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Sample records for encoding membrane proteins

  1. The Down regulated in Adenoma (dra) gene encodes an intestine-specific membrane sulfate transport protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, D G; Wang, W; Moseley, R H; Traber, P G

    1995-05-19

    A gene has been described, Down Regulated in Adenoma (dra), which is expressed in normal colon but is absent in the majority of colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas. However, the function of this protein is unknown. Because of sequence similarity to a recently cloned membrane sulfate transporter in rat liver, the transport function of Dra was examined. We established that dra encodes for a Na(+)-independent transporter for both sulfate and oxalate using microinjected Xenopus oocytes as an assay system. Sulfate transport was sensitive to the anion exchange inhibitor DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic acid stilbene). Using an RNase protection assay, we found that dra mRNA expression is limited to the small intestine and colon in mouse, therefore identifying Dra as an intestine-specific sulfate transporter. dra also had a unique pattern of expression during intestinal development. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of expression in colon at birth with a marked increase in the first 2 postnatal weeks. In contrast, there was a lower, constant level of expression in small intestine in the postnatal period. Caco-2 cells, a colon carcinoma cell line that differentiates over time in culture, demonstrated a marked induction of dra mRNA as cells progressed from the preconfluent (undifferentiated) to the postconfluent (differentiated) state. These results show that Dra is an intestine-specific Na(+)-independent sulfate transporter that has differential expression during colonic development. This functional characterization provides the foundation for investigation of the role of Dra in intestinal sulfate transport and in the malignant phenotype.

  2. Identification of Genes Encoding the Folate- and Thiamine-Binding Membrane Proteins in Firmicutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Erkens, Guus B.; Slotboom, Dirk J.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Naponelli, Valeria; Hanson, Andrew D.

    Genes encoding high-affinity folate- and thiamine-binding proteins (FolT, ThiT) were identified in the Lactobacillus casei genome, expressed in Lactococcus lactis, and functionally characterized. Similar genes occur in many Firmicutes, sometimes next to folate or thiamine salvage genes. Most thiT

  3. Identification of two novel genes encoding 97- to 99-kilodalton outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae.Infect Immun. 1999 Jan;67(1):375-83

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K; Madsen, AS; Mygind, P

    1999-01-01

    Two genes encoding 97- to 99-kDa Chlamydia pneumoniae VR1310 outer membrane proteins (Omp4 and Omp5) with mutual similarity were cloned and sequenced. The proteins were shown to be constituents of the C. pneumoniae outer membrane complex, and the deduced amino acid sequences were similar to those...

  4. Shewanella putrefaciens mtrB encodes an outer membrane protein required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, A S; Saffarini, D A

    1998-12-01

    Iron and manganese oxides or oxyhydroxides are abundant transition metals, and in aquatic environments they serve as terminal electron acceptors for a large number of bacterial species. The molecular mechanisms of anaerobic metal reduction, however, are not understood. Shewanella putrefaciens is a facultative anaerobe that uses Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate mutants of S. putrefaciens, and one such mutant, SR-21, was analyzed in detail. Growth and enzyme assays indicated that the mutation in SR-21 resulted in loss of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction but did not affect its ability to reduce other electron acceptors used by the wild type. This deficiency was due to Tn5 inactivation of an open reading frame (ORF) designated mtrB. mtrB encodes a protein of 679 amino acids and contains a signal sequence characteristic of secreted proteins. Analysis of membrane fractions of the mutant, SR-21, and wild-type cells indicated that MtrB is located on the outer membrane of S. putrefaciens. A 5.2-kb DNA fragment that contains mtrB was isolated and completely sequenced. A second ORF, designated mtrA, was found directly upstream of mtrB. The two ORFs appear to be arranged in an operon. mtrA encodes a putative 10-heme c-type cytochrome of 333 amino acids. The N-terminal sequence of MtrA contains a potential signal sequence for secretion across the cell membrane. The amino acid sequence of MtrA exhibited 34% identity to NrfB from Escherichia coli, which is involved in formate-dependent nitrite reduction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genes encoding proteins involved in metal reduction.

  5. MBA1 encodes a mitochondrial membrane-associated protein required for biogenesis of the respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rep, M; Grivell, L A

    1996-06-17

    The yeast MBA 1 gene (Multi-copy Bypass of AFG3) is one of three genes whose overexpression suppresses afg3-null and rca1-null mutations. Bypass of AFG3 and RCA1, whose products are essential for assembly of mitochondrial inner membrane enzyme complexes, suggests a related role for MBA1. The predicted translation product is a 30 kDa hydrophilic protein with a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence and no homology to any sequence in protein or EST databases. Gene disruption leads to a partial respiratory growth defect, which is more pronounced at temperatures above 30 degrees C. Concomitantly, amounts of cytochromes b and aa3 are reduced. A C-terminal c-myc-tagged MBA1 gene product is functional and is found associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane, from which it can he extracted by carbonate, but not by high salt. These observations give further support to a role of MBA1 in assembly of the respiratory chain.

  6. The effects of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 in the irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-Y.; Hsu, W.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in southern China and Taiwan. NPC is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the EBV encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1)is commonly found in the tumor cells. Radiotherapy is the effective choice for most of the NPC patients with different classification and stages. The previous studies showed that EBV-associated NPC tend to be more sensitive to radiotherapy and have been shown the better prognosis than that of EBV-negative NPC. It suggests that LMP-1 may be able to modulate the cellular sensitivity of apoptosis induced by radiation in some kinds of NPC cells. In our study, LMP-1-expressing HONE-1 NPC cells were taken to treat with radiation to investigate whether the LMP-1 can prevent the cells from apoptosis induced by irradiation. The growth of LMP-1-expressing HONE-1 NPC cells were not significantly different from that without expressing LMP-1 at a giving dose of 2, 4 or 6Gy. However, the arrested cellular growth was found in LMP-1-expressing cells irradiated with a dose higher than 8Gy. In addition to the DNA fragmentation, the different levels of several related proteins of the apoptotic pathway and the mRNA of cell cycle arrest in these transfected cells were also investigated after various treatments

  7. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from Bordetella avium and expression of the gene in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Weeks, C R; Hultsch, A L; Kelly, S M; Keith, J M; Curtiss, R

    1992-01-01

    Three gene libraries of Bordetella avium 197 DNA were prepared in Escherichia coli LE392 by using the cosmid vectors pCP13 and pYA2329, a derivative of pCP13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. The cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-B. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. One E. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kDa protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with B. avium 197. In addition, five E. coli recombinant clones were identified which produced B. avium outer membrane proteins with molecular masses of 21, 38, 40, 43, and 48 kDa. At least one of these E. coli clones, which encoded the 21-kDa protein, reacted with both convalescent-phase turkey sera and antibody against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. The gene for the 21-kDa outer membrane protein was localized by Tn5seq1 mutagenesis, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by dideoxy sequencing. DNA sequence analysis of the 21-kDa protein revealed an open reading frame of 582 bases that resulted in a predicted protein of 194 amino acids. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene encoding the 21-kDa outer membrane protein with protein sequences in the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein sequence data base indicated significant homology to the OmpA proteins of Shigella dysenteriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella typhimurium and to Neisseria gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein III, Haemophilus influenzae protein P6, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin protein F. The gene (ompA) encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein hybridized with 4.1-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and with 6.0- and 3.2-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of B. avium and B. avium-like DNA, respectively. A 6.75-kb DNA fragment encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein was subcloned into the

  8. DNA vaccine encoding myristoylated membrane protein (MMP) of rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) induces protective immunity in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2018-02-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. In this study, we investigated the potential of viral membrane protein to induce antiviral status protecting rock bream against RBIV infection. We found that fish administered with ORF008L (myristoylated membrane protein, MMP) vaccine exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to ORF007L (major capsid protein, MCP). Moreover, ORF008L-based DNA vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 4 and 8 weeks post vaccination (wpv) than non-vaccinated fish after infected with RBIV (6.7 × 10 5 ) at 23 °C, with relative percent survival (RPS) of 73.36% and 46.72%, respectively. All of the survivors from the first RBIV infection were strongly protected (100% RPS) from re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10 7 ) at 100 dpi. In addition, the MMP (ORF008L)-based DNA vaccine significantly induced the gene expression of TLR3 (14.2-fold), MyD88 (11.6-fold), Mx (84.7-fold), ISG15 (8.7-fold), PKR (25.6-fold), MHC class I (13.3-fold), Fas (6.7-fold), Fas ligand (6.7-fold), caspase9 (17.0-fold) and caspase3 (15.3-fold) at 7 days post vaccination in the muscle (vaccine injection site). Our results showed the induction of immune responses and suggest the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using myristoylated membrane protein-based DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear accumulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and acceleration of G1/S stage by Epstein-Barr-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yongguang; Song Xing; Deng Xiyun; Xie Daxin; Lee, Leo M.; Liu Yiping; Li Wei; Li Lili; Deng Lin; Wu Qiao; Gong Jianping; Cao Ya

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV-encoded proteins and has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly improved our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used the Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1-integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 which could be regulated by the Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear accumulation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation and EGFR in the nucleus could bind to the promoters of cyclinD1 and cyclinE, respectively. We further demonstrated that EGFR is involved in the acceleration of the G1/S phase transition by LMP1 through binding to cyclinD1 and cyclinE directly. These findings provided a novel view that the acceleration of LMP1 on the G1/S transition via the nuclear accumulation of EGFR was critical in the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  10. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  11. Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Tetsuji; Ota, Toshio; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Wakamatsu, Ai; Kimura, Kouichi; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Hatano, Naoto; Kawai, Yuri; Ishii, Shizuko; Saito, Kaoru; Kojima, Shin-ichi; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Ono, Tetsuyoshi; Okano, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Aotsuka, Satoshi; Sasaki, Naokazu; Hattori, Atsushi; Okumura, Koji; Nagai, Keiichi; Sugano, Sumio; Isogai, Takao

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an in silico method of selection of human full-length cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. Fullness rates were increased to about 80% by combination of the oligo-capping method and ATGpr, software for prediction of translation start point and the coding potential. Then, using 5'-end single-pass sequences, cDNAs having the signal sequence were selected by PSORT ('signal sequence trap'). We also applied 'secretion or membrane protein-related keyword trap' based on the result of BLAST search against the SWISS-PROT database for the cDNAs which could not be selected by PSORT. Using the above procedures, 789 cDNAs were primarily selected and subjected to full-length sequencing, and 334 of these cDNAs were finally selected as novel. Most of the cDNAs (295 cDNAs: 88.3%) were predicted to encode secretion or membrane proteins. In particular, 165(80.5%) of the 205 cDNAs selected by PSORT were predicted to have signal sequences, while 70 (54.2%) of the 129 cDNAs selected by 'keyword trap' preserved the secretion or membrane protein-related keywords. Many important cDNAs were obtained, including transporters, receptors, and ligands, involved in significant cellular functions. Thus, an efficient method of selecting secretion or membrane protein-encoding cDNAs was developed by combining the above four procedures.

  12. Secondary structure estimation of recombinant psbH, encoding a photosynthetic membrane protein of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štys, Dalibor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2005), s. 421-424 ISSN 0300-3604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; MSM6007665808 Keywords : protein Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.810, year: 2005

  13. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Coninx

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree’s Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus, a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus. Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  14. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein) Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Laura; Thoonen, Anneleen; Slenders, Eli; Morin, Emmanuelle; Arnauts, Natascha; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Kohler, Annegret; Ruytinx, Joske; Colpaert, Jan V

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree's Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus , a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein) family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus . Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  15. Metagenomic identification of a novel salt tolerance gene from the human gut microbiome which encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.

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    Eamonn P Culligan

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiome consists of at least 3 million non-redundant genes, 150 times that of the core human genome. Herein, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel stress tolerance gene from the human gut metagenome. The locus, assigned brpA, encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene monooxygenase. Cloning and heterologous expression of brpA in Escherichia coli confers a significant salt tolerance phenotype. Furthermore, when cultured in the presence of exogenous β-carotene, cell pellets adopt a red/orange pigmentation indicating the incorporation of carotenoids in the cell membrane.

  16. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding

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    Ernesto A. Roman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding protein folding has been one of the great challenges in biochemistry and molecular biophysics. Over the past 50 years, many thermodynamic and kinetic studies have been performed addressing the stability of globular proteins. In comparison, advances in the membrane protein folding field lag far behind. Although membrane proteins constitute about a third of the proteins encoded in known genomes, stability studies on membrane proteins have been impaired due to experimental limitations. Furthermore, no systematic experimental strategies are available for folding these biomolecules in vitro. Common denaturing agents such as chaotropes usually do not work on helical membrane proteins, and ionic detergents have been successful denaturants only in few cases. Refolding a membrane protein seems to be a craftsman work, which is relatively straightforward for transmembrane β-barrel proteins but challenging for α-helical membrane proteins. Additional complexities emerge in multidomain membrane proteins, data interpretation being one of the most critical. In this review, we will describe some recent efforts in understanding the folding mechanism of membrane proteins that have been reversibly refolded allowing both thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. This information will be discussed in the context of current paradigms in the protein folding field.

  17. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J. W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Strains are phenotypic variants, encoded by nucleic acid sequences in chromosomal inheritance and by protein “conformations” in prion inheritance and transmission. But how is a protein “conformation” stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms? Here new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins offer structural mechanisms for prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packings (polymorphs) of β-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in a second mechanism, segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct β-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring “conformations,” capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of information by nucleic acid inheritance, including sequence specificity and recognition by non-covalent bonds. PMID:19684598

  18. Blue-light mediated accumulation of nuclear-encoded transcripts coding for proteins of the thylakoid membrane is absent in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelmueller, R.; Kendrick, R.E.; Briggs, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against pea phytochrome detect 2 protein bands (about 116 and 120 kDa) on blots of crude protein extracts and protein of microsomal preparations of dark-grown tomato seedlings. Both protein bands are undetectable in Western blots of the aurea mutant extracts. Neither protein band is detectable after isogenic wild-type seedlings are illuminated with 3 h of red light, either in the crude extract or in the membrane fraction of the irradiated seedlings; this result is consistent with the hypothesis that both bands are phytochrome. When dark-grown wild-type seedlings are illuminated with 3 h of red light or blue light against a red light background, the transcript levels for chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of photosystem I and II, plastocyanin, and the subunit II of photosystem I increase. In all cases, the same fluence rate of blue light is much more effective than red light alone, a result that indicates the involvement of a blue/UV-A light photoreceptor in addition to the involvement of the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome, Pfr. The aurea mutant responds neither to red light nor to blue light. Thus, no Pfr-independent induction of the four transcripts by a blue/UV-A light photoreceptor can be measured in the aurea mutant

  19. Tetrahymena gene encodes a protein that is homologous with the liver-specific F-antigen and associated with membranes of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, R; Nørgaard, P; Andreasen, P H

    1992-01-01

    The F-antigen is a prominent liver protein which has been extensively used in studies on natural and induced immunological tolerance. However, its intracellular localization and biological function have remained elusive. It has generally been assumed that the F-antigen is confined phylogenetically...... of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles pointing to a role of TF-ag in membrane trafficking. Transcription of the TF-ag gene, as determined by run-on analyses, was only detectable in growing cells, and following transfer to starvation condition pre-existing TF-ag mRNA was rapidly degraded. The abundance...

  20. Rare mutations and potentially damaging missense variants in genes encoding fibrillar collagens and proteins involved in their production are candidates for risk for preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Bhavi P; Teves, Maria E; Pearson, Laurel N; Parikh, Hardik I; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Sheth, Nihar U; York, Timothy P; Romero, Roberto; Strauss, Jerome F

    2017-01-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is the leading identifiable cause of preterm birth with ~ 40% of preterm births being associated with PPROM and occurs in 1% - 2% of all pregnancies. We hypothesized that multiple rare variants in fetal genes involved in extracellular matrix synthesis would associate with PPROM, based on the assumption that impaired elaboration of matrix proteins would reduce fetal membrane tensile strength, predisposing to unscheduled rupture. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on neonatal DNA derived from pregnancies complicated by PPROM (49 cases) and healthy term deliveries (20 controls) to identify candidate mutations/variants. Genotyping for selected variants from the WES study was carried out on an additional 188 PPROM cases and 175 controls. All mothers were self-reported African Americans, and a panel of ancestry informative markers was used to control for genetic ancestry in all genetic association tests. In support of the primary hypothesis, a statistically significant genetic burden (all samples combined, SKAT-O p-value = 0.0225) of damaging/potentially damaging rare variants was identified in the genes of interest-fibrillar collagen genes, which contribute to fetal membrane strength and integrity. These findings suggest that the fetal contribution to PPROM is polygenic, and driven by an increased burden of rare variants that may also contribute to the disparities in rates of preterm birth among African Americans.

  1. cDNA for the human β2-adrenergic receptor: a protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose chromosomal location is shared with that of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobilka, B.K.; Dixon, R.A.F.; Frielle, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the human β 2 -adrenergic receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence (413 residues) is that of a protein containing seven clusters of hydrophobic amino acids suggestive of membrane-spanning domains. While the protein is 87% identical overall with the previously cloned hamster β 2 -adrenergic receptor, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane helices (95% identical) and cytoplasmic loops (93% identical), suggesting that these regions of the molecule harbor important functional domains. Several of the transmembrane helices also share lesser degrees of identity with comparable regions of select members of the opsin family of visual pigments. They have localized the gene for the β 2 -adrenergic receptor to q31-q32 on chromosome 5. This is the same position recently determined for the gene encoding the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor and is adjacent to that for the FMS protooncogene, which encodes the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor

  2. Diffusion of Integral Membrane Proteins in Protein-Rich Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    of being protein-poor, native cell membranes are extremely crowded with proteins. On the basis of extensive molecular simulations, we here demonstrate that protein crowding of the membrane at physiological levels leads to deviations from the SD relation and to the emergence of a stronger Stokes......-like dependence D ∝ 1/R. We propose that this 1/R law mainly arises due to geometrical factors: smaller proteins are able to avoid confinement effects much better than their larger counterparts. The results highlight that the lateral dynamics in the crowded setting found in native membranes is radically different......The lateral diffusion of embedded proteins along lipid membranes in protein-poor conditions has been successfully described in terms of the Saffman-Delbrück (SD) model, which predicts that the protein diffusion coefficient D is weakly dependent on its radius R as D ∝ ln(1/R). However, instead...

  3. Modelling of proteins in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; May, S.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes some recent theories and simulations of mesoscopic and microscopic models of lipid membranes with embedded or attached proteins. We summarize results supporting our understanding of phenomena for which the activities of proteins in membranes are expected to be significantly ...

  4. Combinational deletion of three membrane protein-encoding genes highly attenuates yersinia pestis while retaining immunogenicity in a mouse model of pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; Erova, Tatiana E; Popov, Vsevolod L; Baze, Wallace B; van Lier, Christina J; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Andersson, Jourdan A; Motin, Vladimir L; Chauhan, Sadhana; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-04-01

    Previously, we showed that deletion of genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and MsbB attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 in mouse and rat models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. While Lpp activates Toll-like receptor 2, the MsbB acyltransferase modifies lipopolysaccharide. Here, we deleted the ail gene (encoding the attachment-invasion locus) from wild-type (WT) strain CO92 or its lpp single and Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutants. While the Δail single mutant was minimally attenuated compared to the WT bacterium in a mouse model of pneumonic plague, the Δlpp Δail double mutant and the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant were increasingly attenuated, with the latter being unable to kill mice at a 50% lethal dose (LD50) equivalent to 6,800 LD50s of WT CO92. The mutant-infected animals developed balanced TH1- and TH2-based immune responses based on antibody isotyping. The triple mutant was cleared from mouse organs rapidly, with concurrent decreases in the production of various cytokines and histopathological lesions. When surviving animals infected with increasing doses of the triple mutant were subsequently challenged on day 24 with the bioluminescent WT CO92 strain (20 to 28 LD50s), 40 to 70% of the mice survived, with efficient clearing of the invading pathogen, as visualized in real time by in vivo imaging. The rapid clearance of the triple mutant, compared to that of WT CO92, from animals was related to the decreased adherence and invasion of human-derived HeLa and A549 alveolar epithelial cells and to its inability to survive intracellularly in these cells as well as in MH-S murine alveolar and primary human macrophages. An early burst of cytokine production in macrophages elicited by the triple mutant compared to WT CO92 and the mutant's sensitivity to the bactericidal effect of human serum would further augment bacterial clearance. Together, deletion of the ail gene from the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant severely attenuated Y. pestis CO92 to evoke pneumonic plague in a

  5. Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1 and tyrosine sulfation of chemokine receptor 4 are induced by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1 and associated with the metastatic potential of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xu

    Full Text Available The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, which is encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, is an important oncogenic protein that is closely related to carcinogenesis and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, a prevalent cancer in China. We previously reported that the expression of the functional chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with human NPC metastasis. In this study, we show that LMP1 induces tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4 through tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1 (TPST-1, an enzyme that is responsible for catalysis of tyrosine sulfation in vivo, which is likely to contribute to the highly metastatic character of NPC. LMP1 could induce tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4 and its associated cell motility and invasiveness in a NPC cell culture model. In contrast, the expression of TPST-1 small interfering RNA reversed LMP1-induced tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4. LMP1 conveys signals through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway, and EGFR-targeted siRNA inhibited the induction of TPST-1 by LMP1. We used a ChIP assay to show that EGFR could bind to the TPST-1 promoter in vivo under the control of LMP1. A reporter gene assay indicated that the activity of the TPST-1 promoter could be suppressed by deleting the binding site between EGFR and TPST-1. Finally, in human NPC tissues, the expression of TPST-1 and LMP1 was directly correlated and clinically, the expression of TPST-1 was associated with metastasis. These results suggest the up-regulation of TPST-1 and tyrosine sulfation of CXCR4 by LMP1 might be a potential mechanism contributing to NPC metastasis.

  6. Engineering a genetically-encoded SHG chromophore by electrostatic targeting to the membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka eJinno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy provides unique imaging advantages for voltage imaging and other biological applications, genetically-encoded SHG chromophores remain relatively unexplored. SHG only arises from non-centrosymmetric media, so an anisotropic arrangement of chromophores is essential to provide strong SHG signals. Here, inspired by the mechanism by which K-Ras4B associates with plasma membranes, we sought to achieve asymmetric arrangements of chromophores at the membrane-cytoplasm interface using the fluorescent protein mVenus. After adding a farnesylation motif to the C-terminus of mVenus, nine amino acids composing its -barrel surface were replaced by lysine, forming an electrostatic patch. This protein (mVe9Knus-CVIM was efficiently targeted to the plasma membrane in a geometrically defined manner and exhibited SHG in HEK293 cells. In agreement with its design, mVe9Knus-CVIM hyperpolarizability was oriented at a small angle (~7.3º from the membrane normal. Genetically-encoded SHG chromophores could serve as a molecular platform for imaging membrane potential.

  7. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michael T; Wilcox, Kyle C; Klein, William L; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-05-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membrane proteins and have been used to study a wide variety of purified membrane proteins. This report details the incorporation of an unbiased population of membrane proteins from Escherichia coli membranes into Nanodiscs. This solubilized membrane protein library (SMPL) forms a soluble in vitro model of the membrane proteome. Since Nanodiscs contain isolated proteins or small complexes, the SMPL is an ideal platform for interactomics studies and pull-down assays of membrane proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the protein population before and after formation of the Nanodisc library indicates that a large percentage of the proteins are incorporated into the library. Proteomic identification of several prominent bands demonstrates the successful incorporation of outer and inner membrane proteins into the Nanodisc library.

  8. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Michael T.; Wilcox, Kyle C.; Klein, William L.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membr...

  9. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  10. Plant Proteins Are Smaller Because They Are Encoded by Fewer Exons than Animal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Obed; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Delaye, Luis; Tiessen, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Protein size is an important biochemical feature since longer proteins can harbor more domains and therefore can display more biological functionalities than shorter proteins. We found remarkable differences in protein length, exon structure, and domain count among different phylogenetic lineages. While eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 amino acid residues (aa), average protein sizes in plant genomes are smaller than those of animals and fungi. Proteins unique to plants are ∼81aa shorter than plant proteins conserved among other eukaryotic lineages. The smaller average size of plant proteins could neither be explained by endosymbiosis nor subcellular compartmentation nor exon size, but rather due to exon number. Metazoan proteins are encoded on average by ∼10 exons of small size [∼176 nucleotides (nt)]. Streptophyta have on average only ∼5.7 exons of medium size (∼230nt). Multicellular species code for large proteins by increasing the exon number, while most unicellular organisms employ rather larger exons (>400nt). Among subcellular compartments, membrane proteins are the largest (∼520aa), whereas the smallest proteins correspond to the gene ontology group of ribosome (∼240aa). Plant genes are encoded by half the number of exons and also contain fewer domains than animal proteins on average. Interestingly, endosymbiotic proteins that migrated to the plant nucleus became larger than their cyanobacterial orthologs. We thus conclude that plants have proteins larger than bacteria but smaller than animals or fungi. Compared to the average of eukaryotic species, plants have ∼34% more but ∼20% smaller proteins. This suggests that photosynthetic organisms are unique and deserve therefore special attention with regard to the evolutionary forces acting on their genomes and proteomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant Proteins Are Smaller Because They Are Encoded by Fewer Exons than Animal Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Ramírez-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein size is an important biochemical feature since longer proteins can harbor more domains and therefore can display more biological functionalities than shorter proteins. We found remarkable differences in protein length, exon structure, and domain count among different phylogenetic lineages. While eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 amino acid residues (aa, average protein sizes in plant genomes are smaller than those of animals and fungi. Proteins unique to plants are ∼81 aa shorter than plant proteins conserved among other eukaryotic lineages. The smaller average size of plant proteins could neither be explained by endosymbiosis nor subcellular compartmentation nor exon size, but rather due to exon number. Metazoan proteins are encoded on average by ∼10 exons of small size [∼176 nucleotides (nt]. Streptophyta have on average only ∼5.7 exons of medium size (∼230 nt. Multicellular species code for large proteins by increasing the exon number, while most unicellular organisms employ rather larger exons (>400 nt. Among subcellular compartments, membrane proteins are the largest (∼520 aa, whereas the smallest proteins correspond to the gene ontology group of ribosome (∼240 aa. Plant genes are encoded by half the number of exons and also contain fewer domains than animal proteins on average. Interestingly, endosymbiotic proteins that migrated to the plant nucleus became larger than their cyanobacterial orthologs. We thus conclude that plants have proteins larger than bacteria but smaller than animals or fungi. Compared to the average of eukaryotic species, plants have ∼34% more but ∼20% smaller proteins. This suggests that photosynthetic organisms are unique and deserve therefore special attention with regard to the evolutionary forces acting on their genomes and proteomes.

  12. Novel Tripod Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Kruse, Andrew C; Gotfryd, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins play central roles in controlling the flow of information and molecules across membranes. Our understanding of membrane protein structures and functions, however, is seriously limited, mainly due to difficulties in handling and analysing these proteins in aqueous solution...

  13. Proteins and Peptides in Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Alfredo Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent advances and the main advantages of block copolymers for functional membrane protein reconstitution in biomimetic polymeric membranes. A rational approach to the reconstitution of membrane proteins in a functional form can be addressed by a more holistic view by using...... other kind of nonbiological amphiphilic molecules. An interesting possibility could be the use of self-assembled proteins in a lipid-free membrane mimicking the capside of some viruses. The membrane proteins that have been more actively used in combination with block copolymer membranes are gramicidin...

  14. Transport proteins of the plant plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, S. M.; Haubrick, L. L.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed molecular and genetic approaches have enabled the identification and functional characterization of novel genes encoding ion channels, ion carriers, and water channels of the plant plasma membrane.

  15. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    Cellular membranes are complex structures, consisting of hundreds of different lipids and proteins. These membranes act as barriers between distinct environments, constituting hot spots for many essential functions of the cell, including signaling, energy conversion, and transport. These functions....... Discovered interactions were then probed on the level of the membrane using liposome-based assays. In the second part, a transmembrane protein was investigated. Assays to probe activity of the plasma membrane ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana H+ -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2)) in single liposomes using both giant...... are implemented by soluble proteins reversibly binding to, as well as by integral membrane proteins embedded in, cellular membranes. The activity and interaction of these proteins is furthermore modulated by the lipids of the membrane. Here, liposomes were used as model membrane systems to investigate...

  17. Two homologous genes, DCW1 (YKL046c) and DFG5, are essential for cell growth and encode glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins required for cell wall biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Wu, Hong; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2002-11-01

    The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of glucan, chitin and various kinds of mannoproteins. Major parts of mannoproteins are synthesized as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and are then transferred to cell wall beta-1,6-glucan. A glycosyltransferase has been hypothesized to catalyse this transfer reaction. A database search revealed that the products of YKL046c and DFG5 are homologous to bacterial mannosidase. These genes are homologous to each other and have primary structures characteristic of GPI-anchored proteins. Although single disruptants of ykl046c and dfg5 were viable, ykl046cDelta was hypersensitive to a cell wall-digesting enzyme (zymolyase), suggesting that this gene is involved in cell wall biosynthesis. We therefore designated this gene as DCW1 (defective cell wall). A double disruptant of dcw1 and dfg5 was synthetically lethal, indicating that the functions of these gene products are redundant, and at least one of them is required for cell growth. Cells deficient in both Dcw1p and Dfg5p were round and large, had cell walls that contained an increased amount of chitin and secreted a major cell wall protein, Cwp1p, into the medium. Biochemical analyses showed that epitope-tagged Dcw1p is an N-glycosylated, GPI-anchored membrane protein and is localized in the membrane fraction including the cell surface. These results suggest that both Dcw1p and Dfg5p are GPI-anchored membrane proteins and are required for normal biosynthesis of the cell wall.

  18. Secretion Trap Tagging of Secreted and Membrane-Spanning Proteins Using Arabidopsis Gene Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Juana M. Arroyo; Cristina Yordan; W. Richard McCombie; Robert A. Martienssen

    2003-01-01

    Secreted and membrane-spanning proteins play fundamental roles in plant development but pose challenges for genetic identification and characterization. We describe a "secretion trap" screen for gene trap insertions in genes encoding proteins routed through the secretory pathway. The gene trap transposon encodes a ß-glucuronidase reporter enzyme...

  19. Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hong Jeong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding.

  20. Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian

    2018-06-20

    Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.

  1. Biomimetic devices functionalized by membrane channel proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jacob

    2004-03-01

    We are developing a new family of active materials which derive their functional properties from membrane proteins. These materials have two primary components: the proteins and the membranes themselves. I will discuss our recent work directed toward development of a generic platform for a "plug-and-play" philosophy of membrane protein engineering. By creating a stable biomimetic polymer membrane a single molecular monolayer thick, we will enable the exploitation of the function of any membrane protein, from pores and pumps to sensors and energy transducers. Our initial work has centered on the creation, study, and characterization of the biomimetic membranes. We are attempting to make large areas of membrane monolayers using Langmuir-Blodgett film formation as well as through arrays of microfabricated black lipid membrane-type septa. A number of techniques allow the insertion of protein into the membranes. As a benchmark, we have been employing a model system of voltage-gated pore proteins, which have electrically controllable porosities. I will report on the progress of this work, the characterization of the membranes, protein insertion processes, and the yield and functionality of the composite.

  2. Isomeric Detergent Comparison for Membrane Protein Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Mortensen, Jonas S.

    2016-01-01

    and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins and membrane protein complexes. Thus, a number of new agents have been devised; some have made significant contributions to membrane protein structural studies. However, few detergent design principles are available. In this study, we prepared meta...... and ortho isomers of the previously reported para-substituted xylene-linked maltoside amphiphiles (XMAs), along with alkyl chain-length variation. The isomeric XMAs were assessed with three membrane proteins, and the meta isomer with a C12 alkyl chain was most effective at maintaining solubility....../stability of the membrane proteins. We propose that interplay between the hydrophile–lipophile balance (HLB) and alkyl chain length is of central importance for high detergent efficacy. In addition, differences in inter-alkyl-chain distance between the isomers influence the ability of the detergents to stabilise membrane...

  3. Detection of proteins on blot transfer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2003-11-01

    In the basic and alternate protocols of this unit, proteins are stained after electroblotting from polyacrylamide gels to blot transfer membranes. If the samples of interest are electrophoresed in duplicate and transferred to a blot transfer membrane, half of the membrane can be stained to determine the efficiency of transfer to the membrane and the other half can be used for immunoblotting (i.e., western blotting). Detection limits of each staining method are given along with a list of compatible blot transfer membranes and gels. A support protocol describes a method for alkali treatment that enhances subsequent staining of bound proteins.

  4. Overcoming barriers to membrane protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Roslyn M; Henderson, Peter J F; Iwata, So; Kunji, Edmund R S; Michel, Hartmut; Neutze, Richard; Newstead, Simon; Poolman, Bert; Tate, Christopher G; Vogel, Horst

    2011-04-01

    After decades of slow progress, the pace of research on membrane protein structures is beginning to quicken thanks to various improvements in technology, including protein engineering and microfocus X-ray diffraction. Here we review these developments and, where possible, highlight generic new approaches to solving membrane protein structures based on recent technological advances. Rational approaches to overcoming the bottlenecks in the field are urgently required as membrane proteins, which typically comprise ~30% of the proteomes of organisms, are dramatically under-represented in the structural database of the Protein Data Bank.

  5. Lipid Directed Intrinsic Membrane Protein Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S.; Thompson, James R.; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach for direct reconstitution of membrane proteins during giant vesicle formation. We show that it is straightforward to create a tissue-like giant vesicle film swelled with membrane protein using aquaporin SoPIP2;1 as an illustration. These vesicles can also be easily h...

  6. Tandem Facial Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Gotfryd, Kamil; Pacyna, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new type of synthetic amphiphile that is intended to support biochemical characterization of intrinsic membrane proteins. Members of this new family displayed favorable behavior with four of five membrane proteins tested, and these amphiphiles formed relatively small micelles....

  7. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lenoir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH and Tec homology (TH domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  8. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Marc; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael

    2015-10-23

    The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH) and Tec homology (TH) domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA) program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  9. Controlling the shape of membrane protein polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A.

    2017-03-01

    Membrane proteins and lipids can self-assemble into membrane protein polyhedral nanoparticles (MPPNs). MPPNs have a closed spherical surface and a polyhedral protein arrangement, and may offer a new route for structure determination of membrane proteins and targeted drug delivery. We develop here a general analytic model of how MPPN self-assembly depends on bilayer-protein interactions and lipid bilayer mechanical properties. We find that the bilayer-protein hydrophobic thickness mismatch is a key molecular control parameter for MPPN shape that can be used to bias MPPN self-assembly towards highly symmetric and uniform MPPN shapes. Our results suggest strategies for optimizing MPPN shape for structural studies of membrane proteins and targeted drug delivery.

  10. Characterising antimicrobial protein-membrane complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Gloria; Dingley, Andrew; Tremouilhac, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are host defence molecules that protect organisms from microbial infection. A number of hypotheses for AMP activity have been proposed which involve protein membrane interactions. However, there is a paucity of information describing AMP-membrane complexes in detail. The aim of this project is to characterise the interactions of amoebapore-A (APA-1) with membrane models using primarily solution-state NMR spectroscopy. APA-1 is an AMP which is regulated by a pH-dependent dimerisation event. Based on the atomic resolution solution structure of monomeric APA-1, it is proposed that this dimerisation is a prerequisite for ring-like hexameric pore formation. Due to the cytotoxicity of APA-1, we have developed a cell-free system to produce this protein. To facilitate our studies, we have adapted the cell-free system to isotope label APA-1. 13 C /15 N -enriched APA-1 sample was achieved and we have begun characterising APA-1 dimerisation and membrane interactions using NMR spectroscopy and other biochemical/biophysical methods. Neutron reflectometry is a surface-sensitive technique and therefore represents an ideal technique to probe how APA-1 interacts with membranes at the molecular level under different physiological conditions. Using Platypus, the pH-induced APA-1-membrane interactions should be detectable as an increase of the amount of protein adsorbed at the membrane surface and changes in the membrane properties. Specifically, detailed information of the structure and dimensions of the protein-membrane complex, the position and amount of the protein in the membrane, and the perturbation of the membrane phospholipids on protein incorporation can be extracted from the neutron reflectometry measurement. Such information will enable critical assessment of current proposed mechanisms of AMP activity in bacterial membranes and complement our NMR studies

  11. Membrane shape modulates transmembrane protein distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimon, Sophie; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Berthaud, Alice; Pinot, Mathieu; Toombes, Gilman E S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-01-27

    Although membrane shape varies greatly throughout the cell, the contribution of membrane curvature to transmembrane protein targeting is unknown because of the numerous sorting mechanisms that take place concurrently in cells. To isolate the effect of membrane shape, we used cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing either the potassium channel KvAP or the water channel AQP0 to form membrane nanotubes with controlled radii. Whereas the AQP0 concentrations in flat and curved membranes were indistinguishable, KvAP was enriched in the tubes, with greater enrichment in more highly curved membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that both proteins could freely diffuse through the neck between the tube and GUV, and the effect of each protein on membrane shape and stiffness was characterized using a thermodynamic sorting model. This study establishes the importance of membrane shape for targeting transmembrane proteins and provides a method for determining the effective shape and flexibility of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-04-01

    Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Agrobacterium T-DNA-encoded protein Atu6002 interferes with the host auxin response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Benoît; Gizatullina, Diana I.; Babst, Benjamin A.; Gifford, Andrew N.; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several genes in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transferred (T) DNA encode proteins that are involved in developmental alterations leading to the formation of tumors in infected plants. We investigated the role of the protein encoded by the Atu6002 gene, the function of which is completely unknown. The Atu6002 expression occurs in Agrobacterium-induced tumors, and is also activated upon activation of plant cell division by growth hormones. Within the expressing plant cells, the Atu6002 protein is targeted to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, constitutive ectopic expression of Atu6002 in transgenic tobacco plants lead to a severe developmental phenotype characterized by stunted growth, shorter internodes, lanceolate leaves, increased branching, and modified flower morphology. These Atu6002-expressing plants also displayed impaired response to auxin. However, auxin cellular uptake and polar transport were not significantly inhibited in these plants, suggesting that Atu6002 interferes with auxin perception or signaling pathways. PMID:24128370

  14. Yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase controls the expression of CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase for membrane phospholipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-08-11

    The PAH1 -encoded phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of triacylglycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , exerts a negative regulatory effect on the level of phosphatidate used for the de novo synthesis of membrane phospholipids. This raises the question whether PAP thereby affects the expression and activity of enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis. Here, we examined the PAP-mediated regulation of CHO1 -encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of major phospholipids via the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway. The lack of PAP in the pah1 Δ mutant highly elevated PSS activity, exhibiting a growth-dependent up-regulation from the exponential to the stationary phase of growth. Immunoblot analysis showed that the elevation of PSS activity results from an increase in the level of the enzyme encoded by CHO1 Truncation analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the CHO1 promoter indicated that Cho1 expression in the pah1 Δ mutant is induced through the inositol-sensitive upstream activation sequence (UAS INO ), a cis -acting element for the phosphatidate-controlled Henry (Ino2-Ino4/Opi1) regulatory circuit. The abrogation of Cho1 induction and PSS activity by a CHO1 UAS INO mutation suppressed pah1 Δ effects on lipid synthesis, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane morphology, and lipid droplet formation, but not on growth at elevated temperature. Loss of the DGK1 -encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidate, partially suppressed the pah1 Δ-mediated induction of Cho1 and PSS activity. Collectively, these data showed that PAP activity controls the expression of PSS for membrane phospholipid synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. A genetically encoded ratiometric sensor to measure extracellular pH in microdomains bounded by basolateral membranes of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Javier; Sandoval, Moisés; Cornejo, Isabel; Barros, L Felipe; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Cid, L Pablo

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular pH, especially in relatively inaccessible microdomains between cells, affects transport membrane protein activity and might have an intercellular signaling role. We have developed a genetically encoded extracellular pH sensor capable of detecting pH changes in basolateral spaces of epithelial cells. It consists of a chimerical membrane protein displaying concatenated enhanced variants of cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) and yellow fluorescence protein (EYFP) at the external aspect of the cell surface. The construct, termed pHCECSensor01, was targeted to basolateral membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by means of a sequence derived from the aquaporin AQP4. The fusion of pH-sensitive EYFP with pH-insensitive ECFP allows ratiometric pH measurements. The titration curve of pHCECSensor01 in vivo had a pK (a) value of 6.5 +/- 0.04. Only minor effects of extracellular chloride on pHCECSensor01 were observed around the physiological concentrations of this anion. In MDCK cells, the sensor was able to detect changes in pH secondary to H(+) efflux into the basolateral spaces elicited by an ammonium prepulse or lactate load. This genetically encoded sensor has the potential to serve as a noninvasive tool for monitoring changes in extracellular pH microdomains in epithelial and other tissues in vivo.

  16. Biophysical EPR Studies Applied to Membrane Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D; Lorigan, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are very important in controlling bioenergetics, functional activity, and initializing signal pathways in a wide variety of complicated biological systems. They also represent approximately 50% of the potential drug targets. EPR spectroscopy is a very popular and powerful biophysical tool that is used to study the structural and dynamic properties of membrane proteins. In this article, a basic overview of the most commonly used EPR techniques and examples of recent applications to answer pertinent structural and dynamic related questions on membrane protein systems will be presented. PMID:26855825

  17. Direct Pathogenic Effects of HERV-encoded Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Tranberg; Møller-Larsen, Anné; Petersen, Thor

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). MS is mediated by the immune system but the etiology of the disease remains unknown. Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins, encoded by human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), are expressed...... in increased amounts on B cells from MS patients. Furthermore, the amount of anti-HERV antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with MS is increased when compared with healthy controls. Aim: The overall aim of this project is to investigate the potential role of HERVs in the development of MS...... and the possible direct pathogenic effects of HERV-encoded Env proteins on the CNS. Methods: Construction and characterization of a panel of recombinant Env-proteins is initiated and their pathogenic potential will be investigated: Fusiogenic potential analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Analysis...

  18. Electron microscopy of cyanobacterial membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folea, Ioana Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is photosynthetic protein complexes, and their organization within the membrane of cyanobacteria. In cyanobacteria large proteins catalyze the light reactions of photosynthesis. One of the key proteins is photosystem II. We have found for the first time by electron

  19. A New Strain Collection for Improved Expression of Outer Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Meuskens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all integral membrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria belong to the transmembrane β-barrel family. These proteins are not only important for nutrient uptake and homeostasis, but are also involved in such processes as adhesion, protein secretion, biofilm formation, and virulence. As surface exposed molecules, outer membrane β-barrel proteins are also potential drug and vaccine targets. High production levels of heterologously expressed proteins are desirable for biochemical and especially structural studies, but over-expression and subsequent purification of membrane proteins, including outer membrane proteins, can be challenging. Here, we present a set of deletion mutants derived from E. coli BL21(DE3 designed for the over-expression of recombinant outer membrane proteins. These strains harbor deletions of four genes encoding abundant β-barrel proteins in the outer membrane (OmpA, OmpC, OmpF, and LamB, both single and in all combinations of double, triple, and quadruple knock-outs. The sequences encoding these outer membrane proteins were deleted completely, leaving only a minimal scar sequence, thus preventing the possibility of genetic reversion. Expression tests in the quadruple mutant strain with four test proteins, including a small outer membrane β-barrel protein and variants thereof as well as two virulence-related autotransporters, showed significantly improved expression and better quality of the produced proteins over the parent strain. Differences in growth behavior and aggregation in the presence of high salt were observed, but these phenomena did not negatively influence the expression in the quadruple mutant strain when handled as we recommend. The strains produced in this study can be used for outer membrane protein production and purification, but are also uniquely useful for labeling experiments for biophysical measurements in the native membrane environment.

  20. Protein-centric N-glycoproteomics analysis of membrane and plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun; Hood, Leroy

    2014-06-06

    The advent of proteomics technology has transformed our understanding of biological membranes. The challenges for studying membrane proteins have inspired the development of many analytical and bioanalytical tools, and the techniques of glycoproteomics have emerged as an effective means to enrich and characterize membrane and plasma-membrane proteomes. This Review summarizes the development of various glycoproteomics techniques to overcome the hurdles formed by the unique structures and behaviors of membrane proteins with a focus on N-glycoproteomics. Example contributions of N-glycoproteomics to the understanding of membrane biology are provided, and the areas that require future technical breakthroughs are discussed.

  1. Revolutionizing membrane protein overexpression in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, Susan; Klepsch, Mirjam; Gialama, Dimitra; Wickstrom, David; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Wickström, David

    The bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely used expression host for overexpression trials of membrane proteins. Usually, different strains, culture conditions and expression regimes are screened for to identify the optimal overexpression strategy. However, yields are often not satisfactory,

  2. Exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelil, Abdellali; Dubreuil, Benjamin; Levy, Emmanuel D; Michnick, Stephen W

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible. Here, we describe a strategy, called DALEL, for the exhaustive search of linear sequence information encoded in proteins that bind to a common partner. We applied DALEL to explore binding specificity of SH3 domains in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using only the polypeptide sequences of SH3 domain binding proteins, we succeeded in identifying the majority of known SH3 binding sites previously discovered either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, we discovered a number of sites with both non-canonical sequences and distinct properties that may serve ancillary roles in peptide recognition. We compared DALEL to a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms in the blind identification of known binding sites of the human Grb2 SH3 domain. We also benchmarked DALEL on curated biological motifs derived from the ELM database to evaluate the effect of increasing/decreasing the enrichment of the motifs. Our strategy can be applied in conjunction with experimental data of proteins interacting with a common partner to identify binding sites among them. Yet, our strategy can also be applied to any group of proteins of interest to identify enriched linear motifs or to exhaustively explore the space of linear information encoded in a polypeptide sequence. Finally, we have developed a webserver located at http://michnick.bcm.umontreal.ca/dalel, offering user-friendly interface and providing different scenarios utilizing DALEL.

  3. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  4. Molecular cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding the plasma membrane proton pump (H+-ATPase) of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.F.; Surowy, T.K.; Sussman, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    In plants, the transport of solutes across the plasma membrane is driven by a proton pump (H + -ATPase) that produces an electric potential and pH gradient. The authors isolated and sequenced a full-length cDNA clone that encodes this enzyme in Arabidopsis thaliana. The protein predicted from its nucleotide sequence encodes 959 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 104,207 Da. The plant protein shows structural features common to a family of cation-translocating ATPases found in the plasma membrane of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, with the greatest overall identity in amino acid sequence (36%) to the H + -ATPase observed in the plasma membrane of fungi. The structure predicted from a hydropathy plant contains at least eight transmembrane segments, with most of the protein (73%) extending into the cytoplasm and only 5% of the residues exposed on the external surface. Unique features of the plant enzyme include diverged sequences at the amino and carboxyl termini as well as greater hydrophilic character in three extracellular loops

  5. Cloning an artificial gene encoding angiostatic anginex: From designed peptide to functional recombinant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandwijk, Ricardo J.M.G.E.; Nesmelova, Irina; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Mayo, Kevin H.; Thijssen, Victor L.J.L.; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2005-01-01

    Anginex, a designed peptide 33-mer, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and anti-tumor agent in vivo. Anginex functions by inhibiting endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration leading to detachment and apoptosis of activated EC's. To better understand tumor endothelium targeting properties of anginex and enable its use in gene therapy, we constructed an artificial gene encoding the biologically exogenous peptide and produced the protein recombinantly in Pichia pastoris. Mass spectrometry shows recombinant anginex to be a dimer and circular dichroism shows the recombinant protein folds with β-strand structure like the synthetic peptide. Moreover, like parent anginex, the recombinant protein is active at inhibiting EC growth and migration, as well as inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. This study demonstrated that it is possible to produce a functionally active protein version of a rationally designed peptide, using an artificial gene and the recombinant protein approach

  6. Diffusion of Integral Membrane Proteins in Protein-Rich Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Metzler, R.; Vattulainen, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 17 (2017), s. 4308-4313 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : giant unilamellar vesicles * single-molecule tracking * lipid bilayer membranes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  7. Identification of membrane proteins by tandem mass spectrometry of protein ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Altman, Matthew C.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The most common way of identifying proteins in proteomic analyses is to use short segments of sequence (“tags”) determined by mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic fragments. The approach is effective with globular proteins and with membrane proteins with significant polar segments between membrane-spanning α-helices, but it is ineffective with other hydrophobic proteins where protease cleavage sites are either infrequent or absent. By developing methods to purify hydrophobic proteins in organic solvents and by fragmenting ions of these proteins by collision induced dissociation with argon, we have shown that partial sequences of many membrane proteins can be deduced easily by manual inspection. The spectra from small proteolipids (1–4 transmembrane α-helices) are dominated usually by fragment ions arising from internal amide cleavages, from which internal sequences can be obtained, whereas the spectra from larger membrane proteins (5–18 transmembrane α-helices) often contain fragment ions from N- and/or C-terminal parts yielding sequences in those regions. With these techniques, we have, for example, identified an abundant protein of unknown function from inner membranes of mitochondria that to our knowledge has escaped detection in proteomic studies, and we have produced sequences from 10 of 13 proteins encoded in mitochondrial DNA. They include the ND6 subunit of complex I, the last of its 45 subunits to be analyzed. The procedures have the potential to be developed further, for example by using newly introduced methods for protein ion dissociation to induce fragmentation of internal regions of large membrane proteins, which may remain partially folded in the gas phase. PMID:17720804

  8. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Bogumiła C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large fermentations. However, production of heterologous proteins still faces limitations. Results This study aimed at the identification of bottlenecks in secretory protein production by analyzing the response of B. subtilis at the transcriptome level to overproduction of eight secretory proteins of endogenous and heterologous origin and with different subcellular or extracellular destination: secreted proteins (NprE and XynA of B. subtilis, Usp45 of Lactococcus lactis, TEM-1 β-lactamase of Escherichia coli, membrane proteins (LmrA of L. lactis and XylP of Lactobacillus pentosus and lipoproteins (MntA and YcdH of B. subtilis. Responses specific for proteins with a common localization as well as more general stress responses were observed. The latter include upregulation of genes encoding intracellular stress proteins (groES/EL, CtsR regulated genes. Specific responses include upregulation of the liaIHGFSR operon under Usp45 and TEM-1 β-lactamase overproduction; cssRS, htrA and htrB under all secreted proteins overproduction; sigW and SigW-regulated genes mainly under membrane proteins overproduction; and ykrL (encoding an HtpX homologue specifically under membrane proteins overproduction. Conclusions The results give better insights into B. subtilis responses to protein overproduction stress and provide potential targets for genetic engineering in order to further improve B. subtilis as a protein production host.

