WorldWideScience

Sample records for encountered multi-resistant bacteria

  1. [Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in Intensive Care Units of Chilean hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, M Paz; Cifuentes, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; Rojas, Álvaro; Cerda, Jaime; Labarca, Jaime

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria is an indicator that permits better estimation of the magnitude of bacterial resistance in hospitals. To evaluate the incidence of relevant multi-drug resistant bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) of Chile. Participating hospitals submitted information about the number of isolates from infected or colonized patients with 7 epidemiologically relevant multi-resistant bacteria in adult and pediatric ICUs between January 1, 2014 and October 31, 2015 and the number of bed days occupied in these units in the same period was requested. With these data incidence was calculated per 1,000 patient days for each unit. Information from 20 adults and 9 pediatric ICUs was reviewed. In adult ICUs the bacteria with the highest incidence were K. pneumoniae ESBL [4.72 × 1,000 patient day (1.21-13.89)] and oxacillin -resistant S. aureus [3.85 (0.71-12.66)]. In the pediatric units the incidence was lower, highlighting K. pneumoniae ESBL [2.71 (0-7.11)] and carbapenem -resistant P. aeruginosa [1.61 (0.31-9.25)]. Important differences between hospitals in the incidence of these bacteria were observed. Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria in adult ICU was significantly higher than in pediatric ICU for most of the studied bacterias.

  2. Distribution of multi-resistant Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria in the hospital inanimate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, S W; Häfner, H; Zolldann, D; Stanzel, S; Lütticken, R

    2004-03-01

    We prospectively studied the difference in detection rates of multi-resistant Gram-positive and multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the inanimate environment of patients harbouring these organisms. Up to 20 different locations around 190 patients were surveyed. Fifty-four patients were infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and 136 with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The environmental detection rate for MRSA or VRE was 24.7% (174/705 samples) compared with 4.9% (89/1827 samples) for multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (PGram-positive bacteria were isolated more frequently than Gram-negatives from the hands of patients (PGram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Our results suggest that the inanimate environment serves as a secondary source for MRSA and VRE, but less so for Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, strict contact isolation in a single room with complete barrier precautions is recommended for MRSA or VRE; however, for multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, contact isolation with barrier precautions for close contact but without a single room seems sufficient. This benefits not only the patients, but also the hospital by removing some of the strain placed on already over-stretched resources.

  3. Antibacterial activity of the Antarctic bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. SMN 33.6 against multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Asencio

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of Janthinobacterium sp. SMN 33.6 possesses antibacterial activity against a chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase-producing strain of Serratia marcescens, an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and also against carbapenemase-producing strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This becomes a potential and interesting biotechnological tool for the control of bacteria with multi-resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  4. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  5. Uranium interaction with two multi-resistant environmental bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations.

  6. Uranium Interaction with Two Multi-Resistant Environmental Bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. PMID:23251623

  7. Antibacterial activity of soaps against daily encountered bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to check the antibacterial activity of various branded soaps against bacteria that are normally present in the environment. The proposed study includes selection of most common bacterial strains from the environment. Identification of bacterial strains was done by standard microbiological techniques, which ...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA AGAINST ANTI - MICROBIAL AGENTS: REASONS, THREATS AND ONGOING ENCOUNTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of Multi Druug Resistant bacteria is creating a very severe problem in anti-microbial chemotherapy. Many recently developed antibiotics are found incapable to control resistant organisms.The reasons of development of resistance gene in the bacterial plasmid and their quick spread among various related and unrelated bacteria are analysed in this article along with discussion of world wide ongoing research to combat the problem.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA AGAINST ANTI - MICROBIAL AGENTS: REASONS, THREATS AND ONGOING ENCOUNTER

    OpenAIRE

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2011-01-01

    Development of Multi Druug Resistant bacteria is creating a very severe problem in anti-microbial chemotherapy. Many recently developed antibiotics are found incapable to control resistant organisms.The reasons of development of resistance gene in the bacterial plasmid and their quick spread among various related and unrelated bacteria are analysed in this article along with discussion of world wide ongoing research to combat the problem.

  10. Mobile encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores modes of encounters in the everyday practice of bus travel. Particularly, it addresses cross-cultural encounters located in the tension between familiarity and difference, between inclusion and exclusion. The paper is located in contemporary thoughts, approaching public transport...... not only as a moving device but also as a social arena. Furthermore, the bus is simultaneously perceived as a public space, at once composite, contradictory and heterogeneous, and as a meeting place involving ‘Throwntogetherness’. The encounters analysed are bodily, emotional charged and outspoken meetings...

  11. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  12. Cosmopolitan encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Woodward, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing research on everyday cosmopolitanism in diverse societies. We employ a cosmopolitan encounters framework to explore the reflexive openness people perform and the ethical reasoning they draw on to get along with each other. In particular, we look beyond....... The ethical framework we propose is grounded in reflexive acts of sharing going beyond notions of giving and performing hospitality within a host/guest dyad....

  13. Moving Encounters

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    Ann Deslandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores my experience of losing an authoritative speaking position – that is, ‘falling on my face’ in a research encounter with the Brazilian Landless Worker’s Movement (O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra, or MST.  My specific movements through this locale invoke Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of ‘unlearning one’s privilege as a loss’; and Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘stranger fetishism’.  In writing my brief loss, I also; of course, recover my speaking position, meaning that I can always efface the loss by re-writing it as a source of ethnographic authority.  This essay is written in two voices in order to reflect this paradox: one which describes the encounter, and one that critically ruminates upon it.  I note, for example, that the MST as a variegated conglomerate of people takes the form of particular ‘Others’ when they are represented in the scholarship and polemic of ‘first world’ activists in the so called ‘global justice movement’.  ‘Falling on my face in the street’ of these Others locates particular processes of fetishization within the global justice movement and the relationships across power and difference that are contained herein; processes that impact on the idea of a ‘global’ solidarity against systemic ‘global’ oppressions.

  14. Organised Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue by presenting the concept of organised cultural encounters that are encounters organised to manage and/or transform problems perceived to originate in or include cultural differences. Inspired by Pratt’s conceptualisation of the contact zone, a critical...... perspective on the particular historical and spatial context of any encounter and how this context frames and mediates what takes place during an encounter is applied. While the articles of the issue present different varieties of organised cultural encounters, it is argued that they are not only of the same...

  15. Cultural geography. Different encounters, encountering difference

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...

  16. High dietary zinc feeding promotes persistence of multi-resistant E. coli in the swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesinski, Lisa; Guenther, Sebastian; Pieper, Robert; Kalisch, Martin; Bednorz, Carmen; Wieler, Lothar H

    2018-01-01

    High levels of zinc oxide are used frequently as feed additive in pigs to improve gut health and growth performance and are still suggested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. However, we have recently described an increase of multi-resistant E. coli in association to zinc feeding in piglets. This previous study focused on clonal diversity of E. coli, observing the effect on multi-resistant strains by chance. To shed further light into this highly important topic and falsify our previous findings, we performed a zinc pig feeding trial where we specifically focused on in-depth analysis of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. Under controlled experimental conditions, piglets were randomly allocated to a high dietary zinc (zinc group) and a background zinc feeding group (control group). At different ages samples were taken from feces, digesta, and mucosa and absolute E. coli numbers were determined. A total of 2665 E. coli isolates were than phenotypically tested for antimicrobial resistance and results were confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration testing for random samples. In piglets fed with high dietary zinc, we detected a substantial increase of multi-resistant E. coli in all gut habitats tested, ranging from 28.9-30.2% multi-resistant E. coli compared to 5.8-14.0% in the control group. This increase was independent of the total number of E. coli. Interestingly, the total amount of the E. coli population decreased over time. Thus, the increase of the multi-resistant E. coli populations seems to be linked with persistence of the resistant population, caused by the influence of high dietary zinc feeding. In conclusion, these findings corroborate our previous report linking high dietary zinc feeding of piglets with the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli and therefore question the feeding of high dietary zinc oxide as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters.

  17. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  18. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  19. Encounter with comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on an international armada of six spacecraft which encountered the comet Halley and performed in-situ measurements. These encounters led to the discovery of a number of cometary plasma physics phenomena. Another important result was that a value for the average density of the cometary nucleus could be estimated, which is found to be compatible with snow ball models for the nucleus

  20. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...... distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead...

  1. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  2. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    Studies into cultural encounters have predominantly taken point of departure in ‘problematic encounters’, in which researchers and participants see cultural difference as an obstacle on the road to harmonious relationships (e.g. in ‘the clash of civilisations,’ or in migration/integration studies......). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... and cultures. A prominent feature of the organisation is organised cultural encounters between Northern (predominantly Danish) volunteers and Africans, which takes place at ‘training centres’ both in Denmark and in African countries, such as Kenya or Tanzania. In this paper I will outline the theoretical...

  3. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  4. Awkward Encounters and Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koning, Juliette; Ooi, Can-Seng

    2013-01-01

    from these encounters. Un-paralyzing reflexivity means to include the awkward, the emotional, and admit the non-rational aspects of our ethnographic experiences; such inclusive reflexivity is incredibly insightful. Research limitations/implications – Inclusive reflexivity not only allows room...

  5. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  6. A Lakatosian Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations," by Imre Lakatos. It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning process, where…

  7. Multi-resistance strategy for viral diseases and short hairpin RNA verification method in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-nam Oh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Foot and mouth disease (FMD and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS are major diseases that interrupt porcine production. Because they are viral diseases, vaccinations are of only limited effectiveness in preventing outbreaks. To establish an alternative multi-resistant strategy against FMD virus (FMDV and PRRS virus (PRRSV, the present study introduced two genetic modification techniques to porcine cells. Methods First, cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163, the PRRSV viral receptor, was edited with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 technique. The CD163 gene sequences of edited cells and control cells differed. Second, short hairpin RNA (shRNAs were integrated into the cells. The shRNAs, targeting the 3D gene of FMDV and the open reading frame 7 (ORF7 gene of PRRSV, were transferred into fibroblasts. We also developed an in vitro shRNA verification method with a target gene expression vector. Results shRNA activity was confirmed in vitro with vectors that expressed the 3D and ORF7 genes in the cells. Cells containing shRNAs showed lower transcript levels than cells with only the expression vectors. The shRNAs were integrated into CD163-edited cells to combine the two techniques, and the viral genes were suppressed in these cells. Conclusion We established a multi-resistant strategy against viral diseases and an in vitro shRNA verification method.

  8. Festival as embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Neergaard, Maja de

    2017-01-01

    This article is part of a project on Paradoxical Spaces: Encountering the Other in public space which explores how cultural difference is experienced, practiced and negotiated in public space. Specifically, it explores the ‘multicultural’ festival Kulturhavn taking place yearly along the harbour...... of Copenhagen. Multicultural festivals are seen as places for on-going identity negotiations, where individuals and groups define meaningful concepts of identity along with notions of exclusion. In the paper, we adopt a performative approach abandoning the distinction between bodies and space and embracing...... ideas of ‘embodiment’ and ‘rhythm’. We explore participant engagement emphasizing bodily practices as well as sensuous experiences, but also differential processes and orientalist images produced in, and through, encounters. Among the range of activities at the festival, we focus on three: food; dance...

  9. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘o...... approach to meeting the other (culinary culture), ultimately, their respective culinary adventures work to re-affirm a social hierarchy in their favor....

  10. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of antibiotics in pharmaceutical effluent in Tunisia: ecotoxicological impact and multi-resistant bacteria dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Mehri, Ines; Reyns, Tim; Anthonissen, Roel; Verschaeve, Luc; Khalifa, Anis Bel Haj; Loco, Joris Van; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2018-05-01

    The UPLC MS/MS analysis showed the presence of the two antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry discharges during 3 months; norfloxacin and spiramycin which were quantified with the mean concentrations of 226.7 and 84.2 ng mL -1 , respectively. Sixteen resistant isolates were obtained from the pharmaceutical effluent and identified by sequencing. These isolates belong to different genera, namely Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Delftia, Shewanella, and Rheinheimera. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes of these isolates were determined (27 tested antibiotics-discs). All the studied isolates were found resistant to amoxicillin and gentamicin, and 83.33% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Multiple antibiotic resistances were revealed against β-lactams, quinolones, and aminoglycosides families. Our overall results suggest that the obtained bacterial isolates may constitute potential candidates for bioremediation and can be useful for biotechnological applications. Genotoxic effects were assessed by a battery of biotests; the pharmaceutical wastewater was genotoxic according to the bacterial Vitotox test and micronuclei test. Genotoxicity was also evaluated by the comet test; the tail DNA damages reached 38 and 22% for concentrated sample (10×) and non-concentrated sample (1×), respectively. However, the histological sections of kidney and liver's mice treated by pharmaceutical effluent showed normal histology and no visible structural effects or alterations as cytolysis, edema, or ulcerative necrosis were observed. Residual antibiotics can reach water environment through wastewater and provoke dissemination of the antibiotics resistance and induce genotoxic effects.

  11. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  13. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  14. [A tale of two encounters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Marie-Paule

    The moving testimony of a patient shows the impact which a successful encounter can have. Beyond the positive clinical consequences, her rediscovered motivation and pleasure are the essential drivers which have guided her along the pathway of reconstruction. A tale of two encounters which have marked her life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Art of the Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Vautrin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the archives from the second half of Grotowski’s life were made available, this text focuses on the Polish master’s conceptions of theatre where he describes theatre as the art of the encounter. This paper simultaneously places this proposition in the context of questions of a specific time period, and reveals how this encounter is the anathema that will revert viewpoints both about the art of acting and the creation of theatrical relations. These researches on theatre as the art of the encounter continue today through the Open Program, one of the two groups of the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards, and, notably, their creations around American poet Allen Ginsberg, an author whose poetry intends, in a similar way, to encounter the other and the world.

  16. Personal Albums and Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    as discussions of representational ethics in relation to anthropological and colonial photography, this article examines the exhibition The Photo Albums at the Dutch National Maritime Museum. Typically, the photo collections of maritime museums include many photographs that represent cultural encounters...

  17. A managed multidisciplinary programme on multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Danish university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes are resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. In 2008, routine monitoring revealed a clonal hospital outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP). METHODS: At a 510-bed Danish university hospital...... the application of a managed, multi-faceted intervention that does not require ongoing antibiotic stewardship....

  18. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta S; Pereira, Anabela; Araújo, Susana M; Castro, Bruno B; Correia, António C M; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR) dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of fecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of fecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull feces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and feces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull feces (29 and 32%) were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%). Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull feces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes bla TEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A), and tet(B), were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (bla CTX-M-1 and bla SHV-12) and seagull feces (bla CMY-2). Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull feces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived fecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  19. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of faecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of faecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull faeces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and faeces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull faeces (29% and 32% were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%. Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull faeces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A and tet(B, were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 and seagull faeces (blaCMY-2. Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull faeces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived faecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  20. A Lakatosian Encounter with Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations" by Imre Lakatos (Lakatos, 1976). It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning…

  1. Encountering spiritual tourism in Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Børø, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Spiritual tourism as a phenomenon is increasing worldwide. Many have conducted research looking at the intersection between religion and tourism, but few have focused on the host community within these encounters. Many Western tourists arrive in Kathmandu to go on retreats', and to participate in yoga and meditation classes. The majority of these are particularly interested in various forms of Buddhist practice and traditions. In this thesis I have studied how N...

  2. Processing changes across reading encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, B A; Newell, S; Snyder, J; Timmins, K

    1986-10-01

    Five experiments examined changes in the processing of a text across reading encounters. Experiment 1 showed that reading speed increased systematically across encounters, with no loss in the extensiveness of analyses of the printed text, as indicated by the ability to detect nonword errors embedded within that passage. Experiment 2 replicated this improved reading fluency with experience and showed that it occurred even with typescript changes across trials, thus indicating that a primed visual operations explanation cannot account for the effect. The third and fourth experiments then extended the study of the familiarity effect to higher level processing, as indicated by the detection of word errors. Familiarity facilitated the detection of these violations at the syntactic-semantic levels. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that these higher level violations continued to be well detected over a series of reading encounters with the same text. The results indicate that prior experience improves reading speed, with no attenuation of analysis of the printed words or of the passage's message.

  3. Interfaith dialogue as moral encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    The concept of interfaith dialogue has been introduced and developed by scholars of different religions. The aim has been to find solutions from within religion to handle and optimise encounters with religious ‘Others’. Furthermore, interfaith dialogue has increasingly become a tool to solve...... between Muslims and Christians and analyse the different moral orders involved and how – following these orders – the participants are expected to deal with differences. Main focus is on how the participants are expected to deal with a requirement of staying the same (as Christian or Muslim) while...

  4. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  5. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  6. Country-to-country transfer of patients and the risk of multi-resistant bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin A; Aminzadeh, Zohreh; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Paterson, David L

    2011-07-01

    Management of patients with a history of healthcare contact in multiple countries is now a reality for many clinicians. Leisure tourism, the burgeoning industry of medical tourism, military conflict, natural disasters, and changing patterns of human migration may all contribute to this emerging epidemiological trend. Such individuals may be both vectors and victims of healthcare-associated infection with multiresistant bacteria. Current literature describes intercountry transfer of multiresistant Acinetobacter spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae (including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase- and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and hypervirulent Clostridium difficile. Introduction of such organisms to new locations has led to their dissemination within hospitals. Healthcare institutions should have sound infection prevention strategies to mitigate the risk of dissemination of multiresistant organisms from patients who have been admitted to hospitals in other countries. Clinicians may also need to individualize empiric prescribing patterns to reflect the risk of multiresistant organisms in these patients. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olney Vieira-da-Motta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  8. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  9. Initial Encounters : The Lived Experiences of Buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wright; J.J. Dekker

    2012-01-01

    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter.

  10. Alien encounter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    It has been nearly 100 years since the Apollo moon landings, when Jack and Vladimir, two astronauts on a mission to Venus, discover a mysterious void related to indigenous life on the planet. Subsequently more voids are detected on Earth, Mars, Titan, and, quite ominously, inside a planetoid emerging from the Kuiper belt. Jack is sent to investigate the voids in the Solar System and intercept the planetoid - which, as becomes increasingly clear, is inhabited by alien life forms. Jack and his crew will have little time to understand their alien biochemistry, abilities, behavior patterns, resilience, and technology, but also how these life forms relate to the voids. Humankind's first encounter with these exotic life forms couldn't be more fateful, becoming a race against time to save life on Earth and to reveal the true nature of the voids, which seem to be intrinsically related to life and the universe itself. In this novel, the author combines many topics related to state-of-the-art research in the field of...

  11. Innovative generativity of digital service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2018-01-01

    The research question examined in this chapter is how service encounters, based on digital interfaces, differ from face-to-face (f2f) encounters in terms of potential innovative generativity. New computer technologies facilitating big data processing and the development of advanced recommender...... systems and the recent developments of artificial intelligence with respect to cognitive and affective computing will certainly enhance the potential for innovations to be created on the basis of digital service encounters. However, the empathetic understanding of the needs and wants of the service users...... that can be part of the f2f service encounters cannot automatically result from digital service encounters. Digital tools can be developed and used to supplement the impressions that f2f encounters initiate. However, human interpretations and even human f2f encounters will also be needed to maintain...

  12. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria...

  13. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria......, the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  14. Magnetic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  15. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  16. Beyond the Embodied Digital Service Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2018-01-01

    When a digital service encounter develops differently than anticipated, the client becomes a user. This transformation reveals the ambiguous nature of digital service encounter being neither well-functioning tools, nor having the same sensitivity to and tolerance for service failures as in human ...

  17. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi

    1995-01-01

    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  18. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  19. Drug efflux proteins in multidrug resistant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanVeen, HW; Konings, WN

    Bacteria contain an array of transport proteins in their cytoplasmic membrane. Many of these proteins play an important role in conferring resistance to toxic compounds. The multidrug efflux systems encountered in prokaryotic cells are very similar to those observed in eukaryotic cells. Therefore, a

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente em unidade de cuidados intensivos: desafios que procedem? Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente en una unidad de cuidados intensivos: desafíos que proceden? Multi-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa among patients from an intensive care unit: persistent challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica Guilherme Ferrareze

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a ocorrência de infecção hospitalar por Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente em pacientes hospitalizados em uma unidade de cuidados intensivos. MÉTODO: estudo retrospectivo realizado de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004 em um hospital de emergências. RESULTADOS: Totalizou-se 68 portadores de bactérias multiresistentes sendo 10 (14,7% de P. aeruginosa. Destes, 8 pacientes eram do sexo masculino, as médias de idade e de internação foram respectivamente de 57 anos a média de idade, 43,7 a média de dias de internação e 7 pacientes morreram. Isolaram-se 8 cepas no sangue, cinco na urina, duas em cateteres venosos e uma no líquor, das quais sete sensíveis somente a polimixina e três ao imipenem. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil microbiológico deve ser avaliado periodicamente visto que é específico de uma unidade ou instituição, e demanda ações correlatas.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la ocurrencia de infección hospitalaria por Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiresistente en pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. MÉTODO: estudio retrospectivo realizado de octubre del 2003 a setiembre del 2004 en un hospital de emergencias. RESULTADOS: Se tuvo un total de 68 portadores de bacterias multiresistentes de las cuales 10 (14,7% de P. aeruginosa. De éstos, 8 pacientes eran del sexo masculino, los promedios de edad y de internamiento fueron respectivamente de 57 años y 43,7 de días de internamiento y 7 pacientes murieron. Se aislaron 8 cepas en la sangre, cinco en la orina, dos en catéteres venosos y una en el licor, de ellas siete eran sensibles sólo a la polimixina y tres al imipenem. CONCLUSIÓN: El perfil microbiológico debe ser evaluado periódicamente dado que es específico de una unidad o institución, y demanda acciones correlatas.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of multi-resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa infection among patients from an Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: This retrospective study was

  1. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  2. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Zipora

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  3. Close stellar encounters in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Stellar encounters are expected to produce a variety of interesting objects in the cores of globular clusters, either through the formation of binaries by tidal capture, or direct collisions. Here, I describe several attempts to observe the products of stellar encounters. In particular, the use of color maps has demonstrated the existence of a color gradient in the core of M15, which seems to be caused by a population of faint blue objects concentrated towards the cluster center. (author)

  4. Nursing staff knowledge of multi-resistant bacterial infections Conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería referente a la resistencia bacteriana a múltiples drogas Conhecimento dos profissionais de enfermagem referente à resistencia bacteriana a múltiplas drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess professional nurses', associate degree prepared nurses', licensed practical nurses', and nursing assistants' knowledge of the causes of multi-resistant bacterial infections, the risks theses infections pose to health care providers, the chain of transmission of these infections, and patients' susceptibility to colonization of these multi-resistant bacterial infections. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in a major general hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sample consisted of 42 nursing staff from a medical clinical unit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and present the data. RESULTS: Nursing staff had unsatisfactory knowledge of the causes of multi-resistant bacterial infections, the chain of transmission of multi-resistant bacterial infections, and patients' susceptibility to colonization of multi-resistant bacterial infections. However, the majority of participants had some knowledge about the risks that multi-resistant bacterial infections posed to health care providers. CONCLUSION: Lack of knowledge among nursing staff compromise adherence to preventive measures and nursing management of multi-resistant bacterial infections.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento de los enfermeros, técnicos y auxiliares de enfermería de un hospital general de Minas Gerais, en cuanto a las causas da multirresistencia bacteriana, los riesgos para el equipo de salud, el modo de transmisión y susceptibilidad de los pacientes a la colonización por bacterias resistentes a múltiples drogas. MÉTODOS: Realizado en la clínica médica, fueron entrevistados 42 profesionales de enfermería encontrados en la unidad. En este estudio de tipo cuantitativo se realizó un análisis descriptivo de sus datos, utilizándose la estadística descriptiva con base en el cálculo de porcentaje, los cuales fueron presentados en tablas. RESULTADOS: Los profesionales demostraron conocimiento restricto y limitado sobre la tem

  5. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, C.S.; Denman, S.E.; Mackie, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 10 11 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (10 4 -10 6 /g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 10 2 -10 4 /g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (10 7 -10 9 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  6. Termite: Emulation Testbed for Encounter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are equipped with various infrastructureless wireless interfaces, such as WiFi Direct and Bluetooth. Such technologies allow for novel mobile applications that take advantage of casual encounters between co-located users. However, the need to mimic the behavior of real-world encounter networks makes testing and debugging of such applications hard tasks. We present Termite, an emulation testbed for encounter networks. Our system allows developers to run their applications on a virtual encounter network emulated by software. Developers can model arbitrary encounter networks and specify user interactions on the emulated virtual devices. To facilitate testing and debugging, developers can place breakpoints, inspect the runtime state of virtual nodes, and run experiments in a stepwise fashion. Termite defines its own Petri Net variant to model the dynamically changing topology and synthesize user interactions with virtual devices. The system is designed to efficiently multiplex an underlying emulation hosting infrastructure across multiple developers, and to support heterogeneous mobile platforms. Our current system implementation supports virtual Android devices communicating over WiFi Direct networks and runs on top of a local cloud infrastructure. We evaluated our system using emulator network traces, and found that Termite is expressive and performs well.

  7. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Nefat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfactory is provided by the critical incident technique, where causes of dis/satisfaction differ primarily depending on whether they derive from interpersonal contact or from contact with technology. The evidence of service, which includes people, process and the physical evidence, plays a critical role in a customer’s dis/satisfaction. The influence of these elements cannot be observed separately; it must be observed in their interaction during the delivery of service and their strongest effect is achieved during face-to-face service encounters that have the characteristics of a theatre metaphor. Even though a high level of satisfaction may be achieved after the recovery of a service, enterprises should aim to conduct excellent service encounters right from the start.

  8. Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...

  9. Service encounters as bases for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Sundbo, Donna; Henten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    customers with the innovating organization. Based on literature studies and pilot case studies, seven propositions are proposed and tested in a qualitative, hermeneutic way in field experiments in nine service organizations. Important new results are that encounter-based innovation requires mutual empathy...... between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two...

  10. Thinking about the service encounter enhances encounter-related word-of-mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    ) the memorability of the service encounter and (b) the extent to which what had happened had been subject to rehearsal with the purpose of telling others about it. These findings should be seen in relation to the literature’s view that customer satisfaction, not thinking, is a dominant predictor of word-of-mouth......This study examines the impact of thinking about a service encounter, after it has been completed, on telling others about it (i.e., word-of-mouth). The main finding was that encounter-related thinking boosted word-of-mouth. We also found that the think-talk association was mediated by (a....... Our results, however, indicate that satisfaction’s contribution to the variation in talking about the encounter was modest (and customer satisfaction played only a minor role in explaining why an encounter is thought about)....

  11. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  12. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  13. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudova, I.

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both

  14. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  15. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  16. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2014-01-01

    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  17. [Spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in children with nephrotic syndrome complicated by urinary tract infection: an analysis of 97 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shao-Na; Zhang, Bi-Li; Wang, Wen-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) complicated by urinary tract infection (UTI). A retrospective analysis was performed on the spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in 97 children with NS complicated by UTI, who hospitalized from January to December, 2011. The incidence of UTI in children with NS was 36.5%. It was significantly more common in children with recurrent NS than in those with primary NS (44.0% vs 31.9%; Ppathogenic bacteria (50.5%), including Enterococcus faecium (29.4%) and Enterococcus faecalis (21.1%), followed by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (15.6%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.7%). Enterococcus was highly sensitive to nitrofurantoin, vacomycin and linezolid, but was highly resistant to tetracycline and moxifloxacin. More multi-resistant strains were detected in Enterococcus faecium than in Enterococcus faecalis (72% vs 17%; Pbacteria, 25% produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). ESBLs-producing bacteria had 100% sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam but were highly resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin and ceftriaxone. Children with recurrent NS are more susceptible to UTI than those with primary NS. Enterococcus is becoming major pathogenic bacteria for UTI in children with NS and has relatively high drug resistance, and most strains of Enterococcus faecium are multi-resistant.

  18. Users’ encounter with normative discourses on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2016-01-01

    This study asks whether users’ encounter with normative discourses of lifestyle, consumption, and health on social media such as Facebook gives rise to agency. The theoretical framework draws on reception analysis, for its implied, but central interest in agency that lies at the intersection...... of texts and audiences. Based on a critique of the “participatory paradigm,” a paradigm that situates the locus of agency in the structural opposition between senders and users, in the norms of rational deliberation or in the figure of the activist, gaps are identified which can be filled by adopting...... an explicit focus on the socio-cultural practices of ordinary audiences in their encounters with media discourses. The study investigates user agency on seven Facebook groups and pages with the help of a three-pronged perspective based on the notion of the media–audience relationship as (1) power structure...

  19. Challenges in the professional care encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    in the review. Data were extracted and the findings were categorized and themed on the basis of similarity of meaning and aggregated to produce a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. The review process resulted in 55 findings and 14 categories. The categories generated six themes: Psychological reactions...... to keep the patients happy as they try to avoid conflicts. The imagination and thoughts of what might happen in the encounter are based on the nursing students’ personal life experiences. They uses their close relatives as keys to the express empathy in the establishment of the nurse-patient relation...... are challenged by their personal boundaries in the professional care encounter and they experience a great psychological impact Patient contact is an unavoidable and complex component in the nursing education. The students have not yet built up a professional filter and are exposed to a wealth of emotional...

