving scene within the energy business in response to the harsher competitive conditions and the greater uncertainties of tomorrow. However, the other major factor is that banking itself has been undergoing significant change as a result of severe pressures and constraints, both internal and external. Some of the key global trends and issues affecting energy financing in today's world are considered here. (author).

  2. Wind Power Today: 2000 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, W.

    2001-05-08

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  3. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Barth

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  4. The Pauli-Jung conjecture and its impact today

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Related to the key areas of Pauli''s and Jung''s joint interests, the book covers overlapping issues from the perspectives of physics, philosophy, and psychology. Of primary significance are epistemological questions connected to issues such as realism, measurement, observation, consciousness, and the unconscious. The contributions assess the extensive material that we have about Pauli''s and Jung''s ideas today, with particular respect to concrete research questions and projects based on and re...

  5. Poverty in Capitalism. Why is it Persisting Today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Isidro Luna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide elements to reflect on the way poverty is nowadays conceptualized and on its causing factors. This paper discusses that a classic-neoclassical frame of reference cannot explain the persistence or increase of poverty in today's developed countries. This article suggests that through a Marxist historic-descriptive and theoretical-logical method it may be possible to gain understanding about poverty in capitalism and its current evolution.

  6. Prevention of Malnutrition in Children, Slimming Yesterday, Obesity Today

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharafi; M Razi; Z Pouresmail

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The future of any nation depends on how its children's care, According to their likely future health needs of the adult population model for healthy living and wealth has increased. One of the most pressing health diet. This study is done to aimed investigate the factors influencing malnutrition in children in the past for weight loss and weight gain can be seen today.   Methods and Methods: Related articles referring to achieve in the field of databases to Google scholar, Pub M...

  7. Energy supply today and tomorrow, national and global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.

    2003-01-01

    A status report about 'Energy Supply Today and Tomorrow, National and Global' focuses mainly on global aspects. Today's world energy consumption is dominated by more than 80% of fossil sources of energy followed by so-called non-commercial energies, such as wood and plant and animal wastes, contributing 10%; nuclear power, 7%; and hydroelectric power, 2%. The development of energy consumption until the middle of this century will continue to be driven by the further growth of the world population, and by the need to meet the rising demand for energy in the developing countries. Because of their availability and flexible uses, oil, natural gas, and coal as fossil sources of energy will continue to meet a considerable share of the requirement. The use of nuclear power, a source meeting all criteria, such as safety, waste management, and competitiveness, is both justifiable and desirable. Restrictive decisions about nuclear power taken today must not impair the freedom of choice of future generations. Using renewable energies is just as desirable as increasing energy efficiency; however, the technical and physical potentials available for this purpose should not be overrated. This makes it imperative to protect the supply of energy 'in this difficult interim phase' with all the options available, and to open up prospects for the future, also by conducting the appropriate energy and environmental research. The balance between continuity of supply, environmental compatibility, and competitiveness must be taken into account in this effort. In the second half of the 21 st century, it is possible that energy consumption will stabilize when the world's population ceases to grow. New technologies, some of which may not even be known today or may still be under development, could then pave the way for an energy supply system which, in toto, would be less of a burden on the environment. (orig.)

  8. Medium Term Economic Effects of Peak Oil Today

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ulrike Lehr; Dr. Christian Lutz; Kirsten Wiebe

    2011-01-01

    The paper at hand presents results of a model-based scenario analysis on the economic implications in the next decade of an oil peak today and significantly decreasing oil production in the coming years. For that the extraction paths of oil and other fossil fuels given in LBST (2010) are implemented in the global macroeconomic model GINFORS. Additionally, the scenarios incorporate different technological potentials for energy efficiency and renewable energy, which cannot be forecast using eco...

  9. Research Today Volume 3, Issue 2 April 2017 Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    for your study [ e.g., 59 MDW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE) (SG5 O&M); SG5 R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP); Defense...59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 1. Your paper, entitled Research Today Volume 3, Issue 2 April 2017 - Newsletter presented...Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education

  10. [The practicum in physiology: from Laufberger to today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthan, V; Sedlácek, J; Trojan, S

    1990-09-21

    An outline of Prof. Laufberger's concept of practical exercises in physiology, proposed just after the Second World War, is given. Especially, his new pedagogical approach is emphasized, here. Further, the development of the organization of practical courses in the Institute of Physiology in Prague is described: e.g. the modernization of the methods used, and of the educational process in early 70 s'. Today, the importance of biocybernetics is growing.

  11. Wind Power Today: Wind Energy Program Highlights 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program accomplishments for the previous year. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2001 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2001, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  12. "Children are from heaven" or how today children respect adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vogrinec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the text is a returning to the patriarchal, which is not simply the one that we are witnessing today, in the time of so-called postmodern, postpatriarchal society in its (until now last form. It is a matter of returning to rules, of which the basic premise is that adults are subjects (transcendences, freedoms, activities and children are subjects that are objects for adults (imanences, non-freedoms, pasivities, but which notwithstanding differ from the oldfashioned rules from the past. We attempted to explain this returning, following the example of rules offered by the book Children Are From Heaven – a selfhelp book, published at the end of the nineties of the 20th century, which immediately became the world's bestseller. In addition, our aim was to answer the following questions: What has happened with rules of civilization and good manners, regulating the relations between children and adults today? How have they changed and what has happened with children's or adults's relation to these rules or their performings? How has this relation changed? Considering the mentioned basic premise which implies that children respect adults, we also tried to answer the question: What has happened with the respect, or, how do children respect adults today? Disscussion is presented in the framework of lacanian psychoanalysis.

  13. Nursing leadership: a concise encyclopedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Harriet R

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv...

  14. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron

    1992-01-01

    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  15. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  16. Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  17. Nursing leadership: a concise encyclopedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Harriet R

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569This page intentionally left blank List of EntriesList of Entries A Academic...

  18. IN TODAY'S INFORMATION AGE ORGANISATIONS EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir DEĞİRMENCİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work efficiently and effectively - conscious upon arrival places always have been offices. Marketing, management, human resources, accounting, as units have been operating in all offices within the organization. In today' s information age, information offices are produced, distributed to individuals and corporations concerned, but also has been the destruction of redundant information and important information later when needed has been used places. Today's globalization i s rapid change in knowledge and technology organizations in the management of business owners and managers will help many professions on WikiMapia. Office; Administrator, officer, Secretary, will serve the objectives of the business class ser vices help kin d of elements are needed. Businesses in maintaining vital activities, production and service provision of the activities of the Organization in ensuring an effective and efficient manner within the framework of the team spirit in the conduct of managers with the most important requirements for an Assistant Manager's position has been. Most modern - day organizations close to the administrator should be looking to key features of the Administrative Assistant; the Office of the administrator, who knows how t o keep a secret is not a characteristic of people who best represent the Bureau. When a business can stand in straight execution activities Administrative Assistant has important tasks to. Executive Assistants are indispensable ingredients of today's mode rn office.

  19. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-01-01

    The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on w...

  20. The end of the line for today's wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Kolios, Athanasios; Martinez-Luengo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We need to start thinking today about the future of our wind turbines, according to Dr Athanasios Kolios and María Martínez-Luengo from Cranfield University. EDF's recent announcement that they will extend the life of 4 of their 8 UK-based nuclear power plants has focussed analyst's minds on the pros and cons of extending service life. There are numerous cost and engineering issues at play here. These obviously include balancing the initial investment cost against profits already made...

  1. The most critical issues facing managers in South Africa today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maritz

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available South African managers today find themselves squeezed between juxtapositions, such as international competition and simultaneous skill development programmes to combat illiteracy. A second example is high unemployment and the concurrent shortage of IT specialists. Affirmative action has led to troublesome labour relations. HIV/AIDS has an enormous impact on business and must be managed. South African managers need to change their managerial approaches to cope with the increasing demands of this country. Managers must be aware of the realities facing them and know how to turn them into potential growth opportunities for their organisations and South Africa as a country.

  2. Church and art: from the second Vatican Council to today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mantovani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the relationship between the Catholic Church and art from the Second Vatican Council to today. For this reason it considers some of the most important interventions about art by recent popes (Montini - Paul VI; Wojtyła - John Paul II; Ratzinger - Benedict XVI, Bergoglio - Francis also mentioning some activities that the Holy See is currently promoting. These pages are intended to offer a contribution, mainly theoretical, for those who are working in the field of the planning and promotion of artistic and cultural events, especially if these events are related to religious heritage.

  3. Orature and morpholexical deconstruction as lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to this fact, the article focuses on a specific strategy for collecting words which belong in a special category of their own, namely archaic or obsolete words. Such words are important ... The multidisciplinary aspect resides in the methodology proposed for the recovery of archaic words. It is considered necessary that ...

  4. What is a Lexicographical Database? | Bergenholtz | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/23-1-1205 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  5. Dictionary criticism and lexicographical function theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses dictionary criticism in the light of the function theory. It starts analyzing the objective of dictionary criticism and lists eight of the most important purposes with which criticism has been made by supporters of the function theory. It then discusses the two main...... types of dictionary criticism, namely criticism of other authors’ dictionaries and self-criticism of one’s own dictionaries. Based on this discussion, it proceeds to a definition of the concept of dictionary criticism which is above all considered a theory-based activity, the outcome of which may...... by the supporters of the function theory, and the way it could be presented in order to create debate. Finally, the contribution indicates the important role dictionary criticism has had in the development of the function theory and endorses an open and critical discussion culture within lexicography....

  6. The Lexicographic Treatment of Ideophones in Zulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The ideophone, a word class not unique to but highly characteristic of the Bantu languages, presents particular challenges in both monolingual and bilingual lexicography. Not only is this part of speech without a counterpart in most other languages, the meaning of ideophones is highly elusive. In this research article these challenges are studied by means of an analysis of the treatment of ideophones in a corpus-driven Zulu–English school dictionary project.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, BILINGUAL, CORPUS, FREQUENCY, BANTU, ZULU (ISIZULU, ENGLISH, IDEOPHONE, SEMANTIC IMPORT, PARAPHRASE, PART-OF-SPEECH MISMATCH

    Samenvatting: De lexicografische behandeling van ideofonen in Zoeloe. De ideofoon, een woordklasse die niet uniek maar wel heel karakteristiek is voor de Bantoetalen, is een echte uitdaging in zowel de monolinguale als bilinguale lexicografie. Niet enkel heeft deze woordklasse geen equivalent in de meeste andere talen, de betekenis van ideofonen is heel moeilijk vast te leggen. In dit onderzoeksartikel worden deze uitdagingen onderzocht aan de hand van een analyse van de behandeling van ideofonen in een corpus-gedreven Zoeloe–Engels schoolwoorden-boekproject.

    Sleutelwoorden: LEXICOGRAFIE, WOORDENBOEK, TWEETALIG, CORPUS, FRE-QUENTIE, BANTOE, ZOELOE, ENGELS, IDEOFOON, SEMANTISCHE LADING, PARAFRASE, VLOEKENDE WOORDKLASSEN

  7. The Lexicographic Treatment of Color Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Krista

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the main question, "What are the issues involved in the definition and translation of color terms in dictionaries?" To answer this question, I examined color term definitions in monolingual dictionaries of French and English, and color term translations in bilingual dictionaries of French paired with nine…

  8. The Lexicographical Handling of Grammatical Equivalence: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sensible to decide in favour of a descriptive approach (Toury 1980), which, in contrast to the pre- scriptive approach, does not ..... Cape Town: Tafelberg. Nida, E. and R. Ta~r. 1974. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.}. Brill. Toary, G. 1980. In Search of a Theory of Translation. Tel Aviv: Porter Institute. R ep rod.

  9. Enterprise vocabulary management; A lexicographic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Voskuil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The central theme in this paper is the problem of shifting from natural language descriptions, as in traditional dictionaries and thesauri, to working IT (Information Technology systems that support people carrying out their administrative tasks. An explicit description of the specific language used in an organization is necessary to guarantee properly working IT systems and a healthy flow of information. Traditionally, there are different ways of capturing such a vocabulary. Different options are considered, arguing that the general form of a thesaurus offers the optimal solution for a broad range of cases. Various requirements for such a thesaurus are examined. A real world example is discussed in some detail. Finally, the paper examines how modern Web technology can help optimizing the creation, management and use of enterprise thesauri. Using these technologies, the enterprise thesaurus can take up new roles in managing the information household of an organization.

  10. Remarks on the Lexicographical Treatment of Metaforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d.w.s. items wat na die taalsisteem self verwys (bv.voornaamwoorde en ..... comments about the interaction of marketing and editorial decisions in dictio- naries). ... The first strategy, normal form, typically applies only to those metaforms that.

  11. Gromov hyperbolicity in lexicographic product graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41

    on the group [17]. The concept of hyperbolicity appears also in discrete mathematics, algorithms and networking. For .... graph (of a presentation with solvable word problem) there is an algorithm which allows to decide if it is ...... of Theorem 3.14, i.e., dG1◦{w}(Vp, [π(x)π(z)] ∪ [π(z)π(y)]) = δ(G1) with π the canonical projection.

  12. Lexicographical Resources in A Multilingual Environment: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers dictionaries as lexical infonnation / knowledge sources to be derived from a deeper, underlying, lexical database. These dictionary-tokens or -instantiations are inter alia specified by the users' needs. As a case in point of such a derivation meeting the needs of a multilingual society, a bidirectional ...

  13. The Hausa lexicographic tradition | Newman | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied ... grammatical categories, hausa, language learning, loanwords, neologisms, Niger, ... phonetic transcription, phonology, russian, standard dialect, standardization, ...

  14. Conceptual Metonymy and Lexicographic Representation (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The field of lexicography has proven a fruitful ground from which language ..... the metonymic source 'hand' and the target 'manual worker' illustrated by the ..... 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago/London: University of Chicago. Press.

  15. Contrastive lexicographical perspectives on the Russian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ivanishcheva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the representation of culture elements in a bilingual dictionary. It is shown that cultural information concerning realia is necessary in dictionary definitions. Facts about different types of realia may be included as additional information after the actual translation.

  16. Reflections on data access in lexicographic works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2009-01-01

    difficult. On this basis, the article raises a new question: What is exactly the necessary amount of data needed in each consultation? In order to answer this question, the article introduces a distinction between concrete user needs and types of user needs related to a specific type of user situation...

