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Sample records for employing smart antenna

  1. Smart antennas in aerospace applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, Jaco; Schippers, Harmen; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Marpaung, D.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    The interest in Smart Antennas for aerospace applications is growing. This paper describes smart antennas which can be used on aircraft. Two aerospace applications are discussed in more detail: a phased array antenna with optical beam forming and a large vibrating phased array antenna with

  2. An Approach for Smart Antenna Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawitkar, R. S.; Wakde, D. G.

    2003-07-01

    The use of wireless, mobile, personal communications services are expanding rapidly. Adaptive or "Smart" antenna arrays can increase channel capacity through spatial division. Adaptive antennas can also track mobile users, improving both signal range and quality. For these reasons, smart antenna systems have attracted widespread interest in the telecommunications industry for applications to third generation wireless systems.This paper aims to design and develop an advanced antennas testbed to serve as a common reference for testing adaptive antenna arrays and signal combining algorithms, as well as complete systems. A flexible suite of off line processing software should be written using matlab to perform system calibration, test bed initialization, data acquisition control, data storage/transfer, off line signal processing and analysis and graph plotting. The goal of this paper is to develop low complexity smart antenna structures for 3G systems. The emphasis will be laid on ease of implementation in a multichannel / multi-user environment. A smart antenna test bed will be developed, and various state-of-the-art DSP structures and algorithms will be investigated.Facing the soaring demand for mobile communications, the use of smart antenna arrays in mobile communications systems to exploit spatial diversity to further improve spectral efficiency has recently received considerable attention. Basically, a smart antenna array comprises a number of antenna elements combined via a beamforming network (amplitude and phase control network). Some of the benefits that can be achieved by using SAS (Smart Antenna System) include lower mobile terminal power consumption, range extension, ISI reduction, higher data rate support, and ease of integration into the existing base station system. In terms of economic benefits, adaptive antenna systems employed at base station, though increases the per base station cost, can increase coverage area of each cell site, thereby reducing

  3. Handbook of smart antennas for RFID systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The Handbook of Smart Antennas for RFID Systems is a single comprehensive reference on the smart antenna technologies applied to RFID. This book will provide a timely reference book for researchers and students in the areas of both smart antennas and RFID technologies. It is the first book to combine two of the most important wireless technologies together in one book. The handbook will feature chapters by leading experts in both academia and industry offering an in-depth description of terminologies and concepts related to smart antennas in various RFID systems applications.

  4. Smart antennas for nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ranjan Bala; Singhi, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The advances in the field of computer and communications are leading to the development of smart embedded nuclear instruments. These instruments have highly sophisticated signal-processing algorithms based on FPGA and ASICS, provisions of present day connectivity and user interfaces. The developments in the connectivity, standards and bus technologies have made possible to access these instruments on LAN and WAN with suitable reliability and security. To get rid of wires i.e. in order to access these instruments, without wires at any place, wireless technology has evolved and become integral part of day-to-day activities. The environment monitoring can be done remotely, if smart antennas are incorporated on these instruments

  5. Smart Antenna UKM Testbed for Digital Beamforming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new design of smart antenna testbed developed at UKM for digital beamforming purpose is proposed. The smart antenna UKM testbed developed based on modular design employing two novel designs of L-probe fed inverted hybrid E-H (LIEH array antenna and software reconfigurable digital beamforming system (DBS. The antenna is developed based on using the novel LIEH microstrip patch element design arranged into 4×1 uniform linear array antenna. An interface board is designed to interface to the ADC board with the RF front-end receiver. The modular concept of the system provides the capability to test the antenna hardware, beamforming unit, and beamforming algorithm in an independent manner, thus allowing the smart antenna system to be developed and tested in parallel, hence reduces the design time. The DBS was developed using a high-performance TMS320C6711TM floating-point DSP board and a 4-channel RF front-end receiver developed in-house. An interface board is designed to interface to the ADC board with the RF front-end receiver. A four-element receiving array testbed at 1.88–2.22 GHz frequency is constructed, and digital beamforming on this testbed is successfully demonstrated.

  6. AIS Algorithm for Smart Antenna Application in WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evizal Abdul Kadir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of wireless local area networks (WLAN replacing wired networks have an impact on wireless network systems, causing issues such as interference. The smart antenna system is a method to overcome interference issues in WLANs. This paper proposes an artificial immune system (AIS for a switch beam smart antenna system. A directional antenna is introduced to aim the beam at the desired user. The antenna consists of 8 directional antennas, each of which covers 45 degrees, thus creating an omnidirectional configuration of which the beams cover 360 degrees. To control the beam switching, an inexpensive PIC 16F877 microchip was used. An AIS algorithm was implemented in the microcontroller, which uses the received radio signal strength of the mobile device as reference. This is compared for each of the eight beams, after which the AIS algorithm selects the strongest signal received by the system and the microcontroller will then lock to the desired beam. In the experiment a frequency of 2.4 GHz (ISM band was used for transmitting and receiving. A test of the system was conducted in an outdoor environment. The results show that the switch beam smart antenna worked fine based on locating the mobile device.

  7. Prototyping Neuroadaptive Smart Antenna for 3G Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To William

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prototyping of a neuroadaptive smart antenna beamforming algorithm using hardware-software implemented RBF neural network and FPGA system-on-programmable-chip (SoPC approach. The aim is to implement the adaptive beamforming unit in a combination of hardware and software by estimating its performance against the fixed real-time constraint based on IMT-2000 family of 3G cellular communication standards.

  8. Direction of Arrival Estimation with a Novel Single-Port Smart Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel direction of arrival (DOA estimation technique that uses the conventional multiple-signal classification (MUSIC algorithm with periodic signals is applied to a single-port smart antenna. Results show that the proposed method gives a high-resolution (1 degree DOA estimation in an uncorrelated signal environment. The novelty lies in that the MUSIC algorithm is applied to a simplified antenna configuration. Only 1 analogue-to-digital converter (ADC is used in this antenna, which features low power consumption, low cost, and ease of fabrication. Modifications to the conventional MUSIC algorithm do not bring much additional complexity. The proposed technique is also free from the negative influence by the mutual coupling among antenna elements. Therefore, it offers an economical way to extensively implement smart antennas into the existing wireless mobile communications systems, especially at the power consumption limited mobile terminals such as laptops in wireless networks.

  9. FPGA-Based Communications Receivers for Smart Antenna Array Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are drawing ever increasing interest from designers of embedded wireless communications systems. They outpace digital signal processors (DSPs, through hardware execution of a wide range of parallelizable communications transceiver algorithms, at a fraction of the design and implementation effort and cost required for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs. In our study, we employ an Altera Stratix FPGA development board, along with the DSP Builder software tool which acts as a high-level interface to the powerful Quartus II environment. We compare single- and multibranch FPGA-based receiver designs in terms of error rate performance and power consumption. We exploit FPGA operational flexibility and algorithm parallelism to design eigenmode-monitoring receivers that can adapt to variations in wireless channel statistics, for high-performing, inexpensive, smart antenna array embedded systems.

  10. FPGA-Based Communications Receivers for Smart Antenna Array Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Millar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are drawing ever increasing interest from designers of embedded wireless communications systems. They outpace digital signal processors (DSPs, through hardware execution of a wide range of parallelizable communications transceiver algorithms, at a fraction of the design and implementation effort and cost required for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs. In our study, we employ an Altera Stratix FPGA development board, along with the DSP Builder software tool which acts as a high-level interface to the powerful Quartus II environment. We compare single- and multibranch FPGA-based receiver designs in terms of error rate performance and power consumption. We exploit FPGA operational flexibility and algorithm parallelism to design eigenmode-monitoring receivers that can adapt to variations in wireless channel statistics, for high-performing, inexpensive, smart antenna array embedded systems.

  11. Smart Coat with a Fully-Embedded Textile Antenna for IoT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Lopes, Catarina; Pinho, Pedro; Salvado, Rita

    2016-06-22

    The Internet of Things (IoT) scenario is strongly related with the advance of the development of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Additionally, in the WSN context, for a continuous feed, the integration of textile antennas for energy harvesting into smart clothing is a particularly interesting solution when the replacement of batteries is not easy to practice, such as in wearable devices. This paper presents the E-Caption: Smart and Sustainable Coat. It has an embedded dual-band textile antenna for electromagnetic energy harvesting, operating at global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 and digital cellular system (DCS) 1800 bands. This printed antenna is fully integrated, as its dielectric is the textile material composing the coat itself. The E-Caption illustrates the innovative concept of textile antennas that can be manipulated as simple emblems. Seven prototypes of these "emblem" antennas, manufactured by lamination and embroidering techniques are also presented. It is shown that the orientation of the conductive fabric does not influence the performance of the antenna. It is also shown that the direction and number of the stitches in the embroidery may influence the performance of the antenna. Moreover, the comparison of results obtained before and after the integration of the antenna into cloth shows the integration does not affect the behavior of the antenna.

  12. Smart Coat with a Fully-Embedded Textile Antenna for IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Loss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT scenario is strongly related with the advance of the development of wireless sensor networks (WSN and radio frequency identification (RFID systems. Additionally, in the WSN context, for a continuous feed, the integration of textile antennas for energy harvesting into smart clothing is a particularly interesting solution when the replacement of batteries is not easy to practice, such as in wearable devices. This paper presents the E-Caption: Smart and Sustainable Coat. It has an embedded dual-band textile antenna for electromagnetic energy harvesting, operating at global system for mobile communication (GSM 900 and digital cellular system (DCS 1800 bands. This printed antenna is fully integrated, as its dielectric is the textile material composing the coat itself. The E-Caption illustrates the innovative concept of textile antennas that can be manipulated as simple emblems. Seven prototypes of these “emblem” antennas, manufactured by lamination and embroidering techniques are also presented. It is shown that the orientation of the conductive fabric does not influence the performance of the antenna. It is also shown that the direction and number of the stitches in the embroidery may influence the performance of the antenna. Moreover, the comparison of results obtained before and after the integration of the antenna into cloth shows the integration does not affect the behavior of the antenna.

  13. Exploiting Phase Diversity for CDMA2000 1X Smart Antenna Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongdo; Hyeon, Seungheon; Choi, Seungwon

    2004-12-01

    A performance analysis of an access channel decoder is presented which exploits a diversity gain due to the independent magnitude of received signals energy at each of the antenna elements of a smart-antenna base-station transceiver subsystem (BTS) operating in CDMA2000 1X signal environment. The objective is to enhance the data retrieval at cellsite during the access period, for which the optimal weight vector of the smart antenna BTS is not available. It is shown in this paper that the access channel decoder proposed in this paper outperforms the conventional one, which is based on a single antenna channel in terms of detection probability of access probe, access channel failure probability, and Walsh-code demodulation performance.

  14. Exploiting Phase Diversity for CDMA2000 1X Smart Antenna Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seungheon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance analysis of an access channel decoder is presented which exploits a diversity gain due to the independent magnitude of received signals energy at each of the antenna elements of a smart-antenna base-station transceiver subsystem (BTS operating in CDMA2000 1X signal environment. The objective is to enhance the data retrieval at cellsite during the access period, for which the optimal weight vector of the smart antenna BTS is not available. It is shown in this paper that the access channel decoder proposed in this paper outperforms the conventional one, which is based on a single antenna channel in terms of detection probability of access probe, access channel failure probability, and Walsh-code demodulation performance.

  15. Multibeam smart antenna field trial experiments in mobile radio environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Several types of high gain multibeam antennas were tested and compared to traditional sector and omni antennas in various mobile radio environments. A vehicle equipped with a mobile transmitter drove in several mobile radio environments while the received signal strength (RSS) was recorded on multiple antenna channels attached to multibeam, sector and omni directional antennas. The RSS data recorded included the fast (rayleigh) fading and was averaged into local means based on the mobile's position/speed. Description of the experiment and analysis of the gain improvement, average RSS, diversity gain are presented.

  16. Development of a smart-antenna test-bed, demonstrating software defined digital beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, T.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a smart-antenna test-bed consisting of ‘common of the shelf’ (COTS) hardware and software defined radio components. The use of software radio components enables a flexible platform to implement and test mobile communication systems as a real-world system. The test-bed is

  17. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical

  18. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  19. Smart reconfigurable parabolic space antenna for variable electromagnetic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sahil; Datta, Rituparna; Munjal, B. S.; Bhattacharya, Bishakh

    2018-02-01

    An application of reconfigurable parabolic space antenna for satellite is discussed in this paper. The present study focuses on shape morphing of flexible parabolic antenna actuated with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires. The antenna is able to transmit the signals to the desired footprint on earth with a desired gain value. SMA wire based actuation with a locking device is developed for a precise control of Antenna shape. The locking device is efficient to hold the structure in deformed configuration during power cutoff from the system. The maximum controllable deflection at any point using such actuation system is about 25mm with a precision of ±100 m. In order to control the shape of the antenna in a closed feedback loop, a Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) based controller is developed using LabVIEW (NI) and experiments are performed. Numerical modeling and analysis of the structure is carried out using finite element software ABAQUS. For data reduction and fast computation, stiffness matrix generated by ABAQUS is condensed by Guyan Reduction technique and shape optimization is performed using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The matching in comparative study between numerical and experimental set-up shows efficacy of our method. Thereafter, Electro-Magnetic (EM) simulations of the deformed shape is carried out using electromagnetic field simulation, High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). The proposed design is envisaged to be very effective for multipurpose application of satellite system in the future missions of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

  20. Novel Miniaturized Octaband Antenna for LTE Smart Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel octaband LTE mobile phone antenna is presented, which has a compact size with the overall dimension of 35 mm × 9 mm × 3 mm. The miniaturized octaband antenna is implemented by a simple prototype of three parts which include a folded monopole as feeding element, main radiator element, and parasitic radiator element. The main and parasitic radiator elements are excited by the folded monopole feeding element coupling and shorting to the handset ground plane. A wide bandwidth in low-frequency bands covering from 747 MHz to 960 MHz (LTE Band13/GSM850/GSM900 is contributed by both main and parasitic radiator elements. In addition, the folded monopole is designed to resonate at 2530 MHz, and the coupling between the feeding element and main radiator element is designed to resonate at 1840 MHz. Subsequently, the wide bandwidth in high-frequency bands covering from 1710 MHz to 2690 MHz (DCS1800/PCS1900/WCDMA2100/LTE2300/LTE2500 is contributed by both structures. The antenna has the total efficiency up to 30% in low bands and up to 75% in high bands, respectively. At the same time, the proposed miniaturized octaband LTE mobile phone antenna is fabricated and tested to verify the design.

  1. High-Performance Wireless via the Merger of CI Chip-Shaped DS-CDMA and Oscillating-Beam Smart Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassar Carl R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel merger of direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA and smart antenna arrays. With regard to the DS-CDMA scheme, we employ carrier interferometry DS-CDMA (CI/DS-CDMA, a novel implementation of DS-CDMA where chips are decomposable into narrowband frequency components. With regard to the antenna array, we deploy the oscillating-beam smart array. Here, applying proper time-varying phases to the array elements, we create small movement (oscillation in the antenna array's pattern, while steering the antenna pattern main lobe to the position of the intended user. The oscillating antenna pattern creates a time-varying channel with a controllable coherence time. This, in turn, provides transmit diversity in the form of a time diversity gain at the mobile receiver side. At the receiver, three stages of combining are available: combining time components of the received signal within symbol duration (each experiencing a different fade to enhance performance via time diversity; combining frequency components which make up the CI/DS-CDMA chip to enhance the performance via frequency diversity; and combining across chips to eliminate the interfering users on the system. Merging CI/DS-CDMA with the oscillating-beam smart antenna at the base station, we achieve very high capacity via the merger of SDMA (available through directionality of the antenna array and code division multiple access (inherent in CI/DS-CDMA, and very high performance via the construction of receivers that exploit both transmit diversity and frequency diversity. We present the performance gains of the proposed merger.

  2. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  3. High-performance low-power smart antenna for smart world applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available with the summary in Section IV. II. ANTENNA SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The antenna introduced in this paper is an advanced and compact array antenna-based system which sends/receives the signals into/from the air, with the direction of transmission/reception being... of radiation pattern. The optimization variables were the height of the antenna’s active and parasitic elements and the radius at which the parasitic elements are away from the active element. The manufactured prototype is shown in Fig. 1b. It is compact...

  4. A smart car for the surface shape measurement of large antenna based on laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yonggang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The geometric accuracy of the surface shape of large antenna is an important indicator of antenna’s quality. Currently, high-precision measurement of large antenna surface shape can be performed in two ways: photogrammetry and laser tracker. Photogrammetry is a rapid method, but its accuracy is not enough good. Laser tracker can achieve high precision, but it is very inconvenient to move the reflector (target mirror) on the surface of the antenna by hand during the measurement. So, a smart car is designed to carry the reflector in this paper. The car, controlled by wireless, has a small weight and a strong ability for climbing, and there is a holding bracket gripping the reflector and controlling reflector rise up and drop down on the car. During the measurement of laser tracker, the laser beam between laser tracker and the reflector must not be interrupted, so two high-precision three-dimensional miniature electronic compasses, which can real-time monitor the relative angle between the holding bracket and the laser tracker’s head, are both equipped on the car and the head of laser tracker to achieve automatic alignment between reflector and laser beam. With the aid of the smart car, the measurement of laser tracker has the advantages of high precision and rapidity.

  5. A multiband dual-standard MIMO antenna system based on monopoles (4G) and connected slots (5G) for future smart phones

    KAUST Repository

    Ikram, M.; Sharawi, M. S.; Shamim, Atif; Sebak, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a 4G/5G multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system is presented for smart phone applications. The 4G antenna operates from 1900 to 3212 MHz and 3517 to 3712 MHz with 1312 (69%) and 195 (5.5%) MHz measured bandwidths

  6. Bandwidth provisioning in infrastructure-based wireless networks employing directional antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiviswanthan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Bo [PENN STATE UNIV.; Vasudevan, Sudarshan [UNIV OF MASS AMHERST; Yrgaonkar, Bhuvan [PENN STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the widespread proliferation of wireless networks employing directional antennas, we study the problem of provisioning bandwidth in such networks. Given a set of subscribers and one or more access points possessing directional antennas, we formalize the problem of orienting these antennas in two fundamental settings: (1) subscriber-centric, where the objective is to fairly allocate bandwidth among the subscribers and (2) provider-centric, where the objective is to maximize the revenue generated by satisfying the bandwidth requirements of subscribers. For both the problems, we first design algorithms for a network with only one access point working under the assumption that the number of antennas does not exceed the number of noninterfering channels. Using the well-regarded lexicographic max-min fair allocation as the objective for a subscriber-centric network, we present an optimum dynamic programming algorithm. For a provider-centric network, the allocation problem turns out to be NP-hard. We present a greedy heuristic based algorithm that guarantees almost half of the optimum revenue. We later enhance both these algorithms to operate in more general networks with multiple access points and no restrictions on the relative numbers of antennas and channels. A simulation-based evaluation using OPNET demonstrates the efficacy of our approaches and provides us further in insights into these problems.

  7. A SECURE MESSAGE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR COMPUTER NETWORKS EMPLOYING SMART CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geylani KARDAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce a mobile system architecture which employs smart cards for secure message transmission in computer networks. The use of smart card provides two security services as authentication and confidentiality in our design. The security of the system is provided by asymmetric encryption. Hence, smart cards are used to store personal account information as well as private key of each user for encryption / decryption operations. This offers further security, authentication and mobility to the system architecture. A real implementation of the proposed architecture which utilizes the JavaCard technology is also discussed in this study.

  8. Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-03

    arc csch csch - 1 Russian English rot curl lg log !i FIVE-METER SPHERICAL MILLIMETER-BAND ANTENNA P.M. Geruni This article presents the basic...rlpe’ I operating band, MHz elliptical Xk, mm X , m fk, MHz z wavgudeeg MHz f =1.2f f =0.95f waegid H X B rip = E40 104.5 56.4 2872 5410 3446 5141 E48...aperture In order to do this, we expand (30) into a series with respect to y. Limiting ourselves to the first three terms of the expansion, we obtain r

  9. Evaluation of Smart Grid Technologies Employed for System Reliability Improvement: Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agalgaonkar, Yashodhan P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2017-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD) was a smart grid technology performance evaluation project that included multiple U.S. states and cooperation from multiple electric utilities in the northwest region. One of the local objectives for the project was to achieve improved distribution system reliability. Toward this end, some PNWSGD utilities automated their distribution systems, including the application of fault detection, isolation, and restoration and advanced metering infrastructure. In light of this investment, a major challenge was to establish a correlation between implementation of these smart grid technologies and actual improvements of distribution system reliability. This paper proposes using Welch’s t-test to objectively determine and quantify whether distribution system reliability is improving over time. The proposed methodology is generic, and it can be implemented by any utility after calculation of the standard reliability indices. The effectiveness of the proposed hypothesis testing approach is demonstrated through comprehensive practical results. It is believed that wider adoption of the proposed approach can help utilities to evaluate a realistic long-term performance of smart grid technologies.

  10. Optimal placement of MIMO antenna pairs with different quality factors in smart-phone platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, an investigation on the use of tunable antennas for a compact implementation of multi input multi output (MIMO) phones has been done. The position of the exciting elements has been investigated as well as the antenna's bandwidth impact on the mutual coupling. It has been sho...

  11. A multiband dual-standard MIMO antenna system based on monopoles (4G) and connected slots (5G) for future smart phones

    KAUST Repository

    Ikram, M.

    2018-04-24

    In this work, a 4G/5G multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system is presented for smart phone applications. The 4G antenna operates from 1900 to 3212 MHz and 3517 to 3712 MHz with 1312 (69%) and 195 (5.5%) MHz measured bandwidths, respectively. The 5G antenna covers 25.7–30.50 GHz band with 4.8 GHz (18.7%) measured bandwidth. The 4G MIMO antenna system is based on 4-element wideband monopoles, while the 5G one is based on 2-element linear connected arrays (LCA). Four slots are etched to improve the isolation between the 4G MIMO antenna elements and then a 4 × 1 power divider/combiner is used to excite two of these slots to act as a LCA at mm-waves. The concept of dual function ground slots is very useful to implement 4G and 5G MIMO antenna systems on the single substrate. The proposed design is fabricated on RO4350B substrate with a height of 0.76 mm and dielectric constant of 3.5. The overall size of the substrate is 115 × 65 × 0.76 mm. The integrated wideband 4G/5G antenna system is a compact, low profile, and suitable for future smart phone applications. Isolation obtained was at least 15 dB and the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) values did not exceed 0.16 between all elements.

  12. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  13. Compact Triple-Band Antenna Employing Simplified MTLs for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangjing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact triple-band asymmetric coplanar waveguide- (ACPW- fed antenna based on simplified metamaterial transmission lines (SMTLs is proposed in this paper. The antenna consists of two SMTL unit cells of the same dimension. Three operating bands, which cover UMTS in the 1.76 GHz band and WLAN in the 5.2 GHz and 5.8 GHz, are achieved when the zeroth-order and first-positive-order modes appear. The characteristics of the proposed transmission line metamaterial structure are studied in detail by circuit analysis and dispersion analysis. The working mechanism and radiation performances of the antenna are examined and illustrated at the three operating bands, respectively. A prototype designed on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.3 occupies an overall size of 12.55 × 22.7 × 1.6 mm3 and is constructed and successfully measured.

  14. Indoor radio channel modeling and mitigation of fading effects using linear and circular polarized antennas in combination for smart home system at 868 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, S.; Welpot, M.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    The markets for smart home products and services are expected to grow over the next years, driven by the increasing demands of homeowners considering energy monitoring, management, environmental controls and security. Many of these new systems will be installed in existing homes and offices and therefore using radio based systems for cost reduction. A drawback of radio based systems in indoor environments are fading effects which lead to a high variance of the received signal strength and thereby to a difficult predictability of the encountered path loss of the various communication links. For that reason it is necessary to derive a statistical path loss model which can be used to plan a reliable and cost effective radio network. This paper presents the results of a measurement campaign, which was performed in six buildings to deduce realistic radio channel models for a high variety of indoor radio propagation scenarios in the short range devices (SRD) band at 868 MHz. Furthermore, a potential concept to reduce the variance of the received signal strength using a circular polarized (CP) patch antenna in combination with a linear polarized antenna in an one-to-one communication link is presented.

  15. Antenna theory analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Balanis, Constantine A

    2005-01-01

    The discipline of antenna theory has experienced vast technological changes. In response, Constantine Balanis has updated his classic text, Antenna Theory, offering the most recent look at all the necessary topics. New material includes smart antennas and fractal antennas, along with the latest applications in wireless communications. Multimedia material on an accompanying CD presents PowerPoint viewgraphs of lecture notes, interactive review questions, Java animations and applets, and MATLAB features. Like the previous editions, Antenna Theory, Third Edition meets the needs of e

  16. Radio antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. W.

    This book is concerned with providing an explanation of the function of an antenna without delving too deeply into the mathematics or theory. The characteristics of an antenna are examined, taking into account aspects of antenna radiation, wave motion on the antenna, resistance in the antenna, impedance, the resonant antenna, the effect of the ground, polarization, radiation patterns, coupling effects between antenna elements, and receiving vs. transmitting. Aspects of propagation are considered along with the types of antennas, transmission lines, matching devices, questions of antenna design, antennas for the lower frequency bands, antennas for more than one band, limited space antennas, VHF antennas, and antennas for 20, 15, and 10 meters. Attention is given to devices for measuring antenna parameters, approaches for evaluating the antenna, questions of safety, and legal aspects.

  17. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  18. Experiments with dipole antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a variant of the Yagi-Uda antenna is explored. The experiments are suitable as laboratory works and classroom demonstrations, and are attractive for student projects.

  19. Detuning effect study of High-Q Mobile Phone Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    Number of frequency bands that have to be covered by smart phones, are ever increasing. This broadband coverage can be obtained either by using a low-Q antenna or a high-Q tunable antenna. This study investigates high-Q antennas performance when placed in proximity of the user. This study...

  20. Work in Television White Spaces (TVWS) and Dynamic Spectrum and a bit on Antennas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available current static approach towards dynamic spectrum management. The work on smart antennas covers both physical beamswitching antenna design and development of algorithms to control the direction of the beam in a wireless mesh network. Several prototypes have...

  1. Significant performance improvement obtained in a wireless mesh network using a beamswitching antenna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available mesh network operated in a fixed 11 Mbps mode. The throughput improvement in multi-hop communication obtained in the presence of an interferer is tenfold, from 0.2 Mbps to 2 Mbps. Index Terms?antenna, smart antenna, wireless mesh network, WMN... efficiency in the communications, and active research and development of new methods and technologies enabling this at the physical layer, including multiple antenna techniques, such as multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and smart antennas...

  2. Telecommunications Antennas for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchione, Joseph D.; Kruid, Ronald C.; Prata, Aluizio, Jr.; Amaro, Luis R.; Mittskus, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    The Juno Mission to Jupiter requires a full sphere of coverage throughout its cruise to and mission at Jupiter. This coverage is accommodated through the use of five (5) antennas; forward facing low gain, medium gain, and high gain antennas, and an aft facing low gain antenna along with an aft mounted low gain antenna with a torus shaped antenna pattern. Three of the antennas (the forward low and medium gain antennas) are classical designs that have been employed on several prior NASA missions. Two of the antennas employ new technology developed to meet the Juno mission requirements. The new technology developed for the low gain with torus shaped radiation pattern represents a significant evolution of the bicone antenna. The high gain antenna employs a specialized surface shaping designed to broaden the antenna's main beam at Ka-band to ease the requirements on the spacecraft's attitude control system.

