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Sample records for emotional state impact

  1. Emotional state and its impact on voice authentication accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznak, Miroslav; Partila, Pavol; Penhaker, Marek; Peterek, Tomas; Tomala, Karel; Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub

    2013-05-01

    The paper deals with the increasing accuracy of voice authentication methods. The developed algorithm first extracts segmental parameters, such as Zero Crossing Rate, the Fundamental Frequency and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients from voice. Based on these parameters, the neural network classifier detects the speaker's emotional state. These parameters shape the distribution of neurons in Kohonen maps, forming clusters of neurons on the map characterizing a particular emotional state. Using regression analysis, we can calculate the function of the parameters of individual emotional states. This relationship increases voice authentication accuracy and prevents unjust rejection.

  2. Autobiographically recalled emotional states impact forward gait initiation as a function of motivational direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawver, Bradley; Hass, Chris J; Park, Kyoungshin D; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    The impact of self-generated affective states on self-initiated motor behavior remains unspecified. The purpose of the current study was to determine how self-generated emotional states impact forward gait initiation. Participants recalled past emotional experiences (anger, fear, happy, sad, and neutral), "relived" those emotional memories before gait initiation (GI), and then walked ∼4 m across the laboratory floor. Kinetic and kinematic data revealed GI characteristics consistent with a motivational direction hypothesis. Specifically, participants produced greater posterior-lateral displacement and velocity of their center of pressure (COP) during the initial phase of GI after self-generation of happy and anger emotional states relative to sad ones. During the second phase of GI, greater medial displacement of COP was found during the happy condition compared with sad, greater velocity was occasioned during happy and angry trials compared with sad, and greater velocity was exhibited after happy compared with fear memories. Finally, greater anterior velocity was produced by participants during the final phase of GI for happy and angry memories compared with sad ones. Steady state kinetic and kinematic data when recalling happy and angry memories (longer, faster, and more forceful stepping behavior) followed the anticipatory postural adjustments noted during GI. Together the results from GI and steady state gait provide robust evidence that self-generated emotional states impact forward gait behavior based on motivational direction. Endogenous manipulations of emotional states hold promise for clinical and performance interventions aimed at improving self-initiated movement.

  3. Embracing your emotions: affective state impacts lateralisation of human embraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packheiser, Julian; Rook, Noemi; Dursun, Zeynep; Mesenhöller, Janne; Wenglorz, Alrescha; Güntürkün, Onur; Ocklenburg, Sebastian

    2018-01-18

    Humans are highly social animals that show a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviours to communicate social intent. One of the most frequently used non-verbal social behaviours is embracing, commonly used as an expression of love and affection. However, it can also occur in a large variety of social situations entailing negative (fear or sadness) or neutral emotionality (formal greetings). Embracing is also experienced from birth onwards in mother-infant interactions and is thus accompanying human social interaction across the whole lifespan. Despite the importance of embraces for human social interactions, their underlying neurophysiology is unknown. Here, we demonstrated in a well-powered sample of more than 2500 adults that humans show a significant rightward bias during embracing. Additionally, we showed that this general motor preference is strongly modulated by emotional contexts: the induction of positive or negative affect shifted the rightward bias significantly to the left, indicating a stronger involvement of right-hemispheric neural networks during emotional embraces. In a second laboratory study, we were able to replicate both of these findings and furthermore demonstrated that the motor preferences during embracing correlate with handedness. Our studies therefore not only show that embracing is controlled by an interaction of motor and affective networks, they also demonstrate that emotional factors seem to activate right-hemispheric systems in valence-invariant ways.

  4. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  5. The Impact of Anxious and Calm Emotional States on Color Usage in Pre-Drawn Mandalas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Andrea; van der Vennet, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this single-subject experiment was to test whether a link exists between emotional state and color usage in a common art therapy technique. The researchers hypothesized that when coloring a pre-drawn mandala, participants would choose warm colors when they were anxious and cool colors when they were calm. The non-random sample…

  6. Seeing Red, Feeling Blue: The Impact of State Political Leaning on State Identification Rates for Emotional Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrew; Siperstein, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of why students with emotional disturbance (ED) are underidentified in special education have often focused on economic factors and problems with the definition of ED. The present study focuses on variation in underidentification across states and its relationship to political ideology. State-level political, economic, and…

  7. States, Traits, and Dispositions: The Impact of Emotion on Writing Development and Writing Transfer across College Courses and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Dana Lynn; Powell, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from a five-year longitudinal data set following thirteen college writers through undergraduate writing and beyond, we explore the impact of students' emotions and emotional dispositions on their ability to transfer writing knowledge and on their overall writing development. Participants experienced a range of emotions concerning their…

  8. Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi Giuseppe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It

  9. The Impact of Multiple Concussions on Emotional Distress, Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Active Duty United States Marines Independent of Combat Exposure or Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat. PMID:25003552

  10. The impact of different emotional states on the memory for what, where and when features of specific events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Totzeck, Christina; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Emotions can modulate the encoding and recollection of personal events. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different emotional states (pleasant, neutral or anxious) on episodic memory formation in a virtual reality (VR) setting. Emotional states were induced by pleasant, neutral or anxiety-inducing movie clips prior to the presentation of specific events in a VR scenario. Episodic memory performance of healthy participants in whom an anxious emotional state had been induced was inferior to those of the neutral and pleasant conditions. In the anxious condition, participants were particularly impaired regarding their memory for the location of events. A correlational analysis indicated that high levels of negative arousal were associated with poor memory for the temporal and spatial context of events. In contrast, high levels of happiness were associated with better memory for the spatial context of events. Our data provide evidence that emotional arousal can modulate memory for what happened, where and when. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Impact of Emotion on Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Jønsson, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion...... and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced......-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative) and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms) we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold) processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results...

  12. Interaction between emotional state and learning underlies mood instability

    OpenAIRE

    Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotion...

  13. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  14. Dynamic Influence of Emotional States on Novel Word Learning

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    Guo, Jingjing; Zou, Tiantian; Peng, Danling

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers realize that it's unrealistic to isolate language learning and processing from emotions. However, few studies on language learning have taken emotions into consideration so far, so that the probable influences of emotions on language learning are unclear. The current study thereby aimed to examine the effects of emotional states on novel word learning and their dynamic changes with learning continuing and task varying. Positive, negative or neutral pictures were employed to induce a given emotional state, and then participants learned the novel words through association with line-drawing pictures in four successive learning phases. At the end of each learning phase, participants were instructed to fulfill a semantic category judgment task (in Experiment 1) or a word-picture semantic consistency judgment task (in Experiment 2) to explore the effects of emotional states on different depths of word learning. Converging results demonstrated that negative emotional state led to worse performance compared with neutral condition; however, how positive emotional state affected learning varied with learning task. Specifically, a facilitative role of positive emotional state in semantic category learning was observed but disappeared in word specific meaning learning. Moreover, the emotional modulation on novel word learning was quite dynamic and changeable with learning continuing, and the final attainment of the learned words tended to be similar under different emotional states. The findings suggest that the impact of emotion can be offset when novel words became more and more familiar and a part of existent lexicon. PMID:29695994

  15. Emotion through locomotion: gender impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Krüger

    Full Text Available Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass females in recognition accuracy and readiness to respond to happy walking portrayed by female actors, whereas females exhibit a tendency to be better in recognition of hostile angry locomotion expressed by male actors. In contrast to widespread beliefs about female superiority in social cognition, the findings suggest that gender effects in recognition of emotions from human locomotion are modulated by emotional content of actions and opposite actor gender. In a nutshell, the study makes a further step in elucidation of gender impact on body language reading and on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric deficits in visual social cognition.

  16. Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

    2014-05-01

    Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

  17. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

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    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  18. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-06-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  19. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

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    Joaquín T. Limonero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure Emotional Inteligence (EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 minutes and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the STAI-S, POMS-A, and EI was assessed by MSCEIT. At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by 9 pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation.

  20. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

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    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  1. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  2. Emotion through Locomotion: Gender Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Kr?ger, Samuel; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Enck, Paul; Kr?geloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass fema...

  3. Identifying at-risk states beyond positive symptoms: a brief task assessing how neurocognitive impairments impact on misrepresentation of the social world through blunted emotional appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, Mariana; Simons, Claudia J P; Wichers, Marieke; Fernandez-Rivas, Aranzazu; Martinez-Azumendi, Oscar; Lataster, Tineke; Amer, Guillermo; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; van Os, Jim

    2011-10-01

    Neurocognitive impairments observed in psychotic disorder may impact on emotion recognition and theory of mind, resulting in altered understanding of the social world. Early intervention efforts would be served by further elucidation of this mechanism. Patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30) and a reference control group (n=310) were asked to offer emotional appraisals of images of social situations (EASS task). The degree to which case-control differences in appraisals were mediated by neurocognitive alterations was analyzed. The EASS task displayed convergent and discriminant validity. Compared to controls, patients displayed blunted emotional appraisal of social situations (B=0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74, Ppsychotic disorder may underlie misrepresentation of the social world, mediated by altered emotion recognition. A task assessing the social impact of cognitive alterations in clinical practice may be useful in detecting key alterations very early in the course of psychotic illness.

  4. The social impact of emotional tears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van de Ven, N.; van der Velden, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The question what specific functions the production of emotional tears fulfills has received only limited attention of behavioral scientists. We report the results of two studies on the social impact of emotional tears. In Study 1 (96 Dutch females), perceived helplessness and felt connectedness

  5. Identifying at-risk states beyond positive symptoms: a brief task assessing how neurocognitive impairments impact on misrepresentation of the social world through blunted emotional appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Galdos,Mariana; Simons,Claudia J.P.; Wichers,Marieke; Fernandez-Rivas,Aranzazu; Martinez-Azumendi,Oscar; Lataster,Tineke; Amer,Guillermo; Myin-Germeys,Inez; Gonzalez-Torres,Miguel Angel; Os,Jim van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive impairments observed in psychotic disorder may impact on emotion recognition and theory of mind, resulting in altered understanding of the social world. Early intervention efforts would be served by further elucidation of this mechanism. METHOD: Patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30) and a reference control group (n=310) were asked to offer emotional appraisals of images of social situations (EASS task). The degree to which case-control differences in appraisals w...

  6. Embodied Appraisals and Non-emotional States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2010), s. 215-223 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB900090802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : embodied appraisal * non-emotional mental states * valence * emotion Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. The Influence of Emotional State and Pictorial Cues on Perceptual Judgments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly R. Raddatz; Abigail Werth; Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-10-01

    Perspective displays (e.g., CDTI) are commonly used as decision aids in environments characterized by periods of high emotional arousal (e.g., terrain enhanced primary flight displays). However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how emotional state, independently or in conjunction with other perceptual factors (e.g., pictorial depth cues), can impact perceptual judgments. Preliminary research suggests that induced emotional state (positive or negative) adversely impacts size comparisons in perspective displays (Tran & Raddatz, 2006). This study further investigated how size comparisons are affected by emotional state and pictorial depth cues while attenuating the limitations of the Tran & Raddatz (2006) study. Results confirmed that observers do make slower judgments under induced emotional state. However, observers under negative emotional state showed higher sensitivity (d’) and required more evidence to respond that a size difference exists (response bias) than observers under positive emotional state. Implications for display design and human performance are discussed.

  8. Be Cool with Academic Stress: The Association between Emotional States and Regulatory Strategies among Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Biao; Pan, Tingting; Deng, Xinmei; Zhao, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that academic stress has negative impact on adolescents' psychological function, few of those studies, however, considered whether and how the impact of stress on adolescents' emotional states is moderated by corresponding regulation. This study aimed to examine the fluctuation of emotional states before and after…

  9. Impact of emotional intelligence on job performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanca Krajnc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RQ: To determine whether emotional intelligence has an impact on motivation and how this can affect work performance.Purpose: High work performance of individuals in an organization can be achieved with a high level of motivation that is directly derived from emotional intelligence. Because the impact of emotional intelligence in organizations is under-researched and is not sufficiently included in the scope of management, there is a need tofurther explore this topic.Method: Qualitative analysis in the form of interviews and quantitative analysis in the form of a survey was used in this study. Details of interviews with employees were analyzed according to the rules of qualitative methods. The data obtained in the survey were analyzed with a chi-square test.Results: The results showed that emotional intelligence has a significant impact on motivation and that emotionally motivated person works more and better.Organization: Management can take these research findings into consideration during the human resources management process, and in the procedures of a comprehensive development of individual’s personal potential. The result of the research findings can be used bymanagement, supervisors, and all employees as a method to establish better motivational climate.Society: With a similar, but wider purpose, the findings of this research can be taken into account in the wider social environment, particularly in the field of public administration and media.Originality: In Slovenian organizations, research on this topic and in this combination has not yet been performed.Limitations: The sample is small and limited to only one major successful Slovenian company. It takes into account only the influence of motivation that comes from emotional intelligence.

  10. Desired emotional states: their nature, causes, and implications for emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Maya; Gutentag, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Emotion regulation is a process directed toward achieving desired emotions. People want to experience different emotions at different times and for different reasons, leading them to change emotions accordingly. Research on desired emotions has made several discoveries. First, what people want to feel varies across individuals and across situations. Second, what people want to feel depends on how much they value emotions and on the extent to which they expect emotions to yield behavioral, social, or epistemic benefits. Third, what people want to feel sets the direction of emotion regulation and can shape emotional experiences and subsequent behavior. Identifying and understanding desired emotional states can promote healthier emotion regulation and emotional experiences, and more adaptive personal and social functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed.

  12. Artificial emotional model based on finite state machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-mei; WU Wei-guo

    2008-01-01

    According to the basic emotional theory, the artificial emotional model based on the finite state machine(FSM) was presented. In finite state machine model of emotion, the emotional space included the basic emotional space and the multiple emotional spaces. The emotion-switching diagram was defined and transition function was developed using Markov chain and linear interpolation algorithm. The simulation model was built using Stateflow toolbox and Simulink toolbox based on the Matlab platform.And the model included three subsystems: the input one, the emotion one and the behavior one. In the emotional subsystem, the responses of different personalities to the external stimuli were described by defining personal space. This model takes states from an emotional space and updates its state depending on its current state and a state of its input (also a state-emotion). The simulation model realizes the process of switching the emotion from the neutral state to other basic emotions. The simulation result is proved to correspond to emotion-switching law of human beings.

  13. The state of the heart: Emotional labor as emotion regulation reviewed and revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, Alicia A; Melloy, Robert C

    2017-07-01

    Emotional labor has been an area of burgeoning research interest in occupational health psychology in recent years. Emotional labor was conceptualized in the early 1980s by sociologist Arlie Hochschild (1983) as occupational requirements that alienate workers from their emotions. Almost 2 decades later, a model was published in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology ( JOHP ) that viewed emotional labor through a psychological lens, as emotion regulation strategies that differentially relate to performance and wellbeing. For this anniversary issue of JOH P, we review the emotional labor as emotion regulation model, its contributions, limitations, and the state of the evidence for its propositions. At the heart of our article, we present a revised model of emotional labor as emotion regulation, that incorporates recent findings and represents a multilevel and dynamic nature of emotional labor as emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Teachers’ emotional intelligence: The impact of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dolev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have suggested that teachers' personal competencies, and more specifically Emotional Intelligence (EI, are particularly important for teacher effectiveness. Recently, there has also been a growing recognition of the importance of social-emotional competencies to students' learning and academic achievement. However, there has been a neglect of emotions in the field of teaching, and little is known about the impact of training aimed at developing teachers' EI on their EI levels and their practice. The current study investigates the impact of a teacher- centered EI training on teachers' EI in Israel. The study followed a two-year EI training in one school, employing group workshops and personal coaching. The study used a mixed methodology, making use of pre-post EQ-i assessment and semi-structured interviews. The findings illustrate that the training programme was perceived by the participants to have enhanced their EI competencies, as defined by the Bar-On model. Most participants integrated these competencies into their personal, professional and group identities and modified their EI-related behaviours.

  15. How should neuroscience study emotions? by distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion ('feelings'), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals ('attribution', 'anthropomorphizing'), our ability to think and talk about emotion ('concepts of emotion', 'semantic knowledge of emotion') and the behaviors caused by an emotion ('expression of emotions', 'emotional reactions'). I think that the most pressing challenge facing affective neuroscience is the need to carefully distinguish between these distinct aspects of 'emotion'. I view emotion states as evolved functional states that regulate complex behavior, in both people and animals, in response to challenges that instantiate recurrent environmental themes. These functional states, in turn, can also cause conscious experiences (feelings), and their effects and our memories for those effects also contribute to our semantic knowledge of emotions (concepts). Cross-species studies, dissociations in neurological and psychiatric patients, and more ecologically valid neuroimaging designs should be used to partly separate these different phenomena. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Color impact in visual attention deployment considering emotional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, C.