  9. Efficient preparation and analysis of membrane and membrane protein systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2468-2482 ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : tools and software * membrane building * protein insertion * molecular dynamics * lipid bilayer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  10. Overcoming barriers to membrane protein structure determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bill, Roslyn M.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Iwata, So; Kunji, Edmund R. S.; Michel, Hartmut; Neutze, Richard; Newstead, Simon; Poolman, Bert; Tate, Christopher G.; Vogel, Horst

    After decades of slow progress, the pace of research on membrane protein structures is beginning to quicken thanks to various improvements in technology, including protein engineering and microfocus X-ray diffraction. Here we review these developments and, where possible, highlight generic new

  11. Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Björn; Schießl, Ingrid; Greiner, Eva; Krapp, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein-protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.

  12. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 109 molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other...

  13. An early nodulin-like protein accumulates in the sieve element plasma membrane of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Junaid A.; Wang, Qi; Sjölund, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cell complex have essential roles in the physiological functioning of the phloem. The monoclonal antibody line RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from California shield leaf (Streptanthus tortuosus; Brassicaceae...... was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570. Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins are encoded by a multigene family composed of several types of structurally related phytocyanins...... from the precursor protein, resulting in a mature peptide of approximately 15 kD that is attached to the sieve element plasma membrane via a carboxy-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Many of the Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins accumulate in gametophytic tissues, whereas in both...

  14. Membrane alterations induced by nonstructural proteins of human norovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Y Doerflinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (huNoV are the most frequent cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, particularly genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 variants. The viral nonstructural (NS proteins encoded by the ORF1 polyprotein induce vesical clusters harboring the viral replication sites. Little is known so far about the ultrastructure of these replication organelles or the contribution of individual NS proteins to their biogenesis. We compared the ultrastructural changes induced by expression of norovirus ORF1 polyproteins with those induced upon infection with murine norovirus (MNV. Characteristic membrane alterations induced by ORF1 expression resembled those found in MNV infected cells, consisting of vesicle accumulations likely built from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER which included single membrane vesicles (SMVs, double membrane vesicles (DMVs and multi membrane vesicles (MMVs. In-depth analysis using electron tomography suggested that MMVs originate through the enwrapping of SMVs with tubular structures similar to mechanisms reported for picornaviruses. Expression of GII.4 NS1-2, NS3 and NS4 fused to GFP revealed distinct membrane alterations when analyzed by correlative light and electron microscopy. Expression of NS1-2 induced proliferation of smooth ER membranes forming long tubular structures that were affected by mutations in the active center of the putative NS1-2 hydrolase domain. NS3 was associated with ER membranes around lipid droplets (LDs and induced the formation of convoluted membranes, which were even more pronounced in case of NS4. Interestingly, NS4 was the only GII.4 protein capable of inducing SMV and DMV formation when expressed individually. Our work provides the first ultrastructural analysis of norovirus GII.4 induced vesicle clusters and suggests that their morphology and biogenesis is most similar to picornaviruses. We further identified NS4 as a key factor in the formation of membrane alterations of huNoV and

  15. Membranes and mammalian glycolipid transferring proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuf, Jessica; Mattjus, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Glycolipids are synthesized in and on various organelles throughout the cell. Their trafficking inside the cell is complex and involves both vesicular and protein-mediated machineries. Most important for the bulk lipid transport is the vesicular system, however, lipids moved by transfer proteins are also becoming more characterized. Here we review the latest advances in the glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) and the phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 (FAPP2) field, from a membrane point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nucleotide sequence of a human cDNA encoding a ras-related protein (rap1B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizon, V; Lerosey, I; Chardin, P; Tavitian, A [INSERM, Paris (France)

    1988-08-11

    The authors have previously characterized two human ras-related genes rap1 and rap2. Using the rap1 clone as probe they isolated and sequenced a new rap cDNA encoding the 184aa rap1B protein. The rap1B protein is 95% identical to rap1 and shares several properties with the ras protein suggesting that it could bind GTP/GDP and have a membrane location. As for rap1, the structural characteristics of rap1B suggest that the rap and ras proteins might interact on the same effector.

  17. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  18. Detergent-Mediated Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J; Sjollema, K.A; Poolman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of reconstitution of the lactose transport protein (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus is markedly higher with Triton X-100 than with other detergents commonly employed to mediate the membrane insertion. To rationalize these differences, the lipid/detergent structures that are formed

  19. Properties of virion transactivator proteins encoded by primate cytomegaloviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus that causes severe disease in situations where the immune system is immature or compromised. HCMV immediate early (IE gene expression is stimulated by the virion phosphoprotein pp71, encoded by open reading frame (ORF UL82, and this transactivation activity is important for the efficient initiation of viral replication. It is currently recognized that pp71 acts to overcome cellular intrinsic defences that otherwise block viral IE gene expression, and that interactions of pp71 with the cell proteins Daxx and ATRX are important for this function. A further property of pp71 is the ability to enable prolonged gene expression from quiescent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 genomes. Non-human primate cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of pp71, but there is currently no published information that addresses their effects on gene expression and modes of action. Results The UL82 homolog encoded by simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV, strain Colburn, was identified and cloned. This ORF, named S82, was cloned into an HSV-1 vector, as were those from baboon, rhesus monkey and chimpanzee cytomegaloviruses. The use of an HSV-1 vector enabled expression of the UL82 homologs in a range of cell types, and permitted investigation of their abilities to direct prolonged gene expression from quiescent genomes. The results show that all UL82 homologs activate gene expression, and that neither host cell type nor promoter target sequence has major effects on these activities. Surprisingly, the UL82 proteins specified by non-human primate cytomegaloviruses, unlike pp71, did not direct long term expression from quiescent HSV-1 genomes. In addition, significant differences were observed in the intranuclear localization of the UL82 homologs, and in their effects on Daxx. Strikingly, S82 mediated the release of Daxx from nuclear domain 10 substructures much more rapidly than pp71 or the other proteins tested. All

  20. Characterization of membrane association of Rinderpest virus matrix protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhashri, R.; Shaila, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Paramyxovirus matrix protein is believed to play a crucial role in the assembly and maturation of the virus particle by bringing the major viral components together at the budding site in the host cell. The membrane association capability of many enveloped virus matrix proteins has been characterized to be their intrinsic property. In this work, we have characterized the membrane association of Rinderpest virus matrix (M) protein. The M protein of Rinderpest virus when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins is present both in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When expressed as GFP fusion protein, the M protein gets localized into plasma membrane protrusions. High salt and alkaline conditions resulted in partial dissociation of M protein from cell membrane. Thus, M protein behaves like an integral membrane protein although its primary structure suggests it to be a peripheral membrane protein

  1. Water Transport Mediated by Other Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyue; Wang, Hongkai; Yang, Baoxue

    2017-01-01

    Water transport through membrane is so intricate that there are still some debates. (Aquaporins) AQPs are entirely accepted to allow water transmembrane movement depending on osmotic gradient. Cotransporters and uniporters , however, are also concerned in water homeotatsis. Urea transporter B (UT-B) has a single-channel water permeability that is similar to AQP1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR ) was initially thought as a water channel but now not believed to transport water directly. By cotranporters, water is transported by water osmosis coupling with substrates, which explains how water is transported across the isolated small intestine. This chapter provides information about water transport mediated by other membrane proteins except AQPs .

  2. Cryo-electron microscopy of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Kenneth N; Abeyrathne, Priyanka; Kebbel, Fabian; Chami, Mohamed; Ringler, Philippe; Stahlberg, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Electron crystallography is used to study membrane proteins in the form of planar, two-dimensional (2D) crystals, or other crystalline arrays such as tubular crystals. This method has been used to determine the atomic resolution structures of bacteriorhodopsin, tubulin, aquaporins, and several other membrane proteins. In addition, a large number of membrane protein structures were studied at a slightly lower resolution, whereby at least secondary structure motifs could be identified.In order to conserve the structural details of delicate crystalline arrays, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) allows imaging and/or electron diffraction of membrane proteins in their close-to-native state within a lipid bilayer membrane.To achieve ultimate high-resolution structural information of 2D crystals, meticulous sample preparation for electron crystallography is of outmost importance. Beam-induced specimen drift and lack of specimen flatness can severely affect the attainable resolution of images for tilted samples. Sample preparations that sandwich the 2D crystals between symmetrical carbon films reduce the beam-induced specimen drift, and the flatness of the preparations can be optimized by the choice of the grid material and the preparation protocol.Data collection in the cryo-electron microscope using either the imaging or the electron diffraction mode has to be performed applying low-dose procedures. Spot-scanning further reduces the effects of beam-induced drift. Data collection using automated acquisition schemes, along with improved and user-friendlier data processing software, is increasingly being used and is likely to bring the technique to a wider user base.

  3. Protein permeation through an electrically tunable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Ining A; Melnikov, Dmitriy V; Gracheva, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    Protein filtration is important in many fields of science and technology such as medicine, biology, chemistry, and engineering. Recently, protein separation and filtering with nanoporous membranes has attracted interest due to the possibility of fast separation and high throughput volume. This, however, requires understanding of the protein’s dynamics inside and in the vicinity of the nanopore. In this work, we utilize a Brownian dynamics approach to study the motion of the model protein insulin in the membrane–electrolyte electrostatic potential. We compare the results of the atomic model of the protein with the results of a coarse-grained and a single-bead model, and find that the coarse-grained representation of protein strikes the best balance between the accuracy of the results and the computational effort required. Contrary to common belief, we find that to adequately describe the protein, a single-bead model cannot be utilized without a significant effort to tabulate the simulation parameters. Similar to results for nanoparticle dynamics, our findings also indicate that the electric field and the electro-osmotic flow due to the applied membrane and electrolyte biases affect the capture and translocation of the biomolecule by either attracting or repelling it to or from the nanopore. Our computational model can also be applied to other types of proteins and separation conditions. (paper)

  4. Dendronic trimaltoside amphiphiles (DTMs) for membrane protein study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaf, Aiman; Du, Yang; Santillan, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The critical contribution of membrane proteins in normal cellular function makes their detailed structure and functional analysis essential. Detergents, amphipathic agents with the ability to maintain membrane proteins in a soluble state in aqueous solution, have key roles in membrane protein...... alkyl chains by introducing dendronic hydrophobic groups connected to a trimaltoside head group, designated dendronic trimaltosides (DTMs). Representative DTMs conferred enhanced stabilization to multiple membrane proteins compared to the benchmark conventional detergent, DDM. One DTM (i.e., DTM-A6...

  5. Membrane Compartmentalization Reducing the Mobility of Lipids and Proteins within a Model Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Reddy, Tyler; Fowler, Philip W; Duncan, Anna L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-09-01

    The cytoskeleton underlying cell membranes may influence the dynamic organization of proteins and lipids within the bilayer by immobilizing certain transmembrane (TM) proteins and forming corrals within the membrane. Here, we present coarse-grained resolution simulations of a biologically realistic membrane model of asymmetrically organized lipids and TM proteins. We determine the effects of a model of cytoskeletal immobilization of selected membrane proteins using long time scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing compartments with varying degrees of restraints within the membrane models, we are able to reveal how compartmentalization caused by cytoskeletal immobilization leads to reduced and anomalous diffusional mobility of both proteins and lipids. This in turn results in a reduced rate of protein dimerization within the membrane and of hopping of membrane proteins between compartments. These simulations provide a molecular realization of hierarchical models often invoked to explain single-molecule imaging studies of membrane proteins.

  6. Proteolytic cleavage of the Chlamydia pneumoniae major outer membrane protein in the absence of Pmp10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Timmerman, E; Gevaert, K

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae contains 21 genes encoding polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmp). While no function has yet been attributed to the Pmps, they may be involved in an antigenic variation of the Chlamydia surface. It has previously been demonstrated...

  7. Investigating the role of viral integral membrane proteins in promoting the assembly of nepovirus and comovirus replication factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eSanfacon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of plant virus membrane-associated replication factories requires the association of viral replication proteins and viral RNA with intracellular membranes, the recruitment of host factors and the modification of membranes to form novel structures that house the replication complex. Many viruses encode integral membrane proteins that act as anchors for the replication complex. These hydrophobic proteins contain trans-membrane domains and/or amphipathic helices that associate with the membrane and modify its structure. The comovirus Co-Pro and NTP-binding (NTB, putative helicase proteins and the cognate nepovirus X2 and NTB proteins are among the best characterized plant virus integral membrane replication proteins and are functionally related to the picornavirus 2B, 2C and 3A membrane proteins. The identification of membrane-association domains and analysis of the membrane topology of these proteins is discussed. The evidence suggesting that these proteins have the ability to induce membrane proliferation, alter the structure and integrity of intracellular membranes and modulate the induction of symptoms in infected plants is also reviewed. Finally, areas of research that need further investigation are highlighted.

  8. Organization and Dynamics of Receptor Proteins in a Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-11-25

    The interactions of membrane proteins are influenced by their lipid environment, with key lipid species able to regulate membrane protein function. Advances in high-resolution microscopy can reveal the organization and dynamics of proteins and lipids within living cells at resolutions membranes of in vivo-like complexity. We explore the dynamics of proteins and lipids in crowded and complex plasma membrane models, thereby closing the gap in length and complexity between computations and experiments. Our simulations provide insights into the mutual interplay between lipids and proteins in determining mesoscale (20-100 nm) fluctuations of the bilayer, and in enabling oligomerization and clustering of membrane proteins.

  9. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage.

  10. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  11. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  12. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-10-04

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research.

  13. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research. PMID:27711401

  14. Macrolide Resistance Mediated by a Bifidobacterium breve Membrane Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles, Abelardo; Moreno, José Antonio; van Sinderen, Douwe; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2005-01-01

    A gene coding for a hypothetical membrane protein from Bifidobacterium breve was expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Immunoblotting demonstrated that this protein is located in the membrane. Phenotypical changes in sensitivity towards 21 antibiotics were determined. The membrane protein-expressing cells showed higher levels of resistance to several macrolides.

  15. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Xanthophylls as modulators of membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Alexander V; Johnson, Matthew P

    2010-12-01

    This review discusses the structural aspect of the role of photosynthetic antenna xanthophylls. It argues that xanthophyll hydrophobicity/polarity could explain the reason for xanthophyll variety and help to understand their recently emerging function--control of membrane organization and the work of membrane proteins. The structure of a xanthophyll molecule is discussed in relation to other amphiphilic compounds like lipids, detergents, etc. Xanthophyll composition of membrane proteins, the role of their variety in protein function are discussed using as an example for the major light harvesting antenna complex of photosystem II, LHCII, from higher plants. A new empirical parameter, hydrophobicity parameter (H-parameter), has been introduced as an effective measure of the hydrophobicity of the xanthophyll complement of LHCII from different xanthophyll biosynthesis mutants of Arabidopsis. Photosystem II quantum efficiency was found to correlate well with the H-parameter of LHCII xanthophylls. PSII down-regulation by non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, NPQ, had optimum corresponding to the wild-type xanthophyll composition, where lutein occupies intrinsic sites, L1 and L2. Xanthophyll polarity/hydrophobicity alteration by the activity of the xanthophyll cycle explains the allosteric character of NPQ regulation, memory of illumination history and the hysteretic nature of the relationship between the triggering factor, ΔpH, and the energy dissipation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Definition of the mitochondrial proteome by measurement of molecular masses of membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joe; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The covalent structure of a protein is incompletely defined by its gene sequence, and mass spectrometric analysis of the intact protein is needed to detect the presence of any posttranslational modifications. Because most membrane proteins are purified in detergents that are incompatible with mass spectrometric ionization techniques, this essential measurement has not been made on many hydrophobic proteins, and so proteomic data are incomplete. We have extracted membrane proteins from bovine mitochondria and detergent-purified NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) with organic solvents, fractionated the mixtures by hydrophilic interaction chromatography, and measured the molecular masses of the intact membrane proteins, including those of six subunits of complex I that are encoded in mitochondrial DNA. These measurements resolve long-standing uncertainties about the interpretation of the mitochondrial genome, and they contribute significantly to the definition of the covalent composition of complex I. PMID:17060615

  18. Analysis of Membrane Protein Topology in the Plant Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinya; Miao, Yansong; Cai, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Topology of membrane proteins provides important information for the understanding of protein function and intermolecular associations. Integrate membrane proteins are generally transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and downstream compartments in the plant secretory pathway. Here, we describe a simple method to study membrane protein topology along the plant secretory pathway by transiently coexpressing a fluorescent protein (XFP)-tagged membrane protein and an ER export inhibitor protein, ARF1 (T31N), in tobacco BY-2 protoplast. By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells.

  19. The Membrane Topology of ALMT1, an Aluminum-Activated Malate Transport Protein in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    OpenAIRE

    Motoda, Hirotoshi; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kano, Yoshio; Ryan, Peter R; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    The wheat ALMT1 gene encodes an aluminum (Al)-activated malate transport protein which confers Al-resistance. We investigated the membrane topology of this plasma-membrane localized protein with immunocytochemical techniques. Several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused and histidine (His)-tagged chimeras of ALMT1 were prepared based on a computer-predicted secondary structure and transiently expressed in cultured mammalian cells. Antibodies raised to polypeptide epitopes of ALMT1 were used ...

  20. A plastome mutation affects processing of both chloroplast and nuclear DNA-encoded plastid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Schnabelrauch, L S; Sears, B B

    1991-01-01

    Immunoblotting of a chloroplast mutant (pm7) of Oenothera showed that three proteins, cytochrome f and the 23 kDa and 16 kDa subunits of the oxygen-evolving subcomplex of photosystem II, were larger than the corresponding mature proteins of the wild type and, thus, appear to be improperly processed in pm7. The mutant is also chlorotic and has little or no internal membrane development in the plastids. The improperly processed proteins, and other proteins that are completely missing, represent products of both the plastid and nuclear genomes. To test for linkage of these defects, a green revertant of pm7 was isolated from cultures in which the mutant plastids were maintained in a nuclear background homozygous for the plastome mutator (pm) gene. In this revertant, all proteins analyzed co-reverted to the wild-type condition, indicating that a single mutation in a plastome gene is responsible for the complex phenotype of pm7. These results suggest that the defect in pm7 lies in a gene that affects a processing protease encoded in the chloroplast genome.

  1. Conditions that allow for effective transfer of membrane proteins onto nitrocellulose membrane in Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D; Lam, Joseph S

    2007-04-01

    A major hurdle in characterizing bacterial membrane proteins by Western blotting is the ineffectiveness of transferring these proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate -- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel onto nitrocellulose membrane, using standard Western blot buffers and electrophoretic conditions. In this study, we compared a number of modified Western blotting buffers and arrived at a composition designated as the SDS-PAGE-Urea Lysis buffer. The use of this buffer and specific conditions allowed the reproducible transfer of highly hydrophobic bacterial membrane proteins with 2-12 transmembrane-spanning segments as well as soluble proteins onto nitrocellulose membranes. This method should be broadly applicable for immunochemical studies of other membrane proteins.

  2. Mechanistic studies of the genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe ArcLight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Han

    Full Text Available ArcLight, a genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe with a large ΔF/ΔV, is a fusion between the voltage sensing domain of the Ciona instestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase and super ecliptic pHluorin carrying a single mutation (A227D in the fluorescent protein. Without this mutation the probe produces only a very small change in fluorescence in response to voltage deflections (∼ 1%. The large signal afforded by this mutation allows optical detection of action potentials and sub-threshold electrical events in single-trials in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unclear how this single mutation produces a probe with such a large modulation of its fluorescence output with changes in membrane potential. In this study, we identified which residues in super ecliptic pHluorin (vs eGFP are critical for the ArcLight response, as a similarly constructed probe based on eGFP also exhibits large response amplitude if it carries these critical residues. We found that D147 is responsible for determining the pH sensitivity of the fluorescent protein used in these probes but by itself does not result in a voltage probe with a large signal. We also provide evidence that the voltage dependent signal of ArcLight is not simply sensing environmental pH changes. A two-photon polarization microscopy study showed that ArcLight's response to changes in membrane potential includes a reorientation of the super ecliptic pHluorin. We also explored different changes including modification of linker length, deletion of non-essential amino acids in the super ecliptic pHluorin, adding a farnesylation site, using tandem fluorescent proteins and other pH sensitive fluorescent proteins.

  3. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  4. Membrane Proteins : The Key Players of a Cancer Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.

    Membrane proteins are involved in the prognosis of the most common forms of cancer. Membrane proteins are the hallmark of a cancer cell. The overexpressed membrane receptors are becoming increasingly important in cancer cell therapy. Current renewing therapy approaches based on receptor

  5. Shuttling of G protein subunits between the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Mariangela; Saini, Deepak Kumar; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, Narasimhan

    2007-08-17

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (alphabetagamma) mediate the majority of signaling pathways in mammalian cells. It is long held that G protein function is localized to the plasma membrane. Here we examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of G protein localization using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, fluorescence loss in photobleaching, and a photoswitchable fluorescent protein, Dronpa. Unexpectedly, G protein subunits shuttle rapidly (t1/2 plasma membrane and intracellular membranes. We show that consistent with such shuttling, G proteins constitutively reside in endomembranes. Furthermore, we show that shuttling is inhibited by 2-bromopalmitate. Thus, contrary to present thought, G proteins do not reside permanently on the plasma membrane but are constantly testing the cytoplasmic surfaces of the plasma membrane and endomembranes to maintain G protein pools in intracellular membranes to establish direct communication between receptors and endomembranes.

  6. G protein-membrane interactions II: Effect of G protein-linked lipids on membrane structure and G protein-membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jesús; Ibarguren, Maitane; Álvarez, Rafael; Terés, Silvia; Lladó, Victoria; Piotto, Stefano P; Concilio, Simona; Busquets, Xavier; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2017-09-01

    G proteins often bear myristoyl, palmitoyl and isoprenyl moieties, which favor their association with the membrane and their accumulation in G Protein Coupled Receptor-rich microdomains. These lipids influence the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby modulate G protein binding to bilayers. In this context, we showed here that geranylgeraniol, but neither myristate nor palmitate, increased the inverted hexagonal (H II ) phase propensity of phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes. While myristate and palmitate preferentially associated with phosphatidylcholine membranes, geranylgeraniol favored nonlamellar-prone membranes. In addition, Gαi 1 monomers had a higher affinity for lamellar phases, while Gβγ and Gαβγ showed a marked preference for nonlamellar prone membranes. Moreover, geranylgeraniol enhanced the binding of G protein dimers and trimers to phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes, yet it decreased that of monomers. By contrast, both myristate and palmitate increased the Gαi 1 preference for lamellar membranes. Palmitoylation reinforced the binding of the monomer to PC membranes and myristoylation decreased its binding to PE-enriched bilayer. Finally, binding of dimers and trimers to lamellar-prone membranes was decreased by palmitate and myristate, but it was increased in nonlamellar-prone bilayers. These results demonstrate that co/post-translational G protein lipid modifications regulate the membrane lipid structure and that they influence the physico-chemical properties of membranes, which in part explains why G protein subunits sort to different plasma membrane domains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of membrane proteins without cells or detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sundaresan; Knowles, Timothy; Overduin, Michael

    2011-04-30

    The production of membrane proteins in cellular systems is besieged by several problems due to their hydrophobic nature which often causes misfolding, protein aggregation and cytotoxicity, resulting in poor yields of stable proteins. Cell-free expression has emerged as one of the most versatile alternatives for circumventing these obstacles by producing membrane proteins directly into designed hydrophobic environments. Efficient optimisation of expression and solubilisation conditions using a variety of detergents, membrane mimetics and lipids has yielded structurally and functionally intact membrane proteins, with yields several fold above the levels possible from cell-based systems. Here we review recently developed techniques available to produce functional membrane proteins, and discuss amphipols, nanodisc and styrene maleic acid lipid particle (SMALP) technologies that can be exploited alongside cell-free expression of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that facilitate ER-to-Golgi transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, W P; Walter, P

    1999-04-01

    Many eukaryotic cell surface proteins are anchored in the lipid bilayer through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI anchors are covalently attached in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The modified proteins are then transported through the secretory pathway to the cell surface. We have identified two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LAG1 and a novel gene termed DGT1 (for "delayed GPI-anchored protein transport"), encoding structurally related proteins with multiple membrane-spanning domains. Both proteins are localized to the ER, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Deletion of either gene caused no detectable phenotype, whereas lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells displayed growth defects and a significant delay in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that LAG1 and DGT1 encode functionally redundant or overlapping proteins. The rate of GPI anchor attachment was not affected, nor was the transport rate of several non-GPI-anchored proteins. Consistent with a role of Lag1p and Dgt1p in GPI-anchored protein transport, lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells deposit abnormal, multilayered cell walls. Both proteins have significant sequence similarity to TRAM, a mammalian membrane protein thought to be involved in protein translocation across the ER membrane. In vivo translocation studies, however, did not detect any defects in protein translocation in lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells, suggesting that neither yeast gene plays a role in this process. Instead, we propose that Lag1p and Dgt1p facilitate efficient ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins.

  9. The Tobacco mosaic virus Movement Protein Associates with but Does Not Integrate into Biological Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Ana; Martínez-Gil, Luis; Tamborero, Silvia; Pallás, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant positive-strand RNA viruses require association with plant cell endomembranes for viral translation and replication, as well as for intra- and intercellular movement of the viral progeny. The membrane association and RNA binding of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) are vital for orchestrating the macromolecular network required for virus movement. A previously proposed topological model suggests that TMV MP is an integral membrane protein with two putative α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. Here we tested this model using an experimental system that measured the efficiency with which natural polypeptide segments were inserted into the ER membrane under conditions approximating the in vivo situation, as well as in planta. Our results demonstrated that the two hydrophobic regions (HRs) of TMV MP do not span biological membranes. We further found that mutations to alter the hydrophobicity of the first HR modified membrane association and precluded virus movement. We propose a topological model in which the TMV MP HRs intimately associate with the cellular membranes, allowing maximum exposure of the hydrophilic domains of the MP to the cytoplasmic cellular components. IMPORTANCE To facilitate plant viral infection and spread, viruses encode one or more movement proteins (MPs) that interact with ER membranes. The present work investigated the membrane association of the 30K MP of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and the results challenge the previous topological model, which predicted that the TMV MP behaves as an integral membrane protein. The current data provide greatly needed clarification of the topological model and provide substantial evidence that TMV MP is membrane associated only at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane and that neither of its domains is integrated into the membrane or translocated into the lumen. Understanding the topology of MPs in the ER is vital for understanding the role of the ER in plant virus transport

  10. Enhancing Membrane Protein Identification Using a Simplified Centrifugation and Detergent-Based Membrane Extraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanting; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jingjing; He, Han; Gu, Lei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Ma, Danjun; Zhou, Hu; Zheng, Jing

    2018-02-20

    Membrane proteins may act as transporters, receptors, enzymes, and adhesion-anchors, accounting for nearly 70% of pharmaceutical drug targets. Difficulties in efficient enrichment, extraction, and solubilization still exist because of their relatively low abundance and poor solubility. A simplified membrane protein extraction approach with advantages of user-friendly sample processing procedures, good repeatability and significant effectiveness was developed in the current research for enhancing enrichment and identification of membrane proteins. This approach combining centrifugation and detergent along with LC-MS/MS successfully identified higher proportion of membrane proteins, integral proteins and transmembrane proteins in membrane fraction (76.6%, 48.1%, and 40.6%) than in total cell lysate (41.6%, 16.4%, and 13.5%), respectively. Moreover, our method tended to capture membrane proteins with high degree of hydrophobicity and number of transmembrane domains as 486 out of 2106 (23.0%) had GRAVY > 0 in membrane fraction, 488 out of 2106 (23.1%) had TMs ≥ 2. It also provided for improved identification of membrane proteins as more than 60.6% of the commonly identified membrane proteins in two cell samples were better identified in membrane fraction with higher sequence coverage. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008456.

  11. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Second and third generation voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins for monitoring membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Perron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, optical neuroimaging methods have been enriched by engineered biosensors derived from fluorescent protein (FP reporters fused to protein detectors that convert physiological signals into changes of intrinsic FP fluorescence. These FP-based indicators are genetically encoded, and hence targetable to specific cell populations within networks of heterologous cell types. Among this class of biosensors, the development of optical probes for membrane potential is both highly desirable and challenging. A suitable FP voltage sensor would indeed be a valuable tool for monitoring the activity of thousands of individual neurons simultaneously in a non-invasive manner. Previous prototypic genetically-encoded FP voltage indicators achieved a proof of principle but also highlighted several difficulties such as poor cell surface targeting and slow kinetics. Recently, we developed a new series of FRET-based Voltage-Sensitive Fluorescent Proteins (VSFPs, referred to as VSFP2s, with efficient targeting to the plasma membrane and high responsiveness to membrane potential signaling in excitable cells. In addition to these FRET-based voltage sensors, we also generated a third series of probes consisting of single FPs with response kinetics suitable for the optical imaging of fast neuronal signals. These newly available genetically-encoded reporters for membrane potential will be instrumental for future experimental approaches directed toward the understanding of neuronal network dynamics and information processing in the brain. Here, we review the development and current status of these novel fluorescent probes.

  13. Membrane Protein Production in Lactococcus lactis for Functional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigneurin-Berny, Daphne; King, Martin S; Sautron, Emiline; Moyet, Lucas; Catty, Patrice; André, François; Rolland, Norbert; Kunji, Edmund R S; Frelet-Barrand, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, expression and study of membrane proteins in heterologous systems remains difficult. Among the bacterial systems available, the Gram-positive lactic bacterium, Lactococcus lactis, traditionally used in food fermentations, is nowadays widely used for large-scale production and functional characterization of bacterial and eukaryotic membrane proteins. The aim of this chapter is to describe the different possibilities for the functional characterization of peripheral or intrinsic membrane proteins expressed in Lactococcus lactis.

  14. Challenges in the Development of Functional Assays of Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Demarche

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bilayers are natural barriers of biological cells and cellular compartments. Membrane proteins integrated in biological membranes enable vital cell functions such as signal transduction and the transport of ions or small molecules. In order to determine the activity of a protein of interest at defined conditions, the membrane protein has to be integrated into artificial lipid bilayers immobilized on a surface. For the fabrication of such biosensors expertise is required in material science, surface and analytical chemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. Specifically, techniques are needed for structuring surfaces in the micro- and nanometer scale, chemical modification and analysis, lipid bilayer formation, protein expression, purification and solubilization, and most importantly, protein integration into engineered lipid bilayers. Electrochemical and optical methods are suitable to detect membrane activity-related signals. The importance of structural knowledge to understand membrane protein function is obvious. Presently only a few structures of membrane proteins are solved at atomic resolution. Functional assays together with known structures of individual membrane proteins will contribute to a better understanding of vital biological processes occurring at biological membranes. Such assays will be utilized in the discovery of drugs, since membrane proteins are major drug targets.

  15. An Integrated Framework Advancing Membrane Protein Modeling and Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F Alford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are critical functional molecules in the human body, constituting more than 30% of open reading frames in the human genome. Unfortunately, a myriad of difficulties in overexpression and reconstitution into membrane mimetics severely limit our ability to determine their structures. Computational tools are therefore instrumental to membrane protein structure prediction, consequently increasing our understanding of membrane protein function and their role in disease. Here, we describe a general framework facilitating membrane protein modeling and design that combines the scientific principles for membrane protein modeling with the flexible software architecture of Rosetta3. This new framework, called RosettaMP, provides a general membrane representation that interfaces with scoring, conformational sampling, and mutation routines that can be easily combined to create new protocols. To demonstrate the capabilities of this implementation, we developed four proof-of-concept applications for (1 prediction of free energy changes upon mutation; (2 high-resolution structural refinement; (3 protein-protein docking; and (4 assembly of symmetric protein complexes, all in the membrane environment. Preliminary data show that these algorithms can produce meaningful scores and structures. The data also suggest needed improvements to both sampling routines and score functions. Importantly, the applications collectively demonstrate the potential of combining the flexible nature of RosettaMP with the power of Rosetta algorithms to facilitate membrane protein modeling and design.

  16. Adamantane-based amphiphiles (ADAs) for membrane protein study: importance of a detergent hydrophobic group in membrane protein solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Das, Manabendra

    2014-10-21

    We prepared adamantane-containing amphiphiles and evaluated them using a large membrane protein complex in terms of protein solubilisation and stabilization efficacy. These agents were superior to conventional detergents, especially in terms of the membrane protein solubilisation efficiency, implying a new detergent structure-property relationship.

  17. Characterization of hypothetical proteins Cpn0146, 0147, 0284 & 0285 that are predicted to be in the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kaiyang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although more than 100 Chlamydia pneumoniae hypothetical proteins have been predicted to be inclusion membrane proteins, only a few have been experimentally demonstrated to be in the inclusion membrane. Using antibodies raised with fusion proteins, we characterized four such hypothetical proteins encoded by two gene clusters (Cpn0146-147 and Cpn0284-285 in the C. pneumoniae genome. Results Cpn0146 and 0147 were detected in the inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 and 0285 inside inclusion and mainly associated with reticulate bodies although all four proteins contain an N-terminal bi-lobed hydrophobic region, a signature motif assigned to inclusion membrane proteins. These four hypothetical proteins were only detected in cells infected with C. pneumoniae but not other chlamydial species, with Cpn0147 at 6 hours and Cpn0146, 0284 & 0285 at 24 hours after infection. Cpn0146 & 147 but not Cpn0284 and 285 co-localized with a host cell endoplasmic reticulum marker, a property known to be possessed by some chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins, when expressed in the host cell cytosol via transgenes. However, the endoplasmic reticulum localization of the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane proteins did not result in inhibition of the subsequent C. pneumoniae infection. Conclusion The hypothetical proteins Cpn0146 & 0147 were localized in the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 & 0285 within the inclusion although all four were predicted to be Inc proteins, suggesting the need to experimentally characterize the predicted Inc proteins.

  18. A simple detection method for low-affinity membrane protein interactions by baculoviral display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Sakihama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane protein interactions play an important role in cell-to-cell recognition in various biological activities such as in the immune or neural system. Nevertheless, there has remained the major obstacle of expression of the membrane proteins in their active form. Recently, we and other investigators found that functional membrane proteins express on baculovirus particles (budded virus, BV. In this study, we applied this BV display system to detect interaction between membrane proteins important for cell-to-cell interaction in immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected Sf9 cells with recombinant baculovirus encoding the T cell membrane protein CD2 or its ligand CD58 and recovered the BV. We detected specific interaction between CD2-displaying BV and CD58-displaying BV by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using this system, we also detected specific interaction between two other membrane receptor-ligand pairs, CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L, and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR-GITR ligand (GITRL. Furthermore, we observed specific binding of BV displaying CD58, CD40L, or GITRL to cells naturally expressing their respective receptors by flowcytometric analysis using anti-baculoviral gp64 antibody. Finally we isolated CD2 cDNA from a cDNA expression library by magnetic separation using CD58-displaying BV and anti-gp64 antibody. CONCLUSIONS: We found the BV display system worked effectively in the detection of the interaction of membrane proteins. Since various membrane proteins and their oligomeric complexes can be displayed on BV in the native form, this BV display system should prove highly useful in the search for natural ligands or to develop screening systems for therapeutic antibodies and/or compounds.

  19. Discriminating lysosomal membrane protein types using dynamic neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vijay; Gupta, Dwijendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a dynamic artificial neural network methodology, which classifies the proteins into their classes from their sequences alone: the lysosomal membrane protein classes and the various other membranes protein classes. In this paper, neural networks-based lysosomal-associated membrane protein type prediction system is proposed. Different protein sequence representations are fused to extract the features of a protein sequence, which includes seven feature sets; amino acid (AA) composition, sequence length, hydrophobic group, electronic group, sum of hydrophobicity, R-group, and dipeptide composition. To reduce the dimensionality of the large feature vector, we applied the principal component analysis. The probabilistic neural network, generalized regression neural network, and Elman regression neural network (RNN) are used as classifiers and compared with layer recurrent network (LRN), a dynamic network. The dynamic networks have memory, i.e. its output depends not only on the input but the previous outputs also. Thus, the accuracy of LRN classifier among all other artificial neural networks comes out to be the highest. The overall accuracy of jackknife cross-validation is 93.2% for the data-set. These predicted results suggest that the method can be effectively applied to discriminate lysosomal associated membrane proteins from other membrane proteins (Type-I, Outer membrane proteins, GPI-Anchored) and Globular proteins, and it also indicates that the protein sequence representation can better reflect the core feature of membrane proteins than the classical AA composition.

  20. Cytoskeletal Components Define Protein Location to Membrane Microdomains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Witold G.; Zauber, Henrik; Erban, Alexander; Gorka, Michal; Wu, Xu Na; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important compartment that undergoes dynamic changes in composition upon external or internal stimuli. The dynamic subcompartmentation of proteins in ordered low-density (DRM) and disordered high-density (DSM) membrane phases is hypothesized to require interactions with cytoskeletal components. Here, we systematically analyzed the effects of actin or tubulin disruption on the distribution of proteins between membrane density phases. We used a proteomic screen to identify candidate proteins with altered submembrane location, followed by biochemical or cell biological characterization in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that several proteins, such as plasma membrane ATPases, receptor kinases, or remorins resulted in a differential distribution between membrane density phases upon cytoskeletal disruption. Moreover, in most cases, contrasting effects were observed: Disruption of actin filaments largely led to a redistribution of proteins from DRM to DSM membrane fractions while disruption of tubulins resulted in general depletion of proteins from the membranes. We conclude that actin filaments are necessary for dynamic movement of proteins between different membrane phases and that microtubules are not necessarily important for formation of microdomains as such, but rather they may control the protein amount present in the membrane phases. PMID:26091700

  1. Comparative differential gene expression analysis of nucleus-encoded proteins for Rafflesia cantleyi against Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siuk-Mun; Lee, Xin-Wei; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Regulation of functional nucleus-encoded proteins targeting the plastidial functions was comparatively studied for a plant parasite, Rafflesia cantleyi versus a photosynthetic plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. This study involved two species of different feeding modes and different developmental stages. A total of 30 nucleus-encoded proteins were found to be differentially-regulated during two stages in the parasite; whereas 17 nucleus-encoded proteins were differentially-expressed during two developmental stages in Arabidopsis thaliana. One notable finding observed for the two plants was the identification of genes involved in the regulation of photosynthesis-related processes where these processes, as expected, seem to be present only in the autotroph.

  2. Deorphanizing the human transmembrane genome: A landscape of uncharacterized membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has fueled the last decade of work to functionally characterize genome content. An important subset of genes encodes membrane proteins, which are the targets of many drugs. They reside in lipid bilayers, restricting their endogenous activity to a relatively specialized biochemical environment. Without a reference phenotype, the application of systematic screens to profile candidate membrane proteins is not immediately possible. Bioinformatics has begun to show its effectiveness in focusing the functional characterization of orphan proteins of a particular functional class, such as channels or receptors. Here we discuss integration of experimental and bioinformatics approaches for characterizing the orphan membrane proteome. By analyzing the human genome, a landscape reference for the human transmembrane genome is provided.

  3. Intermolecular detergent-membrane protein noes for the characterization of the dynamics of membrane protein-detergent complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cédric; Orts, Julien; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Vögeli, Beat; Smrt, Sean; Lorieau, Justin; Riek, Roland

    2014-12-11

    The interaction between membrane proteins and lipids or lipid mimetics such as detergents is key for the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. In NMR-based structural studies of membrane proteins, qualitative analysis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) or paramagnetic resonance enhancement are used in general to identify the transmembrane segments of a membrane protein. Here, we employed a quantitative characterization of intermolecular NOEs between (1)H of the detergent and (1)H(N) of (2)H-perdeuterated, (15)N-labeled α-helical membrane protein-detergent complexes following the exact NOE (eNOE) approach. Structural considerations suggest that these intermolecular NOEs should show a helical-wheel-type behavior along a transmembrane helix or a membrane-attached helix within a membrane protein as experimentally demonstrated for the complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain HAfp23. The partial absence of such a NOE pattern along the amino acid sequence as shown for a truncated variant of HAfp23 and for the Escherichia coli inner membrane protein YidH indicates the presence of large tertiary structure fluctuations such as an opening between helices or the presence of large rotational dynamics of the helices. Detergent-protein NOEs thus appear to be a straightforward probe for a qualitative characterization of structural and dynamical properties of membrane proteins embedded in detergent micelles.

  4. The implications of alternative splicing in the ENCODE protein complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tress, Michael L.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Frankish, Adam

    2007-01-01

    suggested as one explanation for the discrepancy between the number of human genes and functional complexity. Here, we carry out a detailed study of the alternatively spliced gene products annotated in the ENCODE pilot project. We find that alternative splicing in human genes is more frequent than has...

  5. A cDNA Immunization Strategy to Generate Nanobodies against Membrane Proteins in Native Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Thomas; Menzel, Stephan; Wesolowski, Janusz; Bergmann, Philine; Nissen, Marion; Dubberke, Gudrun; Seyfried, Fabienne; Albrecht, Birte; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2018-01-01

    Nanobodies (Nbs) are soluble, versatile, single-domain binding modules derived from the VHH variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in camelids. Nbs hold huge promise as novel therapeutic biologics. Membrane proteins are among the most interesting targets for therapeutic Nbs because they are accessible to systemically injected biologics. In order to be effective, therapeutic Nbs must recognize their target membrane protein in native conformation. However, raising Nbs against membrane proteins in native conformation can pose a formidable challenge since membrane proteins typically contain one or more hydrophobic transmembrane regions and, therefore, are difficult to purify in native conformation. Here, we describe a highly efficient genetic immunization strategy that circumvents these difficulties by driving expression of the target membrane protein in native conformation by cells of the immunized camelid. The strategy encompasses ballistic transfection of skin cells with cDNA expression plasmids encoding one or more orthologs of the membrane protein of interest and, optionally, other costimulatory proteins. The plasmid is coated onto 1 µm gold particles that are then injected into the shaved and depilated skin of the camelid. A gene gun delivers a helium pulse that accelerates the DNA-coated particles to a velocity sufficient to penetrate through multiple layers of cells in the skin. This results in the exposure of the extracellular domains of the membrane protein on the cell surface of transfected cells. Repeated immunization drives somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation of target-specific heavy-chain antibodies. The VHH/Nb coding region is PCR-amplified from B cells obtained from peripheral blood or a lymph node biopsy. Specific Nbs are selected by phage display or by screening of Nb-based heavy-chain antibodies expressed as secretory proteins in transfected HEK cells. Using this strategy, we have successfully generated agonistic

  6. A cDNA Immunization Strategy to Generate Nanobodies against Membrane Proteins in Native Conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobodies (Nbs are soluble, versatile, single-domain binding modules derived from the VHH variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in camelids. Nbs hold huge promise as novel therapeutic biologics. Membrane proteins are among the most interesting targets for therapeutic Nbs because they are accessible to systemically injected biologics. In order to be effective, therapeutic Nbs must recognize their target membrane protein in native conformation. However, raising Nbs against membrane proteins in native conformation can pose a formidable challenge since membrane proteins typically contain one or more hydrophobic transmembrane regions and, therefore, are difficult to purify in native conformation. Here, we describe a highly efficient genetic immunization strategy that circumvents these difficulties by driving expression of the target membrane protein in native conformation by cells of the immunized camelid. The strategy encompasses ballistic transfection of skin cells with cDNA expression plasmids encoding one or more orthologs of the membrane protein of interest and, optionally, other costimulatory proteins. The plasmid is coated onto 1 µm gold particles that are then injected into the shaved and depilated skin of the camelid. A gene gun delivers a helium pulse that accelerates the DNA-coated particles to a velocity sufficient to penetrate through multiple layers of cells in the skin. This results in the exposure of the extracellular domains of the membrane protein on the cell surface of transfected cells. Repeated immunization drives somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation of target-specific heavy-chain antibodies. The VHH/Nb coding region is PCR-amplified from B cells obtained from peripheral blood or a lymph node biopsy. Specific Nbs are selected by phage display or by screening of Nb-based heavy-chain antibodies expressed as secretory proteins in transfected HEK cells. Using this strategy, we have successfully

  7. Studying Membrane Protein Structure and Function Using Nanodiscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huda, Pie

    The structure and dynamic of membrane proteins can provide valuable information about general functions, diseases and effects of various drugs. Studying membrane proteins are a challenge as an amphiphilic environment is necessary to stabilise the protein in a functionally and structurally relevant...... form. This is most typically achieved through the use of detergent based reconstitution systems. However, time and again such systems fail to provide a suitable environment causing aggregation and inactivation. Nanodiscs are self-assembled lipoproteins containing two membrane scaffold proteins...... and a lipid bilayer in defined nanometer size, which can act as a stabiliser for membrane proteins. This enables both functional and structural investigation of membrane proteins in a detergent free environment which is closer to the native situation. Understanding the self-assembly of nanodiscs is important...

  8. [Expression changes of major outer membrane protein antigens in Leptospira interrogans during infection and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Linli; Ge, Yumei; Hu, Weilin; Yan, Jie

    2013-03-01

    To determine expression changes of major outer membrane protein(OMP) antigens of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Lai strain Lai during infection of human macrophages and its mechanism. OmpR encoding genes and OmpR-related histidine kinase (HK) encoding gene of L.interrogans strain Lai and their functional domains were predicted using bioinformatics technique. mRNA level changes of the leptospiral major OMP-encoding genes before and after infection of human THP-1 macrophages were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. Effects of the OmpR-encoding genes and HK-encoding gene on the expression of leptospiral OMPs during infection were determined by HK-peptide antiserum block assay and closantel inhibitive assays. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that LB015 and LB333 were referred to OmpR-encoding genes of the spirochete, while LB014 might act as a OmpR-related HK-encoding gene. After the spirochete infecting THP-1 cells, mRNA levels of leptospiral lipL21, lipL32 and lipL41 genes were rapidly and persistently down-regulated (P Expression levels of L.interrogans strain Lai major OMP antigens present notable changes during infection of human macrophages. There is a group of OmpR-and HK-encoding genes which may play a major role in down-regulation of expression levels of partial OMP antigens during infection.