  3. Smart Energy Cryo-refrigerator Technology for the next generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    We describe a “smart energy” cryocooler technology architecture for the next generation Very Large Array that makes use of multiple variable frequency cold heads driven from a single variable speed air cooled compressor. Preliminary experiments indicate that the compressor variable flow control, advanced diagnostics, and the cryo-refrigerator low vibration, provide a unique energy efficient capability for the very large number of antennas that will be employed in this array.

  4. Antenna toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Joe Carr has provided radio amateurs and short-wave listeners with the definitive design guide for sending and receiving radio signals with Antenna Toolkit 2nd edition.Together with the powerful suite of CD software, the reader will have a complete solution for constructing or using an antenna - bar the actual hardware! The software provides a simple Windows-based aid to carrying out the design calculations at the heart of successful antenna design. All the user needs to do is select the antenna type and set the frequency - a much more fun and less error prone method than using a con

  5. One- and two-dimensional antenna arrays for microwave wireless power transfer (MWPT) systems and dual-antenna transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yo-Sheng; Hu, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chi-Ho; Tsao, Ping-Chang

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate novel one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) antenna arrays for both microwave wireless power transfer (MWPT) systems and dual-antenna transceivers. The antenna array can be used as the MWPT receiving antenna of an integrated MWPT and Bluetooth (BLE) communication module (MWPT-BLE module) for smart CNC (computer numerical control) spindle incorporated with the cloud computing system SkyMars. The 2D antenna array has n rows of 1 × m 1D array, and each array is composed of multiple (m) differential feeding antenna elements. Each differential feeding antenna element is a differential feeding structure with a microstrip antenna stripe. The stripe length is shorter than one wavelength to minimise the antenna area and to prevent being excited to a high-order mode. That is, the differential feeding antenna element can suppress the even mode. The mutual coupling between the antenna elements can be suppressed, and the isolation between the receiver and the transmitter can be enhanced. An inclination angle of the main beam aligns with the broadside, and the main beam is further concentrated and shrunk at the elevation direction. Moreover, if more differential feeding antenna elements are used, antenna gain and isolation can be further enhanced. The excellent performance of the proposed antenna arrays indicates that they are suitable for both MWPT systems and dual-antenna transceivers.

  6. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  7. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  8. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  9. Multiband Patch Antenna for Femtocell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip patch antenna for multiple LTE (long term evaluation frequency bands for femtocell application is proposed in this paper. Distributed antenna solution (DAS has been introduced in cellular network to achieve homogenous indoor coverage. Femtocell is the latest extension to these solutions. It is a smart solution to both coverage and capacity scales. Femtocell operation in LTE band is occupied by higher frequency bands. For multiband femtocell application, miniature antenna design is quite essential. The antenna proposed here is composed of basic monopole structure with two parasitic elements at both sides of the active element. A rectangular slot is introduced at the ground plane of the proposed antenna. The antenna is designed using ElnoS HK light CCL substrate material of relative permittivity of 9.4, dielectric loss-tangent of 0.003 and thickness of 3 mm. The S11 response of the antenna is shown to have a bandwidth of 1.01 GHz starting from 1.79 GHz to 2.8 GHz. The characteristics of the antenna are analysed using Ansoft HFSS software.

  10. Superluminal antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Potter, James M.; Romero, William P.; Wang, Zhi-Fu

    2018-04-17

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  11. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  12. Broadband standard dipole antenna for antenna calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kunimasa; Sugiura, Akira; Morikawa, Takao

    1995-06-01

    Antenna calibration of EMI antennas is mostly performed by the standard antenna method at an open-field test site using a specially designed dipole antenna as a reference. In order to develop broadband standard antennas, the antenna factors of shortened dipples are theoretically investigated. First, the effects of the dipole length are analyzed using the induced emf method. Then, baluns and loads are examined to determine their influence on the antenna factors. It is found that transformer-type baluns are very effective for improving the height dependence of the antenna factors. Resistive loads are also useful for flattening the frequency dependence. Based on these studies, a specification is developed for a broadband standard antenna operating in the 30 to 150 MHz frequency range.

  13. Corporate Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavazotte, Flávia; Heloisa Lemos, Ana; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the adoption of company sponsored smart phones inflicts upon the lives of professionals. Drawing upon qualitative interviews at a law firm in Brazil, the experiences of new smart phone users are reported upon in detail. Increased accessibility, accuracy and speed...... that negatively affected their private spheres, yet many of them paradoxically requested more efficient smart phone connectivity. The article focuses on the justifications, the different narrative strategies, employed by professionals for their conscious engagement in escalating work connectivity. It is suggested...

  14. Space vehicle electromechanical system and helical antenna winding fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Guenther, David; Enemark, Donald; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven

    2017-12-26

    A space vehicle electromechanical system may employ an architecture that enables convenient and practical testing, reset, and retesting of solar panel and antenna deployment on the ground. A helical antenna winding fixture may facilitate winding and binding of the helical antenna.

  15. Frequency-agile antennas for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Petosa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Mobile data subscriptions are expected to more than double and mobile wireless traffic to increase by more than tenfold over the next few years. Proliferation of smart phones, tablets, and other portable devices are placing greater demands for services such as web browsing, global positioning, video streaming, and video telephony. Many of the proposed solutions to deal with these demands will have a significant impact on antenna designs. Antennas with frequency agility are considered a promising technology to help implement these new solutions.This book provides readers with a sense of the cap

  16. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  17. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  18. Body-loss for Popular Thin Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, an investigation of the radio performance of recent popular phones has been done. The antenna performance has been evaluated with the newly agreed phantom head-hand measurements of the mobile antenna efficiency. It has been observed that the newer generation thin smart phones...

  19. Employing a RGB-D Sensor for Real-Time Tracking of Humans across Multiple Re-Entries in a Smart Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Han (Jungong ); E.J. Pauwels (Eric); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); P.H.N. de With

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe term smart environment refers to physical spaces equipped with sensors feeding into adaptive algorithms that enable the environment to become sensitive and responsive to the presence and needs of its occupants. People with special needs, such as the elderly or disabled

  20. Employing a RGB-D sensor for real-time tracking of humans across multiple re-entries in a smart environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jungong; Pauwels, E.J.; Zeeuw, de P.M.; With, de P.H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The term smart environment refers to physical spaces equipped with sensors feeding into adaptive algorithms that enable the environment to become sensitive and responsive to the presence and needs of its occupants. People with special needs, such as the elderly or disabled people, stand to benefit

  1. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-06-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging.

  2. Smart assistants for smart homes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The smarter homes of tomorrow promise to increase comfort, aid elderly and disabled people, and help inhabitants save energy. Unfortunately, smart homes today are far from this vision – people who already live in such a home struggle with complicated user interfaces, inflexible home configurations, and difficult installation procedures. Under these circumstances, smart homes are not ready for mass adoption. This dissertation addresses these issues by proposing two smart assistants for smart h...

  3. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning.......This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  4. Plasma antennas: dynamically configurable antennas for communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, G.; Harris, J.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth in both communications and radar systems has led to a concomitant growth in the possible applications and requirements of antennas. These new requirements include compactness and conformality, rapid reconfigurability for directionality and frequency agility. For military applications, antennas should also allow low absolute or out-of-band radar cross-section and facilitate low probability of intercept communications. Investigations have recently begun worldwide on the use of ionised gases or plasmas as the conducting medium in antennas that could satisfy these requirements. Such plasma antennas may even offer a viable alternative to metal in existing applications when overall technical requirements are considered. A recent patent for ground penetrating radar claims the invention of a plasma antenna for the transmission of pulses shorter than 100 ns in which it is claimed that current ringing is avoided and signal processing simplified compared with a metal antenna. A recent US ONR tender has been issued for the design and construction of a compact and rapidly reconfigurable antenna for dynamic signal reception over the frequency range 1 - 45 GHz based on plasma antennas. Recent basic physics experiments at ANU have demonstrated that plasma antennas can attain adequate efficiency, predictable radiation patterns and low base-band noise for HF and VHF communications. In this paper we describe the theory of the low frequency plasma antenna and present a few experimental results

  5. A Modal Approach to Compact MIMO Antenna Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binbin

    MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) technology offers new possibilities for wireless communication through transmission over multiple spatial channels, and enables linear increases in spectral efficiency as the number of the transmitting and receiving antennas increases. However, the physical implementation of such systems in compact devices encounters many physical constraints mainly from the design of multi-antennas. First, an antenna's bandwidth decreases dramatically as its electrical size reduces, a fact known as antenna Q limit; secondly, multiple antennas closely spaced tend to couple with each other, undermining MIMO performance. Though different MIMO antenna designs have been proposed in the literature, there is still a lack of a systematic design methodology and knowledge of performance limits. In this dissertation, we employ characteristic mode theory (CMT) as a powerful tool for MIMO antenna analysis and design. CMT allows us to examine each physical mode of the antenna aperture, and to access its many physical parameters without even exciting the antenna. For the first time, we propose efficient circuit models for MIMO antennas of arbitrary geometry using this modal decomposition technique. Those circuit models demonstrate the powerful physical insight of CMT for MIMO antenna modeling, and simplify MIMO antenna design problem to just the design of specific antenna structural modes and a modal feed network, making possible the separate design of antenna aperture and feeds. We therefore develop a feed-independent shape synthesis technique for optimization of broadband multi-mode apertures. Combining the shape synthesis and circuit modeling techniques for MIMO antennas, we propose a shape-first feed-next design methodology for MIMO antennas, and designed and fabricated two planar MIMO antennas, each occupying an aperture much smaller than the regular size of lambda/2 x lambda/2. Facilitated by the newly developed source formulation for antenna stored

  6. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  7. Development of ceramic-free antenna feeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, S.; Kimura, H.; Fujii, T.; Saigusa, M.; Arai, H.

    1994-01-01

    We have proposed a ceramics-free antenna feeder line employing a ridged waveguide as a local support for IC antenna of next-generation tokamaks. One fourth mock-up model of the all metal waveguide designed for the ITER ICRF system is fabricated and electrical characteristics of the model including the coaxial line - waveguide converter are measured. Power reflection coefficient of the model including the coax-waveguide converter to the input coaxial line is estimated to be less than 15% below the cut-off frequency of 107 MHz and less than 3% above the cut-off frequency. It is found that this ceramics-free antenna support employing a ridged waveguide is quite available for IC antenna of next-generation tokamaks. (author)

  8. Resonant double loop antenna development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Brown, R.A.; Bryan, W.E.; Fadnek, A.; Hoffman, D.J.; King, J.F.; Livesey, R.L.; McIlwain, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the development of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) systems for fusion research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built resonant double loop (RDL) antennas for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, US) and Tore Supra (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaire, Cadarache, France). Each antenna has been designed to deliver 4 MW of power. The electrical circuit and the mechanical philosophy employed are the same for both antennas, but different operating environments lead to substantial differences in the designs of specific components. A description and a comparison of the technologies developed in the two designs are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  10. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  11. Equipment: Antenna systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, L. E.

    1986-03-01

    Some antenna fundamentals as well as definitions of the principal terms used in antenna engineering are described. Methods are presented for determining the desired antenna radiation patterns for HF communication circuit or service area. Sources for obtaining or computing radiation pattern information are outlined. Comparisons are presented between the measured and computed radiation patterns. The effect of the properties of the ground on the antenna gain and the pattern are illustrated for several types of antennas. Numerous examples are given of the radiation patterns for typical antennas used on short, intermediate and long distance circuits for both mobile and fixed service operations. The application of adaptive antenna arrays and active antennas in modern HF communication systems are briefly reviewed.

  12. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  13. Design and implementation of a smart card based billing system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A smart card based billing system for petroleum dispenser is just one of the many ways in which smart cards can be employed to make commerce efficient. It incorporates the use of smart card as its legal tender and a smart card reader embedded into the filling station dispenser design. The smart card reader processes the ...

  14. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging. PMID:24953037

  15. Development of a custom-made "smart-sphere" to assess incipient entrainment by rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Alexakis, Athanasios; Trinder, Jon

    2017-04-01

    The most widely applied criterion for sediment incipient motion in engineering applications is the time- and space-averaged approach of critical Shields shear stress. Nonetheless, in the recent years published research has highlighted the importance of turbulence fluctuations in sediment incipient motion and its stochastic character. The present experimental study investigates statistically the link of the response of a "smart-pebble" to hydrodynamics in near-critical flow conditions and discusses how such a device can be utilized in engineering design. A set of specifically designed fluvial experiments monitoring the entrainment conditions for a "smart-pebble", were carried out in a tilting, recirculating flume in turbulent flow conditions while three-dimensional flow measurements were obtained with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The "smart-pebble" employed herein is a custom-made instrumented sphere with 7 cm diameter, which has a number of sensors embedded within its waterproof 3D-printed plastic shell. Specifically, the "smart-pebble" is equipped with miniaturized, off the shelf, low-cost, three-dimensional acceleration, orientation and angular displacement sensors. A 3D-printed local micro topography of known geometry was installed in the flume's test section and the "smart-pebble" was placed there in order to facilitate the analysis. Every time the "smart-sphere" is displaced by the flow a downstream located pin blocks its full entrainment. This allows for continuous recording of the entrainment events due to the passage of energetic events, after which the "smart-pebble" returns to its resting pocket. The "smart-pebble" device under such a configuration allows the recording of normally indiscernible (with the naked eye) vibrations, twitching motions, and full entrainments for the studied particle, allowing its analysis from a Langrangian framework. During the incipient motion experiments the retrieved data are stored in an internal memory unit or

  16. A Method of Auxiliary Sources Approach for Modelling the Impact of Ground Planes on Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements......The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is employed to model the impact of finite ground planes on the radiation from antennas. Two different antenna test cases are shown and the calculated results agree well with reference measurements...

  17. Smart logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woensel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture focuses on Smart Logistics referring to these intelligent managerial decisions related to the design, operations and control of the transportation chain processes in an efficient and cost-effective way. The starting point for Smart Logistics is the key observation that the real-life

  18. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    transaction costs by providing seamless real-time payments. In addition, digital legal tender that is based on blockchain technology can provide a foundation for customizable “smart money” which can be used to manage the appropriation of money and its use. In essence, the smart money is a customizable value...

  19. Antenna theory: Analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, C. A.

    The book's main objective is to introduce the fundamental principles of antenna theory and to apply them to the analysis, design, and measurements of antennas. In a description of antennas, the radiation mechanism is discussed along with the current distribution on a thin wire. Fundamental parameters of antennas are examined, taking into account the radiation pattern, radiation power density, radiation intensity, directivity, numerical techniques, gain, antenna efficiency, half-power beamwidth, beam efficiency, bandwidth, polarization, input impedance, and antenna temperature. Attention is given to radiation integrals and auxiliary potential functions, linear wire antennas, loop antennas, linear and circular arrays, self- and mutual impedances of linear elements and arrays, broadband dipoles and matching techniques, traveling wave and broadband antennas, frequency independent antennas and antenna miniaturization, the geometrical theory of diffraction, horns, reflectors and lens antennas, antenna synthesis and continuous sources, and antenna measurements.

  20. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  1. Multi-band Monopole Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial TL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi-jie; Liang, Jian-gang

    2015-05-01

    A novel metamaterial transmission line (TL) by loading complementary single Archimedean spiral resonator pair (CSASRP) is investigated and used to design a set of multi-frequency monopole antennas. The particularity is that the CSASRP which features dual-shunt branches in the equivalent circuit model is directly etched in the signal strip. By smartly controlling the element parameters, three antennas are designed and one of them covering UMTS and Bluetooth bands is fabricated and measured. The antenna exhibits impedance matching better than -10 dB and normal monopolar radiation patterns at working bands of 1.9-2.22 and 2.38-2.5 GHz. Moreover, the loaded element also contributes to the radiation, which is the major advantage of this prescription over previous lumped-element loadings. The proposed antenna is also more compact over previous designs.

  2. Antennas and waveguides for electron-cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    It is clear that currently very simple as well as very advanced concepts are under investigation for antennas for ECH in various plasma devices. Future devices may be expected to incorporate very imaginative antennas. The present designs must be checked and their usefullness determined before these advanced concepts are employed

  3. Phased array antenna control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Several new and useful improvements in steering and control of phased array antennas having a small number of elements, typically on the order of 5 to 17 elements are provided. Among the improvements are increasing the number of beam steering positions, reducing the possibility of phase transients in signals received or transmitted with the antennas, and increasing control and testing capacity with respect to the antennas.

  4. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  5. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  6. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  7. Reliability evaluation of smart distribution grids

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    The term "Smart Grid" generally refers to a power grid equipped with the advanced technologies dedicated for purposes such as reliability improvement, ease of control and management, integrating of distributed energy resources and electricity market operations. Improving the reliability of electric power delivered to the end users is one of the main targets of employing smart grid technologies. The smart grid investments targeted for reliability improvement can be directed toward the generati...

  8. Diagnostics of the SMOS radiometer antenna system at the DTU-ESA spherical near-field antenna test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Frandsen, A.; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    The recently developed Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion (SWE-to-PWE) antenna diagnostics technique is employed in an investigation of the antenna system in the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) for ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission...

  9. Frequency-Tunable and Pattern Diversity Antennas for Cognitive Radio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-tunable microstrip antennas, for cognitive radio applications, are proposed herein. The approach is based on tuning the operating frequency of a bandpass filter that is incorporated into a wideband antenna. The integration of an open loop resonator- (OLR- based adjustable bandpass filter into a wideband antenna to transform it into a tunable filter-antenna is presented. The same technique is employed to design a cognitive radio pattern diversity tunable filter-antenna. A good agreement between the simulated and measured results for the fabricated prototypes is obtained. The radiation characteristics of each designed tunable filter-antenna are included herein.

  10. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Active Skin Antenna with 3D Printing Array Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An active skin antenna with structural load-bearing and electromagnetic functions is usually installed in the structural surface of mobile vehicles such as aircrafts, warships, and high-speed train. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel active skin antenna which consists of an encapsulation shell, antenna skin, and RF and beam control circuits. The antenna skin which consists of the facesheet, honeycomb, array framework, and microstrip antenna elements was designed by using Bayesian optimization, in order to improve the design efficiency. An active skin antenna prototype with 32 microstrip antenna elements was fabricated by using a hybrid manufacturing method. In this method, 3D printing technology was applied to fabricate the array framework, and the different layers were bonded to form the final antenna skin by using traditional composite process. Some experimental testing was conducted, and the testing results validate the feasibility the proposed antenna skin structure. The proposed design and fabrication technique is suitable for the development of conformal load-bearing antenna or smart skin antenna installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles.

  11. Directional borehole antenna - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1992-02-01

    A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)

  12. The Simulation and Experiment of a Non-Cross-Feeding Printed Log-Periodic Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-cross-fed printed log-periodic antenna is simulated and studied experimentally. To avoid complex feeding with long coaxial line, the non-cross-feeding structure is applied in this antenna. The software CST Microwave Studio is employed to simulate the proposed antenna, and the optimized antenna model is obtained. According to the simulation results, the antenna prototype is produced and measured. Simulation and measured results show that the antenna is with S11<-10 dB in band of 4.2–9.2 GHz. And the radiation pattern and gain vary steadily in this band, which achieves requirements for wideband antenna. This antenna design can be extended to the design of the antenna integrated in communication circuit.

  13. Compact super-wideband optical antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen C.; Forber, Richard; Bui, Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    We present progress on advanced optical antennas, which are compact, small size-weight-power units capable to receive super wideband radiated RF signals from 30 MHz to over 3 GHz. Based on electro-optical modulation of fiber-coupled guided wave light, these dielectric E-field sensors exhibit dipole-like azimuthal omni directionality, and combine small size (channels, and high EO sensing materials. The antenna system photonic link consists of a 1550 nm PM fiber-pigtailed laser, a specialized optical modulator antenna in channel waveguide format, a wideband photoreceiver, and optical phase stabilizing components. The optical modulator antenna design employs a dielectric (no electrode) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) arranged so that sensing RF bandwidth is not limited by optical transit time effects, and MZI phase drift is bias stabilized. For a prototype optical antenna system that is < 100 in3, < 10 W, < 5 lbs, we present test data on sensitivity (< 20 mV/m-Hz1/2), RF bandwidth, and antenna directionality, and show good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  14. Handbook of antenna technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Duixian; Nakano, Hisamatsu; Qing, Xianming; Zwick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Handbook of Antenna Technologies aims to present the rapid development of antenna technologies, particularly in the past two decades, and also showcasing the newly developed technologies and the latest applications. The handbook will provide readers with the comprehensive updated reference information covering theory, modeling and optimization methods, design and measurement, new electromagnetic materials, and applications of antennas. The handbook will widely cover not only all key antenna design issues but also fundamentals, issues related to antennas (transmission, propagation, feeding structure, materials, fabrication, measurement, system, and unique design challenges in specific applications). This handbook will benefit the readers as a full and quick technical reference with a high-level historic review of technology, detailed technical descriptions and the latest practical applications.

  15. GPS antenna designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Samuel J. P.

    1987-05-01

    Application of the current GPS NAVSTAR system to civilian service requires that a right hand, circularly polarized, -160 dBW spread spectrum signal be received from an orbiting satellite, where the antenna environment is also moving. This presents a design challenge when inexpensive antennas are desired. The intent of this survey is to provide information on the antennas mentioned and to construct and test prototypes to determine whether the choice made by the industry, the quadrifilar helix, is the best. The helix antenna is currently the low cost standard for GPS. Prototype versions were constructed using 12 gauge wire and subminiature coaxial hardline. The constructed antennas were tested using a signal generator and a reference turnstile. A spectrum analyzer was used to measure the level of the received signal.

  16. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  17. Smart Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea NASTASE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforms in electronic business have presented new opportunities to use smart card technology as an enabling tool. The network-centric applications, where resources are located throughout the Internet and access to them is possible from any location, require authenticated access and secured transactions. Smart cards represent an ideal solution: they offers an additional layer of electronic security and information assurance for user authentication, confidentiality, non-repudiation, information integrity, physical access control to facilities, and logical access control to an computer systems.

  18. Antenna analysis using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William T.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional computing schemes have long been used to analyze problems in electromagnetics (EM). The vast majority of EM applications require computationally intensive algorithms involving numerical integration and solutions to large systems of equations. The feasibility of using neural network computing algorithms for antenna analysis is investigated. The ultimate goal is to use a trained neural network algorithm to reduce the computational demands of existing reflector surface error compensation techniques. Neural networks are computational algorithms based on neurobiological systems. Neural nets consist of massively parallel interconnected nonlinear computational elements. They are often employed in pattern recognition and image processing problems. Recently, neural network analysis has been applied in the electromagnetics area for the design of frequency selective surfaces and beam forming networks. The backpropagation training algorithm was employed to simulate classical antenna array synthesis techniques. The Woodward-Lawson (W-L) and Dolph-Chebyshev (D-C) array pattern synthesis techniques were used to train the neural network. The inputs to the network were samples of the desired synthesis pattern. The outputs are the array element excitations required to synthesize the desired pattern. Once trained, the network is used to simulate the W-L or D-C techniques. Various sector patterns and cosecant-type patterns (27 total) generated using W-L synthesis were used to train the network. Desired pattern samples were then fed to the neural network. The outputs of the network were the simulated W-L excitations. A 20 element linear array was used. There were 41 input pattern samples with 40 output excitations (20 real parts, 20 imaginary). A comparison between the simulated and actual W-L techniques is shown for a triangular-shaped pattern. Dolph-Chebyshev is a different class of synthesis technique in that D-C is used for side lobe control as opposed to pattern

  19. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  20. Smart roadside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Smart Roadside is a system envisioned to be deployed at strategic points along commercial vehicle routes to : improve the safety, mobility, and efficiency of truck movement and operations on the roadway. It is a concept : where private- and public-se...

  1. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  2. Antennas from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Practical, concise and complete reference for the basics of modern antenna design Antennas: from Theory to Practice discusses the basics of modern antenna design and theory. Developed specifically for engineers and designers who work with radio communications, radar and RF engineering, this book offers practical and hands-on treatment of antenna theory and techniques, and provides its readers the skills to analyse, design and measure various antennas. Key features: Provides thorough coverage on the basics of transmission lines, radio waves and propag

  3. Buoyant Cable Antenna System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerhard, Erich M

    2008-01-01

    .... For instance, in one embodiment two oppositely extending curves each float and each are pressed by the water in a balanced manner to provide a stable platform for one or more antennas which can be...

  4. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  5. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  6. Microwave antenna holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Seidel, Boris L.

    1992-01-01

    This microwave holography technique utilizes the Fourier transform relation between the complex far field radiation pattern of an antenna and the complex aperture field distribution. Resulting aperture phase and amplitude distribution data can be used to precisely characterize various crucial performance parameters, including panel alignment, panel shaping, subreflector position, antenna aperture illumination, directivity at various frequencies, and gravity deformation effects. The methodology of data processing presented here was successfully applied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-m beam waveguide antennas. The antenna performance was improved at all operating frequencies by reducing the main reflector mechanical surface rms error to 0.43 mm. At Ka-band (32 GHz), the estimated improvement is 4.1 dB, resulting in an aperture efficiency of 52 percent. The performance improvement was verified by efficiency measurements and additional holographic measurements.

  7. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  8. GET SMART: EPA'S SMARTE INITIATIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development with the assistance of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group and the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools (SMART) that will help stakeholders over...