  17. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 3/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana BUTCOVAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  18. Research and Science Today No. 2(4/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂIDEAN Amelia-Liana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  19. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 1/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Steluţa DINU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  20. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 2/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Cosmin CIOCAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  1. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 1/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria ADĂSCĂLIȚEI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  2. Research and Science Today No. 2(2/2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodica MUREŞAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  3. Research and Science Today Supplement No. 1/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Todor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  4. Research and Science Today No. 1(1/2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra DRĂGHICI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RESEARCH AND SCIENCE TODAY is a biannual science journal established in 2011. The journal is an informational platform that publishes assessment articles and the results of various scientific research carried out by academics. We provide the authors with the opportunity to create and/or perfect their science writing skills. Thus, each issue of the journal (two per year and at least two supplements will contain professional articles from any academic field, authored by domestic and international academics. The goal of this journal is to pass on relevant information to undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate students as well as to fellow academics and researchers; the topics covered are unlimited, considering its multi-disciplinary profile. Regarding the national and international visibility of Research and Science Today, it is indexed in over 30 international databases (IDB and is present in over 200 online libraries and catalogues; therefore, anybody can easily consult the articles featured in each issue by accessing the databases or simply the website.

  5. 3D and 4D Seismic Technics Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Marian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Years ago, exploration was done through surface observations and „divining rods“ – now, it is done by satellites, microprocessors, remote sensing, and supercomputers. In the 1970´ s, the exploration success rate was 14 percent, today, it is nearly 29 percent. Not so long ago, three – dimension (3D seismic diagnostic techniques helped recover 25-50 percent of the oil in place – now, 4D seismic helps recover up to 70 percent of the oil in place. 3D and 4D seismic and earth imaging systems also help in understanding the subsurface flow of other fluids, such as groundwater and pollutants.Seismic surveys – a technique in which sound waves are bounced off underground rock struktures to reveal possible oil and gas bearing formation – are now standard fare for the modern petroleum industry. But today’s seismic methods are best at locating „structural traps“ where faults or folds in the underground rock have created zones where oil can become trapped.

  6. An Introduction to Flight Software Development: FSW Today, FSW 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvela, John

    2004-01-01

    Experience and knowledge gained from ongoing maintenance of Space Shuttle Flight Software and new development projects including Cockpit Avionics Upgrade are applied to projected needs of the National Space Exploration Vision through Spiral 2. Lessons learned from these current activities are applied to create a sustainable, reliable model for development of critical software to support Project Constellation. This presentation introduces the technologies, methodologies, and infrastructure needed to produce and sustain high quality software. It will propose what is needed to support a Vision for Space Exploration that places demands on the innovation and productivity needed to support future space exploration. The technologies in use today within FSW development include tools that provide requirements tracking, integrated change management, modeling and simulation software. Specific challenges that have been met include the introduction and integration of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Real Time Operating System for critical functions. Though technology prediction has proved to be imprecise, Project Constellation requirements will need continued integration of new technology with evolving methodologies and changing project infrastructure. Targets for continued technology investment are integrated health monitoring and management, self healing software, standard payload interfaces, autonomous operation, and improvements in training. Emulation of the target hardware will also allow significant streamlining of development and testing. The methodologies in use today for FSW development are object oriented UML design, iterative development using independent components, as well as rapid prototyping . In addition, Lean Six Sigma and CMMI play a critical role in the quality and efficiency of the workforce processes. Over the next six years, we expect these methodologies to merge with other improvements into a consolidated office culture with all processes being guided by

  7. Challenges of executing heavy oil projects in today's market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunka, G.

    2001-01-01

    Alberta's industrial project scene from 1981 to 2000 was presented in this power point presentation with particular focus on proposed bitumen recovery projects and heavy oil project challenges. A graph depicting GTG world orders by region (Americas, Asia and Europe) showed that U.S. market continues to drive global growth. Major industrial projects in Alberta were highlighted and employment requirements by sector were outlined. In addition, mitigation measures that are needed to successfully deal with the unique challenges of today's market were described. It was noted that in recent years lower capital expenditure by the industry in general has resulted in corporate downsizing or mergers which in turn have resulted in lower technical and operational knowledge. Some of the current challenges facing the industry are new demands for water treatment expertise and an aging workforce. It was concluded that effective mitigation will require a disciplined approach within a flexible framework.1 tab., 7 figs

  8. Purex process extraction cycles: a potential for progress today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boullis, B.; Germain, M.; Goumondy, J.P.; Rouyer, H.

    1994-12-31

    The Purex process very quickly and very widely supplanted the other concepts considered for nuclear fuel reprocessing after the presentation made at the Geneva Conference in 1955. The selectivity and radiolytic stability of tributylphosphate (T.B.P) clearly appeared to augur an extremely attractive process for completing the separation of valuable elements in the irradiated fuel. The concept has confirmed its validity, and subsequently its ability to adapt to changing requirements or constraints. Its industrial viability is in fact unquestioned today: Purex process is the basis of all the reprocessing plants in operation or planned throughout the world, and recent commissioning of the UP3 plant in France, in remarkable conditions, attests to such a level of maturity that one is tempted to ask the question: ``What remains to be proved, discovered or improved in the core of the Purex process?``. (authors). 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Purex process extraction cycles: a potential for progress today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Germain, M.; Goumondy, J.P.; Rouyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Purex process very quickly and very widely supplanted the other concepts considered for nuclear fuel reprocessing after the presentation made at the Geneva Conference in 1955. The selectivity and radiolytic stability of tributylphosphate (T.B.P) clearly appeared to augur an extremely attractive process for completing the separation of valuable elements in the irradiated fuel. The concept has confirmed its validity, and subsequently its ability to adapt to changing requirements or constraints. Its industrial viability is in fact unquestioned today: Purex process is the basis of all the reprocessing plants in operation or planned throughout the world, and recent commissioning of the UP3 plant in France, in remarkable conditions, attests to such a level of maturity that one is tempted to ask the question: ''What remains to be proved, discovered or improved in the core of the Purex process?''. (authors). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Christian biblical ethics: the application of biblical norms to today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Hartin

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian theologians give many different interpretations to the Scriptures, particularly with regard to their ethical perspectives and their application to the present. An examination and criticism of various approaches adopted at present to the ethical dimension of the Scriptures is undertaken. A distinction is made between the revealed and lasting message of the Scriptitres and the message that is conditioned by culture and hence subject to change. Using the thought of Ricoeur and Hauerwas an approach is presented which attempts to do justice to the twofold polarity of the worid of the Bible and the world of today. In order to preserve a scenario of concreteness, attention is given to one practical example, namely the issue of homosexuality. After investigating the Scriptural approach to this question, an attempt is made to see how this issue can be viewed from a Christian perspective in the context of the present world.

  11. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  12. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James W

    2016-09-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses.

  13. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077

  14. Big Data, the perfect instrument to study today's consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STOICESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior study is a new, interdisciplinary and emerging science, developed in the 1960s. Its main sources of information come from economics, psychology, sociology, anthropology and artificial intelligence. If a century ago, most people were living in small towns, with limited possibilities to leave their community, and few ways to satisfy their needs, now, due to the accelerated evolution of technology and the radical change of life style, consumers begin to have increasingly diverse needs. At the same time the instruments used to study their behavior have evolved, and today databases are included in consumer behavior research. Throughout time many models were developed, first in order to analyze, and later in order to predict the consumer behavior. As a result, the concept of Big Data developed, and by applying it now, companies are trying to understand and predict the behavior of their consumers.

  15. Burden of mortality in Greenland--today and tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Christian; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Nielsen, Ulla Ringgren

    2004-01-01

    : Concerted multi-sectoral approaches and broad holistic health strategies related to health promotion and prevention today will strategically improve the capability of the Greenlandic society to manage the future disease burden from ageing via its health care sector and the institutional sector for care......OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the relative impact of three factors expected to influence the future mortality burden in Greenland: demographic change, epidemiological transition and behavioural patterns. STUDY DESIGN: To identify general trends in public health status, evaluating the effect...... of public health campaigns and providing the basis for making predictions of future trends in the mortality burden data from the Greenlandic Death Causes Register to estimate Years of Life Lost (YLL) in the period 1976-1998 has been used. METHODS: YLL were estimated according to the Burden of Disease Method...

  16. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The specialised lexicographic treatment of oenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias. Thi...... dictionaries should not stand alone, as they could benefit from a full integration with the websites of the wine industry, and consequently transform into genuine lexicographic information tools.......Abstract: The specialised lexicographic treatment of oenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias....... This treatment also encompasses the terminological compilation of single field dictionaries describing the language and/or knowledge of wine. Lexicographically speaking, all this is but a fraction of the complete picture. Indeed, the specialised lexicography of oenology and viticulture is multifaceted and goes...

  17. Teenage Mothers Today: What We Know and How It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles. Emerging societal trends such as complex family structures, a stalled recovery from the recession for families of low socioeconomic status, and a rapidly evolving political environment for reproductive health care continue to challenge the lives of teenage mothers. Given that the consequences for teenagers of becoming mothers may change, continued research is needed. Shifts in policy to favor supporting teenage mothers and addressing the causes of both teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage may help improve the lives of these mothers and their families. PMID:28533814

  18. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on which approach should be taken and what the role of Karl Marx’s works shall be. The paper argues that Marx’s labour theory of value is especially important for critically analysing the media, culture and communica-tion. Labour is still a blind spot of the study of culture and the media, although this situation is slowly improving. It is maintained that the turn away from Marx in Cultural and Media Studies was a profound mistake that should be reverted. Only an engagement with Marx can make Cultural and Media Studies topical, politically relevant, practical and critical, in the current times of global crisis and resurgent critique.

  19. Critical Media and Communication Studies Today. A Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article documents a conversation between us that was first published in parallel on our two blogs http://dwmw.wordpress.com and http://fuchs.uti.at/blog. The conversation deals with our assessments of the status of Critical Media and Communication Studies today. We discuss the work of Dallas Smythe, how to study and assess Google, research dimensions of Critical Political Economy of the Media, how important each of these dimensions should be, the role of ideology critique for Critical Political Economy of the Media, the commonalities and differences between Political Economies of the Media and Critical Political Economy of the Media/Critique of the Political Economy of the Media, the role of Karl Marx for Political Economies of the Media, Nicholas Garnham's recent comments on the field of Critical Political Economy of the Media, neoliberalism and capitalist crisis as contexts for Political Economies of the Media. Comments are very welcome on our blogs, URLs to the specific blog postings can be found in the article sections.

  20. Anesthesia today with the economic and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid development of knowledge and technology conditions the use of pharmacoeconomic and economic analysis in the system of market economy in health care. Pharmacoeconomics identifies, measures, compares and analyzes the relationship between costs and outcomes of the use of pharmaceutical products. Corresponding section headings: This review article, presents the results of our research in the field of hospital pharmacoeconomics in anesthesia in the Clinical Center of Serbia through published pharmacoeconomic studies from 2007 to today. In our years-long research we have given a description of the analysis of direct and indirect costs, assess the quality of treatment, efficiency and effectiveness to cost-benefit analysis of different techniques and types of anesthesia in the context of different surgical disciplines. Dispete The economic evaluation of medicines are increasingly important to medical authorities. Clinical pharmacology should be included as a way to rationally promote efficiency and effectiveness of the disease treatment. Conclusion: Economic and pharmacoeconomic assessments put emphasis on the quality of treatment and the potential gains for the public and individual patients. Probably the highest quality of medical services (the most effective drugs, enough staff, and new safer medical equipment showed as less expensive and have made the economic analysis more rational in the context of the total budget. More investment is creeper health.

  1. Nurses using futuristic technology in today's healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Debra M; Kapadia, Amar; Kintzel, Jessie; Anton, Bonnie B

    2009-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) equates nurses using voice assisted technology within a clinical setting to document patient care real time, retrieve patient information from care plans, and complete routine tasks. This is a reality currently utilized by clinicians today in acute and long term care settings. Voice assisted documentation provides hands & eyes free accurate documentation while enabling effective communication and task management. The speech technology increases the accuracy of documentation, while interfacing directly into the electronic health record (EHR). Using technology consisting of a light weight headset and small fist size wireless computer, verbal responses to easy to follow cues are converted into a database systems allowing staff to obtain individualized care status reports on demand. To further assist staff in their daily process, this innovative technology allows staff to send and receive pages as needed. This paper will discuss how leading edge and award winning technology is being integrated within the United States. Collaborative efforts between clinicians and analyst will be discussed reflecting the interactive design and build functionality. Features such as the system's voice responses and directed cues will be shared and how easily data can be documented, viewed and retrieved. Outcome data will be presented on how the technology impacted organization's quality outcomes, financial reimbursement, and employee's level of satisfaction.

  2. Financial Management in Children: Today Need, Tomorrow Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooraj Sadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 80% of young people today will never be able to retire. Why? Because they lack the personal finance training that leads to long-term planning and future security. Connecting the dots between kids and money management skills prepares them for the financial realities the world will face over the next century. Pocket money is one of the first ways for children to learn the basics of managing money – a skill they’ll definitely need for life – and it makes children feel independent. Whether to give pocket money, and at what age, and how much to give are issues that often concern parents. There are many ways to handle this. To a large extent it depends on family values, practices and finances. The main reason for giving children pocket money is to help children learn to be able to manage money while they are still young and parents can guide them. It also may help children to feel that they are important members of the family, because they are given part of the family's spending money.

  3. [Childhood in flux--Part II: Modern times until today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Jochen; Hoffmann, Sven Olaf

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was founded in New York, after a barbarous case of neglect and abuse of a girl became public. From then on, children received more and more protection. Only in the 1950s were doctors in the USA bound by law to report cases of putative physical abuse to officials. In Sweden, physical punishment of children has been forbidden since 1989, and in Germany since 2001. The existence of sexual abuse of children had been a taboo subject for centuries, even though individual attempts to break that taboo were made--e. g., by S. Freud in the theory of seduction (Verführungstheorie). Only with the birth of the women's liberation movement in the early 1970s has public awareness arisen. Due to the work of J. Bowlby in the 1950s, it became clear that children of primates need more than air, water and food, namely a relationship between the child and an adult person (attachment). To what degree the basic needs of children are being fulfilled in Western societies today is still a controversial issue.

  4. Cardiological-interventional therapy of coronary artery disease today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynen, K.; Henssge, R.

    1999-01-01

    The current importance of the interventional therapy of coronary artery disease may be deduced from the exponential increase in procedures performed in Germany in the last decade - at least 125,840 in 1996. Today, by improved catheter and balloon materials as well as by growing experience of the cardiologists, even complex lesions may be treated. Limitations of balloon angioplasty include acute vessel closure and restenosis - newer angioplasty devices like directional or rotational atherectomy or excimer-laser angioplasty did not overcome these limitations; only by coronary stenting, acute vessel closure could be managed and the likelihood of restenosis - at least in particular groups of patients - could be reduced. For a few years, intracoronary brachytherapy of the segments dilated with beta- or gamma-emitters has been seeking to reduce restenosis rate; the department of cardiology of the Dresden Cardiovascular Institute is participating in such a multicentre study using the beta-emitter 188 renium. Further main topics of our department represent primary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction and invasive diagnostic or interventional procedures by the transradial approach. (orig.)