  20. Rethinking social identity theory in international encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    In a globalized business environment, interaction across linguistic boundaries is becoming a normal part of everyday life. In these encounters language differences may affect the formation of social identities among organization members. While studies based on Social Identity Theory perceive...... the link between identity and language to be linear, this article takes a different approach. By drawing on anthropological theories on ethnic identity it is argued that the relation between language and social identity is negotiated in interaction. In the empirical analysis the article focuses...... on the encounter between expatriates and local employees of a Danish subsidiary in England. The findings show that identity making may be actualized by competition for resources and recognition. This can be done by investing certain objects such as the symbolic application of language with certain identifications...

  1. Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Yildirim, Aytolan; Timucin, Arzu

    2007-07-01

    The term 'mobbing' is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses to them. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17% that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'.

  2. Self. Propagating | a strategy of encounter |

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Lorraine Fletcher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This piece mobilises both creative non-fiction and ficto-criticism to expose the necessary terrains of narrativity as a Country of the Lived,  making visible the redactive cartography of the PhD in telling Indigenous selfhood, and mobilising an argument for authentic encounter under the comfortable maps of form.

  3. My encounters with bacteria—learning about communication, cooperation and choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2014-10-01

    My journey into the physics of living systems began with the most fundamental organisms on Earth, bacteria, that three decades ago were perceived as solitary, primitive creatures of limited capabilities. A decade later this notion had faded away and bacteria came to be recognized as the smart beasts they are, engaging in intricate social life through a sophisticated chemical language. Acting jointly, these tiny organisms can sense the environment, process information, solve problems and make decisions so as to thrive in harsh environments. The bacterial power of cooperation manifests in their ability to develop large colonies of astonishing complexity. The number of bacteria in a colony can amount to many billions, yet they exchange ‘chemical tweets’ that reach each and every one of them so they all know what they’re all doing, each cell being both actor and spectator in the bacterial Game of Life. I share my encounters with bacteria, what I learned about the secrets of their social life and wisdom of the crowd, and why and how, starting as a theoretical physicist, I found myself studying social intelligence of bacteria. The story ends with a bacteria guide to cyber-war on cancer.

  4. Avoiding humiliations in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Hollnagel, Hanne

    2007-06-01

    To explore potentials for avoiding humiliations in clinical encounters, especially those that are unintended and unrecognized by the doctor. Furthermore, to examine theoretical foundations of degrading behaviour and identify some concepts that can be used to understand such behaviour in the cultural context of medicine. Finally, these concepts are used to build a model for the clinician in order to prevent humiliation of the patient. Empirical studies document experiences of humiliation among patients when they see their doctor. Philosophical and sociological analysis can be used to explain the dynamics of unintended degrading behaviour between human beings. Skjervheim, Vetlesen, and Bauman have identified the role of objectivism, distantiation, and indifference in the dynamics of evil acts, pointing to the rules of the cultural system, rather than accusing the individual of bad behaviour. Examining the professional role of the doctor, parallel traits embedded in the medical culture are demonstrated. According to Vetlesen, emotional awareness is necessary for moral perception, which again is necessary for moral performance. A better balance between emotions and rationality is needed to avoid humiliations in the clinical encounter. The Awareness Model is presented as a strategy for clinical practice and education, emphasizing the role of the doctor's own emotions. Potentials and pitfalls are discussed.

  5. Beyond the interface: Encountering artifacts in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Bannon, Liam

    1991-01-01

    did studies in Scandinavia, one primarily in North America. As both of us are concerned with making more useful and usable computer applications we decided to look further for frameworks to help us. In this paper we shall try to expose some of the problems that we encountered in our joint effort...... in their interactions with technology. He became uncomfortable with the gap between current cognitive theories and their utility in designing better interfaces to computer systems. The other person has a background in software engineering and computer systems design. In her search for a deeper understanding of  issues...... in HCi, she came across the cognitive science framework, but she felt that its methods did not provide much help for concrete design in real life situations. In many ways our personal histories reflect some of the developments within the HCI area - the search for more theoretical frameworks...

  6. Being Disoriented: Uncertain Encounters with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Parrey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Disorienting encounter with disability are those in which the meaning of disability is an open question, and in which our relation to it is questionable. This essay explores the relationship between disability and disorientation on conceptual but also concrete levels. First, I examine the connection between disability and disorientation within disability studies. Second, I provide a preliminary sketch of disorientation through what I call ontic disruption and ontological disorientation. Third, I take up Leder's (1990 articulation of bodily disappearance and embodied dysappearance to address ableist violence. Finally, I develop the notion of dysorientation — a prolonged, persistent or recurrent sense of disorientation — as a useful concept for understanding experiences of ableism but also as a significant meeting point between impairment and disability.

  7. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  8. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Angular distribution of binary encounter electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.; Richard, P.; Grabbe, S.

    1993-01-01

    The double differential cross section, DDCS, of the binary encounter electrons (BEe) in 1 MeV/u F q+ + H 2 (q = 4, 6, 8, 9) is measured from 0 to 70 degrees with respect to the beam direction. At 0 degrees the data confirm the decrease of the cross section with increasing projectile charge state. At larger observation angles, the data are in fair agreement with the prediction proposed by Shingal et al. where the ratio of the DDCS for 6+ ions to bare ions is less than 1 for θ lab > 30 degrees and greater than 1 for θ lab q+ . We also observed that the energies of the BEe peak are charge state, q, independent at 0 degrees observation angle, but q dependent at larger observation angles

  10. Ethics in the bank internet encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    /implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss...... the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected...

  11. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  12. Encountering women veterans with military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Patricia L; Young, Cathy; Hogan, LaMicha; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2014-10-01

    As women veterans (WVs) are returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom with military sexual trauma (MST), the purpose of this article is twofold. First, important exploratory questions that can assist with a thorough assessment and history are presented as well as the applicable treatment for any new, recurrent, or unresolved symptoms that involve MST. Review of multiple literary materials, as well as a clinical situation. WVs will be encountered in a variety of military or civilian primary and community care healthcare settings. Every woman (and man) in the civilian sector should be asked, "Have you ever served in the military?" Recognition, acknowledgment, and applicable interventions for MST and associated comorbidities, especially post-traumatic stress disorder, are presented as currently 80-90% of MST experiences have gone unreported. Immediate treatment and follow-up are critical for the well-being of the WVs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a new long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating permethrin and piperonyl-butoxide against multi-resistant malaria vectors [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Pennetier

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO, into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control.

  14. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal…

  15. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  16. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  17. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  18. Co-creation of Innovations in ICT based service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Henten, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in services often emanate from service encounters (i.e. the touch points between the service producers and the customers). Two different types of service encounters are dealt with: face-to-face and ICT-based service encounters. The aim of the chapter is to examine the specific...

  19. Innovation from the ICT-based service encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The pupose of the paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from the ICT-based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT...

  20. A Comparison of Heat versus Methanol Fixation for Gram Staining Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerath, Jeanne M.; Roland, Jenna M.; Rossi, Lucas C.; Weishalla, Steven R.; Wolf, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Gram staining bacteria is a fundamental technique introduced in general biology and microbiology laboratory courses. Two common problems students encounter when Gram staining bacteria are (1) having a difficult time locating bacterial cells on the microscope slide and (2) over-decolorizing bacterial cells during the staining procedure such that…

  1. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance in milk of Ettawa Grade goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andriani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ettawa Grade (PE are potentially developed goats to produce milk and meat. Milk is food of animal that is rich in nutrients, but it is a perishable food easily contaminated by microorganisms. Contaminated pathogenic bacteria in milk can decrease the quality and has an organoleptic effect on milk, as well as endangers human health. Milk contaminated with bacteria antimicrobial resistance (AMR in which is resistant to antibiotics, may adversely affect the response to treatment with antibiotics in humans when suffering from infectious diseases and using antibiotics in therapy. In this study Ettawa Grade's samples of fresh milk and other dairy products were taken from some of the goat farms in Yogyakarta Sleman district. The samples were tested for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and for its resistance to several kinds of antibiotics. In this study 35 Ettawa Grade's samples of fresh milk and other dairy products (fresh milk, milk powder, ice cream, and yoghurt were taken from some of the goat farms in Sleman district-Yogyakarta. The samples were tested for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and for its resistance to several kinds of antibiotics. The result of the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in goat fresh milk and other dairy products was 15% Escherichia coli and had multi resistance to multiple antibiotics, namely ampicillin, colistin sulphate, cefixime, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and sulfonamide.

  2. Assortment of encounters and evolution of cooperativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, I; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1982-02-01

    The method of evolutionary stable strategies (ESS), in its current form, is confronted with a difficulty when it tries to explain how some social behaviors initiate their evolution. We show that this difficulty may be removed by changing the assumption made tacitly in game theory (and in ESS) of randomness of meetings or encounters. In reality, such randomness seems to be rare in nature. Family, population and social structure, customs, and habits impose various types of deviation from randomness. Introducing nonrandomness of meeting in a way formally similar to assortative mating, we show that the bar to initial increase of inherited cooperative or altruistic behaviors can be removed, provided there is sufficient assortment of meetings. Family structure may cause contacts predominantly between certain types of relatives, and one can reconstruct some results of classical kin selection in terms of evolutionary stable strategy with assortative meetings. Neighbor effects and group selection might be similarly treated. Assortment need not be a passive consequence of population and social structure, but it can also be actively pursued. Behaviors favoring the choice of cooperative companions will have the effect of favoring the evolution of cooperativeness. It can be shown that discrimination in the choice of companions, especially if combined with assortment, can favor the development of cooperativeness, making initial increase of cooperative behavior possible even at levels of assortment passively imposed which would not be adequate, per se, to guarantee the increase of cooperativeness. It is possible that, in some cases, cooperativeness and behavior favoring some type of assortment are coselected.

  3. Aging and Osteoarthritis: An Inevitable Encounter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hügle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking.

  4. Thermal fluctuation problems encountered in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelineau, O.; Sperandio, M.; Martin, P.; Ricard, J.B.; Martin, L.; Bougault, A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most significant problems of LMFBRs deals with thermal fluctuations. The main reason is that LMFBRs operate with sodium coolant at very different temperatures which leads to the existence of several areas of transition between hot and cold sodium. These transitions areas which are the critical points, maybe found in the reactor block as well as in the secondary and auxiliary loops. The characteristics of these thermal fluctuations are not easy to quantify because of their complex (random) behaviour, and often demand the use of thermalhydraulic mock-up tests. A good knowledge of these phenomena is essential because of the potential high level of damage they can induce on structures. Two typical thermal fluctuation problems encountered on operation reactors are described. They were not originally anticipated at the design stage of the former Phenix and the latter Superphenix reactors. Description and the analyses performed to describe the damaging process are explained. A well known thermal fluctuation problem is presented. It is pointed out how the feedback from the damages observed on operating reactors is used to prevent the components from any high cycle fatigue

  5. Participants in urban Mexican male homosexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, J M

    1971-12-01

    Preliminary data are presented on 53 urban Mexican males interviewed during 1970-1971 in a study of homosexual encounters in a large Mexican city. These data are compared with data from recent studies in the United States and England of male homosexual behavior. Although preliminary and limited, the Mexican data indicate that cultural factors are important determinants of life styles and sex practices of homosexual males. Forty-eight of the 53 (90%) preferred and usually practiced anal intercourse, four preferred oral contacts, and one preferred mutual masturbation. Interviewees were also grouped according to major type of sex activity during the first sustained year of homosexual activity after puberty. One intragroup comparison indicates significant differences between anal active and anal passive interviewees. For example, as children anal passive subjects had significantly more homosexual contacts with adults; they also considered themselves more effeminate and as children were more involved with female sex-typed activities. Comparison of data from the English and United States studies with the present data suggests that preference for a particular sexual technique is not as developed in the former two countries; when there is a preference, it is not usually for anal intercourse.

  6. LHC experiences close encounters with UFOs

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    On 29 May, yet another record was set as 1092 bunches per beam were injected into the LHC, hitting a peak luminosity of 1.26x1033 cm-2 s-1. While running at 3.5 TeV each beam now packs a total energy of over 70 MJ – equivalent to a TGV travelling at a 70 kph.   Operators in the LHC Control Centre happily show off their display screens after succesfully injecting 1092 bunches injected into the machine for the first time.  As the total beam intensity has been pushed up, the LHC has encountered a number of related problems, such as the so-called UFOs (Unidentified Falling Objects). These are thought to be dust particles falling through the beam, causing localized beam loss. The losses can push nearby beam loss monitors over the threshold and dump the beam. This is more of an annoyance than a danger for the LHC, but UFOs do reduce the operational efficiency of the machine. Despite this, the luminosity delivered to the experiments has steadily increased. On three occasions there ha...

  7. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Pendergrast

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  8. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. PMID:28300761

  9. Close encounters of the prototype kind

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. Close encounters of the prototype kind CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. The prototype of the control consoles that will be at the heart of the future CERN Control Centre (CCC) has just been installed in the Roy Billinge Room in Building 354. Until now, there have been four separate control rooms for the CERN accelerators and technical infrastructure. The CCC, which will be located on the Prévessin site, will bring them all together in a single room. The Centre will consist of 40 consoles for four different areas (LHC, SPS, PS complex and technical infrastructure). The prototype was tested by the technicians for a month. Following installation and con...

  10. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  11. Visuality – Textuality: An Uncanny Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Bronfen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E: Given that visuality is as much a part of all narration as the fact that we view images by reading them as though they were texts, this essay proposes to speak about an uncanny encounter between the two. In order to illustrate this mutual implication, as well as to bring in the theme of the spectral (that Freud suggests all experiences of the uncanny entail, it offers a cross-mapping between three different media at three different historical moments: a novella by the late Victorian author Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a series of photographs by the late modern photographer Francesca Woodman, and a film by the postmodern film maker Amenábar.

    Abstract (F:

     

    Cet article part de deux observations : à savoir que la visualité fait partie du champ plus large du récit, et que nous regardons les images en les lisant comme si elles étaient des textes. À partir de là, on examine la rencontre du textuel et du visuel comme une forme de l’inquiétante étrangeté. Afin d’illustrer leur implication réciproque et d’introduire la notion de spectre (dont Freud pose qu’il est sous-entendu par toutes les expériences de l’inquiétante étrangeté, l’article procède à l’analyse comparative de trois médias à trois moments historiques différents : un récit par une auteure des dernières années de l’ère victorienne, Charlotte Perkins Gilman ; une suite de photographes par la photographe du modernisme tardif Francesca Woodman ; et un film par le r

  12. Encountering whales: How encounter rates became the basis for managing whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Declining rates of encountering whales, including both sighting and catching, were noted by whalers throughout the 19th century, and these declines became the first indication that whaling was adversely affecting whale abundance. The interpretation of declines in both sighting and catch rates proved to be a difficult scientific task. Satisfactory quantitative methods of interpreting changes in whale encounter rates were not developed until the second half of the 20th century. Rates of encountering whales played a key role in the International Whaling Commission (IWC Scientific Committee from its beginning in the early 1950s, as well as in the US in implementing its Marine Mammal Protection Act beginning in the early 1970s. The development of methods of collecting and interpreting sighting and catch data was intimately interwoven with the development of themanagement of whaling and cetacean by-catches in fisheries throughout the world, but especially within the context of the Scientific Committees of the IWC and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO. Although overfishing of whales was initially identified through the use of sighting rate data, catch rate data provided the IWC’s Committee its first firm footing for management advice. However, it was sighting rate data that ultimately became the basis for the scientific advice on whaling and for management advice in other settings. This led to the development of large scale cetacean sighting programmes, such as the IWC’s International Decade of Cetacean Researchsurveys in Antarctic aboard Japanese ships, the North Atlantic Sighting Surveys (NASS aboard Norwegian, Icelandic, Spanish, Greenlandic and Faroese vessels and aircraft (coordinated by NAMMCO through its Scientific Committee from 1995, and surveys under the US’s Marine Mammal Protection Act and the European Union’s Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS programme. Fishery independent cetacean sighting surveys

  13. Due Regard Encounter Model Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    Note that no existing model covers encoun- ters between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters...encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12NM. 2 TABLE 1 Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder...Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional Unconventional CONUS IFR C C U X VFR C U U X Offshore IFR C C U X VFR C U

  14. FiveS rRNA sequences and fatty acid profiles of colourless sulfur-oxidising bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Ortiz-conde, B.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; Colwell, R.R.

    Colourless sulfur-oxidising bacteria have been encountered extensively in the oxygen minimum layers of the Arabian Sea. These oligotrophs have been known to mediate nitrogen cycle reductively even under autotrophic conditions. Some...

  15. Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking institutions: Prospects and possibilities for Islamic economic empowerment and Black Economic Empowerment in a Democratic South Africa.

  16. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  17. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Exogenous transglutaminase improves multiple-stress tolerance in Lactococcus lactis and other lactic acid bacteria with glutamine and lysine in the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Kan, Zhipeng; You, Yuanli; Gao, Xueling; Wang, Zhigeng; Fu, Ruiyan

    2015-12-01

    To increase the resistance of ingested bacteria to multiple environmental stresses, the role of transglutaminase in Lactococcus lactis and possible mechanisms of action were explored. L. lactis grown with transglutaminase exhibited significantly higher resistance to bile salts, stimulated gastric juice, antibiotics, NaCl, and cold stress compared to the control (cultured without transglutaminase), with no negative influence on cell growth. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cell walls of L. lactis cultured with 9 U transglutaminase/ml were approx. 1.9-times thicker than the control. Further analysis demonstrated that the multi-resistant phenotype was strain-specific; that is, it occurred in bacteria with the presence of glutamine and lysine in the peptidoglycan. Supplementation of culture media with transglutaminase is an effective, simple, and inexpensive strategy to protect specific ingested bacteria against multiple environmental challenges.

  19. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Speijer, Dave; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria

  20. Customer-sales employee encounters: a dyadic perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, van W.; Lemmink, J.G.A.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.

    2003-01-01

    Although researchers have suggested that the performance of the salesperson during sales encounters is critical, many of the underlying mechanisms that govern the interaction between salespersons and customers are still unclear. In this research, we investigate sales encounters from a new approach

  1. Attributions of Intentions and Fairness Judgments regarding Interracial Peer Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Kelly, Megan Clark; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah Simon

    2010-01-01

    To investigate how adolescents interpret ambiguous actions in hypothetical interracial peer encounters, we conducted a study in which 8th- and 11th-grade students (N = 837) evaluated 4 interracial peer encounters in which the intentions of the protagonist were ambiguous. The sample was evenly divided by gender and included both African American…

  2. High-velocity runaway stars from three-body encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2010-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between hard, massive binaries and a very massive star (VMS; formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster) to explore the hypothesis that this dynamical process could be responsible for the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) early or late B-type stars. We estimated the typical velocities produced in encounters between very tight massive binaries and VMSs (of mass of ≥ 200 M⊙) and found that about 3 - 4% of all encounters produce velocities ≥ 400 km s-1, while in about 2% of encounters the escapers attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity. We therefore argue that the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) runaway stars and at least some so-called hypervelocity stars could be associated with dynamical encounters between the tightest massive binaries and VMSs formed in the cores of star clusters. We also simulated dynamical encounters between tight massive binaries and single ordinary 50 - 100 M⊙ stars. We found that from 1 to ≃ 4% of these encounters can produce runaway stars with velocities of ≥ 300 - 400 km s-1 (typical of the bound population of high-velocity halo B-type stars) and occasionally (in less than 1% of encounters) produce hypervelocity (≥ 700 km s-1) late B-type escapers.

  3. [Markers of antimicrobial drug resistance in the most common bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsić, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria of normal intestinal flora are frequent carriers of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance genes may be exchanged with other bacteria of normal flora as well as with pathogenic bacteria. The increase in the number of markers of resistance is one of the major global health problems, which induces the emergence of multi-resistant strains. The aim of this study is to confirm the presence of markers of resistance in bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora in our region. The experiment included a hundred fecal specimens obtained from a hundred healthy donors. A hundred bacterial strains were isolated (the most numerous representatives of the normal facultative-anaerobic intestinal flora) by standard bacteriological methods. The bacteria were cultivated on Endo agar and SS agar for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Having been incubated, the selected characteristic colonies were submitted to the biochemical analysis. The susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was tested by standard disc diffusion method, and the results were interpreted according to the Standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2010. The marker of resistance were found in 42% of the isolated bacteria. The resistance was the most common to ampicillin (42% of isolates), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (14% of isolates), cephalexin (14%) and cotrimoxazole (8%). The finding of 12 multiresistant strains (12% of isolates) and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significant. The frequency of resistance markers was statistically higher in Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to Escherichia coli of normal flora. The finding of a large number of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance among bacteria of normal intestinal flora shows that it is necessary to begin with systematic monitoring of their antimicrobial resistance because it is an indicator of resistance in the population.

  4. Value creation and knowledge development in tourism experience encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that service encounters between front-line employees and users support the development of knowledge about users' needs. However, the potential for this often remains unused, not least in tourism. This article argues that if tourism service encounters are changed into ‘experience...... encounters’ by integrating them into the tourism experience to which they are related, this will create added experiential value for tourists and increase the creation of knowledge about users. This is illustrated in an innovation field experiment in a retro design boutique hotel in which service encounters...... were developed into experience encounters. The experiment illustrates the potential that experience encounters have to create knowledge and value, but also suggests some barriers that need to be overcome....

  5. Service Encounter Related Process Quality, Patient Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Mekoth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies some of the critical service encounters thatthe outpatients undergo in a health care facility and investigateswhether the service encounter related process quality as perceivedby the patients leads to patient satisfaction, repeat visit, and recommendationintentions. Personal visits, observations, and enquiriesat the outpatient center have been conducted to identifythe various service encounters that outpatients undergo in thehospital. Exit interviews of the outpatients have been conductedto identify service encounter related process quality variableswhich determine patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions.A preliminary scale to measure service encounter related processquality was developed and its factor structure and internal consistencyreliability were established. The study reveals that boththe physician quality and laboratory quality have been found tobe significantly related to patient satisfaction. However, quite interestingly,courtesy shown by the registration or outpatient staff,perceived length of waiting time, or even the salient aspects of theservicescape, did not influence patient satisfaction.

  6. The space of togetherness--a caring encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Gunilla; Kasén, Anne; Nyström, Lisbet

    2014-03-01

    Encounters in relation to the nurse-patient relationship are often discussed within nursing and caring literature without a reflection on the actual meaning of the concept. Assuming that an encounter is essential for nursing care, this article seeks to create a deeper understanding of the concept through a hermeneutic approach to texts by the philosophers Buber and Marcel. Presence, recognition, availability and mutuality seem to be essential prerequisites for an encounter. As these prerequisites are fulfilled within and between human beings who encounter each other, it is possible to speak of a space of togetherness, a mutual existence, where life's mystery shines forth and caring is realized. The challenge lies in creating these encounters within nursing care. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Antibiotics from predatory bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Korp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism.

  8. Common Factors Among Family Medicine Residents Who Encounter Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley

    2018-04-01

    Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.

  9. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  10. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  11. Extracellular communication in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Philipp, B.; Eberl, L.

    2005-01-01

    molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical...

  12. Do Bacteria Age?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bacteria are thought to be examples of organisms that do not age. They divide by .... carry genetic material to the next generation through the process of reproduction; they are also .... molecules, and modified proteins. This report revealed that ...

  13. Social Behaviour in Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    the recipient. • Social behaviours can be categorized according to the fitness ... is actually the flagella of symbiotic spirochete bacteria that helps it to swim around .... Normal population. Responsive switching. (Environmental stress). Stochastic.

  14. [Darwin and bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2009-02-01

    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  15. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Serrato, Rodrigo V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are...

  16. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Rodrigo V

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure.

  17. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  18. Low velocity encounters of minor bodies with the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies of close encounters of minor bodies with Jupiter have shown that the perturbations are stronger either if the encounter is very deep or if the velocity of the minor body relative to the planet is low. In the present research the author investigates the effects of low velocity encounters between fictitious minor bodies and the four outer planets. Two possible outcomes of this type of encounter are the temporary satellite capture of the minor body by the planet, and the exchange of perihelion with aphelion of the minor body orbit. Different occurrence rates of these processes are found for different planets, and the implications for the orbital evolution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Preliminary Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochenderfer, M. J; Kuchar, J. K; Espindle, L. P; Gertz, J. L

    2008-01-01

    ...) and which may not be in contact with air traffic control. In response to the need to develop a model of these types of encounters, Lincoln Laboratory undertook an extensive radar data collection and modeling effort...

  20. Availability and Usability of BHO Encounter Data in MAX 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Availability and Usability of Behavioral Health Organization Encounter Data in MAX 2009, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...

  1. The Power of Citizens and Professionals in Welfare Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    relationships with welfare workers. However, other factors impact these interactions; factors which often pull in different directions. Welfare encounters are thus influenced by bureaucratic principles and market values as well. Consequently, this book engages with both Weberian (bureaucracy) and Foucauldian...... (market values/NPM) studies when investigating the powerful welfare encounter. The book is targeted Academics, post-graduates, and undergraduates within sociology, anthropology and political science....

  2. Spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley encounter: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the present volume is presented in which the separate disciplines are drawn together to give an overview of the spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley interaction. Specific recommendations are made as to how the work of the Plasma Environment Working Group might continue to contribute to the GIOTTO program during encounter and post-encounter data analysis. 28 references, 3 tables

  3. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro

    2006-02-01

    This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.

  4. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  5. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveau, Aurelie [French National Insitute for Agricultural Research (INRA); Labbe, Jessy [ORNL

    2016-10-01

    This chapter focuses on the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB), a generic name given to bacteria which stimulate the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis. By extension, some bacterial strains that positively impact the functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis are also called MHB. These bacteria have applicative interests, as they indirectly improve the health and growth of tree seedlings. MHB are not restricted to a specific type of ecosystem, but are rather generalist in the way that they associate with both herbaceous and woody mycorrhizal plants from boreal, temperate, arid and tropical ecosystems. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms and their specificities will help us to know more about the ecology of the MHB. The process of acquisition varies between fungal species; while ectomycorrhizal fungi most probably recurrently acquire them from the environment, the association between bacterial endosymbionts and Glomeromycota probably dates back to very ancient times, and has since been vertically transmitted.

  6. Protoplanetary disc response to distant tidal encounters in stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Rosotti, G.; Booth, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of stars form in a clustered environment. This has an impact on the evolution of surrounding protoplanetary discs (PPDs) due to either photoevaporation or tidal truncation. Consequently, the development of planets depends on formation environment. Here, we present the first thorough investigation of tidally induced angular momentum loss in PPDs in the distant regime, partly motivated by claims in the literature for the importance of distant encounters in disc evolution. We employ both theoretical predictions and dynamical/hydrodynamical simulations in 2D and 3D. Our theoretical analysis is based on that of Ostriker (1994) and leads us to conclude that in the limit that the closest approach distance xmin ≫ r, the radius of a particle ring, the fractional change in angular momentum scales as (xmin/r)-5. This asymptotic limit ensures that the cumulative effect of distant encounters is minor in terms of its influence on disc evolution. The angular momentum transfer is dominated by the m = 2 Lindblad resonance for closer encounters and by the m = 1, ω = 0 Lindblad resonance at large xmin/r. We contextualize these results by comparing expected angular momentum loss for the outer edge of a PPD due to distant and close encounters. Contrary to the suggestions of previous works, we do not find that distant encounters contribute significantly to angular momentum loss in PPDs. We define an upper limit for closest approach distance where interactions are significant as a function of arbitrary host to perturber mass ratio M2/M1.

  7. Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  8. Unusual multifocal granulomatous disease caused by actinomycetous bacteria in a nestling Derbyan parrot (Psittacula derbiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, F J; Jaensch, S

    2009-01-01

    A nestling Derbyan parrot (Psittacula derbiana) was presented with unusual subcutaneous swellings of the thigh regions, and poor growth. Histological examination revealed actinomycetous bacteria associated with multifocal systemic granulomas. The clinical and pathological findings of the case are presented, and some relevant aspects of actinomycetous bacterial infections in mammals and birds are discussed. Although granulomatous disease is encountered at times in avian species, the actinomycetous bacteria (Nocardia and Actinomyces spp.) have rarely been reported in association with multifocal granulomatous disease in birds.

  9. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pophaly Sarang; Singh Rameshwar; Pophaly Saurabh; Kaushik Jai K; Tomar Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stres...

  10. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  11. PATHOGENICITY OF BIOFILM BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a paucity of information concerning any link between the microorganisms commonly found in biofilms of drinking water systems and their impacts on human health. For bacteria, culture-based techniques detect only a limited number of the total microorganisms associated wit...

  12. Bacteria-surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-05-14

    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field.

  13. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria. M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 25-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/12/0025-0030 ...

  14. Connection between encounter volume and diffusivity in geophysical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypina, Irina I.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Pratt, Larry J.