  9. A compact planar multi-broad band monopole antenna for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoqing; Yao, Bin; Zheng, Qinhong; Yang, Jikong; Cao, Xiangqi

    2015-10-01

    A Multiple-frequency broadband planar monopole antenna is proposed in this Paper. The antenna is stimulated and numerically optimized by HFSS13.0 (High Frequency Structure Simulator). The size of it is 39mm×22mm×1.7mm. The antenna resonates at many frequencies. The parameter S112G(DCS1800 and PCS1900), 3G(UMTS), 4G(LTE2300 and LTE2500), ISM, WLAN. It is quiet appropriate for the present ultra-thin smart phones

  10. The healthiness of JT-60 ICRF antenna and development of its temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranai, Shinichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Moriyama, Shinichi; Sato, Tomio; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Tsuneyuki

    1998-03-01

    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating system in JT-60 employs two antennas to couple RF power in the range of 100 MHz to the plasma. The antennas are installed in the vacuum vessel of JT-60, facing to the high temperature plasma. Due to the severe heat load from the plasma, parts of the antenna surface are suffering from melt. It is important to investigate the mechanism of the heat load and the melting. 'Temperature measurement for ICRF antenna surface' employing an infrared thermographic camera has been developed, in order to investigate the heat load to the antenna and to maintain the antenna available. We have succeeded in minimizing the melting damage of the antenna surface using the temperature measurement device. (author)

  11. MEMS- and NEMS-based smart devices and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2001-11-01

    The microelectronics industry has seen explosive growth during the last thirty years. Extremely large markets for logic and memory devices have driven the development of new materials, and technologies for the fabrication of even more complex devices with features sized now don at the sub micron and nanometer level. Recent interest has arisen in employing these materials, tools and technologies for the fabrication of miniature sensors and actuators and their integration with electronic circuits to produce smart devices and systems. This effort offers the promise of: 1) increasing the performance and manufacturability of both sensors and actuators by exploiting new batch fabrication processes developed including micro stereo lithographic an micro molding techniques; 2) developing novel classes of materials and mechanical structures not possible previously, such as diamond like carbon, silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes, micro-turbines and micro-engines; 3) development of technologies for the system level and wafer level integration of micro components at the nanometer precision, such as self-assembly techniques and robotic manipulation; 4) development of control and communication systems for MEMS devices, such as optical and RF wireless, and power delivery systems, etc. A novel composite structure can be tailored by functionalizing carbon nano tubes and chemically bonding them with the polymer matrix e.g. block or graft copolymer, or even cross-linked copolymer, to impart exceptional structural, electronic and surface properties. Bio- and Mechanical-MEMS devices derived from this hybrid composite provide a new avenue for future smart systems. The integration of NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems), MEMS, IDTs (Interdigital Transducers) and required microelectronics and conformal antenna in the multifunctional smart materials and composites results in a smart system suitable for sensing and control of a variety functions in automobile, aerospace, marine and civil

  12. Directional antenna array (DAA) for communications, control, and data link protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-06-01

    A next generation of Smart antennas with point-to-point communication and jam, spoof protection capability by verification of spatial position is offered. A directional antenna array (DAA) with narrow irradiation beam provides counter terrorism protection for communications, data link, control and GPS. Communications are "invisible" to guided missiles because of 20 dB smaller irradiation outside the beam and spatial separation. This solution can be implemented with current technology. Directional antennas have higher gain and can be multi-frequency or have wide frequency band in contrast to phase antenna arrays. This multi-directional antenna array provides a multi-functional communication network and simultaneously can be used for command control, data link and GPS.

  13. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs...

  14. Smart technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The success of smart technology in the pursuit of the Gulf War has accentuated the awareness of how the Safeguards and Security disciplines are changing in response to new weaponry. Throughout the Department of Energy Integrated Complex (IC) Safeguards and Security efforts such as: Protection Programs Operations; Materials, Controls and Accountability; Information Security; Computer Security; Operational Security; Personnel Security, Safeguards and/or Security (S and S) surveys, and Inspections and Evaluations are undergoing a reassessment and refocusing. Some of this is in response to such things as the DOE initiated Freeze Report and the Drell Report. An important aspect is also technological, adjusting the way business is done in light of the weapons, tools and processes/procedures becoming available. This paper addresses the S and S issues with the promise of using smart technology to develop new approaches and equipment across the IC

  15. Measurement of LHCD antenna position in Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambulkar, K K; Sharma, P K; Virani, C G; Parmar, P R; Thakur, A L; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    To drive plasma current non-inductively in ADITYA tokamak, 120 kW pulsed Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system at 3.7 GHz has been designed, fabricated and installed on ADITYA tokamak. In this system, the antenna consists of a grill structure, having two rows, each row comprising of four sub-waveguides. The coupling of LHCD power to the plasma strongly depends on the plasma density near the mouth of grill antenna. Thus the grill antenna has to be precisely positioned for efficient coupling. The movement of mechanical bellow, which contracts or expands up to 50mm, governs the movement of antenna. In order to monitor the position of the antenna precisely, the reference position of the antenna with respect to the machine/plasma position has to be accurately determined. Further a mechanical system or an electronic system to measure the relative movement of the antenna with respect to the reference position is also desired. Also due to poor accessibility inside the ADITYA machine, it is impossible to measure physically the reference position of the grill antenna with respect to machine wall, taken as reference position and hence an alternative method has to be adopted to establish these measurements reliably. In this paper we report the design and development of a mechanism, using which the antenna position measurements are made. It also describes a unique method employing which the measurements of the reference position of the antenna with respect to the inner edge of the tokamak wall is carried out, which otherwise was impossible due to poor accessibility and physical constraints. The position of the antenna is monitored using an electronic scale, which is developed and installed on the bellow. Once the reference position is derived, the linear potentiometer, attached to the bellow, measures the linear distance using position transmitter. The accuracy of measurement obtained in our setup is within +/- 0.5 % and the linearity, along with repeatability is excellent.

  16. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  17. A Reconfigurable WiMAX Antenna for Directional and Broadside Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jusoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reconfigurable compact patch array antenna for directional and broadside application is proposed. The presented antenna has successfully been able to function for directional beam at 320° or 35° and divisive broadside beam at 43° and 330°. This is realized in the unique form of aperture coupled spiral feeding technique and positioning of the radiating elements at 0°, 90,° and 180°. The switchable feature is effectively performed by the configuration of three PIN diodes. All PIN diodes are positioned at the specific location of the aperture coupled structure. It is discovered in simulation that the switches can be represented with a copper strip line or touchstone (TS block . The proposed antenna design operates at 2.37 GHz to 2.41 GHz and has a maximum gain of 6.4 dB and efficiency of 85.97%. Such antenna produces a broadside HPBW with a wider bandwidth covering from −90° to 90° compared to the normal microstrip antenna which could only provide HPBW of −50° to 50°. Moreover, the proposed antenna has small physical dimension of 100 mm by 100 mm. The simulation and measurement results have successfully exhibited the idea of the presented antenna performance. Therefore, the antenna is sufficiently competent in the smart WiMAX antenna application.

  18. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  19. Time efficient method for automated antenna design for wireless energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rectifier circuit in a rectenna (rectifying antenna) is analyzed employing a fast, efficient time-marching algorithm. The thus found complex input impedance dictates the antenna design. To maximize RF-to-DC conversion efficiency we do not want to employ an impedance matching and filtering

  20. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  1. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  2. ORNL compact loop antenna design for TFTR and Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Bryan, W.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Ray, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The goal supplemental ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of fusion plasma is to deliver power at high efficiencies deep within the plasma. The technology for fast-wave ICRH has reached the point of requiring ''proof-of-performance'' demonstration of specific antenna configurations of specific antenna configurations and their mechanical adequacy for operating in a fusion environment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the compact loop antenna concept based on a resonant double loop (RDL) configuration for use in both Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Tore Supra ICRH programs. A description and a comparison of the technologies developed in the two designs are presented. The electrical circuit and the mechanical philosophy employed are the same for both antennas, but different operating environments result in substantial differences in the design of specific components. The ORNL TFTR antenna is designed to deliver 4 MW over a 2-s pulse, and the ORNL Tore Supra antenna is designed for 4 MW and essentially steady-state conditions. The TFTR design embodies the first operations compact RDL antenna, and the Tore Supra antenna extends the technology to an operational duty cycle consistent with reactor-relevant applications. 7 refs., 5 figs

  3. An Analysis of Key Factors in Developing a Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidana Šiurytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept Smart City is used widely but it is perceived differently as well. Literature review reveals key elements of the Smart City – Information and Communication Technologies and Smart Citizens. Nevertheless, raising public awareness is not a priority of local municipalities which are trying to develop cities. Focus group discussion aims to analyse citizens’ insights in regards to the Smart City and their contribution to creation of it. Case study of Vilnius examines a position of mu-nicipality in developing city as smart. Study contains suggestions for the improvement of communication in the city. Methods employed: comparative literature analysis, focus group investigation, case study.

  4. Smart Pricing for Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Flat-rate electricity tariffs in Great Britain, which have no price variation throughout a day or a year, have been ongoing for decades to recover the cost of energy production and delivery. However, this type of electricity tariff has little incentives to encourage customers to modify their demands to suit the condition of the power supply system. Hence, it is challenged in the new smart grid environment, where demand side responses have important roles to play to encourage conventional ener...

  5. Evolution of the large Deep Space Network antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, William A.

    1991-12-01

    The evolution of the largest antenna of the US NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The design, performance analysis, and measurement techniques, beginning with its initial 64-m operation at S-band (2295 MHz) in 1966 and continuing through the present ka-band (32-GHz) operation at 70 m, is described. Although their diameters and mountings differ, these parabolic antennas all employ a Cassegrainian feed system, and each antenna dish surface is constructed of precision-shaped perforated-aluminum panels that are secured to an open steel framework

  6. Stretchable antenna for wearable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Shamim, Atif; Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for stretchable antennas that can be used for applications such as wearable electronics. In one example, a stretchable antenna includes a flexible support structure including a lateral spring section having a proximal

  7. Dynamic Flaps Electronic Scan Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic FLAPS(TM) electronic scan antenna was the focus of this research. The novelty S of this SBIR resides in the use of plasma as the main component of this dynamic X-Band phased S array antenna...

  8. Wireless Distributed Antenna MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to system applications of multicore optical fibers. One embodiment relates to a base transceiver station for a wireless telecommunication system comprising a plurality of antenna units arranged in a MIMO configuration and adapted for transmission and/or reception...... of radio-frequency signals, an optical transmitter in the form of an electro-optic conversion unit for each of said plurality of antenna units, each electro-optic conversion unit adapted for converting an RF signal into an optical signal, a plurality of a single core optical fibers for guiding the optical...

  9. Printed MIMO antenna engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sharawi, Mohammad S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communications has made a huge leap during the past two decades. The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology was proposed in the 1990's as a viable solution that can overcome the data rate limit experienced by single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. This resource is focused on printed MIMO antenna system design. Printed antennas are widely used in mobile and handheld terminals due to their conformity with the device, low cost, good integration within the device elements and mechanical parts, as well as ease of fabrication.A perfect design companion for practicing engineers

  10. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  11. DSN Microwave Antenna Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochblatt, D. J.; Seidel, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The DSN microwave antenna holography project will obtain three-dimensional pictures of the large DSN antenna surfaces. These pictures must be of suffi icient resolution to allow adjustment of the reflector panels to an rms surface of 0.5 mm (0.25 mm, goal). The major parameters and equations needed to define a holographic measurement system are outlined and then the proof of concept demonstration measurement that was made at DSS-43 (Australia) that resulted in contour maps with spatial resolution of 7 m in the aperture plane and resolution orthogonal to the aperture plane of 0.7 mm was discussed.

  12. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Legal tender in the form of coins and banknotes is expected to be replaced at one point in the future by digital legal tender. This transformation is an opportunity for central banks to rethink the idea of money and overhaul the prevailing payment systems. Digital legal tender is expected to reduce...... exchange instrument that relies on computer protocols to facilitate, verify, and enforce certain conditions for its appropriation as payment, e.g. who may use the money, where, and for what. If we believe that digital legal tender will become ubiquitous, then the emergence and diffusion of smart money...

  13. Passive Microwave Components and Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    State-of-the-art microwave systems always require higher performance and lower cost microwave components. Constantly growing demands and performance requirements of industrial and scientific applications often make employing traditionally designed components impractical. For that reason, the design...... and development process remains a great challenge today. This problem motivated intensive research efforts in microwave design and technology, which is responsible for a great number of recently appeared alternative approaches to analysis and design of microwave components and antennas. This book highlights...... techniques. Modelling and computations in electromagnetics is a quite fast-growing research area. The recent interest in this field is caused by the increased demand for designing complex microwave components, modeling electromagnetic materials, and rapid increase in computational power for calculation...

  14. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen......The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs...

  15. Substrate optimization for integrated circuit antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Alexopoulos, N. G.; Katehi, P. B.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Imaging systems in microwaves, millimeter and submillimeter wave applications employ printed circuit antenna elements. The effect of substrate properties is analyzed in this paper by both reciprocity theorem as well as integral equation approach for infinitesimally short as well as finite length dipole and slot elements. Radiation efficiency and substrate surface wave guidance is studied for practical substrate materials as GaAs, Silicon, Quartz and Duroid.

  16. Optical response of bowtie antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Nan; Pan, Shi; Li, Xu-Feng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiao

    2010-10-01

    Optical properties of bowtie antennas are investigated using a numerical method of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD). The optical response in the antenna feed gap is simulated as functions of its geometry parameters (flare angle, arm length, apex width, thickness, gap dimension, as well as the index of substrate), which provide a clear guideline to exploit such antenna structures in practice.

  17. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Realini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  18. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Eugenio; Caldera, Stefano; Pertusini, Lisa; Sampietro, Daniele

    2017-10-24

    The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost) and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  19. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas With Quality Factors Approaching the Chu Lower Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quality factor Q for electrically small current distributions and practical antenna designs radiating the TE10 magnetic dipole field. The current distributions and the antenna designs employ electric currents on a spherical surface enclosing a magneto-dielectric material...... numerically. It is found that for a given antenna size and permittivity there is an optimum permeability that ensures the lowest possible Q, and this optimum permeability is inversely proportional to the square of the antenna electrical radius. When the relative permittivity is equal to 1, the optimum...... permeability yields the quality factor Q that constitutes the lower bound for a magnetic dipole antenna with a magneto-dielectric core. Furthermore, the smaller the antenna the closer its quality factor Q can approach the Chu lower bound. Simulated results for the TE10-mode multiarm spherical helix antenna...

  20. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  1. Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stumpf, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.

  2. Analyzing Resiliency of the Smart Grid Communication Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    Smart grids are susceptible to cyber-attack as a result of new communication, control and computation techniques employed in the grid. In this paper, we characterize and analyze the resiliency of smart grid communication architecture, specifically an RF mesh based architecture, under cyber attacks. We analyze the resiliency of the communication architecture by studying the performance of high-level smart grid functions such as metering, and demand response which depend on communication. Disrupting the operation of these functions impacts the operational resiliency of the smart grid. Our analysis shows that it takes an attacker only a small fraction of meters to compromise the communication resiliency of the smart grid. We discuss the implications of our result to critical smart grid functions and to the overall security of the smart grid.

  3. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  4. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  5. Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Jose H.; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature and movement of the body. Two solutions for transmitting the data wirelessly are presented: through a low-voltage (3.0 V), low-power, CMOS RF IC (1.6 mm x 1.5 mm size dimensions) operating at 433 MHz, with ASK modulation and a patch antenna built on lossy substrates compatible with integrated circuits fabrication. Two different substrates were used for antenna implementation: high-resistivity silicon (HRS) and Corning Pyrex #7740 glass. The antenna prototypes were built to operate close to the 5 GHz ISM band. They operate at a center frequency of 5.705 GHz (HRS) and 5.995 GHz (Pyrex). The studied parameters were: substrate thickness, substrate losses, oxide thickness, metal conductivity and thickness. The antenna on HRS uses an area of 8 mm2, providing a 90 MHz bandwidth and ~0.3 dBi of gain. On a glass substrate, the antenna uses 12 mm2, provides 100 MHz bandwidth and ~3 dBi of gain.

  6. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  7. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  8. Smart Grid: Smart Customer Policy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In September 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) held a workshop on the regulatory, market and consumer policies necessary to ensure that smart grids are deployed with adequate consideration of their risks and benefits to all stakeholders. This was one of several workshops that brought together energy providers, network operators, technology developers, regulators, customers and government policy makers to discuss smart grid technology and policy. The Smart Grid - Smart Customer Policies workshop allowed stakeholders to: gain a perspective on key issues and barriers facing early deployment of smart grids; hear expert opinion on regulatory, consumer and market challenges to smart grids; discuss smart grid-smart customer policy priorities; and build consensus on the technology and policy ingredients needed for customer-friendly smart grid deployments. Drawing on workshop discussions, the following paper lays out a logical framework to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks that smart grids pose for customers. The paper also describes key policy research questions that will guide future IEA research on this topic.

  9. Multiple Antenna Systems with Inherently Decoupled Radiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...... metrics such as total loss, antenna isolation and envelope correlation coefficient are investigated. By varying antenna impedance bandwidth and antenna location with respect to the handset, both Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) and Inverted F Antennas (IFA) were investigated in different UMTS frequency...

  10. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  11. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna achieves 10 dB return loss bandwidths and 3 dB axial ratio (AR in the frequency bands 2.39–2.81 GHz and 5.42–5.92 GHz, respectively. Both these characteristics are suitable for WLAN and WiMAX applications.

  12. Micro Grid: A Smart Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Naveenkumar, M; Ratnakar, N

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. Todays DG technologies often consist of renewable generators, and offer a number of potential benefits. This paper presents a design of micro grid as part of Smart grid technologies with renewable energy resources like solar, wind and Diesel generator. The design of the microgrid with integration of Renewable energy sources are done in PSCAD/EMTDC.This paper...

  13. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  14. Broadband Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    December 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to...CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] United States Patent Application Ser. No. 15/220,692 filed on July 27, 2016 is incorporated by...antenna operating near 2.5 GHz to obtain an octave of bandwidth. One solution for this is given by Werner et al. in United States Patent

  15. Efficient Smart Antenna Systems (4G) For CDMA Wireless Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Brahm Mohinder; Kumar, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Today, mobile communications play a central role in the voice/data network arena. With the deployment of mass scale 3G just around the corner, new directions are already being researched. In this paper we address about the 4TH G mobile communications.The Fourth Generation (4G) Mobile Communications should not focus only on the data-rate increase and new air interface.4G Mobile should instead con-verge the advanced wireless mobile communications and high-speed wireless access systems into an O...

  16. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  17. From Smart Rooms to Smart Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a potential path that new hotels have to satisfy to improve their status from a hotel with smart rooms towards a full-scale smart hotel facility. It presents a possible transitional way including innovative applications based on modern information technology for ambient settings in the domain of hotel industry that aims to improve the quality of offered services towards clients, starting from the present level of smart rooms. The main objective i...

  18. Ferrite LTCC based phased array antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Two phased array antennas realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC technology are presented in this paper. The use of embedded bias windings in these designs allows the negation of external magnets which are conventionally employed with bulk ferrite medium. This reduces the required magnetostatic field strength by 90% as compared to the traditional designs. The phase shifters are implemented using the SIW technology. One of the designs is operated in the half mode waveguide topology while the other design is based on standard full mode waveguide operation. The two phase shifter designs are integrated with two element patch antenna array and slotted SIW array respectively. The array designs demonstrate a beam steering of 30° and ±19° respectively for a current excitation of 200 mA. The designs, due to their small factor can be easily integrated in modern communication systems which is not possible in the case of bulk ferrite based designs.

  19. Antenna conditioning with insulating antenna tiles in Phaedrus-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrator, T.; Probert, P.; Doczy, M.; Diebold, D.; Brouchous, D.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of our Alfven wave heating and current drive experiments several different two and four strap antennas have been installed in Phaedrus-T. The motivation focusing the redesign of the antenna into a four strap design was to enable traveling wave phasing, and to reduce the k parallel ∼0 component of the wavenumber spectrum, and consequent edge power deposition. The latest modifications to the 4 strap antenna have dramatically improved its behavior, and enabled us to suppress its RF power induced impurity generation. The remaining gas reflux fueling is significant and is not local to the antenna

  20. Stretchable antenna for wearable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-04-13

    Various examples are provided for stretchable antennas that can be used for applications such as wearable electronics. In one example, a stretchable antenna includes a flexible support structure including a lateral spring section having a proximal end and at a distal end; a metallic antenna disposed on at least a portion of the lateral spring section, the metallic antenna extending along the lateral spring section from the proximal end; and a metallic feed coupled to the metallic antenna at the proximal end of the lateral spring section. In another example, a method includes patterning a polymer layer disposed on a substrate to define a lateral spring section; disposing a metal layer on at least a portion of the lateral spring section, the metal layer forming an antenna extending along the portion of the lateral spring section; and releasing the polymer layer and the metal layer from the substrate.

  1. A Compact UWB Diversity Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact printed ultrawideband (UWB diversity antenna with a size of 30 mm × 36 mm operating at a frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is proposed. The antenna is composed of two semielliptical monopoles fed by two microstrip lines. Two semicircular slots, two rectangular slots, and one stub are introduced in the ground plane to adjust the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and improve the isolation between two feeding ports. The simulated and measured results show that impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can cover the whole UWB band with a good isolation of < −15 dB. The radiation patterns, peak antenna gain, and envelope correlation coefficient are also measured and discussed. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for some portable MIMO/diversity UWB applications.

  2. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  3. Tri-Band PCB Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Transceivers in Home Automation Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2012-01-01

    A novel tri-band antenna design for wireless sensor network devices in home automation applications is proposed. The design is based on a combination of a conventional monopole wire antenna and discrete distributed load impedances. The load impedances are employed to ensure the degrees of freedom...

  4. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  5. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  6. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  7. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  8. WWW + smart card: towards a mobile health care management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A T

    2000-07-01

    This paper highlights the benefits of combining the World Wide Web and smart card technologies to support a highly mobile health management framework. In particular, we describe an approach using the SmartCard-Web Gateway Interface (SGI) as a common interface to communicate and access the medical records residing in a smart card. Importantly, by employing HTTP as the baseline protocol to access information on the smart card, SGI promotes the use of de facto standard web browsers as the common client user interface. The initial implementation of the framework has demonstrated the feasibility of the concept in facilitating a truly mobile access of patient's medical records based on SGI.

  9. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  10. Low-Complexity Transmit Antenna Selection and Beamforming for Large-Scale MIMO Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit antenna selection plays an important role in large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communications, but optimal large-scale MIMO antenna selection is a technical challenge. Exhaustive search is often employed in antenna selection, but it cannot be efficiently implemented in large-scale MIMO communication systems due to its prohibitive high computation complexity. This paper proposes a low-complexity interactive multiple-parameter optimization method for joint transmit antenna selection and beamforming in large-scale MIMO communication systems. The objective is to jointly maximize the channel outrage capacity and signal-to-noise (SNR performance and minimize the mean square error in transmit antenna selection and minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming without exhaustive search. The effectiveness of all the proposed methods is verified by extensive simulation results. It is shown that the required antenna selection processing time of the proposed method does not increase along with the increase of selected antennas, but the computation complexity of conventional exhaustive search method will significantly increase when large-scale antennas are employed in the system. This is particularly useful in antenna selection for large-scale MIMO communication systems.

  11. Integrative solutions for intelligent energy management. Smart metering, smart home, smart grid; Integrative Loesungsansaetze fuer ein intelligentes Energiemanagement. Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Achim [Hager Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Blieskastel (Germany). Marketing

    2011-07-01

    Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Grid - these key words significantly determine the current debate about intelligent energy management, or new energy concepts. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the interactions between Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grids and the technical connection of these interactions. Thus, the compact tebis KNX demovea server connects Windows computer and the Internet with the building automation based on KNX. The technically simple combination of smart metering and smart home via Hager radio tower of the building automation provides an access to key energy data for an intelligent load management.

  12. Challenging 'smart' in smart city strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Knudsen, Jacob

    and development. Focusing on processes of citizen participation and co-creation as the main driving force, we introduce a concept of 'smart city at eye level'. The introduction of new media technology and new media uses need to emerge from a profound understanding of the wants, needs and abilities of the citizens......Smart city strategies concern the improvement of economic and political efficiency and the enabling of social, cultural and urban development (Hollands 2008) and covers a variety of fields from improving infrastructures, social and cultural development, resilience strategies (e.g. green energy......), improving schools, social welfare institutions, public and private institutions etc. The 'smart' in smart city strategies implies that these efforts are accomplished by the introduction and embedding of smart media technology into the very fabric of society. This is often done in a top-down and technology...

  13. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  14. Antennas on circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    On the basis of the results obtained by Silver and Saunders [4] for the field radiated from an arbitrary slot in a perfectly conducting circular cylinder, expressions have been derived for the field radiated by a narrow helical slot, with an arbitrary aperture field distribution, in a circular...... antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two...

  15. Ultra wideband antennas design, methodologies, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan-Tejada, Giselle M; Jardón Aguilar, Hildeberto

    2015-01-01

    Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance presents the current state of the art of ultra wideband (UWB) antennas, from theory specific for these radiators to guidelines for the design of omnidirectional and directional UWB antennas. Offering a comprehensive overview of the latest UWB antenna research and development, this book:Discusses the developed theory for UWB antennas in frequency and time domainsDelivers a brief exposition of numerical methods for electromagnetics oriented to antennasDescribes solid-planar equivalen

  16. History of Antenna Technology for Mobile Communications in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Chul-Keun; Kang, Suk-Youb

    of materials that build the terminals' structure and framework. Moreover, studies will be performed with an emphasis on multiple band, multiple directivity, and ultra-wide band. Accordingly, antenna technologies to which new concepts are applied, such as SMART antenna and MIMO antenna technologies and meta-materials, will surely be effective alternatives.

  17. The Ultrawideband Leaky Lens Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Marliani, F.

    2007-01-01

    A novel directive and nondispersive antenna is presented: the ultrawideband (UWB) leaky lens. It is based on the broad band Cherenkov radiation occurring at a slot printed between different infinite homogeneous dielectrics. The first part of the paper presents the antenna concept and the UWB design.

  18. Antennas for light and plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, D.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Antennas have been used for over a century as emitters, scatterers and receivers of electromagnetic waves. All wireless communication devices, such as radio, mobile phones and satellite communication are strongly dependent on the capability of an antenna to localize propagating electromagnetic waves

  19. Optically Controlled Phased Array Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garafalo, David

    1998-01-01

    .... The antenna is a 3-foot by 9 foot phased array capable of a scan angle of 120 degrees. The antenna was designed to be conformal to the cargo door of a large aircraft and is designed to operate in the frequency range of 830 - 1400 MHz with a 30...

  20. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...

  1. Slot-Coupled Barbel Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant.......A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant....

  2. Smart Cities - Smart Homes and Smart Home Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Faanes, Erlend Kydland

    2014-01-01

    This master’s thesis consists of two articles where the first article is theoretical and the second is the empirical study. Article I The purpose with this paper is to explore and illuminate how smart home and smart home technology can contribute to enhance health and Quality of Life in elderly citizens and allow them to live longer in their home. The paper provides a brief introduction to health promotion and highlights the thesis theoretical framework and foundation of Aaron Antonov...

  3. SmartCampusAAU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Thomsen, Bent; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all ma...... major mobile platforms (Android, iPhone and Windows Phone) and supports both device- and infrastructure-based positioning. SmartCampusAAU also offers a publicly available OData backend that allows researchers to share radio map and location tracking data.......This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all...