  9. Static light scattering to characterize membrane proteins in detergent solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Duurkens, Ria H.; Olieman, Kees; Erkens, Guus B.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the oligomeric state or the subunit stoichiometry of integral membrane proteins in detergent solution is notoriously difficult, because the amount of detergent (and lipid) associated with the proteins is usually not known. Only two classical methods (sedimentation equilibrium

  10. Membrane interaction of retroviral Gag proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Alfred Dick

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembly of an infectious retroviral particle relies on multimerization of the Gag polyprotein at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. The three domains of Gag common to all retroviruses-- MA, CA, and NC-- provide the signals for membrane binding, assembly, and viral RNA packaging, respectively. These signals do not function independently of one another. For example, Gag multimerization enhances membrane binding and is more efficient when NC is interacting with RNA. MA binding to the plasma membrane is governed by several principles, including electrostatics, recognition of specific lipid head groups, hydrophobic interactions, and membrane order. HIV-1 uses many of these principles while Rous sarcoma virus (RSV appears to use fewer. This review describes the principles that govern Gag interactions with membranes, focusing on RSV and HIV-1 Gag. The review also defines lipid and membrane behavior, and discusses the complexities in determining how lipid and membrane behavior impact Gag membrane binding.

  11. Membrane Protein Mobility and Orientation Preserved in Supported Bilayers Created Directly from Cell Plasma Membrane Blebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Hsia, Chih-Yun; Singh, Rohit R; Haider, Huma; Kumpf, Julia; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Daniel, Susan

    2016-03-29

    Membrane protein interactions with lipids are crucial for their native biological behavior, yet traditional characterization methods are often carried out on purified protein in the absence of lipids. We present a simple method to transfer membrane proteins expressed in mammalian cells to an assay-friendly, cushioned, supported lipid bilayer platform using cell blebs as an intermediate. Cell blebs, expressing either GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins or neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors, were induced to rupture on glass surfaces using PEGylated lipid vesicles, which resulted in planar supported membranes with over 50% mobility for multipass transmembrane proteins and over 90% for GPI-linked proteins. Fluorescent proteins were tracked, and their diffusion in supported bilayers characterized, using single molecule tracking and moment scaling spectrum (MSS) analysis. Diffusion was characterized for individual proteins as either free or confined, revealing details of the local lipid membrane heterogeneity surrounding the protein. A particularly useful result of our bilayer formation process is the protein orientation in the supported planar bilayer. For both the GPI-linked and transmembrane proteins used here, an enzymatic assay revealed that protein orientation in the planar bilayer results in the extracellular domains facing toward the bulk, and that the dominant mode of bleb rupture is via the "parachute" mechanism. Mobility, orientation, and preservation of the native lipid environment of the proteins using cell blebs offers advantages over proteoliposome reconstitution or disrupted cell membrane preparations, which necessarily result in significant scrambling of protein orientation and typically immobilized membrane proteins in SLBs. The bleb-based bilayer platform presented here is an important step toward integrating membrane proteomic studies on chip, especially for future studies aimed at understanding fundamental effects of lipid interactions

  12. NMR structural studies of peptides and proteins in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opella, S J [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    The use of NMR methodology in structural studies is described as applicable to larger proteins, considering that the majority of membrane proteins is constructed from a limited repertoire of structural and dynamic elements. The membrane associated domains of these proteins are made up of long hydrophobic membrane spanning helices, shorter amphipathic bridging helices in the plane of the bilayer, connecting loops with varying degrees of mobility, and mobile N- and C- terminal sections. NMR studies have been successful in identifying all of these elements and their orientations relative to each other and the membrane bilayer 19 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Disturbed vesicular trafficking of membrane proteins in prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Keiji; Miyata, Hironori; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of prion diseases remains unknown. We recently reported that prion infection disturbs post-Golgi trafficking of certain types of membrane proteins to the cell surface, resulting in reduced surface expression of membrane proteins and abrogating the signal from the proteins. The surface expression of the membrane proteins was reduced in the brains of mice inoculated with prions, well before abnormal symptoms became evident. Prions or pathogenic prion proteins were mainly detected in endosomal compartments, being particularly abundant in recycling endosomes. Some newly synthesized membrane proteins are delivered to the surface from the Golgi apparatus through recycling endosomes, and some endocytosed membrane proteins are delivered back to the surface through recycling endosomes. These results suggest that prions might cause neuronal dysfunctions and cell loss by disturbing post-Golgi trafficking of membrane proteins via accumulation in recycling endosomes. Interestingly, it was recently shown that delivery of a calcium channel protein to the cell surface was impaired and its function was abrogated in a mouse model of hereditary prion disease. Taken together, these results suggest that impaired delivery of membrane proteins to the cell surface is a common pathogenic event in acquired and hereditary prion diseases.

  14. [Eukaryotic Expression and Immunogenic Research of Recombination Ebola Virus Membrane Protein Gp-Fc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Ren; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Xuan; Hou, Mieling; An, Lina; Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yuxi; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We used 293 cells to express the recombinant membrane protein of the Ebola virus. Then, the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein was studied by immunized BALB/c mice. According to the codon use frequency of humans, the gene encoding the extracellular domain of the Ebola virus membrane protein was optimized, synthesized, and inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pXG-Fc to construct the human IgG Fc and Ebola GP fusion protein expression plasmid pXG-modGP-Fc. To achieve expression, the fusion protein expression vector was transfected into high-density 293 cells using transient transfection technology. The recombinant protein was purified by protein A affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified fusion protein, and serum antibody titers evaluated by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purification and analyses of the protein revealed that the eukaryotic expression vector could express the recombinant protein GP-Fc effectively, and that the recombinant protein in the supernatant of the cell culture was present as a dimer. After immunization with the purified recombinant protein, a high titer of antigen-specific IgG could be detected in the serum of immunized mice by indirect ELISA, showing that the recombinant protein had good immunogenicity. These data suggest that we obtained a recombinant protein with good immunogenicity. Our study is the basis for development of a vaccine against the Ebola virus and for screening of monoclonal antibodies.

  15. Glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, "GNG amphiphiles", is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo ...

  16. Glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Kruse, Andrew C; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit; Byrne, Bernadette; Lee, John K; Gellman, Samuel H

    2013-03-21

    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, "GNG amphiphiles", is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al. (Science, 2012, 337, 473).

  17. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared...

  18. Influence of ionizing radiation on the plasma membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the meat cattle thymocytes plasma membranes was studied. Using fluorescence quenching technique the effect of irradiation of proteins conformation was investigated. The influence of ionizing radiation on the plasma membranes was shown to be followed by changes of the protein structure-dynamic organization

  19. Identification and characterization of stable membrane protein complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelbrink, R.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many membrane proteins exist as oligomers. Such oligomers play an important role in a broad variety of cellular processes such as ion transport, energy transduction, osmosensing and cell wall synthesis. We developed an electrophoresis-based method of identifying oligomeric membrane proteins that are

  20. The outer membrane protein assembly machinery of Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volokhina, E.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837202

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by a cell envelope consisting of an inner membrane (IM) and an outer membrane (OM), which are separated by the peptidoglycan-containing periplasm. While the integral IM proteins are alpha-helical, all but one known integral OM proteins (OMPs) are

  1. Integral and peripheral association of proteins and protein complexes with Yersinia pestis inner and outer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunai Christine L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yersinia pestis proteins were sequentially extracted from crude membranes with a high salt buffer (2.5 M NaBr, an alkaline solution (180 mM Na2CO3, pH 11.3 and membrane denaturants (8 M urea, 2 M thiourea and 1% amidosulfobetaine-14. Separation of proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis was followed by identification of more than 600 gene products by MS. Data from differential 2D gel display experiments, comparing protein abundances in cytoplasmic, periplasmic and all three membrane fractions, were used to assign proteins found in the membrane fractions to three protein categories: (i integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins with low solubility in aqueous solutions (220 entries; (ii peripheral membrane proteins with moderate to high solubility in aqueous solutions (127 entries; (iii cytoplasmic or ribosomal membrane-contaminating proteins (80 entries. Thirty-one proteins were experimentally associated with the outer membrane (OM. Circa 50 proteins thought to be part of membrane-localized, multi-subunit complexes were identified in high Mr fractions of membrane extracts via size exclusion chromatography. This data supported biologically meaningful assignments of many proteins to the membrane periphery. Since only 32 inner membrane (IM proteins with two or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs were profiled in 2D gels, we resorted to a proteomic analysis by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Ninety-four additional IM proteins with two or more TMDs were identified. The total number of proteins associated with Y. pestis membranes increased to 456 and included representatives of all six β-barrel OM protein families and 25 distinct IM transporter families.

  2. The role of antioxidant-protein interactions in biological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Singh, Rachna; Melton, Laurence D.; Worcester, David L.; Gilbert, Elliot P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Oxidative damage of cellular membranes has been linked to a variety of disease pathologies, including cardiac disease, Alzheimer's and complications due to diabetes. The oxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid chains found in cellular membranes leads to significant alteration in membrane physical properties, including lipid orientation and membrane permeability, which ultimately affect biological function. Polyphenols are naturally occurring phytochemicals present in a number of fruit and vegetables that are of interest for their anti-oxidative powers. These polyphenols inhibit lipid oxidation in cellular membrane surfaces, although the mechanism of this inhibition is not entirely clear. Moreover, the polyphenols have significant binding affinity for proteins, which can lead to the formation of soluble and insoluble protein-polyphenol complexes Significantly, in the presence of casein proteins the oxidation inhibition the polyphenols in the membrane is significantly enhanced (as assessed by Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Capacity assays). Thus the antioxidant pathway appears to involve these protein/polyphenol complexes, as well as direct antioxidant action by the polyphenol. Here we discuss neutron and x-ray scattering results from phospholipid membranes, looking at the positioning of two examples of polyphenolic antioxidants in phospholipid membranes, quercetin and phloretin, the antioxidants' impact on the membrane organisation, and the interaction between antioxidant and extra-membranous protein. This information sheds light on the mechanism of antioxidant protection in these systems, which may be used to understand biological responses to oxidative stress.

  3. Clarin-1, encoded by the Usher Syndrome III causative gene, forms a membranous microdomain: possible role of clarin-1 in organizing the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Zhou, Yun; Hajkova, Dagmar; Miyagi, Masaru; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Geng, Ruishuang; Alagramam, Kumar N; Isosomppi, Juha; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Flannery, John G; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2009-07-10

    Clarin-1 is the protein product encoded by the gene mutated in Usher syndrome III. Although the molecular function of clarin-1 is unknown, its primary structure predicts four transmembrane domains similar to a large family of membrane proteins that include tetraspanins. Here we investigated the role of clarin-1 by using heterologous expression and in vivo model systems. When expressed in HEK293 cells, clarin-1 localized to the plasma membrane and concentrated in low density compartments distinct from lipid rafts. Clarin-1 reorganized actin filament structures and induced lamellipodia. This actin-reorganizing function was absent in the modified protein encoded by the most prevalent North American Usher syndrome III mutation, the N48K form of clarin-1 deficient in N-linked glycosylation. Proteomics analyses revealed a number of clarin-1-interacting proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, focal adhesions, cell migration, tight junctions, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with the hypothesized role of clarin-1 in actin organization, F-actin-enriched stereocilia of auditory hair cells evidenced structural disorganization in Clrn1(-/-) mice. These observations suggest a possible role for clarin-1 in the regulation and homeostasis of actin filaments, and link clarin-1 to the interactive network of Usher syndrome gene products.

  4. Membrane skeletal proteins and their integral membrane protein anchors are targets for tyrosine and threonine kinases in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, M J; Da Silva, A C; Rosiere, T K; Bouck, G B

    1995-01-01

    Proteins of the membrane skeleton of Euglena gracilis were extensively phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro after incubation with [32P]-orthophosphate or gamma-[32P] ATP. Endogenous protein threonine/serine activity phosphorylated the major membrane skeletal proteins (articulins) and the putative integral membrane protein (IP39) anchor for articulins. The latter was also the major target for endogenous protein tyrosine kinase activity. A cytoplasmic domain of IP39 was specifically phosphorylated, and removal of this domain with papain eliminated the radiolabeled phosphoamino acids and eliminated or radically shifted the PI of the multiple isoforms of IP39. In gel kinase assays IP39 autophosphorylated and a 25 kDa protein which does not autophosphorylate was identified as a threonine/serine (casein) kinase. Plasma membranes from the membrane skeletal protein complex contained threonine/serine (casein) kinase activity, and cross-linking experiments suggested that IP39 was the likely source for this membrane activity. pH optima, cation requirements and heparin sensitivity of the detergent solubilized membrane activity were determined. Together these results suggest that protein kinases may be important modulators of protein assembly and function of the membrane skeleton of these protistan cells.

  5. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa.

  6. The presence of two S-layer-protein-encoding genes is conserved among species related to Lactobacillus acidophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Kolen, C.P.A.M.; Pot, B.; Kersters, K.; Pouwels, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Previously we have shown that the type strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus possesses two S-protein-encoding genes, one of which is silent, on a chromosomal segment of 6 kb. The S-protein-encoding gene in the expression site can be exchanged for the silent S-protein-encoding gene by inversion of this

  7. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Miranda; Cordwell, Stuart J; Bulach, Dieter M; Adler, Ben

    2009-12-08

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS). We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature shift in L. interrogans. The results thus provide an insight into the mechanisms used by L

  8. Protein-protein association and cellular localization of four essential gene products encoded by tellurite resistance-conferring cluster "ter" from pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovicova, Lenka; Vavrova, Silvia Minarikova; Mravec, Jozef; Grones, Jozef; Turna, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Gene cluster "ter" conferring high tellurite resistance has been identified in various pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, the precise mechanism as well as the molecular function of the respective gene products is unclear. Here we describe protein-protein association and localization analyses of four essential Ter proteins encoded by minimal resistance-conferring fragment (terBCDE) by means of recombinant expression. By using a two-plasmid complementation system we show that the overproduced single Ter proteins are not able to mediate tellurite resistance, but all Ter members play an irreplaceable role within the cluster. We identified several types of homotypic and heterotypic protein-protein associations among the Ter proteins by in vitro and in vivo pull-down assays and determined their cellular localization by cytosol/membrane fractionation. Our results strongly suggest that Ter proteins function involves their mutual association, which probably happens at the interface of the inner plasma membrane and the cytosol.

  9. Membrane's Eleven: heavy-atom derivatives of membrane-protein crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Sørensen, Thomas Lykke-Møller; Nissen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    A database has been assembled of heavy-atom derivatives used in the structure determination of membrane proteins. The database can serve as a guide to the design of experiments in the search for heavy-atom derivatives of new membrane-protein crystals. The database pinpoints organomercurials...

  10. Mutations in DZIP1L, which encodes a ciliary-transition-zone protein, cause autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Galeano, Maria C Rondón; Ott, Elisabeth; Kaeslin, Geraldine; Kausalya, P Jaya; Kramer, Carina; Ortiz-Brüchle, Nadina; Hilger, Nadescha; Metzis, Vicki; Hiersche, Milan; Tay, Shang Yew; Tunningley, Robert; Vij, Shubha; Courtney, Andrew D; Whittle, Belinda; Wühl, Elke; Vester, Udo; Hartleben, Björn; Neuber, Steffen; Frank, Valeska; Little, Melissa H; Epting, Daniel; Papathanasiou, Peter; Perkins, Andrew C; Wright, Graham D; Hunziker, Walter; Gee, Heon Yung; Otto, Edgar A; Zerres, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Roy, Sudipto; Wicking, Carol; Bergmann, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), usually considered to be a genetically homogeneous disease caused by mutations in PKHD1, has been associated with ciliary dysfunction. Here, we describe mutations in DZIP1L, which encodes DAZ interacting protein 1-like, in patients with ARPKD. We further validated these findings through loss-of-function studies in mice and zebrafish. DZIP1L localizes to centrioles and to the distal ends of basal bodies, and interacts with septin2, a protein implicated in maintenance of the periciliary diffusion barrier at the ciliary transition zone. In agreement with a defect in the diffusion barrier, we found that the ciliary-membrane translocation of the PKD proteins polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 is compromised in DZIP1L-mutant cells. Together, these data provide what is, to our knowledge, the first conclusive evidence that ARPKD is not a homogeneous disorder and further establish DZIP1L as a second gene involved in ARPKD pathogenesis.

  11. Overcoming bottlenecks in the membrane protein structural biology pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David; Bill, Roslyn M; Jawhari, Anass; Rothnie, Alice J

    2016-06-15

    Membrane proteins account for a third of the eukaryotic proteome, but are greatly under-represented in the Protein Data Bank. Unfortunately, recent technological advances in X-ray crystallography and EM cannot account for the poor solubility and stability of membrane protein samples. A limitation of conventional detergent-based methods is that detergent molecules destabilize membrane proteins, leading to their aggregation. The use of orthologues, mutants and fusion tags has helped improve protein stability, but at the expense of not working with the sequence of interest. Novel detergents such as glucose neopentyl glycol (GNG), maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG) and calixarene-based detergents can improve protein stability without compromising their solubilizing properties. Styrene maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs) focus on retaining the native lipid bilayer of a membrane protein during purification and biophysical analysis. Overcoming bottlenecks in the membrane protein structural biology pipeline, primarily by maintaining protein stability, will facilitate the elucidation of many more membrane protein structures in the near future. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Folding Membrane Proteins by Deep Transfer Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Sheng

    2017-08-29

    Computational elucidation of membrane protein (MP) structures is challenging partially due to lack of sufficient solved structures for homology modeling. Here, we describe a high-throughput deep transfer learning method that first predicts MP contacts by learning from non-MPs and then predicts 3D structure models using the predicted contacts as distance restraints. Tested on 510 non-redundant MPs, our method has contact prediction accuracy at least 0.18 better than existing methods, predicts correct folds for 218 MPs, and generates 3D models with root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) less than 4 and 5 Å for 57 and 108 MPs, respectively. A rigorous blind test in the continuous automated model evaluation project shows that our method predicted high-resolution 3D models for two recent test MPs of 210 residues with RMSD ∼2 Å. We estimated that our method could predict correct folds for 1,345–1,871 reviewed human multi-pass MPs including a few hundred new folds, which shall facilitate the discovery of drugs targeting at MPs.

  13. SURVEY REGARDING THE ULTRAFILTRATION OF PROTEINES THROUGH MEMBRANE BASED PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA HODOSAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on examples that emphasize the complexity of the proteins ultrafiltration process, pointing out the first 10-15 minutes of ultrafiltration. The knowledgement of the factors that influence the separation through ultrafiltration of proteins will allow to choose the right type of membrane, the frequent use of the same membrane and the operation in mechanical and chemical conditions adequate to the ultrafiltration system, when it is separated a protein with certain molecular weight.

  14. The fixABCX genes in Rhodospirillum rubrum encode a putative membrane complex participating in electron transfer to nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Tomas; Nordlund, Stefan

    2004-04-01

    In our efforts to identify the components participating in electron transport to nitrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum, we used mini-Tn5 mutagenesis followed by metronidazole selection. One of the mutants isolated, SNT-1, exhibited a decreased growth rate and about 25% of the in vivo nitrogenase activity compared to the wild-type values. The in vitro nitrogenase activity was essentially wild type, indicating that the mutation affects electron transport to nitrogenase. Sequencing showed that the Tn5 insertion is located in a region with a high level of similarity to fixC, and extended sequencing revealed additional putative fix genes, in the order fixABCX. Complementation of SNT-1 with the whole fix gene cluster in trans restored wild-type nitrogenase activity and growth. Using Western blotting, we demonstrated that expression of fixA and fixB occurs only under conditions under which nitrogenase also is expressed. SNT-1 was further shown to produce larger amounts of both ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and polyhydroxy alkanoates than the wild type, indicating that the redox status is affected in this mutant. Using Western blotting, we found that FixA and FixB are soluble proteins, whereas FixC most likely is a transmembrane protein. We propose that the fixABCX genes encode a membrane protein complex that plays a central role in electron transfer to nitrogenase in R. rubrum. Furthermore, we suggest that FixC is the link between nitrogen fixation and the proton motive force generated in the photosynthetic reactions.

  15. Comparative Membrane Proteomics Reveals a Nonannotated E. coli Heat Shock Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peijia; D'Lima, Nadia G; Slavoff, Sarah A

    2018-01-09

    Recent advances in proteomics and genomics have enabled discovery of thousands of previously nonannotated small open reading frames (smORFs) in genomes across evolutionary space. Furthermore, quantitative mass spectrometry has recently been applied to analysis of regulated smORF expression. However, bottom-up proteomics has remained relatively insensitive to membrane proteins, suggesting they may have been underdetected in previous studies. In this report, we add biochemical membrane protein enrichment to our previously developed label-free quantitative proteomics protocol, revealing a never-before-identified heat shock protein in Escherichia coli K12. This putative smORF-encoded heat shock protein, GndA, is likely to be ∼36-55 amino acids in length and contains a predicted transmembrane helix. We validate heat shock-regulated expression of the gndA smORF and demonstrate that a GndA-GFP fusion protein cofractionates with the cell membrane. Quantitative membrane proteomics therefore has the ability to reveal nonannotated small proteins that may play roles in bacterial stress responses.

  16. 3D pressure field in lipid membranes and membrane-protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O H Samuli; Risselada, H Jelger; Louhivuori, Martti

    2009-01-01

    We calculate full 3D pressure fields for inhomogeneous nanoscale systems using molecular dynamics simulation data. The fields represent systems with increasing level of complexity, ranging from semivesicles and vesicles to membranes characterized by coexistence of two phases, including also...... a protein-membrane complex. We show that the 3D pressure field is distinctly different for curved and planar bilayers, the pressure field depends strongly on the phase of the membrane, and that an integral protein modulates the tension and elastic properties of the membrane....

  17. Self-assembling peptides form nanodiscs that stabilize membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    -ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) supported by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The detailed structure of the discs was determined in unprecedented detail and it was found that they adopt a discoidal structure very similar to the ApoA1 based nanodiscs. We furthermore...... show that, like the ApoA1 and derived nanodiscs, these peptide discs can accommodate and stabilize a membrane protein. Finally, we exploit their dynamic properties and show that the 18A discs may be used for transferring membrane proteins and associated phospholipids directly and gently......New methods to handle membrane bound proteins, e.g. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), are highly desirable. Recently, apoliprotein A1 (ApoA1) based lipoprotein particles have emerged as a new platform for studying membrane proteins, and it has been shown that they can self...

  18. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  19. High throughput platforms for structural genomics of integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Filippo; Love, James

    2011-08-01

    Structural genomics approaches on integral membrane proteins have been postulated for over a decade, yet specific efforts are lagging years behind their soluble counterparts. Indeed, high throughput methodologies for production and characterization of prokaryotic integral membrane proteins are only now emerging, while large-scale efforts for eukaryotic ones are still in their infancy. Presented here is a review of recent literature on actively ongoing structural genomics of membrane protein initiatives, with a focus on those aimed at implementing interesting techniques aimed at increasing our rate of success for this class of macromolecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integral membrane protein structure determination using pseudocontact shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, Duncan J.; Wang, Jue X. [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Graham, Bim; Swarbrick, James D. [Monash University, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Australia); Mott, Helen R.; Nietlispach, Daniel, E-mail: dn206@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Obtaining enough experimental restraints can be a limiting factor in the NMR structure determination of larger proteins. This is particularly the case for large assemblies such as membrane proteins that have been solubilized in a membrane-mimicking environment. Whilst in such cases extensive deuteration strategies are regularly utilised with the aim to improve the spectral quality, these schemes often limit the number of NOEs obtainable, making complementary strategies highly beneficial for successful structure elucidation. Recently, lanthanide-induced pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) have been established as a structural tool for globular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that a PCS-based approach can be successfully applied for the structure determination of integral membrane proteins. Using the 7TM α-helical microbial receptor pSRII, we show that PCS-derived restraints from lanthanide binding tags attached to four different positions of the protein facilitate the backbone structure determination when combined with a limited set of NOEs. In contrast, the same set of NOEs fails to determine the correct 3D fold. The latter situation is frequently encountered in polytopical α-helical membrane proteins and a PCS approach is thus suitable even for this particularly challenging class of membrane proteins. The ease of measuring PCSs makes this an attractive route for structure determination of large membrane proteins in general.

  1. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vaka S.; Ali, Gul S.; Reddy, Anireddy S N.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  2. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. On the Spatial Organization of mRNA, Plasmids, and Ribosomes in a Bacterial Host Overexpressing Membrane Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke A van Gijtenbeek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By using fluorescence imaging, we provide a time-resolved single-cell view on coupled defects in transcription, translation, and growth during expression of heterologous membrane proteins in Lactococcus lactis. Transcripts encoding poorly produced membrane proteins accumulate in mRNA-dense bodies at the cell poles, whereas transcripts of a well-expressed homologous membrane protein show membrane-proximal localization in a translation-dependent fashion. The presence of the aberrant polar mRNA foci correlates with cessation of cell division, which is restored once these bodies are cleared. In addition, activation of the heat-shock response and a loss of nucleoid-occluded ribosomes are observed. We show that the presence of a native-like N-terminal domain is key to SRP-dependent membrane localization and successful production of membrane proteins. The work presented gives new insights and detailed understanding of aberrant membrane protein biogenesis, which can be used for strategies to optimize membrane protein production.

  4. Characterization and Expression of Genes Encoding Three Small Heat Shock Proteins in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker), is a major pest of rice and is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) encompass a diverse, widespread class of stress proteins that have not been characterized in S. inferens. In the present study, we isolated and characterized three S. inferens genes that encode members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, namely, Sihsp21.4, Sihsp20.6, and Sihsp19.6. The three cDNAs encoded proteins of 187, 183 and 174 amino a...

  5. Arabidopsis EMB1990 Encoding a Plastid-Targeted YlmG Protein Is Required for Chloroplast Biogenesis and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, embryo development originated from fertilized egg cell is the first step of the life cycle. The chloroplast participates in many essential metabolic pathways, and its function is highly associated with embryo development. However, the mechanisms and relevant genetic components by which the chloroplast functions in embryogenesis are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe the Arabidopsis EMB1990 gene, encoding a plastid-targeted YlmG protein which is required for chloroplast biogenesis and embryo development. Loss of the EMB1990/YLMG1-1 resulted in albino seeds containing abortive embryos, and the morphological development of homozygous emb1990 embryos was disrupted after the globular stage. Our results showed that EMB1990/YLMG1-1 was expressed in the primordia and adaxial region of cotyledon during embryogenesis, and the encoded protein was targeted to the chloroplast. TEM observation of cellular ultrastructure showed that chloroplast biogenesis was impaired in emb1990 embryo cells. Expression of certain plastid genes was also affected in the loss-of-function mutants, including genes encoding core protein complex subunits located in the thylakoid membrane. Moreover, the tissue-specific genes of embryo development were misexpressed in emb1990 mutant, including genes known to delineate cell fate decisions in the SAM (shoot apical meristem, cotyledon and hypophysis. Taken together, we propose that the nuclear-encoded YLMG1-1 is targeted to the chloroplast and required for normal plastid gene expression. Hence, YLMG1-1 plays a critical role in Arabidopsis embryogenesis through participating in chloroplast biogenesis.

  6. Molecular comparison of the structural proteins encoding gene clusters of two related Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasala, A; Dupont, L; Baumann, M; Ritzenthaler, P; Alatossava, T

    1993-01-01

    Virulent phage LL-H and temperate phage mv4 are two related bacteriophages of Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The gene clusters encoding structural proteins of these two phages have been sequenced and further analyzed. Six open reading frames (ORF-1 to ORF-6) were detected. Protein sequencing and Western immunoblotting experiments confirmed that ORF-3 (g34) encoded the main capsid protein Gp34. The presence of a putative late promoter in front of the phage LL-H g34 gene was suggested by primer extension experiments. Comparative sequence analysis between phage LL-H and phage mv4 revealed striking similarities in the structure and organization of this gene cluster, suggesting that the genes encoding phage structural proteins belong to a highly conservative module. Images PMID:8497043

  7. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  8. Protein-lipid interactions: from membrane domains to cellular networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamm, Lukas K

    2005-01-01

    ... membranes is the lipid bilayer. Embedded in the fluid lipid bilayer are proteins of various shapes and traits. This volume illuminates from physical, chemical and biological angles the numerous - mostly quite weak - interactions between lipids, proteins, and proteins and lipids that define the delicate, highly dynamic and yet so stable fabri...

  9. Mnemons: encoding memory by protein super-assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Caudron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Memory is mainly understood as the recollection of past events. The human brain and its simplest unit, the synapse, belong to the places in which such memories are physically stored. From an experimental point of view, memory can be tested in humans by recall. However, in other organisms, memory is reflected in its use by individuals to learn about and adapt their behavior to their environment. Under this criterion, even unicellular organisms are able to learn from their environments and show the ability to adapt their responses to repeating stimuli. This indicates that they are able to keep track of their histories and use these traces to elaborate adapted responses, making these traces akin to memory encodings. Understanding these phenomena may even help us to dissect part of the rather complex molecular orchestration happening in our synapses. When exposed unsuccessfully to mating pheromone, i.e. when mating does not happen, budding yeast cells become refractory to the mating signal. This refractory state is restricted to the mother cell and not inherited by the daughter cells, even though it is stable for most if not the entire life span of the mother cell. Interestingly, both stability and asymmetric segregation of the acquired state are explained by the molecular mechanism underlying its establishment, which shows important analogies and distinctions to prions. Here we discuss these similarities and differences

  10. Mnemons: encoding memory by protein super-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Fabrice; Barral, Yves

    2014-02-25

    Memory is mainly understood as the recollection of past events. The human brain and its simplest unit, the synapse, belong to the places in which such memories are physically stored. From an experimental point of view, memory can be tested in humans by recall. However, in other organisms, memory is reflected in its use by individuals to learn about and adapt their behavior to their environment. Under this criterion, even unicellular organisms are able to learn from their environments and show the ability to adapt their responses to repeating stimuli. This indicates that they are able to keep track of their histories and use these traces to elaborate adapted responses, making these traces akin to memory encodings. Understanding these phenomena may even help us to dissect part of the rather complex molecular orchestration happening in our synapses. When exposed unsuccessfully to mating pheromone, i.e. when mating does not happen, budding yeast cells become refractory to the mating signal. This refractory state is restricted to the mother cell and not inherited by the daughter cells, even though it is stable for most if not the entire life span of the mother cell. Interestingly, both stability and asymmetric segregation of the acquired state are explained by the molecular mechanism underlying its establishment, which shows important analogies and distinctions to prions. Here we discuss these similarities and differences.

  11. Encoding of contextual fear memory requires de novo proteins in the prelimbic cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Valerio; Touzani, Khalid; Raveendra, Bindu L.; Swarnkar, Supriya; Lora, Joan; Kadakkuzha, Beena M.; Liu, Xin-An; Zhang, Chao; Betel, Doron; Stackman, Robert W.; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite our understanding of the significance of the prefrontal cortex in the consolidation of long-term memories (LTM), its role in the encoding of LTM remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of new protein synthesis in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in encoding contextual fear memory. Methods Because a change in the association of mRNAs to polyribosomes is an indicator of new protein synthesis, we assessed the changes in polyribosome-associated mRNAs in the mPFC following contextual fear conditioning (CFC) in the mouse. Differential gene expression in mPFC was identified by polyribosome profiling (n = 18). The role of new protein synthesis in mPFC was determined by focal inhibition of protein synthesis (n = 131) and by intra-prelimbic cortex manipulation (n = 56) of Homer 3, a candidate identified from polyribosome profiling. Results We identified several mRNAs that are differentially and temporally recruited to polyribosomes in the mPFC following CFC. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the prelimbic (PL), but not in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region of the mPFC immediately after CFC disrupted encoding of contextual fear memory. Intriguingly, inhibition of new protein synthesis in the PL 6 hours after CFC did not impair encoding. Furthermore, expression of Homer 3, an mRNA enriched in polyribosomes following CFC, in the PL constrained encoding of contextual fear memory. Conclusions Our studies identify several molecular substrates of new protein synthesis in the mPFC and establish that encoding of contextual fear memories require new protein synthesis in PL subregion of mPFC. PMID:28503670

  12. Analysis of protein interactions at native chloroplast membranes by ellipsometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kriechbaumer

    Full Text Available Membrane bound receptors play vital roles in cell signaling, and are the target for many drugs, yet their interactions with ligands are difficult to study by conventional techniques due to the technical difficulty of monitoring these interactions in lipid environments. In particular, the ability to analyse the behaviour of membrane proteins in their native membrane environment is limited. Here, we have developed a quantitative approach to detect specific interactions between low-abundance chaperone receptors within native chloroplast membranes and their soluble chaperone partners. Langmuir-Schaefer film deposition was used to deposit native chloroplasts onto gold-coated glass slides, and interactions between the molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90 and their receptors in the chloroplast membranes were detected and quantified by total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE. We show that native chloroplast membranes deposited on gold-coated glass slides using Langmuir-Schaefer films retain functional receptors capable of binding chaperones with high specificity and affinity. Taking into account the low chaperone receptor abundance in native membranes, these binding properties are consistent with data generated using soluble forms of the chloroplast chaperone receptors, OEP61 and Toc64. Therefore, we conclude that chloroplasts have the capacity to selectively bind chaperones, consistent with the notion that chaperones play an important role in protein targeting to chloroplasts. Importantly, this method of monitoring by TIRE does not require any protein labelling. This novel combination of techniques should be applicable to a wide variety of membranes and membrane protein receptors, thus presenting the opportunity to quantify protein interactions involved in fundamental cellular processes, and to screen for drugs that target membrane proteins.

  13. High-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip supports for AFP detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xiaoqun [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yan, Huan; Yang, Jiumin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052 (China); Wu, Yudong; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Yingyi [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Ping [Bioscience (Tianjin) Diagnostic Technology CO., LTD, Tianjin, 300300 (China); Wang, Huiquan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Hu, Zhidong, E-mail: huzhidong27@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052 (China); Chang, Jin, E-mail: jinchang@tju.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads (FEMMs), with the fluorescence encoding ability of quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic enrichment and separation functions of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, have been widely used for multiple biomolecular detection as microfluidic protein chip supports. However, the preparation of FEMMs with long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability is still a challenge. In this work, we designed a novel high-temperature chemical swelling strategy. The QDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were effectively packaged into microbeads via the thermal motion of the polymer chains and the hydrophobic interaction between the nanoparticles and microbeads. The FEMMs obtained a highly uniform fluorescent property and long-term encoding and immunodetection stability and could be quickly magnetically separated and enriched. Then, the QD-encoded magnetic microbeads were applied to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection via sandwich immunoreaction. The properties of the encoded microspheres were characterized using a self-designed detecting apparatus, and the target molecular concentration in the sample was also quantified. The results suggested that the high-performance FEMMs have great potential in the field of biomolecular detection. - Graphical abstract: We designed a novel strategy to prepare a kind of high-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip support with long-time fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability for AFP detection. - Highlights: • A novel strategy combined the high temperature with chemical swelling technology is designed. • Based on hydrophobic interaction and polymer thermal motion, QDs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were effectively packaged into microbeads. • The fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads show long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability.

  14. Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eGauliard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called Incs (Inclusion membrane proteins. Incs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small Incs, IncF and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

  15. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lindsay A. [University of Oxford, Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Division of Structural Biology, Nuffield Department of Medicine (United Kingdom); Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc, E-mail: m.baldus@uu.nl [Utrecht University, NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR.

  16. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Lindsay A.; Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR

  17. Analysis of a Mycoplasma hominis membrane protein, P120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Mathiesen, SL; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg

    1994-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody mAb 26.7D generated against a clinical isolate of Mycoplasma hominis 7488 was shown to react with a surface-exposed epitope on a 120-kDa protein (P120). The gene encoding the protein was cloned and sequenced, and the transcriptional start point was determined by primer...

  18. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.K.; Sierocinski, P.; Oost, van der J.; Wright, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative proteomic analysis of the membrane of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 using iTRAQ was successfully demonstrated in this technical note. The estimated number of membrane proteins of this organism is 883 (predicted based on Gravy score), corresponding to 30 % of the total

  19. Lactococcus lactis as host for overproduction of functional membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunji, ERS; Slotboom, DJ; Poolman, B

    2003-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis has many properties that are ideal for enhanced expression of membrane proteins. The organism is easy and inexpensive to culture, has a single membrane and relatively mild proteolytic activity. Methods for genetic manipulation are fully established and a tightly controlled

  20. Mixed-matrix membrane adsorbers for protein separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, M.E.; Borneman, Z.; Wessling, M.

    2003-01-01

    The separation of two similarly sized proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine hemoglobin (Hb) was carried out using a new type of ion-exchange mixed-matrix adsorber membranes. The adsorber membranes were prepared by incorporation of various types of Lewatit ion-exchange resins into an

  1. Hypomorphic mutations in PGAP2, encoding a GPI-anchor-remodeling protein, cause autosomal-recessive intellectual disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Tawamie, Hasan; Murakami, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    PGAP2 encodes a protein involved in remodeling the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor in the Golgi apparatus. After synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), GPI anchors are transferred to the proteins and are remodeled while transported through the Golgi to the cell membrane. Germline...... mutations in six genes (PIGA, PIGL, PIGM, PIGV, PIGN, and PIGO) in the ER-located part of the GPI-anchor-biosynthesis pathway have been reported, and all are associated with phenotypes extending from malformation and lethality to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, minor dysmorphisms, and elevated...... alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We performed autozygosity mapping and ultra-deep sequencing followed by stringent filtering and identified two homozygous PGAP2 alterations, p.Tyr99Cys and p.Arg177Pro, in seven offspring with nonspecific autosomal-recessive intellectual disability from two consanguineous...

  2. Dynamic shaping of cellular membranes by phospholipids and membrane-deforming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro; Kurisu, Shusaku; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2014-10-01

    All cellular compartments are separated from the external environment by a membrane, which consists of a lipid bilayer. Subcellular structures, including clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia, lamellipodia, podosomes, and other intracellular membrane systems, are molded into their specific submicron-scale shapes through various mechanisms. Cells construct their micro-structures on plasma membrane and execute vital functions for life, such as cell migration, cell division, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytoskeletal regulation. The plasma membrane, rich in anionic phospholipids, utilizes the electrostatic nature of the lipids, specifically the phosphoinositides, to form interactions with cytosolic proteins. These cytosolic proteins have three modes of interaction: 1) electrostatic interaction through unstructured polycationic regions, 2) through structured phosphoinositide-specific binding domains, and 3) through structured domains that bind the membrane without specificity for particular phospholipid. Among the structured domains, there are several that have membrane-deforming activity, which is essential for the formation of concave or convex membrane curvature. These domains include the amphipathic helix, which deforms the membrane by hemi-insertion of the helix with both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and/or the BAR domain superfamily, known to use their positively charged, curved structural surface to deform membranes. Below the membrane, actin filaments support the micro-structures through interactions with several BAR proteins as well as other scaffold proteins, resulting in outward and inward membrane micro-structure formation. Here, we describe the characteristics of phospholipids, and the mechanisms utilized by phosphoinositides to regulate cellular events. We then summarize the precise mechanisms underlying the construction of membrane micro-structures and their involvements in physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2014 the

  3. The Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins in Medicago truncatula A17 Inoculated Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA KUSUMAWATI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Subtilisin-like serine protease (MtSBT, serine carboxypeptidase (MtSCP, MtN5, non-specific lipid transfer protein (MtnsLTP, early nodulin2-like protein (MtENOD2-like, FAD-binding domain containing protein (MtFAD-BP1, and rhicadhesin receptor protein (MtRHRE1 were among 34 proteins found in the supernatant of M. truncatula 2HA and sickle cell suspension cultures. This study investigated the expression of genes encoding those proteins in roots and developing nodules. Two methods were used: quantitative real time RT-PCR and gene expression analysis (with promoter:GUS fusion in roots. Those proteins are predicted as secreted proteins which is indirectly supported by the findings that promoter:GUS fusions of six of the seven genes encoding secreted proteins were strongly expressed in the vascular bundle of transgenic hairy roots. All six genes have expressed in 14-day old nodule. The expression levels of the selected seven genes were quantified in Sinorhizobium-inoculated and control plants using quantitative real time RT-PCR. In conclusion, among seven genes encoding secreted proteins analyzed, the expression level of only one gene, MtN5, was up-regulated significantly in inoculated root segments compared to controls. The expression of MtSBT1, MtSCP1, MtnsLTP, MtFAD-BP1, MtRHRE1 and MtN5 were higher in root tip than in other tissues examined.

  4. Organizing membrane-curving proteins: the emerging dynamical picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Mijo; Bassereau, Patricia; Voth, Gregory A

    2018-03-30

    Lipid membranes play key roles in cells, such as in trafficking, division, infection, remodeling of organelles, among others. The key step in all these processes is creating membrane curvature, typically under the control of many anchored, adhered or included proteins. However, it has become clear that the membrane itself can mediate the interactions among proteins to produce highly ordered assemblies. Computer simulations are ideally suited to investigate protein organization and the dynamics of membrane remodeling at near-micron scales, something that is extremely challenging to tackle experimentally. We review recent computational efforts in modeling protein-caused membrane deformation mechanisms, specifically focusing on coarse-grained simulations. We highlight work that exposed the membrane-mediated ordering of proteins into lines, meshwork, spirals and other assemblies, in what seems to be a very generic mechanism driven by a combination of short and long-ranged forces. Modulating the mechanical properties of membranes is an underexplored signaling mechanism in various processes deserving of more attention in the near future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structuring detergents for extracting and stabilizing functional membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Matar-Merheb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are privileged pharmaceutical targets for which the development of structure-based drug design is challenging. One underlying reason is the fact that detergents do not stabilize membrane domains as efficiently as natural lipids in membranes, often leading to a partial to complete loss of activity/stability during protein extraction and purification and preventing crystallization in an active conformation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anionic calix[4]arene based detergents (C4Cn, n=1-12 were designed to structure the membrane domains through hydrophobic interactions and a network of salt bridges with the basic residues found at the cytosol-membrane interface of membrane proteins. These compounds behave as surfactants, forming micelles of 5-24 nm, with the critical micellar concentration (CMC being as expected sensitive to pH ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 mM. Both by 1H NMR titration and Surface Tension titration experiments, the interaction of these molecules with the basic amino acids was confirmed. They extract membrane proteins from different origins behaving as mild detergents, leading to partial extraction in some cases. They also retain protein functionality, as shown for BmrA (Bacillus multidrug resistance ATP protein, a membrane multidrug-transporting ATPase, which is particularly sensitive to detergent extraction. These new detergents allow BmrA to bind daunorubicin with a Kd of 12 µM, a value similar to that observed after purification using dodecyl maltoside (DDM. They preserve the ATPase activity of BmrA (which resets the protein to its initial state after drug efflux much more efficiently than SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate, FC12 (Foscholine 12 or DDM. They also maintain in a functional state the C4Cn-extracted protein upon detergent exchange with FC12. Finally, they promote 3D-crystallization of the membrane protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These compounds seem promising to extract in a functional state

  6. Isolation of Protein Storage Vacuoles and Their Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2017-01-01

    Protein-storage vacuoles (PSVs) are specialized vacuoles that sequester large amounts of storage proteins. During seed development, PSVs are formed de novo and/or from preexisting lytic vacuoles. Seed PSVs can be subdivided into four distinct compartments: membrane, globoid, matrix, and crystalloid. In this chapter, we introduce easy methods for isolation of PSVs and their membranes from pumpkin seeds. These methods facilitate the identification and characterization of PSV components.

  7. Neutrophil glycoprotein Mo1 is an integral membrane protein of plasma membranes and specific granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, K.B.; Nauseef, W.M.; Clark, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The glucoprotein Mo1 has previously been demonstrated to be on the cell surface and in the specific granule fraction of neutrophils and to be translocated to the cell surface during degranulation. It is not known, however, whether Mo1 is an integral membrane protein or a soluble, intragranular constituent loosely associated with the specific granule membrane. Purified neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and separated on Percoll density gradients into four fractions enriched for azurophilic granules, specific granules, plasma membrane, and cytosol, respectively. The glycoproteins in these fractions were labeled with 3 H-borohydride reduction, extracted with Triton X-114, and immunoprecipitated with 60.3, an anti-Mo1 monoclonal antibody. Mo1 was detected only in the specific granule and plasma membrane fractions and partitioned exclusively into the detergent-rich fraction consistent with Mo1 being an integral membrane protein. In addition, treatment of specific granule membranes with a high salt, high urea buffer to remove adsorbed or peripheral proteins failed to dissociate Mo1. These data support the hypothesis that Mo1 is an integral membrane protein of plasma and specific granule membranes in human neutrophils

  8. Gardenia jasminoides Encodes an Inhibitor-2 Protein for Protein Phosphatase Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulates diverse, essential cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, protein synthesis, muscle contraction, carbohydrate metabolism, transcription and neuronal signaling. Inhibitor-2 (I-2) can inhibit the activity of PP1 and has been found in diverse organisms. In this work, a Gardenia jasminoides fruit cDNA library was constructed, and the GjI-2 cDNA was isolated from the cDNA library by sequencing method. The GjI-2 cDNA contains a predicted 543 bp open reading frame that encodes 180 amino acids. The bioinformatics analysis suggested that the GjI-2 has conserved PP1c binding motif, and contains a conserved phosphorylation site, which is important in regulation of its activity. The three-dimensional model structure of GjI-2 was buite, its similar with the structure of I-2 from mouse. The results suggest that GjI-2 has relatively conserved RVxF, FxxR/KxR/K and HYNE motif, and these motifs are involved in interaction with PP1.

  9. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junfen, E-mail: junfensun@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, North People Road 2999, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wu, Lishun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Heze University, Daxue Road 2269, Heze, Shandong Province 274015 (China)

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. Phytochemicals perturb membranes and promiscuously alter protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Koçer, Armağan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-08-15

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding.

  11. Sieve element occlusion (SEO) genes encode structural phloem proteins involved in wound sealing of the phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Zielonka, Sascia; Müller, Boje; Neumann, Ulla; Rüping, Boris; Twyman, Richard M; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2012-07-10

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family originally was delimited to genes encoding structural components of forisomes, which are specialized crystalloid phloem proteins found solely in the Fabaceae. More recently, SEO genes discovered in various non-Fabaceae plants were proposed to encode the common phloem proteins (P-proteins) that plug sieve plates after wounding. We carried out a comprehensive characterization of two tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SEO genes (NtSEO). Reporter genes controlled by the NtSEO promoters were expressed specifically in immature sieve elements, and GFP-SEO fusion proteins formed parietal agglomerates in intact sieve elements as well as sieve plate plugs after wounding. NtSEO proteins with and without fluorescent protein tags formed agglomerates similar in structure to native P-protein bodies when transiently coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and the analysis of these protein complexes by electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural features resembling those of native P-proteins. NtSEO-RNA interference lines were essentially devoid of P-protein structures and lost photoassimilates more rapidly after injury than control plants, thus confirming the role of P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore provide direct evidence that SEO genes in tobacco encode P-protein subunits that affect translocation. We also found that peptides recently identified in fascicular phloem P-protein plugs from squash (Cucurbita maxima) represent cucurbit members of the SEO family. Our results therefore suggest a common evolutionary origin for P-proteins found in the sieve elements of all dicotyledonous plants and demonstrate the exceptional status of extrafascicular P-proteins in cucurbits.

  12. Membrane Protein Properties Revealed through Data-Rich Electrostatics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoline, Frank V; Bethel, Neville; Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Grabe, Michael

    2015-08-04

    The electrostatic properties of membrane proteins often reveal many of their key biophysical characteristics, such as ion channel selectivity and the stability of charged membrane-spanning segments. The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is the gold standard for calculating protein electrostatics, and the software APBSmem enables the solution of the PB equation in the presence of a membrane. Here, we describe significant advances to APBSmem, including full automation of system setup, per-residue energy decomposition, incorporation of PDB2PQR, calculation of membrane-induced pKa shifts, calculation of non-polar energies, and command-line scripting for large-scale calculations. We highlight these new features with calculations carried out on a number of membrane proteins, including the recently solved structure of the ion channel TRPV1 and a large survey of 1,614 membrane proteins of known structure. This survey provides a comprehensive list of residues with large electrostatic penalties for being embedded in the membrane, potentially revealing interesting functional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel nuclear-encoded proteins interacting with a plastid sigma factor, Sig1, in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Kazuya; Shiina, Takashi; Murakami, Shinya; Toyoshima, Yoshinori

    2002-03-13

    Sigma factor binding proteins are involved in modifying the promoter preferences of the RNA polymerase in bacteria. We found the nuclear encoded protein (SibI) that is transported into chloroplasts and interacts specifically with the region 4 of Sig1 in Arabidopsis. SibI and its homologue, T3K9.5 are novel proteins, which are not homologous to any protein of known function. The expression of sibI was tissue specific, light dependent, and developmentally timed. We suggest the transcriptional regulation by sigma factor binding proteins to function in the plastids of higher plant.