  5. HOW UNIVERSAL ARE THE UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS TODAY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia-Alexandra BALTADOR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a constructive debate on human rights. The two World Wars of the last century brought about the creation of the United Nations aimed “to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small”. Only three years later the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights was elaborated and promoted by the UN, considered to be the foundation of international human rights law. Today, as globalization brings all closer together in a “global village”, one can see that there are many ways to perceive and guarantee human rights, in different states, but also within different states. Poverty, illiteracy, censorship, cruel treatment and even the lack of guarantee for the right to life are, unfortunately, the norm for many people of the world. Such observations bring up questions regarding the legitimacy, universality and coherence of human rights.

  6. U.S. bioremediation market: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of bioremediation for full-scale cleanup has increased dramatically throughout the past 10 years. This growth in activity is expected to continue through the year 2000. It is estimated that fewer than 10 companies offered field-level bioremedial services prior to 1985. Although the market today still is dominated by a small number of companies, the total number of firms claiming to offer services and/or products for bioremediation purposes has grown to over 1,000. It is estimated that aggregate bioremediation revenues for 1994 through 2000 will equal $2 to $3 billion (1994 dollars). This revenue will be generated in the initial part of this 7-year period primarily from underground storage cleanup, with revenues from hazardous waste sites becoming an increasingly important factor by accounting for the majority of revenues in the latter years. Market opportunities exist in technology development and implementation including biosparging, centralized treatment facilities for petroleum-contaminated soils, biofilters, and improvements in the cost-effectiveness of the technology

  7. The power of data: structural bioinformatics yesterday and today

    KAUST Repository

    Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-25

    The protein structure database was established in 1971. At the time it contained seven structures, today there are more than 100,000. The improvement is not only a matter of quantity, but also of quality. Did we effectively exploit this information to gain knowledge? The answer is certainly affirmative. I will illustrate how this wealth of experimental data has allowed us to explore the landscape of macromolecular structures on one side, and to uncover the properties of specific protein families on the other. The latter plays an essential role in pursuing exciting new avenues in biomedical and biotechnological sciences. Experimental data are also part of a virtuous cycle whereby they reinforce and guide our ability to infer unknown macromolecular structures, which, while providing relevant information to scientists, permits to gauge the level of our understanding of the complex problem of protein folding. A paradigmatic example of the latter is represented by the “Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction” (CASP) initiative that I will briefly discuss.

  8. Analytical difficulties facing today's regulatory laboratories: issues in method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, James D

    2012-08-01

    The challenges facing analytical laboratories today are not unlike those faced in the past, although both the degree of complexity and the rate of change have increased. Challenges such as development and maintenance of expertise, maintenance and up-dating of equipment, and the introduction of new test methods have always been familiar themes for analytical laboratories, but international guidelines for laboratories involved in the import and export testing of food require management of such changes in a context which includes quality assurance, accreditation, and method validation considerations. Decisions as to when a change in a method requires re-validation of the method or on the design of a validation scheme for a complex multi-residue method require a well-considered strategy, based on a current knowledge of international guidance documents and regulatory requirements, as well the laboratory's quality system requirements. Validation demonstrates that a method is 'fit for purpose', so the requirement for validation should be assessed in terms of the intended use of a method and, in the case of change or modification of a method, whether that change or modification may affect a previously validated performance characteristic. In general, method validation involves method scope, calibration-related parameters, method precision, and recovery. Any method change which may affect method scope or any performance parameters will require re-validation. Some typical situations involving change in methods are discussed and a decision process proposed for selection of appropriate validation measures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Interfaith education: A new model for today's interfaith families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheila C.; Arenstein, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    With societal changes rapidly transforming cultures that had been largely homogenous, today's multi-cultural - and in particular interfaith - families need new educational strategies to help them understand their cultural roots and identify and clarify what aspects of their heritages they wish to nurture and transmit to their children. This paper focuses on a new model for religious education, namely non-doctrinaire "dual-faith" education, which the principal author has helped to develop in the United States (US) through the Interfaith Community (IFC), a small, independent non-profit organisation created and led by dual-faith Jewish/Christian families. The model is premised on the notion that families can have two different faiths in one household and that - with respect and education - families can be harmonious, religion can be transmitted, and tolerance broadly nurtured. While the model is particular to the US and to families with Jewish and Christian heritages, its premises and structure have significant potential to be adaptable to other religious combinations and other cultures and countries. After reviewing relevant literature and situating the IFC model in the global and US contexts, the paper sets out to clarify the importance of the concept, describe its elements, and discuss its implications for religious education in this time of changing ethos and demography.

  10. What are today's choices for PWRs water chemistry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.

    1998-01-01

    Water chemistry has always been, from the very beginning of operation of power Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), an important factor in determining the integrity of many reactor components. For both the primary and secondary coolant circuits, the parameters to control the quality of the chemistry have been subject to changes in time. These changes were dictated mainly by corrosion problems which required an adjustment of the chemistry, before any modification could be made in the design or the selection of materials for the subsequently built reactors or replacement components. The situation today, despite 40 years of experience, still leaves open different options for the specifications of the chemistry of the circuits. These options are sometimes due to differences in design or materials of the circuits, but more often, to the perception by the plant chemists, of the role of the chemistry on the different phenomena which could affect the operation of their plant. Paul Cohen, who was well known in the nuclear industry for the early development of the chemistry in PWRs in the USA, used to say, 'if the head chemist has changed in a plant, the chemistry will change'. The purpose of this lecture is to discuss some of the options which are offered to the chemist in compliance with the basic principles of the chemistry guidelines. (J.P.N.)

  11. Prevention of Malnutrition in Children, Slimming Yesterday, Obesity Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sharafi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The future of any nation depends on how its children's care, According to their likely future health needs of the adult population model for healthy living and wealth has increased. One of the most pressing health diet. This study is done to aimed investigate the factors influencing malnutrition in children in the past for weight loss and weight gain can be seen today.   Methods and Methods: Related articles referring to achieve in the field of databases to Google scholar, Pub Med, proquest, SID, Magiran, Springer Link,… and studies until 2013 with the key words malnutrition, child, obesity and examine their English.   Results: In the past, malnutrition was associated with weight loss, but for now he has to weight gain and obesity. Childhood obesity is emerging as a phenomenon caused health problems in childhood and adolescence, including hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, early puberty, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular. In addition to the health problems of obese children will benefit from the social and psychological problems such as anxiety, fewer friends, loss of confidence, lower education, and fewer chances for marriage.... Overweight in children can be caused by poor eating habits and low activity, which is affected by the parents and the family environment.   Conclusions: Since the patterns learned in childhood affect all life on lifestyle, understand the causes of obesity and to eliminate or reduce them and reinforce the correct patterns of feeding Through education and the incidence is somewhat reduced, especially for parents to deal with this phenomenon.   Keywords: Child,Malnutrition, Obesity    

  12. The ultimately accountable job: leading today's sales organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Jerome A; Fiss, Mary S

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, sales leaders have had to devote considerable time and energy to establishing and maintaining disciplined processes. The thing is, many of them stop there--and they can't afford to, because the business environment has changed. Customers have gained power and gone global, channels have proliferated, more product companies are selling services, and many suppliers have begun providing a single point of contact for customers. Such changes require today's sales leaders to fill various new roles: Company leader. The best sales chiefs actively help formulate and execute company strategy, and they collaborate with all functions of the business to deliver value to customers. Customer champion. Customers want C-level relationships with suppliers in order to understand product strategy, look at offerings in advance, and participate in decisions made about future products--and sales leaders are in the best position to offer that kind of contact. Process guru. Although sales chiefs must look beyond the sales and customer processes they have honed over the past decade, they can't abandon them. The focus on process has become only more important as many organizations have begun bundling products and services to meet important customers' individual needs. Organization architect. Good sales leaders spend a lot of time evaluating and occasionally redesigning the sales organization's structure to ensure that it supports corporate strategy. Often, this involves finding the right balance between specialized and generalized sales roles. Course corrector. Sales leaders must watch the horizon, but they can't take their hands off the levers or forget about the dials. If they do, they might fail to respond when quick adjustments in priorities are needed.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MIGRATION POTENTIAL IN HUNGARY FROM 2000 UNTIL TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Csipkés

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing the words “international migration”, two things might come to our mind. One of them is the emigration process and the other is the wave of refugees. In our study, we examined the changes of the number of employees emigrating from Hungary from 2000 until today. Nowadays, the examination of the migration potential is an important topic in Hungary, since the rate of Hungarian emigrants started to grow after 2006 and the rate of growth became even faster after 2010. The reason of the acceleration was the opening of the Austrian and German labour market. The actuality of the topic is based on the fact that international emigration merges the labour market’s processes, influences the given country’s employment level, moreover it has an influencing role on the rate of wages. Emigration from a given state has several reasons: natural disasters, war, marginalization, economic reasons, etc. In our study, we examine emigration caused by economic reasons. We have to take into consideration that measuring emigration processes is a difficult task, due to the lack of data. The reason of the deficiency is that those who leave the country, often forget to report their leaving. From 1 March 2013, only the permanent foreign settlement should be reported towards the administration (District Office, Consulate. Earlier, temporary (more than 3 months settlement was also obligatory to be reported. Many of the leaving Hungarians do not report their leaving, however working abroad for more than 3 months should be reported towards social insurance organizations and tax authorities. I would like to emphasise that my migration potential presentation does not show a direct correlation with the actual migration. However, this study might show the expected movement rates and the composition of emigrants.

  14. Undergraduate Biocuration: Developing Tomorrow's Researchers While Mining Today's Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie S; Cates, Ashlyn; Kim, Renaid B; Hollinger, Sabrina K

    2015-01-01

    Biocuration is a time-intensive process that involves extraction, transcription, and organization of biological or clinical data from disjointed data sets into a user-friendly database. Curated data is subsequently used primarily for text mining or informatics analysis (bioinformatics, neuroinformatics, health informatics, etc.) and secondarily as a researcher resource. Biocuration is traditionally considered a Ph.D. level task, but a massive shortage of curators to consolidate the ever-mounting biomedical "big data" opens the possibility of utilizing biocuration as a means to mine today's data while teaching students skill sets they can utilize in any career. By developing a biocuration assembly line of simplified and compartmentalized tasks, we have enabled biocuration to be effectively performed by a hierarchy of undergraduate students. We summarize the necessary physical resources, process for establishing a data path, biocuration workflow, and undergraduate hierarchy of curation, technical, information technology (IT), quality control and managerial positions. We detail the undergraduate application and training processes and give detailed job descriptions for each position on the assembly line. We present case studies of neuropathology curation performed entirely by undergraduates, namely the construction of experimental databases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) transgenic mouse models and clinical data from ALS patient records. Our results reveal undergraduate biocuration is scalable for a group of 8-50+ with relatively minimal required resources. Moreover, with average accuracy rates greater than 98.8%, undergraduate biocurators are equivalently accurate to their professional counterparts. Initial training to be completely proficient at the entry-level takes about five weeks with a minimal student time commitment of four hours/week.

  15. Cda Science Today and in Cassini's Final Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srama, R.

    2014-12-01

    Today, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is operated continuously for 10 years in orbit around Saturn. The first discovery of CDA related to Saturn was the measurement of nanometer sized dust particles ejected by to interplanetary space with speeds higher than 100 km/s. Their origin and composition was analysed and and their dynamical studies showed a strong link to the conditions of the solar wind plasma flow. A recent surprising result was, that stream particles stem from the interior of Enceladus. Since 2004 CDA measured millions of dust impacts characterizing the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument showed strong evidence for ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the salt-rich water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system lead to the discovery of liquid water below the icy crust connected to an ocean at depth feeding the icy jets. CDA was even capable to derive a spatially resolved compositional profile of the plume during close Enceladus flybys. A determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturn's E ring describing the observed properties. The measured dust density profiles in the dense E ring revealed geometric asymmetries.In the final three years CDA performs exogenous and interstellar dust campaigns, studies of the composition and origin of Saturn's main rings by unique ring ejecta measurements, long-duration nano-dust stream observations, high-resolution maps of small moon orbit crossings, studies of the dust cloud around Dione and studies of the E-ring interaction with the large moon Titan.

  16. Massive stars and miniature robots: today's research and tomorrow's technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William David

    2013-03-01

    number of the potential future tests, and avenues for new research, are discussed. This is a thesis that brings together an area of active astronomical research with cutting-edge technological development, highlighting how tomorrow's telescopes will be an essential tool to answer some of today's most puzzling research questions

  17. Challenging today's nuclear industry to be competitive in a changing tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, B.

    1996-01-01

    As the millennium approaches, the future of the nuclear power generation appears desolate. Today's nuclear executives are facing challenges resulting from worldwide change and have forced utilities to reevaluate their corporation's future directions. The nuclear industry must be competitive more than ever to address today's rapid changing marketplace and pressures exerted from: regulatory reformation; increased competition; changes in technology; customer evolution; and globalization. These factors have compelled nuclear executives to address questions such as: What impact will these changes have on today's marketplace, and on my corporation? What will characterize tomorrow's successful nuclear facility? How can today's nuclear corporation compete in tomorrow's marketplace? Will my corporation survive? (author)

  18. The kinds of Ya in today Persian languag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Mohammadreza Ebnorrasool

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversity of suffix ‘-i’, called ‘ya’, in Persian language, which is of important consideration, for any reason, has not been able to attract scholars and grammarians in the field of Persian language. Here is an attempt to mention different kinds of ‘ya’ and to explain their applications, relying on grammar books, dictionaries, and today native application. The character generally has three types of applications in Persian language. It is firstly one of the Persian alphabet, so it primarily functions as a ‘phoneme’. It is applied in its second function when appears in the form of ’morpheme’, such as ‘-i’ in ‘mardi rad shod’ (a man passed with usage of indefinite article. The third function appears when it comes in the place of a word, because it is one of the six types of pronouns. So, ‘ya’ is applied in three forms: phoneme, morpheme and word. In continue, it is attempted to explain these kinds in more details. ‘ya’ as indefinite maker (Nakare: This kind of ‘ya’ is called the mark of indefinite by many of the Persian grammarians, including doctor Mohammad Moin. Dehkhoda says ‘ya’ is added to the end of the word to make it an indefinite one, such as the last word and it is a sign of indefinite types " of " is unknown, such as‘-i’ in ‘pesari ra didam’ (I saw a boy. ‘ya’ as numerical suffix means one (vahdat:  This kind is added to the last  of the word, and means "one". The difference between this one and the previous, ‘ya’ as indefinite maker, is just in their meanings. ‘ya’ as attributive suffix: This ‘ya’ is joined by various kinds of Persian words an attributes them to someone, some place or something, such as ‘Shirazi’(from shiraz, ‘farsi’(Persian, ‘Irani’(Iraian, Barmaki (Barmakian. This kind also sometimes has other meanings like emphasis, adverbial, degradation, similarity, vehicle, type, distance, and so on. ‘ya’ as addressing suffix (khetab

  19. "USA Today": Comparative Analysis with Two National and Two Los Angeles Daily Newspapers. Research Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steve; And Others

    Sections of the newspaper "USA Today" were compared with corresponding sections of four major newspapers--the "New York Times," the "Wall Street Journal," the "Los Angeles Herald Examiner," and the "Los Angeles Times"--to determine what editorial components made "USA Today" different and…

  20. Immigrants as Refugees of the Global Economy: Learning to Teach (about) Today's Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of migration as it is known today must be understood in the larger context of the globalized economy and the "race to the bottom" that characterizes the multinational corporate relationship with the global South. A deeper understanding of the ways in which migration today is rooted in the machinations of the globalized…

  1. Computer Literacy for Life Sciences: Helping the Digital-Era Biology Undergraduates Face Today's Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Tomasz G.