  4. DEA deformed stretchable patch antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X-J; Jalali Mazlouman, S; Menon, C; Mahanfar, A; Vaughan, R G

    2012-01-01

    A stretchable patch antenna (SPA) whose frequency is tuned by a planar dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented in this paper. This mechanically reconfigurable antenna system has a configuration resembling a pre-stretched silicone belt. Part of the belt is embedded with a layer of conductive liquid metal to form the patch antenna. Part of the belt is sandwiched between conductive electrodes to form the DEA. Electrical activation of the DEA results in a contraction of the patch antenna, and as a result, in a variation of its resonance frequency. Design and fabrication steps of this system are presented. Measurement results for deformation, resonance frequency variation and efficiency of the patch antenna are also presented. (paper)

  5. The ICRF antennas for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Colestock, P.L.; Gardner, W.L.; Hosea, J.C.; Nagy, A.; Stevens, J.; Swain, D.W.; Wilson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two compact loop antennas have been designed to provide ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heating for TFTR. The antennas can convey a total of 10 MW to accomplish core heating in either high-density or high-temperature plasmas. The near-term goal of heating TFTR plasmas and the longer-term goals of ease in handling (for remote maintenance) and high reliability (in an inaccessible tritium tokamak environment) were major considerations in the antenna designs. The compact loop configuration facilitates handling because the antennas fit completely through their ports. Conservative design and extensive testing were used to attain the reliability required for TFTR. This paper summarizes how these antennas will accomplish these goals. 5 figs, 1 tab

  6. Optical antennas for far and near field metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Bernal Arango, F.; Vendel, K.J.A.; Gerini, G.; Bäumer, S.M.B.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the use of optical antennas in metrology scenarios. Two design concepts are presented: dielectric nanoresonator arrays and plasmonic nanoantennas arrays. The first ones are able to focus an incident light beam at an arbitrary focal plane. The nanoantennas arrays can be employed

  7. Transmit Antenna Selection for Multi-User Underlay Cognitive Transmission with Zero-Forcing Beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We present a transmit antenna subset selection scheme for an underlay cognitive system serving multiple secondary receivers. The secondary system employs zero-forcing beamforming to nullify the interference to multiple primary users and eliminate

  8. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  9. Numerical compliance testing of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation from smart-watches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seon-Eui; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2016-10-07

    In this study, we investigated the electromagnetic dosimetry for smart-watches. At present, the standard for compliance testing of body-mounted and handheld devices specifies the use of a flat phantom to provide conservative estimates of the peak spatial-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR). This means that the estimated SAR using a flat phantom should be higher than the SAR in the exposure part of an anatomical human-body model. To verify this, we numerically calculated the SAR for a flat phantom and compared it with the numerical calculation of the SAR for four anatomical human-body models of different ages. The numerical analysis was performed using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). The smart-watch models were used in the three antennas: the shorted planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), loop antenna, and monopole antenna. Numerical smart-watch models were implemented for cellular commutation and wireless local-area network operation at 835, 1850, and 2450 MHz. The peak spatial-averaged SARs of the smart-watch models are calculated for the flat phantom and anatomical human-body model for the wrist-worn and next to mouth positions. The results show that the flat phantom does not provide a consistent conservative SAR estimate. We concluded that the difference in the SAR results between an anatomical human-body model and a flat phantom can be attributed to the different phantom shapes and tissue structures.

  10. Towards smart environments using smart objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Martin; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Münch, Ulli

    2011-01-01

    Barcodes, RFID, WLAN, Bluetooth and many more technologies are used in hospitals. They are the technological bases for different applications such as patient monitoring, asset management and facility management. However, most of these applications exist side by side with hardly any integration and even interoperability is not guaranteed. Introducing the concept of smart objects inspired by the Internet of Things can improve the situation by separating the capabilities and functions of an object from the implementing technology such as RFID or WLAN. By aligning technological and business developments smart objects have the power to transform a hospital from an agglomeration of technologies into a smart environment.

  11. Are Academics Ready for Smart Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Riyukta; Anker, Connie; Nortcliffe, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Ownership of smartphones and tablets among the student population is growing. Students are using their devices to support their learning. Employers and employees are increasingly bringing their own smart devices into private and public organisations to support their business. This is leading to employees driving the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)…

  12. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  13. Metamaterial antennas: the most successful metamaterial technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    The Thomson Reuters Web of Science™ lists more than 1500 journal articles related to metamaterial antennas from 2001 to 2015; this paper overviews some major objectives of such antennas.......The Thomson Reuters Web of Science™ lists more than 1500 journal articles related to metamaterial antennas from 2001 to 2015; this paper overviews some major objectives of such antennas....

  14. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  15. Smart infrastructure design for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Kaoru; KUMRAI, Teerawat; DONG, Mianxiong; KISHIGAMI, Jay (Junichi); GUO, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is one of the keywords to describe smart cities, aiming at efficient public transport, smart parking, enhanced road safety, intelligent traffic management, onvehicle entertainment, and so on. In ITS, Roadside Unit (RSU) deployment should be well-designed due to it serves as a service provider and a gateway to the Internet for vehicular users. In this article, we propose an RSU deployment strategy which maximizes the communication coverage and reduces t...

  16. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  17. Reconfigurable antenna using plasma reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Taufik; Ahmad, Khairol Amali; Din, Muhammad Faiz Md; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study and design of plasma implementation in industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) communication band. A reflector antenna with rounded shaped is proposed to collimate beam in particular direction radiated by a quarter wave antenna operating at 2.4GHz. The simulations result has shown that by using plasma as the reflector elements, the gain, directivity and radiation patterns are identical with metal elements with only small different in the broadside direction. The versatility of the antenna is achievable by introducing electrical reconfigurable option to change the beam pattern.

  18. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  19. Reconfigurable Antenna for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth RUFUS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Microwave imaging systems offer much promise for biomedical applications such as cancer detection because of their good penetration, non invasive and non ionizing nature and low cost. The resolution is one of the major problems faced in such systems, which can be improved by applying signal processing techniques. The key element for the microwave imaging system is the antenna. This paper present a fractal antenna which has low profile, light weight and is easy to be fabricated. It has been successfully demonstrated to have multiband characteristics. The simulated results show that the proposed antenna has very good radiation characteristics suitable for imaging applications.

  20. Large inflated-antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, W. F.; Keafer, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that for inflatable antenna systems, technology feasibility can be demonstrated and parametric design and scalability (scale factor 10 to 20) can be validated with an experiment using a 16-m-diameter antenna attached to the Shuttle. The antenna configuration consists of a thin film cone and paraboloid held to proper shape by internal pressure and a self-rigidizing torus. The cone and paraboloid would be made using pie-shaped gores with the paraboloid being coated with aluminum to provide reflectivity. The torus would be constructed using an aluminum polyester composite that when inflated would erect to a smooth shell that can withstand loads without internal pressure.

  1. Design of a Microstrip Bowtie Antenna for Indoor Radio-Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga-Rosales Hector

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip bowtie patch antenna (MBPA for wireless indoor communications is carried out. Here, a microstrip transmission-line feed network was designed in order to match the MBPA. The proposed antenna uses a ground plane with the aim of narrowing down the back lobes in comparison with bowtie sheet antennas, which radiation pattern is omni-directional. The far-field pattern of the antenna was simulated using a finite-element numerical algorithm and obtained by interpolation employing near-field equipment. The experimental results are described in detail intending to agree well with the simulated predictions. The antenna was designed, measured and built and its far field performance was evaluated with a 2.11 GHz resonant frequency. The azimuth and elevation antenna patterns, antenna gain and, the matching frequency were the main parameters obtained to analyze the antenna behaviour. The antenna has a gain approximately equal to 8.77 dBi and its beam-widths are higher than 100° in E plane.

  2. Ultra-high-frequency microwave response from flexible transparent Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingxin; Niu, Jiebin; Zhu, Haolin; Zhang, Jianyong

    2018-02-01

    Flexible transparent materials are a hot spot in current research but also a key technical difficulty in industry. They are playing an increasingly important role in flexible transparent display applications such as organic light-emitting diodes, transparent electrodes, and so on. On the other hand, the present research on nanopatterned antennas is mainly concentrated on the optical frequency but rarely on the microwave (such as 3G, 4G, and 5G) and terahertz frequency band communications, where nanopatterned antennas can have many novel applications. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that presents a method for preparing a flexible transparent Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna. We study its free-space performance at ultra-high frequency and its application in electronic products such as smartphones, tablets, personal computers, and wearable devices (such as smart watches) which have the function of mobile communication. The experimental results showed that the transparency of the antenna designed and fabricated in this work can be as high as 94%, and its efficiency can reach 74.5%-91.9% of antennas commonly seen at present in academia and industry. By adjusting the capacitive and inductive reactance of the nanopatterned antenna’s matching circuit, combined with its measured efficiency and 3D electromagnetic simulation results, we speculate on the mechanism of the Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna with good performance.

  3. Nanotechnology: MEMS and NEMS and their applications to smart systems and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2003-10-01

    The microelectronics industry has seen explosive growth during the last thirty years. Extremely large markets for logic and memory devices have driven the development of new materials, and technologies for the fabrication of even more complex devices with features sizes now down at the sub micron and nanometer level. Recent interest has arisen in employing these materials, tools and technologies for the fabrication of miniature sensors and actuators and their integration with electronic circuits to produce smart devices and systems. This effort offers the promise of: (1) increasing the performance and manufacturability of both sensors and actuators by exploiting new batch fabrication processes developed including micro stereo lithographic and micro molding techniques; (2) developing novel classes of materials and mechanical structures not possible previously, such as diamond like carbon, silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes, micro-turbines and micro-engines; (3) development of technologies for the system level and wafer level integration of micro components at the nanometer precision, such as self-assembly techniques and robotic manipulation; (4) development of control and communication systems for MEMS devices, such as optical and RF wireless, and power delivery systems, etc. A novel composite structure can be tailored by functionalizing carbon nano tubes and chemically bonding them with the polymer matrix e.g. block or graft copolymer, or even cross-linked copolymer, to impart exceptional structural, electronic and surface properties. Bio- and Mechanical-MEMS devices derived from this hybrid composite provide a new avenue for future smart systems. The integration of NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems), MEMS, IDTs (Interdigital Transducers) and required microelectronics and conformal antenna in the multifunctional smart materials and composites results in a smart system suitable for sending and control of a variety functions in automobile, aerospace, marine and

  4. Socioeconomic assessment of smart grids - Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2015-07-01

    In September of 2013, the President of France identified smart grids as an important part of the country's industrial strategy, given the opportunities and advantages they can offer French industry, and asked the Chairman of the RTE Management Board to prepare a road-map outlining ways to support and accelerate smart grid development. This road-map, prepared in cooperation with stakeholders from the power and smart grids industries, identifies ten actions that can be taken in priority to consolidate the smart grids sector and help French firms play a leading role in the segment. These priorities were presented to the President of France on 7 May 2014. Action items 5 and 6 of the road-map on smart grid development relate, respectively, to the quantification of the value of smart grid functions from an economic, environmental and social (impact on employment) standpoint and to the large-scale deployment of some of the functions. Two tasks were set out in the 'Smart Grids' plan for action item 5: - Create a methodological framework that, for all advanced functions, allows the quantification of benefits and costs from an economic, environmental and social (effect on jobs) standpoint; - Quantify, based on this methodological framework, the potential benefits of a set of smart grid functions considered sufficiently mature to be deployed on a large scale in the near future. Having a methodology that can be applied in the same manner to all solutions, taking into account their impacts on the environment and employment in France, will considerably add to and complement the information drawn from demonstration projects. It will notably enable comparisons of benefits provided by smart grid functions and thus help give rise to a French smart grids industry that is competitive. At first, the smart grids industry was organised around demonstration projects testing different advanced functions within specific geographic areas. These projects covered a wide enough

  5. Socioeconomic assessment of smart grids. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    In September of 2013, the President of France identified smart grids as an important part of the country's industrial strategy, given the opportunities and advantages they can offer French industry, and asked the Chairman of the RTE Management Board to prepare a road-map outlining ways to support and accelerate smart grid development. This road-map, prepared in cooperation with stakeholders from the power and smart grids industries, identifies ten actions that can be taken in priority to consolidate the smart grids sector and help French firms play a leading role in the segment. These priorities were presented to the President of France on 7 May 2014. Action items 5 and 6 of the road-map on smart grid development relate, respectively, to the quantification of the value of smart grid functions from an economic, environmental and social (impact on employment) standpoint and to the large-scale deployment of some of the functions. Two tasks were set out in the 'Smart Grids' plan for action item 5: - Create a methodological framework that, for all advanced functions, allows the quantification of benefits and costs from an economic, environmental and social (effect on jobs) standpoint; - Quantify, based on this methodological framework, the potential benefits of a set of smart grid functions considered sufficiently mature to be deployed on a large scale in the near future. Having a methodology that can be applied in the same manner to all solutions, taking into account their impacts on the environment and employment in France, will considerably add to and complement the information drawn from demonstration projects. It will notably enable comparisons of benefits provided by smart grid functions and thus help give rise to a French smart grids industry that is competitive. At first, the smart grids industry was organised around demonstration projects testing different advanced functions within specific geographic areas. These projects covered a wide enough

  6. Design and Fabrication of a Reconfigurable MEMS-Based Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Miguel Angel Galicia

    2011-06-22

    This thesis presents the design and fabrication of a customized in house Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) process based on-chip antenna that is both frequency and polarization reconfigurable. It is designed to work at both 60 GHz and 77 GHz through MEMS switches. This antenna can also work in both horizontal and vertical linear polarizations by utilizing a moveable plate. The design is intended for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) and automotive radar applications. Typical on-chip antennas are inefficient and difficult to reconfigure. Therefore, the focus of this work is to develop an efficient on-chip antenna solution, which is reconfigurable in frequency and in polarization. A fractal bowtie antenna is employed for this thesis, which achieves frequency reconfigurability through MEMS switches. The design is simulated in industry standard Electromagnetic (EM) simulator Ansoft HFSS. A novel concept for horizontal to vertical linear polarization agility is introduced which incorporates a moveable polymer plate. For this work, a microprobe is used to move the plate from the horizontal to vertical position. For testing purposes, a novel mechanism has been designed in order to feed the antenna with RF-probes in both horizontal and vertical positions. A simulated gain of approximately 0 dB is achieved at both target frequencies (60 and 77 GHz), in both horizontal and vertical positions. In all the cases mentioned above (both frequencies and positions), the antenna is well matched (< -10 dB) to the 50 Ω system impedance. Similarly, the radiation nulls are successfully shifted by changing the position of the antenna from horizontal to vertical. The complete design and fabrication of the reconfigurable MEMS antenna has been done at KAUST facilities. Some challenges have been encountered during its realization due to the immaturity of the customized MEMS fabrication process. Nonetheless, a first fabrication attempt has highlighted such shortcomings. According

  7. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  8. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  9. Smart space technology innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mu-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Recently, ad hoc and wireless communication technologies have made available the device, service and information rich environment for users. Smart Space and ubiquitous computing extend the ""Living Lab"" vision of everyday objects and provide context-awareness services to users in smart living environments. This ebook investigates smart space technology and its innovations around the Living Labs. The final goal is to build context-awareness smart space and location-based service applications that integrate information from independent systems which autonomously and securely support human activ

  10. Conceptualizing smart service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver; Matzner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service” that is b......Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service......” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart...... service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers’ and service providers’ resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual...

  11. The People's Smart Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Koplin, Martin; Nedelkovski, Igor; Salo, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The People’s Smart Sculpture (PS2) panel discusses future oriented approaches in smart media-art, developed, designed and exploited for artistic and public participation in the change and re-design of our living environment. The actual debate about a smart future is not taking into account any idea of media art as an instrument for to realize the social sculpture, mentioned by Beuys [1] or as social sculpture itself. The People’s Smart Sculpture is the only large scale Creative Europe media-a...

  12. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  13. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Antennas with Improved Integral Equation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ji; Fang Guang-You; Lu Wei

    2015-01-01

    Simulating antennas around a conducting object is a challenge task in computational electromagnetism, which is concerned with the behaviour of electromagnetic fields. To analyze this model efficiently, an improved integral equation-fast Fourier transform (IE-FFT) algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme employs two Cartesian grids with different size and location to enclose the antenna and the other object, respectively. On the one hand, IE-FFT technique is used to store matrix in a sparse form and accelerate the matrix-vector multiplication for each sub-domain independently. On the other hand, the mutual interaction between sub-domains is taken as the additional exciting voltage in each matrix equation. By updating integral equations several times, the whole electromagnetic system can achieve a stable status. Finally, the validity of the presented method is verified through the analysis of typical antennas in the presence of a conducting object. (paper)

  15. Solving “Antenna Array Thinning Problem” Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinning involves reducing total number of active elements in an antenna array without causing major degradation in system performance. Dynamic thinning is the process of achieving this under real-time conditions. It is required to find a strategic subset of antenna elements for thinning so as to have its optimum performance. From a mathematical perspective this is a nonlinear, multidimensional problem with multiple objectives and many constraints. Solution for such problem cannot be obtained by classical analytical techniques. It will be required to employ some type of search algorithm which can lead to a practical solution in an optimal. The present paper discusses an approach of using genetic algorithm for array thinning. After discussing the basic concept involving antenna array, array thinning, dynamic thinning, and application methodology, simulation results of applying the technique to linear and planar arrays are presented.

  16. RF field measurements in the vicinity of an ICRF antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Intrator, T.; Roberts, D.; Hershkowitz, N.; Tataronis, J.; Grossmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the rf fields near an ICRF antenna installed in the central cell of the Phaedrus-B tandem mirror have been made, both in vacuum and in the presence of plasma. The antenna is a Faraday shielded partial turn loop. The front surface of the Faraday shield is composed of cylindrical elements in an arrangement similar to the Faraday shield design employed on TFTR. The antenna is run at relatively low power levels, in the 3.5-10 MHz frequency range. Two other ICRF systems in the phaedrus-B central cell sustain and heat the plasma at the 400 KW level. The vacuum field measurements are compared with the predictions of the ARGUS code, which models details of the Faraday shield structure. Fields in the plasma are modelled by the ANTENA code. Particle currents collected by the Faraday shield during plasma operation are also observed

  17. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  18. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  19. Performance Analysis of Blind Beamforming Algorithms in Adaptive Antenna Array in Rayleigh Fading Channel Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M; Akhtar, Pervez; Pathan, Amir Hassan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of adaptive blind algorithms – i.e. Kaiser Constant Modulus Algorithm (KCMA), Hamming CMA (HAMCMA) – with CMA in a wireless cellular communication system using digital modulation technique. These blind algorithms are used in digital signal processor of adaptive antenna to make it smart and change weights of the antenna array system dynamically. The simulation results revealed that KCMA and HAMCMA provide minimum mean square error (MSE) with 1.247 dB and 1.077 dB antenna gain enhancement, 75% reduction in bit error rate (BER) respectively over that of CMA. Therefore, KCMA and HAMCMA algorithms give a cost effective solution for a communication system

  20. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  1. Antenna design for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    - Integrates state-of-the-art technologies with a special section for step-by-step antenna design - Features up-to-date bio-safety and electromagnetic compatibility regulation compliance and latest standards - Newly updated with MIMO antenna design, measurements and requirements - Accessible to readers of many levels, from introductory to specialist - Written by a practicing expert who has hired and trained numerous engineers

  2. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  3. Wearable Antennas for Remote Health Care Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corchia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of the elderly in telehealth applications requires that the monitoring must not affect the elderly’s regular habits. To ensure this requirement, the components (i.e., sensor and antenna necessary to carry out such monitoring should blend in with the elderly’s daily routine. To this end, an effective strategy relies on employing wearable antennas that can be fully integrated with clothes and that can be used for remotely transmitting/receiving the sensor data. Starting from these considerations, in this work, two different methods for wearable antenna fabrication are described in detail: the first resorts to the combined use of nonwoven conductive fabrics and of a cutting plotter for shaping the fabric, whereas the second considered fabrication method resorts to the embroidery of conductive threads. To demonstrate the suitability of the considered fabrication techniques and to highlight their pros and cons, numerical and experimental results related to different wearable antennas are also reported and commented on. Results demonstrate that the presented fabrication techniques and strategies are very flexible and can be used to obtain low-cost wearable antennas with performance tailored for the specific application at hand.

  4. A Small Planar Antenna for 4G Mobile Phone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jian-rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and design of a small planar multiband antenna operating in the 4G frequency bands are presented. The numerical and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed antenna satisfies the requirement of 6 dB return loss for the impedance bandwidth of the LTE700/LTE2300/LTE2500 and WiMAX3500 bands. The gains at 750 MHz/2.3 GHz/2.6 GHz/3.5 GHz are 2.1 dBi/4.9 dBi/4.7 dBi/4.3 dBi, respectively. The measured radiation patterns verify the suitability of the antenna to be employed in mobile phones. The dimensions of the radiant patch are 49 × 10 mm2. The proposed antenna can be easily fabricated and customized to various 4G mobile phones as a compact internal antenna.

  5. A broadband helical saline water liquid antenna for wearable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaosheng; Huang, Yi; Gao, Gui; Yang, Cheng; Lu, Zhonghao; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A broadband helical liquid antenna made of saline water is proposed. A transparent hollow support is employed to fabricate the antenna. The rotation structure is fabricated with a thin flexible tube. The saline water with a concentration of 3.5% can be injected into or be extracted out from the tube to change the quantity of the solution. Thus, the tunability of the radiation pattern could be realised by applying the fluidity of the liquid. The radiation feature of the liquid antenna is compared with that of a metal one, and fairly good agreement has been achieved. Furthermore, three statements of the radiation performance corresponding to the ratio of the diameter to the wavelength of the helical saline water antenna have been proposed. It has been found that the resonance frequency increases when the length of the feeding probe or the radius of the vertical part of the liquid decreases. The fractional bandwidth can reach over 20% with a total height of 185 mm at 1.80 GHz. The measured results indicate reasonable approximation to the simulated. The characteristics of the liquid antenna make it a good candidate for various wireless applications, especially the wearable systems.

  6. A Minkowski Fractal Circularly Polarized Antenna for RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhong Yu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A design of fractal-like antenna with circular polarization for radio frequency identification (RFID reader applications is presented in this article. The modified Minkowski fractal structure is adopted as radiating patch for size reduction and broadband operation. A corner-truncated technology and a slot-opened method are employed to realize circular polarization and improve the gain of the proposed antenna, respectively. The proposed antenna is analyzed and optimized by HFSS. Return loss and maximum gain of the optimized antenna achieve to -22.2 dB and 1.12 dB at 920 MHz, respectively. The optimized design has an axial ratio (AR of 1.2 dB at central frequency of 920 MHz and impedance bandwidth (S11<=-10 dB of 40 MHz (4.3 %. Its input impedance is (57.9-j2.6 W that is close to input impedance of coaxial line (50 W. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimized antenna exhibits acceptable performances and may satisfy requirements of RFID reader applications.

  7. Design of a Circularly Polarized Galileo E6-Band Textile Antenna by Dedicated Multiobjective Constrained Pareto Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaut Dierck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing textile antennas for real-life applications requires a design strategy that is able to produce antennas that are optimized over a wide bandwidth for often conflicting characteristics, such as impedance matching, axial ratio, efficiency, and gain, and, moreover, that is able to account for the variations that apply for the characteristics of the unconventional materials used in smart textile systems. In this paper, such a strategy, incorporating a multiobjective constrained Pareto optimization, is presented and applied to the design of a Galileo E6-band antenna with optimal return loss and wide-band axial ratio characteristics. Subsequently, different prototypes of the optimized antenna are fabricated and measured to validate the proposed design strategy.

  8. Antennas for mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John

    1991-12-01

    A NASA sponsored program, called the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system, has prompted the development of several innovative antennas at L-band frequencies. In the space segment of the MSAT system, an efficient, light weight, circularly polarized microstrip array that uses linearly polarized elements was developed as a multiple beam reflector feed system. In the ground segment, a low-cost, low-profile, and very efficient microstrip Yagi array was developed as a medium-gain mechanically steered vehicle antenna. Circularly shaped microstrip patches excited at higher-order modes were also developed as low-gain vehicle antennas. A more recent effort called for the development of a 20/30 GHz mobile terminal antenna for future-generation mobile satellite communications. To combat the high insertion loss encountered at 20/30 GHz, series-fed Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) microstrip array antennas are currently being developed. These MMIC arrays may lead to the development of several small but high-gain Ka-band antennas for the Personal Access Satellite Service planned for the 2000s.

  9. Impedance matching of a coaxial antenna for microwave in-situ processing of polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Mario; Kayser, Thorsten; Wiesbeck, Werner; Komarov, Vyacheslav

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the minimization of return loss of a slotted coaxial radiator proposed for a decontamination system for soils contaminated by volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds such as oils or fuels. The antenna upgrade is achieved by coating it with a 5 mm thick Teflon layer. The electromagnetic characteristics reflection coefficient and power density distribution around the antenna surrounded by soils with different moisture levels are analyzed numerically. Simplified analytical approaches are employed to accelerate the optimization of the given antenna for microwave heating systems. The improved antenna design shows a good matching of the antenna to the surrounding soil with varying moisture levels. This ensures a high efficiency of the proposed in-situ soil decontamination system.

  10. Impact of Mutual Coupling and Polarization of Antennas on BER Performances of Spatial Multiplexing MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at studying the impacts of mutual coupling, matching networks, and polarization of antennas on performances of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO systems employing Spatial Multiplexing (SM. In particular, the uncoded average Bit Error Rate (BER of MIMO systems is investigated. An accurate signal analysis framework based on circuit network parameters is presented to describe the transmit/receive characteristics of the matched/unmatched antenna array. The studied arrays consist of matched/unmatched compact copolarization and polarization diversity antenna array. Monte-Carlo numerical simulations are used to study the BER performances of the SM MIMO systems using maximum-likelihood and/or zero-forcing detection schemes. The simulation results demonstrate that the use of matching networks can improve the BER performance of SM MIMO systems significantly, and the BER performance deterioration due to antenna orientation randomness can be compensated by use of polarization diversity antenna arrays.

  11. Antenna Characterization for the JOLT Impulsive Radiator via Low-Voltage Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, J. S.; Schoenberg, J. S. H.; Baum, C. E.; Prather, W. D.; Hackett, R.; Burger, J. W.; Farr, E. G.; Giri, D. V.; McLemore, D. P.

    The JOLT system is a highly directive, impulse-like radiator. The antenna for JOLT is a 10-ft-diameter half-impulse radiating antenna (HIRA). JOLT was one of the first impulse radiating systems to employ a half IRA. For that reason, extensive measurements were made with a prototype, scale model HIRA in order to understand the performance of this class of antenna. In addition, a series of low-voltage antenna subsystem tests were performed with the full JOLT antenna before it was couple to the pulsed power and run at high voltage. The low-voltage measurements proved to be quite valuable, as an important manufacturing defect—a failure to mount the dish perpendicular to the ground plane—was identified and mitigated.

  12. Development of film antenna for diversity reception; Diversity taio film antenna no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeta, K; Taniguchi, T; Kubota, K [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Based on the principle of capacitance-loaded window antennas, a new film antenna construction pasting an antenna element on a defogger element printed on a rear window was found. The film antennas show high reception performance, and can be used as television diversity antennas or a VICS-FM multiplex antenna. This paper describes the antenna design concept, the antenna construction and the application to a recreational vehicle which styling is 1.3-Box wagon for the electric accessory. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Smart SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. A smart SDHW is a system in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top an...

  14. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  15. Playing the Smart Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit…

  16. SMART Boards Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  17. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  18. Smart Icon Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  19. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  20. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  1. Some Recent Developments of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microstrip antenna has been extensively studied in the past few decades as one of the standard planar antennas, it still has a huge potential for further developments. The paper suggests three areas for further research based on our previous works on microstrip antenna elements and arrays. One is exploring the variety of microstrip antenna topologies to meet the desired requirement such as ultrawide band (UWB, high gain, miniaturization, circular polarization, multipolarized, and so on. Another is to apply microstrip antenna to form composite antenna which is more potent than the individual antenna. The last is growing towards highly integration of antenna/array and feeding network or operating at relatively high frequencies, like sub-millimeter wave or terahertz (THz wave regime, by using the advanced machining techniques. To support our points of view, some examples of antennas developed in our group are presented and discussed.