  14. The dynamics of plant plasma membrane proteins: PINs and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschnig, Christian; Vert, Grégory

    2014-08-01

    Plants are permanently situated in a fixed location and thus are well adapted to sense and respond to environmental stimuli and developmental cues. At the cellular level, several of these responses require delicate adjustments that affect the activity and steady-state levels of plasma membrane proteins. These adjustments involve both vesicular transport to the plasma membrane and protein internalization via endocytic sorting. A substantial part of our current knowledge of plant plasma membrane protein sorting is based on studies of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins, which are found at distinct plasma membrane domains and have been implicated in directional efflux of the plant hormone auxin. Here, we discuss the mechanisms involved in establishing such polar protein distributions, focusing on PINs and other key plant plasma membrane proteins, and we highlight the pathways that allow for dynamic adjustments in protein distribution and turnover, which together constitute a versatile framework that underlies the remarkable capabilities of plants to adjust growth and development in their ever-changing environment. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Molecular cloning and chromosome mapping of the human gene encoding protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-Shimer, S.; Johnson, K.A.; Bruskin, A.; Green, N.R.; Hill, D.E.; Lawrence, J.B.; Johnson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The inactivation of growth suppressor genes appears to play a major role in the malignant process. To assess whether protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatases function as growth suppressors, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone encoding human protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B for structural and functional characterization. The translation product deduced from the 1,305-nucleotide open reading frame predicts a protein containing 435 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 49,966 Da. The amino-terminal 321 amino acids deduced from the cDNA sequence are identical to the empirically determined sequence of protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B. A genomic clone has been isolated and used in an in situ hybridization to banded metaphase chromosomes to determine that the gene encoding protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 1B maps as a single-copy gene to the long arm of chromosome 20 in the region q13.1-q13.2

  16. IQCJ-SCHIP1, a novel fusion transcript encoding a calmodulin-binding IQ motif protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Carson, Andrew R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of transcripts that span two adjacent, independent genes is considered rare in the human genome. This study characterizes a novel human fusion gene named IQCJ-SCHIP1. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is the longest isoform of a complex transcriptional unit that bridges two separate genes that encode distinct proteins, IQCJ, a novel IQ motif containing protein and SCHIP1, a schwannomin interacting protein that has been previously shown to interact with the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) protein. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is located on the chromosome 3q25 and comprises a 1692-bp transcript encompassing 11 exons spanning 828 kb of the genomic DNA. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP1 mRNA is highly expressed in the brain. Protein encoded by the IQCJ-SCHIP1 gene was localized to cytoplasm and actin-rich regions and in differentiated PC12 cells was also seen in neurite extensions

  17. Hunting for low abundant redox proteins in plant plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Sabine; Hopff, David; Schmitt, Anna; Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana

    2009-04-13

    Nowadays electron transport (redox) systems in plasma membranes appear well established. Members of the flavocytochrome b family have been identified by their nucleotide acid sequences and characterized on the transcriptional level. For their gene products functions have been demonstrated in iron uptake and oxidative stress including biotic interactions, abiotic stress factors and plant development. In addition, NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases and b-type cytochromes have been purified and characterized from plasma membranes. Several of these proteins seem to belong to the group of hypothetical or unknown proteins. Low abundance and the lack of amino acid sequence data for these proteins still hamper their functional analysis. Consequently, little is known about the physiological function and regulation of these enzymes. In recent years evidence has been presented for the existence of microdomains (so-called lipid rafts) in plasma membranes and their interaction with specific membrane proteins. The identification of redox systems in detergent insoluble membranes supports the idea that redox systems may have important functions in signal transduction, stress responses, cell wall metabolism, and transport processes. This review summarizes our present knowledge on plasma membrane redox proteins and discusses alternative strategies to investigate the function and regulation of these enzymes.

  18. Identification of physicochemical selective pressure on protein encoding nucleotide sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainudiin Raazesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical methods for identifying positively selected sites in protein coding regions are one of the most commonly used tools in evolutionary bioinformatics. However, they have been limited by not taking the physiochemical properties of amino acids into account. Results We develop a new codon-based likelihood model for detecting site-specific selection pressures acting on specific physicochemical properties. Nonsynonymous substitutions are divided into substitutions that differ with respect to the physicochemical properties of interest, and those that do not. The substitution rates of these two types of changes, relative to the synonymous substitution rate, are then described by two parameters, γ and ω respectively. The new model allows us to perform likelihood ratio tests for positive selection acting on specific physicochemical properties of interest. The new method is first used to analyze simulated data and is shown to have good power and accuracy in detecting physicochemical selective pressure. We then re-analyze data from the class-I alleles of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and from the abalone sperm lysine. Conclusion Our new method allows a more flexible framework to identify selection pressure on particular physicochemical properties.

  19. Structural adaptations of proteins to different biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozheva, Irina D.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Mosberg, Henry I.; Lomize, Andrei L.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into adaptations of proteins to their membranes, intrinsic hydrophobic thicknesses, distributions of different chemical groups and profiles of hydrogen-bonding capacities (α and β) and the dipolarity/polarizability parameter (π*) were calculated for lipid-facing surfaces of 460 integral α-helical, β-barrel and peripheral proteins from eight types of biomembranes. For comparison, polarity profiles were also calculated for ten artificial lipid bilayers that have been previously studied by neutron and X-ray scattering. Estimated hydrophobic thicknesses are 30-31 Å for proteins from endoplasmic reticulum, thylakoid, and various bacterial plasma membranes, but differ for proteins from outer bacterial, inner mitochondrial and eukaryotic plasma membranes (23.9, 28.6 and 33.5 Å, respectively). Protein and lipid polarity parameters abruptly change in the lipid carbonyl zone that matches the calculated hydrophobic boundaries. Maxima of positively charged protein groups correspond to the location of lipid phosphates at 20-22 Å distances from the membrane center. Locations of Tyr atoms coincide with hydrophobic boundaries, while distributions maxima of Trp rings are shifted by 3-4 Å toward the membrane center. Distributions of Trp atoms indicate the presence of two 5-8 Å-wide midpolar regions with intermediate π* values within the hydrocarbon core, whose size and symmetry depend on the lipid composition of membrane leaflets. Midpolar regions are especially asymmetric in outer bacterial membranes and cell membranes of mesophilic but not hyperthermophilic archaebacteria, indicating the larger width of the central nonpolar region in the later case. In artificial lipid bilayers, midpolar regions are observed up to the level of acyl chain double bonds. PMID:23811361

  20. Current strategies for protein production and purification enabling membrane protein structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya; Shin, Kyungsoo; Patterson, Robin E; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2016-12-01

    Membrane proteins are still heavily under-represented in the protein data bank (PDB), owing to multiple bottlenecks. The typical low abundance of membrane proteins in their natural hosts makes it necessary to overexpress these proteins either in heterologous systems or through in vitro translation/cell-free expression. Heterologous expression of proteins, in turn, leads to multiple obstacles, owing to the unpredictability of compatibility of the target protein for expression in a given host. The highly hydrophobic and (or) amphipathic nature of membrane proteins also leads to challenges in producing a homogeneous, stable, and pure sample for structural studies. Circumventing these hurdles has become possible through the introduction of novel protein production protocols; efficient protein isolation and sample preparation methods; and, improvement in hardware and software for structural characterization. Combined, these advances have made the past 10-15 years very exciting and eventful for the field of membrane protein structural biology, with an exponential growth in the number of solved membrane protein structures. In this review, we focus on both the advances and diversity of protein production and purification methods that have allowed this growth in structural knowledge of membrane proteins through X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

  1. Molecular evolution of the Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae multiple-protein-encoding P gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, I K; Sutter, B A; McClure, M A

    2000-01-01

    Presented here is an analysis of the molecular evolutionary dynamics of the P gene among 76 representative sequences of the Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae RNA virus families. In a number of Paramyxoviridae taxa, as well as in vesicular stomatitis viruses of the Rhabdoviridae, the P gene encodes multiple proteins from a single genomic RNA sequence. These products include the phosphoprotein (P), as well as the C and V proteins. The complexity of the P gene makes it an intriguing locus to study from an evolutionary perspective. Amino acid sequence alignments of the proteins encoded at the P and N loci were used in independent phylogenetic reconstructions of the Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae families. P-gene-coding capacities were mapped onto the Paramyxoviridae phylogeny, and the most parsimonious path of multiple-coding-capacity evolution was determined. Levels of amino acid variation for Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae P-gene-encoded products were also analyzed. Proteins encoded in overlapping reading frames from the same nucleotides have different levels of amino acid variation. The nucleotide architecture that underlies the amino acid variation was determined in order to evaluate the role of selection in the evolution of the P gene overlapping reading frames. In every case, the evolution of one of the proteins encoded in the overlapping reading frames has been constrained by negative selection while the other has evolved more rapidly. The integrity of the overlapping reading frame that represents a derived state is generally maintained at the expense of the ancestral reading frame encoded by the same nucleotides. The evolution of such multicoding sequences is likely a response by RNA viruses to selective pressure to maximize genomic information content while maintaining small genome size. The ability to evolve such a complex genomic strategy is intimately related to the dynamics of the viral quasispecies, which allow enhanced exploration of the adaptive

  2. Lipopolysaccharide Membranes and Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Studied by Computer Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatsma, TP

    2006-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental Gram-negative bacterium with high metabolic versatility and an exceptional ability to adapt to a wide range of ecological environments, including soil, marches, coastal habitats, plant and animal tissues. Gram-negative microbes are characterized by the asymmetric lipopolysaccharide outer membrane, the study of which is important for a number of applications. The adhesion to mineral surfaces plays a central role in characterizing their contribution to the fate of contaminants in complex environmental systems by effecting microbial transport through soils, respiration redox chemistry, and ion mobility. Another important application stems from the fact that it is also a major opportunistic human pathogen that can result in life-threatening infections in many immunocompromised patients, such as lung infections in children with cystic fibrosis, bacteraemia in burn victims, urinary-tract infections in catheterized patients, hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients on respirators, infections in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and keratitis and corneal ulcers in users of extended-wear soft contact lenses. The inherent resistance against antibiotics which has been linked with the specific interactions in the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa makes these infections difficult to treat. Developments in simulation methodologies as well as computer hardware have enabled the molecular simulation of biological systems of increasing size and with increasing accuracy, providing detail that is difficult or impossible to obtain experimentally. Computer simulation studies contribute to our understanding of the behavior of proteins, protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes. In recent years, a number of research groups have made significant progress in applying these methods to the study of biological membranes. However, these applications have been focused exclusively on lipid bilayer membranes and on membrane proteins in lipid

  3. Codon optimizing for increased membrane protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzadeh, K.; Toddo, S.; Nørholm, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . As demonstrated with two membrane-embedded transporters in Escherichia coli, the method was more effective than optimizing the entire coding sequence. The method we present is PCR based and requires three simple steps: (1) the design of two PCR primers, one of which is degenerate; (2) the amplification...

  4. DNA nanotubes for NMR structure determination of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellot, Gaëtan; McClintock, Mark A; Chou, James J; Shih, William M

    2013-04-01

    Finding a way to determine the structures of integral membrane proteins using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has proved to be challenging. A residual-dipolar-coupling-based refinement approach can be used to resolve the structure of membrane proteins up to 40 kDa in size, but to do this you need a weak-alignment medium that is detergent-resistant and it has thus far been difficult to obtain such a medium suitable for weak alignment of membrane proteins. We describe here a protocol for robust, large-scale synthesis of detergent-resistant DNA nanotubes that can be assembled into dilute liquid crystals for application as weak-alignment media in solution NMR structure determination of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. The DNA nanotubes are heterodimers of 400-nm-long six-helix bundles, each self-assembled from a M13-based p7308 scaffold strand and >170 short oligonucleotide staple strands. Compatibility with proteins bearing considerable positive charge as well as modulation of molecular alignment, toward collection of linearly independent restraints, can be introduced by reducing the negative charge of DNA nanotubes using counter ions and small DNA-binding molecules. This detergent-resistant liquid-crystal medium offers a number of properties conducive for membrane protein alignment, including high-yield production, thermal stability, buffer compatibility and structural programmability. Production of sufficient nanotubes for four or five NMR experiments can be completed in 1 week by a single individual.

  5. Role of rab proteins in epithelial membrane traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Mostov, KE; Hoekstra, D

    2003-01-01

    Small GTPase rab proteins play an important role in various aspects of membrane traffic, including cargo selection, vesicle budding, vesicle motility, tethering, docking, and fusion. Recent data suggest also that rabs, and their divalent effector proteins, organize organelle subdomains and as such

  6. Denaturation of membrane proteins and hyperthermic cell killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgman, Paulus Wilhelmus Johannes Jozef

    1993-01-01

    Summarizing: heat induced denaturation of membrane proteins is probably related to hyperthermic cell killing. Induced resistance of heat sensitive proteins seems to be involved in the development of thermotolerance. Although many questions remain still to be answered, it appears that HSP72, when

  7. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  8. Biophysical characterization of membrane protein-small molecule interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are account for up to two thirds of known druggable targets. Traditionally, new drugs against this class of proteins have been discovered through HTS. However, not all GPCRs are amenable to traditional screening methods. Recently, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged as

  9. The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content. This review summarizes current knowledge on the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying exocytosis triggered and catalyzed by SNARE proteins. Particular attention is given to the function of the peptidic SNARE membrane anchors and the role of SNARE-lipid interactions in fusion. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms by synaptic auxiliary proteins in SNARE-driven membrane fusion are briefly outlined.

  10. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  11. Ixodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daix, V; Schroeder, H; Praet, N; Georgin, J-P; Chiappino, I; Gillet, L; de Fays, K; Decrem, Y; Leboulle, G; Godfroid, E; Bollen, A; Pastoret, P-P; Gern, L; Sharp, P M; Vanderplasschen, A

    2007-04-01

    The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection.

  12. Topology of membrane proteins-predictions, limitations and variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigos, Konstantinos D; Govindarajan, Sudha; Bassot, Claudio; Västermark, Åke; Lamb, John; Shu, Nanjiang; Elofsson, Arne

    2017-10-26

    Transmembrane proteins perform a variety of important biological functions necessary for the survival and growth of the cells. Membrane proteins are built up by transmembrane segments that span the lipid bilayer. The segments can either be in the form of hydrophobic alpha-helices or beta-sheets which create a barrel. A fundamental aspect of the structure of transmembrane proteins is the membrane topology, that is, the number of transmembrane segments, their position in the protein sequence and their orientation in the membrane. Along these lines, many predictive algorithms for the prediction of the topology of alpha-helical and beta-barrel transmembrane proteins exist. The newest algorithms obtain an accuracy close to 80% both for alpha-helical and beta-barrel transmembrane proteins. However, lately it has been shown that the simplified picture presented when describing a protein family by its topology is limited. To demonstrate this, we highlight examples where the topology is either not conserved in a protein superfamily or where the structure cannot be described solely by the topology of a protein. The prediction of these non-standard features from sequence alone was not successful until the recent revolutionary progress in 3D-structure prediction of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissection of membrane protein degradation mechanisms by reversible inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The degradation of slowly turning over 125I-lactoperoxidase-labeled plasma membrane polypeptides in response to reversible temperature and lysosomotropic inhibitors was studied in rat hepatoma cultures. Cells were radiolabeled and left for 24 h to allow the removal of rapidly degraded proteins. Remaining trichloroacetic acid-precipitable protein was degraded (t 1/2 = 40-68 h) by an apparent first order process 60-86% sensitive to 10 mM NH4Cl or 5 mM methylamine and greater than 95% inhibited by temperature reduction to 18 degrees C. Thus, membrane proteins are selected for degradation in a time-dependent manner by a system which is sensitive to both 18 degrees C and to lysosomotropic amines. When inhibitory conditions were removed after 40-48 h, degradation of 125I-labeled protein resumed at the same rate as that seen in their absence. Since membrane proteins do not exhibit accelerated degradation after removal of inhibitory conditions, there can be no marking or sorting of those proteins destined for degradation during the 40-h exposure to inhibitory conditions. Exposure to amines or 18 degrees C did not affect the position of two-dimensionally resolved labeled polypeptides. Fractionation of labeled cells on Percoll gradients after 40 h of exposure to low temperature or amines showed that labeled protein remained in the plasma membrane fractions of the gradient although shifted to a slightly lower buoyant density in the presence of amines. These results support the notion that selection of plasma membrane proteins for degradation requires their internalization into acidic vesicles. Lysosomotropic amines and reduced temperature interfere with the selection process by preventing membrane fusion events

  14. Functional discrimination of membrane proteins using machine learning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabuki Yukimitsu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discriminating membrane proteins based on their functions is an important task in genome annotation. In this work, we have analyzed the characteristic features of amino acid residues in membrane proteins that perform major functions, such as channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters and primary active transporters. Results We observed that the residues Asp, Asn and Tyr are dominant in channels/pores whereas the composition of hydrophobic residues, Phe, Gly, Ile, Leu and Val is high in electrochemical potential-driven transporters. The composition of all the amino acids in primary active transporters lies in between other two classes of proteins. We have utilized different machine learning algorithms, such as, Bayes rule, Logistic function, Neural network, Support vector machine, Decision tree etc. for discriminating these classes of proteins. We observed that most of the algorithms have discriminated them with similar accuracy. The neural network method discriminated the channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters and active transporters with the 5-fold cross validation accuracy of 64% in a data set of 1718 membrane proteins. The application of amino acid occurrence improved the overall accuracy to 68%. In addition, we have discriminated transporters from other α-helical and β-barrel membrane proteins with the accuracy of 85% using k-nearest neighbor method. The classification of transporters and all other proteins (globular and membrane showed the accuracy of 82%. Conclusion The performance of discrimination with amino acid occurrence is better than that with amino acid composition. We suggest that this method could be effectively used to discriminate transporters from all other globular and membrane proteins, and classify them into channels/pores, electrochemical and active transporters.

  15. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using AutoEncoder Network and Bayes Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Cheng, Jinyong

    2018-03-01

    Protein secondary structure prediction is belong to bioinformatics,and it's important in research area. In this paper, we propose a new prediction way of protein using bayes classifier and autoEncoder network. Our experiments show some algorithms including the construction of the model, the classification of parameters and so on. The data set is a typical CB513 data set for protein. In terms of accuracy, the method is the cross validation based on the 3-fold. Then we can get the Q3 accuracy. Paper results illustrate that the autoencoder network improved the prediction accuracy of protein secondary structure.

  16. Mutations in LCA5, encoding the ciliary protein lebercilin, cause Leber congenital amaurosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Koenekoop, R.K.; Mohamed, M.D.; Arts, H.H.; Boldt, K.; Towns, K.V.; Sedmak, T.; Beer, M. de; Nagel-Wolfrum, K.; McKibbin, M.; Dharmaraj, S.; Lopez, I.; Ivings, L.; Williams, G.A.; Springell, K.; Woods, C.G.; Jafri, H.; Rashid, Y.; Strom, T.M.; Zwaag, B. van der; Gosens, I.; Kersten, F.F.J.; Wijk, E. van; Veltman, J.A.; Zonneveld, M.N.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Maumenee, I.H.; Wolfrum, U.; Cheetham, M.E.; Ueffing, M.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Inglehearn, C.F.; Roepman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) causes blindness or severe visual impairment at or within a few months of birth. Here we show, using homozygosity mapping, that the LCA5 gene on chromosome 6q14, which encodes the previously unknown ciliary protein lebercilin, is associated with this disease. We

  17. Lipid nanotechnologies for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Grushin, Kirill; Dalm, Daniela; Miller, Jaimy

    2014-11-01

    We present a methodology of lipid nanotubes (LNT) and nanodisks technologies optimized in our laboratory for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins at close to physiological conditions. The application of these lipid nanotechnologies for structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is fundamental for understanding and modulating their function. The LNTs in our studies are single bilayer galactosylceramide based nanotubes of ∼20 nm inner diameter and a few microns in length, that self-assemble in aqueous solutions. The lipid nanodisks (NDs) are self-assembled discoid lipid bilayers of ∼10 nm diameter, which are stabilized in aqueous solutions by a belt of amphipathic helical scaffold proteins. By combining LNT and ND technologies, we can examine structurally how the membrane curvature and lipid composition modulates the function of the membrane-associated proteins. As proof of principle, we have engineered these lipid nanotechnologies to mimic the activated platelet's phosphtaidylserine rich membrane and have successfully assembled functional membrane-bound coagulation factor VIII in vitro for structure determination by cryo-EM. The macromolecular organization of the proteins bound to ND and LNT are further defined by fitting the known atomic structures within the calculated three-dimensional maps. The combination of LNT and ND technologies offers a means to control the design and assembly of a wide range of functional membrane-associated proteins and complexes for structural studies by cryo-EM. The presented results confirm the suitability of the developed methodology for studying the functional structure of membrane-associated proteins, such as the coagulation factors, at a close to physiological environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Plasma membrane of a marine T cell lymphoma: surface labelling, membrane isolation, separation of membrane proteins and distribution of surface label amongst these proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumpton, M.J.; Marchalonis, J.J.; Haustein, D.; Atwell, J.L.; Harris, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Two established techniques for analysis of plasma membranes, namely, lactoperoxidase catalyzed surface radioiodination of intact cells and bulk membrane isolation following disruption of cells by shear forces, were applied in studies of membrane proteins of continuously cultured cells of the monoclonal T lymphoma line WEHI-22. It was found that macromolecular 125 I-iodide incorporated into plasma membrane proteins of intact cells was at least as good a marker for the plasma as was the commonly used enzyme 5'-nucleotidase, T lymphoma plasma membrane proteins were complex when analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecylsulphate-containing buffers and more than thirty distinct components were resolved. More than fifteen of the components observed on a mass basis were also labelled with 125 I-iodide. Certain bands, however, exhibited a degree of label disproportionate to their staining properties with Coomassie Blue. This was interpreted in terms of their accessibility to the solvent in the intact cells. (author)

  19. Palmitoylation of POTE family proteins for plasma membrane targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudipto; Ise, Tomoko; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Bera, Tapan K.; Pastan, Ira

    2007-01-01

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 paralogs and likely evolved by duplications and remodeling of the human genome. One common property of POTE proteins is their localization on the inner aspect of the plasma membrane. To determine the structural elements required for membrane localization, we expressed mutants of different POTEs in 293T cells as EGFP fusion proteins. We also tested their palmitoylation by a biotin-switch assay. Our data indicate that the membrane localizations of different POTEs are mediated by similar 3-4 short cysteine rich repeats (CRRs) near the amino-terminuses and that palmitoylation on paired cysteine residues in each CRR motif is responsible for the localization. Multiple palmitoylation in the small CRRs can result in the strong association of whole POTEs with plasma membrane

  20. Protein 4.1, a component of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton and its related homologue proteins forming the protein 4.1/FERM superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander F Sikorski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is focused on the domain structure and function of protein 4.1, one of the proteins belonging to the membrane skeleton. The protein 4.1 of the red blood cells (4.1R is a multifunctional protein that localizes to the membrane skeleton and stabilizes erythrocyte shape and membrane mechanical properties, such as deformability and stability, via lateral interactions with spectrin, actin, glycophorin C and protein p55. Protein 4.1 binding is modulated through the action of kinases and/or calmodulin-Ca2+. Non-erythroid cells express the 4.1R homologues: 4.1G (general type, 4.1B (brain type, and 4.1N (neuron type, and the whole group belongs to the protein 4.1 superfamily, which is characterized by the presence of a highly conserved FERM domain at the N-terminus of the molecule. Proteins 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N and 4.1B are encoded by different genes. Most of the 4.1 superfamily proteins also contain an actin-binding domain. To date, more than 40 members have been identified. They can be divided into five groups: protein 4.1 molecules, ERM proteins, talin-related molecules, protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPH proteins and NBL4 proteins. We have focused our attention on the main, well known representatives of 4.1 superfamily and tried to choose the proteins which are close to 4.1R or which have distinct functions. 4.1 family proteins are not just linkers between the plasma membrane and membrane skeleton; they also play an important role in various processes. Some, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK, non-receptor tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions in adherent cells, play the role in cell adhesion. The other members control or take part in tumor suppression, regulation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, downstream signaling of the glutamate receptors, and establishment of cell polarity; some are also involved in cell proliferation, cell motility, and/or cell-to-cell communication.

  1. Application of split-green fluorescent protein for topology mapping membrane proteins in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toddo, Stephen; Soderstrom, Bill; Palombo, Isolde

    2012-01-01

    A topology map of a membrane protein defines the location of transmembrane helices and the orientation of soluble domains relative to the membrane. In the absence of a high-resolution structure, a topology map is an essential guide for studying structurefunction relationships. Although these maps....../periplasmic location of the N-terminus of a protein. Here, we show that the bimolecular split-green fluorescent protein complementation system can overcome this limitation and can be used to determine the location of both the N- and C-termini of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli....

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein–protein interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, Benjamin J.; Dzikovski, Boris G.; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces

  3. Expression and Functions of CreD, an Inner Membrane Protein in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Chen, Wei-Ching; Huang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2015-01-01

    CreBC is a highly conserved two-component regulatory system (TCS) in several gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. CreD is a conserved gene that encodes a predicted inner-membrane protein and is located near the creBC loci. Activation of CreBC increases creD expression; therefore, creD expression is generally used as a measure of CreBC activation in E. coli, Aeromonas spp., and P. aeruginosa systems. In th...

  4. Photolabeling of brain membrane proteins by lysergic acid diethylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.C.; Hartig, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    3 H-Lysergic acid diethylamide ( 3 H-LSD) is irreversibly incorporated into bovine caudate membranes during ultraviolet light illumination. The incorporated radioligand apparently forms a covalent bond with a sub-population of the membrane proteins. Although the photolabeling pattern differs significantly from the Coomassie blue staining pattern on SDS gels, the photolabeling is apparently not specific for LSD binding sites associated with neurotransmitter receptors. 3 H-LSD photolabeling can occur during prolonged exposure of membrane samples to room lighting and thus may introduce artifacts into receptor binding assays

  5. Upconversion Nanoparticles-Encoded Hydrogel Microbeads-Based Multiplexed Protein Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikha, Swati; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Yong

    2018-06-01

    Fluorescently encoded microbeads are in demand for multiplexed applications in different fields. Compared to organic dye-based commercially available Luminex's xMAP technology, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are better alternatives due to their large anti-Stokes shift, photostability, nil background, and single wavelength excitation. Here, we developed a new multiplexed detection system using UCNPs for encoding poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) microbeads as well as for labeling reporter antibody. However, to prepare UCNPs-encoded microbeads, currently used swelling-based encapsulation leads to non-uniformity, which is undesirable for fluorescence-based multiplexing. Hence, we utilized droplet microfluidics to obtain encoded microbeads of uniform size, shape, and UCNPs distribution inside. Additionally, PEGDA microbeads lack functionality for probe antibodies conjugation on their surface. Methods to functionalize the surface of PEGDA microbeads (acrylic acid incorporation, polydopamine coating) reported thus far quench the fluorescence of UCNPs. Here, PEGDA microbeads surface was coated with silica followed by carboxyl modification without compromising the fluorescence intensity of UCNPs. In this study, droplet microfluidics-assisted UCNPs-encoded microbeads of uniform shape, size, and fluorescence were prepared. Multiple color codes were generated by mixing UCNPs emitting red and green colors at different ratios prior to encapsulation. UCNPs emitting blue color were used to label the reporter antibody. Probe antibodies were covalently immobilized on red UCNPs-encoded microbeads for specific capture of human serum albumin (HSA) as a model protein. The system was also demonstrated for multiplexed detection of both human C-reactive protein (hCRP) and HSA protein by immobilizing anti-hCRP antibodies on green UCNPs.

  6. Structure and Dynamic Properties of Membrane Proteins using NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösner, Heike; Kragelund, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    conformational changes. Their structural and functional decoding is challenging and has imposed demanding experimental development. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the techniques providing the capacity to make a significant difference in the deciphering of the membrane protein...... structure-function paradigm. The method has evolved dramatically during the last decade resulting in a plethora of new experiments leading to a significant increase in the scientific repertoire for studying membrane proteins. Besides solving the three-dimensional structures using state-of-the-art approaches......-populated states, this review seeks to introduce the vast possibilities solution NMR can offer to the study of membrane protein structure-function analyses with special focus on applicability. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1491-1539, 2012....

  7. Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elortza, Felix; Nühse, Thomas S; Foster, Leonard J

    2003-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified membrane proteins found mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Although the general role of GPI-APs remains...... unclear, they have attracted attention because they act as enzymes and receptors in cell adhesion, differentiation, and host-pathogen interactions. GPI-APs may represent potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in humans and are interesting in plant biotechnology because of their key role in root...... and 44 GPI-APs in an Arabidopsis thaliana membrane preparation, representing the largest experimental dataset of GPI-anchored proteins to date....

  8. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS. We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature

  9. Resistance to β-Lactams in Neisseria ssp Due to Chromosomally Encoded Penicillin-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapun, André; Morlot, Cécile; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-09-28

    Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are human pathogens that cause a variety of life-threatening systemic and local infections, such as meningitis or gonorrhoea. The treatment of such infection is becoming more difficult due to antibiotic resistance. The focus of this review is on the mechanism of reduced susceptibility to penicillin and other β-lactams due to the modification of chromosomally encoded penicillin-binding proteins (PBP), in particular PBP2 encoded by the penA gene. The variety of penA alleles and resulting variant PBP2 enzymes is described and the important amino acid substitutions are presented and discussed in a structural context.

  10. Solubilization of lipids and membrane proteins into nanodiscs : Mode of action and applications of SMA copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidelaar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes separate the inside and outside of cells. Membrane proteins in the cell membrane control the traffic of molecules across the membrane and are therefore targets for a lot of drugs: about 50 % of all approved drugs target a membrane protein! Unfortunately, scientists only know little

  11. Identification of protein features encoded by alternative exons using Exon Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Aubé, Fabien; Dulaurier, Louis; Benoit-Pilven, Clara; Rey, Amandine; Poret, Arnaud; Chautard, Emilie; Mortada, Hussein; Desmet, François-Olivier; Chakrama, Fatima Zahra; Moreno-Garcia, Maira Alejandra; Goillot, Evelyne; Janczarski, Stéphane; Mortreux, Franck; Bourgeois, Cyril F; Auboeuf, Didier

    2017-06-01

    Transcriptomic genome-wide analyses demonstrate massive variation of alternative splicing in many physiological and pathological situations. One major challenge is now to establish the biological contribution of alternative splicing variation in physiological- or pathological-associated cellular phenotypes. Toward this end, we developed a computational approach, named "Exon Ontology," based on terms corresponding to well-characterized protein features organized in an ontology tree. Exon Ontology is conceptually similar to Gene Ontology-based approaches but focuses on exon-encoded protein features instead of gene level functional annotations. Exon Ontology describes the protein features encoded by a selected list of exons and looks for potential Exon Ontology term enrichment. By applying this strategy to exons that are differentially spliced between epithelial and mesenchymal cells and after extensive experimental validation, we demonstrate that Exon Ontology provides support to discover specific protein features regulated by alternative splicing. We also show that Exon Ontology helps to unravel biological processes that depend on suites of coregulated alternative exons, as we uncovered a role of epithelial cell-enriched splicing factors in the AKT signaling pathway and of mesenchymal cell-enriched splicing factors in driving splicing events impacting on autophagy. Freely available on the web, Exon Ontology is the first computational resource that allows getting a quick insight into the protein features encoded by alternative exons and investigating whether coregulated exons contain the same biological information. © 2017 Tranchevent et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  13. Reduction of a 4q35-encoded nuclear envelope protein in muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, Cecilia; Guan, Tinglu; Figlewicz, Denise A.; Hays, Arthur P.; Worman, Howard J.; Gerace, Larry; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy and peripheral neuropathy have been linked to mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unresolved. Nuclear envelope protein p19A is a protein of unknown function encoded by a gene at chromosome 4q35. p19A levels are significantly reduced in human muscle as cells differentiate from myoblasts to myotubes; however, its levels are not similarly reduced in all differentiation systems tested. Because 4q35 has been linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and some adjacent genes are reportedly misregulated in the disorder, levels of p19A were analyzed in muscle samples from patients with FSHD. Although p19A was increased in most cases, an absolute correlation was not observed. Nonetheless, p19A downregulation in normal muscle differentiation suggests that in the cases where its gene is inappropriately re-activated it could affect muscle differentiation and contribute to disease pathology.

  14. Reduction of a 4q35-encoded nuclear envelope protein in muscle differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, Cecilia [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Guan, Tinglu [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Figlewicz, Denise A. [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hays, Arthur P. [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Gerace, Larry [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Schirmer, Eric C., E-mail: e.schirmer@ed.ac.uk [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-13

    Muscular dystrophy and peripheral neuropathy have been linked to mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unresolved. Nuclear envelope protein p19A is a protein of unknown function encoded by a gene at chromosome 4q35. p19A levels are significantly reduced in human muscle as cells differentiate from myoblasts to myotubes; however, its levels are not similarly reduced in all differentiation systems tested. Because 4q35 has been linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and some adjacent genes are reportedly misregulated in the disorder, levels of p19A were analyzed in muscle samples from patients with FSHD. Although p19A was increased in most cases, an absolute correlation was not observed. Nonetheless, p19A downregulation in normal muscle differentiation suggests that in the cases where its gene is inappropriately re-activated it could affect muscle differentiation and contribute to disease pathology.

  15. Versatile protein recognition by the encoded display of multiple chemical elements on a constant macrocyclic scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhou; De Luca, Roberto; Cazzamalli, Samuele; Pretto, Francesca; Bajic, Davor; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2018-03-01

    In nature, specific antibodies can be generated as a result of an adaptive selection and expansion of lymphocytes with suitable protein binding properties. We attempted to mimic antibody-antigen recognition by displaying multiple chemical diversity elements on a defined macrocyclic scaffold. Encoding of the displayed combinations was achieved using distinctive DNA tags, resulting in a library size of 35,393,112. Specific binders could be isolated against a variety of proteins, including carbonic anhydrase IX, horseradish peroxidase, tankyrase 1, human serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, calmodulin, prostate-specific antigen and tumour necrosis factor. Similar to antibodies, the encoded display of multiple chemical elements on a constant scaffold enabled practical applications, such as fluorescence microscopy procedures or the selective in vivo delivery of payloads to tumours. Furthermore, the versatile structure of the scaffold facilitated the generation of protein-specific chemical probes, as illustrated by photo-crosslinking.

  16. Periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhi Xin; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2015-04-01

    The β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are integral membrane proteins that reside in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and perform a diverse range of biological functions. Synthesized in the cytoplasm, OMPs must be transported across the inner membrane and through the periplasmic space before they are assembled in the outer membrane. In Escherichia coli, Skp, SurA and DegP are the most prominent factors identified to guide OMPs across the periplasm and to play the role of quality control. Although extensive genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed many basic functions of these periplasmic proteins, the mechanism of their collaboration in assisting the folding and insertion of OMPs is much less understood. Recently, biophysical approaches have shed light on the identification of the intricate network. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in the characterization of these key factors, with a special emphasis on the multifunctional protein DegP. In addition, we present our proposed model on the periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of OMPs.

  17. Evolutionary plasticity of plasma membrane interaction in DREPP family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Petrášek, Jan; Schwarzerová, Kateřina

    2017-05-01

    The plant-specific DREPP protein family comprises proteins that were shown to regulate the actin and microtubular cytoskeleton in a calcium-dependent manner. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that DREPPs first appeared in ferns and that DREPPs have a rapid and plastic evolutionary history in plants. Arabidopsis DREPP paralogues called AtMDP25/PCaP1 and AtMAP18/PCaP2 are N-myristoylated, which has been reported as a key factor in plasma membrane localization. Here we show that N-myristoylation is neither conserved nor ancestral for the DREPP family. Instead, by using confocal microscopy and a new method for quantitative evaluation of protein membrane localization, we show that DREPPs rely on two mechanisms ensuring their plasma membrane localization. These include N-myristoylation and electrostatic interaction of a polybasic amino acid cluster. We propose that various plasma membrane association mechanisms resulting from the evolutionary plasticity of DREPPs are important for refining plasma membrane interaction of these signalling proteins under various conditions and in various cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowns and unknowns of plasma membrane protein degradation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanliang; Shen, Wenjin; Yang, Chao; Zeng, Lizhang; Gao, Caiji

    2018-07-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) not only creates a physical barrier to enclose the intracellular compartments but also mediates the direct communication between plants and the ever-changing environment. A tight control of PM protein homeostasis by selective degradation is thus crucial for proper plant development and plant-environment interactions. Accumulated evidences have shown that a number of plant PM proteins undergo clathrin-dependent or membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes to vacuole for degradation in a cargo-ubiquitination dependent or independent manner. Besides, several trans-acting determinants involved in the regulation of endocytosis, recycling and multivesicular body-mediated vacuolar sorting have been identified in plants. More interestingly, recent findings have uncovered the participation of selective autophagy in PM protein turnover in plants. Although great progresses have been made to identify the PM proteins that undergo dynamic changes in subcellular localizations and to explore the factors that control the membrane protein trafficking, several questions remain to be answered regarding the molecular mechanisms of PM protein degradation in plants. In this short review article, we briefly summarize recent progress in our understanding of the internalization, sorting and degradation of plant PM proteins. More specifically, we focus on discussing the elusive aspects underlying the pathways of PM protein degradation in plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting membrane protein types by fusing composite protein sequence features into pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Maqsood; Khan, Asifullah

    2011-02-21

    Membrane proteins are vital type of proteins that serve as channels, receptors, and energy transducers in a cell. Prediction of membrane protein types is an important research area in bioinformatics. Knowledge of membrane protein types provides some valuable information for predicting novel example of the membrane protein types. However, classification of membrane protein types can be both time consuming and susceptible to errors due to the inherent similarity of membrane protein types. In this paper, neural networks based membrane protein type prediction system is proposed. Composite protein sequence representation (CPSR) is used to extract the features of a protein sequence, which includes seven feature sets; amino acid composition, sequence length, 2 gram exchange group frequency, hydrophobic group, electronic group, sum of hydrophobicity, and R-group. Principal component analysis is then employed to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. The probabilistic neural network (PNN), generalized regression neural network, and support vector machine (SVM) are used as classifiers. A high success rate of 86.01% is obtained using SVM for the jackknife test. In case of independent dataset test, PNN yields the highest accuracy of 95.73%. These classifiers exhibit improved performance using other performance measures such as sensitivity, specificity, Mathew's correlation coefficient, and F-measure. The experimental results show that the prediction performance of the proposed scheme for classifying membrane protein types is the best reported, so far. This performance improvement may largely be credited to the learning capabilities of neural networks and the composite feature extraction strategy, which exploits seven different properties of protein sequences. The proposed Mem-Predictor can be accessed at http://111.68.99.218/Mem-Predictor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R Ducken

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to

  1. Role for chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins in inclusion membrane structure and biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Mital

    Full Text Available The chlamydial inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted effector proteins. These inclusion membrane proteins (Incs are exposed to the cytosol and share a common structural feature of a long, bi-lobed hydrophobic domain but little or no primary amino acid sequence similarity. Based upon secondary structural predictions, over 50 putative inclusion membrane proteins have been identified in Chlamydia trachomatis. Only a limited number of biological functions have been defined and these are not shared between chlamydial species. Here we have ectopically expressed several C. trachomatis Incs in HeLa cells and find that they induce the formation of morphologically distinct membranous vesicular compartments. Formation of these vesicles requires the bi-lobed hydrophobic domain as a minimum. No markers for various cellular organelles were observed in association with these vesicles. Lipid probes were incorporated by the Inc-induced vesicles although the lipids incorporated were dependent upon the specific Inc expressed. Co-expression of Inc pairs indicated that some colocalized in the same vesicle, others partially overlapped, and others did not associate at all. Overall, it appears that Incs may have an intrinsic ability to induce membrane formation and that individual Incs can induce membranous structures with unique properties.

  2. Proteomic analysis of Herbaspirillum seropedicae reveals ammonium-induced AmtB-dependent membrane sequestration of PII proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huergo, Luciano F; Noindorf, Lilian; Gimenes, Camila; Lemgruber, Renato S P; Cordellini, Daniela F; Falarz, Lucas J; Cruz, Leonardo M; Monteiro, Rose A; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S; Souza, Emanuel M; Steffens, Maria B R

    2010-07-01

    This study was aimed at describing the spectrum and dynamics of proteins associated with the membrane in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae according to the availability of fixed nitrogen. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we identified 79 protein spots representing 45 different proteins in the membrane fraction of H. seropedicae. Quantitative analysis of gel images of membrane extracts indicated two spots with increased levels when cells were grown under nitrogen limitation in comparison with nitrogen sufficiency; these spots were identified as the GlnK protein and as a conserved noncytoplasmic protein of unknown function which was encoded in an operon together with GlnK and AmtB. Comparison of gel images of membrane extracts from cells grown under nitrogen limitation or under the same regime but collected after an ammonium shock revealed two proteins, GlnB and GlnK, with increased levels after the shock. The P(II) proteins were not present in the membrane fraction of an amtB mutant. The results reported here suggest that changes in the cellular localization of P(II) might play a role in the control of nitrogen metabolism in H. seropedicae.

  3. A unifying mechanism accounts for sensing of membrane curvature by BAR domains, amphipathic helices and membrane-anchored proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller; Hatzakis, Nikos; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    itself. We thus anticipate that membrane curvature will promote the redistribution of proteins that are anchored in membranes through any type of hydrophobic moiety, a thesis that broadens tremendously the implications of membrane curvature for protein sorting, trafficking and signaling in cell biology....

  4. Variant Exported Blood-Stage Proteins Encoded by Plasmodium Multigene Families Are Expressed in Liver Stages Where They Are Exported into the Parasitophorous Vacuole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Fougère

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many variant proteins encoded by Plasmodium-specific multigene families are exported into red blood cells (RBC. P. falciparum-specific variant proteins encoded by the var, stevor and rifin multigene families are exported onto the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBC and mediate interactions between iRBC and host cells resulting in tissue sequestration and rosetting. However, the precise function of most other Plasmodium multigene families encoding exported proteins is unknown. To understand the role of RBC-exported proteins of rodent malaria parasites (RMP we analysed the expression and cellular location by fluorescent-tagging of members of the pir, fam-a and fam-b multigene families. Furthermore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the fam-a and fam-b multigene families, which indicate that both families have a history of functional differentiation unique to RMP. We demonstrate for all three families that expression of family members in iRBC is not mutually exclusive. Most tagged proteins were transported into the iRBC cytoplasm but not onto the iRBC plasma membrane, indicating that they are unlikely to play a direct role in iRBC-host cell interactions. Unexpectedly, most family members are also expressed during the liver stage, where they are transported into the parasitophorous vacuole. This suggests that these protein families promote parasite development in both the liver and blood, either by supporting parasite development within hepatocytes and erythrocytes and/or by manipulating the host immune response. Indeed, in the case of Fam-A, which have a steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START domain, we found that several family members can transfer phosphatidylcholine in vitro. These observations indicate that these proteins may transport (host phosphatidylcholine for membrane synthesis. This is the first demonstration of a biological function of any exported variant protein family of rodent malaria parasites.

  5. Proteomic analysis of GPI-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent a subset of post-translationally modified proteins that are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via a C-terminal GPI anchor. GPI-APs are found in a variety of eukaryote species, from pathogenic microorganisms...... to humans. GPI-APs confer important cellular functions as receptors, enzymes and scaffolding molecules. Specific enzymes and detergent extraction methods combined with separation technologies and mass spectrometry permit proteomic analysis of GPI-APs from plasma membrane preparations to reveal cell...

  6. A novel, mouse mammary tumor virus encoded protein with Rev-like properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indik, Stanislav; Guenzburg, Walter H.; Salmons, Brian; Rouault, Francoise

    2005-01-01

    We have identified a novel, multiple spliced, subgenomic mRNA species in MMTV producing cells of different origin containing an open reading frame encoding a 39-kDa Rev-like protein, Rem (regulator of expression of MMTV). An EGFP-Rem fusion protein is shown to be predominantly in the nucleolus. Further leptomycin B inhibits the nuclear export of nonspliced MMTV transcripts, implicating Rem in nuclear export by the Crm1 pathway in MMTV. Rem is thus reminiscent of the Rec protein from the related endogenous human retrovirus, HERV-K

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Ne2 encodes protein(s) and the altered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    friendly method for increasing sustainable global food security. .... This qualitative difference suggests that Ne2 could encode one or two or three of ... things, common wheat must have at least three types of chloroplast-genomes (A, D, and B).

  8. Encoded novel forms of HSP70 or a cytolytic protein increase DNA vaccine potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Tamsin; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Yu, Stanley; Gargett, Tessa; Gowans, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    In humans, DNA vaccines have failed to demonstrate the equivalent levels of immunogenicity that were shown in smaller animals. Previous studies have encoded adjuvants, predominantly cytokines, within these vaccines in an attempt to increase antigen-specific immune responses. However, these strategies have lacked breadth of innate immune activation and have led to disappointing results in clinical trials. Damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have been identified as pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists. DAMPs can bind to a wide range of PRRs on dendritic cells (DCs) and thus our studies have aimed to utilize this characteristic to act as an adjuvant in a DNA vaccine approach. Specifically, HSP70 has been identified as a DAMP, but has been limited by its lack of accessibility to PRRs in and on DCs. Here, we discuss the promising results achieved with the inclusion of membrane-bound or secreted HSP70 into a DNA vaccine encoding HIV gag as the model immunogen.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Genes Encoding PHD-Finger Protein in Tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, S.; Cheng, Z.; Chen, X.

    2016-01-01

    The PHD-finger proteins are conserved in eukaryotic organisms and are involved in a variety of important functions in different biological processes in plants. However, the function of PHD fingers are poorly known in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In current study, we identified 45 putative genes coding Phd finger protein in tomato distributed on 11 chromosomes except for chromosome 8. Some of the genes encode other conserved key domains besides Phd-finger. Phylogenetic analysis of these 45 proteins resulted in seven clusters. Most Phd finger proteins were predicted to PML body location. These PHD-finger genes displayed differential expression either in various organs, at different development stages and under stresses in tomato. Our study provides the first systematic analysis of PHD-finger genes and proteins in tomato. This preliminary study provides a very useful reference information for Phd-finger proteins in tomato. They will be helpful for cloning and functional study of tomato PHD-finger genes. (author)

  10. Branch-specific plasticity of a bifunctional dopamine circuit encodes protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qili; Tabuchi, Masashi; Liu, Sha; Kodama, Lay; Horiuchi, Wakako; Daniels, Jay; Chiu, Lucinda; Baldoni, Daniel; Wu, Mark N

    2017-05-05

    Free-living animals must not only regulate the amount of food they consume but also choose which types of food to ingest. The shifting of food preference driven by nutrient-specific hunger can be essential for survival, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We identified a dopamine circuit that encodes protein-specific hunger in Drosophila The activity of these neurons increased after substantial protein deprivation. Activation of this circuit simultaneously promoted protein intake and restricted sugar consumption, via signaling to distinct downstream neurons. Protein starvation triggered branch-specific plastic changes in these dopaminergic neurons, thus enabling sustained protein consumption. These studies reveal a crucial circuit mechanism by which animals adjust their dietary strategy to maintain protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. The membrane protein LasM Promotes the Culturability of Legionella pneumophila in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laam Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp strongly expresses the lpg1659 gene in water. This gene encodes a hypothetical protein predicted to be a membrane protein using in silico analysis. While no conserved domains were identified in Lpg1659, similar proteins are found in many Legionella species and other aquatic bacteria. RT-qPCR showed that lpg1659 is positively regulated by the alternative sigma factor RpoS, which is essential for Lp to survive in water. These observations suggest an important role of this novel protein in the survival of Lp in water. Deletion of lpg1659 did not affect cell morphology, membrane integrity or tolerance to high temperature. Moreover, lpg1659 was dispensable for growth of Lp in rich medium, and during infection of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and of THP-1 human macrophages. However, deletion of lpg1659 resulted in an early loss of culturability in water, while over-expression of this gene promoted the culturability of Lp. Therefore, these results suggest that lpg1659 is required for Lp to maintain culturability, and possibly long-term survival, in water. Since the loss of culturability observed in the absence of Lpg1659 was complemented by the addition of trace metals into water, this membrane protein is likely a transporter for acquiring essential trace metal for maintaining culturability in water and potentially in other metal-deprived conditions. Given its role in the survival of Lp in water, Lpg1659 was named LasM for Legionella aquatic survival membrane protein.