    2018-04-01

    Trajectory encounter volume - the volume of fluid that passes close to a reference fluid parcel over some time interval - has been recently introduced as a measure of mixing potential of a flow. Diffusivity is the most commonly used characteristic of turbulent diffusion. We derive the analytical relationship between the encounter volume and diffusivity under the assumption of an isotropic random walk, i.e., diffusive motion, in one and two dimensions. We apply the derived formulas to produce maps of encounter volume and the corresponding diffusivity in the Gulf Stream region of the North Atlantic based on satellite altimetry, and discuss the mixing properties of Gulf Stream rings. Advantages offered by the derived formula for estimating diffusivity from oceanographic data are discussed, as well as applications to other disciplines.

  15. Binary encounter electron production in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabbe, S.; Bhalla, C.P.; Shingal, R.

    1993-01-01

    The binary encounter electrons are produced by hard collisions between the target electrons and the energetic projectiles. Richard et al. found the measured double differential cross section for BEe production at zero degree laboratory scattering angle, in collisions of F q+ with H 2 and He targets, to increase as the charge state of the projectile was decreased. The binary encounter electron production has recently been a subject of detailed investigations. We have calculated the differential elastic scattering cross sections of electrons from several ions incorporating the exchange contribution of the continuum and the bound orbitals in addition to the static potential. The double differential binary encounter electron production cross sections are presented using the impulse approximation

  16. N-Body simulations of tidal encounters between stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.D.; Ramamani, N.; Alladin, S.M.

    1985-10-01

    N-Body simulations have been performed to study the tidal effects of a primary stellar system on a secondary stellar system of density close to the Roche density. Two hyperbolic, one parabolic and one elliptic encounters have been simulated. The changes in energy, angular momentum, mass distribution, and shape of the secondary system have been determined in each case. The inner region containing about 40% of the mass was found to be practically unchanged and the mass exterior to the tidal radius was found to escape. The intermediate region showed tidal distension. The thickness of this region decreased as we went from hyperbolic encounters to the elliptic encounter keeping the distance of closest approach constant. The numerical results for the fractional change in energy have been compared with the predictions of the available analytic formulae and the usefulness and limitations of the formulae have been discussed. (author)

  17. Pipeline negotiations as a challenging setting for organised cultural encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    has linked together countries, cultures, identities, ultimately challenging, reorganizing and renegotiating them. Starting from these premises, the following paper intends to show how Canadian Mackenzie Valley represents a unique contact zone for the development of cultural encounters, where different...... with often competing interests and positions - the practice of public hearings can be approached as a form of organized cultural encounter, whose “implied purposes” are to deal with more or less substantial cultural differences and to provide a wider cultural understanding of each different position. Through......Within the context of resource extraction, cultural encounters have been historically performed in the way of more or less antagonistic social interactions, ranging from outright domination to more empowerment-oriented relations. Throughout the last decades, the building of pipelines in particular...

  18. Encounters of The Solar System With Molecular Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, J. T.

    2008-01-01

    The solar system has penetrated about 5 -- 10 giant molecular clouds over its history, and passes within 5 parsecs of a star-forming nebula every 100 million years or so. Numerical simulations of the effect of such encounters in perturbing the Oort cloud of comets are carried out using standard n-body computational techniques. It is found that the ingress of comets into the inner planetary system during such encounters amounts to factors of ∼100 over the average. During an encounter the impact rate of comets onto Earth increases by a comparable factor. The of ages of impact craters on the Earth is shown to be consistent with predictions from the model

  19. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  20. Problems encountered in searching for new strains of toxic planktonic syanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, P.R.; McNicholas, S.; Allen, E.A.D.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 and 1980, four blooms from Lac La Nonne (80 km NW of Edmonton, Alberta) dominated 67 to 95 percent by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae L., were found to be type-c-toxic to mice and agglutinated red blood cells. A search for type-c-toxic strains of Aphanizomenon in this lake was undertaken in 1980 and 1981 by making 128 colony isolates and testing the unialgal cultures obtained from five blooms which varied in composition from 10 to 95 precent Aphanizomenon. The following problems were encountered in this search and in attempts to obtain axenic clones of different species: 1)a high precentage of isolation failures caused by the gradual but complete take-over of most of the Aphanizomenon cultures by a purple-brown species of Pseudanabaena, 2)stasis or lysis caused by pH and/or composition of the medium or the agar, 3)stasis or lysis caused by bacteria in liquid microculture, on agar streaks or in agar pour-plates, 4) autolysis triggered by tensile stress during transfer of trichomes with loop or needle, 5)inability of graded dosages of gamma rays of sodium sulphide selectively to eliminate or reduce numbers of bacteria to a satisfactory level for plating, 6)autolysis and growth inhibition caused by gentle washing to reduce numbers of bacteria for plating, and 7)discovery that haemagglutination is not perfectly correlated with type-c-toxicity. The search produced no type-c toxic strains of Aphanizomenon but two heterogeneous take-over cultures of Pseudanabaena sp. were found that produced violent convulsions when injected intraperitoneally into mice

  1. Problems encountered in searching for new strains of toxic planktonic cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P.R.; McNicholas, S.; Allen, E.A.D. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada))

    1982-09-01

    In 1979 and 1980, four blooms from Lac La Nonne (80 km NW of Edmonton, Alberta) dominated 67 to 95 percent by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae L., were found to be type-c-toxic to mice and agglutinated red blood cells. A search for type-c-toxic strains of Aphanizomenon in this lake was undertaken in 1980 and 1981 by making 128 colony isolates and testing the unialgal cultures obtained from five blooms which varied in composition from 10 to 95 precent Aphanizomenon. The following problems were encountered in this search and in attempts to obtain axenic clones of different species: 1)a high precentage of isolation failures caused by the gradual but complete take-over of most of the Aphanizomenon cultures by a purple-brown species of Pseudanabaena, 2)stasis or lysis caused by pH and/or composition of the medium or the agar, 3)stasis or lysis caused by bacteria in liquid microculture, on agar streaks or in agar pour-plates, 4) autolysis triggered by tensile stress during transfer of trichomes with loop or needle, 5)inability of graded dosages of gamma rays of sodium sulphide selectively to eliminate or reduce numbers of bacteria to a satisfactory level for plating, 6)autolysis and growth inhibition caused by gentle washing to reduce numbers of bacteria for plating, and 7)discovery that haemagglutination is not perfectly correlated with type-c-toxicity. The search produced no type-c toxic strains of Aphanizomenon but two heterogeneous take-over cultures of Pseudanabaena sp. were found that produced violent convulsions when injected intraperitoneally into mice.

  2. The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balance of bacterial species in the gut · Immunosensory detection of intestinal bacteria · Pathogenic bacteria release interleukin-8 from HT-29 cells · Lactobacillus GG prevents the IL-8 release in response to pathogens · Effect of probiotic bacteria on chemokine response of epithelia to pathogens · PCR array studies in colon ...

  3. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolates. Also, the choice of media is problematic, as well as the specification of MIC breakpoint values as a result of the large species variation and the possible resulting variation in MIC values between species and genera. The current investigations in this field showed that we might end up with a range of different species- or genus-specific breakpoint values that may further increase the current complexity. Another problem associated with safety determinations of starter strains is that once a resistance phenotype and an associated resistance determinant have been identified, it becomes difficult to show that this determinant is not transferable, especially if the resistance gene is not located on a plasmid and no standard protocols for showing genetic transfer are available. Encountering those problems, the QPS system should allow leeway for the interpretations of results, especially when these relate to the methodology for resistance phenotype determinations, determinations of MIC breakpoints for certain genera, species, or strains, the nondeterminability of a genetic basis of a resistance phenotype and the transferability of resistance genes.

  4. Ulysses at jupiter: an overview of the encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Wenzel, K P; Page, D E

    1992-09-11

    In February 1992, the Ulysses spacecraft flew through the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter. The primary objective of the encounter was to use the gravity field of Jupiter to redirect the spacecraft to the sun's polar regions, which will now be traversed in 1994 and 1995. However, the Ulysses scientific investigations were well suited to observations of the Jovian magnetosphere, and the encounter has resulted in a major contribution to our understanding of this complex and dynamic plasma environment. Among the more exciting results are (i) possible entry into the polar cap, (ii) the identification of magnetospheric ions originating from Jupiter's ionosphere, lo, and the solar wind, (iii) observation of longitudinal asymmetries in density and discrete wave-emitting regions of the lo plasma torus, (iv) the presence of counter-streaming ions and electrons, field-aligned currents, and energetic electron and radio bursts in the dusk sector on high-latitude magnetic field lines, and (v) the identification of the direction of the magnetic field in the dusk sector, which is indicative of tailward convection. This overview serves as an introduction to the accompanying reports that present the preliminary scientific findings. Aspects of the encounter that are common to all of the investigations, such as spacecraft capabilities, the flight path past Jupiter, and unique aspects of the encounter, are presented herein.

  5. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Dyadic Interactions in Service Encounter: Bayesian SEM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Adam; Kowalska-Musiał, Magdalena

    Dyadic interactions are an important aspects in service encounters. They may be observed in B2B distribution channels, professional services, buying centers, family decision making or WOM communications. The networks consist of dyadic bonds that form dense but weak ties among the actors.

  7. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  8. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V.

  9. Exploring Festival Performance as a State of Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Alice; Kill, Rebekka

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the activities of the research network "Festival Performance as a State of Encounter", which was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council as part of the Beyond Text strategic programme. The network was formulated in 2008, and a range of different events were organized over the course of two years to…

  10. Fabricated Childhoods: Uncanny Encounters with the More-than-Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on uncanny encounters with Julia deVille's exhibit, "Phantasmagoria". Inspired by Deleuzian-informed research practices, the author experiments with provoking practices to defy dominant developmental notions of childhood. This article reworks a humanist ontology by bringing together the discursive, the material, the…

  11. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  12. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the effect of concentrated language encounter method in developing sight word recognition skill in primary school pupils in cross river state. The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Primary One pupils' reading level, English sight word recognition skill. It also examine the extent to which the ...

  13. Room with a View: Ethical Encounters in Room 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes ethical encounters in Room 13, a schoolroom where children made what they wanted, posed their own questions, and ran an art room like a small business. In Room 13 children had the responsibility to maintain all aspects of the art studio. Specific decisions fell to an annually elected management team, a small…

  14. Live Aircraft Encounter Visualization at FutureFlight Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.; Chinn, Fay; Monheim, Spencer; Otto, Neil; Kato, Kenji; Archdeacon, John

    2018-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have developed an aircraft data streaming capability that can be used to visualize live aircraft in near real-time. During a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/NASA Airborne Collision Avoidance System flight series, test sorties between unmanned aircraft and manned intruder aircraft were shown in real-time at NASA Ames' FutureFlight Central tower facility as a virtual representation of the encounter. This capability leveraged existing live surveillance, video, and audio data streams distributed through a Live, Virtual, Constructive test environment, then depicted the encounter from the point of view of any aircraft in the system showing the proximity of the other aircraft. For the demonstration, position report data were sent to the ground from on-board sensors on the unmanned aircraft. The point of view can be change dynamically, allowing encounters from all angles to be observed. Visualizing the encounters in real-time provides a safe and effective method for observation of live flight testing and a strong alternative to travel to the remote test range.

  15. Difficulties Encountered by Academicians in Academic Research Processes in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sinan; Altun Yalçin, Sema

    2017-01-01

    This present research, aimed to determine the occasions, which the academicians encountered during the academic research process and how these affect the research process, was prepared as a case study pattern among the qualitative research methods. 34 academicians, who were working in a university in Turkey, participated in the research. The data…

  16. Encountering Gender in Student Life at UDSM: Chrester Tells Her ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article tells the life history of a young female student, Chrester, as she enjoyed her life while encountering gender contradictions throughout her student life during 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s at the University of Dar es Salaam. The narration covers the age of naiveté as well as her mature age as a senior student.

  17. Challenges teachers encounter in teaching English reading to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a descriptive survey designed to investigate challenges teachers encounter in teaching English reading in the uThungulu District schools in the province of KwaZulu Natal. This study comprised ... Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24, resulting in descriptive data.

  18. Grassroots Leadership: Encounters with Power Dynamics and Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of power dynamics that faculty and staff grassroots leaders encounter as they attempt to create change. I identified five distinctive types of power dynamics--"oppression," "silencing," "controlling," "inertia," and "micro-aggressions" from the most overt to more subtle and covert forms. Staff experience multiple…

  19. Challenges Encountered in the Compilation of an Advanced Shona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    turvitenskap, Seksjon for Leksikografi, Oslo, Norway. Abstract: This paper highlights the challenges encountered by the African Languages Lexical ... looks at: (a) the limitations of the current Shona orthography, the selection and codification of ... that were suggested, without getting too deeply involved in theoretical issues.

  20. Reconsidering Children's Encounters with Nature and Place Using Posthumanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores and reconsiders the view of children's encounters with place as central to a place-based pedagogy that seeks to dismantle rather than support constructions of a nature-culture binary. I unpack the current fervour for reinserting the child in nature and nature-based education as a significant phenomenon in environmental and…

  1. Preg-robbing of Gold by Carbonaceous Materials Encountered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing of gold from refractory ores containing carbonaceous materials (CM) poses challenges due to the ability of the CM to preg-rob dissolved gold. Depending on the type and maturity of CM encountered, preg-robbing of aurocyanide ion can lead to reduction in gold recovery ranging from a few percentages to more ...

  2. Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities (≥70 km s-1) observed for some very massive (≥60-70 M⊙) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g. λ Cep, BD+43°3654, Sk -67°22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative position of the very massive binary R145 and the runaway early B-type star Sk-69°206 on the sky is consistent with the possibility that both objects were ejected from the central cluster, R136, of the star-forming region 30 Doradus via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter.

  3. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Muslim and Christian female doctors encounter with sexual harassment. It was also found that sexual harassment cut across all age groups. The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from their patients.

  4. 'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the hermeneutical dialectic of belonging and distanciation 'Shakespeare in the Bush' is an account of an anthropologist's hermeneutical experience among the Tiv people of Nigeria that serves as an illustration o f a hermeneutical circle which results in transforming ...

  5. Athletic Training Student Core Competency Implementation During Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L

    2018-03-01

      Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience.   To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution.   We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated.   Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track PEs, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE.   Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site

  6. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  7. Toward the use of genomics to study microevolutionary change in bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falush, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Bacteria evolve rapidly in response to the environment they encounter. Some environmental changes are experienced numerous times by bacteria from the same population, providing an opportunity to dissect the genetic basis of adaptive evolution. Here I discuss two examples in which the patterns of rapid change provide insight into medically important bacterial phenotypes, namely immune escape by Neisseria meningitidis and host specificity of Campylobacter jejuni. Genomic analysis of populations of bacteria from these species holds great promise but requires appropriate concepts and statistical tools.

  8. Toward the use of genomics to study microevolutionary change in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Falush

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria evolve rapidly in response to the environment they encounter. Some environmental changes are experienced numerous times by bacteria from the same population, providing an opportunity to dissect the genetic basis of adaptive evolution. Here I discuss two examples in which the patterns of rapid change provide insight into medically important bacterial phenotypes, namely immune escape by Neisseria meningitidis and host specificity of Campylobacter jejuni. Genomic analysis of populations of bacteria from these species holds great promise but requires appropriate concepts and statistical tools.

  9. Luminous bacteria cultured from fish guts in the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makemson, J C; Hermosa, G V

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of culturable luminous bacteria in Omani market fish guts was correlated to habitat type amongst 109 species of fish. Isolated representative luminous bacteria were compared to known species using the Biolog system (95 traits/isolate) and cluster analysis, which showed that the main taxa present in fish guts were clades related to Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium species with sporadic incidence of P. phosphoreum. The luminous isolates from gut of the slip-mouth (barred pony fish), Leiognathus fasciatus, were mainly a type related to Photobacterium but phenotypically different from known species. These luminous gut bacteria were identical with the bacteria in the light organ, indicating that the light organ supplies a significant quantity of luminous bacteria to the gut. In many of the fish that lack light organs, luminous bacteria were also the dominant bacterial type in the gut, while in some others luminous bacteria were encountered sporadically and at low densities, reflecting the incidence of culturable luminous bacteria in seawater. Pelagic fish contained the highest incidence of culturable luminous bacteria and reef-associated fish the lowest. No correlation was found between the incidence of culturable luminous bacteria and the degree to which fish produce a melanin-covered gut. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND AUTECOLOGY OF SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladka, G V; Romanovskaya, V A; Tashyreva, H O; Tashyrev, O B

    2015-01-01

    Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation. Strains isolated from the Dead Sea and the Crimea environments were resistant to UV: LD90 and LD99.99 made 100-170 J/m2 and 750-1500 J/m2 respectively. Spores showed higher UV-resistance (LD99.99-2500 J/m2) than the vegetative cells. However the number of spores made 0.02-0.007% of the whole cell population, and should not significantly affect the UV LD99.99 value. Isolates of both environments were halotolerant in the range of 0.1-10% NaCl and thermotolerant in the range of 20-50 °C, and didn't grow at 15 °C. Survival strategy of spore-forming bacteria from hypersaline environments under high UV radiation level can be performed by spore formation which minimize cell damage as well as efficient DNA-repair systems that remove damages.

  11. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Their Associated Resistance Genes in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2013-12-01

    With water scarcity as a pressing issue in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries, the treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is increasingly being used as an alternative water source to supplement country water needs. Standards are in place to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however they do not regulate pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Information is lacking on the levels of risk to public health associated with these factors, the efficiency of conventional treatment strategies in removing them, and on wastewater treatment in Saudi Arabia in general. In this study, a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia is investigated to assess the efficiency of conventional treatment in meeting regulations and removing pathogens and emerging contaminants. The study found pathogenic bacterial genera, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, many of which were multi-resistant in plant discharges. It was found that although the treatments are able to meet traditional quality guidelines, there remains a risk from the discussed contaminants with wastewater reuse. A deeper understanding of this risk, and suggestions for more thorough guidelines and monitoring are needed.

  12. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication

  13. Mesophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Diversity Encountered in Brazilian Farms Producing Milk with Particular Interest in Lactococcus lactis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, L M P; Chuat, V; Madec, M N; Araújo, E A; de Carvalho, A F; Valence, F

    2016-10-01

    The milk produced in regions with different traditions in Brazil is used for artisanal product production, which is characterized by different sensorial characteristics. This study aimed to identify the bacterial ecosystem of farms located in a traditional dairy region in the state of Minas Gerais and to characterize Lactococcus lactis strains, the species of interest in this study, using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) protocol and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. Samples were collected from raw milk and dairy environment from six farms. A total of 50 isolates were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing and species-specific PCR. Five genera were identified: Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus, from ten different species. MLST (with six housekeeping genes) and PFGE (with SmaI endonuclease) were used for the characterization of 20 isolates of Lactococcus lactis from a dairy collection in this study. Both methods revealed a high clonal diversity of strains with a higher discriminatory level for PFGE (15 pulsotypes), compared to MLST (12 ST). This study contributes to the preservation of the Brazilian dairy heritage and provides insights into a part of the LAB population found in raw milk and dairy environment.

  14. Evaluating the potential for dissimilatory nitrate reduction by anammox bacteria for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Barros, Celia M; Jia, Mingsheng; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P; Winkler, Mari K H

    2017-06-01

    Anammox bacteria can perform dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) with nitrite as intermediate coupled to the oxidation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Batch tests with enriched anammox and a co-culture of anammox and heterotrophic bacteria showed the capacity of Candidatus 'Brocadia fulgida' to perform the DNRA coupled to the anammox reaction (DNRA-anammox) at a high rate although the culture was not previously adapted to VFA. From thermodynamic calculations it could be stated that low COD/N influent ratios favour the DNRA-anammox transformation over heterotrophic conversions since more free energy is gained. A process scheme is proposed for an innovative nitrogen removal system in which the nitrate produced by nitrite oxidizing bacteria and/or anammox bacteria is converted during DNRA-anammox pathway, resulting in a sustainable nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater while circumventing the troublesome out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria encountered in mainstream applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in Metal Phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaoyu; Glick, Bernard R

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up contaminants from the environment. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been highly touted for cleaning up toxic metals from soil. PGPB include rhizospheric bacteria, endophytic bacteria and the bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. This review provides information about the traits and mechanisms possessed by PGPB that improve plant metal tolerance and growth, and illustrate mechanisms responsible for plant metal accumulation/translocation in plants. Several recent examples of phytoremediation of metals facilitated by PGPB are reviewed. Although many encouraging results have been reported in the past years, there have also been numerous challenges encountered in phytoremediation in the field. To implement PGPB-assisted phytoremediation of metals in the natural environment, there is also a need to critically assess the ecological effects of PGPB, especially for those nonnative bacteria. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of massive clouds and dwarf galaxies during tidal encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michele; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Thomasson, Magnus; Elmegreen, Debra M.

    1993-01-01

    Gerola et al. (1983) propose that isolated dwarf galaxies can form during galaxy interactions. As evidence of this process, Mirabel et al. (1991) find 10(exp 9) solar mass clouds and star formation complexes at the outer ends of the tidal arms in the Antennae and Superantennae galaxies. We describe observations of HI clouds with mass greater than 10(exp 8) solar mass in the interacting galaxy pair IC 2163/NGC 2207. This pair is important because we believe it represents an early stage in the formation of giant clouds during an encounter. We use a gravitational instability model to explain why the observed clouds are so massive and discuss a two-dimensional N-body simulation of an encounter that produces giant clouds.

  17. Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewster, R.M.; Buckland, S.T.; Burnham, K.P.; Borchers, D.L.; Jupp, P.E.; Laake, J.L.; Thomas, L.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant source of variance in line transect sampling is usually the encounter rate variance. Systematic survey designs are often used to reduce the true variability among different realizations of the design, but estimating the variance is difficult and estimators typically approximate the variance by treating the design as a simple random sample of lines. We explore the properties of different encounter rate variance estimators under random and systematic designs. We show that a design-based variance estimator improves upon the model-based estimator of Buckland et al. (2001, Introduction to Distance Sampling. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 79) when transects are positioned at random. However, if populations exhibit strong spatial trends, both estimators can have substantial positive bias under systematic designs. We show that poststratification is effective in reducing this bias. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  19. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  20. Beyond cultural competency: Bourdieu, patients and clinical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ming-Cheng M; Stacey, Clare L

    2008-07-01

    In response to widely documented racial and ethnic disparities in health, clinicians and public health advocates have taken great strides to implement 'culturally competent' care. While laudable, this important policy and intellectual endeavour has suffered from a lack of conceptual clarity and rigour. This paper develops a more careful conceptual model for understanding the role of culture in the clinical encounter, paying particular attention to the relationship between culture, contexts and social structures. Linking Bourdieu's (1977) notion of 'habitus' and William Sewell's (1992) axioms of multiple and intersecting structures, we theorise patient culture in terms of 'hybrid habitus'. This conceptualisation of patient culture highlights three analytical dimensions: the multiplicity of schemas and resources available to patients, their specific patterns of integration and application in specific contexts, and the constitutive role of clinical encounters. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research as well as reforms of cultural competency training courses.

  1. Challenges encountered during postgraduate program in orthodontics: An online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanish Singh Shinh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics requires profound and disciplined training over a considerable period. Given the rigorous nature of the program, it is but logical to assume that the students can encounter some difficulties during the course. The aim of the present study was to gather detailed first-hand information from the postgraduate students of all the practical challenges they encounter in academic programme of orthodontics in India. Materials and Methods: Utilizing a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through a web-based self-administered questionnaire, the sample population consisted of 799 orthodontic postgraduate students in India and 39 questions were put forward to them. Conclusion: Results showed that even while keeping the basics intact, every course should aim at inputs to help make the academic climate productive, less stressful and student-centric. Change in teaching technology, methodology and structure is needed in training our postgraduate students, to promote a more congenial academic climate.

  2. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter - though they may not identify - victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case...

  3. Ecopoetic Encounters: Amnesia and Nostalgia in Alexis Wright's Environmental Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Barras Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    In Carpentaria (2006) and The Swan Book (2013), Alexis Wright establishes an allegorical mode where she reimagines Europeans' first encounters with Australia from an Aboriginal environmental perspective. In this narrative system, the discovery of Australia is not realised by exploring colonisers, but by vulnerable strangers who apprehend the continent both experientially and linguistically. In Carpentaria, the Stranger-figure of Elias Smith is left amnesic after surviving a shipwreck during a...

  4. Elucidating Dynamical Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) Bo Qiu Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1000 Pope Rd. Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808) 956...c) to explore relevant dynamics by using both simplified models and OGCM output with realistic topography and surface boundary conditions...scale abyssal circulation, we propose to use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM). The HIM allows sloping isopycnals to interact with bottom topography

  5. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  6. Proton therapy in ophthalmology: status report and problems encountered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, P.; Iborra-Brassart, N.; Courdi, A.; Herault, J.; Teissier, E.; Pignol, J.P.; Bondiau, P.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The proton therapy facility of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice began of ocular tumors in June 1991. Up to October 1995, a total number of 600 patients were treated. An overview of the cases treated during the first 4 years of activity is given and the main problems encountered in the field, possibly interacting with the accuracy and reliability of the dose distribution, are listed. (author)

  7. Hotspots on Io During the Ganymede 2 Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on the Galileo spacecraft imaged Io at high spectral resolution at a range of 439,000 km (275,000 miles) during the G2 encounter on 6 September 1996. This image shows, on the right, Io as seen by NIMS, centered on 150 W longitude. The image on the left shows the same view point from Voyager data (from the encounters in 1979 and 1980). The NIMS image can be compared to the NIMS hotspot image from the G1 orbit (June 1996) to monitor changes on Io. The most dramatic feature of the G2 image is the hotspot at Malik Patera. Preliminary analysis of the data yields a temperature of at least 1000 K (727 C) for this hotspot, an increase of more than 300 K from the G1 encounter. In the overlap area of the G1 and G2 images all the hotspots seen during the G1 encounter are also seen in the G2 image. Other hotspots were seen, including one at the Pele plume origin site. This image is at the 4 micron band to best view the Malik hotspot. Most of the other hotspots are best seen at longer wavelengths. NIMS is continuing to observe Io to monitor volcanic activity throughout the Galileo mission.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. Scientific misconduct encountered by APAME journals: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Wong, Li Xuan; Koh, Cing Chai

    2015-12-01

    In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability. 54 (36%) journals responded. 98% of respondents held Editor or Editorial Board positions. All respondent journals have editorial policies on publication ethics and 96% provide instructions related to ethics. 45% use anti-plagiarism software to screen manuscripts, the most popular being iThenticate, CrossCheck and Turnitin. Up to 50% of journals had encountered studies without IRB approval. Author misconduct encountered were (in rank order): plagiarism (75%), duplicate publication (58%), unjustified authorship (39%), authorship disputes (33%), data falsification (29%), data/image manipulation (27%), conflict of interest (25%), copyright violation (17%) and breach of confidentiality (10%). Reviewer misconduct encountered were: conflict of interest (19%), plagiarism (17%), obstructive behavior (17%), abusive language (13%) and breach of confidentiality (13%). Notwithstanding the limitations of the survey and the response rate, a few insights have been gained: (1) the need for strengthening the ethical culture of researchers/authors and reviewers, (2) anti-plagiarism software can improve plagiarism detection by about 15%, and (3) the need for technical support to detect plagiarism, duplicate publication and image manipulation.

  9. Giant left atrium encountered during right-sided thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Advani

    Full Text Available Giant left atrium is an uncommon pathology to encounter during bedside chest ultrasound, but is an important structure to be aware of when considering thoracentesis. This cardiac structure could easily be mistaken for loculated pleural fluid. This case also supports growing evidence that expert users can safely perform thoracentesis without completely reversing therapeutic anticoagulation. Keywords: Giant left atrium, Thoracentesis, Rheumatic heart disease, Ultrasound

  10. VERSIONS VERSUS BODIES: TRANSLATIONS IN THE MISSIONARY ENCOUNTER IN AMAZONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaça, Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyzes the two distinct concepts of translation at work in the encounter between the Amazonian Wari' and the New Tribes Mission evangelical missionaries, and the equivocations stemming from this difference. While the missionaries conceive translation as a process of converting meanings between languages, conceived as linguistic codes that exist independently of culture, for the Wari', in consonance with their perspectivist ontology, it is not language that differentiates...

  11. Effects of Soundscapes on Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2011-07-01

    Soundscapes in recreation settings are becoming an important issue, but there are few studies of the effects of sounds on recreation experiences, especially crowding perceptions and encounter norms. This study compared effects of six types of sounds (an airplane, a truck engine, children playing, birds, water, and a control) on perceived crowding (PC) and encounter norms for hikers. Data were collected from 47 college students through lab experiments using simulated images, with moving hikers inserted in the original photo taken in the Jungmeori area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park in Korea. Overall, the motor-made sounds of the airplane and truck engine increased PC and decreased acceptability ratings, and the natural sounds of birds and water decreased PC and increased acceptability ratings. Ratings of the sound of children playing were similar to those in the control (i.e., no sound). In addition, as numbers of hikers increased, the overall effects of sounds decreased, and there were few significant differences in PC or acceptability ratings at the highest encounter levels. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  12. The Reality of Encounters with Local Life in Other Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Equipped with mobile technologies, travelers increasingly seek opportunities to encounter the real lives of the people residing in the focal destination. With this trend of pursuing local life experience, this study investigated how international visitors recognize the lives of people in the focal destination, and whether this recognition is related to satisfaction. Reviews for Teheran’s Grand Bazaar from an online review site, Tripadvisor.com, showed that visitors’ local encounters were linked with favorable emotions (good, interesting, and worthwhile. To lend support to the contact hypothesis, which posits that intercultural experiences can lead to more favorable evaluations of the host community; the visitors who recognized direct and indirect encounters with local life indicated higher satisfaction. Even if brief, the experience of local life appeared to create more intimate feelings for the focal destination. Interestingly, the number of past travel experiences, which was captured by the number of reviews written by the reviewer, was found to have a negative association with satisfaction. We draw further implications for the travelers as well as the local community.