  2. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  3. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  4. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  5. Smart houses for a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.J. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Karnouskos, S.; Weidlich, A. [SAP Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, (Germany); Nestle, D.; Strauss, P. [The Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik ISET, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Dimeas, A.; Hatziargyriou, N. [Institute Computers Communications Systems ICCS, National Technical University of Athens NTUA, Athens (Greece); Buchholz, B.; Drenkard, S. [MVV Energie, Berlin (Germany); Lioliou, V. [Public Power Corporation PPC, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Innovative technologies and concepts will emerge as we move towards a more dynamic, service-based, market-driven infrastructure, where energy efficiency and savings can be facilitated by interactive distribution networks. A new generation of fully interactive Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure has to be developed to support the optimal exploitation of the changing, complex business processes and to enable the efficient functioning of the deregulated energy market for the benefit of citizens and businesses. The architecture of such distributed system landscapes must be designed and validated, standards need to be created and widely supported, and comprehensive, reliable IT applications will need to be implemented. The collaboration between a smart house and a smart grid is a promising approach which, with the help of ICT can fully unleash the capabilities of the smart electricity network.

  6. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  7. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  8. Modern lens antennas for communications engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the modern design principles and analysis of lens antennas. It gives graduates and RF/Microwave professionals the design insights in order to make full use of lens antennas.  Why do we want to write a book in lens antennas? Because this topic has not been thoroughly publicized, its importance is underestimated. As antennas play a key role in communication systems, recent development in wireless communications would indeed benefit from the characteristics of lens antennas: low profile, and low cost etc.  The major advantages of lens antennas are na

  9. Antenna Miniaturization with MEMS Tunable Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss and their characterist......In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss...

  10. Radiation and scattering from cylindrically conformal printed antennas. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.

    1994-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas offer considerable advantages in terms of weight, aerodynamic drag, cost, flexibility, and observables over more conventional protruding antennas. These flat patch antennas were first proposed over thirty years ago by Deschamps in the United States and Gutton and Baisinot in France. Such antennas have been analyzed and developed for planar as well as curved platforms. However, the methods used in these designs employ gross approximations, suffer from extreme computational burden, or require expensive physical experiments. The goal of this thesis is to develop accurate and efficient numerical modeling techniques which represent actual antenna structures mounted on curved surfaces with a high degree of fidelity. In this thesis, the finite element method is extended to cavity-backed conformal antenna arrays embedded in a circular, metallic, infinite cylinder. Both the boundary integral and absorbing boundary mesh closure conditions will be used for terminating the mesh. These two approaches will be contrasted and used to study the scattering and radiation behavior of several useful antenna configurations. An important feature of this study will be to examine the effect of curvature and cavity size on the scattering and radiation properties of wraparound conformal antenna arrays.

  11. Benchmarking the ERG valve tip and MRI Interventions Smart Flow neurocatheter convection-enhanced delivery system's performance in a gel model of the brain: employing infusion protocols proposed for gene therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillay, Karl; Schomberg, Dominic; Hinchman, Angelica; Kumbier, Lauren; Ross, Chris; Kubota, Ken; Brodsky, Ethan; Miranpuri, Gurwattan

    2012-04-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an advanced infusion technique used to deliver therapeutic agents into the brain. CED has shown promise in recent clinical trials. Independent verification of published parameters is warranted with benchmark testing of published parameters in applicable models such as gel phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo non-human animal models to effectively inform planned and future clinical therapies. In the current study, specific performance characteristics of two CED infusion catheter systems, such as backflow, infusion cloud morphology, volume of distribution (mm3) versus the infused volume (mm3) (Vd/Vi) ratios, rate of infusion (µl min-1) and pressure (mmHg), were examined to ensure published performance standards for the ERG valve-tip (VT) catheter. We tested the hypothesis that the ERG VT catheter with an infusion protocol of a steady 1 µl min-1 functionality is comparable to the newly FDA approved MRI Interventions Smart Flow (SF) catheter with the UCSF infusion protocol in an agarose gel model. In the gel phantom models, no significant difference was found in performance parameters between the VT and SF catheter. We report, for the first time, such benchmark characteristics in CED between these two otherwise similar single-end port VT with stylet and end-port non-stylet infusion systems. Results of the current study in agarose gel models suggest that the performance of the VT catheter is comparable to the SF catheter and warrants further investigation as a tool in the armamentarium of CED techniques for eventual clinical use and application.

  12. A Secure and Scalable Data Communication Scheme in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqiang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of smart grid gained tremendous attention among researchers and utility providers in recent years. How to establish a secure communication among smart meters, utility companies, and the service providers is a challenging issue. In this paper, we present a communication architecture for smart grids and propose a scheme to guarantee the security and privacy of data communications among smart meters, utility companies, and data repositories by employing decentralized attribute based encryption. The architecture is highly scalable, which employs an access control Linear Secret Sharing Scheme (LSSS matrix to achieve a role-based access control. The security analysis demonstrated that the scheme ensures security and privacy. The performance analysis shows that the scheme is efficient in terms of computational cost.

  13. Design of LTCC Based Fractal Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AdbulGhaffar, Farhan

    2010-09-01

    The thesis presents a Sierpinski Carpet fractal antenna array designed at 24 GHz for automotive radar applications. Miniaturized, high performance and low cost antennas are required for this application. To meet these specifications a fractal array has been designed for the first time on Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) based substrate. LTCC provides a suitable platform for the development of these antennas due to its properties of vertical stack up and embedded passives. The complete antenna concept involves integration of this fractal antenna array with a Fresnel lens antenna providing a total gain of 15dB which is appropriate for medium range radar applications. The thesis also presents a comparison between the designed fractal antenna and a conventional patch antenna outlining the advantages of fractal antenna over the later one. The fractal antenna has a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz which is 7.5% of the centre frequency (24GHz) as compared to 1.9% of the conventional patch antenna. Furthermore the fractal design exhibits a size reduction of 53% as compared to the patch antenna. In the end a sensitivity analysis is carried out for the fractal antenna design depicting the robustness of the proposed design against the typical LTCC fabrication tolerances.

  14. Towards a smart home framework

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Muddasser; Alan, Alper; Rogers, Alex; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D.

    2013-01-01

    We present our Smart Home Framework (SHF) which simplifies the modelling, prototyping and simulation of smart infrastructure (i.e., smart home and smart communities). It provides the buildings blocks (e.g., home appliances) that can be extended and assembled together to build a smart infrastructure model to which appropriate AI techniques can be applied. This approach enables rapid modelling where new research initiatives can build on existing work.

  15. A compact 5.5 GHz band-rejected UWB antenna using complementary split ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Faruque, M R I; Islam, M T

    2014-01-01

    A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm(2), and VSWR WLAN band.

  16. Compact Low Frequency Radio Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnoose, Ratish J.

    2008-11-11

    An antenna is disclosed that comprises a pair of conductive, orthogonal arches and a pair of conductive annular sector plates, wherein adjacent legs of each arch are fastened to one of the annular sector plates and the opposite adjacent pair of legs is fastened to the remaining annular sector plate. The entire antenna structure is spaced apart from a conductive ground plane by a thin dielectric medium. The antenna is driven by a feed conduit passing through the conductive ground plane and dielectric medium and attached to one of the annular sector plates, wherein the two orthogonal arched act as a pair of crossed dipole elements. This arrangement of elements provides a radiation pattern that is largely omni-directional above the horizon.

  17. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  18. Smart grids for smart cities: Smart energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieny, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Smart grids are currently a hot topic. Growing numbers of municipalities are experimenting with smart grids as the foundation for tomorrow's smart cities. And yet, end users are struggling to understand the innovative new energy distribution models just over the horizon. Our energy system is at a crossroads. And the coming years will tell us whether smart grids - whether they integrate renewable energy sources or not - will develop as a hybrid industry combining energy and IT or emerge as a full-fledged sector in and of itself. First and foremost, smart grids must be considered from a local, micro-economic standpoint, but one that also takes into account issues and interactions at the regional, national, EU, and global levels. Today, fighting climate change is a major challenge at both the national and global levels. The Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Summit established a framework for crucial initiatives to combat climate change. The EU and France followed suit with their Climate and Energy Package and Grenelle de l'environnement environmental agenda. These policies set forth measures to fight climate change and to adapt to its impacts on people and the economy. France, for instance, set two basic targets to be achieved by 2020: - Make renewable energy a priority by promoting the development of energy from renewable sources to achieve the target of 23% renewables in the final energy mix. - Promote energy savings and increase energy efficiency by 20% and limit global warming to less than 2 deg. C over pre-industrial temperatures in industrialized nations by 2050 (around 1.2 deg. C above current temperatures). Tomorrow's grids will have to be smarter, which means incorporating information and communication technologies to provide the responsiveness and enhanced communication capabilities needed to meet the following challenges: - Integrating electricity from renewable sources; - Controlling demand; - Managing peak consumption; - Promoting widespread adoption of

  19. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  20. Becoming a smart student

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Ulla

    English abstract When teachers and students interact in everyday academic activities, some students are ascribed social roles as “smart”, which lead other students to contest these roles. Such struggles around what it means to be smart and which students come to be viewed as smart are a pertinent...... as smart and favoured by the teacher are at risk of being ostracized by peers, of encountering greater pressure for classroom performance and of suffering reduced learning opportunities. The study inspires teachers to create wiggle room for their students by becoming aware of the conventional definitions...

  1. Smart security proven practices

    CERN Document Server

    Quilter, J David

    2014-01-01

    Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business is a video presentation. Length: 68 minutes. In Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business, presenter J. David Quilter demonstrates the benefits of how a fully integrated security program increases business profits and delivers smart security practices at the same time. The presentation does away with the misconception that security is only an expense. In fact, a well-integrated security program can protect business interests, thereby enhancing productivity and net income. Quilter covers cost analysis and secu

  2. Design of LTCC Based Fractal Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AdbulGhaffar, Farhan

    2010-01-01

    The thesis presents a Sierpinski Carpet fractal antenna array designed at 24 GHz for automotive radar applications. Miniaturized, high performance and low cost antennas are required for this application. To meet these specifications a fractal array

  3. Wireless interrogation of passive antenna sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S; Huang, H

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that the resonant frequency of a microstrip patch antenna is sensitive to mechanical strains or crack presence in the ground plane. Based on this principle, antenna sensors have been demonstrated to measure strain and detect crack in metallic structures. This paper presents a wireless method to remotely interrogate a dual-frequency antenna sensor. An interrogation horn antenna was used to irradiate the antenna sensor with a linear chirp microwave signal. By implementing a light-activated switch at the sensor node and performing signal processing of the backscattered signals, the resonant frequencies of the antenna sensor along both polarizations can be measured remotely. Since the antenna sensor does not need a local power source and can be interrogated wirelessly, electric wiring can be eliminated. The sensor implementation, the signal processing and the experimental setup that validate the remote interrogation of the antenna sensor are presented. A power budget model has also been established to estimate the maximum interrogation range

  4. Statistical monitoring of linear antenna arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the problem of monitoring linear antenna arrays using the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test. When an abnormal event (fault) affects an array of antenna elements, the radiation pattern changes and significant deviation from

  5. Algebraic Approaches to Space-Time Code Construction for Multiple-Antenna Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Raviteja, U; Sharanappa, I; Vanamali, B; Kumar, Vijay P

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in wireless communications is overcoming the deleterious effects of fading, a phenomenon largely responsible for the seemingly inevitable dropped call. Multiple-antennas communication systems, commonly referred to as MIMO systems, employ multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver, thereby creating a multitude of signalling pathways between transmitter and receiver. These multiple pathways give the signal a diversity advantage with which to combat fading. Apart fro...

  6. Closed-loop multiple antenna aided wireless communications using limited feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Du

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study the design of closed-loop multiple antenna aided wireless communications relying on limited feedback. Multiple antennas may be employed either/both at the transmitter or/and at the receiver, here the latter periodically feeds back some information about the time-varying wireless channel using a limited number of bits. Furthermore, the transmitter then pre-processes the signals to be transmitted according to the received feedback information. This closed-loop...

  7. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mirror, combining Raspberry Pi, the application of one-way mirror imaging principle, the touch-enabled design, voice and video interaction. Smart Mirror can provide a series of intelligent experience for the residents, such as controlling all the intelligent furniture through Smart Mirror; accessing and displaying the weather, time, news and other life information; monitoring the home environment; remote interconnection operation.

  8. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  9. Mobile Phone Antenna Performance 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert F.

    This study investigates the antenna performance of a number of mobile phones widely used in the Nordic Countries. The study is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The antenna performance of the phones is vital for the phones ability to ensure radio coverage in low signal situations....... The study is based on the mobile systems in the Nordic mobile networks and on both speech and data services. The selected phone models are among the most popular new phones at the time of this study....

  10. Numerical investigation of the energy performance of an Opaque Ventilated Façade system employing a smart modular heat recovery unit and a latent heat thermal energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, Thierno M.O.; Zhao, Xudong; Dugue, Antoine; Bonnamy, Paul; Javier Miguel, Francisco; Martinez, Asier; Theodosiou, Theodoros; Liu, Jing-Sheng; Brown, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An innovative E2VENT ventilated façade system is presented and modelled with TRNSYS. •The energy efficiency of the system is assessed for five climates in Europe. •The E2VENT retrofitting system is compared with a traditional retrofit method. •The E2VENT system achieves 16.5–23.5% primary energy saving. •The E2VENT system saves twice as much primary energy as the traditional retrofit. -- Abstract: The building sector is responsible for more than 40% of the EU’s total energy consumption. To reduce the energy consumption in buildings and to achieve the EU’s fossil fuel saving targets for 2020 and beyond 2050, the energy efficient retrofitting strategies are critically important and need to be implemented effectively. This paper presents a dynamic numerical investigation of the energy performance of an innovative façade integrate-able energy efficient ventilation system (E2VENT) that incorporates a smart modular heat recovery unit (SMHRU) and a latent heat thermal energy system (LHTES). A number of component simulation models, including SMHRU, LHTES, Cladding and Building Energy Management System (BEMS), were developed and then integrated using the TRNSYS software which is an advanced building energy performance simulation tool. On this basis, sizing, optimisation and characterisation of the system elements including the HVAC system and insulation layer thickness were carried out. The overall energy efficiency of the E2VENT system and its impact on the energy performance of a post-retrofit building were then investigated. In particular, the heating and cooling energy performance of the E2VENT façade module was numerically studied at five different climatic conditions in Europe. Furthermore, the innovative E2VENT retrofitting was compared with traditional retrofittings in terms of the energy efficiency and primary energy savings. It was found that the innovative E2VENT solution can achieve 16.5–23.5% building primary energy saving and

  11. Estimation of complex permittivity using loop antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna.......A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna....

  12. System and circuit models for microwave antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy, Mohammed; Sanz-Izquierdo, Benito; Batchelor, John C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how circuit and system models are derived for antennas from measurement of the input reflection coefficient. Circuit models are used to optimize the antenna performance and to calculate the radiated power and the transfer function of the antenna. System models are then derived for transmitting and receiving antennas. The most important contribution of this study is to show how microwave structures can be integrated into the simulation of digital communication systems. Thi...

  13. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  14. Theory of antennas for gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Narihara, Kazumichi; Fujimoto, Masakatsu.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of antennas for gravitational radiation is presented. On the basis of the eigenmode system and the structure symmetry, the emission and reception characteristics and the directivity pattern of antennas are treated. The antenna thermal noise is discussed in connection with the coupling constant of vibration sensors and with the effect of cold-damping. (auth.)

  15. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the radiation, in...

  16. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards... elevation planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the...

  17. Collapsible structure for an antenna reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A collapsible support for an antenna reflector for use in supporting spacecraft antennas is described. The support has a regid base and a number of struts which are pivoted at the base. The deployment of the struts and their final configuration for supporting the antenna are illustrated.

  18. Inflatable antenna for earth observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Jian; Guan, Fu-ling; Xu, Yan; Yi, Min

    2010-09-01

    This paper describe mechanical design, dynamic analysis, and deployment demonstration of the antenna , and the photogrammetry detecting RMS of inflatable antenna surface, the possible errors results form the measurement are also analysed. Ticra's Grasp software are used to predict the inflatable antenna pattern based on the coordinates of the 460 points on the parabolic surface, the final results verified the whole design process.

  19. Adaptive Nulling in Hybrid Reflector Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    correction of reflector distortion and vernier beamsteering, MEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat, 36:1351-1358. 4 Cherrette , A.R., et al (1989) Compensation of...Propagat, 36:1351-1358. 4. Cherrette , A.R., et al (1989) Compensation of reflector antenna surface distortion using an array feed,IEEE Trans. Antennas

  20. Fundamentals of antennas concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Christos G

    2001-01-01

    This tutorial explains antenna design and application for various systems, including communications, remote sensing, radar, and biomedicine. It describes basic wire and array antennas in detail and introduces other types such as reflectors, lenses, horns, Yagi, microstrip, and frequency-independent antennas. Integration issues and technical challenges are discussed. Aimed at students, engineers, researchers, and technical professionals.

  1. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis

  2. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  3. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  4. Guest Editorial - Smart materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barber, Z. H.; Clyne, T. W.; Šittner, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, 13a (2014), s. 1515-1516 ISSN 0267-0836 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : smart materials * shape memory effect (SME) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.995, year: 2014

  5. Smart Book Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Smart book charts for TPSM: Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET), Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS), 3D Woven Multifunctional Ablative TPS (3D MAT), and Adaptable, Deployable, Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT).

  6. Becoming a Smart Student

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Ulla

    identification” and “participation framework”. Methodologically, the study is based on three years of linguistic ethnographic fieldwork in a public primary school in Copenhagen and with students and their families. This study documents -in broad ethnographic scope and interactional detail -how smart student...... through future explorations of children’s academic trajectories in and out of school, and on how those trajectories often become linked to the trajectories of siblings, vis-à-vis institutional conceptions of smartness.......When teachers and students interact in everyday academic activities, some students are ascribed social roles as “smart”, which lead other students to contest these roles. Such struggles around what it means to be smart and which students come to be viewed as smart are a pertinent problem...

  7. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  8. SMART : de ontwerplogica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Jelsma, J.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    Het vakgebied van de regeltechniek is zeer geschikt om ontwikkelingen vanuit de computertechnologie toe te passen. Zo zijn er systemen met regelalgoritmes gebaseerd op technieken zoals neurale netwerken, fuzzy logic, genetische algoritmes en kennissystemen gebouwd. Binnen het onderzoeksproject SMART

  9. Ammonia chemistry at SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. W.; Seong, G. W.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, W. C.; Choi, B. S.; Kim, J. P.; Lee, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia is used as the pH control agent of primary water at SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). Some of this ammonia is decomposed to hydrogen and nitrogen by radiation in the reactor core. The produced hydrogen gas is used for the removal of dissolved oxygen in the coolant. Some of nitrogen gas in pressurizer is dissolved into the primary water. Because ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen which is produced by ammonia radiolysis are exist in the coolant at SMART, ammonia chemistry at SMART is different with lithium-boron chemistry at commercial PWR. In this study, the pH characteristics of ammonia and the solubility characteristics of hydrogen and nytrogen were analyzed for the management of primary water chemistry at SMART

  10. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  11. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  12. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  13. Application of the SWE-to-PWE antenna diagnostics technique to an offset reflector antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Frandsen, Aksel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Electrical and mechanical errors in an antenna may seriously affect the antenna's performance. Although their presence is usually detected by anomalies in the antenna's far-field pattern, their identification is normally possible only through an analysis of the antenna's extreme near field....... The reconstruction of the extreme near field on the basis of near- or far-field measurements is thus an essential step in antenna diagnostics....

  14. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    approximately five satellites on the orbital arc. Spread spectrum techniques will be employed to keep the power impinging on the adjacent satellites below their noise floor so that no interference results. This antenna is power limited. If the antenna elements (currently 254) are increased by a factor of 4 (1024) or 16 (4096), the gain will increase and the beamwidth will decrease in proportion. For the latter two antenna sizes, the power must be "backed off" to prevent interference with the neighboring satellites. The receiving antenna, which is approximately 90-cm high, 60-cm wide, and 3.5-cm thick, is composed of 1500 phased-array elements. The system phased-array controller can control both a 1500-element receiving antenna and a 500-element transmitting antenna. For ground testing, this controller will allow manual beam pointing and polarization alignment. For normal operation, the system can be connected to the receiving antenna and the navigation system for real-time autonomous track operation. This will be accomplished by first pointing both antennas at the satellite using information from the aircraft data bus. Then, the system phased-array controller will electronically adjust the antenna pointing of the receiving antenna to find the peak signal. After the peak signal has been found, the beam of the transmitting antenna will be pointed to the same steering angles as the receiving antenna. For initial ground testing without an aircraft, the ARINC 429 data bus (ARINC Inc., Annapolis, Maryland) will be simulated by a gyro system purchased for the follow-on to the Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Arrays for Satellite Communication on the Move (MASCOM) Project. MASCOM utilized the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) with a pair of Ka-band experimental phased-array antennas.

  15. Smart Home Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Kodra, Suela

    2016-01-01

    Smart Home is an intelligent home equipped with devices and communications systems that enables the residents to connect and control their home appliances and systems. This technology has changed the way a consumer interacts with his home, enabling more control and convenience. Another advantage of this technology is the positive impact it has on savings on energy and other resources. However, despite the consumer's excitement about smart home, security and privacy have shown to be the strong...

  16. Evaluation of an Electronic Smart-Card Based School Absenteeism Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    So, HC; Lam, CK; Tam, YH; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM; Lau, EHY; Ip, DKM

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of an electronic smart-card based school absenteeism surveillance system which was initiated in 2008 in Hong Kong. The result demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of employing electronic school absenteeism data as captured automatically by a smart card system as an alternative data stream for monitoring influenza activities, and flexibility in establishing surveillance for emerging diseases. The increasing popularity of usage of smart card technology...

  17. SMART performance analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-04-01

    To ensure the required and desired operation over the plant lifetime, the performance analysis for the SMART NSSS design is done by means of the specified analysis methodologies for the performance related design basis events(PRDBE). The PRDBE is an occurrence(event) that shall be accommodated in the design of the plant and whose consequence would be no more severe than normal service effects of the plant equipment. The performance analysis methodology which systematizes the methods and procedures to analyze the PRDBEs is as follows. Based on the operation mode suitable to the characteristics of the SMART NSSS, the corresponding PRDBEs and allowable range of process parameters for these events are deduced. With the developed control logic for each operation mode, the system thermalhydraulics are analyzed for the chosen PRDBEs using the system analysis code. Particularly, because of different system characteristics of SMART from the existing commercial nuclear power plants, the operation mode, PRDBEs, control logic, and analysis code should be consistent with the SMART design. This report presents the categories of the PRDBEs chosen based on each operation mode and the transition among these and the acceptance criteria for each PRDBE. It also includes the analysis methods and procedures for each PRDBE and the concept of the control logic for each operation mode. Therefore this report in which the overall details for SMART performance analysis are specified based on the current SMART design, would be utilized as a guide for the detailed performance analysis

  18. Smart acquisition EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Schaffer, Bernhard; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy; Bleloch, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  19. Smart acquisition EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Kasim, E-mail: k.sader@leeds.ac.uk [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Schaffer, Bernhard [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vaughan, Gareth [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  20. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  1. The Antenna Bride and Bridegroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project, reached a major milestone on 2 March, when two 12-m ALMA prototype antennas were first linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object. "This achievement results from the integration of many state-of-the-art components from Europe and North America and bodes well for the success of ALMA in Chile", said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. ESO PR Photo 10/07 ESO PR Photo 10/07 The Prototype Antennas The milestone achievement, technically termed 'First Fringes', came at the ALMA Test Facility (ATF), located near Socorro in New Mexico. Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Saturn were collected by two ALMA prototype antennas, then processed by new, high-tech electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. The planet's radio emissions at a frequency of 104 gigahertz were tracked by the ALMA system for more than an hour. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of the multi-antenna imaging system ALMA. In such a system, the signals recorded by each antenna are electronically combined with the signals of every other antenna to form a multitude of pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed in the year 2012, ALMA will have 66 antennas. "Our congratulations go to the dedicated team of scientists, engineers and technicians who produced this groundbreaking achievement for ALMA. Much hard work and many long hours went into this effort, and we appreciate it all. This team should be very proud today," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. "With this milestone behind us, we now can proceed with increased confidence toward completing ALMA," he added. ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of

  2. Photogrammetry Of A Parabolic Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, W. D.; Lansing, F. L.; Stoller, F. W.; Lobb, V. B.

    1988-01-01

    Surface measured with accuracy better than 10 to the negative fifth power times diameter. Report describes use of advanced close-range photogrammetry to determine deviations of 34-m-diameter antenna main reflector and subreflector from nominal paraboloidal shapes. Measurements enable removal of linear offsets and angular misalignments of subreflector, with consequent increase of 4 percent in aperture efficiency.

  3. Tunable Antennas for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Art; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Shin, J

    2014-01-01

    Modern mobile terminal design has been driven by the user interface and broadband connectivity. Real world RF performance has substantially fallen recently which impacts data rates, battery life and often causes lost connections. This has been caused by changing antenna location and reduced anten...

  4. Wireless Communication with Multiple Antennas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-07-05

    Emre Telatar, “Capacity of Multi-antenna Gaussian Channels,” European. Transactions on Telecommunications, vol.10, No.6, pp.585-595, 1999. Similar diminishing-return behaviour with M fixed. B. Sundar Rajan (ECE). IASc Talk ...

  5. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  6. Reconfigurable dual-band metamaterial antenna based on liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Bang-Jun; Meng, Fan-Yi; Lyu, Yue-Long; Wu, Qun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel reconfigurable dual-band metamaterial antenna with a continuous beam that is electrically steered in backward to forward directions is first proposed by employing a liquid crystal (LC)-loaded tunable extended composite right-/left-handed (E-CRLH) transmission line (TL). The frequency-dependent property of the E-CRLH TL is analyzed and a compact unit cell based on the nematic LC is proposed to realize the tunable dual band characteristics. The phase constant of the proposed unit cell can be dynamically continuously tuned from negative to positive values in two operating bands by changing the bias voltage of the loaded LC material. A resulting dual band fixed-frequency beam steering property has been predicted by numerical simulations and experimentally verified. The measured results show that the fabricated reconfigurable antenna features an electrically controlled continuous beam steering from backward  ‑16° to forward  +13° at 7.2 GHz and backward  ‑9° to forward  +17° at 9.4 GHz, respectively. This electrically controlled beam steering range turns out to be competitive with the previously reported single band reconfigurable antennas. Besides, the measured and simulated results of the proposed reconfigurable dual-band metamaterial antenna are in good agreement.