    2012-03-01

    Color is a predominant factor in the human visual attention system. Even if it cannot be sufficient to the global or complete understanding of a scene, it may impact the visual attention deployment. We propose to study the color impact as well as the emotion aspect of pictures regarding the visual attention deployment. An eye-tracking campaign has been conducted involving twenty people watching half pictures of database in full color and the other half of database in grey color. The eye fixations of color and black and white images were highly correlated leading to the question of the integration of such cues in the design of visual attention model. Indeed, the prediction of two state-of-the-art computational models shows similar results for the two color categories. Similarly, the study of saccade amplitude and fixation duration versus time viewing did not bring any significant differences between the two mentioned categories. In addition, spatial coordinates of eye fixations reveal an interesting indicator for investigating the differences of visual attention deployment over time and fixation number. The second factor related to emotion categories shows evidences of emotional inter-categories differences between color and grey eye fixations for passive and positive emotion. The particular aspect associated to this category induces a specific behavior, rather based on high frequencies, where the color components influence the visual attention deployment.

  17. Daily Emotional Labor, Negative Affect State, and Emotional Exhaustion: Cross-Level Moderators of Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyewon Kong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees’ emotional-labor strategies, experienced affects, and emotional exhaustion in the workplace may vary over time within individuals, even within the same day. However, previous studies on these relationships have not highlighted their dynamic properties of these relationships. In addition, although the effects of surface and deep acting on emotional exhaustion have been investigated in emotional-labor research, empirical studies on these relationships still report mixed results. Thus, we suggest that moderators may affect the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. Also, this study examines the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion within individuals by repeated measurements, and verifies the mediating effect of a negative affect state. Finally, our study confirms the moderating effects that affective commitment has on the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. Data was collected from tellers who had a high degree of interaction with clients at banks based in South Korea. A total of 56 tellers participated in the survey and responded for five working days. A total of 616 data entries were collected from the 56 respondents. We used a hierarchical linear model (HLM to examine our hypothesis. The results showed that surface-acting emotional labor increases emotional exhaustion; furthermore, the relationship between surface acting emotional labor and emotional exhaustion is mediated by a negative affect state within individuals. In addition, this study verified that affective commitment buffers the negative effects that surface acting emotional labor has on emotional exhaustion. These results suggest that emotional labor is a dynamic process within individuals, and that emotional exhaustion caused by emotional labor differs among individuals, and is dependent upon factors such as the individual’s level of affective commitment.

  18. [Correlation between psychological state and emotional intelligence in residents of gynecology, and obstetrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is our capacity to acknowledge our own emotions, and the emotions of other people; it also has to do with the way emotions must be understood, and used productively. Given that an altered state of mind can have an impact on emotional intelligence, our objective was to correlate the psychological state with emotional intelligence in residents of gynecology, and obstetrics. We assessed 76 gynecology and obstetrics residents by using What's my M3 and TMMS-24 instruments, in order to know the influence of psychological state on emotional intelligence. In male students of second grade, there was a positive correlation between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and emotional attention (EA), and a negative correlation with emotional clarity (EC). In third grade males, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) correlated positively with EA. In male students of fourth grade there was a positive correlation between OCD and EA. In second grade female students, depression correlated negatively with emotional repair (ER). In third grade female students anxiety, bipolar disorder, and PTSD correlated positively with EA. In fourth grade female students there was a negative correlation between depression and EA, and between anxiety, OCD, and PTSD with EC. Psychological status has a favorable impact on EA and a negative effect on EC and ER.

  19. Emotional Mood States and the Recall of Childhood Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Kenneth P.; Haviland, Jeannette M.

    Recently some psychologists have shown a renewed interest in the relationship between cognition and emotion and have begun to examine the relationship between the representation and processing of factual and emotional information. To investigate the role of emotional state in personal memory retrieval, a study was undertaken to replicate and…

  20. Toward an implicit measure of emotions: ratings of abstract images reveal distinct emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Gregory; Cervone, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Although implicit tests of positive and negative affect exist, implicit measures of distinct emotional states are scarce. Three experiments examined whether a novel implicit emotion-assessment task, the rating of emotion expressed in abstract images, would reveal distinct emotional states. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to a sadness-inducing story inferred more sadness, and less happiness, in abstract images. In Experiment 2, an anger-provoking interaction increased anger ratings. In Experiment 3, compared to neutral images, spider images increased fear ratings in spider-fearful participants but not in controls. In each experiment, the implicit task indicated elevated levels of the target emotion and did not indicate elevated levels of non-target negative emotions; the task thus differentiated among emotional states of the same valence. Correlations also supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the implicit task. Supporting the possibility that heuristic processes underlie the ratings, group differences were stronger among those who responded relatively quickly.

  1. State anxiety and emotional face recognition in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, Angela S.; Easey, Kayleigh E.; Dalili, Michael N.; Skinner, Andrew L.; Woods, Andy; Crick, Lana; Ilett, Elizabeth; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    High trait anxiety has been associated with detriments in emotional face processing. By contrast, relatively little is known about the effects of state anxiety on emotional face processing. We investigated the effects of state anxiety on recognition of emotional expressions (anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear and happiness) experimentally, using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) model to induce state anxiety, and in a large observational study. The experimental studies indicated reduced glob...

  2. Evaluating the Emotional State of a User Using a Webcam

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Magdin; Milan Turcani; Lukas Hudec

    2016-01-01

    In online learning is more difficult for teachers identify to see how individual students behave. Student’s emotions like self-esteem, motivation, commitment, and others that are believed to be determinant in student’s performance can not be ignored, as they are known (affective states and also learning styles) to greatly influence student’s learning. The ability of the computer to evaluate the emotional state of the user is getting bigger attention. By evaluating the emotional state, there i...

  3. Emotion expression of an affective state space; a humanoid robot displaying a dynamic emotional state during a soccer game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mey, A.; Smit, F; Droog, K.J.; Visser, A.

    2010-01-01

    Following a soccer game is an example where clear emotions are displayed. This example is worked out for a humanoid robot which can express emotions with body language. The emotions expressed by the robot are not just stimuli-response, but are based on an affective state which shows dynamic behavior

  4. Monoaminergic modulation of emotional impact in the inferomedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    of the standard Empathy Picture System on a scale from +3 to -3. We then used regression analysis to identify sites in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex at which the two separately acquired measures, blood flow change and emotional impact of images, correlated significantly. The regression analysis identified......People assess the impact of emotionally loaded images differently. We define this impact as the average difference between individual ratings of standardized "pleasant" and "unpleasant" images. To determine the neuroanatomical correlate of a hypothetical interaction between emotional impact...... cortex underwent deactivation in proportion to a separately rated emotional impact of a stimulus. We propose a specific pharmacodynamic mechanism that explains the correlation between the emotional impact and the effect of a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor on cerebral blood flow....

  5. Evaluating the Emotional State of a User Using a Webcam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Magdin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In online learning is more difficult for teachers identify to see how individual students behave. Student’s emotions like self-esteem, motivation, commitment, and others that are believed to be determinant in student’s performance can not be ignored, as they are known (affective states and also learning styles to greatly influence student’s learning. The ability of the computer to evaluate the emotional state of the user is getting bigger attention. By evaluating the emotional state, there is an attempt to overcome the barrier between man and non-emotional machine. Recognition of a real time emotion in e-learning by using webcams is research area in the last decade. Improving learning through webcams and microphones offers relevant feedback based upon learner’s facial expressions and verbalizations. The majority of current software does not work in real time – scans face and progressively evaluates its features. The designed software works by the use neural networks in real time which enable to apply the software into various fields of our lives and thus actively influence its quality. Validation of face emotion recognition software was annotated by using various experts. These expert findings were contrasted with the software results. An overall accuracy of our software based on the requested emotions and the recognized emotions is 78%. Online evaluation of emotions is an appropriate technology for enhancing the quality and efficacy of e-learning by including the learner´s emotional states.

  6. How should neuroscience study emotions? by distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion (‘feelings’), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals (‘attribution’, ‘anthropomorphizing’), our ability to think and talk about emotion (‘concepts of emotion’, ‘semantic knowledge of emotion’) and the behaviors caused by an emotion (‘expression of emotions’, ‘emotional reactions’). I think that the most pressing challenge facing affective neuroscience is the need to carefully distinguish between these distinct aspects of ‘emotion’. I view emotion states as evolved functional states that regulate complex behavior, in both people and animals, in response to challenges that instantiate recurrent environmental themes. These functional states, in turn, can also cause conscious experiences (feelings), and their effects and our memories for those effects also contribute to our semantic knowledge of emotions (concepts). Cross-species studies, dissociations in neurological and psychiatric patients, and more ecologically valid neuroimaging designs should be used to partly separate these different phenomena. PMID:27798256

  7. Prudence, Personality, Cognitive Ability and Emotional State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breaban, Adriana; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Noussair, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment to consider the emotional correlates of prudent decision making. In the experiment, we present subjects with lotteries and measure their emotional response with facial recognition software. They then make binary choices between risky lotteries that distinguish prudent from

  8. Prudence, emotional state, personality, and cognitive ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breaban, Adriana; Van De Kuilen, Gijs; Noussair, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment to consider the emotional correlates of prudent decision making. In the experiment, we present subjects with lotteries and measure their emotional response with facial recognition software. They then make binary choices between risky lotteries that distinguish prudent from

  9. Emotional state of “young” fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Liberska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The birth of the first child begins a new stage in family life, and the woman and the man must adopt new roles in society. However, adapting to the new conditions of life and the requirements of the new role can be difficult. Participants and procedure The main tools used in the study were the SUPIN scale, the STAI inventory and a questionnaire constructed by the authors. The participants were 90 men who became first time fathers in the period of 6 months prior to the study. Results The results indicate that the first time fathers show a medium level of state anxiety related to the current situation and a low level of trait anxiety understood as an enduring disposition. The level of anxiety is related to the age of the child, but only in the men who fathered a son: the older the son was, the greater was the intensity of state anxiety in the father. Conclusions The deep conviction that the father should be a role model for the son can be a source of anxiety about the ability to manage and the ability to meet the related responsibility. According to the tradition of our culture, the father has to prepare the son to be a man, to assume a man’s roles in society and teach him how to live. The lower intensity of positive emotions related to the birth of a daughter can be explained from the point of view of the true man stereotype – a daughter does not fulfil it.

  10. PERCEIVED EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A MODERATOR VARIABLE BETWEEN CYBERVICTIMIZATION AND ITS EMOTIONAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz eElipe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects of traditional bullying and, recently, cyberbullying on victims are well documented, and abundant empirical evidence for it exists. Cybervictimization affects areas such as academic performance, social integration and self-esteem, and causes emotions ranging from anger and sadness to more complex problems such as depression. However, not all victims are equally affected, and the differences seem to be due to certain situational and personal characteristics. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and the emotional impact of cybervictimization. We hypothesize that emotional intelligence, which has previously been found to play a role in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, may also affect the emotional impact of cyberbullying.The participants in our study were 636 university students from two universities in the south of Spain. Three self-report questionnaires were used: the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the Cyberbullying Emotional Impact Scale; and Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24. Structural Equation Models were used to test the relationships between the analyzed variables.The results support the idea that perceived emotional intelligence, by way of a moderator effect, affects the relationship between cybervictimization and emotional impact. Taken together, cybervictimization and perceived emotional intelligence explain much of the variance observed in the emotional impact in general and in the negative dimensions of that impact in particular. Attention and Repair were found to be inversely related to Annoyance and Dejection, and positively related to Invigoration. Clarity has the opposite pattern; a positive relationship with Annoyance and Dejection and an inverse relationship with Invigoration. Various hypothetical explanations of these patterns are discussed.

  11. The Emotional Impact of Leaders' Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlie, Julie; Wood, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse MBA students' actual experiences of both good and bad leadership and the resulting emotional responses; to determine which emotionally intelligent competencies, if any, have greater importance in times of change. Design/methodology/approach: The paper follows a deductive approach: moving from the…

  12. Emotion Comprehension: The Impact of Nonverbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Ottavia; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chiacchio, Carlo; Fiorilli, Caterina; Pons, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has established that emotion understanding develops throughout early childhood and has identified three hierarchical developmental phases: external, mental, and reflexive. The authors analyzed nonverbal intelligence and its effect on children's improvement of emotion understanding and hypothesized that cognitive…

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF SELF-ESTEEM ON THE EMOTIONAL STATE OF AN ATHLETE AS PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochina N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. Studies and analyses the influence of psychological factors on the emotional state of an athlete as personality. Scientific literature elucidates poorly the impact of self-esteem on the emotional state of an athlete as a factor promoting optimization of professional activity, which has made this problem very interesting for the study. The aim of this study is to trace the relationship between the self-esteem level and emotional state of an athlete personality as a factor promoting optimization of professional activity. The following methods were used: theoretical analysis, compilation and systematization of data from scientific literature. Research shows that the level of self-esteem exerts direct effect on the emotional state of an athlete, which predetermines his professional results.

  14. The effect of teacher’s positive personal resource of features of students’ emotional states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Trulyaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We reveal the psychological mechanisms of impact of the formation level of the teacher’s positive values on the academic performance of students, one of the key components of which are the emotional states of students. We describe a study aimed to test the hypothesis that the positive values and standing behind them “strong” character traits of the teacher determine the emotional states specific of his students during the lesson. The study involved 241 teachers of school subjects and 498 pupils of VI, VIII, X, XI grades of several schools in Krivoy Rog. The study demonstrated that a high level of expression of teacher’s positive values, reflected in his professional qualities, provide the appearance of positive emotional states of students. We also revealed patterns of influence of teacher’s positive personal resource on the intensity of the emotional states experienced by students during lessons.

  15. The Impact of Peer Mentoring on Pupils' Emotional Literacy Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that peer mentoring can positively impact on emotional literacy competencies. This study explored the effects of peer mentoring on the emotional literacy competencies of Year 7 peer mentees using a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test control group design. Results supported the hypothesis that peer mentoring has a positive…

  16. The Impact of Counsellor Training on Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Anne; Weinberg, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of counsellor training on emotional intelligence (EI) in 45 undergraduates and 58 postgraduates. Significant improvements were recorded by students on completion of both programmes, suggesting that these were attributable to training which enhanced intra- and interpersonal aspects of emotional functioning. As a…

  17. Toward physiological indices of emotional state driving future ebook interactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Hogervorst, M.A.; Werf, Y.D. van der

    2016-01-01

    Ebooks of the future may respond to the emotional experience of the reader. (Neuro-) physiological measures could capture a reader's emotional state and use this to enhance the reading experience by adding matching sounds or to change the storyline therewith creating a hybrid art form in between

  18. Toward physiological indices of emotional state driving future ebook interactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.

    2016-01-01

    Ebooks of the future may respond to the emotional experience of the reader. (Neuro-) physiological measures could capture a reader’s emotional state and use this to enhance the reading experience by adding matching sounds or to change the storyline therewith creating a hybrid art form in between

  19. The Rapid Perceptual Impact of Emotional Distractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana L Kennedy

    Full Text Available The brief presentation of an emotional distractor can temporarily impair perception of a subsequent, rapidly presented target, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness (EIB. How rapidly does this impairment unfold? To probe this question, we examined EIB for targets that immediately succeeded ("lag-1" emotional distractors in a rapid stream of items relative to EIB for targets at later serial positions. Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that emotional distractors interfere with items presented very soon after them, with impaired target perception emerging as early as lag-1. Experiment 3 included an exploratory examination of individual differences, which suggested that EIB onsets more rapidly among participants scoring high in measures linked to negative affect.

  20. Processing emotional body expressions: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, Violeta; Iancu, Sorina

    2016-10-01

    Processing emotional body expressions has become recently an important topic in affective and social neuroscience along with the investigation of facial expressions. The objective of the study is to review the literature on emotional body expressions in order to discuss the current state of knowledge on this topic and identify directions for future research. The following electronic databases were searched: PsychINFO, Ebsco, ERIC, ProQuest, Sagepub, and SCOPUS using terms such as "body," "bodily expression," "body perception," "emotions," "posture," "body recognition" and combinations of them. The synthesis revealed several research questions that were addressed in neuroimaging, electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Among them, one important question targeted the neural mechanisms of emotional processing of body expressions to specific subsections regarding the time course for the integration of emotional signals from face and body, as well as the role of context in the perception of emotional signals. Processing bodily expression of emotion is similar to processing facial expressions, and the holistic processing is extended to the whole person. The current state-of-the-art in processing emotional body expressions may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of social behavior. At the end of the review, suggestions for future research directions are presented.