    2010-01-01

    Computer literacy plays a critical role in today's life sciences research. Without the ability to use computers to efficiently manipulate and analyze large amounts of data resulting from biological experiments and simulations, many of the pressing questions in the life sciences could not be answered. Today's undergraduates, despite the ubiquity of…

  2. Pregnancy outcomes in youth with type 2 diabetes: The TODAY Study experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated pregnancy outcomes, maternal and fetal/neonatal, during the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study. The TODAY study was a randomized controlled trial comparing three treatment options for youth with type 2 diabetes. Informed consent included the req...

  3. Leadership and the Millennials: Transforming Today's Technological Teens into Tomorrow's Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Although older and younger generations unfailingly tend to disagree on values and are inclined to perceive one another with a degree of skepticism and disapproval, it is an unmistakable reality that because of technology today's youth are approaching life differently than previous generations. It is also clear that today's Millennials are…

  4. The Employment Equation: Why Our Young People Need More Maths for Today's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgen, Jeremy; Marks, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews over 50 research studies to consider the level and type of mathematical skills needed by employers in today's economy. It considers five key questions: (1) What mathematics (level and content) is required in the workplace today?; (2) How and why have the mathematical needs of the workplace changed over time?; (3) In what ways…

  5. The Urban Warrior: What are the Dismounted Infantry Skills Necessary to Survive in Today's Urban Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaze, George

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT). Specifically, certain essential skills for the dismounted infantry soldier are lacking in today's training, doctrine, and skills...

  6. Attitude towards assisted reproductive technology - surrogacy at todays young women (Qualitative research)

    OpenAIRE

    LAVIČKOVÁ, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis describes the implementation of surrogate maternity. It observe at it from the ethical and legal perspective. The research shows the attitude of today´s young women to the substitute maternity.

  7. Virginia Tech among Princeton Review's and USA Today's top 10 'best value' public universities

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech was ranked eighth "best value" public university for 2010, according to "The Princeton Review," who teamed with USA Today, to present its list, "'The Princeton Review' Best Value Colleges for 2010."

  8. Open and Distance Learning Today. Routledge Studies in Distance Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Fred, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on open and distance learning today: "Preface" (Daniel); "Big Bang Theory in Distance Education" (Hawkridge); "Practical Agenda for Theorists of Distance Education" (Perraton); "Trends, Directions and Needs: A View from Developing Countries" (Koul); "American…

  9. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Austin; Z. Djurcic, Columbia University Title: Analysis of Muon and Electron Neutrino Events from the advised on building an FM transmitter so passing cars can tune into 99.7 FM to hear the rhythmic songs

  10. Radiology today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, M.W.; Heuck, F.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The book encompasses the proceedings of a postgraduate course held in Salzburg in June 1980. 230 radiologists from 17 countries discussed here the important and practical advances of diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and ultrasound as they contribute to gastrointestinal, urologic, skeletal, cardiovascular, pediatric, and neuroradiology. The book contains 55 single contributions of different authors to the following main themes: Cardiovascular, Radiology, pulmonary radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, urinary tract radiology, skeletal radiology, mammography, lymphography, ultrasound, ENT radiology, and neuroradiology. (orig./MG)

  11. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    exhibits at the Lederman Science Center. "You are willing to be role models," she said, "and . A Taste of Taiwan CDF physicists are organizing a get-together with Taiwanese food and music on traditional Taiwanese music, and display news clips about Taiwan." International Folk Dancing

  12. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    hole in a 4-D cosmos? The math says: maybe. Read more Tip of the Week: Safety Winter weather: Road Education Building. Photo: Aaron Sauers, OPTT In the News Better than sci-fi From Scientific American, Nov . In addition to parking restrictions, there will also be a few road closures this year. Some roads on

  13. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    , 16 Interpersonal Communication Skills - Oct. 20 Access 2013: Level 2 / Intermediate - Oct. 21 Excel Training Room $60. Register by Oct. 19. Yoga Thursdays Thursdays, Oct. 29-Dec. 17, noon-12:45 p.m. (no class Nov. 26) WHGFE Training Room $55. Register by Oct. 22. Zumba Toning Tuesdays, Oct. 20-Dec. 8, noon

  14. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentine Tango thru April 28 - Student Discount Available Calling all softball players Fermilab Management Management class offered May 5, 12, & 19 Performance Review class offered May 26 Fermilab Functions class

  15. Today's Weather.

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Allyson

    1990-01-01

    Allyson Clay’s "Traces of a City in the Spaces Between Some People" is a series of twenty diptychs contrasting fabricated faux finishing with expressionist painting and text. The fabricated paint applications evoke city surfaces like concrete and granite; they also evoke modernist painting.  Unlike modernist painting, however, the faux surfaces are decorative and mechanically painted. The choice to have the surfaces fabricated serves to disrupt the egoism of modern abstraction and the im...

  16. Relativity today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peries, Z.

    1988-01-01

    This volume features state-of-the-art research and talks by leading experts emphasizing on the currently developing areas of the theory. Some areas discussed are the structure of radiative space times, Robinson-Trautman solutions, space time geometry, canonical and causal structures. The role of wormholes in quantum field theory and the various symmetries of monopoles

  17. Compartmentalization today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2006-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the compartmentdization concept has helped tree care practitioners and land managers interpret patterns of decay in living trees. Understanding these patterns can help guide the selection of treatments that meet the needs of people and communities while respecting the underlying tree biology. At its simplest, compartmentalization resists the...

  18. ASBO Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Business Affairs, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO), a professional association of more than 5,000 school business management professionals. Members include noninstructional employees at the local, state, and national levels from specialized areas in school business management, as well as the generalized field of…

  19. Pulsars today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham-Smith, F.

    1990-01-01

    The theory concerning pulsars is reviewed, with particular attention to possible evolution, life cycle, and rejuvenation of these bodies. Quantum liquids, such as neutron superfluids, and evidence for the existence of superfluid vortices and other internal phenomena are considered with particular attention to the Crab pulsar. Rate of change of the rotation rate is measured and analyzed for the Crab pulsar and the implications of deviations in the pulse times from those of a perfect rotator are examined. Glitches, the sudden increase in rotation rate of a pulsar that has previously exhibited a steady slowdown, are discussed and it is suggested that the movement of the superfluid core relative to the crust is responsible for this phenomenon. It is noted that radio waves from pulsars can be used to determine the intensity and structure of interplanetary and interstellar gas turbulence and to provide a direct measure of the strength of the interstellar magnetic field

  20. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    English muffin - Gyros - Baked pork chops - Halai chicken cacciatore - California turkey wrap - Chicken . And the solution lies with each member of our technical team - in particular, the people who design 2: Have I been able to find an existing solution in industry? I suspect most of you will say not

  1. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    florentine - BBQ pork sandwich - Smart cuisine: Kielbasa & sauerkraut - Smart cuisine: Chicken marsala 1924, Charpak moved to Paris at the age of 7. He joined the French resistance during World War II, was remained until the camp was liberated in 1945. Charpak become a French citizen in 1946. He attended the

  2. Britain Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    provides introductions to prominent ideas, social, political, and cultural critique and responses, all of contemporary relevance. In addition to providing the necessary basic and factual information, the book and its homepage suggest student assignments, topics for presentations and essays, and literature...

  3. Feminism today

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    Feminism has been noticed at various stages of time and still is unnoticed. The acts of sexism are apparently at large and only dialogues are delivered without any prompt action. This paper highlights the stage of feminism now and its prospects for the better. This topic talks about women from all walks of life and their thirst of justified identity. One has to develop in the conscious of mankind that women are equal to man and their suppleness to adapt to the environment does not give a sign...

  4. Doctors Today

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2012-03-01

    Doctors’ relationship with patients and their role in society is changing. Until the 1960s doctors concentrated on the welfare of patients with less emphasis placed on patients’ rights1. Over recent decades there has been increasing empowerment of the individual across all facets of society including health care. Doctors continue to be perceived as having expertise and authority over medical science. Patients, however, now hold sway over questions of values or preferences. We all must be aware of this change in the doctor- patient interaction. We need to be more aware of the outcomes that patients view as important. The concept of shared decision-making with the patient is now widely appreciated. The process involves a change in mind set particularly for doctors who trained in an earlier era.

  5. Thalassaemia, today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Franceschini, F.; Atti, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main abnormalities of the hand and skull in a group of patients who underwent hypertransfusion regimen were reviewed and compared to the lesions observed in a control group of low-transfused patients. The results are reported, and a possible correlation with transfusions regimen is discussed: since bone lesions are explained on the basis of relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, hypertransfusion regimen will prevent the development of abnormalities, only if established early in life. For this reason, skeletal lesions in Cooley's anaemia have changet their ''classical'' radiography patterns. In the skull, the diploic space may become normal, and the overgrowth of facial bones moderate; the pneumatization of paranasal sinuses may not be completely impeded by the swelling of the jaws, the ''hair-brush'' pattern may disappear completely. The normalized picture of the hand is and remains a typical differential sign of prepuberal and adult patients

  6. Astrophysics today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Examining recent history, current trends, and future possibilities, the author reports the frontiers of research on the solar system, stars, galactic physics, and cosmological physics. The book discusses the great discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics and examines the circumstances in which they occurred. It discusses the physics of white dwarfs, the inflationary universe, the extinction of dinosaurs, black hole, cosmological models, and much more

  7. Zugriff auf Informationen in Wörterbüchern und anderen Informationswerkzeugen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2017-01-01

    In the middle of the nineteen seventies Herbert Ernst Wiegand discovered the lexicographic Yeti: The Dictionary User. This should not count as a discovery; Lexicography has always aimed to satisfy certain needs for information of certain user groups and many dictionaries and encyclopedias have do...

  8. New Proposals for the Design of Integrated Online Wine Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specialised lexicographic treatment ofoenology and viticulture usually consists in the compiling of articles describing the language of wine in general language dictionaries, or presenting professional knowledge of wine in specialised multi-field dictionaries and encyclopedias. This treatment also encompasses the ...

  9. The fragmented and diffuse city Today: From the emotional city to the town of satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Román-Alcalá

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is not an attempt to return to old positions; it does not seek the lost paradise of feelings and sentiments that comprehend human relationships, but it does hope to scratch below the surface of consumption that shrouds the city today. Since the time of the ancient Greeks, one of the fundamental aims of philosophers has been to attain happiness. Today, however, that purpose is threatened. Happy people do not consume, but suffering, what is known in the advertising jargon as "post-shopping depression" has become the raw material for consumption.

  10. The Cambridge encyclopedia of space (revised edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Allest, Frederic; Arets, Jean; Baker, Phillip J.; Balmino, Georges; Barth, Hans; Benson, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive and intensively illustrated development history is presented for spaceflight, ranging over its basic concepts' speculative and fictional origins, the historical roots of rocket-related technologies, and the scientific accomplishments of earth orbit and interplanetary missions to date. Attention is given to propulsion systems, spaceflight launch centers, satellite systems, and solar system exploration by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Current space-related activities encompass the meteorology, remote sensing, telecommunications and direct broadcasting, and navigation functions of unmanned satellites, as well as such manned spacecraft roles as medical and materials science research. The military uses of space, and increasingly important space industrialization concepts, are discussed as well.

  11. Dictionnaires et encyclopedies (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, Pierre

    1988-01-01

    Eight French dictionaries and encyclopedic reference books are reviewed, focusing on their formats, characteristics, and intended uses. They include references for language, geopolitics and economics, economic history, signs and symbols, and an almanac. (MSE)

  12. Encyclopedia of medical radiology. Vol. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremmel, H.; Loehr, H.H.; Kaiser, K.; Vieten, H.

    1979-01-01

    The present volume a treatment of injuries to the heart and the large vessels near the heart is based on the latest data available and is subdivided into tow large chapters: open injuries and foreign substances and contused traumatic lesions. As a result of the rapid development and significant success of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, especially in cardiac surgery, a considerable percent of cardiac patients can now be saved. This fact alone made it exigent that the subject be treated on a broad scale to include traumatic mechanisms, pathophysiology, and clinical practice since there are as yet no encompassing summaries of this topic to be found in the literature. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Tupí-Guaraní [Encyclopedia entry

    OpenAIRE

    Drude, S.

    2005-01-01

    Sprachfamilie S-Amerikas, die im südl. Amazonas- sowie im Rio-de-la-Plata-Becken verbreitet ist und den größten Zweig der Tupí-Sprachfamilie bildet. Zu den rd. 20 T.-G.-Sprachen (gesprochen von 45 ethn. Gruppen) gehören u. a. Guaraní, Chiriguano, Guajajara, Kayabi und Tupí i. e. S. Die T.-G.-Sprachen sind die bekannteste Sprachfamilie des südamerikan. Tieflands. Erste Beschreibungen von jesuit. Missionaren, u. a. ANTONIO RUIZ DE MONTOYA (*1585, †1652) und J. DE ANCHIETA, stammen aus dem 16. u...

  14. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers a reference that provides comprehensive coverage of classical and modern physics and selected topics in mathematics. Articles both technical and detailed are aimed at a thorough understanding of the structures and phenomena of the natural world. Topics are discussed from a theoretical as well as an experimental viewpoint in hundreds of detailed articles cover the fields of acoustics, atomic and molecular physics, classical mechanics, electricity and electromagnetism, elementary particle physics, fluid mechanics, heat and thermodynamics, low-temperature physics, optics, relativity, and solid-state physics. The appendix includes SI conversion tables, mathematical notation, a table of fundamental constants, and a periodic table

  15. Various lemmata on the encyclopedia Patropedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Lemmata: Advent in de vroege kerk; Concilie van Chalcedon (451); Concilie van Efeze (431); Epifanie in de vroege kerk; Hemelvaartsdag in de vroege kerk; Kerstfeest in de vroege kerk; Pasen in de vroege kerk; Pinksteren in de vroege kerk; Veertigdagentijd in de vroege kerk

  16. (Executive Editor). Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe 2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this regard it can be used to search only the articles, any of the multimedia features, or all the features. The editors have retained the pinpointer's form and have also opted for the same initial-alphabetical listing of lemmas in the main display window of the pinpointer. This maintains the continuity in this line of products and.