  7. Theory of the JET ICRH antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilhaber, K.

    1984-01-01

    The JET antenna has been conceived as a 'limiter antenna', completely recessed in a lateral frame which has the dual purpose of protecting the conductors and limiting the plasma radius. The coupling of this antenna is calculated in slab geometry, using a variational formulation which finds the self-consistent currents in the antenna elements. Full account is taken of the modes excited inside the limiter frame and of their coupling to waves in the inhomogeneous plasma. This yields the antenna impedance as a function of frequency and the field structure inside the plasma, including power fluxes and dispersion, as a function of penetration. (author)

  8. Microstrip Antenna Design for Femtocell Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mircostrip antenna is designed for multielement antenna coverage optimization in femtocell network. Interference is the foremost concern for the cellular operator in vast commercial deployments of femtocell. Many techniques in physical, data link and network-layer are analysed and developed to settle down the interference issues. A multielement technique with self-configuration features is analyzed here for coverage optimization of femtocell. It also focuses on the execution of microstrip antenna for multielement configuration. The antenna is designed for LTE Band 7 by using standard FR4 dielectric substrate. The performance of the proposed antenna in the femtocell application is discussed along with results.

  9. Forward Scattering of Loaded and Unloaded Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Kristensson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Forward scattering of antennas is related to antenna performance via the forward-scattering sum rule. The forward-scattering sum rule is an integral identity that shows that a weighted integral of the extinction cross section over all spectrum is proportional to the static polarizability...... of the antenna structure. Here, the forward-scattering sum rule is experimentally verified for loaded, short-circuit, and open-circuit cylindrical dipole antennas. It is also shown that the absorption efficiency cannot be greater than 1/2 for reciprocal linearly polarized lossless matched antennas...... with a symmetric radiation pattern in the forward and backward directions....

  10. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  11. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    on how small this antenna can be. In practice, the lower bound is set by losses in utilized materials and manufacturing inaccuracies. As an example, an antenna of ka=0.09 was designed, fabricated and tested. Although the initially fabricated antenna prototype had the input impedance of 43 ohms......, it was subsequently tuned to 50 ohms simply by cutting out the excessive arm length. This tuning technique is especially useful in practical applications, since it allows the antenna to be tuned in-place and thereby compensate for various inaccuracies as well as for an antenna environment....

  12. COMWIN Antenna System Fiscal Year 2000 Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, R

    2000-01-01

    .... The Joint Tactical Radio (JTR) requires this frequency. The figure of merit to determine whether the radio is efficient in the band is a Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of less than 3:1. The COMWIN antenna system would consist of three antennas. The first antenna, in the form of a vest, would operate in the 30- to 500-MHz band. The helmet antenna would operate in the 500- to 2000 MHz band. An antenna that runs down the edges would operate in the 2- to 30-MHz band.

  13. Benchmark simulations of ICRF antenna coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louche, F.; Lamalle, P. U.; Messiaen, A. M.; Compernolle, B. van; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports on ongoing benchmark numerical simulations of antenna input impedance parameters in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies with different coupling codes: CST Microwave Studio, TOPICA and ANTITER 2. In particular we study the validity of the approximation of a magnetized plasma slab by a dielectric medium of suitably chosen permittivity. Different antenna models are considered: a single-strap antenna, a 4-strap antenna and the 24-strap ITER antenna array. Whilst the diagonal impedances are mostly in good agreement, some differences between the mutual terms predicted by Microwave Studio and TOPICA have yet to be resolved

  14. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  15. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  16. Design of broadband single polarized antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Phoo Kho; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abd.; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Ramli, Mohamad Hafize Bin; Fauzi, Noor Azamiah Md; Malek, Mohd Fareq Abd

    2015-05-01

    In practical wireless communication application, bandwidth enhancement becomes one of the major design considerations. At the same time, circular polarized (CP) antenna received much attention for the applications of modern wireless communication system when compared to linear polarized (LP) antenna. This is because CP antenna can reduce the multipath effect. Hence, broadband antenna with operating frequency at 2.4GHz for WLAN application is proposed. The proposed antenna is done by using L-probe amendment with rectangular patch. The rectangular patch and copper ground plane is separated with 10mm air gap. This approach is used to enhance the bandwidth and the gain of the proposed antenna. The bandwidth of the designed antenna is more than 200MHz which meet broadband application. The return loss for the antenna is below -10dB to achieved 90% matching efficiency. The position of L-probe feed is altered in order to obtained different polarizations. The broadband antenna had been designed and simulated by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. In this paper, the comparison for single polarized antenna with the design of non-inverted patch and inverted patch is discussed. The characteristics of the S-parameter, axial ratio, gain, surface current for each designed antenna are analyzed.

  17. Towards the Smart World. Smart Platform: Infrastructure and Analytics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Velthausz, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author outlines the 'smart world' concept and how technology (smart infrastructure, analytics) can foster smarter cities, smarter regions and a smarter world....

  18. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Group Delay variations versus frequency is an essential factor which can cause distortion and degradation in the signals. Usually this is an issue in wideband communication systems, such as satellite communication systems, which are used for transmitting wideband data. However, group delay can also...... become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  19. SKB - PNC. Development of tunnel radar antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1991-07-01

    Tunnel antennas for the RAMAC borehole radar system have been developed and tested in the field. The antennas are of the loaded dipole type and the receiver and transmitter electronics have been rebuilt to screen them from the antennas. A series of measurements has demonstrated that the radar pulse is short and well shaped and relatively free from ringing, even compared with the existing borehole antennas. Two antenna sets were tested: one centered at 60 MHz and another above 100 MHz. Both produced excellent radar pictures when tested in tunnels in Stripa mine. The antennas have been designed to be easy to carry, since the signal quality often depends on the way the antenna is held relative to electric conductors in the tunnels. (au) (46 figs., 57 refs.)

  20. Improvement of antenna decoupling in radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Topor, Raluca; Tamas, Razvan D.; Dumitrascu, Ana; Danisor, Alin; Berescu, Serban

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna design, which can be used for pulse radiation in UWB communication. The Vivaldi antenna is a special tapered slot antenna with planar structure which is easily to be integrated with transmitting elements and receiving elements to form a compact structure. When the permittivity is very large, the wavelength of slot mode is so short that the electromagnetic fields concentrate in the slot to form an effective and balanced transmission line. Due to its simple structure and small size the Vivaldi antennas are one of the most popular designs used in UWB applications. However, for a two-antenna radar system, there is a high mutual coupling between two such antennas due to open configuration. In this paper, we propose a new method for reducing this effect. The method was validated by simulating a system of two Vivaldi antennas in front of a standard target.

  1. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  2. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  3. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  4. Smart Demand Response Based on Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes (SHs are crucial parts for demand response management (DRM of smart grid (SG. The aim of SHs based demand response (DR is to provide a flexible two-way energy feedback whilst (or shortly after the consumption occurs. It can potentially persuade end-users to achieve energy saving and cooperate with the electricity producer or supplier to maintain balance between the electricity supply and demand through the method of peak shaving and valley filling. However, existing solutions are challenged by the lack of consideration between the wide application of fiber power cable to the home (FPCTTH and related users’ behaviors. Based on the new network infrastructure, the design and development of smart DR systems based on SHs are related with not only functionalities as security, convenience, and comfort, but also energy savings. A new multirouting protocol based on Kruskal’s algorithm is designed for the reliability and safety of the SHs distribution network. The benefits of FPCTTH-based SHs are summarized at the end of the paper.

  5. Cognitive Radio for Smart Grid: Theory, Algorithms, and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuram Ranganathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cognitive radio and smart grid are two areas which have received considerable research impetus. Cognitive radios are intelligent software defined radios (SDRs that efficiently utilize the unused regions of the spectrum, to achieve higher data rates. The smart grid is an automated electric power system that monitors and controls grid activities. In this paper, the novel concept of incorporating a cognitive radio network as the communications infrastructure for the smart grid is presented. A brief overview of the cognitive radio, IEEE 802.22 standard and smart grid, is provided. Experimental results obtained by using dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA, kernel PCA, and landmark maximum variance unfolding (LMVU on Wi-Fi signal measurements are presented in a spectrum sensing context. Furthermore, compressed sensing algorithms such as Bayesian compressed sensing and the compressed sensing Kalman filter is employed for recovering the sparse smart meter transmissions. From the power system point of view, a supervised learning method called support vector machine (SVM is used for the automated classification of power system disturbances. The impending problem of securing the smart grid is also addressed, in addition to the possibility of applying FPGA-based fuzzy logic intrusion detection for the smart grid.

  6. The design of RFID convey or belt gate systems using an antenna control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong Ryol; Lee, Seung Joon; Eom, Ki Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPC)global for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance.

  7. The Design of RFID Conveyor Belt Gate Systems Using an Antenna Control Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Eom

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPCglobal for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance.

  8. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  9. Smart film actuators using biomass plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel smart film actuator based on the use of a biomass plastic as a piezoelectric film. Conventional polymeric smart sensors and actuators have been based upon synthetic piezoelectric polymer films such as PVDF. Almost all synthetic polymers are made from nearly depleted oil resources. In addition combustion of their materials releases carbon dioxide, thereby contributing to global warming. Thus at least two important sustainability principles are violated when employing synthetic polymers: avoiding depletable resources and avoiding ecosystem destruction. To overcome such problems, industrial plastic products made from synthetic polymers were developed to replace oil-based plastics with biomass plastics. This paper applies a biomass plastic with piezoelectricity such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). As a result, PLLA film becomes a distributed parameter actuator per se, hence an environmentally conscious smart film actuator is developed. Firstly, this paper overviews the fundamental properties of piezoelectric synthetic polymers and biopolymers. The concept of carbon neutrality using biopolymers is mentioned. Then a two-dimensional modal actuator for exciting a specific structural mode is proposed. Furthermore, a biomass plastic-based cantilever beam with the capability of modal actuation is developed, the validity of the proposed smart film actuator based upon a biomass plastic being analytically as well as experimentally verified

  10. SMART POWER TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was

  11. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  12. The Future of Smart Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of smart cards from digital signatures and other innovations into the realm of magnetic-stripe cards to expand their applications. Examples of magnetic-strip smart card usage are examined. (GR)

  13. Sociale innovatie of work and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment are prerequisites to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labour market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organisational level. This paper focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  14. Social Innovation of Work and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.D.; Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.; Franz, H.-W.; Hochgerner, J.; Howaldt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment are prerequisites to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labour market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organisational level. This paper focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chinarro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of today’s society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc. have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid applications.

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Weather Variables and Electric Power Demand inside a Smart Grid/Smart World Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Luis; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Cook, Diane J.; Chinarro, David; Gómez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges of today's society is the need to fulfill at the same time the two sides of the dichotomy between the growing energy demand and the need to look after the environment. Smart Grids are one of the answers: intelligent energy grids which retrieve data about the environment through extensive sensor networks and react accordingly to optimize resource consumption. In order to do this, the Smart Grids need to understand the existing relationship between energy demand and a set of relevant climatic variables. All smart “systems” (buildings, cities, homes, consumers, etc.) have the potential to employ their intelligence for self-adaptation to climate conditions. After introducing the Smart World, a global framework for the collaboration of these smart systems, this paper presents the relationship found at experimental level between a range of relevant weather variables and electric power demand patterns, presenting a case study using an agent-based system, and emphasizing the need to consider this relationship in certain Smart World (and specifically Smart Grid and microgrid) applications.

  17. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  18. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  19. Wireless Smart Systems Beyond RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu

    2008-01-01

    It is expected that in the coming 20 years the IoT will be pervasive, and ubiquitous: smart devices, embedded in smart materials, will work in synergy to improve the quality of our lives. In this context wireless smart systems will play an essential role that is far beyond the ID information that is part of RFID devices today. Wireless Smart Systems Beyond RFID

  20. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Smart Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  2. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  3. Antenna diagnostics for power flow in extreme near-field of a standard gain horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The plane wave spectrum of an aperture antenna can be calculated from a complex measurement of the radiated near- or far-field and it facilitates antenna diagnostics for the extreme near-field of the antenna. While antenna diagnostics often concerns the magnitude of the co-polar field, the plane...... wave spectrum actually allows for determination of both magnitude and phase of all three components of the electric as well as the magnetic field - and thus also the Poynting vector. In this work we focus on the Poynting vector and thus the power flow in the extreme near-field; as an example we employ...... that these oscillations are not merely a “Gibbs-like” phenomenon due to the availability of only the visible region of the plane wave spectrum and they are not caused by multiple reflections between the horn and the near-field probe - but resulted from the interference between the direct field and the edge...

  4. A Balanced-Fed Dual Inverted-F Antenna with Reduced Human Body Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Sang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A balanced-fed dual inverted-F antenna with reduced human body effects for WLAN applications at 2.45 GHz is presented. In order to reduce the influence by a close proximity or a touch of a human body, the proposed antenna employs an impedance matching using a lumped LC-balun which has the simple and compact structure applying for mobile handsets. The resonant frequency of the proposed antenna is fixed at 2.45 GHz regardless of the close proximity of a human body. By applying for the L-shape ground plane, the proposed antenna has the wide impedance bandwidth of about 150 MHz and the peak realized gain of about 4 dBi.

  5. Fully inkjet printed wide band cantor fractal antenna for RF energy harvesting application

    KAUST Repository

    Bakytbekov, Azamat

    2017-06-07

    Energy harvesting from ambient RF signals is feasible, particularly from the GSM bands such as 900MHz, 1800MHz and the 3G band at 2.1GHz. This requires a wideband receive antenna which can cover all these bands with decent gain performance and an omnidirectional radiation pattern. In this work, a novel Cantor fractal antenna has been designed which fulfills the above mentioned performance requirements. Antenna has been realized through a combination of 3D inkjet printing of plastic substrate and 2D inkjet printing of metallic nanoparticles based ink. The stable impedance and radiation performance of the antenna over a bandwidth of 0.8GHz to 2.2GHz (93 %) shows the feasibility of its employment in wide band energy harvesting applications.

  6. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  7. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  8. The Science of Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boohan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, smart materials have become increasingly important in the design of products. Essentially, a smart material is one that has been designed to respond to a stimulus, such as a change in temperature or magnetic field, in a particular and useful way. This article looks at a range of smart materials that are relatively…

  9. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  10. Electromagnetic Interference in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. If equipped with a communication link they are called smart meter. Because the smart meter is a key device in smart grids, any deviation has huge impact on

  11. Smart TV and data protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, B.; van Eijk, N.; Irion, K.; McGonagle, T.; van Voorst, S.

    2016-01-01

    What is smart TV? How does smart TV compare with other forms of audiovisual media? What regulatory frameworks govern smart TV? What guidance can be found in selected country-specific case studies? What are the dangers associated with the collection, storage and processing of private user information

  12. Realisering af Smart City/Smart House i Nordjylland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    beskriver tankerne, visionerne og perspektiverne i forhold til at realisere Smart House-konceptet i Region Nordjylland. Smart House-tankerne er baseret på at bygge smarte huse og smarte byggekomponenter til fremtidens brugere, hvor den nyeste teknologi indenfor byggematerialer kombineres med nye værdier....... Formålet med Smart House Nordjylland er at flytte byggeindustriens og forskernes fokus fra en indbyrdes konkurrence lokalt til et udviklende innovationssamarbejde, som sigter mod det globale marked. På denne måde kan regionen skabe et udstillingsvindue indenfor fremtidens byggeri gennem en interaktion...

  13. Broadband Cylindrical Antenna and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    May 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to: TECHNOLOGY...CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is...Slotted cylinder antennas have been proposed in submarine applications before. For example, in U.S. Patent No. 6,127,983, Rivera and Josypenko disclose

  14. Miniaturization of Spherical Magnetodielectric Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle

    ; Arbitrary order of the spherical wave, arbitrary radius of the spherical antenna, as well as arbitrarily large core permeability and/or permittivity, given an inversely proportional frequency variation of the imaginary part(s) and an arbitrary dispersion of the real part(s) - thus describing both lossless...... with a magnetic loss tangent of 1 and relative permeability of 300 yield Q/e equal 65% of the Chu lower bound, with a simultaneous e of 71%....

  15. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...

  16. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  17. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  18. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... technology is Fog Computing, which extends the traditional Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network to enable localized and real-time support for operating-enhanced smart city services. However, proper integration and efficient utilization of CoT and Fog Computing is not an easy task. This paper...

  19. Correction of failure in antenna array using matrix pencil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, SU; Rahim, MKA

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a non-iterative technique is developed for the correction of faulty antenna array based on matrix pencil technique (MPT). The failure of a sensor in antenna array can damage the radiation power pattern in terms of sidelobes level and nulls. In the developed technique, the radiation pattern of the array is sampled to form discrete power pattern information set. Then this information set can be arranged in the form of Hankel matrix (HM) and execute the singular value decomposition (SVD). By removing nonprincipal values, we obtain an optimum lower rank estimation of HM. This lower rank matrix corresponds to the corrected pattern. Then the proposed technique is employed to recover the weight excitation and position allocations from the estimated matrix. Numerical simulations confirm the efficiency of the proposed technique, which is compared with the available techniques in terms of sidelobes level and nulls. (paper)

  20. SMART product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    Among the inspirations for the SMART process is “design to customer value,” where products are modified based on a thorough understanding of customers that allows product developers to eliminate features that do not affect customer satisfaction while including only the elements and functionality...... that customers really appreciate. The SMART process includes methods to understand product value for the customer and the user; analyse the cost of components and processes; combine customer value and cost reduction potentials into feasible, high-value concepts; and generate prototypes that can be tested...... with users and customers....

  1. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  2. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  3. Smart business for smart users? : A social science agenda for developing smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbong, G.P.J.; Verkade, N.; Verhees, B.; Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Höffken, J.I.; Beaulieu, A.; de Wilde, J.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of smart grids is very attractive. However, it is not yet clear what the future smart grid will look like. Although most researchers acknowledge that users will play a more prominent role in smart grids, there is a lot of uncertainty on this issue. To counter the strong techno-logical

  4. Layout Of Antennas And Cables In A Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Layout devised to minimize total land area occupied by large phased array of antennas and to minimize total length of cables in array. In original intended application, array expanded version of array of paraboloidal-dish microwave communication antennas of Deep Space Network. Layout also advantageous for other phased arrays of antennas and antenna elements, including notably printed-circuit microwave antenna arrays.

  5. Analysis And Simulation Of Low Profile Planar Inverted - F Antenna Design For WLAN Operation In Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaw Htet Lwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compact planar invertedF antenna PIFA design for WLAN operation in portable devices. The proposed design has size of 8 x 21 mm and provides peak directive gain of 5.78dBi with the peak return loss of -33.89dB and input impedance of 50.28amp8486. It covers a 10dB return loss bandwidth of 410MHz 2.37GHz 2.789GHz. Its VSWR varies from 1.96 to 1.93 within the antenna return loss bandwidth. As the dimension of the proposed antenna is very small the antenna is promising to be embedded within the different portable devices employing WiFi applications. This paper includes the return loss as a function of frequency with varying the different parameters VSWR input resistance radiation pattern and current distribution of the proposed antenna.

  6. Design of test kits for the RF characterization of the PAM antenna of LHCD system for Aditya-upgrade Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Yogesh M.; Sharma, P.K.; Parmar, P.R.; Ambulkar, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system of the ADITYA-Upgrade tokamak will employ a Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) antenna to launch 250 kW of RF power at 3.7 GHz to drive plasma current non inductively in the tokamak. To evaluate the RF performance of the designed PAM antenna, it is characterized with the help of VNA measurements. The performance of the PAM antenna is mainly decided by the integrated performance of the entire antenna (with a differential phase shift of 270° and equal power distribution between each of the output waveguides) and the performance of mode converter, which transforms input TE 10 mode to TE 30 mode (with a mode purity of 98.5% at the output). This poster thus reports the design and analysis of these testing kits. Also, the test results of PAM antenna obtained by using these test kits would also be presented and discussed in this poster

  7. Antenna development for astroparticle and radioastronomy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrier, Didier, E-mail: charrier@emn.fr [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes - CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Nantes (France)

    2012-01-11

    An active dipole antenna is in operation since five years at the Nancay radio Observatory (France) in the CODALEMA experiment. A new version of this active antenna has been developed, whose shape gave its name of 'Butterfly' antenna. Compared to the previous version, this new antenna has been designed to be more efficient at low frequencies, which could permit the detection of atmospheric showers at large distances. Despite a size of only 2 m Multiplication-Sign 1 m in each polarization, its sensitivity is excellent in the 30-80 MHz bandwidth. Three antennas in dual polarization were installed on the CODALEMA experiment, and four other have been recently installed on the Auger area in the scope of the AERA project. The main characteristics of the Butterfly antenna are detailed with an emphasis on its key features which make it a good candidate for the low frequency radioastronomy and the radio detection of transients induced by high energy cosmic rays.

  8. Millimeter-wave antennas configurations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    du Preez, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively reviews the state of the art in millimeter-wave antennas, traces important recent developments and provides information on a wide range of antenna configurations and applications. While fundamental theoretical aspects are discussed whenever necessary, the book primarily focuses on design principles and concepts, manufacture, measurement techniques, and practical results. Each of the various antenna types scalable to millimeter-wave dimensions is considered individually, with coverage of leaky-wave and surface-wave antennas, printed antennas, integrated antennas, and reflector and lens systems. The final two chapters address the subject from a systems perspective, providing an overview of supporting circuitry and examining in detail diverse millimeter-wave applications, including high-speed wireless communications, radio astronomy, and radar. The vast amount of information now available on millimeter-wave systems can be daunting for researchers and designers entering the field. This b...

  9. A Review of Antennas for Picosatellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Lokman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cube Satellite (CubeSat technology is an attractive emerging alternative to conventional satellites in radio astronomy, earth observation, weather forecasting, space research, and communications. Its size, however, poses a more challenging restriction on the circuitry and components as they are expected to be closely spaced and very power efficient. One of the main components that will require careful design for CubeSats is their antennas, as they are needed to be lightweight, small in size, and compact or deployable for larger antennas. This paper presents a review of antennas suitable for picosatellite applications. An overview of the applications of picosatellites will first be explained, prior to a discussion on their antenna requirements. Material and antenna topologies which have been used will be subsequently discussed prior to the presentation of several deployable configurations. Finally, a perspective and future research work on CubeSat antennas will be discussed in the conclusion.

  10. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  11. Spherical near-field antenna measurements — The most accurate antenna measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique combines several advantages and generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. This paper/presentation discusses these advantages, briefly reviews the early history and present...

  12. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  13. Passive low-cost inkjet-printed smart skin sensor for structural health monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2012-11-20

    Monitoring fatigue cracking of large engineering structures is a costly and time-intensive process. The authors\\' present the first low-cost inkjet-printed patch antenna sensor that can passively detect crack formation, orientation and shape by means of resonant frequency shifts in the two resonant modes of the antenna. For the first time, the effect of non-linear crack shapes on the parallel and perpendicular resonant modes of a patch antenna is quantified with simulation and measurement. This study presents a step towards fully integrated, low-cost, conformal and environmentally friendly smart skins for real-time monitoring of large structures. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012.

  14. VAlidation STandard antennas: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drioli, Luca Salghetti; Ostergaard, A; Paquay, M

    2011-01-01

    designed for validation campaigns of antenna measurement ranges. The driving requirements of VAST antennas are their mechanical stability over a given operational temperature range and with respect to any orientation of the gravity field. The mechanical design shall ensure extremely stable electrical....../V-band of telecom satellites. The paper will address requirements for future VASTs and possible architecture for multi-frequency Validation Standard antennas....

  15. International Mapping of Antenna-Measurement Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccia, Luigi; Breinbjerg, Olav; Di Massa, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive international mapping of antenna-measurement facilities. This initiative, conducted within the framework of the Antenna Centre of Excellence (ACE) of the European Union, is oriented toward all institutions having research, development, or operational activities...... measurements, in particular from the wireless communication industry, to identify and contact antenna-measurement facilities. The first phase of the mapping showed a significant and encouraging reaction to this initiative, with more than 50 European facilities currently registered. The next phase aims...

  16. Porous textile antenna designs for improved wearability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahariar, Hasan; Soewardiman, Henry; Muchler, Clifford A.; Adams, Jacob J.; Jur, Jesse S.

    2018-04-01

    Textile antennas are an integral part of the next generation personalized wearable electronics system. However, the durability of textile antennas are rarely discussed in the literature. Typical textile antennas are prone to damage during normal wearable user scenarios, washing, and heat cycling over time. Fabricating a durable, washable, flexible, and breathable (like textile materials) antenna is challenging due to the incompatibility of the mechanical properties of conductive materials and soft textile materials. This paper describes a scalable screen printing process on an engineered nonwoven substrate to fabricate microstrip patch antennas with enhanced durability. This work used an Evolon® nonwoven substrate with low surface roughness (˜Ra = 18 μm) and high surface area (˜2.05 mm2 mm-2 of fabric area) compared to traditional textile materials, which allows the ink to penetrate evenly in the fiber bulk with its strong capillary wicking force and enhances print resolution. The composite layer of ink and fiber is conductive and enables the antennas to maintain high mechanical flexibility without varying its RF (Radio Frequency) properties. Additionally, the antennas are packaged by laminating porous polyurethane web to make the device durable and washable. The fully packaged antennas maintain the structural flexibility and RF functionality after 15 cycles of washing and drying. To improve the air permeability and enhance flexibility the antenna is also modified by incorporating holes in the both patch and ground layer of the antenna. The antennas were analyzed before and after submerging in water to observe the effect of wetting and drying with respect to frequency response. The porous antenna with holes recovered 3x times faster than the one without holes (solid) from fully wet state (saturated with water) to the dry state, demonstrating its potential use as a moisture sensor system.

  17. Reconfigurable antennas radiations using plasma Faraday cage

    OpenAIRE

    Barro , Oumar Alassane; Himdi , Mohamed; Lafond , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This letter presents a new reconfigurable plasma antenna associated with a Faraday cage. The Faraday cage is realized using a fluorescent lamp. A patch antenna with a broadside radiation pattern or a monopole antenna with an end-fire radiation pattern , operating at 2.45 GHz, is placed inside Faraday cage. The performance of the reconfigurable system is observed in terms of input reflection coefficient, gain and radiation pattern via simulation and measurement. It is s...

  18. FPGA based Smart Wireless MIMO Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Syed M Usman; Hussain, Sajid; Siddiqui, Ali Akber; Arshad, Jawad Ali; Darakhshan, Anjum

    2013-01-01

    In our present work, we have successfully designed, and developed an FPGA based smart wireless MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) system capable of controlling multiple industrial process parameters such as temperature, pressure, stress and vibration etc. To achieve this task we have used Xilin x Spartan 3E FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) instead of conventional microcontrollers. By employing FPGA kit to PC via RF transceivers which has a working range of about 100 meters. The developed smart system is capable of performing the control task assigned to it successfully. We have also provided a provision to our proposed system that can be accessed for monitoring and control through the web and GSM as well. Our proposed system can be equally applied to all the hazardous and rugged industrial environments where a conventional system cannot work effectively

  19. Smart Tourism: a practice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Nielsen, Tanja Knoblauch

    2018-01-01

    by technology and data, but must be understood as a socio-technical and collaborative accomplishment. This entails seeing seemingly mundane issues as central to developing Smart Tourism and to link the development of Smart Tourism to transformations in the practices of everyday organizational life.......In this chapter, we explore how a Smart Destination is imagined and grappled with at an organizational level in its first and tentative stages of development. Drawing on practice theory and research in the North Denmark Region, we show how the idea of Smart Tourism is embraced by almost all...... of the stakeholders in the area, while the full potentials of this new phenomenon are experienced as difficult to realize. Abstaining from seeing Smart Tourism as a unilinear technological or digital evolution, we present four situated configurations of Smart Tourism. We argue that Smart Tourism is not made up solely...