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of latent membrane protein 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies were evaluated in 23 Moroccan patients for the presence of LMP1 and p53 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: No LMP1 expression was observed whereas 8 of 23 cases (34. 7%) had detectable p53 protein in the nuclei of tumor cells.

  13. Expression analysis of two gene subfamilies encoding the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia reveals the major transport functions of this enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriau, L; Michelet, B; Bogaerts, P; Lambert, L; Michel, A; Oufattole, M; Boutry, M

    1999-07-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase couples ATP hydrolysis to proton transport, thereby establishing the driving force for solute transport across the plasma membrane. In Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, this enzyme is encoded by at least nine pma (plasma membrane H+-ATPase) genes. Four of these are classified into two gene subfamilies, pma1-2-3 and pma4, which are the most highly expressed in plant species. We have isolated genomic clones for pma2 and pma4. Mapping of their transcript 5' end revealed the presence of a long leader that contained small open reading frames, regulatory features typical of other pma genes. The gusA reporter gene was then used to determine the expression of pma2, pma3 and pma4 in N. tabacum. These data, together with those obtained previously for pma1, led to the following conclusions. (i) The four pma-gusA genes were all expressed in root, stem, leaf and flower organs, but each in a cell-type specific manner. Expression in these organs was confirmed at the protein level, using subfamily-specific antibodies. (ii) pma4-gusA was expressed in many cell types and notably in root hair and epidermis, in companion cells, and in guard cells, indicating that in N. plumbaginifolia the same H+-ATPase isoform might be involved in mineral nutrition, phloem loading and control of stomata aperture. (iii) The second gene subfamily is composed, in N. plumbaginifolia, of a single gene (pma4) with a wide expression pattern and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, of three genes (aha1, aha2, aha3), at least two of them having a more restrictive expression pattern. (iv) Some cell types expressed pma2 and pma4 at the same time, which encode H+-ATPases with different enzymatic properties.

  14. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching Analysis of the Diffusional Mobility of Plasma Membrane Proteins: HER3 Mobility in Breast Cancer Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mitul; Koland, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method is a straightforward means of assessing the diffusional mobility of membrane-associated proteins that is readily performed with current confocal microscopy instrumentation. We describe here the specific application of the FRAP method in characterizing the lateral diffusion of genetically encoded green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged plasma membrane receptor proteins. The method is exemplified in an examination of whether the previously observed segregation of the mammalian HER3 receptor protein in discrete plasma membrane microdomains results from its physical interaction with cellular entities that restrict its mobility. Our FRAP measurements of the diffusional mobility of GFP-tagged HER3 reporters expressed in MCF7 cultured breast cancer cells showed that despite the observed segregation of HER3 receptors within plasma membrane microdomains their diffusion on the macroscopic scale is not spatially restricted. Thus, in FRAP analyses of various HER3 reporters a near-complete recovery of fluorescence after photobleaching was observed, indicating that HER3 receptors are not immobilized by long-lived physical interactions with intracellular species. An examination of HER3 proteins with varying intracellular domain sequence truncations also indicated that a proposed formation of oligomeric HER3 networks, mediated by physical interactions involving specific HER3 intracellular domain sequences, either does not occur or does not significantly reduce HER3 mobility on the macroscopic scale.

  15. Altered Escherichia coli membrane protein assembly machinery allows proper membrane assembly of eukaryotic protein vitamin K epoxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatahet, Feras; Blazyk, Jessica L; Martineau, Eugenie; Mandela, Eric; Zhao, Yongxin; Campbell, Robert E; Beckwith, Jonathan; Boyd, Dana

    2015-12-08

    Functional overexpression of polytopic membrane proteins, particularly when in a foreign host, is often a challenging task. Factors that negatively affect such processes are poorly understood. Using the mammalian membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORc1) as a reporter, we describe a genetic selection approach allowing the isolation of Escherichia coli mutants capable of functionally expressing this blood-coagulation enzyme. The isolated mutants map to components of membrane protein assembly and quality control proteins YidC and HslV. We show that changes in the VKORc1 sequence and in the YidC hydrophilic groove along with the inactivation of HslV promote VKORc1 activity and dramatically increase its expression level. We hypothesize that such changes correct for mismatches in the membrane topogenic signals between E. coli and eukaryotic cells guiding proper membrane integration. Furthermore, the obtained mutants allow the study of VKORc1 reaction mechanisms, inhibition by warfarin, and the high-throughput screening for potential anticoagulants.

  16. Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis, Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seong-In; Weisberg, Andrea; Moss, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino-acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that I2 colocalized with a major membrane protein of immature and mature virions. We generated a cell line that constitutively expressed I2 and allowed construction of the VACV I2L deletion mutant vΔI2. As anticipated, vΔI2 was unable to replicate in cells that did not express I2. Unexpectedly, morphogenesis was interrupted at a stage after immature virion formation, resulting in the accumulation of dense spherical particles instead of brick-shaped mature virions with well-defined core structures. The abnormal particles retained the D13 scaffold protein of immature virions, were severely deficient in the transmembrane proteins that comprise the entry fusion complex (EFC), and had increased amounts of unprocessed membrane and core proteins. Total lysates of cells infected with vΔI2 also had diminished EFC proteins due to instability attributed to their hydrophobicity and failure to be inserted into viral membranes. A similar instability of EFC proteins had previously been found with unrelated mutants blocked earlier in morphogenesis that also accumulated viral membranes retaining the D13 scaffold. We concluded that I2 is required for virion morphogenesis, release of the D13 scaffold, and the association of EFC proteins with viral membranes. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses comprise a large family that infect vertebrates and invertebrates, cause disease in both in humans and in wild and domesticated animals, and are being engineered as vectors for vaccines and cancer therapy. In addition, investigations of poxviruses have provided insights into

  17. Self-assembling layers created by membrane proteins on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D S; Thomas, M B; Phillips, S; Cisneros, D A; Le Brun, A P; Holt, S A; Lakey, J H

    2007-06-01

    Membrane systems are based on several types of organization. First, amphiphilic lipids are able to create monolayer and bilayer structures which may be flat, vesicular or micellar. Into these structures membrane proteins can be inserted which use the membrane to provide signals for lateral and orientational organization. Furthermore, the proteins are the product of highly specific self-assembly otherwise known as folding, which mostly places individual atoms at precise places in three dimensions. These structures all have dimensions in the nanoscale, except for the size of membrane planes which may extend for millimetres in large liposomes or centimetres on planar surfaces such as monolayers at the air/water interface. Membrane systems can be assembled on to surfaces to create supported bilayers and these have uses in biosensors and in electrical measurements using modified ion channels. The supported systems also allow for measurements using spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy. By combining the roles of lipids and proteins, highly ordered and specific structures can be self-assembled in aqueous solution at the nanoscale.

  18. MODIFICATION OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEINS WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zemlianskykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the effect of polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 on the Ca2+-ATPase activity and changes in CD44 surface marker expression in human erythrocyte membranes. Determination of the Ca2+-ATPase activity was carried out in sealed erythrocyte ghosts by the level of accumulation of inorganic phosphorus. Changes in the expression of CD44 and amount of CD44+-erythrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity and a reduction in the level of CD44 expression and also the decrease in the amount CD44+-cells were found, reflecting a fairly complex restructuring in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex of erythrocytes under the influence of PEG-1500. Effect of PEG-1500 on the surface CD44 marker could be mediated by modification of proteins of membrane-cytoskeleton complex, as indicated by accelerated loss of CD44 in erythrocyte membranes after application of protein cross-linking reagent diamide. Reduced activity of Ca2+-ATPase activity may contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ level and thus leads to a modification of interactions of integral proteins with cytoskeletal components that eventually could result in membrane vesiculation and decreasing in expression of the CD44 marker, which is dynamically linked to the cytoskeleton.

  19. Modulation of Membrane Protein Lateral Mobility by Polyphosphates and Polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Melvin; Koppel, Dennis E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of ``fluorescence redistribution after fusion.'' Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  20. Polypeptide structure and encoding location of the adenovirus serotype 2 late, nonstructural 33K protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterom-Dragon, E.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiochemical microsequence analysis of selected tryptic peptides of the adenovirus type 2 33K nonstructural protein has revealed the precise region of the genomic nucleotide sequence that encodes this protein. The initiation codon for the 33K protein lies 606 nucleotides to the right of the EcoRI restriction site at 70.7 map units and 281 nucleotides to the left of the postulated carboxyterminal codon of the adenovirus 100K protein. The coding regions for these two proteins thus overlap; however, the 33K protein is derived from the +1 frame with respect to the postulated 100K reading frame. Our results contradict an earlier published report suggesting that these two proteins share extensive amino acid sequence homology. The published nucleotide sequence of the Ad2 EcoRI-F fragment (70.7 to 75.9 map units) cannot accomodate in a single reading frame the peptide sequences of the 33K protein that we have determined. Sequence analysis of DNA fragments derived from virus has confirmed the published nucleotide sequence in all critical regions with respect to the coding region for the 33K protein. Consequently, our data are only consistent with the existence of an mRNA splice within the coding for 33K. Consensus donor and acceptor splice sequences have been located that would predict the removal of 202 nucleotides from the transcripts for the 33K protein. Removal of these nucleotides would explain the structure of a peptide that cannot otherwise be directly encoded by the EcoRI-F fragment. Identification of the precise splice points by peptide sequencing has permitted a prediction of the complete amino acid sequence for the 33K protein

  1. Hierarchical, domain type-specific acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in Tanzanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Turner, Louise; Kurtis, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant antigen expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes. PfEMP1 attaches to the vascular lining and allows infected erythrocytes to avoid filtration through the spleen. Each parasite genome encodes about 60 diffe...... and play a major role in limiting parasite multiplication in the blood.......Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant antigen expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes. PfEMP1 attaches to the vascular lining and allows infected erythrocytes to avoid filtration through the spleen. Each parasite genome encodes about 60...... different PfEMP1 variants, each PfEMP1 comprises several domains in its extracellular region, and the PfEMP1 repertoire in different parasites contains domain types that are serologically cross-reactive. In this longitudinal study, we followed 672 children living in an area of high malaria transmission...

  2. The Drosophila melanogaster DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for functionally non-redundant protein isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eike; Wecklein, Heike; Stark, Felix; Jauch, Mandy; Raabe, Thomas

    2006-06-07

    Genes encoding for the two evolutionary highly conserved subunits of a heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme are present in all examined eukaryotic genomes. Depending on the organism, multiple transcription units encoding for a catalytically active CK2alpha subunit and/or a regulatory CK2beta subunit may exist. The phosphotransferase activity of members of the protein kinase CK2alpha family is thought to be independent of second messengers but is modulated by interaction with CK2beta-like proteins. In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, one gene encoding for a CK2alpha subunit and three genes encoding for CK2beta-like proteins are present. The X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for several CK2beta protein isoforms due to alternative splicing of its primary transcript. We addressed the question whether CK2beta-like proteins are redundant in function. Our in vivo experiments show that variations of the very C-terminal tail of CK2beta isoforms encoded by the X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit influence their functional properties. In addition, we find that CK2beta-like proteins encoded by the autosomal D. melanogaster genes CK2betates and CK2beta' cannot fully substitute for a loss of CK2beta isoforms encoded by DmCK2beta.

  3. Protein receptor-independent plasma membrane remodeling by HAMLET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadeem, Aftab; Sanborn, Jeremy; Gettel, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    A central tenet of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells is that extra-cellular ligands activate specific cell surface receptors, which orchestrate downstream responses. This "protein-centric" view is increasingly challenged by evidence for the involvement of specialized membrane domains...... in signal transduction. Here, we propose that membrane perturbation may serve as an alternative mechanism to activate a conserved cell-death program in cancer cells. This view emerges from the extraordinary manner in which HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) kills a wide range...... of tumor cells in vitro and demonstrates therapeutic efficacy and selectivity in cancer models and clinical studies. We identify a "receptor independent" transformation of vesicular motifs in model membranes, which is paralleled by gross remodeling of tumor cell membranes. Furthermore, we find that HAMLET...

  4. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick M; Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Livingstone, Morag; Wright, Frank; McLean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Smith, David G E; Longbottom, David

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps). While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D). Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae. This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  5. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick M Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps. While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D.Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae.This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  6. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Valerie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT. Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD. We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the cells and that it did not affect wild-type HIV-1 replication. However, as measured in both a single-round assay as well as in spreading infections, replication competence of mutant pNL-Tr712, lacking the Env-CT, was not restored in this H9 T-cell population. This means that the Env-CT per se cannot transcomplement the replication block of HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env proteins and suggests that the Env-CT likely exerts its function only in the context of the complete Env protein.

  7. [Better performance of Western blotting: quick vs slow protein transfer, blotting membranes and the visualization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Quan; Pu, Ying-Hui; Ma, Shi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    To study how the choices of the quick vs slow protein transfer, the blotting membranes and the visualization methods influence the performance of Western blotting. The cellular proteins were abstracted from human breast cell line MDA-MB-231 for analysis with Western blotting using quick (2 h) and slow (overnight) protein transfer, different blotting membranes (nitrocellulose, PVDF and nylon membranes) and different visualization methods (ECL and DAB). In Western blotting with slow and quick protein transfer, the prestained marker presented more distinct bands on nitrocellulose membrane than on the nylon and PVDF membranes, and the latter also showed clear bands on the back of the membrane to very likely cause confusion, which did not occur with nitrocellulose membrane. PVDF membrane allowed slightly clearer visualization of the proteins with DAB method as compared with nitrocellulose and nylon membranes, and on the latter two membranes, quick protein transfer was likely to result in somehow irregular bands in comparison with slow protein transfer. With slow protein transfer and chemiluminescence for visualization, all the 3 membranes showed clear background, while with quick protein transfer, nylon membrane gave rise to obvious background noise but the other two membranes did not. Different membranes should be selected for immunoblotting according to the actual needs of the experiment. Slow transfer of the proteins onto the membranes often has better effect than quick transfer, and enhanced chemiluminescence is superior to DAB for protein visualization and allows highly specific and sensitive analysis of the protein expressions.

  8. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Friis, Jenny Blechingberg; Fernandes, Ana Miguel

    2015-01-01

    at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. Conclusions The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes...... involved in pathways at the RNA regulatory level with potential to mediate normal and disease-associated functions of the FUS and EWS proteins.......Background FUS (TLS) and EWS (EWSR1) belong to the FET-protein family of RNA and DNA binding proteins. FUS and EWS are structurally and functionally related and participate in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. FUS and EWS are identified in translocation generated cancer fusion proteins...

  9. Structural investigation of membrane proteins by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicka, Katarzyna Beata

    2009-01-01

    Biological membranes are vital components of all living systems, forming the boundaries of cells and their organelles. They consist of a lipid bilayer and embedded proteins, which are nanomachines that fulfill key functions such as energy conversion, solute transport, secretion, and signal

  10. Toponomics method for the automated quantification of membrane protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanova, Olga; Borbe, Stefan; Mühlfeld, Stefanie; Becker, Martin; Kubitz, Ralf; Häussinger, Dieter; Berlage, Thomas

    2011-09-19

    Intra-cellular and inter-cellular protein translocation can be observed by microscopic imaging of tissue sections prepared immunohistochemically. A manual densitometric analysis is time-consuming, subjective and error-prone. An automated quantification is faster, more reproducible, and should yield results comparable to manual evaluation. The automated method presented here was developed on rat liver tissue sections to study the translocation of bile salt transport proteins in hepatocytes. For validation, the cholestatic liver state was compared to the normal biological state. An automated quantification method was developed to analyze the translocation of membrane proteins and evaluated in comparison to an established manual method. Firstly, regions of interest (membrane fragments) are identified in confocal microscopy images. Further, densitometric intensity profiles are extracted orthogonally to membrane fragments, following the direction from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Finally, several different quantitative descriptors were derived from the densitometric profiles and were compared regarding their statistical significance with respect to the transport protein distribution. Stable performance, robustness and reproducibility were tested using several independent experimental datasets. A fully automated workflow for the information extraction and statistical evaluation has been developed and produces robust results. New descriptors for the intensity distribution profiles were found to be more discriminative, i.e. more significant, than those used in previous research publications for the translocation quantification. The slow manual calculation can be substituted by the fast and unbiased automated method.

  11. Salinity induced changes in cell membrane stability, protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS m-1 to determine the effect of salt on vegetative growth, relative water content, cell membrane stability, protein and RNA contents in sand culture experiment. Fresh and dry weights of plants, shoots and roots decreased ...

  12. Surfactant Protein-D-Encoding Gene Variant Polymorphisms Are Linked to Respiratory Outcome in Premature Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Dahl, Marianne; Tan, Qihua

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Associations between the genetic variation within or downstream of the surfactant protein-D-encoding gene (SFTPD), which encodes the collectin surfactant protein-D (SP-D) and may lead to respiratory distress syndrome or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, recently were reported. Our aim...... were used to associate genetic variation to SP-D, respiratory distress (RD), oxygen requirement, and respiratory support. RESULTS: The 5'-upstream SFTPD SNP rs1923534 and the 3 structural SNPs rs721917, rs2243639, and rs3088308 were associated with the SP-D level. The same SNPs were associated with RD......, a requirement for supplemental oxygen, and a requirement for respiratory support. Haplotype analyses identified 3 haplotypes that included the minor alleles of rs1923534, rs721917, and rs3088308 that exhibited highly significant associations with decreased SP-D levels and decreased ORs for RD, oxygen...

  13. Cellulolytic (cel) genes of Clostridium thermocellum F7 and the proteins encoded by them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piruzyan, E.S.; Mogutov, M.A.; Velikodvorskaya, G.A.; Pushkarskaya, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with genes cell, ce12, and ce13 encoding the endoglucanase of the cellulolytic complex of the anaerobic thermophilic Clostridium thermocellum F7 bacteria, these genes having been closed by us earlier. The authors present the characteristics of proteins synthesized by the cel genes in the minicell system of the strain Escherichia coli K-12 X925. The molecular weights of the proteins encoded by genes cell, ce12, and ce13 are 30,000, 45,000, and 50,000 dalton, respectively. The study of the homology of the cloned section of the C. thermocellum DNA containing the endoglucanase genes, using Southern's blot-hybridization method, did not reveal their physical linkage in the genome. The authors detected a plasmid with a size of about 30 kb in the cells of the C. thermocellum F7 strain investigated

  14. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Henri R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs, whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  15. Recombinant Expression Screening of P. aeruginosa Bacterial Inner Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Constance J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmembrane proteins (TM proteins make up 25% of all proteins and play key roles in many diseases and normal physiological processes. However, much less is known about their structures and molecular mechanisms than for soluble proteins. Problems in expression, solubilization, purification, and crystallization cause bottlenecks in the characterization of TM proteins. This project addressed the need for improved methods for obtaining sufficient amounts of TM proteins for determining their structures and molecular mechanisms. Results Plasmid clones were obtained that encode eighty-seven transmembrane proteins with varying physical characteristics, for example, the number of predicted transmembrane helices, molecular weight, and grand average hydrophobicity (GRAVY. All the target proteins were from P. aeruginosa, a gram negative bacterial opportunistic pathogen that causes serious lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis. The relative expression levels of the transmembrane proteins were measured under several culture growth conditions. The use of E. coli strains, a T7 promoter, and a 6-histidine C-terminal affinity tag resulted in the expression of 61 out of 87 test proteins (70%. In this study, proteins with a higher grand average hydrophobicity and more transmembrane helices were expressed less well than less hydrophobic proteins with fewer transmembrane helices. Conclusions In this study, factors related to overall hydrophobicity and the number of predicted transmembrane helices correlated with the relative expression levels of the target proteins. Identifying physical characteristics that correlate with protein expression might aid in selecting the "low hanging fruit", or proteins that can be expressed to sufficient levels using an E. coli expression system. The use of other expression strategies or host species might be needed for sufficient levels of expression of transmembrane proteins with other physical

  16. Plant glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins at the plasma membrane-cell wall nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, Trevor H; Bacic, Antony; Johnson, Kim L

    2018-04-18

    Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans. The importance of the GPI-anchored proteome to plant development is underscored by the fact that GPI biosynthetic null mutants exhibit embryo lethality. Mutations in genes encoding specific GPI-anchored proteins (GAPs) further supports their contribution to diverse biological processes occurring at the interface of the plasma membrane and cell wall, including signaling, cell wall metabolism, cell wall polymer cross-linking, and plasmodesmatal transport. Here, we review the literature concerning plant GPI-anchored proteins in the context of their potential to act as molecular hubs that mediate interactions between the plasma membrane and the cell wall and their potential to transduce the signal into the protoplast and thereby activate signal transduction pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) from Jurkat cells contain STIM1 protein is PAM involved in the capacitative calcium entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Katarzyna; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Onopiuk, Marta; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Wierzbicka, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Pinton, Paolo; Duszyński, Jerzy; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2009-12-01

    A proper cooperation between the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria seems to be essential for numerous cellular processes involved in Ca(2+) signalling and maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis. A presence of microsomal and mitochondrial proteins together with those characteristic for the plasma membrane in the fraction of the plasma membrane associated membranes (PAM) indicates a formation of stabile interactions between these three structures. We isolated the plasma membrane associated membranes from Jurkat cells and found its significant enrichment in the plasma membrane markers including plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and CD3 as well as sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In addition, two proteins involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, Orai1 located in the plasma membrane and an endoplasmic reticulum protein STIM1 were found in this fraction. Furthermore, we observed a rearrangement of STIM1-containing protein complexes isolated from Jurkat cells undergoing stimulation by thapsigargin. We suggest that the inter-membrane compartment composed of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, and isolated as a stabile plasma membrane associated membranes fraction, might be involved in the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and their formation and rebuilding have an important regulatory role in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  18. pMD-Membrane: A Method for Ligand Binding Site Identification in Membrane-Bound Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Prakash

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probe-based or mixed solvent molecular dynamics simulation is a useful approach for the identification and characterization of druggable sites in drug targets. However, thus far the method has been applied only to soluble proteins. A major reason for this is the potential effect of the probe molecules on membrane structure. We have developed a technique to overcome this limitation that entails modification of force field parameters to reduce a few pairwise non-bonded interactions between selected atoms of the probe molecules and bilayer lipids. We used the resulting technique, termed pMD-membrane, to identify allosteric ligand binding sites on the G12D and G13D oncogenic mutants of the K-Ras protein bound to a negatively charged lipid bilayer. In addition, we show that differences in probe occupancy can be used to quantify changes in the accessibility of druggable sites due to conformational changes induced by membrane binding or mutation.

  19. A family of related proteins is encoded by the major Drosophila heat shock gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    At least four proteins of 70,000 to 75,000 molecular weight (70-75K) were synthesized from mRNA which hybridized with a cloned heat shock gene previously shown to be localized to the 87A and 87C heat shock puff sites. These in vitro-synthesized proteins were indistinguishable from in vivo-synthesized heat shock-induced proteins when analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A comparison of the pattern of this group of proteins synthesized in vivo during a 5-min pulse or during continuous labeling indicates that the 72-75K proteins are probably not kinetic precursors to the major 70K heat shock protein. Partial digestion products generated with V8 protease indicated that the 70-75K heat shock proteins are closely related, but that there are clear differences between them. The partial digestion patterns obtained from heat shock proteins from the Kc cell line and from the Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster are very similar. Genetic analysis of the patterns of 70-75K heat shock protein synthesis indicated that the genes encoding at least two of the three 72-75K heat shock proteins are located outside of the major 87A and 87C puff sites

  20. The mitochondrial gene encoding ribosomal protein S12 has been translocated to the nuclear genome in Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, L; Brennicke, A; Schuster, W

    1992-01-01

    The Oenothera mitochondrial genome contains only a gene fragment for ribosomal protein S12 (rps12), while other plants encode a functional gene in the mitochondrion. The complete Oenothera rps12 gene is located in the nucleus. The transit sequence necessary to target this protein to the mitochondrion is encoded by a 5'-extension of the open reading frame. Comparison of the amino acid sequence encoded by the nuclear gene with the polypeptides encoded by edited mitochondrial cDNA and genomic sequences of other plants suggests that gene transfer between mitochondrion and nucleus started from edited mitochondrial RNA molecules. Mechanisms and requirements of gene transfer and activation are discussed. Images PMID:1454526

  1. Cloning of human genes encoding novel G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, A.; Docherty, J.M.; Heiber, M. [Univ. of Toronto, (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of several novel human genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors. Each of the receptors contained the familiar seven transmembrane topography and most closely resembled peptide binding receptors. Gene GPR1 encoded a receptor protein that is intronless in the coding region and that shared identity (43% in the transmembrane regions) with the opioid receptors. Northern blot analysis revealed that GPR1 transcripts were expressed in the human hippocampus, and the gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.6. Gene GPR2 encoded a protein that most closely resembled an interleukin-8 receptor (51% in the transmembrane regions), and this gene, not expressed in the six brain regions examined, was localized to chromosome 17q2.1-q21.3. A third gene, GPR3, showed identity (56% in the transmembrane regions) with a previously characterized cDNA clone from rat and was localized to chromosome 1p35-p36.1. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Stochastic lattice model of synaptic membrane protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2017-05-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in synaptic membrane domains along with scaffolds and other kinds of proteins, are crucial for signal transmission across chemical synapses. In common with other membrane protein domains, synaptic domains are characterized by low protein copy numbers and protein crowding, with rapid stochastic turnover of individual molecules. We study here in detail a stochastic lattice model of the receptor-scaffold reaction-diffusion dynamics at synaptic domains that was found previously to capture, at the mean-field level, the self-assembly, stability, and characteristic size of synaptic domains observed in experiments. We show that our stochastic lattice model yields quantitative agreement with mean-field models of nonlinear diffusion in crowded membranes. Through a combination of analytic and numerical solutions of the master equation governing the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains, together with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we find substantial discrepancies between mean-field and stochastic models for the reaction dynamics at synaptic domains. Based on the reaction and diffusion properties of synaptic receptors and scaffolds suggested by previous experiments and mean-field calculations, we show that the stochastic reaction-diffusion dynamics of synaptic receptors and scaffolds provide a simple physical mechanism for collective fluctuations in synaptic domains, the molecular turnover observed at synaptic domains, key features of the observed single-molecule trajectories, and spatial heterogeneity in the effective rates at which receptors and scaffolds are recycled at the cell membrane. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanisms and principles linking the collective properties of membrane protein domains to the stochastic dynamics that rule their molecular components.

  4. Rupturing Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles to Form Micron-sized Supported Cell Plasma Membranes with Native Transmembrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chieh; Tanady, Kevin; Huang, Ling-Ting; Chao, Ling

    2017-11-09

    Being able to directly obtain micron-sized cell blebs, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), with native membrane proteins and deposit them on a planar support to form supported plasma membranes could allow the membrane proteins to be studied by various surface analytical tools in native-like bilayer environments. However, GPMVs do not easily rupture on conventional supports because of their high protein and cholesterol contents. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of using compression generated by the air-water interface to efficiently rupture GPMVs to form micron-sized supported membranes with native plasma membrane proteins. We demonstrated that not only lipid but also a native transmembrane protein in HeLa cells, Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), is mobile in the supported membrane platform. This convenient method for generating micron-sized supported membrane patches with mobile native transmembrane proteins could not only facilitate the study of membrane proteins by surface analytical tools, but could also enable us to use native membrane proteins for bio-sensing applications.

  5. Membrane and inclusion body targeting of lyssavirus matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollin, Reiko; Granzow, Harald; Köllner, Bernd; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Finke, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Lyssavirus matrix proteins (M) support virus budding and have accessory functions that may contribute to host cell manipulation and adaptation to specific hosts. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) and European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) M proteins differ in targeting and accumulation at cellular membranes. In contrast to RABV M, EBLV-1 M expressed from authentic EBLV-1 or chimeric RABV accumulated at the Golgi apparatus. Chimeric M proteins revealed that Golgi association depends on the integrity of the entire EBLV-1 M protein. Since RABV and EBLV-1 M differ in the use of cellular membranes for particle formation, differential membrane targeting and transport of M might determine the site of virus production. Moreover, both RABV and EBLV-1 M were for the first time detected within the nucleus and in Negri body-like inclusions bodies. Whereas nuclear M may imply hitherto unknown functions of lyssavirus M in host cell manipulation, the presence of M in inclusion bodies may correlate with regulatory functions of M in virus RNA synthesis. The data strongly support a model in which targeting of lyssavirus M proteins to distinctintracellular sites is a key determinant of diverse features in lyssavirus replication, host adaptation and pathogenesis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A macrophage inflammatory protein homolog encoded by guinea pig cytomegalovirus signals via CC chemokine receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, Mark; Miao Zhenhua; Wang Yu; Haggerty, Shannon; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of cellular immune effector proteins, including chemokines (CKs) and CK receptor-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Sequence of the guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) genome identified an open reading frame (ORF) which predicted a 101 amino acid (aa) protein with homology to the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) subfamily of CC (β) CKs, designated GPCMV-MIP. To assess functionality of this CK, recombinant GPCMV-MIP was expressed in HEK293 cells and assayed for its ability to bind to and functionally interact with a variety of GPCRs. Specific signaling was observed with the hCCR1 receptor, which could be blocked with hMIP -1α in competition experiments. Migration assays revealed that GPCMV-MIP was able to induce chemotaxis in hCCR1-L1.2 cells. Antisera raised against a GST-MIP fusion protein immunoprecipitated species of ∼12 and 10 kDa from GPCMV-inoculated tissue culture lysates, and convalescent antiserum from GPCMV-infected animals was immunoreactive with GST-MIP by ELISA assay. These results represent the first substantive in vitro characterization of a functional CC CK encoded by a cytomegalovirus

  7. Probing protein-lipid interactions by FRET between membrane fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusova, Valeriya M.; Gorbenko, Galyna P.; Deligeorgiev, Todor; Gadjev, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful fluorescence technique that has found numerous applications in medicine and biology. One area where FRET proved to be especially informative involves the intermolecular interactions in biological membranes. The present study was focused on developing and verifying a Monte-Carlo approach to analyzing the results of FRET between the membrane-bound fluorophores. This approach was employed to quantify FRET from benzanthrone dye ABM to squaraine dye SQ-1 in the model protein-lipid system containing a polycationic globular protein lysozyme and negatively charged lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. It was found that acceptor redistribution between the lipid bilayer and protein binding sites resulted in the decrease of FRET efficiency. Quantification of this effect in terms of the proposed methodology yielded both structural and binding parameters of lysozyme-lipid complexes.

  8. Protein-detergent interactions in single crystals of membrane proteins studied by neutron crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, P.A.; Pebay-Peyroula, E.

    1994-01-01

    The detergent micelles surrounding membrane protein molecules in single crystals can be investigated using neutron crystallography combined with H 2 O/D 2 O contrast variation. If the protein structure is known then the contrast variation method allows phases to be determined at a contrast where the detergent dominates the scattering. The application of various constraints allows the resulting scattering length density map to be realistically modeled. The method has been applied to two different forms of the membrane protein porin. In one case both hydrogenated and partially deuterated protein were used, allowing the head group and tail to be distinguished

  9. Protein-detergent interactions in single crystals of membrane proteins studied by neutron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmins, P.A. [ILL, Grenoble (France); Pebay-Peyroula, E. [IBS-UJF Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    The detergent micelles surrounding membrane protein molecules in single crystals can be investigated using neutron crystallography combined with H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O contrast variation. If the protein structure is known then the contrast variation method allows phases to be determined at a contrast where the detergent dominates the scattering. The application of various constraints allows the resulting scattering length density map to be realistically modeled. The method has been applied to two different forms of the membrane protein porin. In one case both hydrogenated and partially deuterated protein were used, allowing the head group and tail to be distinguished.

  10. [Adsorption characteristics of proteins on membrane surface and effect of protein solution environment on permeation behavior of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Qun; Xu, Li; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Li, Bo; Pan, Yong-Lan; Yao, Wei-Wei; Fu, Ting-Ming; Guo, Li-Wei

    2017-10-01

    In order to explore the adsorption characteristics of proteins on the membrane surface and the effect of protein solution environment on the permeation behavior of berberine, berberine and proteins were used as the research object to prepare simulated solution. Low field NMR, static adsorption experiment and membrane separation experiment were used to study the interaction between the proteins and ceramic membrane or between the proteins and berberine. The static adsorption capacity of proteins, membrane relative flux, rejection rate of proteins, transmittance rate of berberine and the adsorption rate of proteins and berberine were used as the evaluation index. Meanwhile, the membrane resistance distribution, the particle size distribution and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) were determined to investigate the adsorption characteristics of proteins on ceramic membrane and the effect on membrane separation process of berberine. The results showed that the ceramic membrane could adsorb the proteins and the adsorption model was consistent with Langmuir adsorption model. In simulating the membrane separation process, proteins were the main factor to cause membrane fouling. However, when the concentration of proteins was 1 g•L⁻¹, the proteins had no significant effect on membrane separation process of berberine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Coxsackievirus protein 2B modifies endoplasmic reticulum membrane and plasma membrane permeability and facilitates virus release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Hoenderop, J G; Smeets, R L; Willems, P H; Dijkman, H B; Galama, J M; Melchers, W J

    1997-01-01

    Digital-imaging microscopy was performed to study the effect of Coxsackie B3 virus infection on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration and the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During the course of infection a gradual increase in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration was observed, due to the influx of extracellular Ca2+. The Ca2+ content of the ER decreased in time with kinetics inversely proportional to those of viral protein synthesis. Individual expression of protein 2B was sufficient to induce the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and to release Ca2+ from ER stores. Analysis of mutant 2B proteins showed that both a cationic amphipathic alpha-helix and a second hydrophobic domain in 2B were required for these activities. Consistent with a presumed ability of protein 2B to increase membrane permeability, viruses carrying a mutant 2B protein exhibited a defect in virus release. We propose that 2B gradually enhances membrane permeability, thereby disrupting the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and ultimately causing the membrane lesions that allow release of virus progeny. PMID:9218794

  12. Ionic protein-lipid interaction at the plasma membrane: what can the charge do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lunyi; Shi, Xiaoshan; Guo, Xingdong; Li, Hua; Xu, Chenqi

    2014-03-01

    Phospholipids are the major components of cell membranes, but they have functional roles beyond forming lipid bilayers. In particular, acidic phospholipids form microdomains in the plasma membrane and can ionically interact with proteins via polybasic sequences, which can have functional consequences for the protein. The list of proteins regulated by ionic protein-lipid interaction has been quickly expanding, and now includes membrane proteins, cytoplasmic soluble proteins, and viral proteins. Here we review how acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane regulate protein structure and function via ionic interactions, and how Ca(2+) regulates ionic protein-lipid interactions via direct and indirect mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tandem malonate-based glucosides (TMGs) for membrane protein structural studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Hazrat; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Du, Yang

    2017-01-01

    class of glucoside amphiphiles, designated tandem malonate-based glucosides (TMGs). A few TMG agents proved effective at both stabilizing a range of membrane proteins and extracting proteins from the membrane environment. These favourable characteristics, along with synthetic convenience, indicate...

  14. Novel Xylene-Linked Maltoside Amphiphiles (XMAs) for Membrane Protein Stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are key functional players in biological systems. These biomacromolecules contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and thus amphipathic molecules are necessary to extract membrane proteins from their native lipid environments and stabilise them in aqueous solutions...

  15. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in experimentally infected humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Magistrado, Pamela; Hermsen, Cornelus C

    2005-01-01

    -encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes where it mediates binding to endothelial receptors. Thus, severe malaria may be caused by parasites expressing PfEMP1 variants that afford parasites optimal sequestration...... in immunologically naive individuals and high effective multiplication rates. METHODS: var gene transcription was analysed using real time PCR and PfEMP1 expression by western blots as well as immune plasma recognition of parasite cultures established from non-immune volunteers shortly after infection with NF54...... compared to parasites expressing other var genes. The differential expression of PfEMP1 was confirmed at the protein level by immunoblot analysis. In addition, serological typing showed that immune sera more often recognized second and third generation parasites than first generation parasites. CONCLUSION...

  16. The morphogenetic MreBCD proteins of Escherichia coli form an essential membrane-bound complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Gerdes, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    MreB proteins of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus form actin-like cables lying beneath the cell surface. The cables are required to guide longitudinal cell wall synthesis and their absence leads to merodiploid spherical and inflated cells prone to cell lysis. In B...... carrying the ftsQAZ genes suppressed the lethality of deletions in the mre operon. Using GFP and cell fractionation methods, we showed that the MreC and MreD proteins were associated with the cell membrane. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, we found that MreC interacted with both MreB and Mre....... subtilis and C. crescentus, the mreB gene is essential. However, in E. coli, mreB was inferred not to be essential. Using a tight, conditional gene depletion system, we systematically investigated whether the E. coli mreBCD-encoded components were essential. We found that cells depleted of mreBCD became...

  17. AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

  18. The Origin and Early Evolution of Membrane Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Schweighofter, Karl; Wilson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of membrane proteins, and in particular ion channels, are considered from the point of view that the transmembrane segments of membrane proteins are structurally quite simple and do not require specific sequences to fold. We argue that the transport of solute species, especially ions, required an early evolution of efficient transport mechanisms, and that the emergence of simple ion channels was protobiologically plausible. We also argue that, despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. These properties can be subtly modulated by local modifications to the sequence rather than global changes in molecular architecture. In order to address the evolution and development of ion channels, we focus on identifying those protein domains that are commonly associated with ion channel proteins and are conserved throughout the three main domains of life (Eukarya, Prokarya, and Archaea). We discuss the potassium-sodium-calcium superfamily of voltage-gated ion channels, mechanosensitive channels, porins, and ABC-transporters and argue that these families of membrane channels have sufficiently universal architectures that they can readily adapt to the diverse functional demands arising during evolution.

  19. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  20. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Cristian; Hernández, Mauricio A; Tandberg, Julia I; Valenzuela, Karla N; Lagos, Leidy X; Haro, Ronie E; Sánchez, Patricio; Ruiz, Pamela A; Sanhueza-Oyarzún, Constanza; Cortés, Marcos A; Villar, María T; Artigues, Antonio; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs) released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  1. RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein containing a tract of 13 consecutive aspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.; Weber, S.; Prakash, L.

    1985-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA, for induced mutagenesis, and for sporulation. The authors have mapped the transcripts and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned RAD6 gene. The RAD6 gene encodes two transcripts of 0.98 and 0.86 kilobases which differ only in their 3' termini. The transcribed region contains an open reading frame of 516 nucleotides. The rad6-1 and rad6-3 mutant alleles, which the authors have cloned and sequenced, introduce amber and ochre nonsense mutations, respectively into the open reading frame, proving that it encodes the RAD6 protein. The RAD6 protein predicted by the nucleotide sequence is 172 amino acids long, has a molecular weight of 19,704, and contains 23.3% acidic and 11.6% basic residues. Its most striking feature is the highly acidic carboxyl terminus: 20 of the 23 terminal amino acids are acidic, including 13 consecutive aspartates. RAD6 protein thus resembles high mobility group proteins HMG-1 and HMG-2, which each contain a carboxyl-proximal tract of acidic amino acids. 48 references, 6 figures

  2. Molecular characterization of a phloem-specific gene encoding the filament protein, phloem protein 1 (PP1), from Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A M; Jacobsen, K R; Bostwick, D E; Dannenhoffer, J M; Skaggs, M I; Thompson, G A

    1997-07-01

    Sieve elements in the phloem of most angiosperms contain proteinaceous filaments and aggregates called P-protein. In the genus Cucurbita, these filaments are composed of two major proteins: PP1, the phloem filament protein, and PP2, the phloem lactin. The gene encoding the phloem filament protein in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) has been isolated and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the reconstructed gene gPP1 revealed a continuous 2430 bp protein coding sequence, with no introns, encoding an 809 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced polypeptide had characteristics of PP1 and contained a 15 amino acid sequence determined by N-terminal peptide sequence analysis of PP1. The sequence of PP1 was highly repetitive with four 200 amino acid sequence domains containing structural motifs in common with cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Expression of the PP1 gene was detected in roots, hypocotyls, cotyledons, stems, and leaves of pumpkin plants. PP1 and its mRNA accumulated in pumpkin hypocotyls during the period of rapid hypocotyl elongation after which mRNA levels declined, while protein levels remained elevated. PP1 was immunolocalized in slime plugs and P-protein bodies in sieve elements of the phloem. Occasionally, PP1 was detected in companion cells. PP1 mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in companion cells at early stages of vascular differentiation. The developmental accumulation and localization of PP1 and its mRNA paralleled the phloem lactin, further suggesting an interaction between these phloem-specific proteins.

  3. Thioredoxin h regulates calcium dependent protein kinases in plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Sazuka, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Mori, Hitoshi; Hisabori, Toru

    2013-07-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a key player in redox homeostasis in various cells, modulating the functions of target proteins by catalyzing a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction. Target proteins of cytosolic Trx-h of higher plants were studied, particularly in the plasma membrane, because plant plasma membranes include various functionally important protein molecules such as transporters and signal receptors. Plasma membrane proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures were screened using a resin Trx-h1 mutant-immobilized, and a total of 48 candidate proteins obtained. These included two calcium-sensing proteins: a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase 2 (AtPLC2) and a calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 (AtCPK21). A redox-dependent change in AtCPK21 kinase activity was demonstrated in vitro. Oxidation of AtCPK21 resulted in a decrease in kinase activity to 19% of that of untreated AtCPK21, but Trx-h1 effectively restored the activity to 90%. An intramolecular disulfide bond (Cys97-Cys108) that is responsible for this redox modulation was then identified. In addition, endogenous AtCPK21 was shown to be oxidized in vivo when the culture cells were treated with H2 O2 . These results suggest that redox regulation of AtCPK21 by Trx-h in response to external stimuli is important for appropriate cellular responses. The relationship between the redox regulation system and Ca(2+) signaling pathways is discussed. © 2013 The Authors. FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of FEBS.

  4. Elastin binds to a multifunctional 67-kilodalton peripheral membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecham, R.P.; Hinek, A.; Entwistle, R.; Wrenn, D.S.; Griffin, G.L.; Senior, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Elastin binding proteins from plasma membranes of elastin-producing cells were isolated by affinity chromatography on immobilized elastin peptides. Three proteins of 67, 61, and 55 kDa were released from the elastin resin by guanidine/detergent, soluble elastin peptides, synthetic peptide VGVAPG, or galactoside sugars, but not by synthetic RGD-containing peptide or sugars not related to galactose. All three proteins incorporated radiolabel upon extracellular iodination and contained [ 3 H]leucine following metabolic labeling, confirming that each is a synthetic product of the cell. The 67-kDa protein could be released from the cell surface with lactose-containing buffers, whereas solubilization of the 61- and 55-kDa components required the presence of detergent. Although all three proteins were retained on elastin affinity columns, the 61- and 55-kDa components were retained only in the presence of 67-kDa protein, suggesting that the 67-kDa protein binds elastin and the 61- and 55-kDa proteins bind to the 67-kDa protein. The authors propose that the 67-, 61-, and 55-kDa proteins constitute an elastin-receptor complex that forms a transmembrane link between the extracellular matrix and the intracellular compartment

  5. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detailed analysis of putative genes encoding small proteins in legume genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel eGuillén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plant genome sequencing projects coupled with powerful bioinformatics tools have facilitated massive data analysis to construct specialized databases classified according to cellular function. However, there are still a considerable number of genes encoding proteins whose function has not yet been characterized. Included in this category are small proteins (SPs, 30-150 amino acids encoded by short open reading frames (sORFs. SPs play important roles in plant physiology, growth, and development. Unfortunately, protocols focused on the genome-wide identification and characterization of sORFs are scarce or remain poorly implemented. As a result, these genes are underrepresented in many genome annotations. In this work, we exploited publicly available genome sequences of Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus to analyze the abundance of annotated SPs in plant legumes. Our strategy to uncover bona fide sORFs at the genome level was centered in bioinformatics analysis of characteristics such as evidence of expression (transcription, presence of known protein regions or domains, and identification of orthologous genes in the genomes explored. We collected 6170, 10461, 30521, and 23599 putative sORFs from P. vulgaris, G. max, M. truncatula, and L. japonicus genomes, respectively. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs available in the DFCI Gene Index database provided evidence that ~one-third of the predicted legume sORFs are expressed. Most potential SPs have a counterpart in a different plant species and counterpart regions or domains in larger proteins. Potential functional sORFs were also classified according to a reduced set of GO categories, and the expression of 13 of them during P. vulgaris nodule ontogeny was confirmed by qPCR. This analysis provides a collection of sORFs that potentially encode for meaningful SPs, and offers the possibility of their further functional evaluation.

  7. Alterations in membrane protein-profile during cold treatment of alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, S.S.; Poole, R.J.; Dhindsa, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in pattern of membrane proteins during cold acclimation of alfalfa have been examined. Cold acclimation for 2 to 3 days increases membrane protein content. Labeling of membrane proteins in vivo with [ 35 S]methionine indicates increases in the rate of incorporation as acclimation progresses. Cold acclimation induces the synthesis of about 10 new polypeptides as shown by SDS-PAGE and fluorography of membrane proteins labeled in vivo

  8. Artificial membranes with selective nanochannels for protein transport

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin

    2016-09-05

    A poly(styrene-b-tert-butoxystyrene-b-styrene) copolymer was synthesized by anionic polymerization and hydrolyzed to poly(styrene-b-4-hydroxystyrene-b-styrene). Lamellar morphology was confirmed in the bulk after annealing. Membranes were fabricated by self-assembly of the hydrolyzed copolymer in solution, followed by water induced phase separation. A high density of pores of 4 to 5 nm diameter led to a water permeance of 40 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 and molecular weight cut-off around 8 kg mol−1. The morphology was controlled by tuning the polymer concentration, evaporation time, and the addition of imidazole and pyridine to stabilize the terpolymer micelles in the casting solution via hydrogen bond complexes. Transmission electron microscopy of the membrane cross-sections confirmed the formation of channels with hydroxyl groups beneficial for hydrogen-bond forming sites. The morphology evolution was investigated by time-resolved grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering experiments. The membrane channels reject polyethylene glycol with a molecular size of 10 kg mol−1, but are permeable to proteins, such as lysozyme (14.3 kg mol−1) and cytochrome c (12.4 kg mol−1), due to the right balance of hydrogen bond interactions along the channels, electrostatic attraction, as well as the right pore sizes. Our results demonstrate that artificial channels can be designed for protein transport via block copolymer self-assembly using classical methods of membrane preparation.

  9. Artificial membranes with selective nanochannels for protein transport

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin; Polymeropoulos, Georgios; Mygiakis, E.; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Smilgies, D. M.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    A poly(styrene-b-tert-butoxystyrene-b-styrene) copolymer was synthesized by anionic polymerization and hydrolyzed to poly(styrene-b-4-hydroxystyrene-b-styrene). Lamellar morphology was confirmed in the bulk after annealing. Membranes were fabricated by self-assembly of the hydrolyzed copolymer in solution, followed by water induced phase separation. A high density of pores of 4 to 5 nm diameter led to a water permeance of 40 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 and molecular weight cut-off around 8 kg mol−1. The morphology was controlled by tuning the polymer concentration, evaporation time, and the addition of imidazole and pyridine to stabilize the terpolymer micelles in the casting solution via hydrogen bond complexes. Transmission electron microscopy of the membrane cross-sections confirmed the formation of channels with hydroxyl groups beneficial for hydrogen-bond forming sites. The morphology evolution was investigated by time-resolved grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering experiments. The membrane channels reject polyethylene glycol with a molecular size of 10 kg mol−1, but are permeable to proteins, such as lysozyme (14.3 kg mol−1) and cytochrome c (12.4 kg mol−1), due to the right balance of hydrogen bond interactions along the channels, electrostatic attraction, as well as the right pore sizes. Our results demonstrate that artificial channels can be designed for protein transport via block copolymer self-assembly using classical methods of membrane preparation.

  10. Shotgun proteomics of plant plasma membrane and microdomain proteins using nano-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Li, Bin; Nakayama, Takato; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics allows the comprehensive analysis of proteins extracted from plant cells, subcellular organelles, and membranes. Previously, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics was used for mass spectrometric analysis of plasma membrane proteins. In order to get comprehensive proteome profiles of the plasma membrane including highly hydrophobic proteins with a number of transmembrane domains, a mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics method using nano-LC-MS/MS for proteins from the plasma membrane proteins and plasma membrane microdomain fraction is described. The results obtained are easily applicable to label-free protein semiquantification.