  17. Book review: Encyclopedia of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    Species introductions and consequent biotic invasions and homogenization are major components of global change that are drawing increasing concern and various levels of actions and reactions around the world. Invasion ecology has advanced rapidly during the last few decades, and the discipline is now increasingly integrated with the social and economic sciences. A...

  18. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  19. A mini-encyclopedia of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istenic, Radko; Stritar, Andrej

    2002-01-01

    Atlas of Nuclear Technology is a central publication for the public information activities of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. We started inviting schoolchildren, students and general public to lectures about radioactivity and nuclear technology already in 1993. Since that time we published many information-nation materials in Slovenian language for our visitors and updated the technical content of the Information-nation Centre several times. After a few years we realized how important it would be that every visitor would leave the Information Centre with some lasting interesting and easily understandable information in a single booklet. Therefore we updated and compiled all the available information panels from the Information Centre, separate leaflets and view-graphs from the lectures and added some essential text that is easily understood also by non-technical persons. From the very beginning we decided that there would be a lot of illustrations and that the text would be in Slovenian and English language in parallel. What finally emerged was a booklet of 60 pages, which we call 'Atlas of Nuclear Technology'. Contents include chapters on physics, TRIGA research reactor, Slovenian energy production, greenhouse effect, nuclear energy in the world, Krsko nuclear power plant, radioactive waste and nuclear accidents. Some 10 000 booklets were printed and are being distributed to the visitors. We refer to the Atlas during the lectures that are typically attended by 50 - 60 8-graders (up to 8000 per year) accompanied by several teachers. The response is very favorable. We get a lot of positive feedback and samples of posters that the schoolchildren have prepared as their homework using the Atlas as the main source of information. Also our yearly poll shows a steady good acceptance of nuclear energy among the youngsters. (author)

  20. Literacy: State of the Nation--A Picture of Literacy in the UK Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Deeqa; Dugdale, George

    2012-01-01

    Literacy is the combination of reading, writing, speaking and listening skills we all need to fulfil our potential. These life skills are essential to the happiness, health and wealth of individuals and society. "Literacy: State of the Nation" provides a coherent picture of literacy in the UK today. It reveals that: (1) One in six people…

  1. Recent Court Rulings regarding Student Use of Cell Phones in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Student use of cell phone is a new area of concern in today's schools. Cell phone providers have attempted to convince parents that each child should be provided with their own cell phone for safety reasons and to stay in contact with their families. This has resulted in many students arriving at school with a cell phone, taking it to class and…

  2. Habits of Democracy: A Deweyan Approach to Citizenship Education in America Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Today's social and political context is filled with environmental elements that both support and work against deep, participatory democracy. I argue that certain democratic habits should be nurtured through a supportive formative culture, especially in schools, in order to best achieve good democratic life in the present context. My aim here…

  3. College Counseling Today: Contemporary Students and How Counseling Centers Meet Their Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Jon L.; Wallace, David L.; Reymann, Linda S.; Sellers, Jes-James; McCabe, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that today's college and university students are struggling with emotional and behavioral health problems at higher rates than in past generations. This article explores the various ways, utilizing a range of models, that college and university counseling centers have mobilized to respond to these challenges. We examine…

  4. The world today: concepts and regions in geography. - 6th ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blij, H.J.; Muller, P.O.; Nijman, J.

    2013-01-01

    This latest edition of The World Today reflects our continuing commitment to bring to readers our geographic perspectives on a fast-changing world and its dynamic regional components. Since the previous edition, the author team has spent much time traveling, researching, and lecturing in all 12

  5. Low Wage Workers in Today's Economy: Strategies for Productivity and Opportunity. Draft Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs for the Future, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    In the United States today, too many hardworking people are unable to earn enough through work to support their families. Policymakers can help change this situation by taking the following steps: (1) keep work central; (2) promote family-supporting work; (3) invest in education and work skills; (4) make it easier for individuals to stay employed…

  6. Earth, Wind, and Fire: Managing Risk in Today's Schools Part 1--Fire!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Richard

    2010-01-01

    If one word can characterize what may be troubling about risk management in today's schools, it is "complacency." Complacency is a negative behavior that could entrap people into letting their guard down. In "The School Business Administrator," authors Kenneth Stevenson and Don Tharpe write: "A successful school business administrator has a…

  7. How Would Blackstone Teach Today's Law Students with Learning Disabilities?: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Suzanne J.

    2007-01-01

    Although Sir William Blackstone would not have known if he had been lecturing to students with learning disabilities, today's law professors are. Law schools are legally required to accommodate students with learning disabilities unless the requested accommodation would alter the fundamental nature of the program. Courts give great deference to…

  8. Teaching Young Adult Literature Today: Insights, Considerations, and Perspectives for the Classroom Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayn, Judith A., Ed.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Teaching Young Adult Literature Today" introduces the reader to what is current and relevant in the plethora of good books available for adolescents. More importantly, literary experts illustrate how teachers everywhere can help their students become lifelong readers by simply introducing them to great reads--smart, insightful, and engaging books…

  9. Effectively Serving the Needs of Today's Business Student: The Product Life Cycle Approach to Class Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jacqueline K.; Aviles, Maria; Hanna, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We illustrate a class organization process utilizing the concept of the Product Life Cycle to meet the needs of today's millennial student. In the Introduction stage of a business course, professors need to build structure to encourage commitment. In the Growth stage, professors need to promote the structure through multiple, brief activities that…

  10. A Leadership Guide for Today's Disabilities Organizations: Overcoming Challenges and Making Change Happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    Effective, efficient, and sustainable ID/DD organizations: are they possible in today's world of dwindling resources and mounting demands for more and better services? Yes--with the practical tools and strategies in this lifeline for ID/DD leaders. Developed by two of the most trusted authorities in the disability field, this innovative business…

  11. Wanted: Active Role Models for Today's Kids | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American children more likely to tap a video game controller than bounce a ball, problems of obesity should be no surprise. And with obesity already a growing problem for their parents, kids today need all the active role models they can get. "With childhood obesity at an all-time high, we need ...

  12. Being Human Today: A Digital Storytelling Pedagogy for Transcontinental Border Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kristian; Gachago, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a collaborative digital storytelling project titled "Being Human Today," a multimodal curricular initiative that was implemented simultaneously in both a South African and an American university classroom in 2015. By facilitating dialogue and the sharing of digital stories by means of a closed…

  13. Achieving Widespread, Democratic Education in the United States Today: Dewey's Ideas Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Elizabeth; Blatchford, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Excellent, democratic education that furthers each person's potential, success and happiness for her own and others' well-being is not yet widespread in the U.S. today. Dewey's The Public and Its Problems has much to say about the possibilities and challenges of achieving this goal. This paper examines Dewey's ideas about how a public for…

  14. Wilderness stewardship in America today and what we can do to improve it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Cordell; Chris Barns; David Brownlie; Tom Carlson; Chad Dawson; William Koch; Garry Oye; Chris Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article are recently retired wilderness professionals from universities or federal agencies. We were asked to share our observations about how wilderness stewardship is being managed in America today. We based our observations on our many years of combined professional wilderness career experience as managers, trainers, scientists, educators, and...

  15. Distributed Mission Operations: Training Today’s Warfighters for Tomorrow’s Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    systems or include dissimilar weapons systems to rehearse more complex mission sets. In addition to networking geographically separated simulators...over the past decade. Today, distributed mission operations can facilitate the rehearsal of theater wide operations, integrating all the anticipated...effective that many aviators earn their basic aircraft qualification before their first flight in the airplane.11 Computer memory was once a

  16. Youth of Today and the Democracy of Tomorrow. Polish Students' Attitudes toward Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzecki, Radoslaw; Stach, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of over 20 years into the transformation process in post-communist countries, it seems important to be able to pose questions about the future of democracy, and, in particular, its social foundations. These questions become all the more significant, when we come to realize that it is the attitudes of 'the young of today' that…

  17. Retinopathy in youth with type 2 diabetes participating in the TODAY clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of retinopathy in 517 youth with type 2 diabetes of 2–8 years duration enrolled in the TODAY study. Retinal photographs were graded centrally for retinopathy using established standards. Retinopathy was identified in 13.7% of subjects. Prev...

  18. "This Is Produced by a Brain-Process!" Wittgenstein, Transparency and Psychology Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines sections of Wittgenstein's "Philosophical Investigations" with a view to exposing trail-effects of psychology in educational and social practice today. These are seen in understandings of the relations between mind and body, and language and thought, and their influence is identified in such contemporary preoccupations as…

  19. SFO Certification: Recognizing High Standards for Managers of School Business Operations Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statz, Bambi; Weber, Pam

    2010-01-01

    These are challenging times for schools across the United States and Canada, and the ability of those providing the fiscal leadership of these multi-million dollar organizations has never been more critical. There is no better time to identify the specific skills and knowledge needed by those managing the business operations of schools today, and…

  20. Virtual Worlds and the Learner Hero: How Today's Video Games Can Inform Tomorrow's Digital Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, C. Scott; Przybylski, Andrew K.

    2009-01-01

    Participation in expansive video games called "virtual worlds" has become a mainstream leisure activity for tens of millions of people around the world. The growth of this industry and the strong motivational appeal of these digital worlds invite a closer examination as to how educators can learn from today's virtual worlds in the development of…

  1. Vaccination ecosystem health check: achieving impact today and sustainability for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Bloom, David; Plotkin, Stanley; Picot, Valentina; Louis, Jacques; Watson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is a complex ecosystem with several components that interact with one another and with the environment. Today's vaccine ecosystem is defined by the pursuit of polio eradication, the drive to get as many of the new vaccines to as many people as possible and the research and development against immunologically challenging diseases. Despite these successes, vaccine ecosystem is facing keys issues with regard to supply/distribution and cost/profitability asymmetry that risk slowing its global growth. The conference "Vaccination ecosystem health check: achieving impact today and sustainability for tomorrow" held in Annecy-France (January 19-21, 2015) took stock of the health of today's vaccination ecosystem and its ability to reliably and sustainably supply high-quality vaccines while investing in tomorrow's needed innovation. Small and decreasing numbers of suppliers/manufacturing facilities; paucity of research-driven companies; regulatory pressures; market uncertainties; political prioritization; anti-vaccine movements/complacency; and technological and programmatic issues were acknowledged as the major challenges that could weaken today's vaccination ecosystem. The expert panel discussed also drivers and barriers to a sustainable vaccination ecosystem; the metrics of a vaccination ecosystem; and what should be added, removed, increased, or reduced to maintain the health of the vaccination ecosystem.

  2. Polycythemia vera: diagnosis, different therapy modalities and clinical value of the treatment with radiophosphorus today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredow, J.; Pinkert, J.; Franke, W.G.; Schuler, U.

    2001-01-01

    The definition, diagnostic criteria and clinical findings as well as the treatment with radioactive phosphorus is described more in detail. Today, the treatment with 32 P is estimated to be an easy and safe method, especially for elderly patients (65 years or above), providing a cost-effective alternative to anti-proliferative drugs like hydroxyurea. (orig.) [de

  3. Maintaining professionalism in today's business environment: ethical challenges for the pain medicine specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovits, Allen

    2012-09-01

    There are many external influences in today's market force that impair the relationship between the pain medicine specialist and the patient, and ultimately prevent optimal quality of care. This article explores the ethical challenges facing the pain medicine specialist in today's increasingly "business" environment and will offer solutions for maintaining the professionalism of pain medicine. Four commonly encountered bioethical principles in the practice of pain medicine are reviewed: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. The following ethical challenges of the pain medicine specialist are reviewed: practicing outside ones specialty area, practice characteristics, the consultant role, the economic lure of aggressive intervention, not evaluating for and treating comorbid psychopathology, reimbursement pressures, workers' compensation, and use of unproven methods. Solutions offered include collegial associations, social responsibility, legislative initiatives, pain education, interdisciplinary evaluation and treatment, improved relationships with third-party payers, reduced racial disparities, and ethics education. Ethics is the "roadmap" that enables the pain medicine specialist to navigate the increasingly murky waters of practicing pain management today by maintaining the professionalism necessary to combat today's "business" pressures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Marketing Today's Academic Library: A Bold New Approach to Communicating with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In "Marketing Today's Academic Library", the author uses his vast experience to speak directly to the academic library practitioner about matching services with user needs. This book proposes new visions and ideas, challenging the traditional way of thinking and providing a framework to target users more precisely. Most library marketing intended…

  5. Know this today's most interesting and important scientific ideas, discoveries, and developments

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Today's most visionary thinkers reveal the cutting-edge scientific ideas and breakthroughs you must understand. Scientific developments radically change and enlighten our understanding of the world -- whether it's advances in technology and medical research or the latest revelations of neuroscience, psychology, physics, economics, anthropology, climatology, or genetics. And yet amid the flood of information today, it's often difficult to recognize the truly revolutionary ideas that will have lasting impact. In the spirit of identifying the most significant new theories and discoveries, John Brockman, publisher of Edge.org ("The world's smartest website" -- The Guardian), asked 198 of the finest minds What do you consider the most interesting recent scientific news? What makes it important? Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared Diamond on the best way to understand complex problems * author of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics Carlo Rovelli on the mystery of black holes * Harvard psychol...

  6. Outlaw, hackers, victorian amateurs: diagnosing public participation in the life sciences today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kelty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on three figures that can be used to make sense of the changing nature of public participation in the life sciences today: outlaws, hackers and Victorian gentlemen. Occasioned by a symposium held at UCLA (Outlaw Biology: Public Participation in the Age of Big Bio, the essay introduces several different modes of participation (DIY Bio, Bio Art, At home clinical genetics, patient advocacy and others and makes three points: 1 that public participation is first a problem of legitimacy, not legality or safety; 2 that public participation is itself enabled by and thrives on the infrastructure of mainstream biology; and 3 that we need a new set of concepts (other than inside/outside for describing the nature of public participation in biological research and innovation today.

  7. The importance of ethics in the process of education in today globalised society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefová Alena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The events of the recent past show fluctuating structure of today world which is characterized on one hand as multicultural cooperation of people from various cultures and ethnic groups, and on the other hand seen with many conflicts and misunderstandings. Therefore ethical behavior becomes more important, which creates our humanity. The paper focuses on the importance of ethics in the process of education in today globalized world with the aim of leading the students to multicultural perception of the society and the world. To understand the world in European and globalized consequences will lead to reduction or eradication of religious intolerance. The paper describes the changes in education system in the Czech Republic in the past years and focuses on the importance of ethics in the process during primary, secondary and university education.