  13. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Daniela A.; Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás; Villagra, Nicolás A.; Mora, Guido C.; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro

    2012-12-01

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  14. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Daniela A., E-mail: daniela.geraldo@unab.cl [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile); Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolas [CEDENNA, Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Chile); Villagra, Nicolas A. [Universidad Andres Bello, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas (Chile); Mora, Guido C. [Universidad Andres Bello, Unidad de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina (Chile); Arratia-Perez, Ramiro [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  15. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Daniela A.; Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás; Villagra, Nicolás A.; Mora, Guido C.; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV–Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  16. Functional amyloids in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The term amyloidosis is used to refer to a family of pathologies altering the homeostasis of human organs. Despite having a name that alludes to starch content, the amyloid accumulations are made up of proteins that polymerize as long and rigid fibers. Amyloid proteins vary widely with respect to their amino acid sequences but they share similarities in their quaternary structure; the amyloid fibers are enriched in β-sheets arranged perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. This structural feature provides great robustness, remarkable stability, and insolubility. In addition, amyloid proteins specifically stain with certain dyes such as Congo red and thioflavin-T. The aggregation into amyloid fibers, however, it is not restricted to pathogenic processes, rather it seems to be widely distributed among proteins and polypeptides. Amyloid fibers are present in insects, fungi and bacteria, and they are important in maintaining the homeostasis of the organism. Such findings have motivated the use of the term "functional amyloid" to differentiate these amyloid proteins from their toxic siblings. This review focuses on systems that have evolved in bacteria that control the expression and assembly of amyloid proteins on cell surfaces, such that the robustness of amyloid proteins are used towards a beneficial end. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  17. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  18. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria...... with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when cultured with blood DC......, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota...

  19. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1975-09-01

    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned.

  20. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Keiji

    1975-01-01

    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  1. Vanillin selectively modulates the action of antibiotics against resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Camilo, Cicera Janaine; do Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2017-12-01

    The treatment of infections caused by microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics represent one of the main challenges of medicine today, especially due to the inefficacy of long-term drug therapy. In the search for new alternatives to treat these infections, many researchers have been looking for new substances derived from natural products to replace, or be used in combination with conventional antibiotics. Vanillin is a phenolic compound whose antimicrobial activity has been used in the elimination of pathogens present in fruits and vegetables. However, its antibacterial and modulating properties remain to be characterized. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and analyze the modulator activity of vanillin in association with conventional antibiotics. The antimicrobial activity of vanillin was evaluated using the microdilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Standard strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multi-resistant strains of Escherichia coli 06, Staphylococcus aureus 10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 24 were used in this study. The antibiotic modulating effect was analyzed by combining vanillin with Norfloxacin, Imipenem, Gentamicin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline against the following multiresistant bacteria strains: Escherichia coli 06, Staphylococcus aureus 10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 24. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA test of two tracks followed by the post hoc Bonferroni test. Vanillin presented CIMs ≥1024μg/mL against all tested strains demonstrating that it did not present significant antibacterial activity. However, modulated the activity of gentamicin and imipenem against S. aureus and E. coli, causing a synergistic effect, but did not affect the activity of norfloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin against these same microorganisms. A synergistic effect was also obtained from the association of vanillin with norfloxacin against P

  2. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  3. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  4. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  5. Astrometry of 2014MU69 for New Horizons encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc

    2017-08-01

    We propose 12 orbits of time to make high-precision astrometric measurments of the New Horizons extendedmission target, (486958) 2014MU69. These observations are in direct support of the navigation of New Horizonsleading up to its encounter in Jan 2019. These visits represent an optimized plan for improved orbit estimates that willcomplete as the target becomes directly observable by New Horizons. This astrometry is a key element leadingup to a close investigation of a Cold-Classical Kuiper Belt Object, one of the most primitive members of our solarsystem.

  6. Coordination of head movements and speech in first encounter dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the temporal alignment be- tween head movements and associated speech segments in the NOMCO corpus of first encounter dialogues [1]. Our results show that head movements tend to start slightly before the onset of the corresponding speech sequence and to end...... slightly after, but also that there are delays in both directions in the range of -/+ 1s. Various factors that may influence delay duration are investigated. Correlations are found between delay length and the duration of the speech sequences associated with the head movements. Effects due to the different...

  7. Doing Research in a Conflict Situation Encounters and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Dhakal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork, an anthropologist's vocation, is full of tensions and dilemmas. However, the experiences of any or all tensions, troubles and even failures are a 'source of ethnographic knowledge in themselves'. During the fieldwork for my PhD research, I encountered several such incidents, which have made my work more interesting and my experience richer. This article describes the situation of doing fieldwork in the conflict period, when the 'peace process' was not yet come to the conclusion.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v8i0.10723Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 8, 2014; 87-98

  8. MMS Encounters with Reconnection Diffusion Regions in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Alm, L.; Dors, I.; Payne, D.; Rogers, A. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Phan, T.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) fleet of four spacecraft traversed the Earth's magnetotail in May through August of 2017 with an apogee of 25 Re, and encountered diffusion regions characteristic of symmetric reconnection. This presentation will describe in-situ measurements of large electric fields, strong electron cross-tail and Hall currents, and electron velocity distributions (frequently crescent-shaped) that are commonly observed in these regions. Positive electromagnetic energy conversion is also typical. The characteristics of symmetric reconnection observations will be contrasted with those of asymmetric reconnection that MMS observed previously at the dayside magnetopause.

  9. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  10. The joy of discovery great encounters along the way

    CERN Document Server

    Thirring, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Walter Thirring is the last offspring of an Austrian family of scientists. In this moving narrative, he describes how he survived the Nazi occupation and became instrumental in reconstructing European science. Thirring is one of the last living physicists who worked on the greatest discoveries and with the greatest scientists of the 20th century. He recollects encounters with the old masters like Einstein, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Pauli and others as well as his collaborations with the present stars like Murray Gell-Mann and Elliott Lieb. The book presents the challenges faced when one of the

  11. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.

    2015-01-01

    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  12. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, Jenny; Susilo, Yusak Budi; Johler, Sophia

    2017-12-15

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. Consumption of enterotoxins preformed in food causes violent vomiting and can be fatal in children and the elderly. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, Staphylococcus aureus benefits from crucial competitive advantages in foods with high osmolarity or low pH. During recent years, the long-standing belief in the feasibility of assessing SFP risk based on colony-forming units of S. aureus present in food products has been disproven. Instead, researchers and food business operators are acutely aware of the imminent threat arising from unforeseeable enterotoxin production under stress conditions. This paradigm shift led to a variety of new publications enabling an improved understanding of enterotoxin expression under stress conditions encountered in food. The wealth of data provided by these studies is extremely diverse, as it is based on different methodological approaches, staphylococcal strains, stressors, and enterotoxins. Therefore, in this review, we aggregated and critically evaluated the complex findings of these studies, to provide readers with a current overview of the state of research in the field.

  14. Encounters between degenerate stars and extrasolar comet clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineault, S.; Poisson, E.

    1989-01-01

    Under the assumption that the presence of comet clouds around otherwise normal stars is a common occurrence in the Galaxy, the observational consequences of random penetration encounters between the general Galactic population of degenerate stars and these comet clouds is considered. The only case considered is where the compact stars is a single star. For this scenario, encounters involving neutron stars (NSs) result in impact rates 1000-10,000 times slower than in the model of Tremaine and Zytkow (1986). The rate for white dwarfs (WDs) is larger than the one for NSs by a factor of about 30 times the ratio of the degenerate star number densities. The mean impact rate is significantly increased if the number of comets in a cloud is nearly independent of the mass of the central star. It is concluded that some of the observed gamma-ray bursts may be caused by accretion of comets onto NSs and that this scenario, but with a WD as the accretor, probably contributes to the optical flash background rate. 38 refs

  15. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin

    2017-06-01

    Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.

  16. EJECTION AND CAPTURE DYNAMICS IN RESTRICTED THREE-BODY ENCOUNTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Hainick, Yanir; Sari, Re'em; Rossi, Elena M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the tidal disruption of binaries by a massive point mass (e.g., the black hole at the Galactic center), and we discuss how the ejection and capture preference between unequal-mass binary members depends on which orbit they approach the massive object. We show that the restricted three-body approximation provides a simple and clear description of the dynamics. The orbit of a binary with mass m around a massive object M should be almost parabolic with an eccentricity of |1 – e| ∼ 1/3 1/3 times the binary rotation velocity, it would be abruptly disrupted, and the energy change at the encounter can be evaluated in a simple disruption model. We evaluate the probability distributions for the ejection and capture of circular binary members and for the final energies. In principle, for any hyperbolic (elliptic) orbit, the heavier member has more chance to be ejected (captured), because it carries a larger fraction of the orbital energy. However, if the orbital energy is close to zero, the difference between the two members becomes small, and there is practically no ejection and capture preferences. The preference becomes significant when the orbital energy is comparable to the typical energy change at the encounter. We discuss its implications to hypervelocity stars and irregular satellites around giant planets.

  17. Ecophysiology of the Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor. These bacteria are the key players in the global nitrogen cycle, responsible for the most of nitrogen production in natural ecosystems. The anammox process is also a

  18. Money and transmission of bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gedik, H.; Voss, T.A.; Voss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria

  19. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  20. METHODS FOR DETECTING BACTERIA USING POLYMER MATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grinsven Bart Robert, Nicolaas; Cleij, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A method for characterizing bacteria includes passing a liquid containing an analyte comprising a first bacteria and a second bacteria over and in contact with a polymer material on a substrate. The polymer material is formulated to bind to the first bacteria, and the first bacteria binds to the

  1. The encounter with God in myth and madness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Oscar

    2007-07-03

    It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme that even an

  2. The encounter with God in myth and madness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerr Otto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight", and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God

  3. Inhomogeneous electrochemiluminescence. II Markovian encounter theory of the phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, V.; Burshtein, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    The free energy dependence of the electro-chemiluminescence quantum yield is specified, with the Markovian encounter theory accounting for the reversibility of triplet production competing with the irreversible recombination to the ground state. It is shown that diffusional ion recombination is highly inhomogeneous in space. It proceeds at either large positive ionization free energy (mainly to the triplet product) or at large negative free energy when recombination to the ground state dominates. On the contrary at medium free energies, the quasi-resonant generation of triplets is under kinetic control and therefore much more homogeneous. In this case, both recombination products are generated in comparable amounts. The multiple reversible ionization is shown to act as an independent quenching mechanism previously unknown. The role of the triplet quenching at the electrode is also specified. These effects reduce noticeably the luminescence quantum yield but only at larger triplet life times and in different free energy regions

  4. Reexamination of plasma measurements from the Mariner 5 Venus encounter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, R.E.; Lazarus, A.J.; Bridge, H.S.

    1979-01-01

    Mariner 5 plasma data from the Venus encounter have been analyzed with twice the time resolution of the original analysis of Bridge et al. (1967). The velocity distribution function for each spectrum is used to determine more precisely the locations of boundaries and characteristic flow parameters in the interaction region around the planet. We identify a new region in the flow located between magnetosheathlike plasma inside the shock front and an interior low-flux region near the geometrical shadow of the planet. The region is characterized by a wide velocity distribution function and a decrease in ion flux. Using the highest time resolution magnetic field data made available by Smith et al., we propose that rapid magnetic field fluctuations in this region may result in an artificial broadening of the distribution function. We conclude that very high time resolution is required in future experiments in order to determine the true nature of the plasma in this region

  5. Motility of copepod nauplii and implications for food encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    (Centropages typicus, Calanus helgolandicus, Temora longicornis, Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Euterpina acutifrons). Behaviors of individual nauphi were divided into sequences of sinking, swimming and jumping events. Motility behavior is both stage- and species-specific in terms of appearance......Velocity differences drive all encounter processes. Therefore, knowledge of both prey and predator motility are essential in order to understand feeding behavior and predict food acquisition rates. Here, we describe and quantify the motility behavior of young and old naupliar stages of 6 copepods...... of tracks, speeds, durations and frequencies of events as well as time budgets. Motility mode often changes drastically during naupliar ontogeny. Crudely, nauplii can be divided into those moving with a jump-sink type of motility of various frequencies (1 min(-1) to 3 s(-1)) and those swimming...

  6. Creating illusions of past encounter through brief exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2009-05-01

    Titchener (1928) suggested that briefly glancing at a scene could make it appear strangely familiar when it was fully processed moments later. The closest laboratory demonstration used words as stimuli, and showed that briefly glancing at a to-be-judged word increased the subject's belief that it had been presented in an earlier study list (Jacoby & Whitehouse, 1989). We evaluated whether a hasty glance could elicit a false belief in a prior encounter, from a time and place outside of the experiment. This goal precluded using word stimuli, so we had subjects evaluate unfamiliar symbols. Each symbol was preceded by a brief exposure to an identical symbol, a different symbol, or no symbol. A brief glance at an identical symbol increased attributions to preexperimental experience, relative to a glance at a different symbol or no symbol, providing a possible mechanism for common illusions of false recognition.

  7. Preliminary Exploration of Encounter During Transit Across Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Phillip David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kubicek, Deborah Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is utilizing the Probability Effectiveness Methodology (PEM) tools, particularly the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) to support the DNDO Architecture and Planning Directorate’s (APD) development of a multi-region terrorist risk assessment tool. The effort is divided into three stages. The first stage is an exploration of what can be done with PATRIOT essentially as is, to characterize encounter rate during transit across a single selected region. The second stage is to develop, condition, and implement required modifications to the data and conduct analysis to generate a well-founded assessment of the transit reliability across that selected region, and to identify any issues in the process. The final stage is to extend the work to a full multi-region global model. This document provides the results of the first stage, namely preliminary explorations with PATRIOT to assess the transit reliability across the region of southern Africa.

  8. Encounters with medicines among ethnic minorities with chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna

    of the study was to explore the challenges of encounters with medicines among ethnic minorities with chronic conditions in Denmark, exemplified by policy, professional and patient perspectives. Implications for community pharmacies was a particular focus. Methods: The study drew on different methods, types...... analysis of interviews with people with Pakistani background, type 2 diabetes and at least one other chronic condition, focusing on lived experiences with medicine use during Ramadan, reasons for fasting, and experiences with counselling on medicines. Sub-study IV encompassed an analysis of interviews......-study I. Most documents agreed that skin colour and skin covering were part of the definition of ethnic minorities at risk. Major discrepancies were found regarding the importance attributed to the Islamic religion, other traditions, immigration, gender and age, and an evolutionary explanation...

  9. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the 'Immigrant of School Age'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of integration', and as such act on behalf of the imagined collective good (Larsen 2012). This educational optimism is understood in terms of the development of the universal welfare state (Sandin 2012) and its rational engineering of social life (Petersen 1997). Petersen (1997) argues that the government...... of the collective good in the modern welfare nation-state becomes highly dependent on "the acceptance of expert knowledge as the foundation of a good life" (p. 367, my translation). The paper argues that the act of and desire for professionalization of teachers encountering the immigrant of school age should...... for the perceived threat to the collective good and as signifiers of the appropriate solutions to this threat. The proposition of problem construction to be the inner logic of professionalization of teachers feeds into the analytical framework of the paper, where relations of power/knowledge make up the history...

  11. Encounter times of chromatin loci influenced by polymer decondensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, A.; Holcman, D.

    2018-03-01

    The time for a DNA sequence to find its homologous counterpart depends on a long random search inside the cell nucleus. Using polymer models, we compute here the mean first encounter time (MFET) between two sites located on two different polymer chains and confined locally by potential wells. We find that reducing tethering forces acting on the polymers results in local decondensation, and numerical simulations of the polymer model show that these changes are associated with a reduction of the MFET by several orders of magnitude. We derive here new asymptotic formula for the MFET, confirmed by Brownian simulations. We conclude from the present modeling approach that the fast search for homology is mediated by a local chromatin decondensation due to the release of multiple chromatin tethering forces. The present scenario could explain how the homologous recombination pathway for double-stranded DNA repair is controlled by its random search step.

  12. Bridging Identity Gaps : Supporting Identity Performance in Citizen Service Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup; McPhail, Brenda; Smith, Karen Louise

    2012-01-01

    administrative processes and the quality and swiftness of the service they receive. As we bring to light in this paper, this “fitting in” with rigid bureaucratic procedures and IT systems interestingly requires a substantial collaborative effort between the receiver(s) of the service and a complex constellation...... of surrounding stakeholders and intermediaries. This collaboration and the performing of multiple identities raises challenges for the design of e-government systems aimed at supporting physical and digital citizen service provision, as well as issues regarding privacy, citizenship, and public service quality......This paper explores in situ citizen service encounters in government offices. Drawing upon ethnographically informed fieldwork in Canada and Denmark, we discuss the challenges to supporting citizens in constructing and performing identities in public service settings. Our data suggests...

  13. Modifications in children's goals when encountering obstacles to conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Asher, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that children's goals are associated with their success in peer relationships. The current study extends earlier findings by examining changes in children's goals during hypothetical conflicts. Participants were 252 children ages 9 to 12 years old (133 boys, 119 girls). As predicted, children's goals changed significantly when they encountered obstacles to conflict resolution, and these changes were predictive of their subsequent strategy choices. Both aggressive- and submissive-rejected children were more likely to evidence antisocial changes in their goals, including an increased desire to retaliate. They also showed reluctance to forego instrumental objectives. Other findings highlighted the need to investigate the combinations of goals children pursue as predictors of their strategies and the quality of their peer relationships.

  14. POLITENESS IN REQUESTS: SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS RELEVANT FOR INTERCULTURAL ENCOUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura CODREANU; Alina DEBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between indirectness and politeness in requests. The research project supporting the findings of the paper was undertaken in order to find out to what extent politeness and indirectness are viewed as overlapping or mutually excluding categories by Romanians compared to other nationalities, such as the British and the Hebrew. Another inherent goal of the paper is to provide an example of the socio linguistics instruments that can be employed in the investigation of the differences and similarities likely to emerge in intercultural encounters. Thus, we believe that only through similar research undertaken in the fields contributing to the emerging field of interculturality one can actually trespass the theoretical assumptions and move on to the identification of the right tools and means through which intercultural discourse to be approached at a pragmatic level and thus better understood and taught in educational establishments.

  15. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-26

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value--a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system.

  16. Spatial capture-recapture models for search-encounter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, Marc; Guelat, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    1. Spatial capture–recapture models make use of auxiliary data on capture location to provide density estimates for animal populations. Previously, models have been developed primarily for fixed trap arrays which define the observable locations of individuals by a set of discrete points. 2. Here, we develop a class of models for 'search-encounter' data, i.e. for detections of recognizable individuals in continuous space, not restricted to trap locations. In our hierarchical model, detection probability is related to the average distance between individual location and the survey path. The locations are allowed to change over time owing to movements of individuals, and individual locations are related formally by a model describing individual activity or home range centre which is itself regarded as a latent variable in the model. We provide a Bayesian analysis of the model in WinBUGS, and develop a custom MCMC algorithm in the R language. 3. The model is applied to simulated data and to territory mapping data for the Willow Tit from the Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MHB. While the observed density was 15 territories per nominal 1 km2 plot of unknown effective sample area, the model produced a density estimate of 21∙12 territories per square km (95% posterior interval: 17–26). 4. Spatial capture–recapture models are relevant to virtually all animal population studies that seek to estimate population size or density, yet existing models have been proposed mainly for conventional sampling using arrays of traps. Our model for search-encounter data, where the spatial pattern of searching can be arbitrary and may change over occasions, greatly expands the scope and utility of spatial capture–recapture models.

  17. Satisfaction with the outpatient encounter - A comparison of patients' and physicians' views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbelt, Linda C.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; Godfried, Mieke H.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare patients' and physicians' visit-specific satisfaction in an internal medicine outpatient setting, and to explain their respective views. DESIGN: Patients' and physicians' background characteristics were assessed prior to outpatient encounters. Immediately after the encounter,

  18. Review on SERS of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Mosier-Boss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS has been widely used for chemical detection. Moreover, the inherent richness of the spectral data has made SERS attractive for use in detecting biological materials, including bacteria. This review discusses methods that have been used to obtain SERS spectra of bacteria. The kinds of SERS substrates employed to obtain SERS spectra are discussed as well as how bacteria interact with silver and gold nanoparticles. The roll of capping agents on Ag/Au NPs in obtaining SERS spectra is examined as well as the interpretation of the spectral data.

  19. [Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia Bacteriana, Chile: recommendations 2014 towards the control of bacteria resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; Arancibia, J Miguel; Rosales, Ruth; Ajenjo, M Cristina; Riedel, Gisela; Camponovo, Rossana; Labarca, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    Five issues were reviewed in depth at the 2014 annual meeting of Colaborative Group Against Bacterial Resistance and the antecedents and conclusions are detailed in this document. I.- News in CLSI 2014: the difficulties and implications on its implementation at the local level were reviewed and recommendations were set. II.- Criteria for determining the incidence of multi-resistant microorganism in critical care units where indicators and monitoring methodology for better quantification of microorganisms were defined. III.- Quality requirements were established to be considered by the professionals involved in the selection of antimicrobials in the hospital. IV.- Transfer policies, screening and contact precautions for the control of transmission of multiresistant bacteria. V.- Recommendations for health facilities when a carbapenemase producing enterobacteriacea is detected, in a checklist format for rapid deployment in hospitals without endemia of these agents. These are suggestions that arise from the joint work of specialists from many hospitals that do not represent consensus or recommendation, but may help to control the resistance level of each health facility in the country.

  20. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc., the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteristics of three coastal lagoons, comparing the results with those from hospital sewage. Of the lagoons evaluated, two (Geribá and Imboassica receive domestic sewage discharge, and the other (Cabiúnas is still in a natural state. We isolated in a culture medium containing 32 ¼ µg/ml of Cephalothin, fecal coliforms (E. coli, non-fecal coliforms (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, and Aeromonas sp. In cultures from the hospital drain we found strains showing numerous markers for resistance to most of the 11 antimicrobials tested. On the other hand, in cultures from Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons, we found strains showing resistance only to antibiotics frequently observed in non-selective situations (considered as "common" markers. The capacity for dilution in the ecosystem, and salinity appeared related with the occurrence of multi-resistant bacterial strains. The intensity of recent fecal contamination was not shown to be associated with the numbers and types of markers found.

  1. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  2. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  3. The Impact of Value-Orientations on Cross-cultural Encounters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encounters and mediation in the Tanzanian educational system. The purpose of the article is to give an emic perspective on value-orientations in crosscultural encounters and mediation situations in the educational system, to improve understanding of the conflictive aspects of these encounters. To achieve this purpose, the ...

  4. Gut Bacteria Affect Immunotherapy Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new studies have identified intestinal bacteria that appear to influence the response to checkpoint inhibitors. This Cancer Currents blog post explains how the researchers think their findings could be used to improve patients’ responses to these immunotherapy drugs.

  5. hydroxyalkanoate (PHAs) producing bacteria isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... ium (MSM), having inhibitors for Gram positive bacteria and fungi and a mixed ... Two techniques were used for detecting the presence of polymer: staining ... was saline solution at 600 nm wavelength on VARIAN DSM 100.

  6. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISTIC OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM SOIL HIGH IN MERCURY IN TAILINGS AND COMPOST AREAS OF ARTISANAL GOLD MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nuraini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at Brawijaya University and West Nusa Tenggara, from March 2013 to October 2013. The tailings areas of the gold mine contains high mercury (Hg as much as 1,090 ppm, and living microbes (resistance exist in a small number in such a condition. Microbial P solvents encountered came from the genus Bacillus with a population of 23 x 103 cfu g-1 and N-fixing bacteria encountered are of the genus Bacillus, with a population of 4 x 103 cfu g-1. Identification of species using Becton Dickinson Phoenix test, both species belong to Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus. While the waste corn and peanuts that has been composted for 4 weeks acquired P-solubilizing bacteria, such as Enterobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and N-fixing bacteria found was Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. While testing the activity and antagonism of N-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria, the result on agar media did not show antagonism in its growth. Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium effective at 5 % molasses medium with the number of 0.15 x 1012 on seven days of incubation.

  7. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer.

  8. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  9. Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium. PMID:3426224

  10. Shouting in a Desert: Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910 : Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kruithof (Maryse)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ ‘‘Shouting in a desert’ Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam’ concentrates on the shifts and developments in the Dutch mission discourse within the period from 1850 to 1910. It explores the Dutch missionary encounter with local communities and is conducted

  11. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan

    2017-04-01

    The jet era or age began at 1930 and 40's in aviation sector, with the production of first jet engine for the aircrafts. Since 1950's, the commercial aviation with regular flights were established. Civil aviation and air-transport drastically increased due to intensive demand, and declared at least 10 fold since 1970 by IATA report. Parallelly to technological and economical developpement, the commercial jets became more comfortable, secure and rapid, bringing the world smaller, the countries closer. On the other hand, according to Global Volcanism Program Catalogues of Smithsonian Institute, about 1,500 volcanoes have erupted in the Holocene, 550 of them have had historical eruptions and considered as active. Besides an average of 55-60 volcanoes erupt each year, and about 8-10 of these eruptions produce ash clouds that reach aircraft flight altitudes (Salinas and Watt, 2004). Volcanic ash can be expected to be in air routes at altitudes greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) for roughly 20 days per year worldwide (Miller &Casadeval, 2000). A precious compilation of incidents due to encounters of aircrafts with volcanic ash clouds covering the years between 1953 and 2009 was used in this work (Guffanti et al., 2010-USGS Report) with an additional information on Eyfjallajökull-2010 eruption. According to this compilation,129 incidents happened within the concerned time interval. The damages, in general, fall in second and third class of Severity index, indicating the damages are limited on airframe of the planes, or some abrasions in jet engine, windblast etc.. We focused on fourth class of severity index involving the damages on jet engine of aircraft (engine fail) due to ingestion of volcanic ash and investigate eruption style and caused damage relationships. During the eruptive sequences of Mts Saint Helen (USA), Galunggung (Indonesia, 2 incidents), Redoubt (USA), Pinatubo (Philipinnes), Unzen (Japan), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Soufriere Hills (Lesser Antilles), Chaiten

  12. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria Species Isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Leshan Wannigama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with antibiotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India.Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods.Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana (64.04% and Bl. germanica (35.96%. However the predominant bacteria on cockroaches were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three.Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases.

  13. Impact of the microscale distribution of a Pseudomonas strain introduced into soil on potential contacts with indigenous bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Pallud, C.; Bertolla, F.

    2005-01-01

    Soil bioaugmentation is a promising approach in soil bioremediation and agriculture. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the fate and activity of introduced bacteria in soil and thus of their impact on the soil environment is still limited. The microscale spatial distribution of introduced bacteria has...... rarely been studied, although it determines the encounter probability between introduced cells and any components of the soil ecosystem and thus plays a role in the ecology of introduced bacteria. For example, conjugal gene transfer from introduced bacteria to indigenous bacteria requires cell......-to-cell contact, the probability of which depends on their spatial distribution. To quantitatively characterize the microscale distribution of an introduced bacterial population and its dynamics, a gfp-tagged derivative of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was introduced by percolation in repacked soil columns. Initially...

  14. Gravitational wave bursts from Primordial Black Hole hyperbolic encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Bellido, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We propose that Gravitational Wave (GW) bursts with millisecond durations can be explained by the GW emission from the hyperbolic encounters of Primordial Black Holes in dense clusters. These bursts are single events, with the bulk of the released energy happening during the closest approach, and emitted in frequencies within the AdvLIGO sensitivity range. We provide expressions for the shape of the GW emission in terms of the peak frequency and amplitude, and estimate the rates of these events for a variety of mass and velocity configurations. We study the regions of parameter space that will allow detection by both AdvLIGO and, in the future, LISA. We find for realistic configurations, with total mass M∼60 M⊙, relative velocities v∼0.01c, and impact parameters b∼10−3 AU, for AdvLIGO an expected event rate is O(10) events/yr/Gpc^3 with millisecond durations. For LISA, the typical duration is in the range of minutes to hours and the event-rate is O(10^3) events/yr/Gpc^3 for both 10^3 M⊙ IMBH and 1...

  15. “This is you”: Encountering Shakespeare with Tim Crouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soncini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers Tim Crouch's "I Shakespeare", a suite of monologue plays based on "The Tempest" ("I, Caliban", 2003, "A Midsummer Night's Dream" ("I, Peaseblossom", 2004, "Macbeth" ("I, Banquo", 2005, "Twelfth Night" ("I, Malvolio", 2010 and "Julius Caesar" ("I, Cinna (the poet", 2012. While originally designed for a young audience, Crouch's adaptations have been performed in a variety of theatrical contexts that have added new and probably unforeseen dimensions to their negotiations with Shakespeare. In my analysis I turn to the notion of mobility as a key analytical tool to elucidate the method, aims, as well as the broader cultural meaning of Tim Crouch's reworkings. In his hands, Shakespeare is mobilized as a powerful resource to activate spectators and emphasize their co-authorship in the process of theatre. Through a combination of textual strategies and performance methods, the monologues construct the identities of Shakespeare's characters as multiple and mutable and, in parallel, cast their addressees in fluid, often contradictory roles. My main line of argument is that the plays' propensity of motion is rooted in their emphasis on Shakespeare as a highly mobile cultural signifier which seems confirmed by the monologues' journeys outside the UK. The further adaptational practices triggered by these encounters with foreign audiences are testament to the flexibility of Crouch's dramaturgy of process and its aptitude to accommodate new discursive identities and adjust to each new context of reception.