  11. Multi-protein assemblies underlie the mesoscale organization of the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Sinem K.; Honigmann, Alf; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; Lang, Thorsten; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins have uneven distributions in the plasma membrane. Broadly speaking, this may be caused by mechanisms specific to each protein, or may be a consequence of a general pattern that affects the distribution of all membrane proteins. The latter hypothesis has been difficult to test in the past. Here, we introduce several approaches based on click chemistry, through which we study the distribution of membrane proteins in living cells, as well as in membrane sheets. We found that the plasma membrane proteins form multi-protein assemblies that are long lived (minutes), and in which protein diffusion is restricted. The formation of the assemblies is dependent on cholesterol. They are separated and anchored by the actin cytoskeleton. Specific proteins are preferentially located in different regions of the assemblies, from their cores to their edges. We conclude that the assemblies constitute a basic mesoscale feature of the membrane, which affects the patterning of most membrane proteins, and possibly also their activity. PMID:25060237

  12. Nanodisc-Tm: Rapid functional assessment of nanodisc reconstituted membrane proteins by CPM assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Yashwanth; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are generally unstable in detergents. Therefore, biochemical and biophysical studies of membrane proteins in lipidic environments provides a near native-like environment suitable for membrane proteins. However, manipulation of proteins embedded in lipid bilayer has remained difficult. Methods such as nanodiscs and lipid cubic phase have been developed for easy manipulation of membrane proteins and have yielded significant insights into membrane proteins. Traditionally functional reconstitution of receptors in nanodiscs has been studied with radioligands. We present a simple and faster method for studying the functionality of reconstituted membrane proteins for routine characterization of protein batches after initial optimization of suitable conditions using radioligands. The benefits of the method are •Faster and generic method to assess functional reconstitution of membrane proteins.•Adaptable in high throughput format (≥96 well format).•Stability measurement in near-native lipid environment and lipid dependent melting temperatures.

  13. The Us2 gene product of herpes simplex virus 2 is a membrane-associated ubiquitin-interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ming-Hsi; Roy, Bibhuti B; Finnen, Renée L; Le Sage, Valerie; Johnston, Susan M; Zhang, Hui; Banfield, Bruce W

    2013-09-01

    The Us2 gene encodes a tegument protein that is conserved in most members of the Alphaherpesvirinae. Previous studies on the pseudorabies virus (PRV) Us2 ortholog indicated that it is prenylated, associates with membranes, and spatially regulates the enzymatic activity of the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase ERK (extracellular signal-related kinase) through direct binding and sequestration of ERK at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Here we present an analysis of the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) Us2 ortholog and demonstrate that, like PRV Us2, HSV-2 Us2 is a virion component and that, unlike PRV Us2, it does not interact with ERK in yeast two-hybrid assays. HSV-2 Us2 lacks prenylation signals and other canonical membrane-targeting motifs yet is tightly associated with detergent-insoluble membranes and localizes predominantly to recycling endosomes. Experiments to identify cellular proteins that facilitate HSV-2 Us2 membrane association were inconclusive; however, these studies led to the identification of HSV-2 Us2 as a ubiquitin-interacting protein, providing new insight into the functions of HSV-2 Us2.

  14. Expression and organization of basement membranes and focal adhesion proteins in pregnant myometrium is regulated by uterine stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Chow, Michelle; Lye, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the preparation of the uterus for labor are not fully understood. We have previously found a significant increase in the expression of messenger RNA (mRNAs) encoding extracellular basement membrane (BM) proteins of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in late pregnant rat myometrium. At term, the myometrium is stretched by growing fetuses and these mechanical signals are transmitted from extracellular matrix into SMCs through focal adhesions (FA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gravidity on the expression and spatiotemporal distribution of major BM proteins, laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV, as well as typical FA constituents, vinculin and paxillin, in the myometrium during gestation and parturition, using a unilaterally pregnant rat model. We found that the expression of laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV proteins increased significantly with gestational age (P proteins were not affected. Near term, BM proteins from gravid horn myometrium demonstrated increased extracellular immunostaining and major rearrangement from sporadic protein distribution to organized, continuous, and regular structures surrounding the plasma membrane of each myocyte. Examination of FA proteins revealed that paxillin was translocated from the cytoplasm to the cell periphery, while vinculin was sequestered specifically to FAs. At labor, BM and FA proteins, organized in similar bead-like structures, were localized on opposing sides of SMC plasma membrane into 2 different compartments. We suggest that these stretch-induced changes facilitate formation of stable cell-matrix adhesions and provide the molecular basis for optimal force transduction during labor contractions.

  15. Protein receptor-independent plasma membrane remodeling by HAMLET: a tumoricidal protein-lipid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Aftab; Sanborn, Jeremy; Gettel, Douglas L; James, Ho C S; Rydström, Anna; Ngassam, Viviane N; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Lam, Matti; Parikh, Atul N; Svanborg, Catharina

    2015-11-12

    A central tenet of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells is that extra-cellular ligands activate specific cell surface receptors, which orchestrate downstream responses. This ''protein-centric" view is increasingly challenged by evidence for the involvement of specialized membrane domains in signal transduction. Here, we propose that membrane perturbation may serve as an alternative mechanism to activate a conserved cell-death program in cancer cells. This view emerges from the extraordinary manner in which HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) kills a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and demonstrates therapeutic efficacy and selectivity in cancer models and clinical studies. We identify a ''receptor independent" transformation of vesicular motifs in model membranes, which is paralleled by gross remodeling of tumor cell membranes. Furthermore, we find that HAMLET accumulates within these de novo membrane conformations and define membrane blebs as cellular compartments for direct interactions of HAMLET with essential target proteins such as the Ras family of GTPases. Finally, we demonstrate lower sensitivity of healthy cell membranes to HAMLET challenge. These features suggest that HAMLET-induced curvature-dependent membrane conformations serve as surrogate receptors for initiating signal transduction cascades, ultimately leading to cell death.

  16. Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Refractive-index-based screening of membrane-protein-mediated transfer across biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändén, Magnus; Tabaei, Seyed R; Fischer, Gerhard; Neutze, Richard; Höök, Fredrik

    2010-07-07

    Numerous membrane-transport proteins are major drug targets, and therefore a key ingredient in pharmaceutical development is the availability of reliable, efficient tools for membrane transport characterization and inhibition. Here, we present the use of evanescent-wave sensing for screening of membrane-protein-mediated transport across lipid bilayer membranes. This method is based on a direct recording of the temporal variations in the refractive index that occur upon a transfer-dependent change in the solute concentration inside liposomes associated to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) active sensor surface. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by a functional study of the aquaglyceroporin PfAQP from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Assays of the temperature dependence of facilitated diffusion of sugar alcohols on a single set of PfAQP-reconstituted liposomes reveal that the activation energies for facilitated diffusion of xylitol and sorbitol are the same as that previously measured for glycerol transport in the aquaglyceroporin of Escherichia coli (5 kcal/mole). These findings indicate that the aquaglyceroporin selectivity filter does not discriminate sugar alcohols based on their length, and that the extra energy cost of dehydration of larger sugar alcohols, upon entering the pore, is compensated for by additional hydrogen-bond interactions within the aquaglyceroporin pore. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and expression of genes encoding three small heat shock proteins in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-12-12

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker), is a major pest of rice and is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) encompass a diverse, widespread class of stress proteins that have not been characterized in S. inferens. In the present study, we isolated and characterized three S. inferens genes that encode members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, namely, Sihsp21.4, Sihsp20.6, and Sihsp19.6. The three cDNAs encoded proteins of 187, 183 and 174 amino acids with calculated molecular weights of 21.4, 20.6 and 19.6 kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three genes showed strong similarity to sHSPs identified in other lepidopteran insects. Sihsp21.4 contained an intron, but Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 lacked introns. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that Sihsp21.4 was most strongly expressed in S. inferens heads; Whereas expression of Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 was highest in eggs. The three S. inferens sHSP genes were up-regulated during low temperature stress. In summary, our results show that S. inferens sHSP genes have distinct regulatory roles in the physiology of S. inferens.

  19. Characterization and Expression of Genes Encoding Three Small Heat Shock Proteins in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker, is a major pest of rice and is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs encompass a diverse, widespread class of stress proteins that have not been characterized in S. inferens. In the present study, we isolated and characterized three S. inferens genes that encode members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, namely, Sihsp21.4, Sihsp20.6, and Sihsp19.6. The three cDNAs encoded proteins of 187, 183 and 174 amino acids with calculated molecular weights of 21.4, 20.6 and 19.6 kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three genes showed strong similarity to sHSPs identified in other lepidopteran insects. Sihsp21.4 contained an intron, but Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 lacked introns. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that Sihsp21.4 was most strongly expressed in S. inferens heads; Whereas expression of Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 was highest in eggs. The three S. inferens sHSP genes were up-regulated during low temperature stress. In summary, our results show that S. inferens sHSP genes have distinct regulatory roles in the physiology of S. inferens.

  20. Biomimetic Membranes for Multi-Redox Center Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate L. C. Naumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available His-tag technology was applied for biosensing purposes involving multi-redox center proteins (MRPs. An overview is presented on various surfaces ranging from flat to spherical and modified with linker molecules with nitrile-tri-acetic acid (NTA terminal groups to bind his-tagged proteins in a strict orientation. The bound proteins are submitted to in situ dialysis in the presence of lipid micelles to form a so-called protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM. MRPs, such as the cytochrome c oxidase (CcO from R. sphaeroides and P. denitrificans, as well as photosynthetic reactions centers (RCs from R. sphaeroides, were thus investigated. Electrochemical and surface-sensitive optical techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance, surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS, were employed in the case of the ptBLM structure on flat surfaces. Spherical particles ranging from µm size agarose gel beads to nm size nanoparticles modified in a similar fashion were called proteo-lipobeads (PLBs. The particles were investigated by laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSM and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Electron and proton transfer through the proteins were demonstrated to take place, which was strongly affected by the membrane potential. MRPs can thus be used for biosensing purposes under quasi-physiological conditions.

  1. Evaluating descriptors for the lateral translocation of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanova, Olga; Borbe, Stefan; Mühlfeld, Stefanie; Becker, Martin; Kubitz, Ralf; Häussinger, Dieter; Berlage, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic images of tissue sections are used for diagnosis and monitoring of therapy, by analysis of protein patterns correlating to disease states. Spatial protein distribution is influenced by protein translocation between different membrane compartments and quantified by comparison of microscopic images of biological samples. Cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by translocation of transport proteins, and quantification of their dislocation offers new diagnostic options. However, reliable and unbiased tools are lacking. The nowadays used manual method is slow, subjective and error-prone. We have developed a new workflow based on automated image analysis and improved it by the introduction of scale-free descriptors for the translocation quantification. This fast and unbiased method can substitute the manual analysis, and the suggested descriptors perform better than the earlier used statistical variance.

  2. Identification of a mammalian nuclear factor and human cDNA-encoded proteins that recognize DNA containing apurinic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, J.; Okenquist, S.A.; LoSardo, J.E.; Hamilton, K.K.; Doetsch, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Damage to DNA can have lethal or mutagenic consequences for cells unless it is detected and repaired by cellular proteins. Repair depends on the ability of cellular factors to distinguish the damaged sites. Electrophoretic binding assays were used to identify a factor from the nuclei of mammalian cells that bound to DNA containing apurinic sites. A binding assay based on the use of β-galactosidase fusion proteins was subsequently used to isolate recombinant clones of human cDNAs that encoded apurinic DNA-binding proteins. Two distinct human cDNAs were identified that encoded proteins that bound apurinic DNA preferentially over undamaged, methylated, or UV-irradiated DNA. These approaches may offer a general method for the detection of proteins that recognize various types of DNA damage and for the cloning of genes encoding such proteins

  3. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly......, hence identifying the N terminus of ParB as a requirement for ParB-mediated centromere pairing. These observations suggest that centromere pairing is an important intermediate step in plasmid partitioning mediated by the common type I loci....

  4. Cloning ORF2 Membrane Protein of Koi Herpesvirus Lake Toba, Indonesian Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURWANTOKO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Koi herpesvirus (KHV caused significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. KHV which showed strong antigenic property implied that KHV virion or proteins may be used as antigen to raise antibody or vaccine to increase the resistance. The objectives of this research were to (i clone KHV membrane protein ORF2, (ii analysis on immunogenicity, and (iii genetic tracing. Based on genbank data, one pair of primers was designed to amplify KHV ORF2. The KHV ORF2 can be amplified using infected fish DNA which originally from Toba Lake, Sumatera, Indonesia. The KHV ORF2 composed of 699 nucleotides encoded for 292 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed that KHV ORF2 had 100% homology with KHV-J and KHV0301 strains from Japan; 98 and 91% homology on nucleotides and amino acids respectively with both KHV-U strain from Unites State and KHV-I strain from Israel. KHV in Indonesia was most likely to have originated from Japan via spreading directly or not directly to China or Hongkong. Based on T- and B-cell epitopes prediction, membrane protein ORF2 was proposed has a potency to be used in development vaccine and immunodetection.

  5. Expression analysis of the Theileria parva subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer

    Full Text Available The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria parva transforms bovine lymphocytes inducing uncontrolled proliferation. Proteins released from the parasite are assumed to contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell and parasite persistence. With 85 members, genes encoding subtelomeric variable secreted proteins (SVSPs form the largest gene family in T. parva. The majority of SVSPs contain predicted signal peptides, suggesting secretion into the host cell cytoplasm.We analysed SVSP expression in T. parva-transformed cell lines established in vitro by infection of T or B lymphocytes with cloned T. parva parasites. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression for a wide range of SVSP genes. The pattern of mRNA expression was largely defined by the parasite genotype and not by host background or cell type, and found to be relatively stable in vitro over a period of two months. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis carried out on cell lines established from a cloned parasite showed that expression of a single SVSP encoded by TP03_0882 is limited to only a small percentage of parasites. Epitope-tagged TP03_0882 expressed in mammalian cells was found to translocate into the nucleus, a process that could be attributed to two different nuclear localisation signals.Our analysis reveals a complex pattern of Theileria SVSP mRNA expression, which depends on the parasite genotype. Whereas in cell lines established from a cloned parasite transcripts can be found corresponding to a wide range of SVSP genes, only a minority of parasites appear to express a particular SVSP protein. The fact that a number of SVSPs contain functional nuclear localisation signals suggests that proteins released from the parasite could contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell. This initial characterisation will facilitate future studies on the regulation of SVSP gene expression and the potential biological role of these enigmatic

  6. Self-assembly of the general membrane-remodeling protein PVAP into sevenfold virus-associated pyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Bertram; Quax, Tessa E F; Sachse, Martin; Mills, Deryck J; Reimann, Julia; Yildiz, Özkan; Häder, Sabine; Saveanu, Cosmin; Forterre, Patrick; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Prangishvili, David

    2014-03-11

    Viruses have developed a wide range of strategies to escape from the host cells in which they replicate. For egress some archaeal viruses use a pyramidal structure with sevenfold rotational symmetry. Virus-associated pyramids (VAPs) assemble in the host cell membrane from the virus-encoded protein PVAP and open at the end of the infection cycle. We characterize this unusual supramolecular assembly using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopic techniques. By whole-cell electron cryotomography, we monitored morphological changes in virus-infected host cells. Subtomogram averaging reveals the VAP structure. By heterologous expression of PVAP in cells from all three domains of life, we demonstrate that the protein integrates indiscriminately into virtually any biological membrane, where it forms sevenfold pyramids. We identify the protein domains essential for VAP formation in PVAP truncation mutants by their ability to remodel the cell membrane. Self-assembly of PVAP into pyramids requires at least two different, in-plane and out-of-plane, protein interactions. Our findings allow us to propose a model describing how PVAP arranges to form sevenfold pyramids and suggest how this small, robust protein may be used as a general membrane-remodeling system.

  7. Identification of frog photoreceptor plasma and disk membrane proteins by radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.L.; Bownds, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several functions have been identified for the plasma membrane of the rod outer segment, including control of light-dependent changes in sodium conductance and a sodium-calcium exchange mechanism. However, little is known about its constituent proteins. Intact rod outer segments substantially free of contaminants were prepared in the dark and purified on a density gradient of Percoll. Surface proteins were then labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination, and intact rod outer segments were reisolated. Membrane proteins were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The surface proteins labeled included rhodopsin, the major membrane protein, and 12 other proteins. To compare the protein composition of plasma membrane with that of the internal disk membrane, purified rod outer segments were lysed by hypotonic disruption or freeze-thawing, and plasma plus disk membranes were radioiodinated. In these membrane preparations, rhodopsin was the major iodinated constituent, with 12 other proteins also labeled. Autoradiographic evidence indicated some differences in protein composition between disk and plasma membranes. A quantitative comparison of the two samples showed that labeling of two proteins, 24 kilodaltons (kDa) and 13 kDa, was enriched in the plasma membrane, while labeling of a 220-kDa protein was enriched in the disk membrane. These plasma membrane proteins may be associated with important functions such as the light-sensitive conductance and the sodium-calcium exchanger

  8. Membrane protein damage and repair: selective loss of a quinone-protein function in chloroplast membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, D.J.; Ohad, I.; Arntzen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A loss of electron transport capacity in chloroplast membranes was induced by high-light intensities (photoinhibition). The primary site of inhibition was at the reducing side of photosystem II (PSII) with little damage to the oxidizing side or to the reaction center core of PSII. Addition of herbicides (atrazine or diuron) partially protected the membrane from photoinhibition; these compounds displace the bound plastoquinone (designated as Q/sub B/), which functions as the secondary electron acceptor on the reducing side of PSII. Loss of function of the 32-kilodalton Q/sub B/ apoprotein was demonstrated by a loss of binding sites for [ 14 C]atraazine. We suggest that quinone anions, which may interact with molecular oxygen to produce an oxygen radical, selectively damage the apoprotein of the secondary acceptor of PSII, thus rendering it inactive and thereby blocking photosynthetic electron flow under conditions of high photon flux densities. 21 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  9. Crystal structure of an orthomyxovirus matrix protein reveals mechanisms for self-polymerization and membrane association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Zheng, Wenjie; Toh, Yukimatsu; Betancourt-Solis, Miguel A; Tu, Jiagang; Fan, Yanlin; Vakharia, Vikram N; Liu, Jun; McNew, James A; Jin, Meilin; Tao, Yizhi J

    2017-08-08

    Many enveloped viruses encode a matrix protein. In the influenza A virus, the matrix protein M1 polymerizes into a rigid protein layer underneath the viral envelope to help enforce the shape and structural integrity of intact viruses. The influenza virus M1 is also known to mediate virus budding as well as the nuclear export of the viral nucleocapsids and their subsequent packaging into nascent viral particles. Despite extensive studies on the influenza A virus M1 (FLUA-M1), only crystal structures of its N-terminal domain are available. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length M1 from another orthomyxovirus that infects fish, the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). The structure of ISAV-M1 assumes the shape of an elbow, with its N domain closely resembling that of the FLUA-M1. The C domain, which is connected to the N domain through a flexible linker, is made of four α-helices packed as a tight bundle. In the crystal, ISAV-M1 monomers form infinite 2D arrays with a network of interactions involving both the N and C domains. Results from liposome flotation assays indicated that ISAV-M1 binds membrane via electrostatic interactions that are primarily mediated by a positively charged surface loop from the N domain. Cryoelectron tomography reconstruction of intact ISA virions identified a matrix protein layer adjacent to the inner leaflet of the viral membrane. The physical dimensions of the virion-associated matrix layer are consistent with the 2D ISAV-M1 crystal lattice, suggesting that the crystal lattice is a valid model for studying M1-M1, M1-membrane, and M1-RNP interactions in the virion.

  10. Correlation Study of PVDF Membrane Morphology with Protein Adsorption: Quantitative Analysis by FTIR/ATR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideris, N.; Ahmad, A. L.; Ooi, B. S.; Low, S. C.

    2018-05-01

    Microporous PVDF membranes were used as protein capture matrices in immunoassays. Because the most common labels in immunoassays were detected based on the colour change, an understanding of how protein concentration varies on different PVDF surfaces was needed. Herein, the correlation between the membrane pore size and protein adsorption was systematically investigated. Five different PVDF membrane morphologies were prepared and FTIR/ATR was employed to accurately quantify the surface protein concentration on membranes with small pore sizes. SigmaPlot® was used to find a suitable curve fit for protein adsorption and membrane pore size, with a high correlation coefficient, R2, of 0.9971.

  11. A membrane protein / signaling protein interaction network for Arabidopsis version AMPv2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Lalonde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between membrane proteins and the soluble fraction are essential for signal transduction and for regulating nutrient transport. To gain insights into the membrane-based interactome, 3,852 open reading frames (ORFs out of a target list of 8,383 representing membrane and signaling proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a Gateway compatible vector. The mating-based split-ubiquitin system was used to screen for potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs among 490 Arabidopsis ORFs. A binary robotic screen between 142 receptor-like kinases, 72 transporters, 57 soluble protein kinases and phosphatases, 40 glycosyltransferases, 95 proteins of various functions and 89 proteins with unknown function detected 387 out of 90,370 possible PPIs. A secondary screen confirmed 343 (of 387 pPPIs between 179 proteins, yielding a scale-free network (r2=0.863. Eighty of 142 transmembrane receptor-like kinases (RLK tested positive, identifying three homomers, 63 heteromers and 80 pPPIs with other proteins. Thirty-one out of 142 RLK interactors (including RLKs had previously been found to be phosphorylated; thus interactors may be substrates for respective RLKs. None of the pPPIs described here had been reported in the major interactome databases, including potential interactors of G protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C, and AMT ammonium transporters. Two RLKs found as putative interactors of AMT1;1 were independently confirmed using a split luciferase assay in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These RLKs may be involved in ammonium-dependent phosphorylation of the C-terminus and regulation of ammonium uptake activity. The robotic screening method established here will enable a systematic analysis of membrane protein interactions in fungi, plants and metazoa.

  12. Dynamic, electronically switchable surfaces for membrane protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C S; Dusseiller, M; Makohliso, S; Heuschkel, M; Sharma, S; Keller, B; Vörös, J

    2006-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful tool that provides a high throughput of bioanalytical information within a single experiment. These miniaturized and parallelized binding assays are highly sensitive and have found widespread popularity especially during the genomic era. However, as drug diagnostics studies are often targeted at membrane proteins, the current arraying technologies are ill-equipped to handle the fragile nature of the protein molecules. In addition, to understand the complex structure and functions of proteins, different strategies to immobilize the probe molecules selectively onto a platform for protein microarray are required. We propose a novel approach to create a (membrane) protein microarray by using an indium tin oxide (ITO) microelectrode array with an electronic multiplexing capability. A polycationic, protein- and vesicle-resistant copolymer, poly(l-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG), is exposed to and adsorbed uniformly onto the microelectrode array, as a passivating adlayer. An electronic stimulation is then applied onto the individual ITO microelectrodes resulting in the localized release of the polymer thus revealing a bare ITO surface. Different polymer and biological moieties are specifically immobilized onto the activated ITO microelectrodes while the other regions remain protein-resistant as they are unaffected by the induced electrical potential. The desorption process of the PLL-g-PEG is observed to be highly selective, rapid, and reversible without compromising on the integrity and performance of the conductive ITO microelectrodes. As such, we have successfully created a stable and heterogeneous microarray of biomolecules by using selective electronic addressing on ITO microelectrodes. Both pharmaceutical diagnostics and biomedical technology are expected to benefit directly from this unique method.

  13. Equilibrium fluctuation relations for voltage coupling in membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilsoo; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-11-01

    A general theoretical framework is developed to account for the effects of an external potential on the energetics of membrane proteins. The framework is based on the free energy relation between two (forward/backward) probability densities, which was recently generalized to non-equilibrium processes, culminating in the work-fluctuation theorem. Starting from the probability densities of the conformational states along the "voltage coupling" reaction coordinate, we investigate several interconnected free energy relations between these two conformational states, considering voltage activation of ion channels. The free energy difference between the two conformational states at zero (depolarization) membrane potential (i.e., known as the chemical component of free energy change in ion channels) is shown to be equivalent to the free energy difference between the two "equilibrium" (resting and activated) conformational states along the one-dimensional voltage couplin reaction coordinate. Furthermore, the requirement that the application of linear response approximation to the free energy functionals of voltage coupling should satisfy the general free energy relations, yields a novel closed-form expression for the gating charge in terms of other basic properties of ion channels. This connection is familiar in statistical mechanics, known as the equilibrium fluctuation-response relation. The theory is illustrated by considering the coupling of a unit charge to the external voltage in the two sites near the surface of membrane, representing the activated and resting states. This is done using a coarse-graining (CG) model of membrane proteins, which includes the membrane, the electrolytes and the electrodes. The CG model yields Marcus-type voltage dependent free energy parabolas for the response of the electrostatic environment (electrolytes etc.) to the transition from the initial to the final configuratinal states, leading to equilibrium free energy difference and free

  14. Msp1 Is a Membrane Protein Dislocase for Tail-Anchored Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlever, Matthew L; Mateja, Agnieszka; McGilvray, Philip T; Day, Kasey J; Keenan, Robert J

    2017-07-20

    Mislocalized tail-anchored (TA) proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane are cleared by a newly identified quality control pathway involving the conserved eukaryotic protein Msp1 (ATAD1 in humans). Msp1 is a transmembrane AAA-ATPase, but its role in TA protein clearance is not known. Here, using purified components reconstituted into proteoliposomes, we show that Msp1 is both necessary and sufficient to drive the ATP-dependent extraction of TA proteins from the membrane. A crystal structure of the Msp1 cytosolic region modeled into a ring hexamer suggests that active Msp1 contains a conserved membrane-facing surface adjacent to a central pore. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the pore residues shows that they are critical for TA protein extraction in vitro and for functional complementation of an msp1 deletion in yeast. Together, these data provide a molecular framework for Msp1-dependent extraction of mislocalized TA proteins from the outer mitochondrial membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  16. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yonglun; Blechingberg, Jenny; Fernandes, Ana Miguel; Li, Shengting; Fryland, Tue; Børglum, Anders D; Bolund, Lars; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2015-11-14

    FUS (TLS) and EWS (EWSR1) belong to the FET-protein family of RNA and DNA binding proteins. FUS and EWS are structurally and functionally related and participate in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. FUS and EWS are identified in translocation generated cancer fusion proteins and involved in the human neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. To determine the gene regulatory functions of FUS and EWS at the level of chromatin, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Our results show that FUS and EWS bind to a subset of actively transcribed genes, that binding often is downstream the poly(A)-signal, and that binding overlaps with RNA polymerase II. Functional examinations of selected target genes identified that FUS and EWS can regulate gene expression at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes involved in pathways at the RNA regulatory level with potential to mediate normal and disease-associated functions of the FUS and EWS proteins.

  17. Exploring the Spatiotemporal Organization of Membrane Proteins in Living Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xue, Yiqun; Xing, Jingjing; Song, Kai; Lin, Jinxing

    2018-04-29

    Plasma membrane proteins have important roles in transport and signal transduction. Deciphering the spatiotemporal organization of these proteins provides crucial information for elucidating the links between the behaviors of different molecules. However, monitoring membrane proteins without disrupting their membrane environment remains difficult. Over the past decade, many studies have developed single-molecule techniques, opening avenues for probing the stoichiometry and interactions of membrane proteins in their native environment by providing nanometer-scale spatial information and nanosecond-scale temporal information. In this review, we assess recent progress in the development of labeling and imaging technology for membrane protein analysis. We focus in particular on several single-molecule techniques for quantifying the dynamics and assembly of membrane proteins. Finally, we provide examples of how these new techniques are advancing our understanding of the complex biological functions of membrane proteins.

  18. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  19. Bcmimp1, a Botrytis cinerea gene transiently expressed in planta, encodes a mitochondrial protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBenito-Pescador

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a widespread necrotrophic fungus which infects more than 200 plant species. In an attempt to characterize the physiological status of the fungus in planta and to identify genetic factors contributing to its ability to infect the host cells, a differential gene expression analysis during the interaction B. cinerea-tomato was carried out. Gene Bcmimp1 codes for a mRNA detected by differential display in the course of this analysis. During the interaction with the host, it shows a transient expression pattern with maximal expression levels during the colonization and maceration of the infected tissues. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that BCMIMP1 is an integral membrane protein located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Co-localization experiments with a BCMIMP1-GFP fusion protein confirmed that the protein is targeted to the mitochondria. ΔBcmimp1 mutants do not show obvious phenotypic differences during saprophytic growth and their infection ability was unaltered as compared to the wild-type. Interestingly, the mutants produced increased levels of ROS, likely as a consequence of disturbed mitochondrial function. Although Bcmimp1 expression is enhanced in planta it cannot be considered a pathogenicity factor.

  20. RING finger protein 121 facilitates the degradation and membrane localization of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Low, Sean E.; Yamada, Kenta; Saint-Amant, Louis; Zhou, Weibin; Muto, Akira; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Nakai, Junichi; Kawakami, Koichi; Kuwada, John Y.; Hirata, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Following their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are transported to the membranes of excitable cells, where they often cluster, such as at the axon initial segment of neurons. Although the mechanisms by which NaV channels form and maintain clusters have been extensively examined, the processes that govern their transport and degradation have received less attention. Our entry into the study of these processes began with the isolation of a new allele of the zebrafish mutant alligator, which we found to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 121 (RNF121), an E3-ubiquitin ligase present in the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Here we demonstrate that RNF121 facilitates two opposing fates of NaV channels: (i) ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and (ii) membrane localization when coexpressed with auxiliary NaVβ subunits. Collectively, these results indicate that RNF121 participates in the quality control of NaV channels during their synthesis and subsequent transport to the membrane. PMID:25691753

  1. Molecular organization in bacterial cell membranes. Specific labelling and topological distribution of glycoproteins and proteins in Streptomyces albus membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraga, V; Munoz, E [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Biologia Celular

    1975-05-01

    The paper reports about an investigation into the question of the specific labelling and topological distribution of glycoproteins and proteins in Streptomyces albus membranes. The method of sample preparation is described: Tritium labelling of glycoproteins in protoplasts and membranes, iodination of proteins, trypsin treatment and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The findings suggest an asymmetrical distribution of the glycoproteins in membranes and a weak accessibility to iodine label. A structural model of the plasma membranes of Streptomyces albus is proposed similar to the general 'fluid mosaic' model of Singer and Nicholson.

  2. Comparison of membrane electroporation and protein denature in response to pulsed electric field with different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiran; Fang, Zhihui; Mast, Jason; Chen, Wei

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we compared the minimum potential differences in the electroporation of membrane lipid bilayers and the denaturation of membrane proteins in response to an intensive pulsed electric field with various pulse durations. Single skeletal muscle fibers were exposed to a pulsed external electric field. The field-induced changes in the membrane integrity (leakage current) and the Na channel currents were monitored to identify the minimum electric field needed to damage the membrane lipid bilayer and the membrane proteins, respectively. We found that in response to a relatively long pulsed electric shock (longer than the membrane intrinsic time constant), a lower membrane potential was needed to electroporate the cell membrane than for denaturing the membrane proteins, while for a short pulse a higher membrane potential was needed. In other words, phospholipid bilayers are more sensitive to the electric field than the membrane proteins for a long pulsed shock, while for a short pulse the proteins become more vulnerable. We can predict that for a short or ultrashort pulsed electric shock, the minimum membrane potential required to start to denature the protein functions in the cell plasma membrane is lower than that which starts to reduce the membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chimeras taking shape: Potential functions of proteins encoded by chimeric RNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Lacroix, Vincent; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Levin, Yishai; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Prilusky, Jaime; del Pozo, Angela; Tress, Michael; Johnson, Rory; Guigo, Roderic; Valencia, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Chimeric RNAs comprise exons from two or more different genes and have the potential to encode novel proteins that alter cellular phenotypes. To date, numerous putative chimeric transcripts have been identified among the ESTs isolated from several organisms and using high throughput RNA sequencing. The few corresponding protein products that have been characterized mostly result from chromosomal translocations and are associated with cancer. Here, we systematically establish that some of the putative chimeric transcripts are genuinely expressed in human cells. Using high throughput RNA sequencing, mass spectrometry experimental data, and functional annotation, we studied 7424 putative human chimeric RNAs. We confirmed the expression of 175 chimeric RNAs in 16 human tissues, with an abundance varying from 0.06 to 17 RPKM (Reads Per Kilobase per Million mapped reads). We show that these chimeric RNAs are significantly more tissue-specific than non-chimeric transcripts. Moreover, we present evidence that chimeras tend to incorporate highly expressed genes. Despite the low expression level of most chimeric RNAs, we show that 12 novel chimeras are translated into proteins detectable in multiple shotgun mass spectrometry experiments. Furthermore, we confirm the expression of three novel chimeric proteins using targeted mass spectrometry. Finally, based on our functional annotation of exon organization and preserved domains, we discuss the potential features of chimeric proteins with illustrative examples and suggest that chimeras significantly exploit signal peptides and transmembrane domains, which can alter the cellular localization of cognate proteins. Taken together, these findings establish that some chimeric RNAs are translated into potentially functional proteins in humans. PMID:22588898

  4. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  5. MapA, an iron-regulated, cytoplasmic membrane protein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R; Troyan, T; Sherman, D; Sherman, L A

    1994-08-01

    Growth of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 in iron-deficient media leads to the accumulation of an approximately 34-kDa protein. The gene encoding this protein, mapA (membrane-associated protein A), has been cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession number, L01621). The mapA transcript is not detectable in normally grown cultures but is stably accumulated by cells grown in iron-deficient media. However, the promoter sequence for this gene does not resemble other bacterial iron-regulated promoters described to date. The carboxyl-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence of MapA resembles bacterial proteins involved in iron acquisition, whereas the amino-terminal end of MapA has a high degree of amino acid identity with the abundant, chloroplast envelope protein E37. An approach employing improved cellular fractionation techniques as well as electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry was essential in localizing MapA protein to the cytoplasmic membrane of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. When these cells were grown under iron-deficient conditions, a significant fraction of MapA could also be localized to the thylakoid membranes.

  6. The major antigenic membrane protein of "Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris" selectively interacts with ATP synthase and actin of leafhopper vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Galetto

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas, uncultivable phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria, represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. They are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking Hemipteran insects. Phytoplasma membrane proteins are in direct contact with hosts and are presumably involved in determining vector specificity. Such a role has been proposed for phytoplasma transmembrane proteins encoded by circular extrachromosomal elements, at least one of which is a plasmid. Little is known about the interactions between major phytoplasma antigenic membrane protein (Amp and insect vector proteins. The aims of our work were to identify vector proteins interacting with Amp and to investigate their role in transmission specificity. In controlled transmission experiments, four Hemipteran species were identified as vectors of "Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris", the chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasmas (CYP strain, and three others as non-vectors. Interactions between a labelled (recombinant CYP Amp and insect proteins were analysed by far Western blots and affinity chromatography. Amp interacted specifically with a few proteins from vector species only. Among Amp-binding vector proteins, actin and both the α and β subunits of ATP synthase were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blots. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blots of plasma membrane and mitochondrial fractions confirmed the localisation of ATP synthase, generally known as a mitochondrial protein, in plasma membranes of midgut and salivary gland cells in the vector Euscelidius variegatus. The vector-specific interaction between phytoplasma Amp and insect ATP synthase is demonstrated for the first time, and this work also supports the hypothesis that host actin is involved in the internalization and intracellular motility of phytoplasmas within their vectors. Phytoplasma Amp is hypothesized to play a crucial role in insect transmission specificity.

  7. Fluorescent protein Dendra2 as a ratiometric genetically encoded pH-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Alexey A; Martynov, Vladimir I; Orsa, Alexander N; Bondarenko, Alena A; Chertkova, Rita V; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Petrenko, Alexander G; Deyev, Igor E

    2017-12-02

    Fluorescent protein Dendra2 is a monomeric GFP-like protein that belongs to the group of Kaede-like photoconvertible fluorescent proteins with irreversible photoconversion from a green- to red-emitting state when exposed to violet-blue light. In an acidic environment, photoconverted Dendra2 turns green due to protonation of the phenolic group of the chromophore with pKa of about 7.5. Thus, photoconverted form of Dendra2 can be potentially used as a ratiometric pH-sensor in the physiological pH range. However, incomplete photoconversion makes ratiometric measurements irreproducible when using standard filter sets. Here, we describe the method to detect fluorescence of only photoconverted Dendra2 form, but not nonconverted green Dendra2. We show that the 350 nm excitation light induces solely the fluorescence of photoconverted protein. By measuring the red to green fluorescence ratio, we determined intracellular pH in live CHO and HEK 293 cells. Thus, Dendra2 can be used as a novel ratiometric genetically encoded pH sensor with emission maxima in the green-red spectral region, which is suitable for application in live cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The coronavirus spike protein : mechanisms of membrane fusion and virion incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coronavirus spike protein is a membrane-anchored glycoprotein responsible for virus-cell attachment and membrane fusion, prerequisites for a successful virus infection. In this thesis, two aspects are described regarding the molecular biology of the coronavirus spike protein: its membrane fusion

  9. Rooster sperm plasma membrane protein and phospholipid organization and reorganization attributed to cooling and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol to phospholipid ratio is used as a representation for membrane fluidity, and predictor of cryopreservation success but results are not consistent across species and ignore the impact of membrane proteins. Therefore, this research explored the modulation of membrane fluidity and protein ...

  10. Monitoring Protein Fouling on Polymeric Membranes Using Ultrasonic Frequency-Domain Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Fong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel signal-processing protocols were used to extend the in situ sensitivity of ultrasonic frequency-domain reflectometry (UFDR for real-time monitoring of microfiltration (MF membrane fouling during protein purification. Different commercial membrane materials, with a nominal pore size of 0.2 µm, were challenged using bovine serum albumin (BSA and amylase as model proteins. Fouling induced by these proteins was observed in flat-sheet membrane filtration cells operating in a laminar cross-flow regime. The detection of membrane-associated proteins using UFDR was determined by applying rigorous statistical methodology to reflection spectra of ultrasonic signals obtained during membrane fouling. Data suggest that the total power reflected from membrane surfaces changes in response to protein fouling at concentrations as low as 14 μg/cm2, and results indicate that ultrasonic spectra can be leveraged to detect and monitor protein fouling on commercial MF membranes.

  11. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: The cell-wall corral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eMartinière

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  12. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: the cell-wall corral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinière, Alexandre; Runions, John

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  13. Membrane and envelope virus proteins co-expressed as lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP fused antigens: a potential tool to develop DNA vaccines against flaviviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dhalia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most practical and cost-effective strategy to prevent the majority of the flavivirus infection to which there is an available vaccine. However, vaccines based on attenuated virus can potentially promote collateral side effects and even rare fatal reactions. Given this scenario, the developent of alternative vaccination strategies such as DNA-based vaccines encoding specific flavivirus sequences are being considered. Endogenous cytoplasmic antigens, characteristically plasmid DNA-vaccine encoded, are mainly presented to the immune system through Major Histocompatibility Complex class I - MHC I molecules. The MHC I presentation via is mostly associated with a cellular cytotoxic response and often do not elicit a satisfactory humoral response. One of the main strategies to target DNA-encoded antigens to the MHC II compartment is expressing the antigen within the Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP. The flavivirus envelope protein is recognized as the major virus surface protein and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. Different groups have demonstrated that co-expression of flavivirus membrane and envelope proteins in mammalian cells, fused with the carboxyl-terminal of LAMP, is able to induce satisfactory levels of neutralizing antibodies. Here we reviewed the use of the envelope flavivirus protein co-expression strategy as LAMP chimeras with the aim of developing DNA vaccines for dengue, West Nile and yellow fever viruses.A vacinação é a estratégia mais prática e o melhor custo-benefício para prevenir a maioria das infecções dos flavivirus, para os quais existe vacina disponível. Entretanto, as vacinas baseadas em vírus atenuados podem potencialmente promover efeitos colaterais e, mais raramente, reações fatais. Diante deste cenário, o desenvolvimento de estratégias alternativas de vacinação, como vacinas baseadas em DNA codificando seqüências específicas dos flavivirus, está sendo considerado

  14. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  15. Unfolding study of a trimeric membrane protein AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cui; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lu, Wei; Wei, Yinan

    2014-07-01

    The folding of a multi-domain trimeric α-helical membrane protein, Escherichia coli inner membrane protein AcrB, was investigated. AcrB contains both a transmembrane domain and a large periplasmic domain. Protein unfolding in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and urea was monitored using the intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The SDS denaturation curve displayed a sigmoidal profile, which could be fitted with a two-state unfolding model. To investigate the unfolding of separate domains, a triple mutant was created, in which all three Trp residues in the transmembrane domain were replaced with Phe. The SDS unfolding profile of the mutant was comparable to that of the wild type AcrB, suggesting that the observed signal change was largely originated from the unfolding of the soluble domain. Strengthening of trimer association through the introduction of an inter-subunit disulfide bond had little effect on the unfolding profile, suggesting that trimer dissociation was not the rate-limiting step in unfolding monitored by fluorescence emission. Under our experimental condition, AcrB unfolding was not reversible. Furthermore, we experimented with the refolding of a monomeric mutant, AcrBΔloop , from the SDS unfolded state. The CD spectrum of the refolded AcrBΔloop superimposed well onto the spectra of the original folded protein, while the fluorescence spectrum was not fully recovered. In summary, our results suggested that the unfolding of the trimeric AcrB started with a local structural rearrangement. While the refolding of secondary structure in individual monomers could be achieved, the re-association of the trimer might be the limiting factor to obtain folded wild-type AcrB. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  16. A cDNA encoding a pRB-binding protein with properties of the transcription factor E2F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Lees, J A; Vidal, M

    1992-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation, apparently by binding to and regulating cellular transcription factors such as E2F. Here we describe the characterization of a cDNA clone that encodes a protein with properties of E2F. This clone, RBP3...

  17. Plasma membrane microdomains regulate turnover of transport proteins in yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grossmann, G.; Malínský, Jan; Stahlschmidt, W.; Loibl, M.; Weig-Meckl, I.; Frommer, W.B.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Tanner, W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 6 (2008), s. 1075-1088 ISSN 0021-9525 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/0009; GA ČR GA204/07/0133; GA ČR GC204/08/J024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Lithium acetate * Membrane compartment of Can1 * Monomeric red fluorescent protein Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 9.120, year: 2008

  18. Clusters of proteins in bio-membranes: insights into the roles of interaction potential shapes and of protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Meilhac, Nicolas; Destainville, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that proteins embedded in lipidic bio-membranes can spontaneously self-organize into stable small clusters, or membrane nano-domains, due to the competition between short-range attractive and longer-range repulsive forces between proteins, specific to these systems. In this paper, we carry on our investigation, by Monte Carlo simulations, of different aspects of cluster phases of proteins in bio-membranes. First, we compare different long-range potentials (includ...

  19. Characterization of cDNA encoding human placental anticoagulant protein (PP4): Homology with the lipocortin family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, U.; Abel, K.J.; Bohn, H.; Loebermann, H.; Lottspeich, F.; Kuepper, H.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA library prepared from human placenta was screened for sequences encoding the placental protein 4 (PP4). PP4 is an anticoagulant protein that acts as an indirect inhibitor of the thromboplastin-specific complex, which is involved in the blood coagulation cascade. Partial amino acid sequence information from PP4-derived cyanogen bromide fragments was used to design three oligonucleotide probes for screening the library. From 10 6 independent recombinants, 18 clones were identified that hybridized to all three probes. These 18 recombinants contained cDNA inserts encoding a protein of 320 amino acid residues. In addition to the PP4 cDNA the authors identified 9 other recombinants encoding a protein with considerable similarity (74%) to PP4, which was termed PP4-X. PP4 and PP4-X belong to the lipocortin family, as judged by their homology to lipocortin I and calpactin I

  20. Mutational scanning reveals the determinants of protein insertion and association energetics in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan; Biran, Ido; Fridman, Yearit; Bibi, Eitan; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-01-29

    Insertion of helix-forming segments into the membrane and their association determines the structure, function, and expression levels of all plasma membrane proteins. However, systematic and reliable quantification of membrane-protein energetics has been challenging. We developed a deep mutational scanning method to monitor the effects of hundreds of point mutations on helix insertion and self-association within the bacterial inner membrane. The assay quantifies insertion energetics for all natural amino acids at 27 positions across the membrane, revealing that the hydrophobicity of biological membranes is significantly higher than appreciated. We further quantitate the contributions to membrane-protein insertion from positively charged residues at the cytoplasm-membrane interface and reveal large and unanticipated differences among these residues. Finally, we derive comprehensive mutational landscapes in the membrane domains of Glycophorin A and the ErbB2 oncogene, and find that insertion and self-association are strongly coupled in receptor homodimers.

  1. Overproduction, purification and crystallization of a chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL domain from a Plasmodium falciparum var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    A chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL important in placental malaria has been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The PfEMP1 proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are inserted into the membrane of infected red blood cells, where they mediate adhesion to a variety of human receptors. The DBL domains of the var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein play a critical role in malaria of pregnancy, tethering infected cells to the surface of the placenta through interactions with the glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). A CSA-binding DBL domain has been overproduced in a bacterial expression system, purified and crystallized. Native data sets extending to 1.9 Å resolution have been collected and phasing is under way

  2. Overproduction, purification and crystallization of a chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL domain from a Plasmodium falciparum var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Matthew K., E-mail: mkh20@cam.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-01

    A chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL important in placental malaria has been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The PfEMP1 proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are inserted into the membrane of infected red blood cells, where they mediate adhesion to a variety of human receptors. The DBL domains of the var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein play a critical role in malaria of pregnancy, tethering infected cells to the surface of the placenta through interactions with the glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). A CSA-binding DBL domain has been overproduced in a bacterial expression system, purified and crystallized. Native data sets extending to 1.9 Å resolution have been collected and phasing is under way.

  3. Expression of three topologically distinct membrane proteins elicits unique stress response pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Teresa M; Jordan, Rick; Lyons-Weiler, James; Adelman, Joshua L; Needham, Patrick G; Kleyman, Thomas R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Misfolded membrane proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are subject to ER-associated degradation, which clears the secretory pathway of potentially toxic species. While the transcriptional response to environmental stressors has been extensively studied, limited data exist describing the cellular response to misfolded membrane proteins. To this end, we expressed and then compared the transcriptional profiles elicited by the synthesis of three ER retained, misfolded ion channels: The α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, and an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir2.1, which vary in their mass, membrane topologies, and quaternary structures. To examine transcriptional profiles in a null background, the proteins were expressed in yeast, which was previously used to examine the degradation requirements for each substrate. Surprisingly, the proteins failed to induce a canonical unfolded protein response or heat shock response, although messages encoding several cytosolic and ER lumenal protein folding factors rose when αENaC or CFTR was expressed. In contrast, the levels of these genes were unaltered by Kir2.1 expression; instead, the yeast iron regulon was activated. Nevertheless, a significant number of genes that respond to various environmental stressors were upregulated by all three substrates, and compared with previous microarray data we deduced the existence of a group of genes that reflect a novel misfolded membrane protein response. These data indicate that aberrant proteins in the ER elicit profound yet unique cellular responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Sequence of a cloned cDNA encoding human ribosomal protein S11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, J B; Mackie, G A

    1988-02-11

    The authors have isolated a cloned cDNA that encodes human ribosomal protein (rp) S11 by screening a human fibroblast cDNA library with a labelled 204 bp DNA fragment encompassing residues 212-416 of pRS11, a rat rp Sll cDNA clone. The human rp S11 cloned cDNA consists of 15 residues of the 5' leader, the entire coding sequence and all 51 residues of the 3' untranslated region. The predicted amino acid sequence of 158 residues is identical to rat rpS11. The nucleotide sequence in the coding region differs, however, from that in rat in the first position in two codons and in the third position in 44 codons.

  5. Imaging intracellular pH in live cells with a genetically encoded red fluorescent protein sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-07-06

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at 440 and 585 nm that can be used for ratiometric imaging. The intensity ratio responds with an apparent pK(a) of 6.6 and a >10-fold dynamic range. Furthermore, pHRed has a pH-responsive fluorescence lifetime that changes by ~0.4 ns over physiological pH values and can be monitored with single-wavelength two-photon excitation. After characterizing the sensor, we tested pHRed's ability to monitor intracellular pH by imaging energy-dependent changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial pH.