  8. A review of surgical methods (excluding hair transplantation and their role in hair loss management today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Sattur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today.

  9. The importance of utility systems in today's biorefineries and a vision for tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeman, Tim; Verser, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Heat and power systems commonly found in today's corn processing facilities, sugar mills, and pulp and paper mills will be reviewed. We will also examine concepts for biorefineries of the future. We will show that energy ratio, defined as the ratio of renewable energy produced divided by the fossil energy input, can vary widely from near unity to values greater than 12. Renewable-based utility systems combined with low-fossil input agricultural systems lead to high-energy ratios.

  10. Negotiation best practices: what a healthcare professional needs to know today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews negotiation best practices while highlighting some of the factors that confound or enhance the ability to negotiate. Healthcare professionals will benefit by obtaining a set of practices that they can consistently apply to obtain more value from negotiation. In today's turbulent healthcare market, more relationships are governed by and through negotiated agreements, so it is imperative that healthcare professionals develop and sharpen their negotiating acumen.

  11. E-learning. Today and tomorrow; E-Learning. Jetzt und in Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbke, Silvana [Kraftwerksschule e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Today, new technologies revolutionize the way of handling information, exchanging knowledge and learning. The definition of the term ''e-learning'' mostly comprehends teaching and learning using a range of electronic media (Internet, CD-ROMs). However, further differentiation is necessary to describe the entire spectrum of methods included in this term. These different approaches are reflected in their implementation by the companies presented. (orig.)

  12. Start Making a Reader Today[R] (SMART[R]). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Start Making a Reader Today[R] (SMART[R]) is a volunteer tutoring program widely implemented in Oregon for students in grades K-2 who are at risk of reading failure. The program is designed to be a low-cost, easy-to-implement intervention. Volunteer tutors go into schools where at least 40% of students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch…

  13. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Human Technology for Today’s Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Part III, pp. 4-5. ’ 26. Ibid, p. 6. 27. Donald W. McCormick, " Neurolinguistic Programming : A Resource Guide and Review of the Research, The 1984...Carol Johnson, " Neurolinguistic Programming --Mystique or Mistake?" Army Organizational Effectiveness Journal, No. 1, 1985, pp. 74-80. 29. Dilts...AD-RI67 836 NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING : HUHAN TECHNOLOGY FOR / TODAY’S AIR FORCEMU AIR COMMAND ANM STAFF COLL NAXHELL AFB AL J B CAULFIELD APR 86

  14. Career development tips for today's nursing academic: bibliometrics, altmetrics and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R; Watson, Roger

    2016-11-01

    A discussion of bibliometrics, altmetrics and social media for the contemporary nursing scholar and academic researcher. Today's nursing academic faces myriad challenges in balancing their daily life and, in recent years, academic survival has been increasingly challenged by the various research assessment exercises that evaluate the performance of knowledge institutions. As such, it is essential that today's nursing academic keep up to date with the core competencies needed for survival in a modern research career, particularly the intersecting triad of bibliometrics, altmetrics and social media. Discussion paper. Published literature and relevant websites. The rise of social media and altmetrics has important implications for contemporary nursing scholars who publish their research. Some fundamental questions when choosing a journal might be 'does it have a Twitter and/or Facebook site, or a blog (or all three)'; and 'does it have any other presence on social media, such as LinkedIn, Wikipedia, YouTube, ResearchGate and so on?' Another consequence of embracing social media is that individual academics should also develop their own strategies for promoting and disseminating their work as widely as possible. The rising importance of social media and altmetrics can no longer be ignored, and today's nursing academic now has another facet to consider in their scholarly activities. Despite the changing nature of research dissemination, however, it is still important to recognize the undoubted value of established knowledge dissemination routes (that being the peer-reviewed publication). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Speckle metrology in the nanoworld, as it is perceived today, and how it may affect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    2010-09-01

    My memory goes back to my early collage studies that were almost entirely on the scale of "macroworld", as we practiced/perceived it some four decades ago. Since that time things have changed a lot constantly decreasing the scales of interest, at times at rather rapid pace, with monumental advances leading to the scales we work with today and plan for tomorrow. During that change/transition there were "meso" and "micro" developments characterized by changes in scales/sizes of things of interest. Today's scale of interest is "nano" and we are already not only working with "picotechnology", but are even reaching beyond while constantly "planning and projecting" the scales/worlds of the future. Advancement of any technology, especially new emerging ones as we witness/experience them today, is facilitated by the use of all available solution strategies. One of the emerging strategies that affect almost anything currently being developed and/or used, in the today's nanoworld, is based on recent advances of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Today MEMS affect almost everything we do from household appliances, via cars we drive and planes that whisk us from continent to continent, to spaceships used for search of/and exploration of other worlds. The modern microsensors are also used to explore for and produce petroleum products that are used in multitude of today's applications. To facilitate these advances a great majority of MEMS is used in the form of sensors. However development of MEMS in general and sensors in particular poses one of the greatest challenges in today's experimental mechanics. Among MEMS, the greatest contemporary interest is in the area of inertial sensors because they have numerous uses ranging from everyday applications to highly specialized ones, including many industrial platforms. As such they have tremendous potential to affect future of humanity. However, advances in MEMS, such as pressure and temperature sensors as well as gyroscopes and

  16. From the Cotton Fields to the Ties That Bind: Jim Pusack's Enduring Impact on Today's CALL Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    From 1981 to today, the encouragement Jim Pusack and his colleague Sue Otto gave faculty to develop and/or implement CALL into the curriculum has been vital to our L2 teaching evolution. This article describes how their efforts evolved over the last two and a half decades and the ties that bind their efforts with today's CALL development.

  17. Discovering Randomness, Recovering Expertise: The Different Approaches to the Quality in Measurement of Coulomb and Gauss and of Today's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Susanne; Heering, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss different approaches to the quality (or uncertainty) of measurement data considering both historical examples and today's students' views. Today's teaching of data analysis is very much focussed on the application of statistical routines (often called the "Gaussian approach" to error analysis). Studies on…

  18. A Commentary on Innovation and Emerging Scientific Careers: Is Social Work Prepared to Compete in Today's Scientific Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Jaih B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to address some of the questions Dr. Paula S. Nurius presents in her article, "Innovation and Emerging Scientific Careers: Is Social Work Prepared to Compete in Today?s Scientific Marketplace?" Specifically, this article will focus on what we can do to better prepare our emerging research scholars to be…

  19. On the lexicographical description of equivalent open class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    Translation of a German paper presented at a symposium on the occasion of the 65th birth- day of Dieter Herberg, .... The following explanations are illustrated by means of wa7 in Fig 1-7. In wa7, ...... that is demonstrated by the entire history of lexicography — not in a posi- .... don/New York: Cambridge University Press.

  20. A general lexicographic model for a typological variety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Bosch, Pretorius and Jones (2007) propose a model for machine-readable lexicons .... Bosch and Taljard (2012) or the e-learning tool "eZulu dictionary of posses- ... learners in producing the correct form, such as a decision tree-like device.

  1. A study in the lexicographical treatment of Arabic synonyms | Heliel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently three dictionaries of Arabic synonyms were published with the aim of helping Arabic learners, writers and translators. Though Classical Arabic lexicography distinguishes itself in the field of synonymy, Modern Standard Arabic lacks reliable dictionaries in the field and hence the importance of analysing these three ...

  2. Optimisasi Portofolio Saham Perbankan dengan Pendekatan Lexicographic Goal Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Jentina Rotua

    2014-01-01

    Investment is a fund placement into productive assets or companies with hope of getting capital growth or profit in a certain period. When investing, an investor should make a portfolio, a combination of several stocks. The aim of portfolio optimization is determining each asset-investment portion for maximizing profit and minimzing risk. In this research, investment problem is modeled mathematically by adding another objective besides both maximizing return of day period and minimizing risk,...

  3. A general lexicographic model for a typological variety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eXtensible Markup Language/Web Ontology Language) representation model. This article follows another route in describing a model based on entities and relations between them; MySQL (usually referred to as: Structured Query Language) ...

  4. [Old English plant names from the linguistic and lexicographic viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Hans; Krischke, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 1350 Old English plant names have come down to us; this is a relatively large number considering that the attested Old English vocabulary comprises ca. 24 000 words. The plant names are not only interesting for botanists, historians of medicine and many others, but also for philologists and linguists; among other aspects they can investigate their etymology, their morphology (including word-formation) and their meaning and motivation. Practically all Old English texts where plant names occur have been edited (including glosses and glossaries), the names have been listed in the Old English dictionaries, and some specific studies have been devoted to them. Nevertheless no comprehensive systematic analysis of their linguistic structure has been made. Ulrike Krischke is preparing such an analysis. A proper dictionary of the Old English plant names is also a desideratum, especially since the Old English dictionaries available and in progress normally do not deal with morphological and semantic aspects, and many do not provide etymological information. A plant-name dictionary concentrating on this information is being prepared by Hans Sauer and Ulrike Krischke. In our article here, we sketch the state of the art (ch. 1), we deal with some problems of the analysis of Old English plant names (ch. 2), e.g. the delimitation of the word-field plant names, the identification of the plants, errors and problematic spellings in the manuscripts. In ch. 3 we sketch the etymological structure according to chronological layers (Indo-European, Germanic, West-Germanic, Old English) as well as according to the distinction between native words and loan-words; in the latter category, we also mention loan-formations based on Latin models. In ch. 4 we survey the morphological aspects (simplex vs. complex words); among the complex nouns, compounds are by far the largest group (and among those, the noun + noun compounds), but there are also a few suffix formations. We also briefly present some morphological peculiarities, e.g. formations with blocked (unique) morphemes, the question of homonyms, cases of obscuration and of popular etymology. In ch. 5 we outline semantic structures, and in ch. 6, we introduce the structure of the proposed dictionary of the Old English plant names, also providing several specimen entries.

  5. Who can Really be Called a Lexicographer? | Gouws | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/22-1-1004 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  6. Not mere lexicographic cosmetics: the compilation and structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article offers a brief overview of the compilation of the Ndebele music terms dictionary, Isichazamazwi SezoMculo (henceforth the ISM), paying particular attention to its struc-tural features. It emphasises that the reference needs of the users as well as their reference skills should be given a determining role in all ...

  7. The farm household model based on Lexicographic utilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yigezu A. Yigezu

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... fill in gaps in the data collected from the sample households and community surveys. Besides the ... Teff (Eragrostis tef), sorghum, maize and ... In the literature, sorghum yield losses due to Striga range from 40-100% [15]. For.

  8. The Lexicographic Treatment of Days in Sepedi, or When Mother ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    šupetšwa ka karolwana e tee ya direrwa tša PyaSsaL, e lego matšatši a beke. .... The latter point can be illustrated with an example taken from the Collins ...... Finally, the loanword Sabatha is used in the Bible and just one other book. ..... Kriel, Theunis J., D.J. Prinsloo and Bethuel P. Sathekge. ... Sinclair, John M. (Ed.).

  9. LEXICOGRAPHICAL ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEVSEEVA G. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the scientific and technical language - describe, explain, describe the natural and social processes and phenomena, technical facilities. Despite the large number of works devoted to the issues of terminology, linguistics still has a reasonable and well-established theory of the term, not fully elucidated interaction terminological vocabulary words from other layers in scientific and technical texts, not fully explored some terminological lexical layers, including construction terminology

  10. Introducing a New Lexicographical Model: AlphaConceptual+ (and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alphabetical order. In an electronic product there is also room for more and different types of multimedia to support the presentation of the lexical infor- mation (for an in-depth .... Of agriculture and preparation of foods and beverages; .... zolari 1988), as seen in the online Macmillan Dictionary & Thesaurus, and illustrated in ...

  11. A new English–Arabic parallel text corpus for lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chosen source texts deal with a variety of topics such as the environment, globalization, psychology, history, politics, drama, etc. Their Arabic translations were taken from The World of Knowledge series published by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL) in Kuwait. Keywords: parallel corpus ...

  12. Remarks on the Lexicographical Treatment of Metaforms | Frawley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the way dictionaries describe meta forms, items that refer to the linguistic system itself (e.g., pronouns and indexicals). The paper first shows the inconsistent grammatical classification of metaforms, which are usually and incorrectly categorized as adverbs, conjunctions, prepOSitions, or interjections.

  13. Lexicographic treatment of kinship terms in an English/Sepedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the lemmatisation and treatment of kinship terms in a proposed English–Sotho, Sotho–English dictionary with an amalgamated lemmalist. The first requirement is to build a list of kinship terminology for the Sotho languages. Secondly, it is necessary in terms of space restriction to determine the most ...

  14. The Application of the Prototype Theory in Lexicographic Practice:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the classical view of words and their meaning relying on psychology and its ... ever, after analysis of this dictionary's practice, Van der Meer (2000: 428) con- ..... metaphorical senses) involves an implied resemblance between the literal and.

  15. Towards linking user interface translation needs to lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lexikos 25 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 25: 2015): 136-150. Towards Linking ... interfaces are faced with new challenges, such as the use of existing words in new contexts or in ... ros Afrikaans–Engels/English–Afrikaans Dictionary (Du Plessis et al. ..... utterance (or text) near or adjacent to a unit which is the focus of attention [...].

  16. A general lexicographic model for a typological variety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lexikos 25 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 25: 2015): 1-30. Phases and Steps .... to help understand a word in a language used by only a few people living on a ... the dictionary, the selection of a dictionary, and the search in the dictionary. More often .... mation science has focused on the main phases in the access process. In infor-.

  17. A general lexicographic model for a typological variety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    model en die (leë) databasis met al die grafiese koppelvlakke wat ontwikkel is teen die middel van .... polysemous senses of a word — the above-mentioned disadvantages (see sec- ...... Nordic Journal of African Studies 16(2): 131-145. Bosch ...

  18. Lexicographical basis for an Electronic Bilingual Accounting Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes some selected aspects of the pre-conceptual work in connection with an Internet-based Danish-English dictionary covering the field of accounting. The emphasis is on text-dependent and text-independent functions related to the intended user group, as this relationship is crucial...... as grammatical information, definitions, equivalents, pronunciation, collocations, phrases, cross-references and Internet links....