  16. Smart City: Utilization of IT resources to encounter natural disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartama, D.; Mawengkang, Herman; Zarlis, M.; Sembiring, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes a framework for the utilization of IT resources in the face of natural disasters with the concept of Smart City in urban areas, which often face the earthquake, particularly in the city of North Sumatra and Aceh. Smart City is a city that integrates social development, capital, civic participation, and transportation with the use of information technology to support the preservation of natural resources and improved quality of life. Changes in the climate and environment have an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters, which tend to increase in recent decades, thus providing socio-economic impacts for the community. This study suggests a new approach that combines the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mobile IT-based Android in the form of Geospatial information to encounter disaster. Resources and IT Infrastructure in implementing the Smart Mobility with Mobile service can make urban areas as a Smart City. This study describes the urban growth using the Smart City concept and considers how a GIS and Mobile Systems can increase Disaster Management, which consists of Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery for recovery from natural disasters.

  17. Patient-centered communication in digital medical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Jordan M; Dyer, Karen E; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2017-10-01

    Patients are increasingly using the secure messaging function available through online patient portals to communicate with their health care providers, yet little is known about the characteristics of conversations that occur. The goal of this study is to describe the types of messages initiated by patients communicating via patient portals and to assess whether providers employ patient-centered strategies in their electronic responses. A total of 193 messages from 58 message threads between patients and providers were collected during a one-week period in a large health care system. Content analysis of patient messages was conducted and deductive analysis of provider responses was employed for two types of patient-centered communication, provider use of supportive talk and partnership building. Patients sent nearly double the number of messages compared to providers (65% versus 35%). Patient messages expressed concern, sought medical solutions and requested assistance with administrative tasks. Over half (53.4%) of provider replies did not contain language reflective of either partnership building or supportive talk. Partnership building language and supportive talk occurred at lower rates than documented in the literature on in-person encounters. This may represent a lost opportunity to strengthen the patient-provider relationship. As secure messaging is increasingly utilized as a form of patient-provider communication, it is important to understand how aspects of this communication channel, including the patient-centeredness of the language used by providers, impact patient-provider relationships and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Managing the bank service encounter: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Govender

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In financial services marketing, especially among banks, there are a limited number of chances to impress the customer, since the services are becoming more automated. Since personal interactions with customers are becoming less numerous, customers are expecting higher quality contacts and more individual treatment. This paper proposes a service encounter management model which may impact on the customers service experience. By matching service employees with customers, the effects of certain human resources strategies may be ascertained through the customers perception of the employee service quality and the overall service quality. Opsomming Daar is 'n beperkte geleenthede om die finansiele dienste klient, veral die in banke, te beindruk, aangesien dienste al meer ge-outomatiseer raak. Seinde persoonlike kontak met kliente al minder word, verwag kliente hoer gehalte kontak en meer individuele behandeling. Hierdie artikel stel 'n bestuursmodel vir diensontmoetings voor wat 'n impak op kliente se dienservarings mag he. Deur dienswerknemers met kliente te verbind kan bepaalde menslike hulpbronstrategie-effekte vasgestel word, deur middel van kliente se persepsie van werknemer-diensgehalte en algemene diensgehalte.

  19. An encounter between 4e cognition and attachment theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, Dean

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores a constructive revision of the conceptual underpinnings of Attachment Theory through an encounter with the diverse elements of 4e cognition. Attachment relationships involve the development of preference for one or a few carers and expectations about their availability and responsiveness as a haven of safety and a base from which to explore. In attachment theory, mental representations have been assigned a central organising role in explaining attachment phenomena. The 4e cognition approaches in cognitive science raise a number of questions about the development and interplay of attachment and cognition. These include: (1) the nature of what Bowlby called 'internal working models of attachment'; (2) the extent to which the infant-carer dyad functions as an extension of the infant's mind; and (3) whether Bowlby's attachment control system concept can be usefully re-framed in enactive terms where traditional cognitivist representations are: (3i) substituted for sensorimotor skill-focused mediating representations; (3ii) viewed as arising from autopoietic living organisms; and/or (3iii) mostly composed from the non-contentful mechanisms of basic minds? A theme that cross-cuts these research questions is how representations for capturing meaning, and structures for adaptive control, are both required to explain the full range of behaviour of interest to Attachment Theory researchers.

  20. UFOs and nukes. Extraordinary encounters at nuclear weapons sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Everyone knows about the reported recovery of a crashed alien spaceship near Roswell, New Mexico in July 1947. However, most people are unaware that, at the time of the incident, Roswell Army Airfield was home to the world's only atomic bomber squadron, the 509th Bomb Group. Was this merely a coincidence? During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union built thousands of the far more destructive hydrogen bombs, some of them a thousand times as destructive as the first atomic bombs dropped on Japan. If the nuclear standoff between the superpowers had erupted into World War III, human civilization - and perhaps the very survival of our species - would have been at risk. Did this ominous state of affairs come to the attention of outside observers? Was there a connection between the atomic bomber squadron based at Roswell and the reported crash of a UFO nearby? Did those who pilot the UFOs monitor the superpowers' nuclear arms race during the dangerous Cold War era? Do they scrutinize American and Russian weapons sites even now? UFOs and Nukes provides the startling and sometimes shocking answers to these questions. Veteran researcher Robert Hastings has investigated nuclear weapons-related UFO incidents for more than three decades and has interviewed more than 120 ex-US Air Force personnel, from former Airmen to retired Colonels, who witnessed extraordinary UFO encounters at nuclear weapons sites. Their amazing stories are presented here.

  1. Daily Encounter Cards—Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J.; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J.; Frank, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background  Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. Objective  The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Methods  Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Results  Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups (P < .001). A generalizability analysis demonstrated the majority of score variation was due to differences in DECs. The reliability with a single rater was 0.95. Conclusions  The CCERR is a reliable and valid tool to evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs. PMID:27777675

  2. Daily Encounter Cards-Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J; Frank, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups ( P  evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs.

  3. Possibilities of creating meaningful encounters in anesthesia nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Karin

    Anesthesia nursing is performed in a highly technological environment with restricted time for interaction with patients. Patients are in a vulnerable position, which can be characterized by anxiety regarding the anesthetic and surgical procedure. The bedrock of effective nursing care is to facil......Anesthesia nursing is performed in a highly technological environment with restricted time for interaction with patients. Patients are in a vulnerable position, which can be characterized by anxiety regarding the anesthetic and surgical procedure. The bedrock of effective nursing care...... of nursing. In this dissertation, focused ethnography is used to explore the interactions between patients and nurse anesthetists before general anesthesia. Moreover, it will explore the professional identity of nurse anesthetists, in relation to the situation of preparing patients for general anesthesia....... A micro-substantive theory is developed regarding the opportunities for creating meaningful encounters between patients and nurse anesthetists. The theory is based on three dominant motivations for interaction in anesthesia nursing. The context of care is not committed and responsive to the core elements...

  4. Complications encountered in contrast roentgenography of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.

    1983-01-01

    The following problems are analysed referring to the literature and to practical experience of the authors: - Types of complications encountered in contrast roentgenography or in endoscopy of the colon, and their frequency. - Risk factors and secondary injuries. Intestinal perforation is the most frequent complication experienced as a consequence of contrast barium enema. The main risk factors are to be seen in the use of balloon-tipped catheters, or of intestinal tubes with hard tips, in a rise of hydrostatic pressure above 80 cm water column, and in an excessively strong air insufflation. Frequency of complications for contrast barium enema is stated to be 0.002 p.c. (Welin and Welin, 1980) or 0.08 p.c. (Clark et al. 1961). The frequency of perforations in rectoscopy is shown to be in the same order of magnitude. For diagnostic colonoscopy, the frequency of complications is about one per mil. Existing diseases such as carcinoma, diverticulosis, diverticulitis, colitis ulcerosa, or morbus Crohn are factors enhancing the risk. Also, patients of advanced age are running a higher risk due to decreasing intestine wall elasticity with age. Previous biopsy or excision forbids contrast barium enema for the next two weeks. Injuries and sequelae to be expected after perforation are abscesses, phlegmon, peritonitis including formation of adhesion and bands, retroperitoneal fibrosis with formation of hydronephrosis, and anus praeter, the latter being temporary or permanent. An extensive literature survey covering 200 publications has been prepared and is available from the authors upon request. (orig.) [de

  5. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  6. Occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in dogs presented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otitis is one of the most common infections in dogs. This has been associated with misuse of antibiotics thereby promoting the emergence of multi-resistant micro-organisms. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial pathogens associated with otitis in dogs ...

  7. Screening and isolation of halophilic bacteria producing industrially important enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Karan, Ram; Kapoor, Sanjay; S P, Singh; S K, Khare

    2012-10-01

    Halophiles are excellent sources of enzymes that are not only salt stable but also can withstand and carry out reactions efficiently under extreme conditions. The aim of the study was to isolate and study the diversity among halophilic bacteria producing enzymes of industrial value. Screening of halophiles from various saline habitats of India led to isolation of 108 halophilic bacteria producing industrially important hydrolases (amylases, lipases and proteases). Characterization of 21 potential isolates by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analysis found them related to Marinobacter, Virgibacillus, Halobacillus, Geomicrobium, Chromohalobacter, Oceanobacillus, Bacillus, Halomonas and Staphylococcus genera. They belonged to moderately halophilic group of bacteria exhibiting salt requirement in the range of 3-20%. There is significant diversity among halophiles from saline habitats of India. Preliminary characterization of crude hydrolases established them to be active and stable under more than one extreme condition of high salt, pH, temperature and presence of organic solvents. It is concluded that these halophilic isolates are not only diverse in phylogeny but also in their enzyme characteristics. Their enzymes may be potentially useful for catalysis under harsh operational conditions encountered in industrial processes. The solvent stability among halophilic enzymes seems a generic novel feature making them potentially useful in non-aqueous enzymology.

  8. Primo Levi and Franz Kafka: an Unheimlich Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bellin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1983 Giulio Einaudi asked Primo Levi to translate Kafka’s Trial for the new series «Scrittori tradotti da scrittori». The proposal sounded original and provocative, and Levi accepted eagerly. The translation, however, had a negative effect on him. While working on The Trial, Levi relived his Auschwitz season, revived his deepest fears, and fell back into depression: he felt as if he was himself on trial. This was partially due to a clash of literary styles as well as to two contrasting – and yet at times kindred – conceptions of language and communication. The present study addresses the following questions: were Levi and Kafka’s literary styles as opposed as Levi implies? How is Levi’s “obscure part” connected to Kafka? Why did Levi associate The Trial with his Holocaust experience and identify himself with Josef K.? What does Levi’s encounter with Kafka tell us about the shame of being human and our capacity to give an account of ourselves? By investigating Levi’s uncanny encounter with Kafka, my essay will discuss Levi’s theory of language, showing how the Levi-Kafka intersection opens up new ways of interpreting Levi’s concerns about communication, the work of the witness, moral responsibility, and shame, which coalesced into the reflections of The Drowned and the Saved.Nel 1983 Giulio Einaudi chiese a Primo Levi di tradurre Il processo di Kafka per la nuova serie Scrittori tradotti da scrittori. La proposta parse a Levi originale ed intelligente, sicché la accettò immediatamente. La traduzione ebbe tuttavia un effetto negativo su di lui. Mentre lavorava al Processo, Levi rivisse la stagione di Auschwitz, risentì le sue più profonde paure e ricadde in depressione. Si sentiva come se fosse lui stesso processato. Ciò era in parte dovuto a due opposte concezioni di stile letterario e a due divergenti – anche se a volte paradossalmente affini – concezioni del linguaggio e della comunicazione. Il presente

  9. Human body may produce bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the acquisition of foreign genes by organisms. The occurrence of HGT among bacteria in the environment is assumed to have implications in the risk assessment of genetically modified bacteria which are released into the environment. First, introduced genetic sequences from a genetically modified bacterium could be transferred to indigenous micro-organisms and alter their genome and subsequently their ecological niche. Second, the genetically modified bacterium released into the environment might capture mobile genetic elements (MGE) from indigenous micro-organisms which could extend its ecological potential. Thus, for a risk assessment it is important to understand the extent of HGT and genome plasticity of bacteria in the environment. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge on HGT between bacteria as a crucial mechanism contributing to bacterial adaptability and diversity. In view of the use of GM crops and microbes in agricultural settings, in this mini-review we focus particularly on the presence and role of MGE in soil and plant-associated bacteria and the factors affecting gene transfer.

  11. Medical device development: managing conflicts of interest encountered by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baim, Donald S; Donovan, Aine; Smith, John J; Briefs, Nancy; Geoffrion, Richard; Feigal, David; Kaplan, Aaron V

    2007-04-01

    New technologies introduced over the past three decades have transformed medical diagnosis and treatment, and significantly improved patient outcomes. These changes have been mediated by the introduction of new medical devices, particularly for the treatment of cardiovascular, orthopedic, and ophthalmic disorders. These devices, in turn, have created large markets and spawned a burgeoning medical device industry, including six Fortune 500 companies whose combined market capitalization now exceeds 400 billion dollars. This success story, which has unquestionably benefited patients and society alike, has been dependent upon an intense collaboration among industry, clinicians, and regulatory authorities. However, when physicians actively involved in patient care participate in such collaborations, they are increasingly vulnerable to creating potential conflicts between these two (clinical and device development) roles. Such conflicts, which may ultimately erode public trust, have important consequences not only for the individual physicians, but also for their parent institutions, their patients, sponsoring companies, and the entire clinical research enterprise that makes the development and introduction of new devices possible. The third Dartmouth Device Development Symposium held in October 2005 brought together thought leaders within the medical device community, including academicians, clinical investigators, regulators from the Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), large and small device manufacturers and the financial (venture capital and investment banks) community. The Symposium examined the conflicts of interest encountered during the early development and commercialization of a medical device. The goal of these discussions was to (1) identify and characterize the conflicts that arise and (2) provide strategies to address these conflicts. This manuscript was prepared by a writing committee to provide a summary

  12. Translational neonatology research: transformative encounters across species and disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Mie S; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2018-01-22

    This paper explores the laborious and intimate work of turning bodies of research animals into models of human patients. Based on ethnographic research in the interdisciplinary Danish research centre NEOMUNE, we investigate collaboration across species and disciplines, in research aiming at improving survival for preterm infants. NEOMUNE experimental studies on piglets evolved as a platform on which both basic and clinical scientists exercised professional authority. Guided by the field of multi-species research, we explore the social and material agency of research animals in the production of human health. Drawing on Anna Tsing's concept of "collaborative survival", we show that sharing the responsibility of the life and death of up to twenty-five preterm piglets fostered not only a collegial solidarity between basic and clinical scientists, but also a transformative cross-fertilization across species and disciplines-a productive "contamination"-facilitating the day-to-day survival of piglets, the academic survival of scientists and the promise of survival of preterm infants. Contamination spurred intertwined identity shifts that increased the porosity between the pig laboratory and the neonatal intensive care unit. Of particular significance was the ability of the research piglets to flexibly become animal-infant-patient hybrids in need of a united effort from basic and clinical researchers. However, 'hybrid pigs' also entailed a threat to the demarcation between humans and animals that consolidates the use of animals in biomedical research, and efforts were continuously done to keep contamination within spatial limits. We conclude that contamination facilitates transformative encounters, yet needs spatial containment to materialize bench-to-bedside translation.

  13. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  14. The determination and arrangement of a combination of enzyme lactate dehydrogenase of bacteria Acinetobacter sp. as a device the identity important bacteria agent composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmawati, D.; Puspitaningrum, R.; Muzajjanah

    2017-07-01

    The number of garbage generated by the industry or society is a usual problem encountered by almost all urban centers, especially large cities such as Jakarta. Waste prevention strategy required quickly and accurately. One strategy for tackling the Junk was getting lactic acid-producing bacteria. It has been shown that lactic acid can increase the acceleration of organic matter such as an overhaul of lignin and cellulose as well as out causing toxic compounds arising from decay. This research will be conducted on the determination and characterization of the enzyme-producing compost bacteria LDH lactate dehydrogenase LDH - which in isolation from the garbage Landfill Rawasari. Methodology: Research carried out consists: isolation of lactic acid-producing bacteria; identification of microscopic, macroscopic and staining Gram; cellulose assay, and optimization of PCR conditions LDH enzymes producing bacteria. Isolation is performed by dilution method and the direct method. As many as 5-point sampling. Each stage is conducted from 10 grams of soil from the top surface of the compost. Isolation results obtained 100 isolate the bacteria. Base on the characteristic of macroscopic and microscopic observations retrieved 14 isolates of bacteria have shaped rods and brought forth a negative kind of Gram positive staining. Bacterial isolates with codes (BK1; BK3; BK4; BK5; BK6; BK7; BK8; BK9; BK10; BK11: BK12; BK 13). The potential bacteria with ability produce lactate dehydrogenase was BK1 and BK3. Base for analysis phylogenetic there was identification bacteria bak1 and bak3 where Acinetobacter sp.

  15. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  16. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  17. Administrative encounters in general practice: low value or hidden value care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Lyndal J; Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena C

    2018-02-19

    To determine the frequency of general practice administrative encounters, and to determine whether they represent low value care. Secondary analysis of data from the Bettering Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) dataset. 1 568 100 GP-patient encounters in Australia, 2000-01 to 2015-16. An annual nationally representative random sample of about 1000 GPs, who each recorded the details of 100 consecutive encounters with patients. Proportions of general practice encounters that were potentially low value care encounters (among the patient's reasons for the encounter was at least one administrative, medication, or referral request) and potentially low value care only encounters (such reasons were the sole reason for the encounter). For 2015-16, we also examined other health care provided by GPs at these encounters. During 2015-16, 18.5% (95% CI, 17.7-19.3%) of 97 398 GP-patient encounters were potentially low value care request encounters; 7.4% (95% CI, 7.0-7.9%) were potentially low value care only encounters. Administrative work was requested at 3.8% (95% CI, 3.5-4.0%) of GP visits, 35.4% of which were for care planning and coordination, 33.5% for certification, and 31.2% for other reasons. Medication requests were made at 13.1% (95% CI, 12.4-13.7%) of encounters; other health care was provided at 57.9% of medication request encounters, counselling, advice or education at 23.4%, and pathology testing was ordered at 16.7%. Referrals were requested at 2.8% (95% CI, 1.7-3.0%) of visits, at 69.4% of which additional health care was provided. The problems managed most frequently at potentially low value care only encounters were chronic diseases. Most patients requested certificates, medications and referrals in the context of seeking help for other health needs. Additional health care, particularly for chronic diseases, was provided at most GP administrative encounters. The MBS Review should consider the hidden value of these encounters.

  18. Should we assess clinical performance in single patient encounters or consistent behaviors of clinical performance over a series of encounters? A qualitative exploration of narrative trainee profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, M.; Dielissen, P.W.; Timmerman, A.; Ram, P.; Maiburg, B.; Muris, J.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of tools have been developed to assess performance which typically use a single clinical encounter as a source for making competency inferences. This strategy may miss consistent behaviors. We therefore explored experienced clinical supervisors' perceptions of behavioral

  19. Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography...westward flow in the North Equatorial Current (NEC) encounters tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt... Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether appreciable energy/momentum is lost from the large-scale NEC flow to smaller scales and

  20. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander

    OpenAIRE

    Trish L Varao Sousa; Jonathan S A Carriere; Dan eSmilek

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage part...

  1. Quantifying the Effects of Gas-Rich Flyby Encounters on Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Julie; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has shown that flyby encounters may be a common event in a galaxy's lifetime. Galaxy flybys are a one-time encounter when two halos interpenetrate, but unlike a galaxy merger, the two halos later detach. Relatively little work has been done to assess how flybys affect galaxy evolution. We present preliminary results of a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical + N-body simulations of gas-rich flyby encounters, concentrating on Milky Way-like primaries. We track the bulk changes in structure, star formation history, kinematics, and morphology over a broad span of flyby encounters.

  2. ENDOSPORES OF THERMOPHILIC FERMENTATIVE BACTERIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  3. Alternative sources of Legionella bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, H.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Legionella bacteria can cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD) in humans. Symptoms of LD can range from mild disease to severe pneumonia with sometimes fatal outcome. In the Netherlands, the most important infective agent is Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila infection is associated with aquatic

  4. Programmed survival of soil bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren; Sternberg, Claus

    Biological containment systems have been developed for Pseudomonas putida and related soil bacteria. The systems are based on combinations of lethal genes and regulated gene expression. Two types of killing function have been employed: 1) A membrane protein interfering with the membrane potential...

  5. Automated radiometric detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    A new radiometric method called BACTEC, used for the detection of bacteria in cultures or in supposedly sterile samples, was discussed from the standpoint of methodology, both automated and semi-automated. Some of the results obtained so far were reported and some future applications and development possibilities were described. In this new method, the test sample is incubated in a sealed vial with a liquid culture medium containing a 14 C-labeled substrate. If bacteria are present, they break down the substrate, producing 14 CO 2 which is periodically extracted from the vial as a gas and is tested for radioactivity. If this gaseous radioactivity exceeds a threshold level, it is evidence of bacterial presence and growth in the test vial. The first application was for the detection of bacteria in the blood cultures of hospital patients. Data were presented showing typical results. Also discussed were future applications, such as rapid screening for bacteria in urine industrial sterility testing and the disposal of used 14 C substrates. (Mukohata, S.)

  6. Synthetic Biology in Streptomyces Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer . Genome sequencing has revealed that

  7. Deodorant bacteria; Des bacteries desodorisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 30 - Ales (France)

    1998-02-01

    Purifying bacteria: if this concept is not new, its application to gases cleansing has only been developed recently. This method allows to eliminate the volatile organic compounds and the gaseous effluents odors which come from industrial sites. Three bioreactors types exist at the present time. Their principles are explained. (O.M.) 6 refs.

  8. Molecular Structure of Endotoxins from Gram-negative Marine Bacteria: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Molinaro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria are microrganisms that have adapted, through millions of years, to survival in environments often characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, namely pressure, temperature and salinity. The main interest in the research on marine bacteria is due to their ability to produce several biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, or their portions, from Gram-negative marine bacteria, have often shown low virulence, and represent potential candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock. Besides, the molecular architecture of such molecules is related to the possibility of thriving in marine habitats, shielding the cell from the disrupting action of natural stress factors. Over the last few years, the depiction of a variety of structures of lipids A, core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been given. In particular, here we will examine the most recently encountered structures for bacteria belonging to the genera Shewanella, Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas, of the γ-Proteobacteria phylum, and to the genera Flavobacterium, Cellulophaga, Arenibacter and Chryseobacterium, of the Cytophaga- Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention will be paid to the chemical features expressed by these structures (characteristic monosaccharides, non-glycidic appendages, phosphate groups, to the typifying traits of LPSs from marine bacteria and to the possible correlation existing between such features and the adaptation, over years, of bacteria to marine environments.

  9. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  10. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  11. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. EU Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle Bisgaard

    The antimicrobial resistance data on zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2013, submitted by 28 EU MSs, were jointly analysed by EFSA and ECDC. Resistance in zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter species from humans, animals and food, and resistance in indicator Escherichia coli and enterococci...... from broilers and/or pigs in several MSs. Multi-resistance and co-resistance to critically important antimicrobials in both human and animal isolates were uncommon. A minority of isolates from animals belonging to a few Salmonella serovars (notably Kentucky and Infantis) had a high level of resistance......,as well as data on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in animals and food were addressed. ‘Microbiological’ resistance was assessed using epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values in animal and food isolates and, where possible, in human isolates. For human isolates interpreted based on clinical...

  12. Common Ground in Cross Cultural Communication: Sequential and Institutional Contexts in Front Desk Service Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Mardi

    2000-01-01

    Looks at interactions between English-as-a-Second-Language students and English-speaking staff at the front desk of a language institute. Analysis focuses on the sequential organization of front desk encounters, revealing ways the participant's shared orientations to the organization and goals of these encounters facilitate native…

  13. A Survey Instrument for Measuring the Experiential Value of Employee-Tourist Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    In this paper, we develop and test a survey instrument that aims at estimating the experiential value of employee-tourist encounters in destination-based tourism companies, as well as the characteristics of encounters that affect such experiential value. We suggest that such an instrument can...... for their visitors, rather than simply delivering service quality....

  14. BodyHeat Encounter: Performing Technology in Pedagogical Spaces of Surveillance/Intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Lynn; Ricketts, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    What occurs when videographer and performer encounter each other through the lens of a camera? This collaborative performative inquiry focuses on embodiment and emergent narrative as realized through an encounter between technology and the visceral body--a relational body that smells, touches, sees, hears and feels the emergent world through…

  15. Multiple Codes, Multiple Impressions: An Analysis of Doctor-Client Encounters in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebunmi, Akin

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on doctor-client interactions have largely focused on monolingual encounters and the interactional effects and functions of the languages used in the communication between doctors and their clients. They have neither, to a large extent, examined the several codes employed in single encounters and their pragmatic roles nor given…

  16. Intercultural Reflection through the "Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters": Students' Accounts of Their Images of Alterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez García, María del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The Council of Europe's "Autobiography of Intercultural Encounter" (AIE) is a tool to develop intercultural competence (IC) in education by encouraging users to reflect upon and learn from momentous intercultural encounters they have experienced face to face. Its parallel resource, the "Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters…

  17. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

  18. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  19. Oligotrophic bacteria isolated from clinical materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Y; Ihmori, M; Yamaguchi, J

    1995-01-01

    Oligotrophic bacteria (oligotrophs) are microorganisms that grow in extremely nutritionally deficient conditions in which the concentrations of organic substances are low. Many oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from clinical materials including urine, sputum, swabbings of the throat, vaginal discharges, and others. Seventy-seven strains of oligotrophic bacteria from 871 samples of clinical material were isolated. A relatively higher frequency of isolation of oligotrophic bacteria was shown ...

  20. Geobiology of Marine Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    prokaryotic cells of diverse phylogeny when grown in media containing 45 1mM iron, suggesting some kind of detoxification function . The inclusions were...salt marsh productivity. FISH also showed that aggregates consist of genetically identical cells. QPCR data indicated that populations are finely...my advisor Katrina Edwards for taking a chance on someone who initially knew nothing about magnetotactic bacteria, microbial ecology , or microbiology

  1. Association of volume of patient encounters with residents' in-training examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Stenerson, Matthew B; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Homme, Jason H; McDonald, Furman S

    2013-08-01

    Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.