  1. Emotion regulation: Exploring the impact of stress and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie L. Kinner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is a major prerequisite for adaptive behavior. The capacity to regulate emotions is particularly important during and after the encounter of a stressor. However the impact of acute stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations on emotion regulation have received little attention so far. This study aimed to explore how stress-induced cortisol increases affect three different emotion regulation strategies. 72 healthy men and women were either exposed to a stressor or a control condition. Subsequently participants viewed positive and negative images and were asked to up- or down-regulate their emotional responses or simultaneously required to solve an arithmetic task (distraction. The factors stress, sex and strategy were operationalized as between group factors (n = 6 per cell. Stress caused an increase in blood pressure and higher subjective stress ratings. An increase in cortisol was observed in male participants only. In contrast to controls, stressed participants were less effective in distracting themselves from the emotional pictures. The results further suggest that in women stress enhances the ability to decrease negative emotions. These findings characterize the impact of stress and sex on emotion regulation and provide initial evidence that these factors may interact.

  2. Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Balaguer, Albert; Cavallé, Pere; Canals, Josefa

    2008-11-01

    The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2-3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents.

  3. Automatic Emotional State Detection using Facial Expression Dynamic in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Meng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic emotion detection system is built for a computer or machine to detect the emotional state from facial expressions in human computer communication. Firstly, dynamic motion features are extracted from facial expression videos and then advanced machine learning methods for classification and regression are used to predict the emotional states. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, i.e. GEMEP_FERA and AVEC2013, and satisfied performances are achieved in comparison with the baseline results provided. With this emotional state detection capability, a machine can read the facial expression of its user automatically. This technique can be integrated into applications such as smart robots, interactive games and smart surveillance systems.

  4. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  5. Daily emotional states as reported by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R; Lampman-Petraitis, C

    1989-10-01

    Hour-to-hour emotional states reported by children, ages 9-15, were examined in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotional variability. These youths carried electronic pagers for 1 week and filled out reports on their emotional states in response to signals received at random times. To evaluate possible age-related response sets, a subset of children was asked to use the same scales to rate the emotions shown in drawings of 6 faces. The expected relation between daily emotional variability and age was not found among the boys and was small among the girls. There was, however, a linear relation between age and average mood states, with the older participants reporting more dysphoric average states, especially more mildly negative states. An absence of age difference in the ratings of the faces indicated that this relation could not be attributed to age differences in response set. Thus, these findings provide little support for the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotionality but indicate significant alterations in everyday experience associated with this age period.

  6. Perceived emotional intelligence as a moderator variable between cybervictimization and its emotional impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elipe, Paz; Mora-Merchán, Joaquín A; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Casas, José A

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects of traditional bullying and, recently, cyberbullying on victims are well-documented, and abundant empirical evidence for it exists. Cybervictimization affects areas such as academic performance, social integration and self-esteem, and causes emotions ranging from anger and sadness to more complex problems such as depression. However, not all victims are equally affected, and the differences seem to be due to certain situational and personal characteristics. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) and the emotional impact of cybervictimization. We hypothesize that EI, which has previously been found to play a role in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, may also affect the emotional impact of cyberbullying. The participants in our study were 636 university students from two universities in the south of Spain. Three self-report questionnaires were used: the "European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire," the "Cyberbullying Emotional Impact Scale"; and "Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24." Structural Equation Models were used to test the relationships between the analyzed variables. The results support the idea that PEI, by way of a moderator effect, affects the relationship between cybervictimization and emotional impact. Taken together, cybervictimization and PEI explain much of the variance observed in the emotional impact in general and in the negative dimensions of that impact in particular. Attention and Repair were found to be inversely related to Annoyance and Dejection, and positively related to Invigoration. Clarity has the opposite pattern; a positive relationship with Annoyance and Dejection and an inverse relationship with Invigoration. Various hypothetical explanations of these patterns are discussed.

  7. Emotional state talk and emotion understanding: a training study with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Ilaria Grazzani; Ornaghi, Veronica

    2011-11-01

    ABSTRACTThe present study investigates whether training preschool children in the active use of emotional state talk plays a significant role in bringing about greater understanding of emotion terms and improved emotion comprehension. Participants were 100 preschool children (M=52 months; SD=9·9; range: 35-70 months), randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. They were pre- and post-tested to assess their language comprehension, metacognitive language comprehension and emotion understanding. Analyses of pre-test data did not show any significant differences between experimental and control groups. During the intervention phase, the children were read stories enriched with emotional lexicon. After listening to the stories, children in the experimental group took part in conversational language games designed to stimulate use of the selected emotional terms. In contrast, the control group children did not take part in any special linguistic activities after the story readings. Analyses revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the understanding of inner state language and in the comprehension of emotion.

  8. Modeling and Evaluating Emotions Impact on Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Causality and Responsibility Judgment in Multi-Agent Interactions: Extended abstract. 23rd International Joint Conference on Artificial Inteligence ...responsibility judgment in multi-agent interactions." Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research v44(1), 223- 273. • Morteza Dehghani, Jonathan Gratch... Artificial Intelligence (AAAI’11). Grant related invited talks: • Keynote speaker, Workshop on Empathic and Emotional Agents at the International

  9. Managerial Effectiveness: Impact of Emotional Intellegence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organizations in Nigeria. The descriptive survey research method was adopted for the study. Instruments used for data collection in this study are: Emotional Intelligence Scale, Work-Family Role Conflict Scale and. Managerial Effectiveness Scale. Linear Regression Analysis was used to test hypotheses that were generated ...

  10. Emotional state and local versus global spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Mahoney, Caroline R; Augustyn, Jason S; Taylor, Holly A

    2009-02-01

    The present work investigated the effects of participant emotional state on global versus local memory for map-based information. Participants were placed into one of four emotion induction groups, crossing high and low arousal with positive and negative valence, or a control group. They then studied a university campus map and completed two memory tests, free recall and spatial statement verification. Converging evidence from these two tasks demonstrated that arousal amplifies symbolic distance effects and leads to a globally-focused spatial mental representation, partially at the expense of local knowledge. These results were found for both positively- and negatively-valenced affective states. The present study is the first investigation of emotional effects on spatial memory, and has implications for theories of emotion and spatial cognition.

  11. Quality of life and emotional state in chronic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Ene; Aluoja, Anu; Kingo, Külli

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic inflammatory skin conditions and patients' emotional state and quality of life. The following self-rated questionnaires were used: Emotional State Questionnaire, a self-report scale assessing depression and anxiety symptoms; Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI); and RAND-36, a measure of health-related quality of life. The study group comprised 40 patients with psoriasis, 40 with eczema, 40 with acne, 15 with seborrhoeic dermatitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients with chronic skin diseases had lower DLQI and lower RAND-36 physical functioning scores, more perceived physical limitations and pain, and lower emotional well-being and general health ratings compared with the control group. In conclusion, chronic skin diseases are associated with symptoms of emotional distress, in particular insomnia and general anxiety.

  12. The impact of stroke on emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Bronwyn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional intelligence (EI is important for personal, social and career success and has been linked to the frontal anterior cingulate, insula and amygdala regions. Aim To ascertain which stroke lesion sites impair emotional intelligence and relation to current frontal assessment measurements. Methods One hundred consecutive, non aphasic, independently functioning patients post stroke were evaluated with the Bar-On emotional intelligence test, "known as the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i" and frontal tests that included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Frontal Systems Behavioral Inventory (FRSBE for correlational validity. The results of a screening, bedside frontal network syndrome test (FNS and NIHSS to document neurological deficit were also recorded. Lesion location was determined by the Cerefy digital, coxial brain atlas. Results After exclusions (n = 8, patients tested (n = 92, mean age 50.1, CI: 52.9, 47.3 years revealed that EQ-i scores were correlated (negatively with all FRSBE T sub-scores (apathy, disinhibition, executive, total, with self-reported scores correlating better than family reported scores. Regression analysis revealed age and FRSBE total scores as the most influential variables. The WCST error percentage T score did not correlate with the EQ-i scores. Based on ANOVA, there were significant differences among the lesion sites with the lowest mean EQ-i scores associated with temporal (71.5 and frontal (87.3 lesions followed by subtentorial (91.7, subcortical gray (92.6 and white (95.2 matter, and the highest scores associated with parieto-occipital lesions (113.1. Conclusions 1 Stroke impairs EI and is associated with apathy, disinhibition and executive functioning. 2 EI is associated with frontal, temporal, subcortical and subtentorial stroke syndromes.

  13. Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions.

  14. Implications of State Dental Board Disciplinary Actions for Teaching Dental Students About Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Lyle Kris

    2016-01-01

    The primary emphasis in dental education is on developing students' cognitive intelligence (thinking) and technical intelligence (doing), while emotional intelligence (being) receives less emphasis. The aim of this study was to explore a potential consequence of the paucity of emotional intelligence education by determining the level of emotional intelligence-related (EI-R) infractions in state dental board disciplinary actions and characterizing the types of those infractions. For this study, 1,100 disciplinary action reports from 21 state dental boards were reviewed, and disciplinary infractions were classified as cognitive intelligence-related (CI-R) infractions, technical intelligence-related (TI-R) infractions, and EI-R infractions. EI-R infractions were then subcategorized into emotional intelligence clusters and competencies using the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). The results showed that 56.6% of the infractions were EI-R. When the EI-R infractions were subcategorized, the four competencies most frequently violated involved transparency, teamwork and collaboration, organizational awareness, and accurate self-assessment. Understanding the frequency and nature of EI-R infractions may promote awareness of the need for increased attention to principles of emotional intelligence in dental education and may encourage integration of those principles across dental curricula to help students understand the impact of emotional intelligence on their future well-being and livelihood.

  15. The effect of weather and its changes on emotional state - individual characteristics that make us vulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism. The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria over a period of eight months, using five psychological methods: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state, Test for evaluation of moods and Test ''Self-confidence-Activity-Mood''. The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions in order to include a maximal number of meteorological elements in the analysis. Sixteen weather types are defined depending on the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were also considered. The results obtained by t-test showed that the different categories of weather led to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effects on human emotions - but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as ''unfavorable'', has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension ''neuroticism'', has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more ''resistant'' to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence on the impacts of weather.

  16. Emotion has no impact on attention in a change detection flicker task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colin Alan Bendall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Past research provides conflicting findings regarding the influence of emotion on visual attention. Early studies suggested a broadening of attentional resources in relation to positive mood. However, more recent evidence indicates that positive emotions may not have a beneficial impact on attention, and that the relationship between emotion and attention may be mitigated by factors such as task demand or stimulus valence. The current study explored the effect of emotion on attention using the change detection flicker paradigm. Participants were induced into positive, neutral, and negative mood states and then completed a change detection task. A series of neutral scenes were presented and participants had to identify the location of a disappearing item in each scene. The change was made to the centre or the periphery of each scene and it was predicted that peripheral changes would be detected quicker in the positive mood condition and slower in the negative mood condition, compared to the neutral condition. In contrast to previous findings emotion had no influence on attention and whilst central changes were detected faster than peripheral changes, change blindness was not affected by mood. The findings suggest that the relationship between emotion and visual attention is influenced by the characteristics of a task, and any beneficial impact of positive emotion may be related to processing style rather than a broadening of attentional resources.

  17. Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

    A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

  18. Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: evidence for conditioned appetitive responding to negative emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Appetitive learning has been demonstrated several times using neutral cues or contexts as a predictor of food intake and it has been shown that humans easily learn cued desires for foods. It has, however, never been studied whether internal cues are also capable of appetitive conditioning. In this study, we tested whether humans can learn cued eating desires to negative moods as conditioned stimuli (CS), thereby offering a potential explanation of emotional eating (EE). Female participants were randomly presented with 10 different stimuli eliciting either negative or neutral emotional states, with one of these states paired with eating chocolate. Expectancy to eat, desire to eat, salivation, and unpleasantness of experiencing negative emotions were assessed. After conditioning, participants were brought into a negative emotional state and were asked to choose between money and chocolate. Data showed differential conditioned responding on the expectancy and desire measures, but not on salivation. Specific conditioned effects were obtained for participants with a higher BMI (body mass index) on the choice task, and for participants high on EE on the unpleasantness ratings. These findings provide the first experimental evidence for the idea that negative emotions can act as conditioned stimuli, and might suggest that classical conditioning is involved in EE.

  19. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien D'Hondt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG data and skin conductance response (SCR, a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the skin conductance response, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links.

  20. Impact of emotional maltreatment on self esteem among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sadia; Kaiser, Aneeqa

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the impact of emotional maltreatment on self-esteem among adolescents, and to see if gender makes a difference in this context. The cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2014, and comprised adolescents in the age range of 14 to 18 years who were selected using purposive sampling from various government and private schools and colleges of Sargodha, Punjab. The questionnaire on seven dimensions of emotional maltreatment at home and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used. There were 400 subjects; 200(50%) boys and as many girls. The overall mean age was 16.14±1.36 years (range: 14-18 years). Correlation coefficient indicated significant negative relationship between emotional maltreatment and self-esteem (degrading r= -0.33, pself-esteem (isolating?= -0.12, pself-esteem. Emotional maltreatment strongly predicted negative self-esteem among adolescents. Gender was a significant factor in the domain of degrading.

  1. Effects of music interventions on emotional States and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Davis, Paul A; Devonport, Tracey J

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key pointsListening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance.Beliefs on the

  2. A grounded theory of young tennis players use of music to manipulate emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Daniel T; Karageorghis, Costas I; Loizou, Georgios

    2007-10-01

    The main objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate young tennis players' use of music to manipulate emotional states, and (b) to present a model grounded in present data to illustrate this phenomenon and to stimulate further research. Anecdotal evidence suggests that music listening is used regularly by elite athletes as a preperformance strategy, but only limited empirical evidence corroborates such use. Young tennis players (N = 14) were selected purposively for interview and diary data collection. Results indicated that participants consciously selected music to elicit various emotional states; frequently reported consequences of music listening included improved mood, increased arousal, and visual and auditory imagery. The choice of music tracks and the impact of music listening were mediated by a number of factors, including extramusical associations, inspirational lyrics, music properties, and desired emotional state. Implications for the future investigation of preperformance music are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of cognitive load and emotional states during multidisciplinary critical care simulation sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Swapnil; Jacques, Theresa; Deshpande, Kush; Pusapati, Raju; Meguerdichian, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    The simulation in critical care setting involves a heterogeneous group of participants with varied background and experience. Measuring the impacts of simulation on emotional state and cognitive load in this setting is not often performed. The feasibility of such measurement in the critical care setting needs further exploration. Medical and nursing staff with varying levels of experience from a tertiary intensive care unit participated in a standardised clinical simulation scenario. The emotional state of each participant was assessed before and after completion of the scenario using a validated eight-item scale containing bipolar oppositional descriptors of emotion. The cognitive load of each participant was assessed after the completion of the scenario using a validated subjective rating tool. A total of 103 medical and nursing staff participated in the study. The participants felt more relaxed (-0.28±1.15 vs 0.14±1, Pcognitive load for all participants was 6.67±1.41. There was no significant difference in the cognitive loads among medical staff versus nursing staff (6.61±2.3 vs 6.62±1.7; P>0.05). A well-designed complex high fidelity critical care simulation scenario can be evaluated to identify the relative cognitive load of the participants' experience and their emotional state. The movement of learners emotionally from a more negative state to a positive state suggests that simulation can be an effective tool for improved knowledge transfer and offers more opportunity for dynamic thinking.

  4. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  5. Toward physiological indices of emotional state driving future ebook interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B.F. van Erp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks of the future may respond to the emotional experience of the reader. (Neuro- physiological measures could capture a reader’s emotional state and use this to enhance the reading experience by adding matching sounds or to change the storyline therewith creating a hybrid art form in between literature and gaming. We describe the theoretical foundation of the emotional and creative brain and review the neurophysiological indices that can be used to drive future ebook interactivity in a real life situation. As a case study, we report the neurophysiological measurements of a bestselling author during nine days of writing which can potentially be used later to compare them to those of the readers. In designated calibration blocks, the artist wrote emotional paragraphs for emotional (IAPS pictures. Analyses showed that we can reliably distinguish writing blocks from resting but we found no reliable differences related to the emotional content of the writing. The study shows that measurements of EEG, heart rate (variability, skin conductance, facial expression and subjective ratings can be done over several hours a day and for several days in a row. In follow-up phases, we will measure 300 readers with a similar setup.

  6. The Impact of Speedometry on Student Knowledge, Interest, and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan; Le, Q. Tien; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Marsh, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Given the dearth of high-quality curriculum materials aligned with the new standards (NGSS and CCSS) and low student persistence in STEM fields, we sought to develop and test a STEM curriculum that would improve student knowledge, interest, and emotions. A cluster randomized control trial was conducted to assess the impact of Speedometry, a…

  7. The Emotional, Physical, and Academic Impact of Living with Terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, April; Grunder, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in Florida after five students were murdered by a serial killer. The study examined emotional and physical consequences of living with anxiety and fear for an entire term. Students who were 24 and younger and lived in the zone where the murders were committed were more seriously impacted, and had lower GPAs. (Contains…

  8. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M; Frenzel, Anne C; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.