  19. The Lexicographic Treatment of Quantitative Pronouns in Zulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In Zulu, there are three kinds of quantitatives: inclusive, exclusive and numeral. For the lemmatization of these, even existing traditional dictionaries felt the need to move away from a pure 'stem' approach towards a 'word' approach. In a new Zulu–English dictionary project, this is not only confirmed, but is taken one step further with particular attention to the microstructure.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, BILINGUAL, CORPUS, LEMMATIZATION,FREQUENCY, ZULU (ISIZULU, ENGLISH, QUANTITATIVE PRONOUN, INCLUSIVE QUANTITATIVEPRONOUN, EXCLUSIVE QUANTITATIVE PRONOUN, (INCLUSIVE NUMERALQUANTITATIVE PRONOUN, USER-FRIENDLY

    Samenvatting: De lexicografische behandeling van kwantitatieve pronominain Zoeloe. In Zoeloe zijn er drie soorten kwantitatieven: inclusieve, exclusieve en numerieke.Voor de lemmatisatie daarvan voelden zelfs bestaande traditionele woordenboeken de noodom stam-lemmatisatie te verlaten voor woord-lemmatisatie. In een nieuw Zoeloe–Engels woordenboekprojectwordt dit niet alleen bevestigd, doch wordt ook een stap verder gegaan, met bijzondereaandacht voor de microstructuur.

    Sleutelwoorden: LEXICOGRAFIE, WOORDENBOEK, TWEETALIG, CORPUS, LEMMATISATIE,FREQUENTIE, ZOELOE, ENGELS, KWANTITATIEF PRONOMEN, INCLUSIEFKWANTITATIEF PRONOMEN, EXCLUSIEF KWANTITATIEF PRONOMEN, (INCLUSIEFNUMERIEK KWANTITATIEF PRONOMEN, GEBRUIKSVRIENDELIJK

  20. The Lexicographic Treatment of Sublexical and Multilexical Lexical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Abstract: Dictionaries have in the past used a word-based approach in which sublexical and multilexical items were not regarded as lemmata. Metalexicography as the theoretical component of lexicography requires that sublexical and multilexical items be lemmatized and treated as inde- pendent lemmata in the ...

  1. [Health care in today's Western Belarus in the inter-war period (1921-1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiszczenko, E M

    2001-01-01

    During the inter-war period, today's Western Belarus, which under the Treaty of Riga constituted part of the Second Polish Republic, stood out for its higher morbidity in various disease categories than other regions of the country. Heightened threats of epidemics prevailed in that area, and typhoid fever, trachoma, tuberculois and venereal disease were serious health problems. Specific features of the health care of today's Western Belarus could be observed that set it apart from both that of Eastern Belarus forming a part of the Soviet Union as well as from the central and western provinces of Poland. Compared with Eastern Belarus, there was a lack of health services, including anti-tuberculosis, anti-venereal and paediatric dispensaries, or they were in the process of being created. But physicians' self-government bodies functioned, as did out-patient care with dispensary-like elements and health care provided by local health centres. There also existed the institution of full-time family doctors within the insured health-care system - something lacking in Eastern Belarus. As in other voivodships (provinces) of the Second Republic, there existed multi-sector health care: state, local, insurance-based and private. The Western Belarus had Poland's smallest number of physicians, new hospital beds and pharmacies. On the other hand, today's Western Belarus stands out by virtue of maintaining field-medicine traditions. To this day, assistant medical officers provide health care to the rural population - an arrangement not typical of the central and western provinces fo pre-war Poland.

  2. Listening to the community: a first step in adapting Diabetes Today to the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L; Kuhaulua, Rie L; Ichiho, Henry M; Aitaoto, Nia T

    2002-09-01

    Diabetes is a growing problem among Pacific Islanders, but few community-based groups in the Pacific are actively working on diabetes prevention and control. The Pacific Diabetes Today Resource Center (PDTRC) was established in 1998 to adapt the Diabetes Today (DT) curriculum for Pacific Island communities in Hawai'i, American Samoa, and Micronesia. To gather data to guide the development of the Pacific Diabetes Today (PDT) curriculum, a year was spent listening to Pacific communities. First, data were gathered from health professionals on how the DT curriculum should be modified. Second, health and community leaders in 11 sites were trained and supported to conduct discussion groups with people affected by diabetes. Third, site coordinators evaluated the discussion group process. A Pacific-wide Advisory Council (AC) was established to guide the project, and the AC used findings from the first year to generate guidelines for staff to follow in adapting the DT curriculum to the Pacific. These guidelines directed staff to: a) realize that Pacific communities need to build awareness about diabetes; b) train and support local community leaders as co-facilitators in the PDT curriculum, using a learn-by-doing approach, with the goal of developing them as independent trainers; c) encourage the involvement of a broad range of community members in PDT training, including the involvement of local physicians to counter medical misconceptions about diabetes; d) give the PDT curriculum a Pacific "look" and "feel;" and e) keep the training logistically flexible to accommodate differences in communities across the region. Other programs and agencies that want to develop training programs in the Pacific may find these listening strategies and guidelines helpful.

  3. Trust Species and Habitat Branch: using the innovative approaches of today to conserve biodiversity for tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Patricia; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the biggest challenges facing wildlife today are changes to their environment from both natural and anthropogenic causes. Natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry and private landowners must make informed decisions and policies regarding management, conservation, and restoration of species, habitats, and ecosystem function in response to these changes. Specific needs include (1) a better understanding of population status and trends; (2) understanding of species’ habitat needs and roles in supporting ecosystem functions; (3) the ability to assess species’ responses to environmental changes and predict future responses; and (4) the development of innovative techniques and tools to better understand, minimize or prevent any unintended consequences of environmental change.

  4. [Health resorts in Styria, Charinthia and Istria once (1897) and today (2007).].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Ales; Fischinger, Janez; Fischinger, Dusa; Skrobonja, Ante

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which health resorts existed in 1897 in Istria, Carinthia and Styria region, how many of them are still in use today and how the spas and their offer were represented in the past and how they are represented today. The study is based on the textbook Balneotherapie II (Bibliothek des Arztes 1900) by prof. dr. Julius Glax. The second source of our study is based on the currently available presentation of the health resorts from the internet. The textbook Balneotherapie was intended for the post graduate education of physicians and general practitioners, so they could advise the patient on further treatment in an appropriate health resort. In the chapter Balneographie the author represented 1200 health resorts all over the world. From the book we have chosen the following regions: Istria, Carinthia and Styria which used to be three parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today they are divided in to three neighboring states: Croatia (Istria), Slovenia (Istria, Carinthia, Styria) and Austria (Carinthia, Styria). Within these regions Glax presented 22 health resorts, 19 of them are still working today. Barbarabad/Barbara bath (Carinthia, Austria) does not exist either as a resort or as a city. Rimske toplice (Römerbad/Roman baths) and Rimski vrelec (Römerquelle/ Roman springs) in Styria region do not function as health resorts any more. Nowadays we make a difference between spa and health resorts. Spa resorts offer numerous forms of recreation for better well being. Health resorts offer health services, as well as neglected, but various forms of alternative treatments and recreation. Each spa and health resort is represented in brochures and on the World Wide Web individually. Tradition is usually not mentioned, it is neglected but the exception is Opatija (Abbazia) which past is usually presented in the brochures. The museum of medical tourism was opened in November 2007 in Opatija where you can admire the development of Opatija

  5. Implementing an inclusive staffing model for today's reference services a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Nims, Julia K; Stevens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Reference service remains a core function of modern libraries. However, how and where we provide assistance has evolved with changing technologies and the shifting habits and preferences of our users. One way libraries can provide the on-demand, in-person assistance while managing and developing new services and resources that will benefit current and future users is to reconsider how their reference points and services are staffed and adopt a staff-based reference model. In Implementing an Inclusive Staffing Model for Today's Reference Services, Nims, Storm, and Stevens describe step-by-step

  6. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  7. [History of leprosy in Reunion Island from the beginning of the 18th century until today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzere, B A; Aubry, P

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the history of leprosy in Reunion from the early eighteenth century, which long paralleled the slave trace. Lepers were confined to a lazaretto and treated with herbs. Father Raimbault, "doctor" and chaplain of the lepers in the middle of the twentieth century, is still honored today. The improvement in living standards and the use of sulfones finally resulted in the control of leprosy. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2011, an average of three new cases per year were detected among a population of 800,000 inhabitants.

  8. The present and future disease burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with today's treatment paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razavi, H; Waked, I; Sarrazin, C

    2014-01-01

    The disease burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is expected to increase as the infected population ages. A modelling approach was used to estimate the total number of viremic infections, diagnosed, treated and new infections in 2013. In addition, the model was used to estimate the change in the total...... number of HCV infections, the disease progression and mortality in 2013-2030. Finally, expert panel consensus was used to capture current treatment practices in each country. Using today's treatment paradigm, the total number of HCV infections is projected to decline or remain flat in all countries...

  9. Innovation is Everybody's Business How to Make Yourself Indispensable in Today's Hypercompetitive World

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Innovation isn't something you do after you get your work done. It's how you do your work. Organizations all over the world are shedding jobs in record numbers. Yet today, they are desperately in need of people with the abilities and skills to think ahead of the curve, delight customers, motivate colleagues, slash costs, and achieve unconventional results. In this practical road map to becoming irreplaceable, global innovation guru and bestselling author Robert B. Tucker reveals why honing your I-Skills (Innovation Skills) may be the smartest career move you'll make. Based on interviews with f

  10. Replacement of a vessel head, an operation which today gets easily into its stride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, P.; Chaumont, J.C.; Lambiotte, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, one year after the detection of a leak in a vessel head of the Electricite de France (EDF) Bugey 4 reactor, the head was replaced by the Framatome-Jeumont Industrie Group. Today, this group, which has developed new methods and new tools to optimize the cost, the time-delay and the dosimetry of this kind of intervention, has performed 11 additional replacements, two of which on 1300 MWe power units. This paper describes step by step the successive operations required for a complete vessel head replacement, including the testing of safety systems before starting up the reactor. (J.S.). 7 photos

  11. A New Generation Draws The Line: Humanitarian Intervention And The “Responsibility To Protect” Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rastovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Chomsky N. A New Generation Draws the Line: Humanitarian Intervention and the “Responsibility to Protect” Today.Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2012. 176 p. The book under review examines controversial norm of “humanitarian intervention”. It clearly demonstrates that the norm was used selectively and with different argumentations in various situations. Noam Chomsky has managed to present a fair and balanced account of positive and negative aspects of humanitarian interventions as well as provide thought-provoking policy recommendations for improving human rights protection.

  12. Science on high-energy lasers: From today to the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.W.; Petrasso, R.; Falcone, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents both a concise definition of the current capabilities of high energy lasers and a description of capabilities of the NIF (National Ignition Facility). Five scientific areas are discussed (Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics, Material Properties, Plasma Physics, Radiation Sources, and Radiative Properties). In these five areas we project a picture of the future based on investigations that are being carried on today. Even with this very conservative approach we find that the development of new higher energy lasers will make many extremely exciting areas accessible to us

  13. New forecasting methodology indicates more disease and earlier mortality ahead for today's younger Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reither, Eric N; Olshansky, S Jay; Yang, Yang

    2011-08-01

    Traditional methods of projecting population health statistics, such as estimating future death rates, can give inaccurate results and lead to inferior or even poor policy decisions. A new "three-dimensional" method of forecasting vital health statistics is more accurate because it takes into account the delayed effects of the health risks being accumulated by today's younger generations. Applying this forecasting technique to the US obesity epidemic suggests that future death rates and health care expenditures could be far worse than currently anticipated. We suggest that public policy makers adopt this more robust forecasting tool and redouble efforts to develop and implement effective obesity-related prevention programs and interventions.

  14. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines� interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  15. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines’ interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  16. Astronomie spatiale infrarouge, aujourd’hui et demain = Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, J; David, F

    2000-01-01

    This book brings together the lectures given at the Les Houches summer school "Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow". It gives a wide overview of infrared astronomy, a wavelength domain crucial for studies of the solar system, stars at the beginning and end of their lives, interstellar matter and galaxies at all distances. Recent developments in observational techniques have been tremendous. The first contributions give an introduction to the basic physical processes and methods of detection and data processing. They are followed by a series of lectures dealing with the wide variety of astronomical objects that can be seen in the infrared.

  17. Strategic Planning and Doctor Of Nursing Practice Education: Developing Today's and Tomorrow's Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nancy L; Garrison, Kenneth F; Brown, Mary-Michael; Pintz, Christine; Bocchino, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning and thinking skills are essential for today's nurse leaders. Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs provide an opportunity for developing effective nurse strategists. A well-designed strategy course can stimulate intellectual growth at all levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Discussion forums in online education provide new opportunities for rich interaction among peers en route to development of well-informed strategic plans. An interprofessional perspective adds a rich and vital aspect to doctoral nursing education and it serves to inform strategic plan development. A roadmap for teaching strategic planning to current and future nursing leaders will guide the integration of essential content into DNP programs.

  18. Sustainable development of the today accommodation; Developpement durable de l'habitat existant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This first colloquium deals with the energy mastership and the greenhouse gases reduction in the today accommodation. The accommodation represent u=indeed the main part of the energy consumption in front of the industry, the transports, the ternary buildings and the agricultural. This document proposes six papers presented during this day: the importance of the accommodation improvement market; the energy performance of buildings and the main requirements of the french directive; the energy performance of buildings and the german regulations in existing buildings; the energy performance standards in existing buildings in UK; the example of the danish certification; the home energy conservation Act (HECA) in United Kingdom. (A.L.B.)

  19. Complete census of the anaerobic digesters today operating in Italy on animal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilche, A; De Poli, F; Bozza, E; Calzolari, C; Ferrante, E; Massari, A

    1983-01-01

    A complete census of all the biogas plants operating or under construction today in Italy has been carried out. This shows that more than 60 full-scale plants treating animal wastes are today in operation. Then there are several pilot and experimental plants built by the numerous Italian firms that design and sell anaerobic digesters and by various research groups of the universities and of state agencies. Some plants, among which some large-size ones, have been self-built by the farmers. The great amount of collected data allowed us to focus the main technological choices regarding materials, mixing and heating systems, technological cycles and to confront them with the performance of the plants and with the principal technical issues and the problems of management that can be found on large scale plants. Then the analysis of daily biogas production allowed us to determine real parameters of specific production for various kinds of animal wastes and animal farms. Other interesting data concern the main technological means used to transform the biogas into energy: in Italy, for the presence of Flat Industries that produce the TOTEM, the prevalent choice is toward cogeneration of electricity and heat. Anyway there are interesting examples of utilization of biogas for drying forages, for steam generation in cheese factories, and compressed, as a fuel for farm tractors and cars. A complete photographic documentation of all the plants enclosed in the census is also available. 3 refs., 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  20. Operating the Advanced Test Reactor in today's economic and regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furstenau, R.V.; Patrick, M.E.; Mecham, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is the US Department of Energy's largest and most versatile test reactor. Base programs at ATR are planned well into the 21st century. The ATR and support facilities along with an overview of current programs will be reviewed, but the main focus of the presentation will be on the impact that today's economic and regulatory concerns have had on the operation of this test reactor. Today's economic and regulatory concerns have demanded more work be completed at lower cost while increasing the margin of safety. By the beginning of the 1990 s, federal budgets for research generally and particularly for nuclear research had decreased dramatically. Many national needs continued to require testing in the ATR; but demanded lower cost, increased efficiency, improved performance, and an increased margin of safety. At the same time budgets were decreasing, there was an increase in regulatory compliance activity. The new standards imposed higher margins of safety. The new era of greater openness and higher safety standards complemented research demands to work safer, smarter and more efficiently. Several changes were made at the ATR to meet the demands of the sponsors and public. Such changes included some workforce reductions, securing additional program sponsors, upgrading some facilities, dismantling other facilities, and implementing new safety programs. (author)

  1. Earthquake history of the Republic of Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, P.; Rovida, A.; Locati, M.