  2. Nitrogen-fixing methane-utilizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Methane occurs abundantly in nature. In the presence of oxygen this gas may be metabolized by bacteria that are able to use it as carbon and energy source. Several types of bacteria involved in the oxidation of methane have been described in literature. Methane-utilizing bacteria have in

  3. Laser-Based Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous in our world. From our homes, to our work environment, to our own bodies, bacteria are the omnipresent although often unobserved companions to human life. Physicists are typically untroubled professionally by the presence of these bacteria, as their study usually falls safely outside the realm of our typical domain. In the…

  4. Current strategies for improving food bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, O P; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in

  5. Ecology of mycophagous collimonas bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höppener-Ogawa, Sachie

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Collimonas consist of soil bacteria that can grow at expense of living fungal hyphae i.e. they are mycophagous. This PhD studies deals with the ecology of mycophagous bacteria in soil using collimonads as model organisms. Collimonads were found to be widely

  6. Cool temperatures reduce antifungal activity of symbiotic bacteria of threatened amphibians--implications for disease management and patterns of decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Daskin

    Full Text Available Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is a widespread disease of amphibians responsible for population declines and extinctions. Some bacteria from amphibians' skins produce antimicrobial substances active against Bd. Supplementing populations of these cutaneous antifungal bacteria might help manage chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians. However, the activity of protective bacteria may depend upon environmental conditions. Biocontrol of Bd in nature thus requires knowledge of how environmental conditions affect their anti-Bd activity. For example, Bd-driven amphibian declines have often occurred at temperatures below Bd's optimum range. It is possible these declines occurred due to reduced anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts at cool temperatures. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on chytridiomycosis development could also improve risk evaluation for amphibian populations yet to encounter Bd. We characterized, at a range of temperatures approximating natural seasonal variation, the anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts from the skins of three species of rainforest tree frogs (Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, and Litoria serrata. All three species declined during chytridiomycosis outbreaks in the late 1980s and early 1990s and have subsequently recovered to differing extents. We collected anti-Bd bacterial symbionts from frogs and cultured the bacteria at constant temperatures from 8 °C to 33 °C. Using a spectrophotometric assay, we monitored Bd growth in cell-free supernatants (CFSs from each temperature treatment. CFSs from 11 of 24 bacteria showed reduced anti-Bd activity in vitro when they were produced at cool temperatures similar to those encountered by the host species during population declines. Reduced anti-Bd activity of metabolites produced at low temperatures may, therefore, partially explain the association between Bd-driven declines and cool temperatures. We show that to

  7. Cool temperatures reduce antifungal activity of symbiotic bacteria of threatened amphibians--implications for disease management and patterns of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Joshua H; Bell, Sara C; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a widespread disease of amphibians responsible for population declines and extinctions. Some bacteria from amphibians' skins produce antimicrobial substances active against Bd. Supplementing populations of these cutaneous antifungal bacteria might help manage chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians. However, the activity of protective bacteria may depend upon environmental conditions. Biocontrol of Bd in nature thus requires knowledge of how environmental conditions affect their anti-Bd activity. For example, Bd-driven amphibian declines have often occurred at temperatures below Bd's optimum range. It is possible these declines occurred due to reduced anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts at cool temperatures. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on chytridiomycosis development could also improve risk evaluation for amphibian populations yet to encounter Bd. We characterized, at a range of temperatures approximating natural seasonal variation, the anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts from the skins of three species of rainforest tree frogs (Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, and Litoria serrata). All three species declined during chytridiomycosis outbreaks in the late 1980s and early 1990s and have subsequently recovered to differing extents. We collected anti-Bd bacterial symbionts from frogs and cultured the bacteria at constant temperatures from 8 °C to 33 °C. Using a spectrophotometric assay, we monitored Bd growth in cell-free supernatants (CFSs) from each temperature treatment. CFSs from 11 of 24 bacteria showed reduced anti-Bd activity in vitro when they were produced at cool temperatures similar to those encountered by the host species during population declines. Reduced anti-Bd activity of metabolites produced at low temperatures may, therefore, partially explain the association between Bd-driven declines and cool temperatures. We show that to avoid

  8. AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan

    2008-11-01

    Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between

  9. The importance of motivation, weapons, and foul odors in driving encounter competition in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Wilmers, Christopher C; Elbroch, L Mark; Golla, Julie M; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2016-08-01

    Encounter competition is interference competition in which animals directly contend for resources. Ecological theory predicts the trait that determines the resource holding potential (RHP), and hence the winner of encounter competition, is most often body size or mass. The difficulties of observing encounter competition in complex organisms in natural environments, however, has limited opportunities to test this theory across diverse species. We studied the outcome of encounter competition contests among mesocarnivores at deer carcasses in California to determine the most important variables for winning these contests. We found some support for current theory in that body mass is important in determining the winner of encounter competition, but we found that other factors including hunger and species-specific traits were also important. In particular, our top models were "strength and hunger" and "size and hunger," with models emphasizing the complexity of variables influencing outcomes of encounter competition. In addition, our wins above predicted (WAP) statistic suggests that an important aspect that determines the winner of encounter competition is species-specific advantages that increase their RHP, as bobcats (Lynx rufus) and spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis) won more often than predicted based on mass. In complex organisms, such as mesocarnivores, species-specific adaptations, including strategic behaviors, aggressiveness, and weapons, contribute to competitive advantages and may allow certain species to take control or defend resources better than others. Our results help explain how interspecific competition shapes the occurrence patterns of species in ecological communities. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar encounters with long-period comets (Feng+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have conducted simulations of the perturbation of the Oort cloud in order to estimate the significance of known encounters in generating long-period comets. We collected the data of stellar encounters from three sources: (Bailer-Jones, 2015, Cat. J/A+A/575/A35, hereafter BJ15), Dybczynski & Berski (2015MNRAS.449.2459D), and Mamajek et al. (2015ApJ...800L..17M). Following BJ15, we use the term 'object' to refer to each encountering star in our catalogue. A specific star may appear more than once but with different data, thus leading to a different object. (1 data file).

  12. Initiating Service Encounter-based Innovation by Word-of-Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to set up a natural experiment as action research and to develop a framework of cognitive distance of informants to improve the initiation of service encounter-based innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Natural experiment as action research in one Scandinavian case...... transcriptions of interviews and transcriptions. Research limitations/implications – Only one Scandinavian company and a limited number of informants were activated. Also, the time period only included the initiation phase of service encounter-based innovation. Practical implications – Three different strategies...... in an emerging innovation field, open/user-driven innovation. Theory from business marketing, service encounter and innovation is also used....

  13. Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, M; Muñoz, P; Marín, M; Goenaga, M A; Idígoras Viedma, P; de Alarcón, A; Lepe, J A; Sousa Regueiro, D; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Pajarón, M; Costas, C; García-López, M V; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Moreno, M; Bouza, E

    2017-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1-3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56-73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacteria and vampirism in cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C

    2013-09-01

    A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters : A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; van Meeteren, Marijke M.; Van Dijk, M; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  16. Patient–provider interaction during medication encounters: a study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M. van; Bemt, B.J.F. van de; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  17. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters: A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.L.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. METHODS: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  18. VG2 LECP 0.4S HIGH RESOLUTION SATURN FAR ENCOUNTER DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This far encounter data set consists of electron and ion counting rate data from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 2 while the spacecraft...

  19. Patient participation during oncological encounters: barriers and facilitators experienced by elderly cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Driesenaar, J.A.; Henselmans, I.; Heijmans, M.; Verboom, J.; Dulmen, S. van

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To enhance patient participation during (oncological) encounters, this study aims to gain insight into communication barriers and supportive interventions experienced by elderly patients with cancer. Method: A mixed method design, including both quantitative (secondary survey data

  20. Projected role of nuclear power in Egypt and problems encountered in implementing the first nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat, K.E.A.; Sirry, H.; El-Fouly, M.F.; El-Sharkawy, E.; El-Saiedi, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and projected power demands in Egypt and the factors behind the decision to introduce a nuclear power generation program. Different problems encountered and anticipated in introducing the first nuclear power plant are also discussed

  1. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  2. Potentials and pitfalls of the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringskou, Lea Thomsen; Gravesen, David Thore

    Our research offers a qualitative, in depth-perspective on the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools in Denmark. In our presentration we will, in a cross-cultural perspective, reappraise the roles of leisure-time pedagogues and discuss the potentials and pitfalls of the encou......Our research offers a qualitative, in depth-perspective on the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools in Denmark. In our presentration we will, in a cross-cultural perspective, reappraise the roles of leisure-time pedagogues and discuss the potentials and pitfalls...... of the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools. In 2014, the Danish Primary School was reformed. To a considerable extent, the reform can be understood in response to receding results in international tests (Knudsen 2010). The official aim of the reform is to challenge all pupils, regardless...... the encounter between leisure-time centers and primary schools?...

  3. VG2 LECP 0.4S HIGH RESOLUTION SATURN NEAR ENCOUNTER DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This near encounter data set consists of electron and ion counting rate data from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on Voyager 1 while the spacecraft...

  4. Joseph Maran and Philipp W. Stockhammer (eds. Materiality and Social Practice: Transformative Capacities of Intercultural Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Matić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prikaz zbornika Materiality and Social Practice: Transformative Capacities of Intercultural Encounters, urednika Džozefa Marana i Filipa Stokamera, Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow Books, 220 pp.

  5. Revisiting Rossion and Pourtois with new ratings for automated complexity, familiarity, beauty, and encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Alex; Street, Nichola; Helmy, Mai

    2017-08-01

    Differences between norm ratings collected when participants are asked to consider more than one picture characteristic are contrasted with the traditional methodological approaches of collecting ratings separately for image constructs. We present data that suggest that reporting normative data, based on methodological procedures that ask participants to consider multiple image constructs simultaneously, could potentially confounded norm data. We provide data for two new image constructs, beauty and the extent to which participants encountered the stimuli in their everyday lives. Analysis of this data suggests that familiarity and encounter are tapping different image constructs. The extent to which an observer encounters an object predicts human judgments of visual complexity. Encountering an image was also found to be an important predictor of beauty, but familiarity with that image was not. Taken together, these results suggest that continuing to collect complexity measures from human judgments is a pointless exercise. Automated measures are more reliable and valid measures, which are demonstrated here as predicting human preferences.

  6. Pathogenic mechanisms of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Masa, Roland; Venkei, Annamária; Mészáros, Sándor; Minarovits, Janos

    2017-06-01

    We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression. Gene silencing by CpG methylation and histone deacetylation, mediated by cellular enzymes, also occurred in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. M. tuberculosis elicited cell type-specific epigenetic changes: it caused increased DNA methylation in macrophages, but induced demethylation, deposition of euchromatic histone marks and activation of immune-related genes in dendritic cells. A secreted transposase of Acinetobacter baumannii silenced a cellular gene, whereas Mycobacterium leprae altered the epigenotype, phenotype, and fate of infected Schwann cells. The 'keystone pathogen' oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induced local DNA methylation and increased the level of histone acetylation in host cells. These epigenetic changes at the biofilm-gingiva interface may contribute to the development of periodontitis. Epigenetic regulators produced by intracellular bacteria alter the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of host cells and play an important role in pathogenesis.

  7. Money and transmission of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Habip; Voss, Timothy A; Voss, Andreas

    2013-08-28

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people's behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider.

  8. Resistance of Bacteria to Biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-01

    Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years. One problem remains the definition of "resistance" and how to measure resistance to a biocide. This has yet to be addressed globally, although the measurement of resistance is becoming more pressing, with regulators both in Europe and in the United States demanding that manufacturers provide evidence that their biocidal products will not impact on bacterial resistance. Alongside in vitro evidence of potential antimicrobial cross-resistance following biocide exposure, our understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial resistance and, more recently, our understanding of the effect of biocides to induce a mechanism(s) of resistance in bacteria has improved. This article aims to provide an understanding of the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria following a biocide exposure. The sections provide evidence of the occurrence of bacterial resistance and its mechanisms of action and debate how to measure bacterial resistance to biocides. Examples pertinent to the veterinary field are used where appropriate.

  9. Differential scanning calorimetry of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C A; Mackey, B M; Parsons, S E

    1986-04-01

    Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry of a range of bacteria of different heat resistances were compared. Equations were derived to calculate the rate at which the numbers of viable organisms in a calorimeter decline as the temperature is raised at a constant rate. Vegetative bacteria scanned at 10 degrees C min-1 showed multi-peaked thermograms with four major peaks (denoted m, n, p and q) occurring in the regions 68-73, 77-84, 89-99 and 105-110 degrees C respectively. Exceptions were that peak m (the largest peak) occurred at 79-82 degrees C in Bacillus stearothermophilus and an additional peak, r, was detected in Escherichia coli at 119 degrees C. At temperatures below the main peak m there were major differences in thermograms between species. There was a direct relationship between the onset of thermal denaturation and the thermoresistance of different organisms. Heat-sensitive organisms displayed thermogram features which were absent in the more heat-resistant types. When samples were cooled to 5 degrees C and re-heated, a small endothermic peak, pr, was observed at the same temperature as p. Peaks p and pr were identified as the melting endotherms of DNA. In all vegetative organisms examined, maximum death rates, computed from published D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the onset of thermal denaturation, i.e. cell death and irreversible denaturation of cell components occurred within the same temperature range.

  10. Desistance from Delinquency through Social Encounters with Significant Others: Case Studies of Japanese Juvenile Criminals

    OpenAIRE

    SHIRAI, Toshiaki; SATOMI, Akira; KONDO, Junya

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify how young people stop delinquency, we conducted life history analysis, survey study and case studies. The findings indicate that, first, the encounter with significant persons can make them stop delinquency through the capacity to tolerate their depression and, second, the psychologists can play a role of the significant other using the framework of rehabilitation institutions. The encounter with significant others offers intrinsic motivation and the readiness for their pe...

  11. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters: A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; van Meeteren, Marijke M; van Dijk, Marloes; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T; Bouvy, Marcel L; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset

    2015-07-01

    To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed based on an observation protocol for the following information: content of encounter, initiator of a theme and pharmacy staff's communication style. In total, 119 encounters were recorded which concerned 42 first prescriptions, 16 first refill prescriptions and 61 follow-up refill prescriptions. During all encounters, discussion was mostly initiated by pharmacy staff (85%). In first prescription encounters topics most frequently discussed included instructions for use (83%) and dosage instructions (95%). In first refill encounters, patient experiences such as adverse effects (44%) and beneficial effects (38%) were regularly discussed in contrast to follow-up refills (7% and 5%). Patients' opinion on medication was hardly discussed. Pharmacy staff in outpatient pharmacies generally provide practical information, less frequently they discuss patients' experiences and seldom discuss patients' perceptions and preferences about prescribed medication. This study shows there is room for improvement, as communication is still not according to professional guidelines. To implement professional guidelines successfully, it is necessary to identify underlying reasons for not following the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal characteristics of decisions in hospital encounters: a threshold for shared decision making? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2014-11-01

    To identify and characterize physicians' statements that contained evidence of clinically relevant decisions in encounters with patients in different hospital settings. Qualitative analysis of 50 videotaped encounters from wards, the emergency room (ER) and outpatient clinics in a department of internal medicine at a Norwegian university hospital. Clinical decisions could be grouped in a temporal order: decisions which had already been made, and were brought into the encounter by the physician (preformed decisions), decisions made in the present (here-and-now decisions), and decisions prescribing future actions given a certain course of events (conditional decisions). Preformed decisions were a hallmark in the ward and conditional decisions a main feature of ER encounters. Clinical decisions related to a patient-physician encounter spanned a time frame exceeding the duration of the encounter. While a distribution of decisions over time and space fosters sharing and dilution of responsibility between providers, it makes the decision making process hard to access for patients. In order to plan when and how to involve patients in decisions, physicians need increased awareness of when clinical decisions are made, who usually makes them, and who should make them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  14. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  15. Close Stellar Encounters in Young, Substructured, Dissolving Star Clusters: Statistics and Effects on Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  16. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  17. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  18. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  20. Magnetotactic bacteria at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.B.; Blakemore, R.P.; Araujo, F.F.T. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.; Danon, J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetotatic bacteria are observed in freshwater and marine sediments of Fortaleza, Brazil, situated close to the geomagnetic equator. Both South-seeking and North-seeking bacteria are present in roughly equal numbers in the same samples. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the vertical component of the geomagnetic field selects the predominant polarity type among magnetotactic bacteria in natural environments. (Author) [pt

  1. Bioenergetics of photoheterotrophic bacteria in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchman, David L; Hanson, Thomas E

    2013-04-01

    Photoheterotrophic microbes, such as proteorhodopsin (PR)-based phototrophic (PRP) and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, are well known to be abundant in the oceans, potentially playing unique roles in biogeochemical cycles. However, the contribution of phototrophy to the energy requirements of these bacteria has not been quantitatively examined to date. To better understand the implications of photoheterophy in the oceans, we calculated energy benefits and costs of phototrophy and compared net benefits with maintenance costs. Benefits depend on the number of photosynthetic units (PSUs), absorption cross-section area of each PSU as function of wavelength, the in situ light quality, and the energy yield per absorbed photon. For costs we considered the energy required for the synthesis of pigments, amino acids and proteins in each PSU. Our calculations indicate that AAP bacteria harvest more light energy than do PRP bacteria, but the costs of phototrophy are much higher for AAP bacteria. Still, the net energy gained by AAP bacteria is often sufficient to meet maintenance costs, while that is not the case for PRP bacteria except with high light intensities and large numbers of proteorhodopsin molecules per cell. The low costs and simplicity of PR-based phototrophy explain the high abundance of proteorhodopsin genes in the oceans. However, even for AAP bacteria, the net energy yield of phototrophy is apparently too low to influence the distribution of photoheterotrophic bacteria among various marine systems. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Høiby, N.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria can communicate with each other by means of signal molecules to coordinate the behavior of the entire community, and the mechanism is referred to as quorum sensing (QS). Signal systems enable bacteria to sense the size of their densities by monitoring the concentration of the signal...... molecules. Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread. These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment...

  3. Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from brewery wastewater in Kenya. Sylvia Injete Murunga, Duncan Onyango Mbuge, Ayub Njoroge Gitau, Urbanus Ndungwa Mutwiwa, Ingrid Namae Wekesa ...

  4. Natural Killer Cells Are Activated by Lactic Acid Bacteria-Matured Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    of certain lactic acid bacteria has been shown to increase in vivo NK cytotoxicity. Here, we investigated how human gut flora-derived lactobacilli affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human NK cells upon bacterial stimulation. Human peripheral blood NK cells were....... In contrast, a Lactobacillus paracasei strain caused the NK cells to proliferate only in the presence of monocytes. These results demonstrate that various strains of lactobacilli have the capacity to activate NK cells in vitro, in a monocyte dependent or independent way. Hence, the encounter of NK cells...

  5. Fewer bacteria in warm water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There has been many suggestions to how the ideal warm water system should be. Particularly whether warm water containers or heat exchangers in larger houses are the best solutions in order to maintain a water quality with low levels of bacteria. In an investigation made by Statens Byggeforskningsinstitutt (Denmark) regarding ''Bacterial growth in warm water installations with heat exchangers'' there were used several heat exchangers made by Gjelsted and Lund of three of which had HWAT heating cables. The bacterial content was low from these exchangers compared to exchangers with circulation. The article presents promising results from a study where the method was investigated over a longer period in two new larger warm water systems. Some energy conservation aspects are discussed

  6. Modeling Political Populations with Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Chris; Liao, David

    2011-03-01

    Results from lattice-based simulations of micro-environments with heterogeneous nutrient resources reveal that competition between wild-type and GASP rpoS819 strains of E. Coli offers mutual benefit, particularly in nutrient deprived regions. Our computational model spatially maps bacteria populations and energy sources onto a set of 3D lattices that collectively resemble the topology of North America. By implementing Wright-Fishcer re- production into a probabilistic leap-frog scheme, we observe populations of wild-type and GASP rpoS819 cells compete for resources and, yet, aid each other's long term survival. The connection to how spatial political ideologies map in a similar way is discussed.

  7. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  8. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen

    2017-05-19

    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  9. Sterol Synthesis in Diverse Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jeremy H; Yin, Xinchi; Welander, Paula V

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc), which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from five phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia) and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult. Some bacteria

  10. Web-based versus face-to-face interprofessional team encounters with standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempicki, Kelly A; Holland, Christine S

    2018-03-01

    Challenges exist in developing interprofessional education (IPE) activities including coordinating schedules and obtaining appropriate space for teams to work. Virtual worlds have been explored as a means to overcome some of these challenges. We sought to develop a web-based interprofessional team interaction with a standardized patient (SP), as compared to a face-to-face SP interaction, focusing on the competency area of interprofessional communication. Interprofessional teams of students were randomized to complete a web-based or face-to-face SP encounter. The web-based encounter was conducted via video conference that students accessed using their own electronic device. Interprofessional communication was evaluated by faculty observers and the SPs. Participants of the web-based encounter also completed a perceptions questionnaire. Interprofessional communication was rated as average/above average by the authors and SPs. Perceptions of the web-based encounter were mixed with not all students willing to complete such an encounter again despite finding it enjoyable and a positive learning experience. The need for adequate preparation was identified, including the opportunity to review the patient case before the encounter. The web-based SP encounter afforded students the opportunity to utilize communication technology to provide patient-centered care while collaborating as an interprofessional team. Video conferencing presents an opportunity to bypass some logistical challenges in scheduling IPE experiences and can be implemented as a co-curricular activity, avoiding course revisions. Additional studies are needed to further explore student and patient perspectives and clarify when, and with what level of trainees, the experiences are most valuable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource-driven encounters among consumers and implications for the spread of infectious disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    Animals share a variety of common resources, which can be a major driver of conspecific encounter rates. In this work, we implement a spatially explicit mathematical model for resource visitation behaviour in order to examine how changes in resource availability can influence the rate of encounters among consumers. Using simulations and asymptotic analysis, we demonstrate that, under a reasonable set of assumptions, the relationship between resource availability and consumer conspecific encounters is not monotonic. We characterize how the maximum encounter rate and associated critical resource density depend on system parameters like consumer density and the maximum distance from which consumers can detect and respond to resources. The assumptions underlying our theoretical model and analysis are motivated by observations of large aggregations of black-backed jackals at carcasses generated by seasonal outbreaks of anthrax among herbivores in Etosha National Park, Namibia. As non-obligate scavengers, black-backed jackals use carcasses as a supplemental food resource when they are available. While jackals do not appear to acquire disease from ingesting anthrax carcasses, changes in their movement patterns in response to changes in carcass abundance do alter jackals' conspecific encounter rate in ways that may affect the transmission dynamics of other diseases, such as rabies. Our theoretical results provide a method to quantify and analyse the hypothesis that the outbreak of a fatal disease among herbivores can potentially facilitate outbreaks of an entirely different disease among jackals. By analysing carcass visitation data, we find support for our model's prediction that the number of conspecific encounters at resource sites decreases with additional increases in resource availability. Whether or not this site-dependent effect translates to an overall decrease in encounters depends, unexpectedly, on the relationship between the maximum distance of detection and

  12. Encountering Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foulkes, Nicol Marie

    2011-01-01

    and navigate the social system in the Indian mega-cities Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai. The analysis takes into consideration how Nordic shared values like trust and equality are negotiated in locations where there are stark cultural and environmental differences, investigating how these negotiations affect...

  13. Encountering Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savinetti, Nicol Marie Foulkes

    migrants’ social citizenship is affected by the move to the mega-cities Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore, which have been recognized as challenging destinations for foreign highly skilled migrant workers. I apply Rainer Bauböck’s (2010) citizenship constellation as a theoretical frame. It does not conform...

  14. Encountering Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Nuala

    2017-01-01

    This article divides into two roughly equal parts, both of which aim to address the "act" rather than the "art" of drawing. The second part focuses on a theoretical discussion of drawing. The first bears on a number of themes including the role of drawing in colonial history, drawing and data collection, and drawing and memory.…

  15. Aesthetic Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    By studying what goes on in the world of art, it is possible not only to make observations about art and the artist but also to understand how modern-day culture is being organized and negotiated. From this perspective, understanding the experiences of autonomy and contemporaneity in being an artist today, and how these relate to cultural structures, can serve to explain some of the cultural structures that organize the world of art. In this thesis, my empirical starting point ...

  16. Aesthetic Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Marianne

    By studying what goes on in the world of art, it is possible not only to make observations about art and the artist but also to understand how modern-day culture is being organized and negotiated. From this perspective, understanding the experiences of autonomy and contemporaneity in being...... an artist today, and how these relate to cultural structures, can serve to explain some of the cultural structures that organize the world of art. In this thesis, my empirical starting point is the local context of a Danish art school and global attitudes to cultural policy-making and art education....... These attitudes, in turn, carry my research process across the global world of art, involving the local context of a Chinese art school. Moving away from the somewhat simplified conflicts of autonomy and heteronomy, the global and the local, and the traditional and the contemporary, the three main themes...

  17. What influences the quality of educational encounters between trainer and trainee in vocational training for general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, PM; Ket, P; Dusman, H; Schuling, J; Van der Vleuten, CPM; Tan, LHC

    This study of educational encounters between a trainer and a trainee in vocational training for general practice investigates the quality of the encounter. The study focuses on the relation between the quality of the encounter and elements such as presence of feedback, duration, use of media, etc. A

  18. Influence of environmental factors on phage-bacteria interaction and on the efficacy and infectivity of phage P100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Fister

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host-virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control L. monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after two weeks at 4 °C. However, thereafter re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered.

  19. Raman spectroscopic studies on bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquelin, Kees; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Endtz, Hubert P.; Bruining, Hajo A.; Puppels, Gerwin J.

    2000-11-01

    Routine clinical microbiological identification of pathogenic micro-organisms is largely based on nutritional and biochemical tests. Laboratory results can be presented to a clinician after 2 - 3 days for most clinically relevant micro- organisms. Most of this time is required to obtain pure cultures and enough biomass for the tests to be performed. In the case of severely ill patients, this unavoidable time delay associated with such identification procedures can be fatal. A novel identification method based on confocal Raman microspectroscopy will be presented. With this method it is possible to obtain Raman spectra directly from microbial microcolonies on the solid culture medium, which have developed after only 6 hours of culturing for most commonly encountered organisms. Not only does this technique enable rapid (same day) identifications, but also preserves the sample allowing it to be double-checked with traditional tests. This, combined with the speed and minimal sample handling indicate that confocal Raman microspectroscopy has much potential as a powerful new tool in clinical diagnostic microbiology.

  20. Drug-related police encounters across the globe: How do they compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R

    2018-06-01

    Drug law enforcement subsumes the majority of drug policy expenditure across the globe. Fuelled by knowledge that much of this investment is ineffective or counter-productive there have been increasing calls for cross-national comparisons to identify where policing approaches differ and what types of approaches may be more effective. Yet, to date cross-national comparison of drug law enforcement has proven a methodologically hazardous affair. Using a new drug policing module added to the 2017 Global Drug Survey, this study seeks to provide the first cross-national comparison of the incidence, nature and intensity of illicit drug-related police encounters amongst people who use drugs. The Global Drug Survey was administered in late 2016. Across 26 countries including Australia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland, the UK and the USA a total of 45,942 people who had recently used drugs completed the drug policing module. Key variables assessed included the incidence and frequency of drug-related police encounters in the last 12 months that involved: a) being stopped and searched; b) encountering a drug detection dog; c) being given a caution or warning; d) being charged and arrested; and e) paying a bribe. Multi-level models were used to control for pre-existing national differences in drug use prevalence and non-drug specific policing (including the total number of police personnel in each country). Drug-related police encounters were most commonly reported in Italy and Scotland. Conversely, police encounters were most likely to lead to arrest in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The type and locations of encounters further differed across countries, with for example stop and search most reported in Greece and Colombia, and encounters with drug detection dogs most reported in Scotland, Italy, UK and Australia. Multi-level models showed that the incidence of reported policing encounters continued to differ significantly across countries after controlling for pre

  1. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  2. THE RINGS OF CHARIKLO UNDER CLOSE ENCOUNTERS WITH THE GIANT PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R. A. N.; Sfair, R.; Winter, O. C., E-mail: ran.araujo@gmail.com, E-mail: rsfair@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: ocwinter@gmail.com [UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital e Planetologia, CEP 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-20

    The Centaur population is composed of minor bodies wandering between the giant planets that frequently perform close gravitational encounters with these planets, leading to a chaotic orbital evolution. Recently, the discovery of two well-defined narrow rings was announced around the Centaur 10199 Chariklo. The rings are assumed to be in the equatorial plane of Chariklo and to have circular orbits. The existence of a well-defined system of rings around a body in such a perturbed orbital region poses an interesting new problem. Are the rings of Chariklo stable when perturbed by close gravitational encounters with the giant planets? Our approach to address this question consisted of forward and backward numerical simulations of 729 clones of Chariklo, with similar initial orbits, for a period of 100 Myr. We found, on average, that each clone experiences during its lifetime more than 150 close encounters with the giant planets within one Hill radius of the planet in question. We identified some extreme close encounters that were able to significantly disrupt or disturb the rings of Chariklo. About 3% of the clones lose their rings and about 4% of the clones have their rings significantly disturbed. Therefore, our results show that in most cases (more than 90%), the close encounters with the giant planets do not affect the stability of the rings in Chariklo-like systems. Thus, if there is an efficient mechanism that creates the rings, then these structures may be common among these kinds of Centaurs.

  3. Dental case manager encounters: the association with retention in dental care and treatment plan completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Celeste A; Tobias, Carol; Umez-Eronini, Amarachi A; Brown, Carolyn; McCluskey, Amanda; Fox, Jane E; Bednarsh, Helene; Cabral, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about dental case managers as few programs have been scientifically evaluated. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of dental case manager on retention in dental care and completion of treatment plans, while specifically exploring the number of dental case manager encounters. Fourteen programs enrolled people with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in dental care and a longitudinal study between 2007 and 2009. The 758 participants had a total of 2715 encounters with a dental case manager over twelve months: 29% had a single encounter; 21% had two; 27% had 3-4 and; 23% had 5-29 encounters. Adjusting for baseline characteristics, participants receiving more encounters were significantly more likely to complete their Phase 1 treatment plan, be retained in dental care, and experience improvements in overall oral health status. Organizations considering efforts to improve the oral health of vulnerable, hard-to-engage populations should consider these findings when planning interventions. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stereotype threat and racial differences in citizens' experiences of police encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Goff, Phillip Atiba

    2015-10-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate how cultural stereotypes that depict Blacks as criminals affect the way Blacks experience encounters with police officers, expecting that such encounters induce Blacks to feel stereotype threat (i.e., concern about being judged and treated unfairly by police because of the stereotype). In Study 1, we asked Black and White participants to report how they feel when interacting with police officers in general. As predicted, Blacks, but not Whites, reported concern that police officers stereotype them as criminals simply because of their race. In addition, this effect was found for Black men but not Black women. In Study 2, we asked Black and White men to imagine a specific police encounter and assessed potential downstream consequences of stereotype threat. Consistent with Study 1, Black but not White men anticipated feeling stereotype threat in the hypothetical police encounter. Further, racial differences in anticipated threat translated into racial differences in anticipated anxiety, self-regulatory efforts, and behavior that is commonly perceived as suspicious by police officers. By demonstrating that Blacks might expect to be judged and treated unfairly by police because of the negative stereotype of Black criminality, this research extends stereotype threat theory to the new domain of criminal justice encounters. It also has practical implications for understanding how the stereotype could ironically contribute to bias-based policing and racial disparities in the justice system. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Oil spill encounter rate: A means of estimating advancing skimmer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.