  6. Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A B; Palacios, G; Travassos da Rosa, A; Popov, V L; Lu, L; Xiao, S Y; DeToy, K; Briese, T; Lipkin, W I; Keel, M K; Stallknecht, D E; Bishop, G R; Tesh, R B

    2011-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae is a diverse group of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and infect a wide range of hosts including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Of the 114 currently recognized vertebrate rhabdoviruses, relatively few have been well characterized at both the antigenic and genetic level; hence, the phylogenetic relationships between many of the vertebrate rhabdoviruses remain unknown. The present report describes a novel rhabdovirus isolated from the brain of a moribund American coot (Fulica americana) that exhibited neurological signs when found in Durham County, North Carolina, in 2005. Antigenic characterization of the virus revealed that it was serologically unrelated to 68 other known vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Genomic sequencing of the virus indicated that it shared the highest identity to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TUPV), and as only previously observed in TUPV, the genome encoded a putative C protein in an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) of the phosphoprotein gene and a small hydrophobic (SH) protein located in a novel ORF between the matrix and glycoprotein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of partial amino acid sequences of the nucleoprotein and polymerase protein indicated that, in addition to TUPV, the virus was most closely related to avian and small mammal rhabdoviruses from Africa and North America. In this report, we present the morphological, pathological, antigenic, and genetic characterization of the new virus, tentatively named Durham virus (DURV), and discuss its potential evolutionary relationship to other vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A. B.; Palacios, G.; Rosa, A. Travassos da; Popov, V. L.; Lu, L.; Xiao, S. Y.; DeToy, K.; Briese, T.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Keel, M. K.; Stallknecht, D. E.; Bishop, G. R.; Tesh, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae is a diverse group of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and infect a wide range of hosts including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Of the 114 currently recognized vertebrate rhabdoviruses, relatively few have been well characterized at both the antigenic and genetic level; hence, the phylogenetic relationships between many of the vertebrate rhabdoviruses remain unknown. The present report describes a novel rhabdovirus isolated from the brain of a moribund American coot (Fulica americana) that exhibited neurological signs when found in Durham County, North Carolina, in 2005. Antigenic characterization of the virus revealed that it was serologically unrelated to 68 other known vertebrate rhabdoviruses. Genomic sequencing of the virus indicated that it shared the highest identity to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TUPV), and as only previously observed in TUPV, the genome encoded a putative C protein in an overlapping open reading frame (ORF) of the phosphoprotein gene and a small hydrophobic protein located in a novel ORF between the matrix and glycoprotein genes. Phylogenetic analysis of partial amino acid sequences of the nucleoprotein and polymerase proteins indicated that, in addition to TUPV, the virus was most closely related to avian and small mammal rhabdoviruses from Africa and North America. In this report, we present the morphological, pathological, antigenic, and genetic characterization of the new virus, tentatively named Durham virus (DURV), and discuss its potential evolutionary relationship to other vertebrate rhabdoviruses. PMID:20863863

  8. Regulation of dsr genes encoding proteins responsible for the oxidation of stored sulfur in Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Frauke; Dobler, Nadine; Dahl, Christiane

    2010-03-01

    Sulfur globules are formed as obligatory intermediates during the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds in many environmentally important photo- and chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It is well established that the so-called Dsr proteins are essential for the oxidation of zero-valent sulfur accumulated in the globules; however, hardly anything is known about the regulation of dsr gene expression. Here, we present a closer look at the regulation of the dsr genes in the phototrophic sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. The dsr genes are expressed in a reduced sulfur compound-dependent manner and neither sulfite, the product of the reverse-acting dissimilatory sulfite reductase DsrAB, nor the alternative electron donor malate inhibit the gene expression. Moreover, we show the oxidation of sulfur to sulfite to be the rate-limiting step in the oxidation of sulfur to sulfate as sulfate production starts concomitantly with the upregulation of the expression of the dsr genes. Real-time RT-PCR experiments suggest that the genes dsrC and dsrS are additionally expressed from secondary internal promoters, pointing to a special function of the encoded proteins. Earlier structural analyses indicated the presence of a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-like motif in DsrC. We therefore assessed the DNA-binding capability of the protein and provide evidence for a possible regulatory function of DsrC.

  9. Changes in exposed membrane proteins during in vitro capacitation of boar sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.

    1990-01-01

    Exposed plasma membrane proteins were labeled with 125 I before and after incubation of boar sperm under capacitating conditions. Labeled protein profiles were compared to the ability of the sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster ova. Quantitatively, the labeled sperm membrane proteins were primarily low Mr prior to capacitation. The majority of the labeled seminal plasma protein was also low Mr. After capacitation, two new proteins (64,000 Mr and 78,000 Mr) were labeled. Sperm did not exhibit these exposed membrane proteins when incubated under noncapacitating conditions. Appearance of these proteins was not correlated to the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. Although the 64,000 Mr protein was not consistently observed, the relative labeling of the 78,000 Mr protein was highly correlated with the ability of sperm to fuse with zona-free hamster ova. The 78,000 Mr protein may be a sperm protein involved in fusion with the egg plasma membrane

  10. Comparative genomic analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2015-11-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity was accompanied by progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2016-09-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they all have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity arose in Leptospira correlating to progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. BAR domains, amphipathic helices and membrane-anchored proteins use the same mechanism to sense membrane curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kenneth Lindegaard; Bhatia, V K; Gether, U

    2010-01-01

    /ensemble liposome samples of different mean diameter. Next, we describe two different MCS protein motifs (amphipathic helices and BAR domains) and suggest that in both cases curvature sensitive membrane binding results from asymmetric insertion of hydrophobic amino acids in the lipid membrane. This mechanism can...

  13. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Membranes for Detection of High-Mass Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Park, J.; Aksamija, Z.; Arbulu, M.; Blick, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical resonators realized on the nanoscale by now offer applications in mass sensing of biomolecules with extraordinary sensitivity. The general idea is that perfect mechanical mass sensors should be of extremely small size to achieve zepto- or yoctogram sensitivity in weighing single molecules similar to a classical scale. However, the small effective size and long response time for weighing biomolecules with a cantilever restricts their usefulness as a high-throughput method. Commercial mass spectrometry (MS), on the other hand, such as electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) and their charge-amplifying detectors are the gold standards to which nanomechanical resonators have to live up to. These two methods rely on the ionization and acceleration of biomolecules and the following ion detection after a mass selection step, such as TOF. The principle we describe here for ion detection is based on the conversion of kinetic energy of the biomolecules into thermal excitation of chemical vapor deposition diamond nanomembranes via phonons followed by phonon-mediated detection via field emission of thermally emitted electrons. We fabricate ultrathin diamond membranes with large lateral dimensions for MALDI TOF MS of high-mass proteins. These diamond membranes are realized by straightforward etching methods based on semiconductor processing. With a minimal thickness of 100 nm and cross sections of up to 400 ×400 μ m2 , the membranes offer extreme aspect ratios. Ion detection is demonstrated in MALDI TOF analysis over a broad range from insulin to albumin. The resulting data in detection show much enhanced resolution as compared to existing detectors, which can offer better sensitivity and overall performance in resolving protein masses.

  16. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  17. Targeting and Assembly of Components of the TOC Protein Import Complex at the Chloroplast Outer Envelope Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn G.L. Richardson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β–barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  18. Targeting and assembly of components of the TOC protein import complex at the chloroplast outer envelope membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lynn G L; Paila, Yamuna D; Siman, Steven R; Chen, Yi; Smith, Matthew D; Schnell, Danny J

    2014-01-01

    The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β-barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  19. Solid-state NMR analysis of membrane proteins and protein aggregates by proton detected spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Donghua H.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Comellas, Gemma; Sperling, Lindsay J.; Tang, Ming; Shah, Gautam J.; Brea, Elliott J.; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state NMR has emerged as an important tool for structural biology and chemistry, capable of solving atomic-resolution structures for proteins in membrane-bound and aggregated states. Proton detection methods have been recently realized under fast magic-angle spinning conditions, providing large sensitivity enhancements for efficient examination of uniformly labeled proteins. The first and often most challenging step of protein structure determination by NMR is the site-specific resonance assignment. Here we demonstrate resonance assignments based on high-sensitivity proton-detected three-dimensional experiments for samples of different physical states, including a fully-protonated small protein (GB1, 6 kDa), a deuterated microcrystalline protein (DsbA, 21 kDa), a membrane protein (DsbB, 20 kDa) prepared in a lipid environment, and the extended core of a fibrillar protein (α-synuclein, 14 kDa). In our implementation of these experiments, including CONH, CO(CA)NH, CANH, CA(CO)NH, CBCANH, and CBCA(CO)NH, dipolar-based polarization transfer methods have been chosen for optimal efficiency for relatively high protonation levels (full protonation or 100 % amide proton), fast magic-angle spinning conditions (40 kHz) and moderate proton decoupling power levels. Each H–N pair correlates exclusively to either intra- or inter-residue carbons, but not both, to maximize spectral resolution. Experiment time can be reduced by at least a factor of 10 by using proton detection in comparison to carbon detection. These high-sensitivity experiments are especially important for membrane proteins, which often have rather low expression yield. Proton-detection based experiments are expected to play an important role in accelerating protein structure elucidation by solid-state NMR with the improved sensitivity and resolution.

  20. Viroids: how to infect a host and cause disease without encoding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Beatriz; Gisel, Andreas; Rodio, Maria-Elena; Delgado, Sonia; Flores, Ricardo; Di Serio, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Despite being composed by a single-stranded, circular, non-protein-coding RNA of just 246-401 nucleotides (nt), viroids can incite in their host plants symptoms similar to those caused by DNA and RNA viruses, which have genomes at least 20-fold bigger and encode proteins. On the other hand, certain non-protein-coding plant satellite RNAs display structural similarities with viroids but for replication and transmission they need to parasitize specific helper viruses (modifying concomitantly the symptoms they induce). While phenotypic alterations accompanying infection by viruses may partly result from expressing the proteins they code for, how the non-protein-coding viroids (and satellite RNAs) cause disease remains a conundrum. Initial ideas on viroid pathogenesis focused on a direct interaction of the genomic RNA with host proteins resulting in their malfunction. With the advent of RNA silencing, it was alternatively proposed that symptoms could be produced by viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) -generated by the host defensive machinery- targeting specific host mRNA or DNA sequences for post-transcriptional or transcriptional gene silencing, respectively, a hypothesis that could also explain pathogenesis of non-protein-coding satellite RNAs. Evidence sustaining this view has been circumstantial, but recent data provide support for it in two cases: i) the yellow symptoms associated with a specific satellite RNA result from a 22-nt small RNA (derived from the 24-nt fragment of the satellite genome harboring the pathogenic determinant), which is complementary to a segment of the mRNA of the chlorophyll biosynthetic gene CHLI and targets it for cleavage by the RNA silencing machinery, and ii) two 21-nt vd-sRNAS containing the pathogenic determinant of the albino phenotype induced by a chloroplast-replicating viroid target for cleavage the mRNA coding for the chloroplastic heat-shock protein 90 via RNA silencing too. This evidence, which is compelling for the

  1. High-resolution diffraction from crystals of a membrane-protein complex: bacterial outer membrane protein OmpC complexed with the antibacterial eukaryotic protein lactoferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundara Baalaji, N.; Acharya, K. Ravi; Singh, T. P.; Krishnaswamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of the complex formed between the bacterial membrane protein OmpC and the antibacterial protein lactoferrin suitable for high-resolution structure determination have been obtained. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å. Crystals of the complex formed between the outer membrane protein OmpC from Escherichia coli and the eukaryotic antibacterial protein lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius (camel) have been obtained using a detergent environment. Initial data processing suggests that the crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. This indicated a Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 3.3 Å 3 Da −1 , corresponding to a possible molecular complex involving four molecules of lactoferrin and two porin trimers in the unit cell (4832 amino acids; 533.8 kDa) with 63% solvent content. A complete set of diffraction data was collected to 3 Å resolution at 100 K. Structure determination by molecular replacement is in progress. Structural study of this first surface-exposed membrane-protein complex with an antibacterial protein will provide insights into the mechanism of action of OmpC as well as lactoferrin

  2. The 1p-encoded protein stathmin and resistance of malignant gliomas to nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Teri-T B; Peng, Tien; Liang, Xing-Jie; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Pastorino, Sandra; Zhang, Wei; Kotliarov, Yuri; Zenklusen, Jean C; Fine, Howard A; Maric, Dragan; Wen, Patrick Y; De Girolami, Umberto; Black, Peter McL; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Jeffries, Neal O; Kang, Dong-Won; Park, John K

    2007-04-18

    Malignant gliomas are generally resistant to all conventional therapies. Notable exceptions are anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1p (1p+/-). Patients with 1p+/- anaplastic oligodendroglioma frequently respond to procarbazine, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea, and vincristine. Because the underlying biologic basis for this clinical finding is unclear, we evaluated differentially expressed 1p-encoded proteins in 1p+/- and 1p+/+ malignant glioma cell lines and then examined whether their expression was associated with outcome of patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma. We used a comparative proteomic screen of A172 (1p+/-) and U251 (1p+/+) malignant glioma cell lines to identify differentially expressed 1p-encoded proteins, including stathmin, a microtubule-associated protein. 1p+/- and 1p+/+ anaplastic oligodendroglioma specimens from 24 patients were assessed for stathmin expression by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between stathmin expression and clinical outcome was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analyses. RNA inhibition and cDNA transfection experiments tested effects of stathmin under- and overexpression, respectively, on the in vitro and in vivo resistance of malignant glioma cells to treatment with nitrosourea. For in vivo resistance studies, 36 mice with intracranial and 16 mice with subcutaneous xenograft tumor implants were used (one tumor per mouse). Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Immunoblotting was used to assess protein expression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Decreased stathmin expression in tumors was statistically significantly associated with loss of heterozygosity in 1p (Pnitrosourea-treated mice carrying xenograft tumors. Median survival of mice with stathmin+/- tumors was 95 days (95% CI = 68.7 to 121.3 days) and that of mice with stathmin+/+ tumors was 64 days (95% CI = 58.2 to 69.8 days) (difference = 31 days, 95% CI = 4.1 to 57.9 days; PNitrosoureas induced

  3. Nanoscale protein architecture of the kidney glomerular basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Hani; Zhang, Lei; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Shaw, Andrey S; Dani, Adish

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play structural and functional roles in essentially all organs, so understanding ECM protein organization in health and disease remains an important goal. Here, we used sub-diffraction resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to resolve the in situ molecular organization of proteins within the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM), an essential mediator of glomerular ultrafiltration. Using multichannel STORM and STORM-electron microscopy correlation, we constructed a molecular reference frame that revealed a laminar organization of ECM proteins within the GBM. Separate analyses of domains near the N- and C-termini of agrin, laminin, and collagen IV in mouse and human GBM revealed a highly oriented macromolecular organization. Our analysis also revealed disruptions in this GBM architecture in a mouse model of Alport syndrome. These results provide the first nanoscopic glimpse into the organization of a complex ECM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01149.001 PMID:24137544

  4. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg 2+ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg 2+ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Nanoscopic dynamics of bicontinous microemulsions: effect of membrane associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Hayes, Douglas G; Urban, Volker S; O'Neill, Hugh M; Tyagi, M; Mamontov, E

    2017-07-19

    Bicontinous microemulsions (BμE) generally consist of nanodomains formed by surfactant in a mixture of water and oil at nearly equal proportions and are potential candidates for the solubilization and purification of membrane proteins. Here we present the first time report of nanoscopic dynamics of surfactant monolayers within BμEs formed by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) measured on the nanosecond to picosecond time scale using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). BμEs investigated herein consisted of middle phases isolated from Winsor-III microemulsion systems that were formed by mixing aqueous and oil solutions under optimal conditions. QENS data indicates that surfactants undergo two distinct motions, namely (i) lateral motion along the surface of the oil nanodomains and (ii) localized internal motion. Lateral motion can be described using a continuous diffusion model, from which the lateral diffusion coefficient is obtained. Internal motion of surfactant is described using a model which assumes that a fraction of the surfactants' hydrogens undergoes localized translational diffusion that could be considered confined within a spherical volume. The effect of cytochrome c, an archetypal membrane-associated protein known to strongly partition near the surfactant head groups in BμEs (a trend supported by small-angle X-ray scattering [SAXS] analysis), on the dynamics of BμE has also been investigated. QENS results demonstrated that cytochrome c significantly hindered both the lateral and the internal motions of surfactant. The lateral motion was more strongly affected: a reduction of the lateral diffusion coefficient by 33% was measured. This change is mainly attributable to the strong association of cytochrome c with oppositely charged SDS. In contrast, analysis of SAXS data suggested that thermal fluctuations (for a longer length and slower time scale compared to QENS) were increased upon incorporation of cytochrome c. This study

  6. Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Immunoglobulin G Reactive with a Recombinant Protein Expressed from the Gene Encoding the 116-Kilodalton Protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Michael F.; Whithear, Kevin G.; Noormohammadi, Amir H.; Markham, Philip F.; Catton, Michael; Leydon, Jennie; Browning, Glenn F.

    1999-01-01

    Serology remains the method of choice for laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Currently available serological tests employ complex cellular fractions of M. pneumoniae as antigen. To improve the specificity of M. pneumoniae diagnosis, a recombinant protein was assessed as a serodiagnostic reagent. A panel of recombinant proteins were expressed from a cloned M. pneumoniae gene that encodes a 116-kDa surface protein antigen. The recombinant proteins were assessed for reactiv...

  7. G-protein signaling leverages subunit-dependent membrane affinity to differentially control βγ translocation to intracellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick R; Karunarathne, W K Ajith; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Silvius, John R; Gautam, N

    2012-12-18

    Activation of G-protein heterotrimers by receptors at the plasma membrane stimulates βγ-complex dissociation from the α-subunit and translocation to internal membranes. This intermembrane movement of lipid-modified proteins is a fundamental but poorly understood feature of cell signaling. The differential translocation of G-protein βγ-subunit types provides a valuable experimental model to examine the movement of signaling proteins between membranes in a living cell. We used live cell imaging, mathematical modeling, and in vitro measurements of lipidated fluorescent peptide dissociation from vesicles to determine the mechanistic basis of the intermembrane movement and identify the interactions responsible for differential translocation kinetics in this family of evolutionarily conserved proteins. We found that the reversible translocation is mediated by the limited affinity of the βγ-subunits for membranes. The differential kinetics of the βγ-subunit types are determined by variations among a set of basic and hydrophobic residues in the γ-subunit types. G-protein signaling thus leverages the wide variation in membrane dissociation rates among different γ-subunit types to differentially control βγ-translocation kinetics in response to receptor activation. The conservation of primary structures of γ-subunits across mammalian species suggests that there can be evolutionary selection for primary structures that confer specific membrane-binding affinities and consequent rates of intermembrane movement.

  8. Membrane re-modelling by BAR domain superfamily proteins via molecular and non-molecular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tamako; Morone, Nobuhiro; Suetsugu, Shiro

    2018-04-17

    Lipid membranes are structural components of cell surfaces and intracellular organelles. Alterations in lipid membrane shape are accompanied by numerous cellular functions, including endocytosis, intracellular transport, and cell migration. Proteins containing Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains (BAR proteins) are unique, because their structures correspond to the membrane curvature, that is, the shape of the lipid membrane. BAR proteins present at high concentration determine the shape of the membrane, because BAR domain oligomers function as scaffolds that mould the membrane. BAR proteins co-operate with various molecular and non-molecular factors. The molecular factors include cytoskeletal proteins such as the regulators of actin filaments and the membrane scission protein dynamin. Lipid composition, including saturated or unsaturated fatty acid tails of phospholipids, also affects the ability of BAR proteins to mould the membrane. Non-molecular factors include the external physical forces applied to the membrane, such as tension and friction. In this mini-review, we will discuss how the BAR proteins orchestrate membrane dynamics together with various molecular and non-molecular factors. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Revealing Linear Aggregates of Light Harvesting Antenna Proteins in Photosynthetic Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yufan; Zeng, Xiaohua; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Rajapaksha, Suneth; Kaplan, Samuel; Lu, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    How light energy is harvested in a natural photosynthetic membrane through energy transfer is closely related to the stoichiometry and arrangement of light harvesting antenna proteins in the membrane. The specific photosynthetic architecture facilitates a rapid and efficient energy transfer among the light harvesting proteins (LH2 and LH1) and to the reaction center. Here we report the identification of linear aggregates of light harvesting proteins, LH2, in the photosynthetic membranes under...

  10. Invisible detergents for structure determination of membrane proteins by small-angle neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Darwish, Tamim A.; Pedersen, Martin Cramer

    2018-01-01

    A novel and generally applicable method for determining structures of membrane proteins in solution via small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is presented. Common detergents for solubilizing membrane proteins were synthesized in isotope-substituted versions for utilizing the intrinsic neutron sca...... solution structure determination of membrane proteins by SANS and subsequent data analysis available to non-specialists. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. A New Class of Amphiphiles Bearing Rigid Hydrophobic Groups for Solubilization and Stabilization of Membrane Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional amphiphiles: Conferring aqueous solubility on membrane proteins generally requires the use of a detergent or other amphiphilic agent. A new class of amphiphiles was synthesized, based on steroidal lipophilic groups, and evaluated with several membrane proteins. The results show th...... that the new amphiphile, "glyco-diosgenin" (GDN; see figure), confers enhanced stability to a variety of membrane proteins in solution relative to popular conventional detergents, such as dodecylmaltoside (DDM)....

  12. Identification of Salt-Tolerant Sinorhizobium sp Strain BL3 Membrane Proteins Based on Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Mohammed, Shabaz; Matthiesen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    functional categories, the two biggest of which were energy production and conversion, and proteins not in clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). In addition, a comparative analysis of membrane proteins between salt-stressed and non-stressed BL3 cells was conducted using a membrane enrichment method and off-line...... SCX fractionation coupled to nanoLC-MS/MS. These techniques would be useful for further comparative analysis of membrane proteins that function in the response to environmental stress....

  13. One-step isolation of plasma membrane proteins using magnetic beads with immobilized concanavalin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Block, Gregory; Chen, Huiwen

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for isolating and purifying plasma membrane proteins from various cell types. This one-step affinity-chromatography method uses the property of the lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and the technique of magnetic bead separation to obtain highly purified plasma membrane...... proteins from crude membrane preparations or cell lines. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. When these ConA magnetic beads were used to enrich plasma membranes from a crude membrane preparation, this procedure resulted in 3.7-fold enrichment...... of plasma membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase activity with 70% recovery of the activity in the crude membrane fraction of rat liver. In agreement with the results of 5'-nucleotidase activity, immunoblotting with antibodies specific for a rat liver plasma membrane protein, CEACAM1, indicated that CEACAM1...

  14. Towards understanding of Nipah virus attachment protein assembly and the role of protein affinity and crowding for membrane curvature events.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Hayden, Carl C.; Negrete, Oscar.; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic viruses are a primary threat to our national security and to the health and economy of our world. Effective defense strategies to combat viral infection and spread require the development of understanding of the mechanisms that these pathogens use to invade the host cell. We present in this report results of our research into viral particle recognition and fusion to cell membranes and the role that protein affinity and confinement in lipid domains plays in membrane curvature in cellular fusion and fission events. Herein, we describe 1) the assembly of the G attachment protein of Nipah virus using point mutation studies to define its role in viral particle fusion to the cell membrane, 2) how lateral pressure of membrane bound proteins induce curvature in model membrane systems, and 3) the role of membrane curvature in the selective partitioning of molecular receptors and specific affinity of associated proteins.

  15. Recombinant DNA specifying the human amyloid. beta. precursor protein (ABPP) encodes a 95-kDa polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mita, S; Sadlock, J; Herbert, J; Schon, E A

    1988-10-11

    Although the ABPP gene give rise to multiple mRNAs, the primary translation product of this gene is unknown. The longest published cDNA sequences predict a 770-aa polypeptide of 87 kDa. However, in immunoblots, ABPP migrated as a single species of >92 kDa in rat brain, and in human, as a species of 95-100 kDa in non-membrane bound form, as multiple species of 110-135 kDa in membrane-associated form and as a 130-kDa species in fibroblasts. The sizes of these larger species relative to the MW of ABPP predicted from the cDNA sequences have been attributed to postranslational modification. However, the authors have isolated a cDNA (lambdaHAP2) from a human fetal muscle lambdagt11 cDNA library encoding an 843-aa polypeptide with a deduced MW of 94,642. This cDNA contains both exons encoding an 843-aa polypeptide with a deduced MW of 94.642. This cDNA contains both exons encoding the protease inhibitor domains. Primer extension analysis indicates that the 5' terminus of this cDNA is 14 nt from a transcriptional start site. This cDNA, encoding the longest ABPP described to date, may explain some of the observations on the sizes of tissue-derived ABPP.

  16. Protein-membrane interaction and fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein to membranes. Support for a multistep process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J; Laborde, Lisandro; Kahn, Peter C; Storch, Judith; Córsico, Betina

    2006-05-19

    Fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) to phospholipid membranes occurs during protein-membrane collisions. Electrostatic interactions involving the alpha-helical "portal" region of the protein have been shown to be of great importance. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues in the alpha-helical region of IFABP was directly examined. A series of point mutants in rat IFABP was engineered in which the lysine positive charges in this domain were eliminated or reversed. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we analyzed the rates and mechanism of fatty acid transfer from wild type and mutant proteins to acceptor membranes. Most of the alpha-helical domain mutants showed slower absolute fatty acid transfer rates to zwitterionic membranes, with substitution of one of the lysines of the alpha2 helix, Lys27, resulting in a particularly dramatic decrease in the fatty acid transfer rate. Sensitivity to negatively charged phospholipid membranes was also reduced, with charge reversal mutants in the alpha2 helix the most affected. The results support the hypothesis that the portal region undergoes a conformational change during protein-membrane interaction, which leads to release of the bound fatty acid to the membrane and that the alpha2 segment is of particular importance in the establishment of charge-charge interactions between IFABP and membranes. Cross-linking experiments with a phospholipid-photoactivable reagent underscored the importance of charge-charge interactions, showing that the physical interaction between wild-type intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and phospholipid membranes is enhanced by electrostatic interactions. Protein-membrane interactions were also found to be enhanced by the presence of ligand, suggesting different collisional complex structures for holo- and apo-IFABP.

  17. Effect of Adsorbed Protein on the Hydraulic Permeability, Membrane and Streaming Potential Values Measured across a Microporous Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    1998-01-01

    permeability decreases strongly when the pH decreases, having its minimum value at the isoelectric point of the protein; the apparent zeta potential values are also dependent on both pH and salt concentration. Differences in the streaming potential coefficient determined for two membranes fouled under......The effect of the adsorption of a protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the membrane potential, flux reduction and streaming potential measured across a microporous polysulphone membrane with different NaCl solutions and pH values is studied. From electrokinetic phenomena, information about...... the electrical properties of the membrane (fixed charge concentration and ionic transport numbers) or the membrane/solute interactions (streaming and zeta potentials) can be obtained. The influence of pH and ionic strength on volume flux and streaming potential values is considered. Results show that hydraulic...

  18. Molecular characterization of a peritrophic membrane protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Chen, Lin; Yang, Rui; Xiang, Xingwei; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The peritrophic membrane lines the gut of most insects at one or more stages of their life cycles. It facilitates the digestive processes in the guts and protects from invasion by pathogens or food particles. In the current study, a novel PM protein, designated as BmMtch, was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The open reading frame of BmMtch is 888 bp in length, encoding 295 amino acid residues consisting of two domains (Mito_carr domains) and three transmembrane regions. They are localized on the 11th chromosome as single copy with one exon only. Quantitative real time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR) revealed that BmMtch was mainly expressed in larval fat bodies, Malpighian tubules, testis and ovaries, and could be detected through all stages of the life cycle of silkworm. Immuno-fluorescence analysis indicated that BmMtch was localized within the goblet cell of larval midgut. Western blotting analysis showed that BmMtch were detected in total proteins of PM and larval midgut. The characteristics of BmMtch indicated that BmMtch represents a novel member of insect PM proteins, without chitin-binding domains.

  19. An α-Helical Core Encodes the Dual Functions of the Chlamydial Protein IncA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D.; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. PMID:25324548

  20. An α-helical core encodes the dual functions of the chlamydial protein IncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-11-28

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein L37 is encoded by duplicate genes that are differentially expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, J; Santangelo, G M

    1994-06-01

    A duplicate copy of the RPL37A gene (encoding ribosomal protein L37) was cloned and sequenced. The coding region of RPL37B is very similar to that of RPL37A, with only one conservative amino-acid difference. However, the intron and flanking sequences of the two genes are extremely dissimilar. Disruption experiments indicate that the two loci are not functionally equivalent: disruption of RPL37B was insignificant, but disruption of RPL37A severely impaired the growth rate of the cell. When both RPL37 loci are disrupted, the cell is unable to grow at all, indicating that rpL37 is an essential protein. The functional disparity between the two RPL37 loci could be explained by differential gene expression. The results of two experiments support this idea: gene fusion of RPL37A to a reporter gene resulted in six-fold higher mRNA levels than was generated by the same reporter gene fused to RPL37B, and a modest increase in gene dosage of RPL37B overcame the lack of a functional RPL37A gene.

  2. Sequence of a cDNA encoding turtle high mobility group 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jifang; Hu, Bi; Wu, Duansheng

    2005-07-01

    In order to understand sequence information about turtle HMG1 gene, a cDNA encoding HMG1 protein of the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) was amplified by RT-PCR from kidney total RNA, and was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. The results revealed that the open reading frame (ORF) of turtle HMG1 cDNA is 606 bp long. The ORF codifies 202 amino acid residues, from which two DNA-binding domains and one polyacidic region are derived. The DNA-binding domains share higher amino acid identity with homologues sequences of chicken (96.5%) and mammalian (74%) than homologues sequence of rainbow trout (67%). The polyacidic region shows 84.6% amino acid homology with the equivalent region of chicken HMG1 cDNA. Turtle HMG1 protein contains 3 Cys residues located at completely conserved positions. Conservation in sequence and structure suggests that the functions of turtle HMG1 cDNA may be highly conserved during evolution. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HMG1 cDNA sequence in any reptilian.

  3. Nopaline-type Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium encodes a VirF-like functional F-box protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2015-11-20

    During Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of plants, several bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins are translocated into the host cell to facilitate infection. One of the most important of such translocated factors is VirF, an F-box protein produced by octopine strains of Agrobacterium, which presumably facilitates proteasomal uncoating of the invading T-DNA from its associated proteins. The presence of VirF also is thought to be involved in differences in host specificity between octopine and nopaline strains of Agrobacterium, with the current dogma being that no functional VirF is encoded by nopaline strains. Here, we show that a protein with homology to octopine VirF is encoded by the Ti plasmid of the nopaline C58 strain of Agrobacterium. This protein, C58VirF, possesses the hallmarks of functional F-box proteins: it contains an active F-box domain and specifically interacts, via its F-box domain, with SKP1-like (ASK) protein components of the plant ubiquitin/proteasome system. Thus, our data suggest that nopaline strains of Agrobacterium have evolved to encode a functional F-box protein VirF.

  4. Solubilization of rat kidney plasma membrane proteins associated with 3H-aldosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozegovic, B.; Dobrovic-Jenik, D.; Milkovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of rat kidney plasma membranes with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) did not essentially affect the ability of the membranes for 3 H-aldosterone binding as compared with the intact plasma membranes (Ozegovic et al., 1977). A gel filtration of 3 H-aldosterone - kidney plasma membranes complex on Sepharose 6B yielded 2 protein and 2 3 H-aldosterone peaks. The proteins which were eluted in the first peak were associated with the first 3 H-aldosterone peak while the second 3 H-aldosterone peak was eluted with Ve corresponding to Ve of free 3 H-aldosterone. Spironolactone, a competitive antagonist of aldosterone, prevented the binding of 3 H-aldosterone to the membrane proteins. The results demonstrated a high affinity of the kidney plasma membranes solubilized with SDS and a specificity of aldosterone binding to the plasma membrane proteins of higher molecular mass. (author)

  5. Folding DNA into a Lipid-Conjugated Nanobarrel for Controlled Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanchen; Chen, Shuobing; Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph; Yang, Zhongqiang; Liu, Dongsheng; Mao, Youdong

    2018-02-19

    Building upon DNA origami technology, we introduce a method to reconstitute a single membrane protein into a self-assembled DNA nanobarrel that scaffolds a nanodisc-like lipid environment. Compared with the membrane-scaffolding-protein nanodisc technique, our approach gives rise to defined stoichiometry, controlled sizes, as well as enhanced stability and homogeneity in membrane protein reconstitution. We further demonstrate potential applications of the DNA nanobarrels in the structural analysis of membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laulumaa Saara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  7. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Kursula, Petri; Natali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  8. Membrane Stored Curvature Elastic Stress Modulates Recruitment of Maintenance Proteins PspA and Vipp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher; Jovanovic, Goran; Ces, Oscar; Buck, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Phage shock protein A (PspA), which is responsible for maintaining inner membrane integrity under stress in enterobacteria, and vesicle-inducting protein in plastids 1 (Vipp1), which functions for membrane maintenance and thylakoid biogenesis in cyanobacteria and plants, are similar peripheral membrane-binding proteins. Their homologous N-terminal amphipathic helices are required for membrane binding; however, the membrane features recognized and required for expressing their functionalities have remained largely uncharacterized. Rigorously controlled, in vitro methodologies with lipid vesicles and purified proteins were used in this study and provided the first biochemical and biophysical characterizations of membrane binding by PspA and Vipp1. Both proteins are found to sense stored curvature elastic (SCE) stress and anionic lipids within the membrane. PspA has an enhanced sensitivity for SCE stress and a higher affinity for the membrane than Vipp1. These variations in binding may be crucial for some of the proteins' differing roles in vivo. Assays probing the transcriptional regulatory function of PspA in the presence of vesicles showed that a relief of transcription inhibition occurs in an SCE stress-specific manner. This in vitro recapitulation of membrane stress-dependent transcription control suggests that the Psp response may be mounted in vivo when a cell's inner membrane experiences increased SCE stress. All cell types maintain the integrity of their membrane systems. One widely distributed membrane stress response system in bacteria is the phage shock protein (Psp) system. The central component, peripheral membrane protein PspA, which mitigates inner membrane stress in bacteria, has a counterpart, Vipp1, which functions for membrane maintenance and thylakoid biogenesis in plants and photosynthetic bacteria. Membrane association of both these proteins is accepted as playing a pivotal role in their functions. Here we show that direct membrane binding by

  9. Mesitylene-Cored Glucoside Amphiphiles (MGAs) for Membrane Protein Studies: Importance of Alkyl Chain Density in Detergent Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Detergents serve as useful tools for membrane protein structural and functional studies. Their amphipathic nature allows detergents to associate with the hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins whilst maintaining the proteins in aqueous solution. However, widely used conventional detergents...

  10. Genomics and physiology of a marine flavobacterium encoding a proteorhodopsin and a xanthorhodopsin-like protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riedel

    Full Text Available Proteorhodopsin (PR photoheterotrophy in the marine flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. PRO95 has previously been investigated, showing no growth stimulation in the light at intermediate carbon concentrations. Here we report the genome sequence of strain PRO95 and compare it to two other PR encoding Dokdonia genomes: that of strain 4H-3-7-5 which shows the most similar genome, and that of strain MED134 which grows better in the light under oligotrophic conditions. Our genome analysis revealed that the PRO95 genome as well as the 4H-3-7-5 genome encode a protein related to xanthorhodopsins. The genomic environment and phylogenetic distribution of this gene suggest that it may have frequently been recruited by lateral gene transfer. Expression analyses by RT-PCR and direct mRNA-sequencing showed that both rhodopsins and the complete β-carotene pathway necessary for retinal production are transcribed in PRO95. Proton translocation measurements showed enhanced proton pump activity in response to light, supporting that one or both rhodopsins are functional. Genomic information and carbon source respiration data were used to develop a defined cultivation medium for PRO95, but reproducible growth always required small amounts of yeast extract. Although PRO95 contains and expresses two rhodopsin genes, light did not stimulate its growth as determined by cell numbers in a nutrient poor seawater medium that mimics its natural environment, confirming previous experiments at intermediate carbon concentrations. Starvation or stress conditions might be needed to observe the physiological effect of light induced energy acquisition.

  11. The synthesis of recombinant membrane proteins in yeast for structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Sarah J; Mikaliunaite, Lina; Patel, Anjana; Clare, Michelle; Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bawa, Zharain; Wilks, Martin D B; Low, Floren; Hardy, David; Rothnie, Alice J; Bill, Roslyn M

    2016-02-15

    Historically, recombinant membrane protein production has been a major challenge meaning that many fewer membrane protein structures have been published than those of soluble proteins. However, there has been a recent, almost exponential increase in the number of membrane protein structures being deposited in the Protein Data Bank. This suggests that empirical methods are now available that can ensure the required protein supply for these difficult targets. This review focuses on methods that are available for protein production in yeast, which is an important source of recombinant eukaryotic membrane proteins. We provide an overview of approaches to optimize the expression plasmid, host cell and culture conditions, as well as the extraction and purification of functional protein for crystallization trials in preparation for structural studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterization of genome segments 1 and 3 encoding two capsid proteins of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus

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    Chakrabarti Mrinmay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV, a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects Indian non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains 11 segmented double stranded RNA (S1-S11 in its genome. Some of its genome segments (S2 and S6-S11 have been previously characterized but genome segments encoding viral capsid have not been characterized. Results In this study genome segments 1 (S1 and 3 (S3 of AmCPV were converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S1 consisted of 3852 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 3735 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1245 amino acids with molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Similarly, S3 consisted of 3784 nucleotides having a long ORF of 3630 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1210 amino acids with molecular mass of ~137 kDa. BLAST analysis showed 20-22% homology of S1 and S3 sequence with spike and capsid proteins, respectively, of other closely related cypoviruses like Bombyx mori CPV (BmCPV, Lymantria dispar CPV (LdCPV, and Dendrolimus punctatus CPV (DpCPV. The ORFs of S1 and S3 were expressed as 141 kDa and 137 kDa insoluble His-tagged fusion proteins, respectively, in Escherichia coli M15 cells via pQE-30 vector, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibodies were raised. Immunoblot analysis of purified polyhedra, virion particles and virus infected mid-gut cells with the raised anti-p137 and anti-p141 antibodies showed specific immunoreactive bands and suggest that S1 and S3 may code for viral structural proteins. Expression of S1 and S3 ORFs in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants showed to produce viral like particles (VLPs by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogold staining showed that S3 encoded proteins self assembled to form viral outer capsid and VLPs maintained their stability at different pH in presence of S1 encoded protein. Conclusion Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S1 and S3 indicate that S3

  13. Extracellular vesicles as a platform for membrane-associated therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoosoo; Hong, Yeonsun; Cho, Eunji; Kim, Gi Beom; Kim, In-San

    2018-01-01

    Membrane proteins are of great research interest, particularly because they are rich in targets for therapeutic application. The suitability of various membrane proteins as targets for therapeutic formulations, such as drugs or antibodies, has been studied in preclinical and clinical studies. For therapeutic application, however, a protein must be expressed and purified in as close to its native conformation as possible. This has proven difficult for membrane proteins, as their native conformation requires the association with an appropriate cellular membrane. One solution to this problem is to use extracellular vesicles as a display platform. Exosomes and microvesicles are membranous extracellular vesicles that are released from most cells. Their membranes may provide a favourable microenvironment for membrane proteins to take on their proper conformation, activity, and membrane distribution; moreover, membrane proteins can cluster into microdomains on the surface of extracellular vesicles following their biogenesis. In this review, we survey the state-of-the-art of extracellular vesicle (exosome and small-sized microvesicle)-based therapeutics, evaluate the current biological understanding of these formulations, and forecast the technical advances that will be needed to continue driving the development of membrane protein therapeutics.

  14. Novel Biosensor of Membrane Protein Proximity Based on Fluorogen Activated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Kalin V; Gallo, Eugenio; Shank, Nathaniel; Jarvik, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel biosensor system for reporting proximity between cell surface proteins in live cultured cells. The biosensor takes advantage of recently developed fluorogen-activating proteins (FAPs) that display fluorescence only when bound to otherwise-nonfluorescent fluorogen molecules. To demonstrate feasibility for the approach, two recombinant rapamycin-binding proteins were expressed as single-pass plasma membrane proteins in HeLa cells; one of the proteins (scAvd- FRB) carried an extracellular avidin tag; the other (HL1-TO1-FKBP) carried an extracellular FAP. Cells were incubated with a membrane-impermeable bivalent ligand (biotin-PEG2000-DIR) consisting of biotin joined to a dimethyl-indole red (DIR) fluorogen by a polyethylene glycol linker, thus tethering the fluorogen to the scAvd-FRB fusion protein. Addition of rapamycin, which promotes FKBP-FRB dimerization and thereby brings the FAP in close proximity to the tethered fluorogen, led to a significant increase in DIR fluorescence. We call the new proximity assay TEFLA, for tethered fluorogen assay.

  15. Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

    2011-07-15

    The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane.

  16. STIM proteins and the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Silvia; Meyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic organelles can interact with each other through stable junctions where the two membranes are kept in close apposition. The junction that connects the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane (ER-PM junction) is unique in providing a direct communication link between the ER and the PM. In a recently discovered signaling process, STIM (stromal-interacting molecule) proteins sense a drop in ER Ca(2+) levels and directly activate Orai PM Ca(2+) channels across the junction space. In an inverse process, a voltage-gated PM Ca(2+) channel can directly open ER ryanodine-receptor Ca(2+) channels in striated-muscle cells. Although ER-PM junctions were first described 50 years ago, their broad importance in Ca(2+) signaling, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol lipid transfer, has only recently been realized. Here, we discuss research from different fields to provide a broad perspective on the structures and unique roles of ER-PM junctions in controlling signaling and metabolic processes.

  17. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Matsuo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system.

  18. The ANGULATA7 gene encodes a DnaJ-like zinc finger-domain protein involved in chloroplast function and leaf development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Nortes, Tamara; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Ponce, María Rosa; Candela, Héctor; Micol, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of mutants with altered leaf shape and pigmentation has previously allowed the identification of nuclear genes that encode plastid-localized proteins that perform essential functions in leaf growth and development. A large-scale screen previously allowed us to isolate ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants with small rosettes and pale green leaves with prominent marginal teeth, which were assigned to a phenotypic class that we dubbed Angulata. The molecular characterization of the 12 genes assigned to this phenotypic class should help us to advance our understanding of the still poorly understood relationship between chloroplast biogenesis and leaf morphogenesis. In this article, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of the angulata7-1 (anu7-1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which we found to be a hypomorphic allele of the EMB2737 gene, which was previously known only for its embryonic-lethal mutations. ANU7 encodes a plant-specific protein that contains a domain similar to the central cysteine-rich domain of DnaJ proteins. The observed genetic interaction of anu7-1 with a loss-of-function allele of GENOMES UNCOUPLED1 suggests that the anu7-1 mutation triggers a retrograde signal that leads to changes in the expression of many genes that normally function in the chloroplasts. Many such genes are expressed at higher levels in anu7-1 rosettes, with a significant overrepresentation of those required for the expression of plastid genome genes. Like in other mutants with altered expression of plastid-encoded genes, we found that anu7-1 exhibits defects in the arrangement of thylakoidal membranes, which appear locally unappressed. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Systematic mutagenesis of genes encoding predicted autotransported proteins of Burkholderia pseudomallei identifies factors mediating virulence in mice, net intracellular replication and a novel protein conferring serum resistance.

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    Natalie R Lazar Adler

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, which commonly presents as sepsis. The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes eleven predicted autotransporters, a diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins often associated with virulence. In a systematic study of these autotransporters, we constructed insertion mutants in each gene predicted to encode an autotransporter and assessed them for three pathogenesis-associated phenotypes: virulence in the BALB/c intra-peritoneal mouse melioidosis model, net intracellular replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells and survival in 45% (v/v normal human serum. From the complete repertoire of eleven autotransporter mutants, we identified eight mutants which exhibited an increase in median lethal dose of 1 to 2-log10 compared to the isogenic parent strain (bcaA, boaA, boaB, bpaA, bpaC, bpaE, bpaF and bimA. Four mutants, all demonstrating attenuation for virulence, exhibited reduced net intracellular replication in J774.2 macrophage-like cells (bimA, boaB, bpaC and bpaE. A single mutant (bpaC was identified that exhibited significantly reduced serum survival compared to wild-type. The bpaC mutant, which demonstrated attenuation for virulence and net intracellular replication, was sensitive to complement-mediated killing via the classical and/or lectin pathway. Serum resistance was rescued by in trans complementation. Subsequently, we expressed recombinant proteins of the passenger domain of four predicted autotransporters representing each of the phenotypic groups identified: those attenuated for virulence (BcaA, those attenuated for virulence and net intracellular replication (BpaE, the BpaC mutant with defects in virulence, net intracellular replication and serum resistance and those displaying wild-type phenotypes (BatA. Only BcaA and BpaE elicited a strong IFN-γ response in a restimulation assay using whole blood from seropositive donors

  20. Microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly, membrane protein incorporation, and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Jones, Joshua D; Lenov, Ivan L; Riordan, Colleen M; Sligar, Stephen G; Bailey, Ryan C

    2017-08-22

    The characterization of integral membrane proteins presents numerous analytical challenges on account of their poor activity under non-native conditions, limited solubility in aqueous solutions, and low expression in most cell culture systems. Nanodiscs are synthetic model membrane constructs that offer many advantages for studying membrane protein function by offering a native-like phospholipid bilayer environment. The successful incorporation of membrane proteins within Nanodiscs requires experimental optimization of conditions. Standard protocols for Nanodisc formation can require large amounts of time and input material, limiting the facile screening of formation conditions. Capitalizing on the miniaturization and efficient mass transport inherent to microfluidics, we have developed a microfluidic platform for efficient Nanodisc assembly and purification, and demonstrated the ability to incorporate functional membrane proteins into the resulting Nanodiscs. In addition to working with reduced sample volumes, this platform simplifies membrane protein incorporation from a multi-stage protocol requiring several hours or days into a single platform that outputs purified Nanodiscs in less than one hour. To demonstrate the utility of this platform, we incorporated Cytochrome P450 into Nanodiscs of variable size and lipid composition, and present spectroscopic evidence for the functional active site of the membrane protein. This platform is a promising new tool for membrane protein biology and biochemistry that enables tremendous versatility for optimizing the incorporation of membrane proteins using microfluidic gradients to screen across diverse formation conditions.