  20. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  1. Design of reconfigurable antennas using graph models

    CERN Document Server

    Costantine, Joseph; Christodoulou, Christos G; Christodoulou, Christos G

    2013-01-01

    This lecture discusses the use of graph models to represent reconfigurable antennas. The rise of antennas that adapt to their environment and change their operation based on the user's request hasn't been met with clear design guidelines. There is a need to propose some rules for the optimization of any reconfigurable antenna design and performance. Since reconfigurable antennas are seen as a collection of self-organizing parts, graph models can be introduced to relate each possible topology to a corresponding electromagnetic performance in terms of achieving a characteristic frequency of oper

  2. Thermal Loss in High-Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Bahramzy, Pevand; Svendsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Tunable antennas are very promising for future generations of mobile communications, where antennas are required to cover a wide range operating bands. This letter aims at characterizing the loss mechanism of tunable antennas. Tunable antennas typically exhibit a high Quality factor (Q), which ca...... lead to thermal loss due to the conductivity of the metal. The investigation shows that copper loss is non-negligible for high Q values. In the proposed design the copper loss is 2 dB, for a Q of 260 at 700 MHz....

  3. MILA Antenna Control Unit Replacement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresette, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The Air to Ground Subsystem (AGS) Antenna Control Units at the MILA Ground Network Tracking Station are at end-of-life and are being replaced. AGS consists of two antennas at MILA (Quad-Helix and Teltrac). Software was taken from the existing Subsystem Controller and modified for the Antenna Control Unit (ACU). The software is capable of receiving and sending commands to and from the ACU. Moving the azimuth clockwise, counterclockwise, moving the elevation up or down, turning servo power on and off, and inputting azimuth and elevation angles are commands that the antenna can receive.

  4. A Design of Double Broadband MIMO Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MIMO antenna applied to LTE mobile system should be miniaturization and can work in the current communication frequency band; isolation between each antenna unit also should be good so as to reduce loss of radio wave energy and improve the antenna performance of the MIMO system. This paper puts forward the design scheme of a broadband MIMO double antenna. And the design of antenna unit and debugging and related technical measures, such as bending antenna bracket, are both presented; the integration design of high isolation of ultra broadband MIMO antenna is realized on the plate with the volume of 100 × 52 × 0.8 mm3; antenna working bands are 698 MHz~960 MHz and 1710 MHz~2700 MHz; in the whole spectrum, the 10 dB of port isolation can be basically achieved; in low frequency band, the isolation degree of antenna port can reach 12 dB.

  5. Vivaldi Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is a future technology for capturing ambient energy from the environment to be recycled to feed low-power devices. A planar antipodal Vivaldi antenna is presented for gathering energy from GSM, WLAN, UMTS and related applications. The designed antenna has the potential to be used in energy harvesting systems. Moreover, the antenna is suitable for UWB applications, because it operates according to FCC regulations (3.1 – 10.6 GHz. The designed antenna is printed on ARLON 600 substrate and operates in frequency band from 0.810 GHz up to more than 12 GHz. Experimental results show good conformity with simulated performance.

  6. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  7. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  8. Smart homes as a base for smart grids; Smart Home als Basis fuer Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segbusch, Klaus von [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Team Business Development Smart Grids; Struwe, Christian [Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH, Luedenscheid (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Integration of renewable energy sources requires more intelligent distribution systems, i.e. so-called smart grids. For this, it is necessary to integrate the end customers in grid operation, giving them financial incentives, information in near real time from the utility, and means for automatic control of their consumption. (orig.)

  9. Smart(er) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This is an answer and an elaboration to Carsten Sørensens’ “The Curse of the Smart Machine?”. My answer disagrees with the postulate of a mainframe focus within the IS field. Instead I suggest that it is a struggle between old and new science. The answer then agrees with the notion that we need n...

  10. Smart, stretchable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Chen, Peining; Guan, Guozhen; Deng, Jue; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-07-09

    Smart supercapacitors are developed by depositing conducting polymers onto aligned carbon-nanotube sheets. These supercapacitors rapidly and reversibly demonstrate color changes in response to a variation in the level of stored energy and the chromatic transitions can be directly observed by the naked eye. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  12. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  13. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  14. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  15. Smart Start Evaluation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Buysse, Virginia; Kotch, Jonathan; Maxwell, Kelly; Neenan, Peter; Noblit, George; Orthner, Dennis; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Telfair, Joseph

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. This report describes the comprehensive plan to evaluate the state and local goals and objectives of the program, focusing on the components addressing the…

  16. Smart Structures and Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    function. It is reasonable to expect that all engineering design should be smart, and not dumb. But one can still make a distinction .... among the sensors, the actuators and the decision-making centre(s). ..... basic emotions like fear or pleasure.

  17. Modelling the smart farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. O'Grady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart farming envisages the harnessing of Information and Communication Technologies as an enabler of more efficient, productive, and profitable farming enterprises. Such technologies do not suffice on their own; rather they must be judiciously combined to deliver meaningful information in near real-time. Decision-support tools incorporating models of disparate farming activities, either on their own or in combination with other models, offer one popular approach; exemplars include GPFARM, APSIM, GRAZPLAN amongst many others. Such models tend to be generic in nature and their adoption by individual farmers is minimal. Smart technologies offer an opportunity to remedy this situation; farm-specific models that can reflect near real-time events become tractable using such technologies. Research on the development, and application of farm-specific models is at a very early stage. This paper thus presents an overview of models within the farming enterprise; it then reviews the state-of the art in smart technologies that promise to enable a new generation of enterprise-specific models that will underpin future smart farming enterprises.

  18. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  19. An integral effect test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Moon, Sang Ki; Kim, Yeon Sik; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki Yong; Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyoung Ho; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Park, Rae Joon; Lee, Won Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Yi, Sung Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWth integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) developed by KAERI and had obtained standard design approval (SDA) from Korean regulatory authority on July 2012. In this SMART design main components including a pressurizer, reactor coolant pumps and steam generators are installed in a reactor pressure vessel without any large connecting pipes. As the LBLOCA scenario is inherently excluded, its safety systems could be simplified only to ensure the safety during the SBLOCA scenarios and the other system transients. An integral effect test loop for the SMART (SMART ITL), or called as FESTA, had been designed to simulate the integral thermal hydraulic behavior of the SMART. The objectives of the SMART ITL are to investigate and understand the integral performance of reactor systems and components and the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurred in the system during normal, abnormal and emergency conditions, and to verify the system safety during various design basis events of the SMART. The integral effect test data will also be used to validate the related thermal hydraulic models of the safety analysis code such as TASS/SMR S, which is used for performance and accident analysis of the SMART design. This paper introduces the scaling analysis and scientific design of the integral test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL and its scaling analysis results.

  20. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  1. A 3D printed helical antenna with integrated lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    A novel antenna configuration comprising a helical antenna with an integrated lens is demonstrated in this work. The antenna is manufactured by a unique combination of 3D printing of plastic material (ABS) and inkjet printing of silver nano

  2. Inkjet-Printed Ultra Wide Band Fractal Antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Maza, Armando Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    reduction, a Cantor-based fractal antenna which performs a larger bandwidth compared to previously published UWB Cantor fractal monopole antenna, and a 3D loop fractal antenna which attains miniaturization, impedance matching and multiband characteristics

  3. Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The antenna system on a small satellite is a critical component, as a failure of the antenna can lead to mission failure. Present antenna systems are typically wire...

  4. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. IV. Receiving antennas and reciprocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L., E-mail: stenzel@physics.ucla.edu; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Antenna radiation patterns are an important property of antennas. Reciprocity holds in free space and the radiation patterns for exciting and receiving antennas are the same. In anisotropic plasmas, radiation patterns are complicated by the fact that group and phase velocities differ and certain wave properties like helicity depend on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the background magnetic field B{sub 0}. Interference and wave focusing effects are different than in free space. Reciprocity does not necessarily hold in a magnetized plasma. The present work considers the properties of various magnetic antennas used for receiving whistler modes. It is based on experimental data from exciting low frequency whistler modes in a large uniform laboratory plasma. By superposition of linear waves from different antennas, the radiation patterns of antenna arrays are derived. Plane waves are generated and used to determine receiving radiation patterns of different receiving antennas. Antenna arrays have radiation patterns with narrow lobes, whose angular position can be varied by physical rotation or electronic phase shifting. Reciprocity applies to broadside antenna arrays but not to end fire arrays which can have asymmetric lobes with respect to B{sub 0}. The effect of a relative motion between an antenna and the plasma has been modeled by the propagation of a short wave packet moving along a linear antenna array. An antenna moving across B{sub 0} has a radiation pattern characterized by an oscillatory “whistler wing.” A receiving antenna in motion can detect any plane wave within the group velocity resonance cone. The radiation pattern also depends on loop size relative to the wavelength. Motional effects prevent reciprocity. The concept of the radiation pattern loses its significance for wave packets since the received signal does not only depend on the antenna but also on the properties of the wave packet. The present results are of fundamental

  5. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. IV. Receiving antennas and reciprocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Antenna radiation patterns are an important property of antennas. Reciprocity holds in free space and the radiation patterns for exciting and receiving antennas are the same. In anisotropic plasmas, radiation patterns are complicated by the fact that group and phase velocities differ and certain wave properties like helicity depend on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the background magnetic field B 0 . Interference and wave focusing effects are different than in free space. Reciprocity does not necessarily hold in a magnetized plasma. The present work considers the properties of various magnetic antennas used for receiving whistler modes. It is based on experimental data from exciting low frequency whistler modes in a large uniform laboratory plasma. By superposition of linear waves from different antennas, the radiation patterns of antenna arrays are derived. Plane waves are generated and used to determine receiving radiation patterns of different receiving antennas. Antenna arrays have radiation patterns with narrow lobes, whose angular position can be varied by physical rotation or electronic phase shifting. Reciprocity applies to broadside antenna arrays but not to end fire arrays which can have asymmetric lobes with respect to B 0 . The effect of a relative motion between an antenna and the plasma has been modeled by the propagation of a short wave packet moving along a linear antenna array. An antenna moving across B 0 has a radiation pattern characterized by an oscillatory “whistler wing.” A receiving antenna in motion can detect any plane wave within the group velocity resonance cone. The radiation pattern also depends on loop size relative to the wavelength. Motional effects prevent reciprocity. The concept of the radiation pattern loses its significance for wave packets since the received signal does not only depend on the antenna but also on the properties of the wave packet. The present results are of fundamental interest and of

  6. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-01

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  7. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  8. Solar energy collection by antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkish, R.; Green, M.A.; Puzzer, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Advanced Silicon Photovoltaics and Photonics

    2002-12-01

    The idea of collecting solar electromagnetic radiation with antenna-rectifier (rectenna) structures was proposed three decades ago but has not yet been achieved. The idea has been promoted as having potential to achieve efficiency approaching 100% but thermodynamic considerations imply a lower limit of 85.4% for a non-frequency-selective rectenna and 86.8% for one with infinite selectivity, assuming maximal concentration in each case. This paper reviews the history and technical context of solar rectennas and discusses the major issues: thermodynamic efficiency limits, rectifier operation at optical frequencies, harmonics production and electrical noise. (author)

  9. The SmartHand transradial prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrozza Maria Chiara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prosthetic components and control interfaces for upper limb amputees have barely changed in the past 40 years. Many transradial prostheses have been developed in the past, nonetheless most of them would be inappropriate if/when a large bandwidth human-machine interface for control and perception would be available, due to either their limited (or inexistent sensorization or limited dexterity. SmartHand tackles this issue as is meant to be clinically experimented in amputees employing different neuro-interfaces, in order to investigate their effectiveness. This paper presents the design and on bench evaluation of the SmartHand. Methods SmartHand design was bio-inspired in terms of its physical appearance, kinematics, sensorization, and its multilevel control system. Underactuated fingers and differential mechanisms were designed and exploited in order to fit all mechatronic components in the size and weight of a natural human hand. Its sensory system was designed with the aim of delivering significant afferent information to the user through adequate interfaces. Results SmartHand is a five fingered self-contained robotic hand, with 16 degrees of freedom, actuated by 4 motors. It integrates a bio-inspired sensory system composed of 40 proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors and a customized embedded controller both employed for implementing automatic grasp control and for potentially delivering sensory feedback to the amputee. It is able to perform everyday grasps, count and independently point the index. The weight (530 g and speed (closing time: 1.5 seconds are comparable to actual commercial prostheses. It is able to lift a 10 kg suitcase; slippage tests showed that within particular friction and geometric conditions the hand is able to stably grasp up to 3.6 kg cylindrical objects. Conclusions Due to its unique embedded features and human-size, the SmartHand holds the promise to be experimentally fitted on transradial

  10. SCRLH-TL Based Sequential Rotation Feed Network for Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Zong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL based sequential rotation (SR feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.

  11. A calibrated, broadband antenna for plasma RF emission measurements below 1 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, P.D.; Rosenberg, D.; Roth, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A constant impedance, constant aperture antenna can make possible broadband plasma RF emission measurements which yield relative and absolute power levels. However, good technique must be followed for the immersion of such an RF probe into plasma radiation. The authors have used a complementary conical spiral antenna to observe plasma RF emission over the frequency range 100 ≤ν≤ 1200 MHz. The RF emission was emitted by a modified Penning discharge. The RF emission from the discharge typically exhibits harmonic structure over a broad frequency range, necessitating a broadband antenna with a flat frequency response curve to allow detailed spectral analysis. The antenna consists of two metal strips of approximately uniform width wound helically on a cone made of Lexan plastic. Since the antenna is a balanced network, a balun is employed to make the transition to a 50-ohm coaxial line. The antenna feed method is critical in maintaining a uniform impedance network. Neglecting stray transmission line effects, the probe circuit for the frequency range 100 ≤ν≤ 500 MHz is 50 ohms due to the spectrum analyzer, paralleled by 291 ohms due to balun magnetization; the combination is fed by a 144 ohm probe aperture

  12. Miniaturized CPW-Fed Triband Antenna with Asymmetric Ring for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact CPW-fed triband slot antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications is proposed. The proposed antenna is formed by an asymmetric ring, an inverted L-strip, and a straight strip. By employing these structures, the antenna can generate three operation bands with compact size and simple structure. The measured and simulated results show the presented antenna has impedance bandwidths of 100 MHz (2.39–2.49 GHz, 360 MHz (3.36–3.72 GHz, and 760 MHz (5.13–5.89 GHz, which covers both WLAN in the 2.4/5.2 GHz bands and WiMAX in the 3.5/5.5 GHz bands. The antenna is successfully simulated and measured, showing triple bands can be obtained by using three different radiators and also indicating that the proposed antenna is suitable for the WiMAX/WLAN applications.

  13. Dual-Polarization, Multi-Frequency Antenna Array for use with Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in common aperture antenna technology were employed to utilize its proprietary genetic algorithmbased modeling tools in an effort to develop, build, and test a dual-polarization array for Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) applications. Final program results demonstrate the ability to achieve a lightweight, thin, higher-gain aperture that covers the desired spectral band. NASA employs various passive microwave and millimeter-wave instruments, such as spectral radiometers, for a range of remote sensing applications, from measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, to cosmic background emission. These instruments such as the HIRAD, SFMR (Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer), and LRR (Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer), provide unique data accumulation capabilities for observing sea surface wind, temperature, and rainfall, and significantly enhance the understanding and predictability of hurricane intensity. These microwave instruments require extremely efficient wideband or multiband antennas in order to conserve space on the airborne platform. In addition, the thickness and weight of the antenna arrays is of paramount importance in reducing platform drag, permitting greater time on station. Current sensors are often heavy, single- polarization, or limited in frequency coverage. The ideal wideband antenna will have reduced size, weight, and profile (a conformal construct) without sacrificing optimum performance. The technology applied to this new HIRAD array will allow NASA, NOAA, and other users to gather information related to hurricanes and other tropical storms more cost effectively without sacrificing sensor performance or the aircraft time on station. The results of the initial analysis and numerical design indicated strong potential for an antenna array that would satisfy all of the design requirements for a replacement HIRAD array. Multiple common aperture antenna methodologies were employed to achieve exceptional gain over the entire

  14. Information ethics in the context of smart devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roux, Brian; Falgoust, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we employ Extended Cognition as a background for a series of thought experiments about privacy and common used information technology devices. Laptops and smart phones are now widely used devices, but current privacy standards do not adequately address the relationship between the

  15. SmartInspect: Smart Contract Inspection Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bragagnolo , Santiago; Rocha , Henrique ,; Denker , Marcus; Ducasse , Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts are embedded procedures stored with the data they act upon. Debugging deployed Smart Contracts is a difficult task since once deployed, the code cannot be reexecuted and inspecting a simple attribute is not easily possible because data is encoded. In this technical report, we present SmartInspect to address the lack of inspectability of a deployed contract. Our solution analyses the contract state by using decompilation techniques and a mirror-based architecture to represent t...

  16. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sajid Khan; Mina Woo; Kichan Nam; Prakash K. Chathoth

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged o...

  17. Towards a smart learning environment for smart city governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, R.; Ludlow, D.; Computer Science and Creative Technology; Centre for Sustainable Planning

    2016-01-01

    Educational services provided to various stakeholders need to be actively developed to accommodate the diversity of learning models and to get the advantages of available resources (e.g. data) in smart cities governance. Despite the substantial literature on smart cities, for Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) and its related domains such as learning analytics and big data, little effort has been given to the creation of connectivity to smart cities governance to meet stakeholders’ demands, e...

  18. Determination of antenna factors using a three-antenna method at open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Hiroshi; Tejima, Teruo; Harima, Katsushige; Morikawa, Takao

    1992-09-01

    Recently NIST has used the three-antenna method for calibration of the antenna factor of an antenna used for EMI measurements. This method does not require the specially designed standard antennas which are necessary in the standard field method or the standard antenna method, and can be used at an open-field test site. This paper theoretically and experimentally examines the measurement errors of this method and evaluates the precision of the antenna-factor calibration. It is found that the main source of the error is the non-ideal propagation characteristics of the test site, which should therefore be measured before the calibration. The precision of the antenna-factor calibration at the test site used in these experiments, is estimated to be 0.5 dB.

  19. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.737 Section 74.737 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV...

  20. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be...

  1. 3D printed helical antenna with lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    of 3D and 2D inkjet printing of dielectric and metallic inks respectively, we demonstrate a Fresnel lens that has been monolithically integrated to a non-planar antenna (helix) for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the integration of a

  2. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate...

  3. Active patch antennas for transponder applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffi Gentili, G; Avitabile, G; Bonifacio, F; Salvador, C [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with two patch antenna structures that are mainly taught for short range link and non-contact identification system (RFID). The proposed antennas were developed by starting from an original concept of cross-polarization usefully applicable, in compliance with european for transponder applications are described and experimental results are reported.

  4. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  5. Antenna Design Exploiting the Duplex Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    A novel design addressing the antenna bandwidth issue for future communication standards on handsets is presented. It consists of a tunableantenna- pair for operation with a tunable front-end. The antennas are narrow-band and frequency-reconfigurable. This Letter focuses on the low communication ...

  6. Wireless SAW Sensors Having Integrated Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mark (Inventor); Malocha, Donald C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wireless surface acoustic wave sensor includes a piezoelectric substrate, a surface acoustic wave device formed on the substrate, and an antenna formed on the substrate. In some embodiments, the antenna is formed on the surface of the substrate using one or more of photolithography, thin film processing, thick film processing, plating, and printing.

  7. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  8. Smart learning services based on smart cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user's behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)--smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push--concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users' needs by collecting and analyzing users' behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users' behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  9. Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ik Yoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  10. The smart - development and technology; Der smart - Entwicklung und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goppelt, G.

    1999-06-01

    The smart is the first representative of a radically new vehicle concept, with minimum space requirements and trend-setting in terms of ecology, safety, and individualism. The new design is not rooted in any tradition. The contribution describes the development process and constructional features of the smart. [Deutsch] Der smart ist der erste Vertreter eines voellig neuen Fahrzeugkonzepts. Bei kleinstem Raumbedarf soll er neue Massstaebe bei Oekologie, Sicherheit und Individualitaet setzen. Entstanden ist eine konsequente Neukonstruktion, die sich von bisherigen Traditionen loest. In diesem Beitrag sind der Entwicklungsprozess sowie die Konstruktionsmerkmale des smart beschrieben. (orig.)

  11. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajid Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged over the past few years as a subset of the smart city concept, aiming to provide tourists with solutions that address specific travel related needs. Dubai is an emerging tourism destination that has implemented smart city and smart tourism platforms to engage various stakeholders. The objective of this study is to identify best practices related to Dubai’s smart city and smart tourism. In so doing, Dubai’s mission and vision along with key dimensions and pillars are identified in relation to the advancements in the literature while highlighting key resources and challenges. A Smart Tourism Dynamic Responsive System (STDRS framework is proposed while suggesting how Dubai may able to enhance users’ involvement and their overall experience.

  12. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  13. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  14. GPS Antenna Data Needed : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Workshop Volpe Center, Cambridge MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Topics. 1. Technical Objective: Receiver Antenna Mask and Electronics Data. 2. Definition of Receiver Antenna Mask. 3. Use of Receiver Antenna Mask. 4. Approaches to Generate the Antenna Mask. 5. Request for Receiver Antenna Data. 6. Next Steps.

  15. Interference suppression capabilities of smart cognitive-femto networks (SCFN)

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad; Atat, Rachad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Radios are considered a standard part of future heterogeneous mobile network architectures. In this chapter, a two tier heterogeneous network with multiple Radio Access Technologies (RATs) is considered, namely (1) the secondary network, which comprises of Cognitive-Femto BS (CFBS), and (2) the macrocell network, which is considered a primary network. By exploiting the cooperation among the CFBS, the multiple CFBS can be considered a single base station with multiple geographically dispersed antennas, which can reduce the interference levels by directing the main beam toward the desired femtocell mobile user. The resultant network is referred to as Smart Cognitive-Femto Network (SCFN). In order to determine the effectiveness of the proposed smart network, the interference rejection capabilities of the SCFN is studied. It has been shown that the smart network offers significant performance improvements in interference suppression and Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) and may be considered a promising solution to the interference management problems in future heterogeneous networks. © 2013, IGI Global.

  16. Reflectarray antennas theory, designs, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nayeri, Payam; Elsherbeni, Atef Z

    2018-01-01

    This book provides engineers with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in reflectarray antenna research and development. The authors describe, in detail, design procedures for a wide range of applications, including broadband, multi-band, multi-beam, contour-beam, beam-scanning, and conformal reflectarray antennas. They provide sufficient coverage of basic reflectarray theory to fully understand reflectarray antenna design and analysis such that the readers can pursue reflectarray research on their own. Throughout the book numerous illustrative design examples including numerical and experimental results are provided. Featuring in-depth theoretical analysis along with practical design examples, Reflectarray Antennas is an excellent text/reference for engineering graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field of antennas. It belongs on the bookshelves of university libraries, research institutes, and industrial labs and research facilities.

  17. Super wideband characteristics of monopolar patch antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple method of acquiring super wideband characteristics for monopolar patch antenna is proposed. Through adopting a modified cone as feeding and radiating structure, the monopolar patch antenna can reach the impedance bandwidth of more than 1:23.4 for voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR ≤ 2. In the whole operating band, the antenna has the like-monopole omnidirectional radiation patterns and the peak gains of 3.8–8.7 dB. Meanwhile, the height of the antenna is just 0.074λ(c, and the diameter of the radiated body is 0.205λ(c, which is smaller than other ultra-wideband omnidirectional antenna.

  18. Textile UWB Antenna Bending and Wet Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai A. R. Osman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vision and ideas of wearable computing systems describe future electronic systems as an integral part of our everyday clothing that provides the wearer with such intelligent personal assistants. Recently, there has been growing interest in the antenna community to merge between wearable systems technology, ultrawideband (UWB technology and textile technology. This work aimed to make closer steps towards real wearability by investigating the possibilities of designing wearable UWB antenna where textile materials are used for the substrate as well as the conducting parts of the designed antenna. Two types of conducting materials have been used for conducting parts, while a nonconducting fabric has been used as antenna substrate material. A set of comparative results of the proposed design were presented and discussed. Moreover, effects on the return loss by means of measurements for each fabricated antenna prototype under bent and fully wet conditions were discussed in more details.

  19. Present and future JET ICRF antennae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A.; Brown, T.; Bhatnagar, V.; Crawley, P.; Jacquinot, J.; Lobel, R.; Plancoulaine, J.; Rebut, P.H.; Wade, T.; Walker, C.

    1994-01-01

    Since the initial operation of the JET ICRF system in 1985, up to 22 MW has been coupled to the plasma, many heating scenarios have been demonstrated and the main technological problem of RF-specific impurity production overcome. Many developments of the antennae have taken place over this period, notably the replacement of the water-cooled nickel screens with indirectly cooled beryllium screens, and the forthcoming installation of eight new A2 antennae for operation during the pumped divertor phase of JET. The A2 antennae include enhanced provision for fast wave current drive experiments on JET. This paper describes the beryllium screens, the technological results from operation and subsequent inspection of these screens, the design of the A2 antennae and the results from high power RF testing of a model of the A2 antenna. (orig.)

  20. 5G MIMO Conformal Microstrip Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless communication technology, 5G will develop into a new generation of wireless mobile communication systems. MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output technology is expected to be one of the key technologies in the field of 5G wireless communications. In this paper, 4 pairs of microstrip MIMO conformal antennas of 35 GHz have been designed. Eight-element microstrip Taylor antenna array with series-feeding not only achieves the deviation of the main lobe of the pattern but also increases the bandwidth of the antenna array and reduces sidelobe. MIMO antennas have been fabricated and measured. Measurement results match the simulation results well. The return loss of the antenna at 35 GHz is better than 20 dB, the first sidelobe level is −16 dB, and the angle between the main lobe and the plane of array is 60°.

  1. Smart grid: hope or hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...

  2. Single-user MIMO versus multi-user MIMO in distributed antenna systems with limited feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Heath, Robert W.; Rupp, Markus

    2013-12-01

    This article investigates the performance of cellular networks employing distributed antennas in addition to the central antennas of the base station. Distributed antennas are likely to be implemented using remote radio units, which is enabled by a low latency and high bandwidth dedicated link to the base station. This facilitates coherent transmission from potentially all available antennas at the same time. Such distributed antenna system (DAS) is an effective way to deal with path loss and large-scale fading in cellular systems. DAS can apply precoding across multiple transmission points to implement single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO) and multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) transmission. The throughput performance of various SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO transmission strategies is investigated in this article, employing a Long-Term evolution (LTE) standard compliant simulation framework. The previously theoretically established cell-capacity improvement of MU-MIMO in comparison to SU-MIMO in DASs is confirmed under the practical constraints imposed by the LTE standard, even under the assumption of imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the base station. Because practical systems will use quantized feedback, the performance of different CSI feedback algorithms for DASs is investigated. It is shown that significant gains in the CSI quantization accuracy and in the throughput of especially MU-MIMO systems can be achieved with relatively simple quantization codebook constructions that exploit the available temporal correlation and channel gain differences.