    2009-12-01

    Among the towns constellating the Dalmatian coast, Ragusa (today Dubrovnik, Croatia), stands out, both because of its location in the middle of the Eastern Adriatic coast and its long-lasting, independent history of a Modern Age town and its small coastal territory. An important intelligence crossroads, squeezed as it was in between powerful and influential neighbours, such as the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, in its history (1358-1808) the Republic of Ragusa did experience heavily damaging earthquakes. We narrate the story of these earthquakes, which were recorded in the historical documentation of the Republic (today stored at the State Archives of Dubrovnik - Drzavni arhiv u Dubrovniku) as well as in documents from officers of other Mediterranean countries and letters of individuals. Of special note is the 6 April 1667 earthquake, which inflicted a permanent scar on the Republic. The earthquake's direct effects and their consequences caused a serious financial crisis, so critical that it took over 50 years for Ragusa to recover. This large earthquake is reappraised on the basis of newly investigated sources, and effects of the damage within the city walls are detailed. A seismic history of Ragusa is finally proposed, supported by full-text coeval records.

  2. Today's research development on the application of the superconductivity transport system in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyotani, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    At the Miyazaki test track today, the new test vehicle, MLU002N, is under test run to obtain necessary data for Yamanashi test track where the construction is underway, the test vehicle has been ordered and the first tunnel was completed in December 1993. Superconducting magnetohydrodynamic drive ship, MHDS, 'Yamato 1' has completed its experiment in 1992 and it is now under preparation to exhibit to the public in___1994. Furthermore, to promote the research development of MHDS, the detailed discussion is underway on the magnetohydrodynamic drive equipment as well as the research on the future scheme. Neither an automobile nor railway but a new transport system called EQUOS LIM CAR(ELC) has been proposed. By using the rotating magnetic field, it will levitate on the aluminum like reaction plate. On the normal road, it will run by rolling the wheels like an electric car but on the highway, it will levitate on the guideway resulting to less noise, less vibration and pollution free drive. To understand the concept of the ELC, the model was built and experimented by using permanent magnet. The same model was donated to the MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY in Chicago and was displayed to the public. Today, the trial superconducting magnet has been made and the research development of the subsystem is underway. Research development of superconducting elevator, equipment for the launching of spaceship, tube transportation system and others are in progress for the superconducting applied transportation system.

  3. THE FORMATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL NURSE AND THE LABOR MARKET TODAY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Milton Barros Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The professional nursing practice has been constantly targeted for discussion, especially regarding the conditions of their work . The aim of this study was to understand the formation of this professional and the job market today, considering the changes in the curriculum of nursing, trends in the labor market , the demand and supply of labor this professional. It is a study of the literature review, based on a historical - critical perspective , using the databases SCIELO , VHL , BIREME , plus titles available in the library of the Centro Universitário de Maceió - CESMAC.O study was guiding question : how has initally vocational nurses face the determinations of the job market today ? It was felt that the training of nurses throughout their history, had fundamental influence of the labor market , whereas the changes in curricular courses were predetermined in the market trends that pointed according to each season . In recent decades , there has been a considerable increase in jobs , but disproportionate to the number of institutions of higher education in nursing in the country . Consequently , highlighted the growth of the informal labor relations , resulting in precarious jobs and the stagnation in labor income.

  4. USA Today: 20 años después

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Álvaro Sarmiento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recalca que la historia natural de la prensa escrita es la historia darwinista de la supervivencia de las especies. Trata sobre el diario norteamericano Usa Today que nació hace 20 años y al que no se le auguraba un futuro promisorio, pero hasta la presente está en pie. Se diseñó y programó basándose en estudio de mercado y sondeando los intereses de los consumidores. La prensa escrita fue lenta, tardía, en adoptar los medios de medición que su competencia electrónica venía utilizando para calibrar el producto y presentárselo a su audiencia.

  5. Transformation means and forms of implementation of armed violence in the world today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bader

    2017-01-01

    At present radically changed not only nature, but also the very essence of armed violence. Today is not the purpose of aggression capture national wealth and resources, the enslavement of the people or the occupation of foreign lands, and complete submission of the enemy at will. Along with how the purpose of armed violence did not become physical destruction of the enemy, and it complete submission to his will, in future military conflicts, the use of force may not even apply at all or not be the key. If you can impose its will on the opponent, make him willingly follow your interests, then the war aims can be achieved without the use of weapons.

  6. Housing for the elderly in Denmark, life conditions today and future scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2004-01-01

    in the population profile will increase the need for housing and facilities for the elderly. At the same time the number of working taxprayers will be relatively less. The life conditions of the elderly have changed through time. The elderly in Denmark are not any longer belonging to the weakest social population......Living and housing conditions for the elderly have become one of society's major problems - socially, culturally and economically. Today there are approximately one million people in Denmark at the age over 60 years. Too many of the older citizens live in out-of-date housing. The changes occurring...... group. The first part of this paper focus on an outline of 20th Century major trends with special reference to building for the elderly. The second part describes new developments in elderly housing and the third part introduces to studies of future housing needs for the elderly. Paper presented...

  7. The Culture of Unity and Some of the Great Challenges of Humankind Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepedano Jesús Morán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This text explores some of the great challenges present in the cultural landscape of today, such as globalization and its associated phenomena – (internationalisation and ultra-contemporaneousness; exasperated economism with its outcome in the scrap culture; the “piecemeal third world war”, according to Pope Francis’ effective expression, which is connected with a widespread and still poorly understood post-humanism and transhumanism; nihilism and the eclipse of religion as an institution. It considers the light that might be shed by the culture arising from the Focolare’s charism of unity, in order to address these challenges rigorously and without hasty demonizing. The overall picture is not intended to be negative but, without being naive, to offer an interpretation that is able to discern the work of the Spirit in the dramatic scenario of present times.

  8. The history of the management of sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinitis - from Hippocrates until today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennker, Ina Carolin; Ennker, Jürgen C

    2014-01-01

    Even during the time of Hippocrates, Galen and their colleagues recognized mediastinal affections. However, they were not considered with the surgical treatment. First progress in the treatment options of this severe disease, still denoted as 'terra incognita', over to today's gold standard are pictured. The mediastinitis-registry which was founded by the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (DGTHG) in 2011 and the recent establishment of the study group to adopt a guideline 'diagnosis and therapy of postoperative mediastinitis/sternal osteomyelitis following cardiac surgery' are attempts to a standardization of the treatment. Substantial advancement in the treatment of postoperative mediastinitis could be achieved in the past. The mortality dropped as low as less than 10%. With these implementations more benefit for the patients' outcome can be expected.

  9. Tiptoeing to chromosome tips: facts, promises and perils of today's human telomere biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkus, J; Simícková, M; Maláska, J

    2002-04-29

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of knowledge concerning the structure and function of chromosome terminal structures-telomeres. Today's telomere research has advanced from a pure descriptive approach of DNA and protein components to an elementary understanding of telomere metabolism, and now to promising applications in medicine. These applications include 'passive' ones, among which the use of analysis of telomeres and telomerase (a cellular reverse transcriptase that synthesizes telomeres) for cancer diagnostics is the best known. The 'active' applications involve targeted downregulation or upregulation of telomere synthesis, either to mortalize immortal cancer cells, or to rejuvenate mortal somatic cells and tissues for cellular transplantations, respectively. This article reviews the basic data on structure and function of human telomeres and telomerase, as well as both passive and active applications of human telomere biology.

  10. Muslims, Chrisitans, and Jews Today: Neighbourliness in the Era of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Karić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Humankind is diverse, and religious humankind especially so. Different languages, faiths, customs, views, thoughts and opinions are all to be considered when one wants to talk about neighbourhood and neighbourliness today. Indeed, what do neighbourhood and neighbourliness mean, and what it means to live in neighbourhood with others in the period labelled as globalization? My paper discusses the modern day affirmation of the idea of neighbourhood among Muslims, Christians and Jews. I consider that task most important, since symbols, ideas, and religious representations of Muslims, Christians and Jews have been somehow a part of neighbourhood and neighbourliness for a very long time. How can we preserve a neighbourhood and neighbourliness? How can we extract a neighbourhood of human lives and fates from a neighbourhood of symbols, representations and ideas? This paper will try to give answers to these questions.

  11. SU-B-BRA-00: The Medical Physicist Value Proposition for Tomorrow and Today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherouse, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  12. The Nazi Physicians as Leaders in Eugenics and "Euthanasia": Lessons for Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodin, Michael A; Miller, Erin L; Kelly, Johnathan I

    2018-01-01

    This article, in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg, reflects on the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs and their relevance for today. The Nazi doctors used eugenic ideals to justify sterilizations, child and adult "euthanasia," and, ultimately, genocide. Contemporary euthanasia has experienced a progression from voluntary to nonvoluntary and from passive to active killing. Modern eugenics has included both positive and negative selective activities. The 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg provides an important opportunity to reflect on the implications of the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs for contemporary health law, bioethics, and human rights. In this article, we will examine the role that health practitioners played in the promotion and implementation of State-sponsored eugenics and "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany, followed by an exploration of contemporary parallels and debates in modern bioethics. 1 .

  13. How today's USM diagnostics solve metering problems[Ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, John

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into today's electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers. (author) (tk)

  14. Ignatius of Loyola on medical education. Or: Should today's Jesuits continue to run health sciences schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welie, Jos V M

    2003-01-01

    There are present 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States, which together offer more than 50 health sciences degree programs. But as the Society's membership is shrinking and the financial risks involved in sponsoring health sciences education are rising, the question arises whether the Society should continue to sponsor health sciences degree programs. In fact, at least eight Jesuit health sciences schools have already closed their doors. This paper attempts to contribute to the resolution of this urgent question by reexamining Ignatius own views on health sciences education and, more specifically, his prohibition of the Society's sponsoring medical education. It concludes on the basis of an historical analysis of Ignatius' views that there is insufficient support for today's Jesuits to maintain their engagement in medical and health care education.

  15. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy Framework: Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Karrow

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow (2009. It is founded upon: (a an examination of the conventional argument for integrated curriculum models and its relevance to K-12 environmental education; and (b utilization of a typology of integrated curriculum models to analyze an environmental education policy framework within the jurisdiction of Ontario, Canada. In conclusion, Ontario’s environmental education policy framework tends toward an integrated curriculum model referred to as ‘selective infusion.’  The implications for integrated curricular practice are identified, with recommendations for improving the policy framework from an integrated curricular perspective.     Key Words: environmental education, integrated curriculum, curriculum critique, education policy.

  16. Combination of radiological and nuclear medical imaging in animals: an overview about the today's possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behe, M.; Keil, B.; Kiessling, A.; Heverhagen, J.T.; Alfke, H.; Boehm, I.; Gotthardt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging of small animals has made considerable progress in the last years. Various research fields are interested in imaging small animals due to the lower numbers of animals per experiment. This has advantages with respect to financial, ethical and research aspects. Non-invasive imaging allows examination of one animal several times during the same experiment. This makes it possible to follow a pathological process in the same animal over time. However, the radiological methods used such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography as well as the nuclear medicine methods such as single photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography suffer from disadvantages. Molecular aspects are limited in the radiological methods while anatomical localization is difficult in nuclear medicine. The fusion of these methods leads to additional information. This review shows today's possibilities with their advantages as well as disadvantages. (orig.)

  17. SU-B-BRA-02: The Medical Physics Value Proposition for Tomorrow and Today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G. [Colorado Associates in Medical Physics (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  18. [Child vaccination and its representations in Iran today: from Teheran to Hassanabad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotobi, L D

    1995-01-01

    The reception of child immunization in Iran today can be explained by the conjunction of several factors. Firstly, the Pasteur Institute of Teheran (established in 1921) initiated the vaccine transfer, while the successive public health policies developed and systematized it. Since the Islamic Revolution, the application of the Expanded Program of Immunization has allowed the Islamic Republic of Iran to reach the fourth world-wide rank for immunisation of child populations. The socio-cultural appropriation of the technique can also be explained by its integration into the popular preventive practices (such as magic and religious rituals) as well as a specific treatment of the collective/individual question. This paper describes some results of a qualitative anthropological research conducted in Teheran and the rural district of Hassanâbâd (near Isfahân) between 1991 and 1992.

  19. SU-B-BRA-00: The Medical Physicist Value Proposition for Tomorrow and Today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherouse, G. [Landauer Medical Physics, Glenwood, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  20. What is the Wymysorys Language for Vilamovians Today? Different Functions, Different Language Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoteusz Król

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available What makes the Wilamowice town so unique is the original language, Wymysorys. Vilamovian was brought to Poland by the settlers from the Western Europe and survived through the historical storms in the region till today. However, due to the after-Second World War suppressions of the German-like speaking community – bans of using the language, population displacement and deportations to the labor camps – the intergenerational knowledge transfer was disrupted. Children for whom the Vilamovian was their first language were being force to “unlearn” the language on the behalf of the dominating Polish. This violent political practice resulted in life-lasting trauma and unbreakable fear of speaking Vilamovian. Their native language was being forgotten by the post-war generations, although it was too late for them to naturally canvass Polish instead. Accordingly, a number of people declaring to do not know Wymysorys use particular words from it, while talking in Polish about traditional Vilamovian clothing, customs and values, deeply associated with Vilamowian identity. Contradictory to the earlier predications that Vilamowian language will die completely by the end of the 20th century, in the being of the second decade of the 21st century the dedicated revitalization program was introduced in the region. The initiative engaged scientists from major Polish universities – the University of Warsaw, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań – as well as foreign scholars. Wymysorys was introduced to the curriculum of the local schools and the intergenerational meetings are being held regularly. After some time, the Vilamovians also engaged into the revitalization program, even though there are strong differences in their linguistic bases. Today, the knowledge and use of Vilamowian is vividly growing amongst the young. The language once almost forgotten starts not only to gain back its communicative function, but more and more often takes upon a