  10. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911

  11. The Impact of Emotional Priming on MMPI-2 Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ritchey, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated potential emotional priming effects on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale scores. Participants included 98 college students who completed a personal narrative intended to induce temporary mood states, the MMPI-2, and a mood rating inventory. Results of the mood manipulation indicated that…

  12. EFFECTS OF MUSIC INTERVENTIONS ON EMOTIONAL STATES AND RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65 who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2 to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running

  13. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eTaut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165 could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of 1 whether eating (yes/no is used as a secondary emotion regulation strategy and 2 whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the emotion regulation strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, emotion regulation strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion-induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without emotion regulation instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no emotion regulation instruction then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no emotion regulation instruction and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted emotion regulation is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive emotion regulation such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when emotion regulation is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  14. The evaluation of psycho-emotional state in junior students of medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Pavliuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, psychosocial factors, stress and mental exhaustion are considered by WHO experts and the International Labour Organization as an important new factor affecting the health, working capacity, training and career. Young generation, especially students, who are an industrial and intellectual potential of the country can be attributed to the risk group because of the extremely high burden of adaptation. The intensity and tension of modern life at a psychological level preceding the occurrence of negative emotional experiences and stress reactions that, accumulating, cause the formation of depressions. The aim of the study was to examine the level of psycho-emotional stress in the junior students of medical university. The observations of the medical students of the second year of study were performed. To determine the psycho-emotional stress we have used adaptive varint of H.Ayzenko method that include an anxiety, frustration, aggressiveness and rigidity, through questionnaires. According to a survey results of the state of psycho-emotional state low levels of stress resistance were found in students in learning activities, indicating that students are exposed to the negative impact of the environment. It should also be noted that the level of emotional condition of students depends on the personal experience of stressful situations that arise in students’ lives.

  15. Quantification of vascular function changes under different emotion states: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yirong; Yang, Licai; Mao, Xueqin; Zheng, Dingchang; Liu, Chengyu

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that physiological parameters change with different emotion states. This study aimed to quantify the changes of vascular function at different emotion and sub-emotion states. Twenty young subjects were studied with their finger photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses recorded at three distinct emotion states: natural (1 minute), happiness and sadness (10 minutes for each). Within the period of happiness and sadness emotion states, two sub-emotion states (calmness and outburst) were identified with the synchronously recorded videos. Reflection index (RI) and stiffness index (SI), two widely used indices of vascular function, were derived from the PPG pulses to quantify their differences between three emotion states, as well as between two sub-emotion states. The results showed that, when compared with the natural emotion, RI and SI decreased in both happiness and sadness emotions. The decreases in RI were significant for both happiness and sadness emotions (both Pemotion (Pemotions, there was significant difference in RI (Pemotion in comparison with the calmness one for both happiness and sadness emotions (both Pemotion only in sadness emotion (Pemotion measurements. This pilot study confirmed that vascular function changes with diffenrt emotion states could be quantified by the simple PPG measurement.

  16. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Brajon

    Full Text Available The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN, rough (ROU or minimal contact (MIN. Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray. Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82, 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03 and MIN (P = 0.02 piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10. The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10. However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001. This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them.

  17. Emotional state and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Toshiko; Murata, Hinako; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sakata, Yu; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Aso, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in emotional state and the relationship between emotional state and demographic/clinical factors and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery. Using the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), 90 patients (benign disease: 32, malignancy: 58) were examined on three occasions: before surgery, before discharge, and 3 months after discharge. They were also examined using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) on one occasion before discharge. The scores for the subscales depression, anger, and confusion were the highest after discharge while those for anxiety were the highest before surgery. The average scores of the POMS subscales for all subjects were within the normal range. With regard to the relationship between these emotional states and other factors, multiple regressions showed that the principal determinants of anxiety before surgery were religious belief, psychological symptoms during hospitalization and emotion-oriented (E) coping style; further, it was found that depression after discharge could be explained by chemotherapy, duration of hospitalization, and E coping style. The principal determinants of anger after discharge and vigor before surgery were length of education and E coping style, and severity of disease, chemotherapy, E coping style and task-oriented coping style, respectively. Those of post-discharge fatigue and confusion were length of education, psychological symptoms, and E coping style. In summary it is suggested that the following should be taken into account in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery: anxiety before surgery, depression, anger, and confusion after surgery, including coping styles.

  18. Social and emotional impact of diabetic retinopathy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva; Rees, Gwyn; Pesudovs, Konrad; Dirani, Mohamed; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse

    2012-01-01

    People with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy are likely to experience enhanced social and emotional strain. Critically, those with both vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy and psychosocial problems may have significantly reduced levels of functioning compared with psychologically healthy counterparts. This can cause inadequate compliance, increased strain on family functioning, worse diabetes control, increased progression of diabetic retinopathy and, consequently, further psychosocial stress resulting in a number of concerning implications for disease management, clinical outcomes and healthcare costs. However, the emotional and social health consequences of diabetic retinopathy have not yet been systematically explored. This information is crucial as it allows for a targeted approach to treatment and prevention and avoidance of the potentially detrimental implications described above. Therefore, this paper reviews the current qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the social and emotional impact of diabetic retinopathy and identifies directions for future research. Key search terms were applied to the electronic databases Pubmed, ISI Web of Science and Embase and the bibliographies of relevant papers were systematically reviewed for additional references. Overall, the evidence suggests that diabetic retinopathy and associated vision loss have several debilitating effects, including disruption of family functioning, relationships and roles; increased social isolation and dependence; and deterioration of work prospects resulting in increased financial strain. Adverse emotional responses include fear, anxiety, vulnerability, guilt, loss of confidence, anger, stress and self-perception issues. However, the research to date is largely qualitative in nature, with most quantitative studies being small, cross-sectional and somewhat outdated. Similarly, the outcome measures used in many studies to date are suboptimal in terms of content and validity

  19. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to induced emotional states: effects of RSA indices, emotion induction method, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2012-09-01

    The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. At risk of being risky: The relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    OpenAIRE

    Marc D. Rudolph; Oscar Miranda-Domínguez; Alexandra O. Cohen; Kaitlyn Breiner; Laurence Steinberg; Richard J. Bonnie; Elizabeth S. Scott; Kim Taylor-Thompson; Jason Chein; Karla C. Fettich; Jennifer A. Richeson; Danielle V. Dellarco; Adriana Galván; B.J. Casey; Damien A. Fair

    2017-01-01

    Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a ...

  1. Psycho-emotional state of rats under thyroid dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Е.М.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous behavioral activity of white rats and concentration of glutamate, glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the neocortex in experimental hyper- and hypothyroidism was investigated. It was found that an excess of thyroid hormones was accompanied by emotional and anxiolytic effects in terms of reducing duration of grooming by 37% and increasing number of transitions and the time spent in the illuminated cross-shaped maze arms (26 % and 35%. Such behavior changes occurred against a background of increasing concentrations of GABA by 52 % (p<0,05 in the cortex of animals with experimental hyperthyroidism. Perhaps, the psycho-emotional state of the organism is modulated by thyroid hormones through the GABA - ergic system of neocortex.

  2. Neural control of vascular reactions: impact of emotion and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon-Singer, Hadas; Mehnert, Jan; Hoyer, Jana; Hellrung, Lydia; Schaare, Herma Lina; Dukart, Juergen; Villringer, Arno

    2014-03-19

    This study investigated the neural regions involved in blood pressure reactions to negative stimuli and their possible modulation by attention. Twenty-four healthy human subjects (11 females; age = 24.75 ± 2.49 years) participated in an affective perceptual load task that manipulated attention to negative/neutral distractor pictures. fMRI data were collected simultaneously with continuous recording of peripheral arterial blood pressure. A parametric modulation analysis examined the impact of attention and emotion on the relation between neural activation and blood pressure reactivity during the task. When attention was available for processing the distractor pictures, negative pictures resulted in behavioral interference, neural activation in brain regions previously related to emotion, a transient decrease of blood pressure, and a positive correlation between blood pressure response and activation in a network including prefrontal and parietal regions, the amygdala, caudate, and mid-brain. These effects were modulated by attention; behavioral and neural responses to highly negative distractor pictures (compared with neutral pictures) were smaller or diminished, as was the negative blood pressure response when the central task involved high perceptual load. Furthermore, comparing high and low load revealed enhanced activation in frontoparietal regions implicated in attention control. Our results fit theories emphasizing the role of attention in the control of behavioral and neural reactions to irrelevant emotional distracting information. Our findings furthermore extend the function of attention to the control of autonomous reactions associated with negative emotions by showing altered blood pressure reactions to emotional stimuli, the latter being of potential clinical relevance.

  3. Caregiving: The impact on emotional support for single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, C S

    1987-01-01

    Even though filial caregivers are typically daughters rather than sons, examinations of caregiving have not adequately considered the impact of gender and marital status differences on the support systems that mediate the strain of caring. Because of competing demands on time and energy, caregivers make many changes in their personal activities while maintaining work and immediate family responsibilities. The friendships that provide emotional support for singles are perceived as less important than familial relationships. Therefore, the assumption is made that the single adult daughter has less to give up as compared to her married siblings. The parallel emotional support systems of the married and single caregivers go unrecognized. This study of never-married women over age 30 reveals that these caregivers essentially foreclosed social relationships in order to provide care. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Emotional Impact of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training on High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alismail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe American Heart Association (AHA has implemented several programs to educate the public about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. A common issue in bystander CPR is the fear of hurting the victim. As a result, the victim may not receive CPR in time. The purpose of this study was to measure the emotional impact of CPR training on high school students using two approved AHA courses.MethodsA total of 60 students participated in this study. These students had a mean age of 15.4 ± 1.2 years old and were selected from a high school in Southern California. Subjects were divided into two groups, Basic Life Support (BLS (n1 = 31 and Hands-Only™ CPR (n2 = 29. Emotional impacts were assessed by having each subject answer a questionnaire based on given scenarios before and after their training session.ResultsThere was a significant difference in both groups when comparing positive-emotion scores before and after the training (BLS: 30.3 ± 6.0 vs. 34.5 ± 6.7, p < 0.001; Hands-Only 27.9 ± 5.0 vs. 32.1 ± 6.5, p < 0.001. In addition, both groups showed significant reductions in negative-emotion scores (BLS: 29.2 ± 6.7 vs. 23.7 ± 6.5, p < 0.001 and Hands-Only: 26.8 ± 6.1vs. 24.8 ± 7.7, p = 0.05.ConclusionOur results indicate that the AHA programs have positive effects on students’ emotional response. We recommend that future studies include an in-depth study design that probes the complexity of students’ emotions after completing an AHA session.

  5. The development of the Athens Emotional States Inventory (AESI): collection, validation and automatic processing of emotionally loaded sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaspari, Theodora; Soldatos, Constantin; Maragos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The development of ecologically valid procedures for collecting reliable and unbiased emotional data towards computer interfaces with social and affective intelligence targeting patients with mental disorders. Following its development, presented with, the Athens Emotional States Inventory (AESI) proposes the design, recording and validation of an audiovisual database for five emotional states: anger, fear, joy, sadness and neutral. The items of the AESI consist of sentences each having content indicative of the corresponding emotion. Emotional content was assessed through a survey of 40 young participants with a questionnaire following the Latin square design. The emotional sentences that were correctly identified by 85% of the participants were recorded in a soundproof room with microphones and cameras. A preliminary validation of AESI is performed through automatic emotion recognition experiments from speech. The resulting database contains 696 recorded utterances in Greek language by 20 native speakers and has a total duration of approximately 28 min. Speech classification results yield accuracy up to 75.15% for automatically recognizing the emotions in AESI. These results indicate the usefulness of our approach for collecting emotional data with reliable content, balanced across classes and with reduced environmental variability.

  6. Educated but anxious: How emotional states and education levels combine to influence online health information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2017-07-01

    This study combined conceptual frameworks from health information seeking, appraisal theory of emotions, and social determinants of health literatures to examine how emotional states and education predict online health information seeking. Nationally representative data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 3) were used to test the roles of education, anxiety, anger, sadness, hope, happiness, and an education by anxiety interaction in predicting online health information seeking. Results suggest that women, tablet owners, smartphone owners, the college educated, those who are sad some or all of the time, and those who are anxious most of the time were significantly more likely to seek online health information. Conversely, being angry all of the time decreased the likelihood of seeking. Furthermore, two significant interactions emerged between anxiety and education levels. Discrete psychological states and demographic factors (gender and education) individually and jointly impact information seeking tendencies.

  7. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Koeter, M.W.; Wingen, G. van; Wit, S.J. de; Heuvel, O.A. van den; Veltman, D.J.; Ruhe, H.G.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  8. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; Mocking, Roel J. T.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Wingen, Guido; de Wit, Stella J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Schene, Aart H.

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  9. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; van Wingen, G.; de Wit, S.J.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Ruhe, H.G.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD

  10. The Photographic Affect Meter: A Novel Application to Measure Momentary Emotional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion plays an ever-present role in human existence, impacting nearly every behavior and decision in some way. Research in the behavioral sciences is rife with exploration of emotion and the role it plays in everything from business decision making to health-related behavior. However, affect, the feeling or experience of emotion, is complex and…

  11. Cultural affordances and emotional experience: socially engaging and disengaging emotions in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Mesquita, Batja; Karasawa, Mayumi

    2006-11-01

    The authors hypothesized that whereas Japanese culture encourages socially engaging emotions (e.g., friendly feelings and guilt), North American culture fosters socially disengaging emotions (e.g., pride and anger). In two cross-cultural studies, the authors measured engaging and disengaging emotions repeatedly over different social situations and found support for this hypothesis. As predicted, Japanese showed a pervasive tendency to reportedly experience engaging emotions more strongly than they experienced disengaging emotions, but Americans showed a reversed tendency. Moreover, as also predicted, Japanese subjective well-being (i.e., the experience of general positive feelings) was more closely associated with the experience of engaging positive emotions than with that of disengaging emotions. Americans tended to show the reversed pattern. The established cultural differences in the patterns of emotion suggest the consistent and systematic cultural shaping of emotion over time.

  12. Reality, fantasy and emotional state in kindergarten children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maftei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to study children’s ability to distinguish reality from fantasy based on individual differences in age, as well as on the valence generated by an event. Moreover, we explored the differences in emotional states generated by each type of stimuli, for each age category. A sample of 120 children from an urban kindergarten participated in the study. Each child was asked to respond to a set of questions after seeing eight pictures, different in terms of valence. The results revealed that preschool children aged 6 have a stronger ability to distinguish reality from fantasy, for each type of stimuli, compared to children aged 4 and 5. Moreover, the participants associated negative stimuli, both real and fantastic, with a higher level of negative affective state, compared to positive and also real images. The results are discussed from a sociodevelopmental perspective.

  13. Development and investigation of the nanosensor-based apparatus to assess the psycho-emotional state of a person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, D. K.; Ivanov, M. L.; Natalinova, N. M.; Nguyen, D. K.; Rybalka, S. A.; Turushev, N. V.

    2017-08-01

    Psycho-emotional state is one of the factors effecting human health. Its evaluation allows revealing hidden psychological trauma which can be reason of chronic stress, depression or psychosomatic disorders. Modern techniques of objective psycho-emotional state assessment involve a device which detects electrophysiological parameters of human body connected with emotional reaction and psychological condition. The present study covers development and testing of psycho-emotional state assessment device. The developed implement uses three methods of electrophysiological activity evaluation: electrocardiography, electroencephalography and galvanic skin response detection. The device represents hardware-software complex consisting of nanosensors, measuring unit, lead wires and laptop. Filters are excluded from the measuring circuit due to metrological parameters and noise immunity of implemented nanosensors. This solution minimizes signal distortion and allows measuring signals of 0.3 μV and higher in a wide frequency range (0-10000 Hz) with minimal data loss. In addition, results of preliminary medical studies aimed to find correspondence between different psycho-emotional states and electrophysiological parameters are described. Impact of filters on electrophysiological studies was studied. According to the results conventional filters significantly distort EEG channel information. Further research will be directed to the creation of complete base of electrophysiological parameters related to a particular emotion.

  14. At risk of being risky: The relationship between "brain age" under emotional states and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Marc D; Miranda-Domínguez, Oscar; Cohen, Alexandra O; Breiner, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence; Bonnie, Richard J; Scott, Elizabeth S; Taylor-Thompson, Kim; Chein, Jason; Fettich, Karla C; Richeson, Jennifer A; Dellarco, Danielle V; Galván, Adriana; Casey, B J; Fair, Damien A

    2017-04-01

    Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10-25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the "brain age" of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that "brain age" across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts) relates to a group mean difference in risk perception - a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18-21). The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at "risk to be risky." Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eBrevers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (AD and 32 controls performed an Ultimatum Game (UG, in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, ranging from fair to unfair and made by a fictive proposer. Emotional state was recorded during UG offers presentation and was indexed by the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR. Results showed that AD decided to reject unfair offers more frequently than their controls, confirming previous data. The proportion of rejected unfair UG offers was correlated with SCR, in the AD but not in the control group. This finding suggests that deciding to accept or reject unfair UG offers is influenced by arousal-affective activity in AD, but not in controls. Heightened emotional reactivity may have driven AD to punish the proposer rather than acting as a rational economic agent. An implication of present findings is that AD might have difficult to cope with unfair situations triggered by social interactions. Future studies are needed are needed in order to examine whether - emotional and behavioral - reactivity to unfairness during the UG could impact alcohol consumption and relapse in AD.