    1993-01-01

    A high rate of oil spill recovery can only be achieved if the spilled oil can be collected fast enough for the skimming and pumping systems to operate at their rated capacity. For advancing skimmers, recovery capacity depends on the rate at which the skimming system encounters the oil slick. For these systems, encounter rate depends on skimming speed, sweep width, and the amount of oil available, in this case measured in terms of slick thickness. The computation of the spill encounter rate is described, and a chart is provided that permits the user to determine encounter rate for candidate skimming systems by inspection. Furthermore, a contingency planning worksheet for advancing skimmers is provided that allows the user to evaluate a particular response system. The resulting data can be used to determine the oil slick area that can be covered in a period of time, the volume of oil that can be expected to be recovered in that time based on oil spill planning scenarios, the pumping capacity required for skimming and transfer systems, and the storage requirements for recovered oil. Finally, suggestions are presented on how computations of oil spill encounter rate can be used to make important decisions in procuring advancing skimmers for specific applications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Characterization of Bacteria Isolation of Bacteria from Pinyon Rhizosphere,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty bacterial strains were isolated from pinyon rhizosphere and screened for biosurfactants production. Among them, six bacterial strains were selected for their potential to produce biosurfactants using two low cost wastes, crude glycerol and lactoserum, as raw material. Both wastes were useful for producing biosurfactants because of their high content in fat and carbohydrates. The six strains were identified by 16S rDNA with an identity percentage higher than 95%, three strains belonged to Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus and Rhizobium sp. All strains assayed were able to grow and showed halos around the colonies as evidence of biosurfactants production on Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide agar with crude glycerol and lactoserum as substrate. In a mineral salt liquid medium enriched with both wastes, the biosurfactants were produced and collected from free cell medium after 72 h incubation. The biosurfactants produced reduced the surface tension from 69 to 30 mN/m with an emulsification index of diesel at approximately 60%. The results suggest that biosurfactants produced by rhizosphere bacteria from pinyon have promising environmental applications.

  7. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  8. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pophaly Sarang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  9. The Structural Diversity of Carbohydrate Antigens of Selected Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. Marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. Among these biologically active molecules, the carbohydrate antigens, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, O-antigens found in cell walls of Gram-negative marine bacteria, show great potential as candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock due to their low virulence. The structural diversity of LPSs is thought to be a reflection of the ability for these bacteria to adapt to an array of habitats, protecting the cell from being compromised by exposure to harsh environmental stress factors. Over the last few years, the variety of structures of core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been discovered. In this review, we discuss the most recently encountered structures that have been identified from bacteria belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Alteromonas, Idiomarina, Microbulbifer, Pseudoalteromonas, Plesiomonas and Shewanella of the Gammaproteobacteria phylum; Sulfitobacter and Loktanella of the Alphaproteobactera phylum and to the genera Arenibacter, Cellulophaga, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Flexibacter of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention is paid to the particular chemical features of the LPSs, such as the monosaccharide type, non-sugar substituents and phosphate groups, together with some of the typifying traits of LPSs obtained from marine bacteria. A possible correlation is then made between such features and the environmental adaptations undertaken by marine bacteria.

  10. Characterization of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Some bacteria can use (per)chlorateas terminal electron acceptor for growth. These bacteria convert perchlorate via chlorate and chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen. Oxygen formation in microbial respiration is unique. In this study two chlorate-reducing strains

  11. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  12. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  13. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  14. Analyzing Arthropods for the Presence of Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria within arthropods can be identified using culture-independent methods. This unit describes protocols for surface sterilization of arthropods, DNA extraction of whole bodies and tissues, touchdown PCR amplification using 16S rDNA general bacteria primers and profiling the bacterial community using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

  15. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B T; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L

    1991-01-01

    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  16. Catabolism of lysine by mixed rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ryoji; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    Metabolites arising from the catabolism of lysine by the mixed rumen bacteria were chromatographically examined by using radioactive lysine. After 6 hr incubation, 241 nmole/ml of lysine was decomposed to give ether-soluble substances and CO 2 by the bacteria and 90 nmole/ml of lysine was incorporated unchanged into the bacteria. delta-Aminovalerate, cadaverine or pipecolate did not seem to be produced from lysine even after incubation of the bacteria with addition of those three amino compounds to trap besides lysine and radioactive lysine. Most of the ether-soluble substances produced from radioactive lysine was volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Fractionation of VFAs revealed that the peaks of butyric and acetic acids coincided with the strong radioactive peaks. Small amounts of radioactivities were detected in propionic acid peak and a peak assumed to be caproic acid. The rumen bacteria appeared to decompose much larger amounts of lysine than the rumen ciliate protozoa did. (auth.)

  17. Biodiversity of Bacteria Isolated from Different Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma YAMAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity of PHB producing bacteria isolated from soils where fruit and vegetable are cultivated (onion, grape, olive, mulberry and plum in Aydın providence. Morphological, cultural, biochemical, and molecular methods were used for bacteria identification. These isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and using BLAST. The following bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (6, Bacillus cereus (8, Bacillus anthrachis (1, Bacillus circulans (1, Bacillus weihenstephanensis (1, Pseudomonas putida (1, Azotobacter chroococcum (1, Brevibacterium frigoritolerans (1, Burkholderia sp. (1, Staphylococcus epidermidis (1, Streptomyces exfoliatus (1, Variovorax paradoxus (1 were found. The Maximum Likelihood method was used to produce a molecular phylogenetic analysis and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. These bacteria can produce polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB which is an organic polymer with commercial potential as a biodegradable thermoplastic. PHB can be used instead of petrol derivated non-degradable plastics. For this reason, PHB producing microorganisms are substantial in industry.

  18. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  19. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  20. Hyphae colonizing bacteria associated with Penicillium bilaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghodsalavi, Behnoushsadat

    shown that mycorrhizal helper bacteria presenting in mycorrhizal fungi could stimulate fungal growth, promote establishment of root-fungus symbiosis and enhance plant production. But it is unknown if the comparable relationship exist between the non-mycorrhizal fungus P. bilaii and its hyphae associated...... bacteria. In the current PhD thesis, we assumed that hyphae-associated microbiome of P. bilaii might harbor helper bacteria with ability to improve fungal growth and P solubilization performance. Therefore, we aimed to isolate bacteria associated with the P. bilaii hyphae and identify the fungal growth...... stimulating bacteria with the perspective of promoting efficiency of Jumpstart in soil – plant system. For this purpose, most of the work within the current project was carried out by development of suitable model systems by mimicking the natural soil habitat to reach to the reliable performance in soil...

  1. arXiv Gravitational wave energy emission and detection rates of Primordial Black Hole hyperbolic encounters

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, Juan

    2018-01-01

    We describe in detail gravitational wave bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) hyperbolic encounters. The bursts are one-time events, with the bulk of the released energy happening during the closest approach, which can be emitted in frequencies that could be within the range of both LIGO (10-1000Hz) and LISA ($10^{-6}-1$ Hz). Furthermore, we correct the results for the power spectrum of hyperbolic encounters found in the literature and present new exact and approximate expressions for the peak frequency of the emission. Note that these GW bursts from hyperbolic encounters between PBH are complementary to the GW emission from the bounded orbits of BHB mergers detected by LIGO, and help breaking degeneracies in the determination of the PBH mass, spin and spatial distributions.

  2. Application of the binary-encounter theory to proton impact double ionization of atoms. [Cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Roy, B N [Bihar Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-10-21

    Proton impact double ionisation of He has been investigated in the double-encounter model of Gryzinski (Phys. Rev.; 138A:305, 322 and 336 (1965)). The binary-encounter expressions developed by Vriens (Proc. Phys. Soc.; 89:13 (1966), Ibid 90:935 (1967)) along with an accurate quantum-mechanical velocity distribution for the bound electrons in both encounters have been used to obtain double-ionisation cross sections. These results have been compared with the experimental observations and earlier calculations by Gryzinski's method. The variation of sigmasub(+)/sigmasub(++) (single-ionisation cross section/double-ionisation cross section) with incident proton energy is also found to be in qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed variation.

  3. Investigating Effect of Service Encounter, Value, and Satisfaction on Word of Mouth: An Outpatient Service Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Chun

    2018-01-13

    This study investigates the relationships among service encounter, service value, patient satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM) intention from the viewpoint of interactive marketing. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey. A total of 372 questionnaires were obtained and 350 of these questionnaires were valid (94.09%), and a structural equation model was used to analyze the data. This study proposed seven hypotheses, and five of the seven hypotheses were supported. Service encounters indirectly affect their patient WOM through service value and satisfaction. Therefore, service value and satisfaction play a crucial mediating role in linking service encounters and WOM. This study determined WOM intentions in an outpatient service context and provides crucial business implications for teaching hospitals to enable them to improve their service quality and achieve a sustainable operation.

  4. Investigating Effect of Service Encounter, Value, and Satisfaction on Word of Mouth: An Outpatient Service Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationships among service encounter, service value, patient satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM intention from the viewpoint of interactive marketing. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey. A total of 372 questionnaires were obtained and 350 of these questionnaires were valid (94.09%, and a structural equation model was used to analyze the data. This study proposed seven hypotheses, and five of the seven hypotheses were supported. Service encounters indirectly affect their patient WOM through service value and satisfaction. Therefore, service value and satisfaction play a crucial mediating role in linking service encounters and WOM. This study determined WOM intentions in an outpatient service context and provides crucial business implications for teaching hospitals to enable them to improve their service quality and achieve a sustainable operation.

  5. Construct validity of the reporter-interpreter-manager-educator structure for assessing students' patient encounter skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Arendrup, Henrick; Lindhardt, Bjarne O.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study, done in Denmark, was to explore the construct validity of a Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME)-structured scoring format for assessing patient encounter skills. METHOD: The authors developed a RIME-structured scoring form and explored its construct validity...... in a two-step procedure. The first step (implemented in 2009) was a randomized, controlled, experimental study in which the performance of three groups (16 fourth-year medical students, 16 sixth-year medical students, and 16 interns) was assessed in two simulated patient encounters. The second step...... (carried out during 2009-2010) was an observational study of patient encounter skills where clinician examiners used the scoring form in end-of-clerkship oral examinations of three consecutive cohorts of a total of 547 fourth-year medical students. RESULTS: In the experimental study, RIME scores showed...

  6. [Unique properties of highly radioresistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Malashenko, Iu R

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident and the negative ecological after-effects for biota in this zone the interest has arisen to radioresistant bacteria, as to the most dynamic model of the given ecosystem, and to mechanisms which provide resistance of bacteria to ionizing radiation. The analysis of published data has shown that the radioresistant bacteria are not interrelated taxonomically and phylogenetically. The extreme radioresistant bacteria are represented by the Deinococcus species, which form a group phylogenetically close to the line Thermus-Meiothermus. Other radioresistant bacteria are the representatives of the genera Rubrobacter, Methylobacterium, Kocuria, Bacillus and some archebacteria. Data on natural habitats, of radioresistant bacteria are not numerous. In a number of cases it is difficult to distinguish their natural habitats, as they were isolated from the samples which were previously exposed to X-ray or gamma-irradiation, or from the ecosystems with the naturally raised radioactivity. To understand the strategy of survival of radioresistant bacteria, we briefly reviewed the mechanism of action of various species of radiation on cells and macromolecules; physiological signs of the cell damage caused by radiation; mechanisms eliminating (repairing) these damages. More details on mechanisms of the DNA repair in D. radiodurans are described. The extreme resistance of D. radiodurans to the DNA damaging factors is defined by 1) repair mechanisms which fundamentally differ from those in other procaryotes; 2) ability to increase the efficiency of a standard set of the DNA repairing proteins. Literary and own data on the effect of radiation on survival of various groups of bacteria in natural ecosystems are summarized. The ecological consequences of the ChNPP accident for soil bacteria in this region were estimated. The reduction of the number of soil bacteria and recession of microbial diversity under the effect of

  7. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Hostelter, Jeffrey A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marra, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  8. Physician as partner or salesman? Shared decision-making in real-time encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2009-07-01

    The results of recent research have led to the increased advocacy of shared decision-making regarding medical treatment. Nonetheless, only a limited number of studies have focused on the process of decision-making in real-time encounters. The present paper aims to document and analyze this process. Specifically, we assess whether these decisions are the result of partnership or of persuasive tactics based on power and hierarchical relationships. We will describe and analyze different strategies used by pediatric gastroenterologists in breaking bad news encounters, as well as their consequences. The analysis is based on a multi-method, multi-participant phenomenological study on breaking bad news to adolescents and their families regarding a chronic illness. It included 17 units of analysis (actual encounters and 52 interviews with physicians, parents and adolescents). Data were collected from three hospitals in Northern Israel using observations and audiotapes of diagnosis disclosure encounters and audio-taped interviews with all participants. The analysis identified eight different presentation tactics used in actual encounters during which physicians made various use of language, syntax and different sources of power to persuade patients to agree with their preferred treatment choice. The tactics included various ways of presenting the illness, treatment and side effects; providing examples from other success or failure stories; sharing the decision only concerning technicalities; and using plurals and authority. The findings suggest that shared decision-making may be advocated as a philosophical tenet or a value, but it is not necessarily implemented in actual communication with patients. Rather, treatment decisions tend to be unilaterally made, and a variety of persuasive approaches are used to ensure agreement with the physician's recommendation. The discussion is focused on the complexity of sharing a decision, especially in the initial bad news encounter

  9. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species

  10. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  12. Strange culinary encounters::stranger fetichism in "Jamie's Italian escape" and "Gordon's great escape"

    OpenAIRE

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. Our main...

  13. Border Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Jennifer Andrea

    2011-01-01

    AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...

  14. Reflexivity: The Creation of Liminal Spaces--Researchers, Participants, and Research Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enosh, Guy; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2016-03-01

    Reflexivity is defined as the constant movement between being in the phenomenon and stepping outside of it. In this article, we specify three foci of reflexivity--the researcher, the participant, and the encounter--for exploring the interview process as a dialogic liminal space of mutual reflection between researcher and participant. Whereas researchers' reflexivity has been discussed extensively in the professional discourse, participants' reflexivity has not received adequate scholarly attention, nor has the promise inherent in reflective processes occurring within the encounter. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Is my child sick? Parents management of signs of illness and experiences of the medical encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Reventlow, Susanne; Söderström, Margareta

    2011-01-01

    for improvements in the medical encounter. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Twenty strategically selected families with a child from a birth cohort in Frederiksborg County, Denmark were interviewed. RESULTS: Parents wanted to consult their GP at the right time, i.e. neither too early nor...... to be acknowledged as competent collaborators. The GP's failure to acknowledge the parents' knowledge of their child's current illness, and the parents' attempt to identify what is wrong with the child and make the child feel better before the encounter may have consequences for the GP's credibility. It is therefore...

  16. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  17. Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds; A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Budding, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Information about reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds from 1953 through 2009 has been compiled to document the nature and scope of risks to aviation from volcanic activity. The information, gleaned from a variety of published and other sources, is presented in database and spreadsheet formats; the compilation will be updated as additional encounters occur and as new data and corrections come to light. The effects observed by flight crews and extent of aircraft damage vary greatly among incidents, and each incident in the compilation is rated according to a severity index. Of the 129 reported incidents, 94 incidents are confirmed ash encounters, with 79 of those having various degrees of airframe or engine damage; 20 are low-severity events that involve suspected ash or gas clouds; and 15 have data that are insufficient to assess severity. Twenty-six of the damaging encounters involved significant to very severe damage to engines and (or) airframes, including nine encounters with engine shutdown during flight. The average annual rate of damaging encounters since 1976, when reporting picked up, has been approximately 2 per year. Most of the damaging encounters occurred within 24 hours of the onset of ash production or at distances less than 1,000 kilometers from the source volcanoes. The compilation covers only events of relatively short duration for which aircraft were checked for damage soon thereafter; documenting instances of long-term repeated exposure to ash (or sulfate aerosols) will require further investigation. Of 38 source volcanoes, 8 have caused 5 or more encounters, of which the majority were damaging: Augustine (United States), Chaiten (Chile), Mount St. Helens (United States), Pacaya (Guatemala), Pinatubo (Philippines), Redoubt (United States), Sakura-jima (Japan), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, United Kingdom). Aircraft have been damaged by eruptions ranging from small, recurring episodes to very large

  18. Bacteria classification using Cyranose 320 electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Julian W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An electronic nose (e-nose, the Cyrano Sciences' Cyranose 320, comprising an array of thirty-two polymer carbon black composite sensors has been used to identify six species of bacteria responsible for eye infections when present at a range of concentrations in saline solutions. Readings were taken from the headspace of the samples by manually introducing the portable e-nose system into a sterile glass containing a fixed volume of bacteria in suspension. Gathered data were a very complex mixture of different chemical compounds. Method Linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA method was able to classify four classes of bacteria out of six classes though in reality other two classes were not better evident from PCA analysis and we got 74% classification accuracy from PCA. An innovative data clustering approach was investigated for these bacteria data by combining the 3-dimensional scatter plot, Fuzzy C Means (FCM and Self Organizing Map (SOM network. Using these three data clustering algorithms simultaneously better 'classification' of six eye bacteria classes were represented. Then three supervised classifiers, namely Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP, Probabilistic Neural network (PNN and Radial basis function network (RBF, were used to classify the six bacteria classes. Results A [6 × 1] SOM network gave 96% accuracy for bacteria classification which was best accuracy. A comparative evaluation of the classifiers was conducted for this application. The best results suggest that we are able to predict six classes of bacteria with up to 98% accuracy with the application of the RBF network. Conclusion This type of bacteria data analysis and feature extraction is very difficult. But we can conclude that this combined use of three nonlinear methods can solve the feature extraction problem with very complex data and enhance the performance of Cyranose 320.

  19. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

  20. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lefèvre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  1. Fermentative Bacteria Influence the Competition between Denitrifiers and DNRA Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M. van den Berg

    2017-09-01

    results of this study clearly show that not only the ratio of available substrates, but also the nature of the electron donor influences the outcome of competition between DNRA and denitrification. Apparently, fermentative bacteria are competitive for the electron donor and thereby alter the ratio of available substrates for nitrate reduction.

  2. The Microworld of Marine-Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB

    1995-01-01

    Microsensor studies show that the marine environment in the size scale of bacteria is physically and chemically very different from the macroenvironment. The microbial world of the sediment-water interface is thus dominated by water viscosity and steep diffusion gradients. Because of the diverse...... metabolism types, bacteria in the mostly anoxic sea floor play an important role in the major element cycles of the ocean. The communities of giant, filamentous sulfur bacteria that live in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents or along the Pacific coast of South America are presented here as examples....

  3. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.

    1985-01-01

    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  4. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  5. Pu sorption to activated conglomerate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kudo, Akira

    2001-01-01

    The sorption of Pu to the anaerobic bacteria activated under specific conditions of temperature, pH and depleted nutrients after long dormant period was investigated. After 4 h at neutral pH, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between bacteria and aqueous phase at 308 and 278 K had around 10 3 to 10 4 . After over 5 days, however, the K d at only 308 K had increased to over 10 5 . Sterilized (dead) and dormant anaerobic bacteria adsorbed Pu to the same extent. (author)

  6. The Consequences of Service Encounter Failure in Shopping Centers: A Study with Visually Impaired Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Felipe da Costa Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the Brazilian Law on the Inclusion of People with Disabilities, in 2015, has brought a series of implications for marketing researchers, since it concerns the rights to include people with disabilities in public and private consumption spaces, such as shopping malls. Despite the growth of these consumer spaces in Brazil, several failures in service encounters are frequent, especially when consumers are visually impaired. Therefore, this study aims to understand the consequences of service encounters failures in shopping malls for the consumer with visual disabilities. To reach this goal, we used a qualitative approach of phenomenological nature. Data were collected through direct and naturalistic observations and conduct of nine face-to-face interviews with visually impaired consumers. Through content analysis of the results, we concluded that there is a diversity of failures occurred in service encounters, such as excessive piety of sellers to consumers, contempt and the sudden change in the service script. For this reason, the consequences of service encounter failure were from the verbal confrontation and the withdrawal of the transaction to the word-of-mouth and negative expressions of frustration in virtual social networks. This article also presents managerial and academic contributions for marketing researchers.

  7. Adopting a Blended Learning Approach: Challenges Encountered and Lessons Learned in an Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jane; Newcombe, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Adopting a new teaching approach is often a daunting task especially if one is an early adopter in a limited-resource environment. This article describes the challenges encountered and the strategies used in pilot testing a blended instructional method in a large size class within the college of education at a medium-sized university. The main…

  8. Difficulties That English Teachers Encounter While Teaching Listening Comprehension and Their Attitudes towards Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawashdeh, Ayah Isam; Al-zayed, Norma Nawaf

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the difficulties that English teachers encountered while teaching listening comprehension and their attitudes towards the subjectin Karak schools. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used two instruments: a teacher's questionnaire and informal interviews. In order to answer the questions of…

  9. An encounter between psychology and religion: humanistic psychology and the Immaculate Heart of Mary nuns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmann, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s, humanistic psychology changed the relationship between psychology and religion by actively asserting the value of individual experience and self-expression. This was particularly evident in the encounter group movement. Beginning in 1967, Carl Rogers conducted a series of encounter groups, in order to promote "self-directed change in an educational system," for the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, a religious order in California running an educational system. William Coulson, one of Rogers's associates in the project, later charged that the encounter groups undermined the religious order and played a major contributing part in the breakup of the order in 1970. The article examines these charges, situating the incident within the context of the changes occurring in religious life and in psychology in the 1960s. The article concludes that an already existing conflict the nuns had with the conservative Cardinal McIntyre of Los Angeles led to the departure of some 300 nuns from the order, who began the Immaculate Heart Community, an organization existing today. Nevertheless, encounter groups proved to be a psychological technology that helped to infuse a modern psychological--specifically, a humanistic psychological--perspective into contemporary religious life. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Body_Machine? Encounters of the Human and the Mechanical in Education, Industry and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Frederik; Priem, Karin; Thyssen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    This paper unveils the body_machine as a key element of dynamic mental maps that have come to shape both educational praxis and research. It traces and analyses instances in which the human and the mechanical encountered each other in metaphorical, material and visual forms, thereby blurring to some extent the boundaries between them while…

  11. Interlingual Encounter in Pierre Garnier and Niikuni Seiichi's French-Japanese Concrete Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine S.

    2015-01-01

    In the latter half of the 1960s, without meeting each other and without knowing each other's language, French poet Pierre Garnier and Japanese poet Niikuni Seiichi [Japanese characters omitted] collaborated to create French-Japanese concrete poems. This essay examines the interlingual encounters in the two poets' bilingual poems that facilitate…

  12. Problems Encountered during the Scientific Research Process in Graduate Education: The Institute of Educational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyürek, Erkan; Afacan, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the problems faced by graduate students when conducting scientific research and to make suggestions for solving these problems. The research model was a case study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants in the study with questions about the problems encountered during scientific research…

  13. Tactics Employed and Problems Encountered by University English Majors in Hong Kong in Using a Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Yin Wa

    2005-01-01

    Building on the results of a small-scale survey which investigated the general use of dictionaries by university English majors in Hong Kong using a questionnaire survey and their specific use of dictionaries using an error correction task, this article discusses the tactics these students employed and the problems they encountered when using a…

  14. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  15. Concentrated Language Encounter Approach in Practice for Global Teaching of Literacy: Lighthouse Strategy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the lighthouse literacy strategies model using the concentrated language encounter (CLE) approach that has been successfully replicated in many countries in different languages and cultures. A review of CLE research studies and the project implementation in Thailand showed highly significant results in students' literacy…

  16. Nurses' use of pliable and directed strategies when encountering children in child and school healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Maria; Enskär, Karin; Golsäter, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Nurses in Swedish child and school healthcare need to balance their assignment of promoting children's health and development based on the national health-monitoring programme with their responsibility to consider each child's needs. In this balancing act, they encounter children through directed and pliable strategies to fulfil their professional obligations. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which nurses use different strategies when encountering children during their recurrent health visits throughout childhood. A quantitative descriptive content analysis was used to code 30 video recordings displaying nurses' encounters with children (3-16 years of age). A constructed observation protocol was used to identify the codes. The results show that nurses use pliable strategies (58%) and directed strategies (42%) in encounters with children. The action they use the most within the pliable strategy is encouraging (51%), while in the directed strategy, the action they use most is instructing (56%). That they primarily use these opposing actions can be understood as trying to synthesize their twofold assignment. However, they seem to act pliably to be able to fulfil their public function as dictated by the national health-monitoring programme, rather than to meet each child's needs.

  17. The National Long Term Care Demonstration: operational issues encountered in developing the research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, G J; Kemper, P

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the National Long Term Care Demonstration and its evaluation and discusses a number of operational issues encountered in the design process: simultaneous design of research and operations, identification of the target population, randomization, collection of comparable data, development of an assessment instrument, potential changes in existing programs, and termination planning.

  18. Difficulties EFL Jordanian University Students Encounter in Translating English Idioms into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrishan, Amal; Smadi, Oqlah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the difficulties that Jordanian EFL University students encounter in translating English idioms into Arabic. The participants of the study were all M.A translation students at Yarmouk University and the University of Jordan who were selected purposefully. The total number of the students who participated in the…

  19. Pharmacy users' expectations of pharmacy encounters: a Q-methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, Tobias; Wichman Törnqvist, Kristina; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kettis Lindblad, Asa; Tully, Mary P

    2011-12-01

    Pharmacy practice is evolving according to general health-care trends such as increased patient involvement and public health initiatives. In addition, pharmacists strive to find new professional roles. Clients' expectations of service encounters at pharmacies is an under-explored topic but crucial to understanding how pharmacy practice can evolve efficiently. To identify and describe different normative expectations of the pharmacy encounter among pharmacy clients. Q methodology, an approach to systematically explore subjectivity that retains complete patterns of responses and organizes these into factors of operant subjectivity. Eighty-five regular prescription medication users recruited at Swedish community pharmacies and by snowballing. Seven factors of operant subjectivity were identified, and organized into two groups. Factors that emphasized the physical drug product as the central object of the pharmacy encounter were labelled as independent drug shopping; logistics of drug distribution; and supply of individual's own drugs. Factors that emphasized personal support as desirable were labelled competence as individual support; individualist professional relations, just take care of me; and practical health-care and lifestyle support. The systematic Q-methodological approach yielded valuable insights into how pharmacy clients construct their expectations for service encounters. They hold differentiating normative expectations for pharmacy services. Understanding these varying viewpoints may be important for developing and prioritizing among efficient pharmacy services. Clients' expectations do not correspond with trends that guide current pharmacy practice development. This might be a challenge for promoting or implementing services based on such trends. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A transcultural study of Jordanian nursing students' care encounters within the context of clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, V

    2000-06-01

    Clinical education is an integral part of nursing education. Clinical teachers are the vital link in this teaching-learning process. The quality and quantity of student-teacher interactions in the clinical area can either facilitate or hinder students' learning. This paper presents a part of a larger study that discovered, described, explained and compared Australian and Jordanian nursing students' caring and non-caring encounters with their clinical teachers within the context of clinical education. The study was guided by Leininger's theory of culture care universality and diversity and Leininger's ethnonursing research method was utilised. The informants consisted of 12 key informants and 35 general informants. Three major themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (1) clinical teacher's caring behaviours; (2) student-teacher caring encounters; and (3) caring encounter consequences. Under these themes, care constructs emerged which gave light to the Jordanian nursing students' care meanings, expressions and values within their cultural environment, social structures and world view. The overall findings revealed that Jordanian nursing students found their clinical experiences as beneficial when their encounters with the clinical teacher were conducted through mothering, translating, sustaining, negotiating and transforming processes.

  1. Orchestrating Professional Development for Baby Room Practitioners: Raising the Stakes in New Dialogic Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goouch, Kathleen; Powell, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    This article has emerged from a research and development project, The Baby Room, which was designed to examine how babies are cared for in daycare settings. Within the project, a form of professional development was created which designated a central space for dialogic encounter, primarily to enable the baby room practitioners who participated in…

  2. Encounter success of free-ranging marine predator movements across a dynamic prey landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David W; Witt, Matthew J; Richardson, Anthony J; Southall, Emily J; Metcalfe, Julian D

    2006-05-22

    Movements of wide-ranging top predators can now be studied effectively using satellite and archival telemetry. However, the motivations underlying movements remain difficult to determine because trajectories are seldom related to key biological gradients, such as changing prey distributions. Here, we use a dynamic prey landscape of zooplankton biomass in the north-east Atlantic Ocean to examine active habitat selection in the plankton-feeding basking shark Cetorhinus maximus. The relative success of shark searches across this landscape was examined by comparing prey biomass encountered by sharks with encounters by random-walk simulations of 'model' sharks. Movements of transmitter-tagged sharks monitored for 964 days (16754 km estimated minimum distance) were concentrated on the European continental shelf in areas characterized by high seasonal productivity and complex prey distributions. We show movements by adult and sub-adult sharks yielded consistently higher prey encounter rates than 90% of random-walk simulations. Behavioural patterns were consistent with basking sharks using search tactics structured across multiple scales to exploit the richest prey areas available in preferred habitats. Simple behavioural rules based on learned responses to previously encountered prey distributions may explain the high performances. This study highlights how dynamic prey landscapes enable active habitat selection in large predators to be investigated from a trophic perspective, an approach that may inform conservation by identifying critical habitat of vulnerable species.