  1. The role of hydrophobic interactions in positioning of peripheral proteins in membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomize Mikhail A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D structures of numerous peripheral membrane proteins have been determined. Biological activity, stability, and conformations of these proteins depend on their spatial positions with respect to the lipid bilayer. However, these positions are usually undetermined. Results We report the first large-scale computational study of monotopic/peripheral proteins with known 3D structures. The optimal translational and rotational positions of 476 proteins are determined by minimizing energy of protein transfer from water to the lipid bilayer, which is approximated by a hydrocarbon slab with a decadiene-like polarity and interfacial regions characterized by water-permeation profiles. Predicted membrane-binding sites, protein tilt angles and membrane penetration depths are consistent with spin-labeling, chemical modification, fluorescence, NMR, mutagenesis, and other experimental studies of 53 peripheral proteins and peptides. Experimental membrane binding affinities of peripheral proteins were reproduced in cases that did not involve a helix-coil transition, specific binding of lipids, or a predominantly electrostatic association. Coordinates of all examined peripheral proteins and peptides with the calculated hydrophobic membrane boundaries, subcellular localization, topology, structural classification, and experimental references are available through the Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM database. Conclusion Positions of diverse peripheral proteins and peptides in the lipid bilayer can be accurately predicted using their 3D structures that represent a proper membrane-bound conformation and oligomeric state, and have membrane binding elements present. The success of the implicit solvation model suggests that hydrophobic interactions are usually sufficient to determine the spatial position of a protein in the membrane, even when electrostatic interactions or specific binding of lipids are substantial. Our

  2. Lateral Organization of Influenza Virus Proteins in the Budozone Region of the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, George P; Lamb, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    Influenza virus assembles and buds at the plasma membrane of virus-infected cells. The viral proteins assemble at the same site on the plasma membrane for budding to occur. This involves a complex web of interactions among viral proteins. Some proteins, like hemagglutinin (HA), NA, and M2, are integral membrane proteins. M1 is peripherally membrane associated, whereas NP associates with viral RNA to form an RNP complex that associates with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, HA and NP have been shown to be concentrated in cholesterol-rich membrane raft domains, whereas M2, although containing a cholesterol binding motif, is not raft associated. Here we identify viral proteins in planar sheets of plasma membrane using immunogold staining. The distribution of these proteins was examined individually and pairwise by using the Ripley K function, a type of nearest-neighbor analysis. Individually, HA, NA, M1, M2, and NP were shown to self-associate in or on the plasma membrane. HA and M2 are strongly coclustered in the plasma membrane; however, in the case of NA and M2, clustering depends upon the expression system used. Despite both proteins being raft resident, HA and NA occupy distinct but adjacent membrane domains. M2 and M1 strongly cocluster, but the association of M1 with HA or NA is dependent upon the means of expression. The presence of HA and NP at the site of budding depends upon the coexpression of other viral proteins. Similarly, M2 and NP occupy separate compartments, but an association can be bridged by the coexpression of M1. IMPORTANCE The complement of influenza virus proteins necessary for the budding of progeny virions needs to accumulate at budozones. This is complicated by HA and NA residing in lipid raft-like domains, whereas M2, although an integral membrane protein, is not raft associated. Other necessary protein components such as M1 and NP are peripherally associated with the membrane. Our data define spatial relationships

  3. A Finite Element Solution of Lateral Periodic Poisson–Boltzmann Model for Membrane Channel Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjie; Lu, Benzhuo

    2018-01-01

    Membrane channel proteins control the diffusion of ions across biological membranes. They are closely related to the processes of various organizational mechanisms, such as: cardiac impulse, muscle contraction and hormone secretion. Introducing a membrane region into implicit solvation models extends the ability of the Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) equation to handle membrane proteins. The use of lateral periodic boundary conditions can properly simulate the discrete distribution of membrane proteins on the membrane plane and avoid boundary effects, which are caused by the finite box size in the traditional PB calculations. In this work, we: (1) develop a first finite element solver (FEPB) to solve the PB equation with a two-dimensional periodicity for membrane channel proteins, with different numerical treatments of the singular charges distributions in the channel protein; (2) add the membrane as a dielectric slab in the PB model, and use an improved mesh construction method to automatically identify the membrane channel/pore region even with a tilt angle relative to the z-axis; and (3) add a non-polar solvation energy term to complete the estimation of the total solvation energy of a membrane protein. A mesh resolution of about 0.25 Å (cubic grid space)/0.36 Å (tetrahedron edge length) is found to be most accurate in linear finite element calculation of the PB solvation energy. Computational studies are performed on a few exemplary molecules. The results indicate that all factors, the membrane thickness, the length of periodic box, membrane dielectric constant, pore region dielectric constant, and ionic strength, have individually considerable influence on the solvation energy of a channel protein. This demonstrates the necessity to treat all of those effects in the PB model for membrane protein simulations. PMID:29495644

  4. Direct Capture of Functional Proteins from Mammalian Plasma Membranes into Nanodiscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jahnabi; Pondenis, Holly; Fan, Timothy M; Das, Aditi

    2015-10-20

    Mammalian plasma membrane proteins make up the largest class of drug targets yet are difficult to study in a cell free system because of their intransigent nature. Herein, we perform direct encapsulation of plasma membrane proteins derived from mammalian cells into a functional nanodisc library. Peptide fingerprinting was used to analyze the proteome of the incorporated proteins in nanodiscs and to further demonstrate that the lipid composition of the nanodiscs directly affects the class of protein that is incorporated. Furthermore, the functionality of the incorporated membrane proteome was evaluated by measuring the activity of membrane proteins: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and receptor tyrosine kinases. This work is the first report of the successful establishment and characterization of a cell free functional library of mammalian membrane proteins into nanodiscs.

  5. A positive feedback-based gene circuit to increase the production of a membrane protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennis Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses. Results In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.

  6. Detergent-associated solution conformations of helical and beta-barrel membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiming; Lee, Byung-Kwon; Ankner, John F; Becker, Jeffrey M; Heller, William T

    2008-10-23

    Membrane proteins present major challenges for structural biology. In particular, the production of suitable crystals for high-resolution structural determination continues to be a significant roadblock for developing an atomic-level understanding of these vital cellular systems. The use of detergents for extracting membrane proteins from the native membrane for either crystallization or reconstitution into model lipid membranes for further study is assumed to leave the protein with the proper fold with a belt of detergent encompassing the membrane-spanning segments of the structure. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to probe the detergent-associated solution conformations of three membrane proteins, namely bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the Ste2p G-protein coupled receptor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the Escherichia coli porin OmpF. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the traditional model of a detergent-associated membrane protein, the helical proteins BR and Ste2p are not in the expected, compact conformation and associated with detergent micelles, while the beta-barrel OmpF is indeed embedded in a disk-like micelle in a properly folded state. The comparison provided by the BR and Ste2p, both members of the 7TM family of helical membrane proteins, further suggests that the interhelical interactions between the transmembrane helices of the two proteins differ, such that BR, like other rhodopsins, can properly refold to crystallize, while Ste2p continues to prove resistant to crystallization from an initially detergent-associated state.

  7. Red-shifted fluorescent proteins mPlum and mRaspberry and polynucleotides encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Roger Y [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-07-01

    Methods using somatic hypermutation (SHM) for producing polypeptide and nucleic acid variants, and nucleic acids encoding such polypeptide variants are disclosed. Such variants may have desired properties. Also disclosed are novel polypeptides, such as improved fluorescent proteins, produced by the novel methods, and nucleic acids, vectors, and host cells comprising such vectors.

  8. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  9. Self-assembling peptide and protein nanodiscs for studies of membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi

    Particles containing both lipids and proteins (so-called lipoproteins) are vital to study. They are selfassembling particles that, in the human body, are responsible for the transport of lipids and cholesterol. Due to the increasing problems of obesity and related illnesses in the world, obtaining...... more knowledge about the cholesterol and lipid metabolism is paramount. As an example, in 2012, cardiovascular disease was still the main cause of death in the U.S. This means that the study of lipoproteins is not only of pure academic interest but vital to current world problems. Another reason...... of proteins encoded by the human genome. G-protein coupled receptors mediate the majority of hormone and neurotransmitter signals as well as being responsible for perception of light, smell and taste in the human body, and a number of Nobel prizes has been awarded based on their study. Structural...

  10. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins with central roles in many eukaryotic signalling networks. In plants, they bind to and activate the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, creating a binding site for the phytotoxin fusicoccin. Barley 14-3-3 transcripts accumulate in the epidermis upon...... inoculation with the powdery mildew fungus. We have isolated a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane H+-ATPase (HvHA1), which is also induced by powdery mildew attack. The C-terminal domain of this H+-ATPase interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system. Inoculation with the powdery mildew fungus......, or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  11. [Cloning, mutagenesis and symbiotic phenotype of three lipid transfer protein encoding genes from Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Zeng, Xiaobo; Zhou, Xuejuan; Li, Youguo

    2016-12-04

    Lipid transfer protein superfamily is involved in lipid transport and metabolism. This study aimed to construct mutants of three lipid transfer protein encoding genes in Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R, and to study the phenotypes and function of mutations during symbiosis with Astragalus sinicus. We used bioinformatics to predict structure characteristics and biological functions of lipid transfer proteins, and conducted semi-quantitative and fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR to analyze the expression levels of target genes in free-living and symbiotic conditions. Using pK19mob insertion mutagenesis to construct mutants, we carried out pot plant experiments to observe symbiotic phenotypes. MCHK-5577, MCHK-2172 and MCHK-2779 genes encoding proteins belonged to START/RHO alpha_C/PITP/Bet_v1/CoxG/CalC (SRPBCC) superfamily, involved in lipid transport or metabolism, and were identical to M. loti at 95% level. Gene relative transcription level of the three genes all increased compared to free-living condition. We obtained three mutants. Compared with wild-type 7653R, above-ground biomass of plants and nodulenitrogenase activity induced by the three mutants significantly decreased. Results indicated that lipid transfer protein encoding genes of Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R may play important roles in symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and the mutations significantly affected the symbiotic phenotypes. The present work provided a basis to study further symbiotic function mechanism associated with lipid transfer proteins from rhizobia.

  12. Translational Control of Host Gene Expression by a Cys-Motif Protein Encoded in a Bracovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunseong Kim

    Full Text Available Translational control is a strategy that various viruses use to manipulate their hosts to suppress acute antiviral response. Polydnaviruses, a group of insect double-stranded DNA viruses symbiotic to some endoparasitoid wasps, are divided into two genera: ichnovirus (IV and bracovirus (BV. In IV, some Cys-motif genes are known as host translation-inhibitory factors (HTIF. The genome of endoparasitoid wasp Cotesia plutellae contains a Cys-motif gene (Cp-TSP13 homologous to an HTIF known as teratocyte-secretory protein 14 (TSP14 of Microplitis croceipes. Cp-TSP13 consists of 129 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 13.987 kDa and pI value of 7.928. Genomic DNA region encoding its open reading frame has three introns. Cp-TSP13 possesses six conserved cysteine residues as other Cys-motif genes functioning as HTIF. Cp-TSP13 was expressed in Plutella xylostella larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV was purified and injected into non-parasitized P. xylostella that expressed Cp-TSP13. Cp-TSP13 was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and used to infect Sf9 cells to transiently express Cp-TSP13. The synthesized Cp-TSP13 protein was detected in culture broth. An overlaying experiment showed that the purified Cp-TSP13 entered hemocytes. It was localized in the cytosol. Recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly inhibited protein synthesis of secretory proteins when it was added to in vitro cultured fat body. In addition, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 directly inhibited the translation of fat body mRNAs in in vitro translation assay using rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Moreover, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly suppressed cellular immune responses by inhibiting hemocyte-spreading behavior. It also exhibited significant insecticidal activities by both injection and feeding routes. These results indicate that Cp-TSP13 is a viral HTIF.

  13. Effect of membrane protein concentration on binding of 3H-imipramine in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkai, A.I.; Kowalik, S.; Baron, M.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 3 H-imipramine to platelet membranes has been implicated as a marker for depression. Comparing 3 H-IMI binding between depressed patients and normal subjects we observed an increase in the dissociation constant Kd with increasing membrane protein. This phenomenon was studied more rigorously in five normal subjects. Platelet membranes were prepared and adjusted to four concentrations of protein ranging from 100 to 800 micrograms/ml. The 3 H-IMI binding parameters of maximum binding sites number (Bmax) and Kd were obtained by Scatchard analysis at each membrane concentration. A positive linear relationship was found between K/sub d/ values and the concentration of membrane protein in the assay, but no change was observed in Bmax. The variability in Kd values reported in the literature may be accounted for in part by the different concentrations of membrane protein used in various studies

  14. The you gene encodes an EGF-CUB protein essential for Hedgehog signaling in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Woods

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog signaling is required for many aspects of development in vertebrates and invertebrates. Misregulation of the Hedgehog pathway causes developmental abnormalities and has been implicated in certain types of cancer. Large-scale genetic screens in zebrafish have identified a group of mutations, termed you-class mutations, that share common defects in somite shape and in most cases disrupt Hedgehog signaling. These mutant embryos exhibit U-shaped somites characteristic of defects in slow muscle development. In addition, Hedgehog pathway mutations disrupt spinal cord patterning. We report the positional cloning of you, one of the original you-class mutations, and show that it is required for Hedgehog signaling in the development of slow muscle and in the specification of ventral fates in the spinal cord. The you gene encodes a novel protein with conserved EGF and CUB domains and a secretory pathway signal sequence. Epistasis experiments support an extracellular role for You upstream of the Hedgehog response mechanism. Analysis of chimeras indicates that you mutant cells can appropriately respond to Hedgehog signaling in a wild-type environment. Additional chimera analysis indicates that wild-type you gene function is not required in axial Hedgehog-producing cells, suggesting that You is essential for transport or stability of Hedgehog signals in the extracellular environment. Our positional cloning and functional studies demonstrate that You is a novel extracellular component of the Hedgehog pathway in vertebrates.

  15. Heterogenic expression of genes encoding secreted proteins at the periphery of Aspergillus niger colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinck, Arman; de Bekker, Charissa; Ossin, Adam; Ohm, Robin A; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-01-01

    Colonization of a substrate by fungi starts with the invasion of exploring hyphae. These hyphae secrete enzymes that degrade the organic material into small molecules that can be taken up by the fungus to serve as nutrients. We previously showed that only part of the exploring hyphae of Aspergillus niger highly express the glucoamylase gene glaA. This was an unexpected finding since all exploring hyphae are exposed to the same environmental conditions. Using GFP as a reporter, we here demonstrate that the acid amylase gene aamA, the α-glucuronidase gene aguA, and the feruloyl esterase gene faeA of A. niger are also subject to heterogenic expression within the exploring mycelium. Coexpression studies using GFP and dTomato as reporters showed that hyphae that highly express one of these genes also highly express the other genes encoding secreted proteins. Moreover, these hyphae also highly express the amylolytic regulatory gene amyR, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene gpdA. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the high expressers are characterized by a high 18S rRNA content. Taken together, it is concluded that two subpopulations of hyphae can be distinguished within the exploring mycelium of A. niger. The experimental data indicate that these subpopulations differ in their transcriptional and translational activity. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  17. Relationships between protein-encoding gene abundance and corresponding process are commonly assumed yet rarely observed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Jennifer D.; Hall, Edward K.; Lennon, Jay T.; Evans, Sarah E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Cotner, James B.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Graham, Emily B.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    For any enzyme-catalyzed reaction to occur, the corresponding protein-encoding genes and transcripts are necessary prerequisites. Thus, a positive relationship between the abundance of gene or transcripts and corresponding process rates is often assumed. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between gene and/or transcript abundances and corresponding process rates. We identified 415 studies that quantified the abundance of genes or transcripts for enzymes involved in carbon or nitrogen cycling. However, in only 59 of these manuscripts did the authors report both gene or transcript abundance and rates of the appropriate process. We found that within studies there was a significant but weak positive relationship between gene abundance and the corresponding process. Correlations were not strengthened by accounting for habitat type, differences among genes or reaction products versus reactants, suggesting that other ecological and methodological factors may affect the strength of this relationship. Our findings highlight the need for fundamental research on the factors that control transcription, translation and enzyme function in natural systems to better link genomic and transcriptomic data to ecosystem processes.

  18. Diverse circular replication-associated protein encoding viruses circulating in invertebrates within a lake ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayaram, Anisha; Galatowitsch, Mark L; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Harding, Jon S; Roumagnac, Philippe; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Over the last five years next-generation sequencing has become a cost effective and efficient method for identifying known and unknown microorganisms. Access to this technique has dramatically changed the field of virology, enabling a wide range of environmental viral metagenome studies to be undertaken of organisms and environmental samples from polar to tropical regions. These studies have led to the discovery of hundreds of highly divergent single stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus-like sequences encoding replication-associated proteins. Yet, few studies have explored how viruses might be shared in an ecosystem through feeding relationships. Here we identify 169 circular molecules (160 CRESS DNA molecules, nine circular molecules) recovered from a New Zealand freshwater lake, that we have tentatively classified into 51 putatively novel species and five previously described species (DflaCV-3, -5, -6, -8, -10). The CRESS DNA viruses identified in this study were recovered from molluscs (Echyridella menzeisii, Musculium novaezelandiae, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Physella acuta) and insect larvae (Procordulia grayi, Xanthocnemis zealandica, and Chironomus zealandicus) collected from Lake Sarah, as well as from the lake water and benthic sediments. Extensive diversity was observed across most CRESS DNA molecules recovered. The putative capsid protein of one viral species was found to be most similar to those of members of the Tombusviridae family, thus expanding the number of known RNA-DNA hybrid viruses in nature. We noted a strong association between the CRESS DNA viruses and circular molecules identified in the water and browser organisms (C. zealandicus, P. antipodarum and P. acuta), and between water sediments and undefended prey species (C. zealandicus). However, we were unable to find any significant correlation of viral assemblages to the potential feeding relationships of the host aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Solubilization, Stabilization and Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Rohini R.; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J.; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, “GNG amphiphiles”, is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al. PMID:23165475

  20. Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Solubilization, Stabilization and Crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rana, Rohini R.; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J.; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit; Byrne, Bernadette; Lee, John K.; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, “GNG amphiphiles”, is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al.

  1. An Overview of the Top Ten Detergents Used for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stetsenko, Artem; Guskov, Albert

    2017-01-01

    To study integral membrane proteins, one has to extract them from the membrane—the step that is typically achieved by the application of detergents. In this mini-review, we summarize the top 10 detergents used for the structural analysis of membrane proteins based on the published results. The aim

  2. Training-induced changes in membrane transport proteins of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C.

    2006-01-01

    Training improves human physical performance by inducing structural and cardiovascular changes, metabolic changes, and changes in the density of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the training-induced changes in proteins involved in sarcolemmal membrane transport. It is concluded...

  3. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  4. Evolved Lactococcus lactis Strains for Enhanced Expression of Recombinant Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Linares, Daniel; Geertsma, Eric R.; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The production of complex multidomain (membrane) proteins is a major hurdle in structural genomics and a generic approach for optimizing membrane protein expression is still lacking. We have devised a selection method to isolate mutant strains with improved functional expression of recombinant

  5. Isolation of monodisperse nanodisc-reconstituted membrane proteins using free flow electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen; Laursen, Tomas; Weber, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Free flow electrophoresis is used for rapid and high-recovery isolation of homogeneous preparations of functionally active membrane proteins inserted into nanodiscs. The approach enables isolation of integral and membrane anchored proteins and is also applicable following introduction of, e...

  6. Interaction between La(III) and proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Mei; Chu, Yun-Xia; Lv, Xiao-Fen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Lanthanum (La) is an important rare earth element in the ecological environment of plant. The proteins on the plasma membrane control the transport of molecules into and out of cell. It is very important to investigate the effect of La(III) on the proteins on the plasma membrane in the plant cell. In the present work, the interaction between La(III) and proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish was investigated using optimization of the fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is found that the fluorescence of the complex system of protoplasts and 1-aniline Kenai-8-sulfonic acid in horseradish treated with the low concentration of La(III) is increased compared with that of the control horseradish. The opposite effect is observed in horseradish treated with the high concentration of La(III). These results indicated that the low concentration of La(III) can interact with the proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish, causing the improvement in the structure of proteins on the plasma membrane. The high concentration of La(III) can also interact with the proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish, leading to the destruction of the structure of proteins on the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that the proteins on the plasma membrane are the targets of La(III) action on plant cell.

  7. Proteomic analysis reveals the diversity and complexity of membrane proteins in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compartmentalization is a unique feature of eukaryotes that helps in maintaining cellular homeostasis not only in intra- and inter-organellar context, but also between the cells and the external environment. Plant cells are highly compartmentalized with a complex metabolic network governing various cellular events. The membranes are the most important constituents in such compartmentalization, and membrane-associated proteins play diverse roles in many cellular processes besides being part of integral component of many signaling cascades. Results To obtain valuable insight into the dynamic repertoire of membrane proteins, we have developed a proteome reference map of a grain legume, chickpea, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis led to the identification of 91 proteins involved in a variety of cellular functions viz., bioenergy, stress-responsive and signal transduction, metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, among others. Significantly, 70% of the identified proteins are putative integral membrane proteins, possessing transmembrane domains. Conclusions The proteomic analysis revealed many resident integral membrane proteins as well as membrane-associated proteins including those not reported earlier. To our knowledge, this is the first report of membrane proteome from aerial tissues of a crop plant. The findings may provide a better understanding of the biochemical machinery of the plant membranes at the molecular level that might help in functional genomics studies of different developmental pathways and stress-responses.

  8. Protein transport across and into cell membranes in bacteria and archaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Jijun; Zweers, Jessica C.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Dalbey, Ross E.

    In the three domains of life, the Sec, YidC/Oxa1, and Tat translocases play important roles in protein translocation across membranes and membrane protein insertion. While extensive studies have been performed on the endoplasmic reticular and Escherichia coli systems, far fewer studies have been

  9. Molecular characterization of cDNAs encoding G protein alpha and beta subunits and study of their temporal and spatial expression patterns in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydamov, C; Tewes, A; Adler, K; Manteuffel, R

    2000-04-25

    We have isolated cDNA sequences encoding alpha and beta subunits of potential G proteins from a cDNA library prepared from somatic embryos of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. at early developmental stages. The predicted NPGPA1 and NPGPB1 gene products are 75-98% identical to the known respective plant alpha and beta subunits. Southern hybridizations indicate that NPGPA1 is probably a single-copy gene, whereas at least two copies of NPGPB1 exist in the N. plumbaginifolia genome. Northern analyses reveal that both NPGPA1 and NPGPB1 mRNA are expressed in all embryogenic stages and plant tissues examined and their expression is obviously regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Immunohistological localization of NPGPalpha1 and NPGPbeta1 preferentially on plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes and their immunochemical detection exclusively in microsomal cell fractions implicate membrane association of both proteins. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of NPGPA1 and NPGPB1 show conformity as well as differences. This could account for not only cooperative, but also individual activities of both subunits during embryogenesis and plant development.

  10. Human coronavirus 229E encodes a single ORF4 protein between the spike and the envelope genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of coronaviruses contains structural and non-structural genes, including several so-called accessory genes. All group 1b coronaviruses encode a single accessory protein between the spike and envelope genes, except for human coronavirus (HCoV 229E. The prototype virus has a split gene, encoding the putative ORF4a and ORF4b proteins. To determine whether primary HCoV-229E isolates exhibit this unusual genome organization, we analyzed the ORF4a/b region of five current clinical isolates from The Netherlands and three early isolates collected at the Common Cold Unit (CCU in Salisbury, UK. Results All Dutch isolates were identical in the ORF4a/b region at amino acid level. All CCU isolates are only 98% identical to the Dutch isolates at the nucleotide level, but more closely related to the prototype HCoV-229E (>98%. Remarkably, our analyses revealed that the laboratory adapted, prototype HCoV-229E has a 2-nucleotide deletion in the ORF4a/b region, whereas all clinical isolates carry a single ORF, 660 nt in size, encoding a single protein of 219 amino acids, which is a homologue of the ORF3 proteins encoded by HCoV-NL63 and PEDV. Conclusion Thus, the genome organization of the group 1b coronaviruses HCoV-NL63, PEDV and HCoV-229E is identical. It is possible that extensive culturing of the HCoV-229E laboratory strain resulted in truncation of ORF4. This may indicate that the protein is not essential in cell culture, but the highly conserved amino acid sequence of the ORF4 protein among clinical isolates suggests that the protein plays an important role in vivo.

  11. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E

    1996-01-01

    area of the cell and mostly associated with the cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon epidermal growth factor treatment and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, the immunolabeling became peripheral and was found to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane....... The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein....

  12. Characterization of the ectodomain of the envelope protein of dengue virus type 4: expression, membrane association, secretion and particle formation in the absence of precursor membrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Hsieh

    Full Text Available The envelope (E of dengue virus (DENV is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development. After biosynthesis E protein forms a heterodimer with precursor membrane (prM protein. Recent reports of infection enhancement by anti-prM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs suggest anti-prM responses could be potentially harmful. Previously, we studied a series of C-terminal truncation constructs expressing DENV type 4 prM/E or E proteins and found the ectodomain of E protein alone could be recognized by all 12 mAbs tested, suggesting E protein ectodomain as a potential subunit immunogen without inducing anti-prM response. The characteristics of DENV E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein remains largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the expression, membrane association, glycosylation pattern, secretion and particle formation of E protein ectodomain of DENV4 in the presence or absence of prM protein. E protein ectodomain associated with membrane in or beyond trans-Golgi and contained primarily complex glycans, whereas full-length E protein associated with ER membrane and contained high mannose glycans. In the absence of prM protein, E protein ectodomain can secrete as well as form particles of approximately 49 nm in diameter, as revealed by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation with or without detergent and electron microscopy. Mutational analysis revealed that the secretion of E protein ectodomain was affected by N-linked glycosylation and could be restored by treatment with ammonia chloride.Considering the enhancement of DENV infectivity by anti-prM antibodies, our findings provide new insights into the expression and secretion of E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein and contribute to future subunit vaccine design.

  13. A genetically encoded tool kit for manipulating and monitoring membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Fabian; Switalski, Agathe; Mintert-Jancke, Elisa; Karavassilidou, Katharina; Bender, Kirsten; Pott, Lutz; Kienitz, Marie-Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Most ion channels are regulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) in the cell membrane by diverse mechanisms. Important molecular tools to study ion channel regulation by PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in living cells have been developed in the past. These include fluorescent PH-domains as sensors for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), to monitor changes in plasma membrane(.) For controlled and reversible depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P(2), voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSD) have been demonstrated as a superior tool, since they are independent of cellular signaling pathways. Combining these methods in intact cells requires multiple transfections. We used self-cleaving viral 2A-peptide sequences for adenovirus driven expression of the PH-domain of phospholipase-Cδ1 (PLCδ1) fused to ECFP and EYFP respectively and Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP), from a single open reading frame (ORF) in adult rat cardiac myocytes. Expression and correct targeting of ECFP-PH-PLCδ1(,) EYFP-PH-PLCδ1, and Ci-VSP from a single tricistronic vector containing 2A-peptide sequences first was demonstrated in HEK293 cells by voltage-controlled FRET measurements and Western blotting. Adult rat cardiac myocytes expressed Ci-VSP and the two fluorescent PH-domains within 4 days after gene transfer using the vector integrated into an adenoviral construct. Activation of Ci-VSP by depolarization resulted in rapid changes in FRET ratio indicating depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in the plasma membrane. This was paralleled by inhibition of endogenous G protein activated K(+) (GIRK) current. By comparing changes in FRET and current, a component of GIRK inhibition by adrenergic receptors unrelated to depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) was identified. Expression of a FRET sensor pair and Ci-VSP from a single ORF provides a useful approach to study regulation of ion channels by phosphoinositides in cell lines and transfection-resistant postmitotic cells. Generally, adenoviral

  14. A genetically encoded tool kit for manipulating and monitoring membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in intact cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Hertel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most ion channels are regulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5P(2 in the cell membrane by diverse mechanisms. Important molecular tools to study ion channel regulation by PtdIns(4,5P(2 in living cells have been developed in the past. These include fluorescent PH-domains as sensors for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET, to monitor changes in plasma membrane(. For controlled and reversible depletion of PtdIns(4,5P(2, voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSD have been demonstrated as a superior tool, since they are independent of cellular signaling pathways. Combining these methods in intact cells requires multiple transfections. We used self-cleaving viral 2A-peptide sequences for adenovirus driven expression of the PH-domain of phospholipase-Cδ1 (PLCδ1 fused to ECFP and EYFP respectively and Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP, from a single open reading frame (ORF in adult rat cardiac myocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression and correct targeting of ECFP-PH-PLCδ1(, EYFP-PH-PLCδ1, and Ci-VSP from a single tricistronic vector containing 2A-peptide sequences first was demonstrated in HEK293 cells by voltage-controlled FRET measurements and Western blotting. Adult rat cardiac myocytes expressed Ci-VSP and the two fluorescent PH-domains within 4 days after gene transfer using the vector integrated into an adenoviral construct. Activation of Ci-VSP by depolarization resulted in rapid changes in FRET ratio indicating depletion of PtdIns(4,5P(2 in the plasma membrane. This was paralleled by inhibition of endogenous G protein activated K(+ (GIRK current. By comparing changes in FRET and current, a component of GIRK inhibition by adrenergic receptors unrelated to depletion of PtdIns(4,5P(2 was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of a FRET sensor pair and Ci-VSP from a single ORF provides a useful approach to study regulation of ion channels by phosphoinositides in cell lines and transfection

  15. Electrostatics and N-glycan-mediated membrane tethering of SCUBE1 is critical for promoting bone morphogenetic protein signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Ju; Tsao, Ku-Chi; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-03-01

    SCUBE1 (S1), a secreted and membrane-bound glycoprotein, has a modular protein structure composed of an N-terminal signal peptide sequence followed by nine epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a spacer region and three cysteine-rich (CR) motifs with multiple potential N-linked glycosylation sites, and one CUB domain at the C-terminus. Soluble S1 is a biomarker of platelet activation but an active participant of thrombosis via its adhesive EGF-like repeats, whereas its membrane-associated form acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor in promoting BMP signal activity. However, the mechanism responsible for the membrane tethering and the biological importance of N-glycosylation of S1 remain largely unknown. In the present study, molecular mapping analysis identified a polycationic segment (amino acids 501-550) in the spacer region required for its membrane tethering via electrostatic interactions possibly with the anionic heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, deglycosylation by peptide N-glycosidase F treatment revealed that N-glycans within the CR motif are essential for membrane recruitment through lectin-mediated surface retention. Injection of mRNA encoding zebrafish wild-type but not N-glycan-deficient scube1 restores the expression of haematopoietic and erythroid markers (scl and gata1) in scube1-knockdown embryos. We describe novel mechanisms in targeting S1 to the plasma membrane and demonstrate that N-glycans are required for S1 functions during primitive haematopoiesis in zebrafish. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Conformationally Preorganized Diastereomeric Norbornane-Based Maltosides for Membrane Protein Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Manabendra; Du, Yang; Ribeiro, Orquidea

    2017-01-01

    were generally better at stabilizing membrane proteins than short alkyl chain agents. Furthermore, use of one well-behaving NBM enabled us to attain a marked stabilization and clear visualization of a challenging membrane protein complex using electron microscopy. Thus, this study not only describes......Detergents are essential tools for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. However, conventional detergents are limited in their scope and utility, particularly for eukaryotic membrane proteins. Thus, there are major efforts to develop new amphipathic agents with enhanced properties....... Here, a novel class of diastereomeric agents with a preorganized conformation, designated norbornane-based maltosides (NBMs), were prepared and evaluated for their ability to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins. Representative NBMs displayed enhanced behaviors compared to n...

  17. Self-assembly of nanoscale particles with biosurfactants and membrane scaffold proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faas, Ramona; Pohle, Annelie; Moß, Karin; Henkel, Marius; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2017-12-01

    Nanodiscs are membrane mimetics which may be used as tools for biochemical and biophysical studies of a variety of membrane proteins. These nanoscale structures are composed of a phospholipid bilayer held together by an amphipathic membrane scaffold protein (MSP). In the past, nanodiscs were successfully assembled with membrane scaffold protein 1D1 and 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphorylcholine with a homogeneous diameter of ∼10 nm. In this study, the formation of nanoscale particles from MSP1D1 and rhamnolipid biosurfactants is investigated. Different protein to lipid ratios of 1:80, 1:90 and 1:100 were used for the assembly reaction, which were consecutively separated, purified and analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Size distributions were measured to determine homogeneity and confirm size dimensions. In this study, first evidence is presented on the formation of nanoscale particles with rhamnolipid biosurfactants and membrane scaffold proteins.

  18. A Deg-protease family protein in marine Synechococcus is involved in outer membrane protein organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Kayra Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deg-family proteases are a periplasm-associated group of proteins that are known to be involved in envelope stress responses and are found in most microorganisms. Orthologous genes SYNW2176 (in strain WH8102 and sync_2523 (strain CC9311 are predicted members of the Deg-protease family and are among the few genes induced by copper stress in both open ocean and coastal marine Synechococcus strains. In contrast to the lack of a phenotype in a similar knockout in Synechocystis PCC6803, a SYNW2176 knockout mutant in strain WH8102 was much more resistant to copper than the wild-type. The mutant also exhibited a significantly altered outer membrane protein composition which may contribute to copper resistance, longer lag phase after transfer, low-level consistent alkaline phosphatase activity, and an inability to induce high alkaline phosphatase activity in response to phosphate stress. This phenotype suggests a protein-quality-control role for SYNW2176, the absence of which leads to a constitutively activated stress response. Deg-protease family proteins in this ecologically important cyanobacterial group thus help to determine outer membrane responses to both nutrients and toxins.

  19. Cyanobacterial flv4-2 Operon-Encoded Proteins Optimize Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhutsina, Volha; Bersanini, Luca; Aro, Eva-Mari; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) complexes drive the water-splitting reaction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. However, too much light can damage and disrupt PSII. In cyanobacteria, the flv4-2 operon encodes three proteins (Flv2, Flv4, and Sll0218), which safeguard PSII activity under air-level CO2 and in high light conditions. However, the exact mechanism of action of these proteins has not been clarified yet. We demonstrate that the PSII electron transfer properties are influenced by the flv4-2 operon-encoded proteins. Accelerated secondary charge separation kinetics was observed upon expression/overexpression of the flv4-2 operon. This is likely induced by docking of the Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer in the vicinity of the QB pocket of PSII, which, in turn, increases the QB redox potential and consequently stabilizes forward electron transfer. The alternative electron transfer route constituted by Flv2/Flv4 sequesters electrons from QB(-) guaranteeing the dissipation of excess excitation energy in PSII under stressful conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that in the absence of the flv4-2 operon-encoded proteins, about 20% of the phycobilisome antenna becomes detached from the reaction centers, thus decreasing light harvesting. Phycobilisome detachment is a consequence of a decreased relative content of PSII dimers, a feature observed in the absence of the Sll0218 protein. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Motif analysis unveils the possible co-regulation of chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Ding, Jun; Daniell, Henry; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Xiaoman

    2012-09-01

    Chloroplasts play critical roles in land plant cells. Despite their importance and the availability of at least 200 sequenced chloroplast genomes, the number of known DNA regulatory sequences in chloroplast genomes are limited. In this paper, we designed computational methods to systematically study putative DNA regulatory sequences in intergenic regions near chloroplast genes in seven plant species and in promoter sequences of nuclear genes in Arabidopsis and rice. We found that -35/-10 elements alone cannot explain the transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes. We also concluded that there are unlikely motifs shared by intergenic sequences of most of chloroplast genes, indicating that these genes are regulated differently. Finally and surprisingly, we found five conserved motifs, each of which occurs in no more than six chloroplast intergenic sequences, are significantly shared by promoters of nuclear-genes encoding chloroplast proteins. By integrating information from gene function annotation, protein subcellular localization analyses, protein-protein interaction data, and gene expression data, we further showed support of the functionality of these conserved motifs. Our study implies the existence of unknown nuclear-encoded transcription factors that regulate both chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast protein, which sheds light on the understanding of the transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes.

  1. Optimized Mitochondrial Targeting of Proteins Encoded by Modified mRNAs Rescues Cells Harboring Mutations in mtATP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Marcelo Chin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Mitochondrial disease may be caused by mutations in the protein-coding genes of the mitochondrial genome. A promising strategy for treating such diseases is allotopic expression—the translation of wild-type copies of these proteins in the cytosol, with subsequent translocation into the mitochondria, resulting in rescue of mitochondrial function. In this paper, we develop an automated, quantitative, and unbiased screening platform to evaluate protein localization and mitochondrial morphology. This platform was used to compare 31 mitochondrial targeting sequences and 15 3′ UTRs in their ability to localize up to 9 allotopically expressed proteins to the mitochondria and their subsequent impact on mitochondrial morphology. Taking these two factors together, we synthesized chemically modified mRNAs that encode for an optimized allotopic expression construct for mtATP6. These mRNAs were able to functionally rescue a cell line harboring the 8993T > G point mutation in the mtATP6 gene. : Allotopic expression of proteins normally encoded by mtDNA is a promising therapy for mitochondrial disease. Chin et al. use an unbiased and high-content imaging-based screening platform to optimize allotopic expression. Modified mRNAs encoding for the optimized allotopic expression constructs rescued the respiration and growth of mtATP6-deficient cells. Keywords: mitochondria, mitochondrial disease, mRNA, modified mRNA, ATP6, allotopic expression, rare disease, gene therapy, screening, high content imaging

  2. A lepidopteran-specific gene family encoding valine-rich midgut proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothini Odman-Naresh

    Full Text Available Many lepidopteran larvae are serious agricultural pests due to their feeding activity. Digestion of the plant diet occurs mainly in the midgut and is facilitated by the peritrophic matrix (PM, an extracellular sac-like structure, which lines the midgut epithelium and creates different digestive compartments. The PM is attracting increasing attention to control lepidopteran pests by interfering with this vital function. To identify novel PM components and thus potential targets for insecticides, we performed an immunoscreening with anti-PM antibodies using an expression library representing the larval midgut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We identified three cDNAs encoding valine-rich midgut proteins of M. sexta (MsVmps, which appear to be loosely associated with the PM. They are members of a lepidopteran-specific family of nine VMP genes, which are exclusively expressed in larval stages in M. sexta. Most of the MsVMP transcripts are detected in the posterior midgut, with the highest levels observed for MsVMP1. To obtain further insight into Vmp function, we expressed MsVMP1 in insect cells and purified the recombinant protein. Lectin staining and glycosidase treatment indicated that MsVmp1 is highly O-glycosylated. In line with results from qPCR, immunoblots revealed that MsVmp1 amounts are highest in feeding larvae, while MsVmp1 is undetectable in starving and molting larvae. Finally using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrated that MsVmp1 localizes to the cytosol of columnar cells, which secrete MsVmp1 into the ectoperitrophic space in feeding larvae. In starving and molting larvae, MsVmp1 is found in the gut lumen, suggesting that the PM has increased its permeability. The present study demonstrates that lepidopteran species including many agricultural pests have evolved a set of unique proteins that are not found in any other taxon and thus may reflect an important adaptation in the highly specialized lepidopteran

  3. Isolation and characterization of BetaM protein encoded by ATP1B4 - a unique member of the Na,K-ATPase β-subunit gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, Nikolay B.; Zhao, Hao; Basrur, Venkatesha; Modyanov, Nikolai N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Structural properties of BetaM and Na,K-ATPase β-subunits are sharply different. → BetaM protein is concentrated in nuclear membrane of skeletal myocytes. → BetaM does not associate with a Na,K-ATPase α-subunit in skeletal muscle. → Polypeptide chain of the native BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases. → BetaM in neonatal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B. -- Abstract: ATP1B4 genes represent a rare instance of the orthologous gene co-option that radically changed functions of encoded BetaM proteins during vertebrate evolution. In lower vertebrates, this protein is a β-subunit of Na,K-ATPase located in the cell membrane. In placental mammals, BetaM completely lost its ancestral role and through acquisition of two extended Glu-rich clusters into the N-terminal domain gained entirely new properties as a muscle-specific protein of the inner nuclear membrane possessing the ability to regulate gene expression. Strict temporal regulation of BetaM expression, which is the highest in late fetal and early postnatal myocytes, indicates that it plays an essential role in perinatal development. Here we report the first structural characterization of the native eutherian BetaM protein. It should be noted that, in contrast to structurally related Na,K-ATPase β-subunits, the polypeptide chain of BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases that greatly complicated its isolation. Nevertheless, using a complex of protease inhibitors, a sample of authentic BetaM was isolated from pig neonatal skeletal muscle by a combination of ion-exchange and lectin-affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Results of the analysis of the BetaM tryptic digest using MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry have demonstrated that native BetaM in neonatal skeletal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B and comprised of 351 amino acid residues. Isolated BetaM protein was also characterized by SELDI-TOF mass

  4. Isolation and characterization of BetaM protein encoded by ATP1B4 - a unique member of the Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunit gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestov, Nikolay B. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zhao, Hao [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Basrur, Venkatesha [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Modyanov, Nikolai N., E-mail: nikolai.modyanov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Structural properties of BetaM and Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunits are sharply different. {yields} BetaM protein is concentrated in nuclear membrane of skeletal myocytes. {yields} BetaM does not associate with a Na,K-ATPase {alpha}-subunit in skeletal muscle. {yields} Polypeptide chain of the native BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases. {yields} BetaM in neonatal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B. -- Abstract: ATP1B4 genes represent a rare instance of the orthologous gene co-option that radically changed functions of encoded BetaM proteins during vertebrate evolution. In lower vertebrates, this protein is a {beta}-subunit of Na,K-ATPase located in the cell membrane. In placental mammals, BetaM completely lost its ancestral role and through acquisition of two extended Glu-rich clusters into the N-terminal domain gained entirely new properties as a muscle-specific protein of the inner nuclear membrane possessing the ability to regulate gene expression. Strict temporal regulation of BetaM expression, which is the highest in late fetal and early postnatal myocytes, indicates that it plays an essential role in perinatal development. Here we report the first structural characterization of the native eutherian BetaM protein. It should be noted that, in contrast to structurally related Na,K-ATPase {beta}-subunits, the polypeptide chain of BetaM is highly sensitive to endogenous proteases that greatly complicated its isolation. Nevertheless, using a complex of protease inhibitors, a sample of authentic BetaM was isolated from pig neonatal skeletal muscle by a combination of ion-exchange and lectin-affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Results of the analysis of the BetaM tryptic digest using MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry have demonstrated that native BetaM in neonatal skeletal muscle is a product of alternative splice mRNA variant B and comprised of 351 amino acid residues. Isolated BetaM protein was

  5. Using Förster-Resonance Energy Transfer to Measure Protein Interactions Between Bcl-2 Family Proteins on Mitochondrial Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogmore, Justin P; Pemberton, James M; Chi, Xiaoke; Andrews, David W

    2016-01-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates the process of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, causing the release of cytochrome c and committing a cell to apoptosis. The majority of the functional interactions between these proteins occur at, on, or within the mitochondrial outer membrane, complicating structural studies of the proteins and complexes. As a result most in vitro studies of these protein-protein interactions use truncated proteins and/or detergents which can cause artificial interactions. Herein, we describe a detergent-free, fluorescence-based, in vitro technique to study binding between full-length recombinant Bcl-2 family proteins, particularly cleaved BID (cBID) and BCL-XL, on the membranes of purified mitochondria.

  6. Arabidopsis Tic40 expression in tobacco chloroplasts results in massive proliferation of the inner envelope membrane and upregulation of associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Li, Ming; Lee, Sueng-Bum; Schnell, Danny; Daniell, Henry

    2008-12-01

    The chloroplast inner envelope membrane (IM) plays essential roles in lipid synthesis, metabolite transport, and cellular signaling in plants. We have targeted a model nucleus-encoded IM protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, pre-Tic40-His, by relocating its expression from the nucleus to the chloroplast genome. Pre-Tic40-His was properly targeted, processed, and inserted. It attained correct topology and was folded and assembled into a TIC complex, where it accounted for up to 15% of the total chloroplast protein. These results confirm the existence of a novel pathway for protein targeting to the IM. Tic40-His overexpression resulted in a massive proliferation of the IM (up to 19 layers in electron micrographs) without significant effects on plant growth or reproduction. Consistent with IM proliferation, the expression levels of other endogenous IM proteins (IEP37, PPT, Tic110) were significantly (10-fold) upregulated but those of outer envelope membrane (Toc159), stromal (hsp93, cpn60), or thylakoid (LHCP, OE23) proteins were not increased, suggesting retrograde signal transduction between chloroplast and nuclear genomes to increase lipid and protein components for accommodation of increased accumulation of Tic40. This study opens the door for understanding the regulation of membrane biogenesis within the organelle and the utilization of transgenic chloroplasts as bioreactors for hyperaccumulation of membrane proteins for biotechnological applications.

  7. Imaging Intracellular pH in Live Cells with a Genetically-Encoded Red Fluorescent Protein Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically-encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at...

  8. Isolation and characterisation of the cDNA encoding a glycosylated accessory protein of pea chloroplast DNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaikwad, A; Tewari, K K; Kumar, D; Chen, W; Mukherjee, S K

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding p43, a DNA binding protein from pea chloroplasts (ct) that binds to cognate DNA polymerase and stimulates the polymerase activity, has been cloned and characterised. The characteristic sequence motifs of hydroxyproline-rich glyco-proteins (HRGP) are present in the cDNA corres-ponding to the N-terminal domain of the mature p43. The protein was found to be highly O-arabinosylated. Chemically deglycosylated p43 (i.e. p29) retains its binding to both DNA and pea ct-DNA polymeras...

  9. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of α5β1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed β1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface α5β1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of α5β1, without altering cell surface expression of α2β1 integrin or α3β1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  10. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  11. Cloning and Sequencing of Gene Encoding Outer Membrane Lipoprotein LipL41 of Leptospira Interrogans Serovar Grippotyphosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Soltani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Development of reliable and applicable diagnostic test and also recombinant vaccine for this disease require specific antigens that are highly conserved among diverse pathogenic leptospiral serovars. Outer membrane proteins(OMPs of leptospira are effective antigens which can stimulate remarkable immune responses during infection, among them LipL41 is an immunogenic lipoprotein which is present only in pathogenic serovars so it could be regarded as a good candidate for vaccine development and diagnostic method. In order to identify genetic conservation of the lipL41 gene, we cloned and sequenced this gen from Leptospira interrogans serovar vaccinal and field of Grippotyphosa. Materials and Methods: Leptospira interrogans serovar vaccinal Grippotyphosa (RTCC2808 and serovar field Grippotyphosa (RTCC2825were used to inoculate into the selective culture medium(EMJH. The genomic DNA was extracted by standard phenol-chloroform method. The lipL41 gene were amplified by specific primers and cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and transformed into the competent E. coli (Top10 cells. the extracted recombinant plasmid were sequenced. And the related sequences were subjected to homology analysis by comparing them to sequences in the Genbank database. Results: PCR amplification of the lipL41 gene resulted in the 1065 bp PCR product. DNA sequence analysis revealed that lipL41 gene between serovar vaccinal Grippotyphosa (RTCC2808and serovar field Grippotyphosa (RTCC2825 in Iran was 100%. It was also showed that the lipL41 gene had high identity (96%-100% with other pathogenic serovars submitted in Genbank database. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the lipL41 gene was highly conserved among various pathogenic Leptospira serovars( >95.9 % identity. Hence the cloned gene could be further used for expression of recombinant protein for serodiagnosis

  12. Sphingolipid topology and the dynamic organization and function of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, Gerrit; Hoetzl, Sandra

    2010-05-03

    When acquiring internal membranes and vesicular transport, eukaryotic cells started to synthesize sphingolipids and sterols. The physical differences between these and the glycerophospholipids must have enabled the cells to segregate lipids in the membrane plane. Localizing this event to the Golgi then allowed them to create membranes of different lipid composition, notably a thin, flexible ER membrane, consisting of glycerolipids, and a sturdy plasma membrane containing at least 50% sphingolipids and sterols. Besides sorting membrane proteins, in the course of evolution the simple sphingolipids obtained key positions in cellular physiology by developing specific interactions with (membrane) proteins involved in the execution and control of signaling. The few signaling sphingolipids in mammals must provide basic transmission principles that evolution has built upon for organizing the specific regulatory pathways tuned to the needs of the different cell types in the body. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Mizuki; Katta, AVSK Mohan; Ahmad, Shandar; Mori, Takaharu; Sugita, Yuji; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function

  14. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Mizuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. Results To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. Conclusions We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function.

  15. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  16. Site-directed fluorescence labeling of a membrane protein with BADAN: probing protein topology and local environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Spruijt, R.B.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and simple method based on site-directed fluorescence labeling using the BADAN label that allows to examine protein-lipid interactions in great detail. We apply this approach to a membrane-embedded mainly -helical reference protein, the M13 major coat protein, of which in a

  17. Disruption of lolCDE, Encoding an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter, Is Lethal for Escherichia coli and Prevents Release of Lipoproteins from the Inner Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kimie; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE was previously identified, by using reconstituted proteoliposomes, as an apparatus catalyzing the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mutations resulting in defective LolD were previously shown to be lethal for E. coli. The amino acid sequences of LolC and LolE are similar to each other, but the necessity of both proteins for lipoprotein release has not been proved. Moreover, previous reconstituti...

  18. Analysis of essential Arabidopsis nuclear genes encoding plastid-targeted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Linda J; Imre, Kathleen M; Hall, David A; Last, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    The Chloroplast 2010 Project (http://www.plastid.msu.edu/) identified and phenotypically characterized homozygous mutants in over three thousand genes, the majority of which encode plastid-targeted proteins. Despite extensive screening by the community, no homozygous mutant alleles were available for several hundred genes, suggesting that these might be enriched for genes of essential function. Attempts were made to generate homozygotes in ~1200 of these lines and 521 of the homozygous viable lines obtained were deposited in the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (http://abrc.osu.edu/). Lines that did not yield a homozygote in soil were tested as potentially homozygous lethal due to defects either in seed or seedling development. Mutants were characterized at four stages of development: developing seed, mature seed, at germination, and developing seedlings. To distinguish seed development or seed pigment-defective mutants from seedling development mutants, development of seeds was assayed in siliques from heterozygous plants. Segregating seeds from heterozygous parents were sown on supplemented media in an attempt to rescue homozygous seedlings that could not germinate or survive in soil. Growth of segregating seeds in air and air enriched to 0.3% carbon dioxide was compared to discover mutants potentially impaired in photorespiration or otherwise responsive to CO2 supplementation. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements identified CO2-responsive mutants with altered photosynthetic parameters. Examples of genes with a viable mutant allele and one or more putative homozygous-lethal alleles were documented. RT-PCR of homozygotes for potentially weak alleles revealed that essential genes may remain undiscovered because of the lack of a true null mutant allele. This work revealed 33 genes with two or more lethal alleles and 73 genes whose essentiality was not confirmed with an independent lethal mutation, although in some cases second leaky alleles were identified.

  19. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding human sterol carrier protein 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)