  16. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals and 32 controls performed an ultimatum game (UG), in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, ranging from fair to unfair and made by a fictive proposer. Emotional state was recorded during UG offers presentation and was indexed by the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR). Results showed that AD decided to reject unfair offers more frequently than their controls, confirming previous data. The proportion of rejected unfair UG offers was correlated with SCR, in the AD but not in the control group. This finding suggests that deciding to accept or reject unfair UG offers is influenced by arousal-affective activity in AD, but not in controls. Heightened emotional reactivity may have driven AD to punish the proposer rather than acting as a rational economic agent. An implication of present findings is that AD might have difficult to cope with unfair situations triggered by social interactions. Future studies are needed in order to examine whether-emotional and behavioral-reactivity to unfairness during the UG could impact alcohol consumption and relapse in AD.

  17. The impact of emotion on perception, attention, memory, and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Scherer, Klaus R; Grandjean, Didier; Sander, David

    2013-05-14

    Reason and emotion have long been considered opposing forces. However, recent psychological and neuroscientific research has revealed that emotion and cognition are closely intertwined. Cognitive processing is needed to elicit emotional responses. At the same time, emotional responses modulate and guide cognition to enable adaptive responses to the environment. Emotion determines how we perceive our world, organise our memory, and make important decisions. In this review, we provide an overview of current theorising and research in the Affective Sciences. We describe how psychological theories of emotion conceptualise the interactions of cognitive and emotional processes. We then review recent research investigating how emotion impacts our perception, attention, memory, and decision-making. Drawing on studies with both healthy participants and clinical populations, we illustrate the mechanisms and neural substrates underlying the interactions of cognition and emotion.

  18. Inducing and assessing differentiated emotion-feeling states in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, P

    1993-03-01

    Two questions are addressed. The first question pertains to the capacity of film segments to induce emotional states that are: (a) as comparable as possible to naturally occurring emotions; (b) similar across individuals; and (c) clearly differentiated across the intended emotions. The second question concerns the discriminant capacity of self-report questionnaires of emotion-feeling states differing in their theoretical assumptions. Subjects viewed six short film segments and rated the strength of their responses on one of three kinds of questionnaires. The questionnaires were: (1) the Differential Emotions Scale that postulates category-based distinctions between emotions; (2) the Semantic Differential that postulates that emotions are distinguished along bipolar dimensions; and (3) free labelling of their feelings by the subjects (control condition with no theoretical a priori). Overall, results indicate that film segments can elicit a diversity of predictable emotions, in the same way, in a majority of individuals. In the present procedure, the Differential Emotions Scale yielded a better discrimination between emotional states than the Semantic Differential. Implications for emotion research and theories of the cognitive structure of emotion are discussed.

  19. The Impact of Emotion on Negotiation Behaviour during a Realistic Training Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Sorce, Emde, & Svejda; cited in van Kleef, et al., 2004a), and induce reciprocal emotions in others ( Keltner & Haidt, 1999; cited in van Kleef, et al...DRDC Toronto CR 2007-166 THE IMPACT OF EMOTION ON NEGOTIATION BEHAVIOUR DURING A REALISTIC TRAINING SCENARIO by: Michael H. Thomson...made to dig what look like their own graves. This experiment explored the impact of emotion on military trainees’ negotiation behaviour and

  20. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most

  1. The Impact of Emotional Labor on Work-Family Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchus, Nancy J.; Eby, Lilian T.; Lance, Charles E.; Drollinger, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Theory and research on emotional labor at work is applied to the study of the work-family interface to explore how emotional experiences in both the work and the family domain relate to the experience of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, and ultimately attitudinal and health outcomes. Emotional intelligence is also examined as a…

  2. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjell, Oscar N E; Thompson, Sam

    2013-12-19

    Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants' pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  3. Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions: The Impact of Agent Emotion and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yanghee; Baylor, A. L.; Shen, E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of emotional interaction between human and computer has recently interested researchers in human-computer interaction. The instructional impact of this interaction in learning environments has not been established, however. This study examined the impact of emotion and gender of a pedagogical agent as a learning companion (PAL) on…

  4. The Emotional Impact of Performance-Related Pay on Teachers in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Pat; Menter, Ian; Hextall, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the emotional impact of Threshold Assessment on teachers and schools. Using data from an ESRC funded project, 'The impact of Performance Threshold Assessment on teachers' work' (ESRC R000239286), we seek to contribute to a growing literature on teachers' emotions by sharing some of the insights gained from 76 interviews…

  5. Impact of Group Emotions on Student Collective Action Tendencies, Ties, and Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Malavika; Sundararajan, Binod; Manderson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The authors tested the dynamics of collective action tendencies of student teams when trying to accomplish a shared goal, with a focus on the impact of member ties and team member interaction and emotional responses on team performance. The results show the direct and indirect impacts of both positive and negative group emotions on the student…

  6. [Impact of facial emotional recognition alterations in Dementia of the Alzheimer type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Wanda; Cossini, Florencia; Politis, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Face recognition of basic emotions is independent of other deficits in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Among these deficits, there is disagreement about what emotions are more difficult to recognize. Our aim was to study the presence of alterations in the process of facial recognition of basic emotions, and to investigate if there were differences in the recognition of each type of emotion in Alzheimer's disease. With three tests of recognition of basic facial emotions we evaluated 29 patients who had been diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer type and 18 control subjects. Significant differences were obtained in tests of recognition of basic facial emotions and between each. Since the amygdala, one of the brain structures responsible for emotional reaction, is affected in the early stages of this disease, our findings become relevant to understand how this alteration of the process of emotional recognition impacts the difficulties these patients have in both interpersonal relations and behavioral disorders.

  7. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  8. Head position and spinal position as determinants of perceived emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouwstra, S J; Hoogstraten, J

    1995-10-01

    A sample of 60 first-year psychology students judged the emotional state of 21 drawn figures and completed the Adjective Checklist and a mood questionnaire. The judgments were affected by the interaction between head position and spinal position of the figure. Each figure was associated with a unique pattern of emotions, and the judgments given were not influenced by the subjects' own emotional state.

  9. The impact of emotion on perception: bias or enhanced processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Rotteveel, Mark

    2006-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that emotionally significant stimuli are often better identified than neutral stimuli. It is not clear, however, whether these results are due to enhanced perceptual processing or to a bias favoring the identification of emotionally significant stimuli over neutral stimuli. The present study used a two-alternative forced-choice perceptual identification task to disentangle the effects of bias and enhanced processing. We found that emotionally significant targets were better identified than neutral targets. In contrast, the emotional significance of the foil alternative had no effect on performance. The present results support the hypothesis that perceptual encoding of emotionally significant stimuli is enhanced.

  10. Gender differences in emotion recognition: Impact of sensory modality and emotional category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Lena; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    Results from studies on gender differences in emotion recognition vary, depending on the types of emotion and the sensory modalities used for stimulus presentation. This makes comparability between different studies problematic. This study investigated emotion recognition of healthy participants (N = 84; 40 males; ages 20 to 70 years), using dynamic stimuli, displayed by two genders in three different sensory modalities (auditory, visual, audio-visual) and five emotional categories. The participants were asked to categorise the stimuli on the basis of their nonverbal emotional content (happy, alluring, neutral, angry, and disgusted). Hit rates and category selection biases were analysed. Women were found to be more accurate in recognition of emotional prosody. This effect was partially mediated by hearing loss for the frequency of 8,000 Hz. Moreover, there was a gender-specific selection bias for alluring stimuli: Men, as compared to women, chose "alluring" more often when a stimulus was presented by a woman as compared to a man.

  11. Making Decisions under Ambiguity : Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Sanne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413320626; Boleij, Hetty|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028815; Nordquist, Rebecca E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296303291; van der Staay, Franz Josef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074262653

    2016-01-01

    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to

  12. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  13. Young Children's Reasoning about the Effects of Emotional and Physiological States on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterlaw, Jennifer; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed young children's understanding of the effects of emotional and physiological states on cognitive performance. Five, 6-, 7-year-olds, and adults (N = 96) predicted and explained how children experiencing a variety of physiological and emotional states would perform on academic tasks. Scenarios included: (a) negative and positive…

  14. Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Academic Achievement and Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, appraise and control one's emotions. It is the ability to motivate oneself even in stressful situations, to control impulsive behaviour and to manage feelings in perfect way. Emotional intelligence can be considered as a set of skills which contribute to the proper assessment and regulation of emotions, and the utilization of feelings for best achievement in academics, profession and life. Emotional Intelligence is an important predictor of success in life and has significant role in stress management and academic achievement. Students who are high academic performers, usually have higher emotional intelligence scores compared with children with scholastic backwardness. Individuals with high emotional intelligence will correctly understand emotional issues, manage stressful situations successfully and regulate emotions in the best way. They are balanced, empathetic, self-aware and sociable. They have very strong will-power and are intrinsically motivated. Emotional intelligence is also a crucial factor needed for successful leadership. It has significant role in academic and organizational success.

  15. State-dependent alteration in face emotion recognition in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian M; Shippen, Clare; Juhasz, Gabriella; Chase, Diana; Thomas, Emma; Downey, Darragh; Toth, Zoltan G; Lloyd-Williams, Kathryn; Elliott, Rebecca; Deakin, J F William

    2011-04-01

    Negative biases in emotional processing are well recognised in people who are currently depressed but are less well described in those with a history of depression, where such biases may contribute to vulnerability to relapse. To compare accuracy, discrimination and bias in face emotion recognition in those with current and remitted depression. The sample comprised a control group (n = 101), a currently depressed group (n = 30) and a remitted depression group (n = 99). Participants provided valid data after receiving a computerised face emotion recognition task following standardised assessment of diagnosis and mood symptoms. In the control group women were more accurate in recognising emotions than men owing to greater discrimination. Among participants with depression, those in remission correctly identified more emotions than controls owing to increased response bias, whereas those currently depressed recognised fewer emotions owing to decreased discrimination. These effects were most marked for anger, fear and sadness but there was no significant emotion × group interaction, and a similar pattern tended to be seen for happiness although not for surprise or disgust. These differences were confined to participants who were antidepressant-free, with those taking antidepressants having similar results to the control group. Abnormalities in face emotion recognition differ between people with current depression and those in remission. Reduced discrimination in depressed participants may reflect withdrawal from the emotions of others, whereas the increased bias in those with a history of depression could contribute to vulnerability to relapse. The normal face emotion recognition seen in those taking medication may relate to the known effects of antidepressants on emotional processing and could contribute to their ability to protect against depressive relapse.

  16. Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...

  17. Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia: The Impact of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Alm?la; Putgul, Gulperi; Kosger, Ferdi; Ersoy, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported gender differences for facial emotion recognition in healthy people, with women performing better than men. Few studies that examined gender differences for facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia brought out inconsistent findings. The aim of this study is to investigate gender differences for facial emotion identification and discrimination abilities in patients with schizophrenia. Methods 35 female and 35 male patients with schizophrenia, along with 3...

  18. The Effects of Transient Emotional State and Workload on Size Scaling in Perspective Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz

    2006-10-01

    Previous research has been devoted to the study of perceptual (e.g., number of depth cues) and cognitive (e.g., instructional set) factors that influence veridical size perception in perspective displays. However, considering that perspective displays have utility in high workload environments that often induce high arousal (e.g., aircraft cockpits), the present study sought to examine the effect of observers’ emotional state on the ability to perceive and judge veridical size. Within a dual-task paradigm, observers’ ability to make accurate size judgments was examined under conditions of induced emotional state (positive, negative, neutral) and high and low workload. Results showed that participants in both positive and negative induced emotional states were slower to make accurate size judgments than those not under induced emotional arousal. Results suggest that emotional state is an important factor that influences visual performance on perspective displays and is worthy of further study.

  19. [Immediate prediction of recovery, based on emotional impact of vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Lago, Andrés H; Ceballos-Lizarraga, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This work presents deeper studies of comorbidity between anxiety and vestibular pathology. The aim of this work was to comprehend the reasons why patients do not feel «fully recovered» even though the treating professionals discharge them. We studied the features of personality that can favour the continuity of the condition. The questionnaire for measuring the emotional impact of vertigo makes it possible to determine if the patient has a psychological style with a tendency to develop pathological anxiety levels. Anxiety is a subjective characteristic determinant in difficulties with medical treatment. The questionnaire was applied to 198 patients in Argentina and Mexico in parallel. Each pathology was treated by standard medical procedures. The study focused on determining the correlation between «feeling fully recovered or not at the end of treatment» and the questionnaire scores obtained before the approach. In more than 80% of cases, high scores (>15 points) on the questionnaire were correlated with the difficulty presented by the patients for full recovery from the pathology after medical treatment. The objective assessments (duration and intensity of symptoms, time of onset of the disease, etc.) do not exactly predict possible difficulties during treatment of vertigo. Consequently, we consider the patient's subjective assessment of how the vestibular pathology affects him or her to be determinant. That key information allows us to predict the course of the illness and the probability of a full recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring the emotional response to beer and the relative impact of sensory and packaging cues

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, C.; Pacoud, J.; Ng, May Ling; Fenton, A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    In today’s extremely competitive markets, recent studies have highlighted that using hedonic measurement alone is inadequate for evaluating consumer product experience. Measuring emotional response is suggested to provide a richer insight into consumer responses. The objectives of this study were to: (i) measure consumer emotional responses to beer; (ii) determine if a relationship exists between sensory and emotional attributes of products; and finally (iii) investigate the relative impact o...

  1. Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Employees' Performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    During the past decade, management researchers claim that emotional intelligence ... Commitment: Case Study of Dangote Flour Mills Workers. 3 ... The concept of emotional intelligence goes back to early studies in the 1920s. (Bar-on .... social skills of supervisors to subordinates' strategies of handling conflict: problem ...

  2. Antecedents of and Reactions to Emotions in the United States and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, David; Kudoh, Tsutomu; Scherer, Klaus R.; Wallbott, Harald

    1988-01-01

    In this study, we examined the degree of cultural similarity and specificity in emotional experience by asking subjects in the United States and Japan to report their experiences and reactions concerning seven different emotions. The data used for this study were part of a larger cross-cultural study of emotion antecedents and reaxtions involving more than 2 000 subjects in 27 countries (Wallbott & Scherer, 1986). The American-Japanese comparison is a particularly interesting onem given t...

  3. Impact of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence on the caring behavior of nurses: a dimension-level exploratory study among public hospitals in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Devinder; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the impact of individual factors such as emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual intelligence (SI) on the caring behavior of nurses. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaire was conducted by sampling 550 nurses working in seven major public hospitals in Malaysia. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The main findings are: (1) critical existential thinking and transcendental awareness dimensions of SI have significant impacts on assurance of human presence dimension of caring behavior; (2) personal meaning production and conscious state expansion dimensions of SI have significant impacts on perception of emotion and managing own emotions dimensions of EI; and (3) managing own emotions dimension of EI has significant impacts on respectful deference to other and assurance of human presence dimensions of caring behavior of nurses. The results can be used to recruit and educate nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotions and leadership. Reasons and impact of emotions in organizational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert-Adzic, Meike

    2012-01-01

    Emotions as reasons for dissatisfaction, decreasing job performance or physical and mental strain at work are becoming more and more important. Especially psycho-social interactions with conflicts between employees and managers, caused by leadership behavior, as a source of negative emotions are relevant in this context. Which relevance emotions can have in order to influence human behavior and in order to influence work climate will be demonstrated by two qualitative field surveys in the automotive and the energy sector. The study in the energy sector will explain which leadership behavior fosters an improved employee behavior concerning occupational health and safety. A second study in the automotive industry shows that leadership behavior which causes positive emotions is essential for successful teamwork.

  5. Human Emotional State and its Relevance for Military VR Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizzo, Albert; Morie, Jacquelyn F; Williams, Josh; Pair, Jarrell; Buckwalter, J. G

    2005-01-01

    .... Real world military training often naturally includes stress induction that aims to promote a similarity of internal emotional stimulus cues with what is expected to be present on the battlefield...

  6. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  7. The Impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…

  8. Most frequent emotional states in convalescent patients of myocardial infarction and its relationship to cardiovascular health state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. García Martín

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: There was a predominance of partially offset somatic state of health. High levels of anxiety and depression states were identified and it was found the existence of an important relation between anxiety-depression emotional states, and the somatic state of health relating to the cardiovascular system in patients convalescent from myocardial infarction.