  3. Antenna Correlation From Input Parameters for Arbitrary Topologies and Terminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The spatial correlation between pairs of antennas in a system comprised of N RF ports is found by extending the N × N scattering matrix to (N + 1)×(N + 1) spatial scattering matrix, where the extra space dimension accounts for the reference port patterns. The lossless property of the spatial...... scattering matrix in a 3D uniform field is employed for expressing the spatial correlation between the port patterns at arbitrary complex terminations merely from the reference scattering parameters and the complex terminations without any far-field calculation....

  4. Inkjet printing of novel wideband and high gain antennas on low-cost paper substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen; Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    for the UWB band which exhibits a significantly higher gain of up to 8 dBi as compared to the currently published inkjet printed antennas, and a novel slow-wave log periodic dipole array which employs a new miniaturization technique to show 20% width reduction

  5. 24-GHz LTCC Fractal Antenna Array SoP With Integrated Fresnel Lens

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Khalid, Muhammad Umair; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    A novel 24-GHz mixed low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) tape based system-on-package (SoP) is presented, which incorporates a fractal antenna array with an integrated grooved Fresnel lens. The four-element fractal array employs a relatively low

  6. Optimization of Antennas using a Hybrid Genetic-Algorithm Space-Mapping Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantoja, M.F.; Bretones, A.R.; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid global-local optimization technique for the design of antennas is presented. It consists of the subsequent application of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) that employs coarse models in the simulations and a space mapping (SM) that refines the solution found in the previous stage. The technique...

  7. A Hybrid Genetic-Algorithm Space-Mapping Tool for the Optimization of Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantoja, Mario Fernández; Meincke, Peter; Bretones, Amelia Rubio

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid global-local optimization technique for the design of antennas is presented. It consists of the subsequent application of a genetic algorithm (GA) that employs coarse models in the simulations and a space mapping (SM) that refines the solution found in the previous stage. The technique...

  8. Antenna complexes protect Photosystem I from Photoinhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboresi, Alessandro; Ballottari, Matteo; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosystems are composed of two moieties, a reaction center and a peripheral antenna system. In photosynthetic eukaryotes the latter system is composed of proteins belonging to Lhc family. An increasing set of evidences demonstrated how these polypeptides play a relevant physiological function in both light harvesting and photoprotection. Despite the sequence similarity between antenna proteins associated with the two Photosystems, present knowledge on their physiological role is mostly limited to complexes associated to Photosystem II. Results In this work we analyzed the physiological role of Photosystem I antenna system in Arabidopsis thaliana both in vivo and in vitro. Plants depleted in individual antenna polypeptides showed a reduced capacity for photoprotection and an increased production of reactive oxygen species upon high light exposure. In vitro experiments on isolated complexes confirmed that depletion of antenna proteins reduced the resistance of isolated Photosystem I particles to high light and that the antenna is effective in photoprotection only upon the interaction with the core complex. Conclusion We show that antenna proteins play a dual role in Arabidopsis thaliana Photosystem I photoprotection: first, a Photosystem I with an intact antenna system is more resistant to high light because of a reduced production of reactive oxygen species and, second, antenna chlorophyll-proteins are the first target of high light damages. When photoprotection mechanisms become insufficient, the antenna chlorophyll proteins act as fuses: LHCI chlorophylls are degraded while the reaction center photochemical activity is maintained. Differences with respect to photoprotection strategy in Photosystem II, where the reaction center is the first target of photoinhibition, are discussed. PMID:19508723

  9. Smart Energi i Hjemmet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael

    Med denne rapport foreligger en evaluering af det såkaldte SEIH-projekt: Smart Energi i Hjemmet. Projektet er gennemført i samarbejde med 191 husejere i Middelfart Kommune med formål at afsøge mulighederne for at opnå energibesparelser i enfamiliehuse ved at bruge automatik til at sænke temperatu......Med denne rapport foreligger en evaluering af det såkaldte SEIH-projekt: Smart Energi i Hjemmet. Projektet er gennemført i samarbejde med 191 husejere i Middelfart Kommune med formål at afsøge mulighederne for at opnå energibesparelser i enfamiliehuse ved at bruge automatik til at sænke...

  10. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  11. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  12. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  13. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  14. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    initiates notification to all personnel on the base, the giant voice announces a lock down, everyone’s smart device shows an alarm requesting...location of the detected sound, they easily find a hunter and send his picture back to the IOC, where the hunter’s identity is verified through facial...computer goes into sleep mode, the thermostat goes back to unoccupied mode and his door locks as he walks through. Meanwhile over in the IOC

  15. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  16. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  17. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  18. Smart nanomaterials for biomedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonmo; Tripathi, Anuj; Singh, Deepti

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology has become important in various disciplines of technology and science. It has proven to be a potential candidate for various applications ranging from biosensors to the delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to tissue engineering. Scaffolds for every application can be tailor made to have the appropriate physicochemical properties that will influence the in vivo system in the desired way. For highly sensitive and precise detection of specific signals or pathogenic markers, or for sensing the levels of particular analytes, fabricating target-specific nanomaterials can be very useful. Multi-functional nano-devices can be fabricated using different approaches to achieve multi-directional patterning in a scaffold with the ability to alter topographical cues at scale of less than or equal to 100 nm. Smart nanomaterials are made to understand the surrounding environment and act accordingly by either protecting the drug in hostile conditions or releasing the "payload" at the intended intracellular target site. All of this is achieved by exploiting polymers for their functional groups or incorporating conducting materials into a natural biopolymer to obtain a "smart material" that can be used for detection of circulating tumor cells, detection of differences in the body analytes, or repair of damaged tissue by acting as a cell culture scaffold. Nanotechnology has changed the nature of diagnosis and treatment in the biomedical field, and this review aims to bring together the most recent advances in smart nanomaterials.

  19. Integrated smart structures wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Solomon H.

    1993-09-01

    One objective of smart structures development is to demonstrate the ability of a mechanical component to monitor its own structural integrity and health. Achievement of this objective requires the integration of different technologies, i.e.: (1) structures, (2) sensors, and (3) artificial intelligence. We coordinated a team of experts from these three fields. These experts used reliable knowledge towards the forefront of their technologies and combined the appropriate features into an integrated hardware/software smart structures wingbox (SSW) test article. A 1/4 in. hole was drilled into the SSW test article. Although the smart structure had never seen damage of this type, it correctly recognized and located the damage. Based on a knowledge-based simulation, quantification and assessment were also carried out. We have demonstrated that the SSW integrated hardware & software test article can perform six related functions: (1) identification of a defect; (2) location of the defect; (3) quantification of the amount of damage; (4) assessment of performance degradation; (5) continued monitoring in spite of damage; and (6) continuous recording of integrity data. We present the successful results of the integrated test article in this paper, along with plans for future development and deployment of the technology.

  20. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  1. Microbial Biofilm as a Smart Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Christian; Welch, Martin; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilm colonies will in many cases form a smart material capable of responding to external threats dependent on their size and internal state. The microbial community accordingly switches between passive, protective, or attack modes of action. In order to decide which strategy to employ......, it is essential for the biofilm community to be able to sense its own size. The sensor designed to perform this task is termed a quorum sensor, since it only permits collective behaviour once a sufficiently large assembly of microbes have been established. The generic quorum sensor construct involves two genes...

  2. Wearable Smart System for Visually Impaired People

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jasim Ramadhan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a wearable smart system to help visually impaired persons (VIPs) walk by themselves through the streets, navigate in public places, and seek assistance. The main components of the system are a microcontroller board, various sensors, cellular communication and GPS modules, and a solar panel. The system employs a set of sensors to track the path and alert the user of obstacles in front of them. The user is alerted by a sound emitted through a buzzer and by vibrations o...

  3. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  4. Design and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Tag Antenna for Mounting on or inside Material Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai

    There is great desire to employ passive UHF RFID tags for inventory tracking and sensing in a diversity of applications and environments. Owing to its battery-free operation, non-line-of sight detection, low cost, long read range and small form factor, each year billions of RFID tags are being deployed in retail, logistics, manufacturing, biomedical inventories, among many other applications. However, the performance of these RFID systems has not met expectations. This is because a tag's performance deteriorates significantly when mounted on or inside arbitrary materials. The tag antenna is optimized only for a given type of material at a certain location of placement, and detuning takes place when attached to or embedded in materials with dielectric properties outside the design range. Thereby, different customized tags may be needed for identifying objects even within the same class of products. This increases the overall cost of the system. Furthermore, conventional copper foil-based RFID tag antennas are prone to metal fatigue and wear, and cannot survive hostile environments where antennas could be deformed by external forces and failures occur. Therefore, it is essential to understand the interaction between the antenna and the material in the vicinity of the tag, and design general purpose RFID tag antennas possessing excellent electrical performance as well as robust mechanical structure. A particularly challenging application addressed here is designing passive RFID tag antennas for automotive tires. Tires are composed of multiple layers of rubber with different dielectric properties and thicknesses. Furthermore, metallic plies are embedded in the sidewalls and steel belts lie beneath the tread to enforce mechanical integrity. To complicate matters even more, a typical tire experiences a 10% stretching during the construction process. This dissertation focuses on intuitively understanding the interaction between the antenna and the material in the

  5. The role of smart home in smart real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allameh, E.; Heidari Jozam, M.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Beetz, J.; Mozaffar, F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review an emerging type of dwelling, indicated as Smart Home, with a focus on future user lifestyles and needs. Trends toward sustainability and technological changes dramatically alter the concepts of Smart Home. Consequently, real estate decisions are

  6. Design of silicon-based fractal antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2012-11-20

    This article presents Sierpinski carpet fractal antennas implemented in conventional low resistivity (Ï =10 Ω cm) as well as high resistivity (Ï =1500 Ω cm) silicon mediums. The fractal antenna is 36% smaller as compared with a typical patch antenna at 24 GHz and provides 13% bandwidth on high resistivity silicon, suitable for high data rate applications. For the first time, an on-chip fractal antenna array is demonstrated in this work which provides double the gain of a single fractal element as well as enhanced bandwidth. A custom test fixture is utilized to measure the radiation pattern and gain of these probe-fed antennas. In addition to gain and impedance characterization, measurements have also been made to study intrachip communication through these antennas. The comparison between the low resistivity and high resistivity antennas indicate that the former is not a suitable medium for array implementation and is only suitable for short range communication whereas the latter is appropriate for short and medium range wireless communication. The design is well-suited for compact, high data rate System-on-Chip (SoC) applications as well as for intrachip communication such as wireless global clock distribution in synchronous systems. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 55:180-186, 2013; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.27245 Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Design of silicon-based fractal antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    This article presents Sierpinski carpet fractal antennas implemented in conventional low resistivity (Ï =10 Ω cm) as well as high resistivity (Ï =1500 Ω cm) silicon mediums. The fractal antenna is 36% smaller as compared with a typical patch antenna at 24 GHz and provides 13% bandwidth on high resistivity silicon, suitable for high data rate applications. For the first time, an on-chip fractal antenna array is demonstrated in this work which provides double the gain of a single fractal element as well as enhanced bandwidth. A custom test fixture is utilized to measure the radiation pattern and gain of these probe-fed antennas. In addition to gain and impedance characterization, measurements have also been made to study intrachip communication through these antennas. The comparison between the low resistivity and high resistivity antennas indicate that the former is not a suitable medium for array implementation and is only suitable for short range communication whereas the latter is appropriate for short and medium range wireless communication. The design is well-suited for compact, high data rate System-on-Chip (SoC) applications as well as for intrachip communication such as wireless global clock distribution in synchronous systems. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 55:180-186, 2013; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.27245 Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Scalable Notch Antenna System for Multiport Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim Toktas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and compact scalable antenna system is designed for multiport applications. The basic design is built on a square patch with an electrical size of 0.82λ0×0.82λ0 (at 2.4 GHz on a dielectric substrate. The design consists of four symmetrical and orthogonal triangular notches with circular feeding slots at the corners of the common patch. The 4-port antenna can be simply rearranged to 8-port and 12-port systems. The operating band of the system can be tuned by scaling (S the size of the system while fixing the thickness of the substrate. The antenna system with S: 1/1 in size of 103.5×103.5 mm2 operates at the frequency band of 2.3–3.0 GHz. By scaling the antenna with S: 1/2.3, a system of 45×45 mm2 is achieved, and thus the operating band is tuned to 4.7–6.1 GHz with the same scattering characteristic. A parametric study is also conducted to investigate the effects of changing the notch dimensions. The performance of the antenna is verified in terms of the antenna characteristics as well as diversity and multiplexing parameters. The antenna system can be tuned by scaling so that it is applicable to the multiport WLAN, WIMAX, and LTE devices with port upgradability.

  9. Validating and comparing GNSS antenna calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ulla; Koivula, Hannu; Lahtinen, Sonja; Nikkonen, Ville; Poutanen, Markku

    2018-03-01

    GNSS antennas have no fixed electrical reference point. The variation of the phase centre is modelled and tabulated in antenna calibration tables, which include the offset vector (PCO) and phase centre variation (PCV) for each frequency according to the elevations and azimuths of the incoming signal. Used together, PCV and PCO reduce the phase observations to the antenna reference point. The remaining biases, called the residual offsets, can be revealed by circulating and rotating the antennas on pillars. The residual offsets are estimated as additional parameters when combining the daily GNSS network solutions with full covariance matrix. We present a procedure for validating the antenna calibration tables. The dedicated test field, called Revolver, was constructed at Metsähovi. We used the procedure to validate the calibration tables of 17 antennas. Tables from the IGS and three different calibration institutions were used. The tests show that we were able to separate the residual offsets at the millimetre level. We also investigated the influence of the calibration tables from the different institutions on site coordinates by performing kinematic double-difference baseline processing of the data from one site with different antenna tables. We found small but significant differences between the tables.

  10. Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) for veterans with traumatic brain injury: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Jak, Amy J; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W; Lohr, James B

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive impairments and persistent postconcussive symptoms that limit functional recovery, including return to work. We evaluated a 12 wk compensatory cognitive training intervention (Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy [CogSMART]) in the context of supported employment for Veterans with mild to moderate TBI. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of supported employment plus CogSMART or enhanced supported employment that controlled for therapist attention (control). CogSMART sessions were delivered by the employment specialist and included psychoeducation regarding TBI; strategies to improve sleep, fatigue, headaches, and tension; and compensatory cognitive strategies in the domains of prospective memory, attention, learning and memory, and executive functioning. Compared with controls, those assigned to supported employment plus CogSMART demonstrated significant reductions in postconcussive symptoms (Cohen d = 0.97) and improvements in prospective memory functioning (Cohen d = 0.72). Effect sizes favoring CogSMART for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depressive symptom severity, and attainment of competitive work within 14 wk were in the small to medium range (Cohen d = 0.35-0.49). Those who received CogSMART rated the intervention highly. Results suggest that adding CogSMART to supported employment may improve postconcussive symptoms and prospective memory. These effects, as well as smaller effects on psychiatric symptoms and ability to return to work, warrant replication in a larger trial.

  11. SMART-NPA evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, G. H.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWt integral reactor which is currently under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for desalination and electricity generation. SMART-NPA is the second user interface part of TASS/SMR in order to improve GUI(Graphic User Interface). Using SMART-NPA the analyzer not only can see the running status of SMART but make change of major SMART parameters. TASS/SMR, the calculation part, was written in Fortran whereas the first user interface part, called TASSWin, was written in Visual C{sup ++}. For these reason, the ActiveX control was chosen as the solution of SMART-NPA development. The five ActiveX controls were built in Visual Basic. They were Overview, Primary, Secondary, PRHRS and Control Panel ActiveX controls. They were contained in tab control, and can easily selected by user. They could communicate with TASSWin using many interface functions. The graph screens were also developed for the display of major variable's trend. The purpose of this report is the verification of SMART-NPA. The input decks were 100-200-100% power maneuvering operation, Feed Line Break Accident and user's input on Control Panel. The results of SMART-NPA for these cases were compared with the results of TASS/SMR stand alone version. The comparison results were same respectively. And all screens of SMART-NPA reflected the calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was verified. 9 refs., 30 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  12. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Asensio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  13. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Ángel; Blanco, Teresa; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto

    2015-06-18

    In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things) could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  14. CPW to CPS transition for feeding UWB antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butrym, Alexander; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers a transition (balun) from Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) to Coplanar Stripline (CPS) which is non-resonant and suitable for feeding UWB antennas such as Tapered Slot Antennas (Vivaldi antennas in particular), bow-tie antennas, and other. Some numerical and experimental results...

  15. CPW to CPS transition for feeding UWB antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butrym, Alexander; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    The paper considers a transition (balun) from Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) to Coplanar Stripline (CPS) which is non-resonant and suitable for feeding UWB antennas such as Tapered Slot Antennas (Vivaldi antennas, in particular), bow-tie antennas, and other. Some numerical and experimental results...

  16. Logo Antenna for 5.8 GHz Wireless Communications (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A logo antenna for the 5.8 GHz ISM band is presented. The idea behind the logo antenna is to use the company or university logo as part of the antenna. When disguised as a logo, it may be more acceptable to place the antenna at optimal locations to obtain good coverage. In the present work...

  17. Logo Antenna for 5.8 GHz Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A logo antenna for the 5.8 GHz ISM band is presented. The idea behind the logo antenna is to use the company or university logo as part of the antenna. When disguised as a logo, it may be more acceptable to place the antenna at optimal locations to obtain good coverage. In the present work...

  18. Aerogel-Based Antennas for Aerospace and Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann (Inventor); Miranda, Felix (Inventor); Van Keuls, Frederick (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for lightweight, customizable antenna with improved performance and mechanical properties are disclosed. In some aspects, aerogels can be used, for example, as a substrate for antenna fabrication. The reduced weight and expense, as well as the increased ability to adapt antenna designs, permits a systems to mitigate a variety of burdens associated with antennas while providing added benefits.

  19. 47 CFR 73.54 - Antenna resistance and reactance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna resistance and reactance measurements... measurements. (a) The resistance of an omnidirectional series fed antenna is measured at either the base of the... the point of common radiofrequency input to the directional antenna system after the antenna has been...

  20. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  1. Rectifying antenna and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Shekhar (Inventor); Buckle, Kenneth (Inventor); Goswami, D. Yogi (Inventor); Stefanakos, Elias (Inventor); Weller, Thomas (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an aperture rectenna is provided where the substrate is transparent and of sufficient mechanical strength to support the fabricated structure above it. An aperture antenna is deposited on the transparent substrate and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode is constructed on top of the aperture antenna. There is an insulating layer between the aperture antenna metal and the metal ground plane optimized to maximize the collection of incident radiation. The top of the structure is capped with a metal ground plane layer, which also serves as the DC connection points for each rectenna element.

  2. FDTD simulation tools for UWB antenna analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of software tools useful for analyzing ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and structures. These tools are used to perform finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of a conical antenna with continuous wave (CW) and UWB pulsed excitations. The antenna is analyzed using spherical coordinate-based FDTD equations that are derived from first principles. The simulation results for CW excitation are compared to simulation and measured results from published sources; the results for UWB excitation are new.

  3. FDTD simulation tools for UWB antenna analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of software tools useful for analyzing ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and structures. These tools are used to perform finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of a conical antenna with continuous wave (CW) and UWB pulsed excitations. The antenna is analyzed using spherical coordinate-based FDTD equations that are derived from first principles. The simulation results for CW excitation are compared to simulation and measured results from published sources; the results for UWB excitation are new.

  4. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  5. MIMO Communication Using Single Feed Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama

    Multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) communication has emerged as a promis- ing technology for meeting the increasing demand on higher data rates. The technology exploits the spatial resource dimension by sending the datas- treams to different locations in the multi element array (MEA) domain while...... conventionally to a single antenna element while mod- ulating the other datastreams in the analogue RF domain, using simple switched antenna systems (SAS) or sophisticated reactance-assisted antenna systems. The use of a SAS is found simple to implement, but can hardly handle high order signal formats...

  6. Implanted Antennas in Medical Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Balanis, Constantine

    2006-01-01

    Implanted Antennas in Medical Wireless Communications summarizes the results of recent research activities on the subject of implanted antennas for medical wireless communication systems. It is anticipated that in the near future sophisticated medical devices will be implanted inside the human body for medical telemetry and telemedicine. To establish effective and efficient wireless links with these devices, it is pivotal to give special attention to antenna designs that are low profile, small, safe, and cost effective. In this book, authors Yahya Rahmat-Samii and Jaehoon Kim demonstrate how a

  7. The principles of radio engineering and antennas. II Antennas (2nd revised and enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, G. B.

    This book represents the second part of a textbook for technical schools. The characteristics and parameters of antennas are considered along with transmission lines, the theory of single dipoles and radiator systems, and the technological realization of elements and units of the antenna-feeder system, taking into account filters and multiport networks for microwave communications applications, and ferrite circulators and isolators. The first edition of this textbook was published in 1969. For the current edition, the material in the first edition has been revised, and new material has been introduced. Much attention is given to microwave antennas, including, in particular, arrays with electrical scanning characteristics. Other topics discussed are related to the general principles of antennas, the matching of the impedance of transmission lines, the elements of transmission lines, aperture-type antennas for microwaves, and the functional characteristics of antennas for ultrashort waves.

  8. Optimal Sizing and Sitting of Smart Microgrid Units under Pool Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakimi, Seyed Mehdi; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    , reliability cost, power loss cost and selling and buying electricity cost. The new idea of this paper is the investigation of pool electricity market aspects in optimization of smart microgrid. On the other hand, cost minimization of smart microgrid is related to their bidding strategies. Therefore two...... different optimization tools are considered. First, a game-theoretical (GT) model has been used for bidding strategy of smart microgrid as a price-maker, in a long-term electricity market. Secondly, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to obtain the best cost value of smart microgrids...... construction. This study was performed for the Ekbatan residential complex in Tehran, Iran. It has three smart microgrids consist of renewable energy resources. They participate in a long-term electricity market as a price maker. The results show that the proposed method is more effective and has lower cost...

  9. A Fast Adaptive Receive Antenna Selection Method in MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenna selection has been regarded as an effective method to acquire the diversity benefits of multiple antennas while potentially reduce hardware costs. This paper focuses on receive antenna selection. According to the proportion between the numbers of total receive antennas and selected antennas and the influence of each antenna on system capacity, we propose a fast adaptive antenna selection algorithm for wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems. Mathematical analysis and numerical results show that our algorithm significantly reduces the computational complexity and memory requirement and achieves considerable system capacity gain compared with the optimal selection technique in the same time.

  10. Compact antennas for wireless communications and terminals theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Laheurte, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Compact Antennas for Wireless Communications and Terminals deals with compact microwave antennas and, more specifically, with the planar version of these antennas. Planar antennas are the most appropriate type of antenna in modern communication systems and more generally in all applications requiring miniaturization, integration and conformation such as in mobile phone handsets.The book is suitable for students, engineers and scientists eager to understand the principles of planar and small antennas, their design and fabrication issues, and modern aspects such as UWB antennas, recon

  11. Low-Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    Three novel electrically small antenna configurations radiating a TE10 spherical mode corresponding to a magnetic dipole are presented and investigated: multiarm spherical helix (MSH) antenna, spherical split ring resonator (S-SRR) antenna, and spherical split ring (SSR) antenna. All three antennas...... are self-resonant, with the input resistance tuned to 50 ohms by an excitation curved dipole/monopole. A prototype of the SSR antenna has been fabricated and measured, yielding results that are consistent with the numerical simulations. Radiation quality factors (Q) of these electrically small antennas (in...

  12. Who will buy smart glasses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauschnabel, Philipp; Brem, Alexander; Ivens, Bjørn S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent market studies reveal that augmented reality (AR) devices, such as smart glasses, will substantially influence the media landscape. Yet, little is known about the intended adoption of smart glasses, particularly: Who are the early adopters of such wearables? We contribute to the growing bo...

  13. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  14. Design considerations for smart microgrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattjes, F.D.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable transition towards a smarter electricity system with an emphasis on decentralized systems and additional functionalities will be facilitated in the near future by smart (micro) grids. Smart (micro) Grids are very complex systems which must be developed in an efficient, effective and

  15. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  16. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  17. What is smart for retailing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, Eleonora; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    While the last decade has seen increasing interest in the smart city phenomenon from both scholars and practitioners, little attention has been paid to what extent retailing might be considered as part of smart cities, with benefits for all the actors involved in the process. In fact, retailing is

  18. Smart Cards and remote entrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussel, Jean-Daniel; D'Annoville, Jerome; Castillo, Laurent; Durand, Stephane; Fabre, Thierry; Lu, Karen; Ali, Asad

    Smart cards are widely used to provide security in end-to-end communication involving servers and a variety of terminals, including mobile handsets or payment terminals. Sometime, end-to-end server to smart card security is not applicable, and smart cards must communicate directly with an application executing on a terminal, like a personal computer, without communicating with a server. In this case, the smart card must somehow trust the terminal application before performing some secure operation it was designed for. This paper presents a novel method to remotely trust a terminal application from the smart card. For terminals such as personal computers, this method is based on an advanced secure device connected through the USB and consisting of a smart card bundled with flash memory. This device, or USB dongle, can be used in the context of remote untrusting to secure portable applications conveyed in the dongle flash memory. White-box cryptography is used to set the secure channel and a mechanism based on thumbprint is described to provide external authentication when session keys need to be renewed. Although not as secure as end-to-end server to smart card security, remote entrusting with smart cards is easy to deploy for mass-market applications and can provide a reasonable level of security.

  19. Wireless communication capability of a reconfigurable plasma antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Bora, Dhiraj

    2011-01-01

    A 30 cm long plasma column is excited by a surface wave, which acts as a plasma antenna. Using plasma properties (pattern formation/striations in plasmas) single plasma antenna can be transformed into array, helical, and spiral plasma antenna. Experiments are carried out to study the power patterns, directivity, and half power beam width of such different plasma antennas. Moreover, field properties of plasma and copper antenna are studied. Further, wireless communication and jamming capability of plasma antenna are tested. Findings of this study suggest that directivity and communication range can be increased by converting single plasma antenna in to array/helical/spiral plasma antenna. Field frequencies of plasma antenna determine the communication and jamming of radio frequency waves. Therefore, this study invokes applications of pattern formation or striations of plasmas in plasma antenna technology.

  20. Fluorescence Enhancement Factors on Optical Antennas: Enlarging the Experimental Values without Changing the Antenna Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Wenger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic antennas offer promising opportunities to control the emission of quantum objects. As a consequence, the fluorescence enhancement factor is widely used as a figure of merit for a practical antenna realization. However, the fluorescence enhancement factor is not an intrinsic property of the antenna. It critically depends on several parameters, some of which are often disregarded. In this contribution, I explore the influence of the setup collection efficiency, emitter's quantum yield, and excitation intensity. Improperly setting these parameters may significantly alter the enhancement values, leading to potential misinterpretations. The discussion is illustrated by an antenna example of a nanoaperture surrounded by plasmonic corrugations.