  3. Nursing students’ experiences of professional patient care encounters in a hospital unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    experiences of professional patient care encounters where students engage with patients and provide nursing care within the basic principles of nursing care relating to the patients’ physiological and psychological needs. Studies that reflect nursing students’ comprehension of or attitudes towards nursing...

  4. Tourism and its discontents : Suri-tourist encounters in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2000-01-01

    Encounters between foreign tourists and people of different cultural background become very common in a globalized world. The nature of this exchange in cultural terms relates questions of identity construction and the emergence or creation of difference. This article addresses tourist-'native'

  5. Relationship between Teach-back and patient-centered communication in primary care pediatric encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaczewski, Adam; Bauman, Laurie J; Blank, Arthur E; Dreyer, Benard; Abrams, Mary Ann; Stein, Ruth E K; Roter, Debra L; Hossain, Jobayer; Byck, Hal; Sharif, Iman

    2017-07-01

    We proposed and tested a theoretical framework for how use of Teach-back could influence communication during the pediatric clinical encounter. Audio-taped pediatric primary care encounters with 44 children with asthma were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System to measure patient-centered communication and affective engagement of the parent. A newly created Teach-back Loop Score measured the extent to which Teach-back occurred during the clinical encounter; parental health literacy was measured by Newest Vital Sign. Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between Teach-back and features of communication. Focus groups held separately with clinicians and parents elicited perceptions of Teach-back usefulness. Teach-back was used in 39% of encounters. Visits with Teach-back had more patient centered communication (p=0.01). Adjusting for parent health literacy, parent age, and child age, Teach-back increased the odds of both patient centered communication [proportional AOR (95% CI)=4.97 (4.47-5.53)]and negative affect [AOR (95% CI)=5.39 (1.68-17.31)]. Focus group themes common to clinicians and parents included: Teach-back is effective, could cause discomfort, should be used with children, and nurses should use it. Teach-back was associated with more patient-centered communication and increased affective engagement of parents. Standardizing Teach-back use may strengthen patient-centered communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inclusion as heterotopia: Spaces of encounter between people with and without intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Meininger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The public space to which - in line with common definitions of inclusion - persons with intellectual disability are designated often turns out to be a space of discrimination. The aim of this study is to identify spaces of encounter. Michel Foucault's concept of heterotopia - 'other spaces' - and its subsequent interpretations are used as an analytical tool for evaluating efforts to include persons with intellectual disability in society. In Foucault's work 'space' refers to geographical places and to 'sites' that can be defined by sets of relations. Among these spaces are 'counter-sites' like large scale residential facilities for people with intellectual disability. Though policies of deinstitutionalisation aim at erasure of these places of exclusion, the results are often disappointing, largely because these policies ignore the analysis of power dynamics that install exclusionary processes and structures. Recent interpretations of the concept of heterotopia position the 'other places' in the middle of ordinary life as social spaces of encounter and dialogue between the 'normal' and the 'abnormal'. Characteristics and practical conditions of such spaces of encounter are explored. These interpretations open up a new conceptualisation of inclusion in terms of niches in which encounter and dialogue are cultivated and an alternative social ordering can be exercised.

  7. Commognitive Analysis of Undergraduate Mathematics Students' First Encounter with the Subgroup Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Marios

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses learning aspects of undergraduate mathematics students' first encounter with the subgroup test, using the commognitive theoretical framework. It focuses on students' difficulties as these are related to the object-level and metalevel mathematical learning in group theory, and, when possible, highlights any commognitive…

  8. Logic of Accounting: The Case of Reporting Previous Options in Norwegian Activation Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Janne

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the enactment of client resistance in Norwegian vocational rehabilitation encounters. More specific, a practice here called "reporting previous options" is analyzed by using the resources of ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA) in five instances as doing some sort of accounting. In response to the…

  9. Frontline employees' intercultural competence: Does it impact customers' evaluations of intercultural service encounters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, A.H.J.M.; Bloemer, J.M.M.; Pluymaekers, M.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has led to an exponential growth of intercultural service encounters. In view of the importance of customer-orientation in services, we investigate the effect of the frontline employee’s intercultural competence on customer’s affective and cognitive evaluations of intercultural

  10. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.

    1975-01-01

    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual…

  11. Linked analysis for definition of nurse advice line syndrome groups, and comparison to encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Steven F; Henry, J; Snyde, M

    2005-08-26

    Nurse advice call centers are a potentially important source of data for syndromic surveillance purposes. For this reason, researchers at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Atlantic States (KPMAS) have been collaborating to develop methods to use this data within the ESSENCE II Syndromic Surveillance System in the National Capital Region. The objective of this report is to present a general method for finding syndrome groups in data sources that can be linked to physician encounters and to determine effective advice call syndrome groups for use with KPMAS advice data. Advice calls are linked to physician encounters and stratified by patient age. They are placed in groups according to a maximum positive predictive value criterion. The groups are evaluated by correlating the resulting syndrome time series against physician encounter data. Potentially useful advice syndrome groups are found for respiratory, lower gastrointestinal (GI), and total GI syndromes for each age stratum. The time series of the advice data for respiratory, lower GI, and upper GI syndromes accurately predict the physician encounter time series for the corresponding syndromes for each age stratum.

  12. Researching Children's Rights in Education: Sociology of Childhood Encountering Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and develop a theoretical approach for children's rights research in education formed through an encounter between the sociology of childhood and John Dewey's educational theory. The interest is mainly methodological, in the sense that the primary ambition of the investigation is to suggest a fruitful and useful…

  13. Identifying the Ethical Challenges Encountered by Information Technology Professionals Working within the Nevada Casino Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A thematic analysis qualitative study was used to identify the unethical challenges encountered by Information Technology (IT) professionals working within the Nevada casino industry. Fourteen current and former IT leaders working or who worked in the Nevada casino industry were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, nine themes regarding ethical…

  14. Encountering Heidi: meeting others as a central aspect of the river experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian Jonas; Kevin Larkin

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous studies have investigated relationships between encounters and the backcountry recreation experience. Although academics and professionals may recognize that meeting others in backcountry areas could result in positive interactions that are beneficial to the experience, research directed at the positive aspects of intergroup...

  15. 78 FR 23623 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “American Encounters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... exhibition ``American Encounters: Genre Painting and Everyday Life,'' imported from abroad for temporary... the exhibit objects at the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas, from on or about May 11, 2013, until on or about August 12, 2013, the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, from on...

  16. Changing Things as They Are: Promoting Social Justice through Encounters with the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulla, Amanda Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Beyond having value as an assessment tool, engagement with the arts in the K-12 classroom can offer aesthetic experiences that have the potential to transform the way students encounter the world, engaging the imagination in acts of perception that stir them to "wide-awakeness." Advocates for the arts in education call for a variety of…

  17. Cunning Pedagogics: The Encounter between the Jesuit Missionaries and Amerindians in Th-Century New France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Jesuit encounter with the Amerindians of the St. Lawrence Valley in Th-century New France provides us with incalculable insights into the inner workings of the "colonial imagination" that believes the objects of instruction have everything to learn and nothing of value to teach. This article explicates how the Jesuits got to know their…

  18. A Reflective Encounter with the Fine Sand Area in a Nursery School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a model of reflection that involves creating meanings through repeated encounters with evocative objects. Responses to one such evocative object, a 20-second video clip of children playing in the fine sand area, illustrates the "turning toward" and then "turning away" from the object to engage with broader…

  19. Alternative modalities – A Review of Graphic Encounters: Comics and the Sponsorship of Multimodal Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Scott Humphrey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research exploring the multimodal characteristics of comics has recently flourished, and Dale Jacobs has been one of the early prolific authors on this topic. Jacobs expands these ideas further in 'Graphic Encounters: Comics and the Sponsorship of Multimodal Literacy', a monograph which engages with theories of multimodality, but shifts its focus primarily to literacy sponsorship.

  20. Research on the influence that communication in psychiatric encounters has on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform mental health professionals about the empirical literature on medical and psychiatric encounters and the influence of communicative behaviors on specific encounter outputs and treatment outcomes. A comprehensive review of the health communications literature from 1950 to 2001, using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, was conducted to identify relevant articles on the communication skills of psychiatrists and other physicians. These searches were augmented by personal correspondence with experts on changes in practice patterns in psychiatry and on medical and psychiatric communications research. A review of references within each article and information from the experts identified other relevant articles. Selection was then narrowed to include reports of studies that used structured written instruments that captured relevant physician and patient perceptions of the physician-patient relationship, content analysis of audio- or videotapes of communication in medical or psychiatric encounters, or interaction analysis systems used to categorize audio- or videotaped communicative behaviors in medical or psychiatric encounters. Twenty-five articles in medicine and 34 articles in psychiatry were selected. Medical communication researchers have observed associations between physicians' communicative skills and patients' satisfaction, patients' adherence to treatment recommendations, treatment outputs, and patients' willingness to file malpractice claims. The research has also shown that primary care physicians can be more responsive to patients' concerns without lengthening visits. In psychiatry, the literature can be organized into four discrete categories of research: negotiated treatment and the customer approach, therapeutic alliance, Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis of patients' speech, and content analysis of psychiatric interviews.

  1. The Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through Visual Media: Exploring Images of Others in Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Rachel; Méndez Garcia, Maria del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Positioned against the background of the Council of Europe's interest in developing intercultural competence through education, the study presented in this paper investigates the impact on intercultural visual literacy of the Council of Europe's "Images of Others--An Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through Visual Media"…

  2. Retention of New Words: Quantity of Encounters, Quality of Task, and Degree of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Rozovski-Roitblat, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We examined how learning new second language (L2) words was affected by three "task type" conditions (reading only, reading with a dictionary, reading and word focused exercises), three "number of encounters" conditions and their combinations. Three groups of L2 learners (n = 185) were exposed to 30 target words (one group in…

  3. Seasonal and among-stream variation in predator encounter rates for fish prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2013-01-01

    Recognition that predators have indirect effects on prey populations that may exceed their direct consumptive effects highlights the need for a better understanding of spatiotemporal variation in predator–prey interactions. We used photographic monitoring of tethered Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii to quantify predator encounter rates...

  4. The Construction of Interculturality: A Study of Initial Encounters between Japanese and American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Junko

    2003-01-01

    Investigates how Japanese and American students initiate topical talk as they get acquainted with each other during their initial encounter at a student-organized conversation table. Looks at the observable and reportable ways in which the participants demonstrate the relevance, or the irrelevance, of interculturality in the development of the…

  5. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  6. Toward the Long-Term Scientific Study of Encounter Group Phenomena: I. Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael Jay; Shapiro, Jerrold Lee

    This paper proposes a model for the long-term scientific study of encounter, T-, and sensitivity groups. The authors see the need for overcoming major methodological and design inadequacies of such research. They discuss major methodological flaws in group outcome research as including: (1) lack of adequate base rate or pretraining measures; (2)…

  7. The Role of Individualism/Collectivism in Critical Classroom Encounters: A Four Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Robert; Swanson, Scott R.; Sagan, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    Internationalization raises the issue of whether, and to what extent, the inherent culture of a country may have particular influence on the nature of service interactions, and on education (i.e., student-professor interactions) specifically. Thus the service encounter in the classroom becomes a subject of increasing importance and interest with…

  8. Encounters for common illnesses in general practice increased in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Lerniengre, M.B.T.; Reenen-Schimmel, van A.H.; Bor, J.H.J.; Bakx, J.C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Weel, van C.; Binsbergen, van J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Obese patients are known to have more chronic medical conditions. Objective. To compare the frequency of encounter for episodes of the 10 most common illnesses in general practice between obese and non-overweight patients. Methods. Data were derived from the Continuous Morbidity

  9. Learning to be Seen: The Depiction of Encounters Between Israeli and Newcomer Children in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Deborah; Drubetskoy, Tatyana

    2005-01-01

    Books written for and about children may serve to convey central cultural tenets to new members of society. This paper looks at the depiction of encounters between newcomer and locally born children in contemporary Hebrew literature aimed at teenage readers and presents the major resources and practices by means of which the newcomer protagonists…

  10. Improvising in the Vulnerable Encounter: Using Improvised Participatory Theatre in Change for Healthcare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Henry; Friis, Preben; Heape, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare practitioners are often presented with vulnerable encounters where their professional experience is insufficient when dealing with patients who suffer from illnesses such as chronic pain. How can one otherwise understand chronic pain and develop practices whereby medical healthcare practitioners can experience alternative ways of doing…

  11. Patient anxiety in the medical encounter: a study of verbal and nonverbal communication in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.M.; Verheul, W.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Many patients feel anxious when entering the consultation room, but seldom verbalize their emotions explicitly in the medical encounter. The authors designed a study to analyse the visibility of patient pre-consultation (state) anxiety in their communication during the consultation. In an

  12. Reading the copepod personal ads : increasing encounter probability with hydromechanical signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, LA; Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ

    1998-01-01

    Females of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis react to chemical exudates of male conspecifics with little hops, quite distinct from their normal smooth uniform swimming motion. These hops possibly serve to create a hydrodynamical signal in the surrounding water, to increase encounter

  13. Bacteria Culture Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bacteriaculturetest.html Bacteria Culture Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Bacteria Culture Test? Bacteria are a large group of ...

  14. ACES M and S: Unmitigated Factorial Encounter Study on DAA/TCAS Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipphavong, David; Cone, Andrew; Park, Chunki; Lee, Seung Man; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA alerting and guidance systems. This presentation contains the results of two combinatorial encounter analysis studies using NASA's SAA Control fast-time simulation capability for this purpose. In these studies, encounters between two aircraft were simulated one at a time for the full factorial combination of encounter geometries (e.g., encounter angle, CPA offset) and aircraft performance (e.g., ownership and intruder ground speeds and vertical rates). The first study analyzes the relationships (e.g., timeline) between the different alerting-safety regions in the SC-228 MOPS (in order of increasing severity): 1) DAA warning alert, 2) well clear recovery (WCR) guidance, 3) DAA-Collision Avoidance (CA), and 4) TCAS RA. This study will focus primarily on encounter situations in which TCAS RA occurs prior to any of the other alerting-safety boundaries. In particular, this study will investigate whether using vertical distance or vertical distance at closest point of approach (i.e., vertical miss distance or VMD) is more appropriate for the definition of the DAA-CA region. In addition, cases where transitions between different regions skip an intermediate region will be analyzed. The second study in this presentation explores a proposal to use an altitude rate error threshold to determine if vertical maneuvers are acceptable for DAA WCR guidance against non-cooperative intruders. This study incorporates the radar from the Honeywell sensor model and examines a series of

  15. Modeling close encounters with massive asteroids: a Markovian approach. An application to the Vesta family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Roig, F.; Michtchenko, T. A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Nesvorný, D.

    2007-04-01

    Context: Nearly all members of the Vesta family cross the orbits of (4) Vesta, one of the most massive asteroids in the main belt, and some of them approach it closely. When mutual velocities during such close encounters are low, the trajectory of the small body can be gravitationally deflected, consequently changing its heliocentric orbital elements. While the effect of a single close encounter may be small, repeated close encounters may significantly change the proper element distribution of members of asteroid families. Aims: We develop a model of the long-term effect of close encounters with massive asteroids, so as to be able to predict how far former members of the Vesta family could have drifted away from the family. Methods: We first developed a new symplectic integrator that simulates both the effects of close encounters and the Yarkovsky effect. We analyzed the results of a simulation involving a fictitious Vesta family, and propagated the asteroid proper element distribution using the probability density function (pdf hereafter), i.e. the function that describes the probability of having an encounter that modifies a proper element x by Δx, for all the possible values of Δx. Given any asteroids' proper element distribution at time t, the distribution at time t+T may be predicted if the pdf is known (Bachelier 1900, Théorie de la spéculation; Hughes 1995, Random Walks and Random Environments, Vol. I). Results: We applied our new method to the problem of V-type asteroids outside the Vesta family (i.e., the 31 currently known asteroids in the inner asteroid belt that have the same spectral type of members as the Vesta family, but that are outside the limits of the dynamical family) and determined that at least ten objects have a significant diffusion probability over the minimum estimated age of the Vesta family of 1.2 Gyr (Carruba et al. 2005, A&A, 441, 819). These objects can therefore be explained in the framework of diffusion via repeated close

  16. Use, misuse and extensions of "ideal gas" models of animal encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John M C; Waser, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Biologists have repeatedly rediscovered classical models from physics predicting collision rates in an ideal gas. These models, and their two-dimensional analogues, have been used to predict rates and durations of encounters among animals or social groups that move randomly and independently, given population density, velocity, and distance at which an encounter occurs. They have helped to separate cases of mixed-species association based on behavioural attraction from those that simply reflect high population densities, and to detect cases of attraction or avoidance among conspecifics. They have been used to estimate the impact of population density, speeds of movement and size on rates of encounter between members of the opposite sex, between gametes, between predators and prey, and between observers and the individuals that they are counting. One limitation of published models has been that they predict rates of encounter, but give no means of determining whether observations differ significantly from predictions. Another uncertainty is the robustness of the predictions when animal movements deviate from the model's assumptions in specific, biologically relevant ways. Here, we review applications of the ideal gas model, derive extensions of the model to cover some more realistic movement patterns, correct several errors that have arisen in the literature, and show how to generate confidence limits for expected rates of encounter among independently moving individuals. We illustrate these results using data from mangabey monkeys originally used along with the ideal gas model to argue that groups avoid each other. Although agent-based simulations provide a more flexible alternative approach, the ideal gas model remains both a valuable null model and a useful, less onerous, approximation to biological reality.

  17. Social Workers' Reflections on the Therapeutic Encounter With Elder Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Alon, Sara

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore social workers' reflections on their experience of the therapeutic encounter with victims and perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect. The research questions were as follows: How do social workers tune themselves toward the therapeutic encounter with elder abuse? How do they position themselves vis-à-vis the clients? How do social workers describe the meaning of the intervention both for the clients and for themselves? What is the added value of the therapeutic encounter in this field for the social workers? Participants were 17 experienced women social workers, who worked with abusers and with abused and neglected older adults in Israel. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were later transcribed and content analyzed. Two main themes emerged from the findings, emphasizing two key aspects of the social workers' reflective process experienced during the therapeutic encounter: (a) focus on the client: "This is the journey of their lives"-reflection on the therapeutic "journey"; (b) focus on the social worker's inner and professional world: "'There is nothing to be done' is no longer in my vocabulary"-a personal and professional maturation process. The social workers expressed a positive attitude toward their elder clients. A unique dialogue developed in the therapeutic encounter, whereby the social workers considered any change as valuable if it allowed the elders a sense of control and self-worth, whereas the social workers were enriched by the elders' life experience, and matured both personally and professionally. Thus, both sides benefited from this reciprocal relationship. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Flow cytometry, fluorescent probes, and flashing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.

    2002-01-01


    Key words: fluorescent probes, flow cytometry, CSLM, viability, survival, microbial physiology, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis , Lactobacillus plantarum , cheese, milk,

  19. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.; Michel, J.; Ferne, M.; Bergner-Rabinowitz, S.; Ginsburg, I.

    1979-01-01

    Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

  20. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean,

  1. Lactic acid bacteria: microbiological and functional aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahtinen, Sampo

    2012-01-01

    "Updated with the substantial progress made in lactic acid and bacteria research since the third edition, this fourth volume discusses improved insights in genetics and new molecular biological techniques...

  2. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O' Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  3. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  4. Bacteria-mediated bisphenol A degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yin, Kun; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, food cans, and other daily used chemicals. Daily and worldwide usage of BPA and BPA-contained products led to its ubiquitous distribution in water, sediment/soil, and atmosphere. Moreover, BPA has been identified as an environmental endocrine disruptor for its estrogenic and genotoxic activity. Thus, BPA contamination in the environment is an increasingly worldwide concern, and methods to efficiently remove BPA from the environment are urgently recommended. Although many factors affect the fate of BPA in the environment, BPA degradation is mainly depended on the metabolism of bacteria. Many BPA-degrading bacteria have been identified from water, sediment/soil, and wastewater treatment plants. Metabolic pathways of BPA degradation in specific bacterial strains were proposed, based on the metabolic intermediates detected during the degradation process. In this review, the BPA-degrading bacteria were summarized, and the (proposed) BPA degradation pathway mediated by bacteria were referred.

  5. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  6. Interactions between phototrophic bacteria in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Rutger

    1989-01-01

    Phototrophic bacteria are the most consicious organisms occuring in laminated microbial sediment ecosystems (microbial mats). In the Waddensea area ecosystems consisting of a toplayer of the cyanobacterium Microleus chthonoplastes overlying a red layer of the purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa

  7. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  8. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  9. Extracellular deoxyribonuclease production by periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, L J; Chapple, I L C; Wright, H J; Roberts, A; Cooper, P R

    2012-08-01

    Whilst certain bacteria have long been known to secrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease (DNase), the purpose in microbial physiology was unclear. Recently, however, this enzyme has been demonstrated to confer enhanced virulence, enabling bacteria to evade the host's immune defence of extruded DNA/chromatin filaments, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). As NETs have recently been identified in infected periodontal tissue, the aim of this study was to screen periodontal bacteria for extracellular DNase activity. To determine whether DNase activity was membrane bound or secreted, 34 periodontal bacteria were cultured in broth and on agar plates. Pelleted bacteria and supernatants from broth cultures were analysed for their ability to degrade DNA, with relative activity levels determined using an agarose gel electrophoresis assay. Following culture on DNA-supplemented agar, expression was determined by the presence of a zone of hydrolysis and DNase activity related to colony size. Twenty-seven bacteria, including red and orange complex members Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus constellatus, Campylobacter rectus and Prevotella nigrescens, were observed to express extracellular DNase activity. Differences in DNase activity were noted, however, when bacteria were assayed in different culture states. Analysis of the activity of secreted DNase from bacterial broth cultures confirmed their ability to degrade NETs. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that DNase activity is a relatively common property of bacteria associated with advanced periodontal disease. Further work is required to determine the importance of this bacterial DNase activity in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Neroni,Rafaela de Fátima; Cardoso,Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is an environmentally threatened tree and the whole biota of the Araucaria Forest should be investigated with the aim of its preservation. Diazotrophic bacteria are extremely important for the maintenance of ecosystems, but they have never been studied in Araucaria Forests. In this study, diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from Araucaria roots and soil, when grown in semi-specific, semi-solid media. The diazotrophic character of some recovered isolates could be confirm...

  11. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  12. Mimicking Seawater For Culturing Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum as solidif......Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum...... as solidifying agents, and enumerated bacteria from seawater and algal exudates. We tested if culturability could be influenced by addition of quorum sensing signals (AHLs). All plates were incubated at 15°C. Bacterial counts (CFU/g) from algal exudates from brown algae were highest on media containing algal...... polymers. In general, bacteria isolated from algal exudates preferred more rich media than bacteria isolated from seawater. Overall, culturability ranged from 0.01 to 0.8% as compared to total cell count. Substitution of agar with gellan gum increased the culturability of seawater bacteria approximately...

  13. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J L; Shigeno, D S; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

    1981-08-01

    We analyzed drinking water from seven communities for multiply antibiotic-resistant (MAR) bacteria (bacteria resistant to two or more antibiotics) and screened the MAR bacterial isolates obtained against five antibiotics by replica plating. Overall, 33.9% of 2,653 standard plate count bacteria from treated drinking waters were MAR. Two different raw water supplies for two communities carried MAR standard plate count bacteria at frequencies of 20.4 and 18.6%, whereas 36.7 and 67.8% of the standard plate count populations from sites within the respective distribution systems were MAR. Isolate identification revealed that MAR gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus) and MAR gram-negative, nonfermentative rods (Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Moraxella-like group M, and Acinetobacter) were more common in drinking waters than in untreated source waters. Site-to-site variations in generic types and differences in the incidences of MAR organisms indicated that shedding of MAR bacteria living in pipelines may have contributed to the MAR populations in tap water. We conclude that the treatment of raw water and its subsequent distribution select for standard plate count bacteria exhibiting the MAR phenotype.

  14. Nature and frequency of exchanges on medications during primary care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse

    2006-12-01

    To describe the exchanges, related to discussion of all medications during primary care medical consultations. Descriptive study of audio recordings of 422 medical encounters. Coding was done with MEDICODE, a validated instrument developed to analyse verbal exchanges on medications. The unit of analysis is the medication. An average of 3.9 medications (S.D.=2.8; range 1-21) are discussed per interview and 4.2 themes are broached for each drug (S.D.=2.6; range 1-17). "Active Discussed", "Represcribed" and "Newly Prescribed" drugs account for 43.1, 16.3 and 10.6%, respectively of all medications discussed. Themes most often discussed are Name, Instructions, Observed Main Effect, Class, Reasons for Taking the Drug, General Use of the Medication, Expected Effect on Symptoms, Form of the Medication, Indications Another Consultation Needed, and Alternative Medication. The least often discussed themes include clinically significant ones such as Possible Adverse Effects, Observed Adverse Effects, Expression of Attitudes and Emotions with regard to the medication, Compliance and Warnings. The average number of themes discussed differed between medications that were prescribed during the encounter, either New prescriptions or Represcribed drugs, compared to medications that were only discussed during the encounter. Our results show that medication discussions are heterogeneous and vary with the status of the medication and the theme. Also, the nature and extent of the discussions about medications do not support the shared-decision making model. Though it is too soon to make specific recommendations about discussions on medications, it seems clear that information-sharing about medications during medical encounters is a process that extends beyond any single encounter. Although communication skills are now part of most medical curriculums, there is an obvious need to put forth the concept of patient medication knowledge-building over multiple physician-patient encounters and

  15. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chen, Su-Yueh; Lan, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-16

    Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients' perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients' overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly affects patient satisfaction, which represents a

  16. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly

  17. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ching-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A interpersonal-based medical

  18. Diversity and role of plasmids in adaptation of bacteria inhabiting the Lubin copper mine in Poland, an environment rich in heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz eDziewit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lubin underground mine, is one of three mining divisions in the Lubin-Glogow Copper District in Lower Silesia province (Poland. It is the source of polymetallic ore that is rich in copper, silver and several heavy metals. Black shale is also significantly enriched in fossil organic matter in the form of long-chain hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, thiophenes and metalloporphyrins. Biological analyses have revealed that this environment is inhabited by extremophilic bacteria and fungi. Kupfershiefer black shale and samples of water, bottom and mineral sediments from the underground (below 600 m Lubin mine were taken and twenty bacterial strains were isolated and characterized. All exhibited multi-resistant and hypertolerant phenotypes to heavy metals. We analyzed the plasmidome of these strains in order to evaluate the diversity and role of mobile DNA in adaptation to the harsh conditions of the mine environment. Experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 11 extrachromosomal replicons were performed. Three plasmids, including a broad-host-range replicon containing a Tn3 family transposon, carried genes conferring resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, mercury and zinc. Functional analysis revealed that the resistance modules exhibit host specificity, i.e. they may increase or decrease tolerance to toxic ions depending on the host strain. The other identified replicons showed diverse features. Among them we identified a catabolic plasmid encoding enzymes involved in the utilization of histidine and vanillate, a putative plasmid-like prophage carrying genes responsible for NAD biosynthesis, and two repABC-type plasmids containing virulence-associated genes. These findings provide an unique molecular insight into the pool of extrachromosomal replicons and highlight their role in the biology and adaptation of extremophilic bacteria inhabiting terrestrial deep subsurface.

  19. Imaging Obsearvations of Jupiter's Sodium Magneto-Nebula During the Ulysses Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendillo, M; Flynn, B; Baumgardner, J

    1992-09-11

    Jupiter's great sodium nebula represents the largest visible structure traversed by the Ulysses spacecraft during its encounter with the planet in February 1992. Ground-based imaging conducted on Mount Haleakala, Hawaii, revealed a nebula that extended to at least +/-300 Jovian radii (spanning approximately 50 million kilometers); it was somewhat smaller in scale and less bright than previously observed. Analysis of observations and results of modeling studies suggest reduced volcanic activity on the moon lo, higher ion temperatures in the plasma torus, lower total plasma content in the torus, and fast neutral atomic clouds along the Ulysses inbound trajectory through the magnetosphere. Far fewer neutrals were encountered by the spacecraft along its postencounter, out-of-ecliptic trajectory.

  20. Dealing with Moms and Dads: Family Dilemmas Encountered by Youth Program Leaders

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    Aisha Griffith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaders of youth programs encounter a range of challenging situations that involve youth’s parents or families. This qualitative study obtained data on the variety and nature of these family-related “dilemmas of practice.” Longitudinal interviews with leaders of 10 high quality programs for high-school-aged youth yielded narrative information on a sample of 32 family dilemmas that they had encountered. Grounded theory analysis identified four categories of family dilemmas: 1 problems at home that become a concern to the leader, 2 parents’ expectations are incongruent with program norms or functioning, 3 parents do not support youth’s participation in the program or an aspect of the program, and 4 communicating with parents on sensitive matters. Each of these categories of dilemmas entailed distinct considerations and underlying issues that effective leaders need to be able to understand.