  9. State-Dependent Differences in Emotion Regulation Between Unmedicated Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rive, Maria M; Mocking, Roel J T; Koeter, Maarten W J; van Wingen, Guido; de Wit, Stella J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Veltman, Dick J; Ruhé, Henricus G; Schene, Aart H

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically during the depressed or remitted states. Both mood disorders are characterized by emotion regulation disturbances; however, little is known about emotion regulation differences between MDD and BD. Better insight into these differences would be helpful for differentiation based on disorder-specific underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous studies comparing these disorders often allowed medication use, limiting generalizability and validity. Moreover, patients with MDD and BD were mostly compared during the depressed, but not the remitted, state, while state might potentially modulate differences between MDD and BD. To investigate positive and negative emotion regulation in medication-free patients with MDD and BD in 2 mood states: depressed or remitted. A cross-sectional study conducted from May 2009 to August 2013 comparing behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging emotion regulation data of 42 patients with MDD, 35 with BD, and 36 healthy control (HC) participants free of psychotropic medication recruited from several psychiatric institutions across the Netherlands. A voluntary emotion regulation functional magnetic resonance imaging task using positive and negative pictures. Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent responses during emotion regulation. In the remitted state, only patients with BD showed impaired emotion regulation (t = 3.39; P emotion type and associated with increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity compared with those with MDD and healthy control participants (P = .008). In the depressed state, patients with MDD and BD differed with regard to happy vs sad emotion regulation (t = 4.19; P differences in rostral anterior cingulate activity (P emotions poorly compared with those with BD and healthy control participants, while they demonstrated no rostral anterior

  10. Antecedents of and Reactions to Emotions in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines the degree of cultural similarity and specificity in the emotional experiences of subjects from the United States and Japan. Found a high degree of cultural agreement in the antecedent/evaluation process, but some differences in relative/expressive aspects of emotion. (Author/BJV)

  11. Knowledge Activation versus Sentence Mapping When Representing Fictional Characters' Emotional States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    1992-01-01

    In a study of knowledge activation and sentence mapping, subjects read stories that described concrete actions, and then the content of the stories was manipulated (i.e. stories were written that implied different emotional states). It is suggested that the more emotionally evoking situations one encounters the more memory traces are stored and…

  12. Fundamental Frequency Extraction Method using Central Clipping and its Importance for the Classification of Emotional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Partila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a classification of emotional state. We implemented a method for extracting the fundamental speech signal frequency by means of a central clipping and examined a correlation between emotional state and fundamental speech frequency. For this purpose, we applied an approach of exploratory data analysis. The ANOVA (Analysis of variance test confirmed that a modification in the speaker's emotional state changes the fundamental frequency of human vocal tract. The main contribution of the paper lies in investigation, of central clipping method by the ANOVA.

  13. The voice of emotion across species: how do human listeners recognize animals' affective states?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Scheumann

    Full Text Available Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context. Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew. Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence or affiliative (positive emotional valence context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM. Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms.

  14. Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  15. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  16. Preferences for Emotional Dependence and Togetherness in Romantic Relationships: The Impact of Cohort, Race, Gender, and Gender Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Rowell, Kacie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates variation in preferences for mutual emotional dependence and togetherness in heterosexual romantic relationships among adults in the United States specifically considering the impact of race, gender, gender ideology, and cohort on preferences. A social structure and personality framework and concepts from exchange theory are used to interpret and predict relationship preference patterns found using binary hierarchical logistic regression analysis of data from the 199...

  17. Impact of personality on the cerebral processing of emotional prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Kaza, Evangelia; Lotze, Martin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-09-01

    While several studies have focused on identifying common brain mechanisms governing the decoding of emotional speech melody, interindividual variations in the cerebral processing of prosodic information, in comparison, have received only little attention to date: Albeit, for instance, differences in personality among individuals have been shown to modulate emotional brain responses, personality influences on the neural basis of prosody decoding have not been investigated systematically yet. Thus, the present study aimed at delineating relationships between interindividual differences in personality and hemodynamic responses evoked by emotional speech melody. To determine personality-dependent modulations of brain reactivity, fMRI activation patterns during the processing of emotional speech cues were acquired from 24 healthy volunteers and subsequently correlated with individual trait measures of extraversion and neuroticism obtained for each participant. Whereas correlation analysis did not indicate any link between brain activation and extraversion, strong positive correlations between measures of neuroticism and hemodynamic responses of the right amygdala, the left postcentral gyrus as well as medial frontal structures including the right anterior cingulate cortex emerged, suggesting that brain mechanisms mediating the decoding of emotional speech melody may vary depending on differences in neuroticism among individuals. Observed trait-specific modulations are discussed in the light of processing biases as well as differences in emotion control or task strategies which may be associated with the personality trait of neuroticism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotional rigidity negatively impacts remission from anxiety and recovery of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltgen, Anika; Shepard, Christopher; Smith, Ryan; Fowler, J Christopher

    2018-08-15

    Emotional rigidity is described in clinical literature as a significant barrier to recovery; however, few there are few empirical measures of the construct. The current study had two aims: Study 1 aimed to identify latent factors that may bear on the construct of emotional rigidity while Study 2 assessed the potential impact of the latent factor(s) on anxiety remission rates and well-being. This study utilized data from 2472 adult inpatients (1176 females and 1296 males) with severe psychopathology. Study 1 utilized exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify latent factors of emotional rigidity. Study 2 utilized hierarchical logistic regression analyses to assess the relationships among emotional rigidity factors and anxiety remission and well-being recovery at discharge. Study 1 yielded a two-factor solution identified in EFA was confirmed with CFA. Factor 1 consisted of neuroticism, experiential avoidance, non-acceptance of emotions, impaired goal-directed behavior, impulse control difficulties and limited access to emotion regulation strategies when experiencing negative emotions. Factor 2 consisted of lack of emotional awareness and lack of emotional clarity when experiencing negative emotions. Results of Study 2 indicated higher scores on Factor 1 was associated with lower remission rates from anxiety and poorer well-being upon discharge. Factor 2 was not predictive of outcome. Emotional rigidity appears to be a latent construct that negatively impacts remission rates from anxiety. Limitations of the present study include its retrospective design, and inefficient methods of assessing emotional rigidity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Modified impact of emotion on temporal discrimination in a transgenic rat model of Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eFaure

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is characterized by triad of motor, cognitive and emotional symptoms along with neuropathology in fronto-striatal circuit and limbic system including amygdala. Emotional alterations, which have a negative impact on patient well-being, represent some of the earliest symptoms of HD and might be related to the onset of the neurodegenerative process. In the transgenic rat model (tgHD rats, evidence suggest emotional alterations at the symptomatic stage along with neuropathology of the central nucleus of amygdala (CE. Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that emotion can modulate time perception. The impact of emotion on time perception has never been tested in HD, nor is it known if that impact could be part of the presymptomatic emotional phenotype of the pathology. The aim of this paper was to characterize the effect of emotion on temporal discrimination in presymptomatic tgHD animals. In the first experiment, we characterized the acute effect of an emotion (fear conditioned stimulus on temporal discrimination using a bisection procedure, and tested its dependency upon an intact central amygdala. The second experiment was aimed at comparing presymptomatic homozygous transgenic animals at 7-months of age and their wild-type littermates (WT in their performance on the modulation of temporal discrimination by emotion. Our principal findings show that (1 a fear cue produces a short-lived decrease of temporal precision after its termination, and (2 animals with medial CE lesion and presymptomatic tgHD animals demonstrate an alteration of this emotion-evoked temporal distortion. The results contribute to our knowledge about the presymptomatic phenotype of this HD rat model, showing susceptibility to emotion that may be related to dysfunction of the central nucleus of amygdala.

  20. VALUE OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTICS OF THE EMOTIONAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Chaykovskyi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The is presented the development of method for evaluation of emotional state of man, what suitable for use at the workplace based on analysis of heart rate (HR variability. 28 healthy volunteers were examined. 3 audiovisual clips were consistently presented on the display of the personal computer for each of them. One clip contained information originating the positive emotions, the second one – negative emotions, the third one – neutral. All possible pairs of the emotional states were analysed with help of one- and multi-dimensional linear discriminant analysis based on HR variability. Showing the emotional video-clips (of both signs causes reliable slowing of HR frequency and also some decreasing of HR variability. In addition, negative emotions cause regularizing and simplification of structural organization of heart rhythm. Accuracy of discrimination for pair “emotional – neutral” video clips was 98 %, for pair “rest – neutral” was 74 %, for pair “positive – negative” was 91 %. Analysis of HR variability enables to determine the emotional state of observed person at the workplace with high reliability.

  1. Emotional State Classification in Virtual Reality Using Wearable Electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, N. S.; Teo, J.; Mountstephens, J.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the classification of emotions on EEG signals. One of the key issues in this research is the lack of mental classification using VR as the medium to stimulate emotion. The approach towards this research is by using K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Firstly, each of the participant will be required to wear the EEG headset and recording their brainwaves when they are immersed inside the VR. The data points are then marked if they showed any physical signs of emotion or by observing the brainwave pattern. Secondly, the data will then be tested and trained with KNN and SVM algorithms. The accuracy achieved from both methods were approximately 82% throughout the brainwave spectrum (α, β, γ, δ, θ). These methods showed promising results and will be further enhanced using other machine learning approaches in VR stimulus.

  2. The emotional impact of being myself: Emotions and foreign-language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaz, Lela; Costa, Albert; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2016-03-01

    Native languages are acquired in emotionally rich contexts, whereas foreign languages are typically acquired in emotionally neutral academic environments. As a consequence of this difference, it has been suggested that bilinguals' emotional reactivity in foreign-language contexts is reduced as compared with native language contexts. In the current study, we investigated whether this emotional distance associated with foreign languages could modulate automatic responses to self-related linguistic stimuli. Self-related stimuli enhance performance by boosting memory, speed, and accuracy as compared with stimuli unrelated to the self (the so-called self-bias effect). We explored whether this effect depends on the language context by comparing self-biases in a native and a foreign language. Two experiments were conducted with native Spanish speakers with a high level of English proficiency in which they were asked to complete a perceptual matching task during which they associated simple geometric shapes (circles, squares, and triangles) with the labels "you," "friend," and "other" either in their native or foreign language. Results showed a robust asymmetry in the self-bias in the native- and foreign-language contexts: A larger self-bias was found in the native than in the foreign language. An additional control experiment demonstrated that the same materials administered to a group of native English speakers yielded robust self-bias effects that were comparable in magnitude to the ones obtained with the Spanish speakers when tested in their native language (but not in their foreign language). We suggest that the emotional distance evoked by the foreign-language contexts caused these differential effects across language contexts. These results demonstrate that the foreign-language effects are pervasive enough to affect automatic stages of emotional processing. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Hemifacial Display of Emotion in the Resting State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face at rest displays distinguishable asymmetries with some lateralization of emotion or expression. The asymmetrical nature of the resting face was examined by preparing hemifacial composites, left–left, right–right, along with normal facial orientation. The left side and right side composites were constructed by using the lateral half of one side of the face and its mirror-reversal. The left side facial composites were found to be more emotional than the right side or normal facial orientations of neutral expressions.

  4. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  5. Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...

  6. Combination of Empirical Mode Decomposition Components of HRV Signals for Discriminating Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateke Goshvarpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Automatic human emotion recognition is one of the most interesting topics in the field of affective computing. However, development of a reliable approach with a reasonable recognition rate is a challenging task. The main objective of the present study was to propose a robust method for discrimination of emotional responses thorough examination of heart rate variability (HRV. In the present study, considering the non-stationary and non-linear characteristics of HRV, empirical mode decomposition technique was utilized as a feature extraction approach. Materials and Methods In order to induce the emotional states, images indicating four emotional states, i.e., happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fearfulness were presented. Simultaneously, HRV was recorded in 47 college students. The signals were decomposed into some intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. For each IMF and different IMF combinations, 17 standard and non-linear parameters were extracted. Wilcoxon test was conducted to assess the difference between IMF parameters in different emotional states. Afterwards, a probabilistic neural network was used to classify the features into emotional classes. Results Based on the findings, maximum classification rates were achieved when all IMFs were fed into the classifier. Under such circumstances, the proposed algorithm could discriminate the affective states with sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rate of 99.01%, 100%, and 99.09%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest discrimination rates were attained by IMF1 frequency and its combinations. Conclusion The high performance of the present approach indicated that the proposed method is applicable for automatic emotion recognition.

  7. From Physiological data to Emotional States: Conducting a User Study and Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehmood KHAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing emotional states is becoming a major part of a user's context for wearable computing applications. The system should be able to acquire a user's emotional states by using physiological sensors. We want to develop a personal emotional states recognition system that is practical, reliable, and can be used for health-care related applications. We propose to use the eHealth platform 1 which is a ready-made, light weight, small and easy to use device for recognizing a few emotional states like ‘Sad’, ‘Dislike’, ‘Joy’, ‘Stress’, ‘Normal’, ‘No-Idea’, ‘Positive’ and ‘Negative’ using decision tree (J48 and k-Nearest Neighbors (IBK classifiers. In this paper, we present an approach to build a system that exhibits this property and provides evidence based on data for 8 different emotional states collected from 24 different subjects. Our results indicate that the system has an accuracy rate of approximately 98 %. In our work, we used four physiological sensors i.e. ‘Blood Volume Pulse’ (BVP, ‘Electromyogram’ (EMG, ‘Galvanic Skin Response’ (GSR, and ‘Skin Temperature’ in order to recognize emotional states (i.e. Stress, Joy/Happy, Sad, Normal/Neutral, Dislike, No-idea, Positive and Negative.

  8. Features of eating behavior, emotional state and metabolic parameters in obese patients with insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of insomnia on eating behavior, anxiety, depression, metabolic and hormonal parameters in obese patients. Materials and Methods. The study involved 104 patients with primary obesity from 20 to 55 years old: 47 men and 57 women, mean age 39 years, mean body weight 118 kg, BMI 39.6. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the first group consisted of patients with complaints of insomnia (n=45, the second (control group (n=59 were patients without sleep disorders. Results. Mean levels of anxiety and depression were significantly higher in the first group. The results of research showed a statistically significant association emotional eating and insomnia. Patients with chronic insomnia without obstructive sleep apnea had low levels of free cortisol in 24-hour urinary compared with patients without sleep disorders (169 [145, 194] vs. 324 [244, 330], respectively, p=0.001, positive correlation with total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and negative with wake time during sleep period time. Conclusions. Sleep disorders in obese patients are one of the factors contributing to the increase in food intake in response to changes in emotional state on the background of "hidden" anxiety and depressive disorders. It is possible that the data eating disorders and psychological status may have a negative impact on the dynamics of weight during the treatment of obesity.

  9. An Emotional Response To The State of Accounting Education::Developing Accounting Students’ Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    McPhail, Ken

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to do three things. Firstly, in the light of growing concern over the expanding managerialism and rationalism within society in general and accounting education in particular, the paper presents a theoretical reappraisal of the extent to which conventional perspectives on rationalism and managerialism might be misconstrued. In particular, the paper address a question that relates to the role of emotion within business decision making: ‘while we might feel uneasy about basi...

  10. The impact of emotion on prospective memory and monitoring: no pain, big gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Cynthia; Owens, Max; Einstein, Gilles O

    2012-12-01

    The emotionally enhanced memory effect is robust across studies of retrospective memory, with heightened recall for items with emotional content (e.g., words like "murder") relative to neutral items (e.g., words like "envelope"). Only a handful of studies have examined the influence of emotion on prospective memory (PM), with mixed results. In some cases emotion enhances PM, and in others it impairs PM. Interpretation of these findings is clouded by methodological differences across studies and by the fact that, to date, no study has examined the impact of emotion on PM monitoring. In our study, we assessed PM performance when PM targets were neutral, negative, and positive, and also investigated monitoring across these different PM target types. Participants showed heightened PM performance for positive and negative relative to neutral targets, yet there was no evidence of additional monitoring for emotional targets. In fact, measures of monitoring were significantly reduced when the PM targets were emotional rather than neutral. Our findings suggest that it is possible to boost PM performance in a focal task using emotional cues, and that the use of emotional cues reduces the need for monitoring.

  11. Emotions and trait emotional intelligence among ultra-endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Wilson, Mathew

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between trait emotional intelligence and emotional state changes over the course of an ultra-endurance foot race covering a route of approximately 175 miles (282 km) and held in set stages over six days. A repeated measures field design that sought to maintain ecological validity was used. Trait emotional intelligence was defined as a relatively stable concept that should predict adaptive emotional states experienced over the duration of the race and therefore associate with pleasant emotions during a 6-stage endurance event. Thirty-four runners completed a self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence before the event started. Participants reported emotional states before and after each of the six races. Repeated measures ANOVA results showed significant variations in emotions over time and a main effect for trait emotional intelligence. Runners high in self-report trait emotional intelligence also reported higher pleasant and lower unpleasant emotions than runners low in trait emotional intelligence. Findings lend support to the notion that trait emotional intelligence associates with adaptive psychological states, suggesting that it may be a key individual difference that explains why some athletes respond to repeated bouts of hard exercise better than others. Future research should test the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance trait emotional intelligence and examine the attendant impact on emotional responses to intense exercise during multi-stage events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. More than meets the eye: the role of self-identity in decoding complex emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michael T; Soto, José A; Adams, Reginald B

    2012-10-01

    Folk wisdom asserts that "the eyes are the window to the soul," and empirical science corroborates a prominent role for the eyes in the communication of emotion. Herein we examine variation in the ability to "read" the eyes of others as a function of social group membership, employing a widely used emotional state decoding task: "Reading the Mind in Eyes." This task has documented impaired emotional state decoding across racial groups, with cross-race performance on par with that previously reported as a function of autism spectrum disorders. The present study extended this work by examining the moderating role of social identity in such impairments. For college students more highly identified with their university, cross-race performance differences were not found for judgments of "same-school" eyes but remained for "rival-school" eyes. These findings suggest that impaired emotional state decoding across groups may thus be more amenable to remediation than previously realized.

  13. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  14. The effects of valence-based and discrete emotional states on aesthetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin-Hui

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that consumer aesthetics--the responses of consumers to the aesthetic or appearance aspects of products--has become an important area of marketing in recent years. Consumer aesthetic responses to a product are a source of pleasure for the consumer. Previous research into the aesthetic responses to products has often emphasized exterior factors and visual design, but studies have seldom considered the psychological aesthetic experience of consumers, and in particular their emotional state. This study attempts to bridge this gap by examining the link between consumers' emotions and their aesthetic response to a product. Thus, the major goal of this study was to determine how valence-based and discrete emotional states influence choice. In Studies 1 and 2, positive and negative emotions were manipulated to implement two different induction techniques and explore the effect of emotions on participants' choices in two separate experiments. The results of both experiments confirmed the predictions, indicating that aesthetic responses and purchase intention are functions of emotional valence, such that both are stronger for people in a positive emotional state than for those in a negative emotional state. Study 2 also used a neutral affective state to establish the robustness of this observed effect of incidental affect. The results of Study 3 demonstrate that aesthetic response and purchase intention are not only a function of affect valence, but also are affected by the certainty appraisal associated with specific affective states. This research, therefore, contributes to the literature by offering empirical evidence that incidental affect is a determinant of aesthetic response.

  15. Emotional Intelligence: Impact on Post-Secondary Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Levin, Elizabeth; Tremblay, Line

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the simultaneous influences of emotional intelligence, adjustment to university, authoritative versus other parenting style, and high school average on first year university students' grade point average (GPA) via structural equation modeling. The participants were 299 first year students from the social science faculty at…

  16. The impact of emotional faces on social motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sina; Pfersmann, Vera; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Impairments in emotion recognition and psychosocial functioning are a robust phenomenon in schizophrenia and may affect motivational behavior, particularly during socio-emotional interactions. To characterize potential deficits and their interplay, we assessed social motivation covering various facets, such as implicit and explicit approach-avoidance tendencies to facial expressions, in 27 patients with schizophrenia (SZP) and 27 matched healthy controls (HC). Moreover, emotion recognition abilities as well as self-reported behavioral activation and inhibition were evaluated. Compared to HC, SZP exhibited less pronounced approach-avoidance ratings to happy and angry expressions along with prolonged reactions during automatic approach-avoidance. Although deficits in emotion recognition were replicated, these were not associated with alterations in social motivation. Together with additional connections between psychopathology and several approach-avoidance processes, these results identify motivational impairments in SZP and suggest a complex relationship between different aspects of social motivation. In the context of specialized interventions aimed at improving social cognitive abilities in SZP, the link between such dynamic measures, motivational profiles and functional outcomes warrants further investigations, which can provide important leverage points for treatment. Crucially, our findings present first insights into the assessment and identification of target features of social motivation.

  17. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWagenbreth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  18. The effects of emotional states and traits on risky decision-making.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Smith, Bruce W., 1959- (,University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM-)

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the role of emotional states is critical for predicting the kind of decisions people will make in risky situations. Currently, there is little understanding as to how emotion influences decision-making in situations such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, pandemics, and combat. To help address this, we used behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine how emotion states and traits influence decisions. Specifically, this study used a wheel of fortune behavioral task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of emotional states and traits on decision-making pertaining to the degree of risk people are willing to make in specific situations. The behavioral results are reported here. The neural data requires additional time to analyze and will be reported at a future date. Biases caused by emotion states and traits were found regarding the likelihood of making risky decisions. The behavioral results will help provide a solid empirical foundation for modeling the effects of emotion on decision in risky situations.

  19. Clinical and evoked pain, personality traits, and emotional states: can familial confounding explain the associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Eric; Poeschla, Brian; Dansie, Elizabeth; Succop, Annemarie; Chopko, Laura; Afari, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex phenomenon influenced by context and person-specific factors. Affective dimensions of pain involve both enduring personality traits and fleeting emotional states. We examined how personality traits and emotional states are linked with clinical and evoked pain in a twin sample. 99 female twin pairs were evaluated for clinical and evoked pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and dolorimetry, and completed the 120-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and ratings of stress and mood. Using a co-twin control design we examined a) the relationship of personality traits and emotional states with clinical and evoked pain and b) whether genetics and common environment (i.e. familial factors) may account for the associations. Neuroticism was associated with the sensory component of the MPQ; this relationship was not confounded by familial factors. None of the emotional state measures was associated with the MPQ. PANAS negative affect was associated with lower evoked pressure pain threshold and tolerance; these associations were confounded by familial factors. There were no associations between IPIP traits and evoked pain. A relationship exists between neuroticism and clinical pain that is not confounded by familial factors. There is no similar relationship between negative emotional states and clinical pain. In contrast, the relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain is strong while the relationship with enduring personality traits is weak. The relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain appears to be non-causal and due to familial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Alexithymia on Emotion Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Avery, Jade C; Jones, Michelle D; Anderson, Leslie K; Wierenga, Christina E; Kaye, Walter H

    2018-03-01

    Research supports that anorexia nervosa-restricting subtype (AN-R) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are associated with emotion regulation difficulties and alexithymia. However, the impact of diagnosis on the relationship between these constructs is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether eating disorder diagnosis moderated the association between admission alexithymia and emotion regulation through discharge. Adult patients with AN-R (n = 54) and BN (n = 60) completed assessments at treatment admission and discharge from a partial hospital program. Eating disorder diagnosis moderated the association between admission alexithymia levels and change in global emotion dysregulation, impulse control difficulties and access to emotion regulation strategies. At higher levels of admission alexithymia, there were no differences between AN-R and BN on emotion dysregulation, whereas at lower levels of alexithymia, AN-R patients demonstrated lower levels of emotion dysregulation. Results imply that difficulties with alexithymia appear to have a greater impact on emotion dysregulation for AN-R patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Head Start Impact on Social-Emotional Outcomes for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee; Calkins, Andrea; Shin, Tae Seob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using the Head Start Impact Study data, this study examines Head Start's impacts on social-emotional outcomes for children with disabilities. Method: Among 4,442 children, 570 children were reported to have disabilities. Ordinary least squares regression was used to determine whether the number of disabilities, having an individualized…

  2. Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: time course and mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical consulting Psychology 2002, 20, 267-274. [44...RTO-MP-HFM-181 14 - 1 Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots...practical tool using different techniques in order to improve regulation of emotions before, during and after actions [3]. This psychological training is

  3. The Impact of Emotional Social Support on Elders' Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Woltil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity persists as a social problem in the U.S., putting its victims at risk of poor nutritional and overall health. Being food insecure is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally safe foods or the inability to access such foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity research tends to focus on younger populations, particularly households with children. Food insecurity among the elderly is, therefore, poorly understood, both in prevalence and in prevention and intervention methods. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the relationships between emotional social support and food security using data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in an effort to further the understanding of food insecurity among elders. Specifically, the effects of an emotional social support presence, number of support sources and types of support sources on food security were observed using OLS linear regression. Results indicated that emotional social support alleviated the risk of food insecurity, even when household income, marital/partnership status and health status were controlled for. However, the source of the support mattered: elders who reported a spouse as the primary source of support were more likely to report being food secure, while those who reported an “other” primary source of support were more likely to report being food insecure. Number of support sources were not significantly related to food security.

  4. determinant of psychophysiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeynikova L.G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work - to study the determinants of psycho-physiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics. In experiment took part 19 highly skilled athletes involved in the Greco-Roman wrestling. The survey was carried out using a hardware-software complex psychodiagnostic "Multipsihometr-05. Determined by the emotional background of athletes according to the method A. Rukavishnikova features of visual perception and perceptual speed.

  5. determinant of psychophysiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova L.G.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work - to study the determinants of psycho-physiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics. In experiment took part 19 highly skilled athletes involved in the Greco-Roman wrestling. The survey was carried out using a hardware-software complex psychodiagnostic "Multipsihometr-05. Determined by the emotional background of athletes according to the method A. Rukavishnikova features of visual perception and perceptual speed.

  6. Assessment of brain activities during an emotional stress state using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takuto; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Kawasaki, Aika; Kato, Makoto; Murata, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated cerebrum activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a mental stress state. Thirty-four healthy adults participated. Before the experiment, we assessed their stress states using the Stress Self-rating Scale and divided the participants into Stress and Non-stress groups. The experiment consisted of 6 trials. Each trial consisted of a 20-s block of emotional audio-visual stimuli (4-s stimulation x 5 slides) and a fixation point. These processes were performed 3 times continuously (Relaxed, Pleasant, Unpleasant stimuli) in a random order. These results showed that the Non-stress group indicated activation of the amygdala and hippocampus in the Pleasant and Unpleasant stimuli while the Stress group indicated activation of the hippocampus in Pleasant stimuli, and the amygdala and hippocampus in Unpleasant stimuli. These findings suggested that the mental stress state engages the reduction of emotional processing. Also, the responsiveness of the memory system remained during and after the emotional stress state. (author)

  7. Wavelet Packet Entropy in Speaker-Independent Emotional State Detection from Speech Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kadkhodaei Elyaderani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, wavelet packet entropy is proposed for speaker-independent emotion detection from speech. After pre-processing, wavelet packet decomposition using wavelet type db3 at level 4 is calculated and Shannon entropy in its nodes is calculated to be used as feature. In addition, prosodic features such as first four formants, jitter or pitch deviation amplitude, and shimmer or energy variation amplitude besides MFCC features are applied to complete the feature vector. Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to classify the vectors in multi-class (all emotions or two-class (each emotion versus normal state format. 46 different utterances of a single sentence from Berlin Emotional Speech Dataset are selected. These are uttered by 10 speakers in sadness, happiness, fear, boredom, anger, and normal emotional state. Experimental results show that proposed features can improve emotional state detection accuracy in multi-class situation. Furthermore, adding to other features wavelet entropy coefficients increase the accuracy of two-class detection for anger, fear, and happiness.

  8. Ecological Factors in Social Skill Acquisition: High School Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in the United States and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to develop a grounded theory of the underlying social processes and/or other ecological factors that impact the effectiveness of skill acquisition for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) in "sister" cities located in the United States (Site One) and in Norway (Site Two). Theory…

  9. Making Decisions under Ambiguity: Judgment Bias Tasks for Assessing Emotional State in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Boleij, Hetty; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2016-01-01

    Judgment bias tasks (JBTs) are considered as a family of promising tools in the assessment of emotional states of animals. JBTs provide a cognitive measure of optimism and/or pessimism by recording behavioral responses to ambiguous stimuli. For instance, a negative emotional state is expected to produce a negative or pessimistic judgment of an ambiguous stimulus, whereas a positive emotional state produces a positive or optimistic judgment of the same ambiguous stimulus. Measuring an animal’s emotional state or mood is relevant in both animal welfare research and biomedical research. This is reflected in the increasing use of JBTs in both research areas. We discuss the different implementations of JBTs with animals, with a focus on their potential as an accurate measure of emotional state. JBTs have been successfully applied to a very broad range of species, using many different types of testing equipment and experimental protocols. However, further validation of this test is deemed necessary. For example, the often extensive training period required for successful judgment bias testing remains a possible factor confounding results. Also, the issue of ambiguous stimuli losing their ambiguity with repeated testing requires additional attention. Possible improvements are suggested to further develop the JBTs in both animal welfare and biomedical research. PMID:27375454

  10. Experimental methods to validate measures of emotional state and readiness for duty in critical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Louise Marie

    2007-01-01

    A recent report on criticality accidents in nuclear facilities indicates that human error played a major role in a significant number of incidents with serious consequences and that some of these human errors may be related to the emotional state of the individual. A pre-shift test to detect a deleterious emotional state could reduce the occurrence of such errors in critical operations. The effectiveness of pre-shift testing is a challenge because of the need to gather predictive data in a relatively short test period and the potential occurrence of learning effects due to a requirement for frequent testing. This report reviews the different types of reliability and validity methods and testing and statistical analysis procedures to validate measures of emotional state. The ultimate value of a validation study depends upon the percentage of human errors in critical operations that are due to the emotional state of the individual. A review of the literature to identify the most promising predictors of emotional state for this application is highly recommended

  11. How the 'warped' relationships between nurses' emotions, attitudes, social support and perceived organizational conditions impact customer orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gountas, Sandra; Gountas, John

    2016-02-01

    Much research focuses on organizational culture and its impact on customer orientation or emotional states and their impact on job satisfaction and well-being. This study aims to combine the complex roles of nurses' emotion states and job satisfaction in a model that identifies the effects of standards for service delivery (organizational culture), supervisor and co-worker support and the development of customer orientation. A previous study examined the relationships between nurses' personal resources, job satisfaction and customer orientation. This study examines how these variables relate to organizational standards and social support. A cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire with validated, existing scales to measure standards for service delivery, supervisor and co-worker support, job satisfaction, empathic concern, emotional exhaustion and customer orientation. Nurses (159) completed the questionnaire in 2010. The data were analysed using WarpPLS, a structural equation modelling software package. The results indicate that the final model fits the data well and explains 84% of the variance in customer orientation. The findings show the importance of standard for service delivery (organizational culture), supervisor and co-worker support on customer orientation. Nurses' personal resources interact with these, particularly supervisor and co-worker support, to develop staff job satisfaction and empathy. The need for support mechanisms in stressful times is discussed. We propose that training in compassion and empathy would help leaders to model desirable attributes that contribute towards customer orientation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of gender and genetics on emotion processing in Parkinson's disease - A multimodal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Heller

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD has been suggested to affect males and females differently. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. However, previous studies focusing on emotion recognition in PD have neglected the confounder of gender and lack evidence on the underlying endocrinal and genetic mechanisms. Moreover, while there are many imaging studies on emotion processing in PD, gender-related analyses of neural data are scarce. We therefore aimed at exploring the interplay of the named factors on emotion recognition and processing in PD. Methods: 51 non-demented PD patients (26 male and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC; 25 male were examined clinically and neuropsychologically including an emotion recognition task (Ekman 60faces test. A subsample of 25 patients and 31 HC underwent task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI comprised of videos of emotional facial expressions. To examine the impact of hormones and genetics on emotion processing, blood samples were taken for endocrinal (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and genetic testing (5-HTTLPR, Val158Met COMT polymorphisms. Results: No group or gender differences emerged regarding cognitive abilities. Male but not female PD patients exhibited confined impairments in recognizing the emotion anger accompanied by diminished neural response to facial expressions (e.g. in the putamen and insula. Endocrinologically, fear recognition was positively correlated with estrogen levels in female patients, while on the genetic level we found an effect of Val158Met COMT genotype on the recognition of fear in PD patients. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that impaired emotion processing in PD specifically affects male patients, and that hormones and genetics contribute to emotion recognition performance. Further research on the underlying neural, endocrinological and genetic mechanisms of specific symptoms in PD is of clinical relevance, as it

  13. At risk of being risky: The relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Rudolph

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts relates to a group mean difference in risk perception − a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18–21. The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.”

  14. At risk of being risky: the relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Marc D.; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Cohen, Alexandra O.; Breiner, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence; Bonnie, Richard J.; Scott, Elizabeth S.; Taylor-Thompson, Kim A.; Chein, Jason; Fettich, Karla C.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Galván, Adriana; Casey, BJ; Fair, Damien A.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10–25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts) relates to a group mean difference in risk perception – a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18–21). The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.” PMID:28279917

  15. Contributions of emotional state and attention to the processing of syntactic agreement errors: Evidence from P600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, M.W.F.T.; Chwilla, D.J.; Tromp, J.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The classic account of language is that language processing occurs in isolation from other cognitive systems, like perception, motor action, and emotion. The central theme of this paper is the relationship between a participant's emotional state and language comprehension. Does emotional context

  16. Influence of Emotional States on the Functioning of Perceptual Sphere and Characteristics of the Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakova Irina Vadimovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the psychological interplay between the formation of perceptual skills and personal qualities. The purpose of the study was to determine the characteristics of this relationship during playback of a given sample in different emotional states. It is hypothesized that there is a connection between such personal qualities as a spontaneous aggressiveness, depression, irritability, emotional lability and peculiarities of functioning of sensory-perceptual sphere during playback of a given sample. 55 students of the Smolensk State University took part in the study. The instrumentation consisted of FPI techniques, ITO, R. Plutchik and measurement precision motor skills in different emotional states of the subject. In the experimental part of the work the special research tool specifically created for the given aim was used; it measured errors when playing a sample of the right and left hand of the subject which then was correlated with the results of the survey recipients. Comparative mapping of indicators of pressure on the levers of the meter in different hands clarified their specific contribution to skill formation and its strong correlation with psychological features of a person. The authors made conclusion that the change of emotional state transforms the perception of the sample; in a state of emotional arousal the errors of the right hand when playing the sample increase more rapidly than the errors of the left hand compared with similar work in the state that recipients assessed as normal working conditions; changes in emotional state affect the fidelity of a given sample; examinees do not fully appreciated errors in reproducing the set of standards.

  17. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Rajhans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception.

  18. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Jessen, Sarah; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy) that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  20. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load.

  1. Cognitive appraisal of environmental stimuli induces emotion-like states in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, M; Millot, S; Castanheira, M F; Félix, A S; Silva, T; Oliveira, G A; Oliveira, C C; Martins, C I M; Oliveira, R F

    2017-10-13

    The occurrence of emotions in non-human animals has been the focus of debate over the years. Recently, an interest in expanding this debate to non-tetrapod vertebrates and to invertebrates has emerged. Within vertebrates, the study of emotion in teleosts is particularly interesting since they represent a divergent evolutionary radiation from that of tetrapods, and thus they provide an insight into the evolution of the biological mechanisms of emotion. We report that Sea Bream exposed to stimuli that vary according to valence (positive, negative) and salience (predictable, unpredictable) exhibit different behavioural, physiological and neuromolecular states. Since according to the dimensional theory of emotion valence and salience define a two-dimensional affective space, our data can be interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of distinctive affective states in fish corresponding to each the four quadrants of the core affective space. Moreover, the fact that the same stimuli presented in a predictable vs. unpredictable way elicited different behavioural, physiological and neuromolecular states, suggests that stimulus appraisal by the individual, rather than an intrinsic characteristic of the stimulus, has triggered the observed responses. Therefore, our data supports the occurrence of emotion-like states in fish that are regulated by the individual's perception of environmental stimuli.

  2. Multimodal emotional state recognition using sequence-dependent deep hierarchical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pablo; Jirak, Doreen; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Emotional state recognition has become an important topic for human-robot interaction in the past years. By determining emotion expressions, robots can identify important variables of human behavior and use these to communicate in a more human-like fashion and thereby extend the interaction possibilities. Human emotions are multimodal and spontaneous, which makes them hard to be recognized by robots. Each modality has its own restrictions and constraints which, together with the non-structured behavior of spontaneous expressions, create several difficulties for the approaches present in the literature, which are based on several explicit feature extraction techniques and manual modality fusion. Our model uses a hierarchical feature representation to deal with spontaneous emotions, and learns how to integrate multiple modalities for non-verbal emotion recognition, making it suitable to be used in an HRI scenario. Our experiments show that a significant improvement of recognition accuracy is achieved when we use hierarchical features and multimodal information, and our model improves the accuracy of state-of-the-art approaches from 82.5% reported in the literature to 91.3% for a benchmark dataset on spontaneous emotion expressions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Emotion as Information in Future-Oriented Cognition: Individual Differences in the Context of State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Brett; Boyle, Chloe C.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stanton, Annette L.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state. Participants (N=119) reported on tendencies to use emotion as information (“following feelings”), underwent an emotion induction (negative versus neutral), and made likelihood estimates and affective forecasts for future events. Views of the future were predicted by both emotional state and individual differences in following feelings. Whereas following negative feelings affected most future-oriented cognition across emotional states, following positive feelings specifically buffered individuals' views of the future in the negative emotion condition, and specifically for positive future events, a category of future-event prediction especially important in psychological health. Individual differences may confer predisposition toward optimistic or pessimistic expectations of the future in the context of acute negative emotion, with implications for adaptive and maladaptive functioning. PMID:27041783

  4. The impact of coaching on the emotional and social intelligence competencies of leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Dippenaar

    2017-03-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine, describe and evaluate the impact of a theoretically substantiated coaching intervention on the emotional and social intelligence competencies of leaders in a financial services company. Setting: The setting of the study is a financial services company in South Africa. Methods: A mixed method approach using a quantitative and qualitative research design was considered appropriate. The quantitative research method consisted of a quasi-experimental design using a non-equivalent pre- and post test control group to measure the impact of the coaching intervention on a sample of 30 leaders. The Bar-On EQ-i scale was selected as a reliable and valid measure of emotional and social intelligence competencies. Wilcoxon’s statistic was calculated to determine the statistical significance of score differences between the experimental (N = 30 and control (N = 30 groups. The qualitative research method was comprised of semi-structured interviews with six of the leaders and their supervisors. Results: The statistical results indicated that coaching significantly impacted the emotional and social intelligence competencies of leaders in terms of their overall emotional quotient (EQ, intrapersonal competency, interpersonal skills, stress management, self-regard and empathy. The semi-structured interviews provided rich descriptive themes and evaluations that corroborated the quantitative findings. Conclusion: This research provided convincing empirical evidence of the positive impact of a long-term, spaced and goal-focused coaching intervention on the emotional and social intelligence competencies of leaders in a financial services institution. The finding suggests that a theoretically well substantiated coaching intervention and a robust empirical study can be effective in demonstrating the impact of coaching on the emotional and social intelligence competencies of leaders. However, the implications of the limitations pointed

  5. Emotion experience and regulation in China and the United States: How do culture and gender shape emotion responding?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, E; Greenberger, E; Charles, S; Chen, C; Zhao, L; Dong, Q

    2012-01-01

    Culture and gender shape emotion experience and regulation, in part because the value placed on emotions and the manner of their expression is thought to vary across these groups. This study tested the hypothesis that culture and gender would interact to predict people's emotion responding (emotion intensity and regulatory strategies). Chinese (n = 220; 52% female) and American undergraduates (n = 241; 62% female) viewed photos intended to elicit negative emotions after receiving instructions...

  6. Education technology with continuous real time monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyushin, M. V.; Kolobashkina, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    The education technology with continuous monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states is suggested. The application of this technology allows one to increase the effectiveness of practice through informed planning of the training load. For monitoring the current functional and emotional students' states non-contact remote technologies of person bioparameters registration are encouraged to use. These technologies are based on recording and processing in real time the main person bioparameters in a purely passive mode. Experimental testing of this technology has confirmed its effectiveness.

  7. Midwives' emotional wellbeing: impact of conducting a structured antenatal psychosocial assessment (SAPSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollart, Lyndall; Newing, Carol; Foureur, Maralyn

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the impact of conducting structured antenatal psychosocial assessments (SAPSA) on midwives' emotional wellbeing. The SAPSA includes screening and assessment tools for domestic violence, childhood trauma, drug and alcohol use, depression, and vulnerability factors. Registered midwives who had conducted the SAPSA with women during the first hospital booking visit at two hospitals in NSW. Data was collected by means of focus group interviews. Four sub-themes were identified that directly impacted upon the midwives' emotional wellbeing: cumulative complex disclosures, frustration and stress, lack of support for midwives and unhealthy coping strategies. There was a cumulative emotional effect with some midwives utilising unhealthy strategies to cope with feelings of frustration, inadequacy and vicarious trauma. Establishment of structured referral pathways for women and supportive systems for midwives is essential prior to implementing the SAPSA.

  8. Confusing procedures with process when appraising the impact of cognitive bias modification on emotional vulnerability†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Ben; MacLeod, Colin; Rudaizky, Daniel; Holmes, Emily A; Salemink, Elske; Fox, Elaine; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-11-01

    If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question. Our new analyses demonstrate that successfully modifying cognitive bias does significantly alter emotional vulnerability. We revisit Cristea et al 's conclusions in light of these findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  9. [Motivation and Emotional States: Structural Systemic, Neurochemical, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The structural, systemic, neurochemical, molecular and cellular mechanisms of organization and coding motivation and emotional states are describe. The GABA and glutamatergic synaptic systems of basal ganglia form a neural network and participate in the implementation of voluntary behavior. Neuropeptides, neurohormones and paracrine neuromodulators involved in the organization of motivation and emotional states, integrated with synaptic systems, controlled by neural networks and organizing goal-directed behavior. Structural centers for united and integrated of information in voluntary and goal-directed behavior are globus pallidus. Substantia nigra pars reticulata switches the information from corticobasal networks to thalamocortical networks, induces global dopaminergic (DA) signal and organize interaction of mesolimbic and nigostriatnoy DA systems controlled by prefrontal and motor cortex. Together with the motor cortex, substantia nigra displays information in the brainstem and spinal cord to implementation of behavior. Motivation states are formed in the interaction of neurohormonal and neuropeptide systems by monoaminergic systems of brain. Emotional states are formed by monoaminergic systems of the mid-brain, where the leading role belongs to the mesolimbic DA system. The emotional and motivation state of the encoded specific epigenetic molecular and chemical pattern of neuron.

  10. Emotion experience and regulation in China and the United States: how do culture and gender shape emotion responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth; Greenberger, Ellen; Charles, Susan; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhao, Libo; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Culture and gender shape emotion experience and regulation, in part because the value placed on emotions and the manner of their expression is thought to vary across these groups. This study tested the hypothesis that culture and gender would interact to predict people's emotion responding (emotion intensity and regulatory strategies). Chinese (n=220; 52% female) and American undergraduates (n=241; 62% female) viewed photos intended to elicit negative emotions after receiving instructions to either "just feel" any emotions that arose (Just Feel), or to "do something" so that they would not experience any emotion while viewing the photos (Regulate). All participants then rated the intensity of their experienced emotions and described any emotion-regulation strategies that they used while viewing the photos. Consistent with predictions, culture and gender interacted with experimental condition to predict intensity: Chinese men reported relatively low levels of emotion, whereas American women reported relatively high levels of emotion. Disengagement strategies (especially distancing) were related to lower emotional intensity and were reported most often by Chinese men. Taken together, findings suggest that emotion-regulation strategies may contribute to differences in emotional experience across Western and East Asian cultures.

  11. The emotional impact of psychiatric symptoms in dementia on partner caregivers: do caregiver, patient, and situation characteristics make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, F.J.M.; Kat, M.G.; van Tilburg, W.; Jonker, C.; Dr�es, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the emotional impact of psychiatric symptoms of patients with dementia on their caregiving partners, and to explore if caregiver, patient, and situation factors predict this emotional impact on caregivers. A cross-sectional design was used. Partners of patients with

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disability, and Emotional Functioning: Relatedness and Particular Impact on Challenging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappok, Tanja; Sterkenburg, Paula; Bohm, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Persons with an intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behaviour (CB), especially in cases of co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the relatedness and impact of ASD, the severity of ID, and the level of emotional

  13. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse...

  14. How oncologists’ communication impacts patients’ information recall and emotional stress : A video-vignettes approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the research described in this thesis was to investigate the impact of oncologists’ communication during medical consultations on patients’ recall of information provided in those consultations, with a special focus on the possible mediating role of emotional stress in this

  15. Emotional Impact of a Video-Based Suicide Prevention Program on Suicidal Viewers and Suicide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Dhillon-Davis, Luther E.; Dhillon-Davis, Kieran K.

    2009-01-01

    In light of continuing concerns about iatrogenic effects associated with suicide prevention efforts utilizing video-based media, the impact of emotionally-charged videos on two vulnerable subgroups--suicidal viewers and suicide survivors--was explored. Following participation in routine suicide education as a part of the U.S. Air Force Suicide…

  16. Harnessing emotional connections to improve financial decisions : evaluating the impact of financial education in mainstream media

    OpenAIRE

    Berg,Gunhild; Zia,Bilal Husnain

    2013-01-01

    This paper exploits the emotional connections and viewer attentiveness of mainstream media to evaluate the economic impact of financial education messages on debt management delivered through a popular television soap opera in South Africa. The study uses a symmetric encouragement design to compare outcomes of individuals who were randomly assigned to watch a soap opera with financial mess...

  17. Culture impacts the magnitude of the emotion-induced memory trade-off effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela; Garner, Lauryn; Ligouri, Laura; Konuk, Ayse Isilay; Boduroglu, Aysecan

    2017-10-04

    The present study assessed the extent to which culture impacts the emotion-induced memory trade-off effect. This trade-off effect occurs because emotional items are better remembered than neutral ones, but this advantage comes at the expense of memory for backgrounds such that neutral backgrounds are remembered worse when they occurred with an emotional item than with a neutral one. Cultures differ in their prioritisation of focal object versus contextual background information, with Westerners focusing more on objects and Easterners focusing more on backgrounds. Americans, a Western culture, and Turks, an Eastern-influenced culture, incidentally encoded positive, negative, and neutral items placed against neutral backgrounds, and then completed a surprise memory test with the items and backgrounds tested separately. Results revealed a reduced trade-off for Turks compared to Americans. Although both groups exhibited an emotional enhancement in item memory, Turks did not show a decrement in memory for backgrounds that had been paired with emotional items. These findings complement prior ones showing reductions in trade-off effects as a result of task instructions. Here, we suggest that a contextual-focus at the level of culture can mitigate trade-off effects in emotional memory.

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms impact the emotional experience of intimacy during couple discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifker, Feea R; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Blandon, Alysia Y; Marshall, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of PTSD symptom severity on emotional reactions to one's own and one's partner's intimacy behaviors. Heterosexual, community couples in which at least one partner reported elevated symptoms of PTSD were video-recorded discussing a relationship problem and self-reported their emotions immediately before and after the discussion. Each partner's intimacy behaviors were coded. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models indicate that, among those with greater PTSD symptom severity, partners' caring, understanding, and validation were associated with increased negative emotions, particularly fear. Among those with greater PTSD severity, provision of caring was associated with decreased anger, guilt, and sadness. Therefore, the receipt of intimacy was associated with increased negative emotions among individuals with elevated PTSD symptoms while provision of intimacy was associated with decreased negative emotions. Existing treatments for PTSD should consider the emotional context of provision and receipt of intimacy to more fully address relationship problems among couples dealing with PTSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social intelligence of parents with autism spectrum disorders impacts their emotional behaviour: A new proposed model for stabilising emotionality of these parents impacting their social intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhagat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD may affect all spheres of a child's life. Indeed, parents and siblings also live with emotional instabilities in the family. The experience of parents with ASD child can be distressing since they need to make more adjustments to the demanding need to cope with their life situations. Perhaps, their life is drastically exaggerated with their complexities of life. Particularly, their social life is radically affected. The presence of pervasive and severe deficits in children with ASD isolates these parents from their social life; demanding adjustments to their social environment of parents in their life situations shove them into distress and unstable emotions. Finally, they culminate being shattered in their interpersonal relationship, their family and social life. Indeed, these aspects of distress mask social intelligence of these parents, thus narrow down their focus more on the treatment rather than holistic management of their child. Thus, the management of ASD with these parents of the deficit children to reach their fullest abilities remains doubtful. Therefore, the objectives of this study are as follows: (a to examine the impact of emotionality on social intelligence of parents blessed with autistic child, (b to develop awareness regarding social intelligence and its significance among these parents, (c to propose a new model stabilising emotionality of these parents through developing social adaption skills and (d to suggest a new model as a guide in the current intervention regimens to ensure the emotional well-being and better social adoption. This study is made based on the keenly examined past evidence with the correlation of emotionality and its impact on social intelligence of the parents with ASD children. The results reveal that the social intelligence is perceived as lowered evidenced by poor social adjustment reflected in social isolation observed in the parents of children with ASD. A new model

  20. [Multiple-Victimisation due to Armed Conflict and Emotional Distress in the State of Magdalena, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Sanabria, Adriana R; Ospino, Anyelly; Guerra, Valeria M; Caamaño, Beatriz H

    Emotional distress is common in Colombian armed conflict victims. Multiple-victimisation is associated with an increase in emotional distress than victimisation due a single event. However, the association between poly-victimisation and emotional distress among victims of the armed conflict in Colombia has not been documented. To study the association between multiple-victimisation and emotional distress in victims of armed conflict in the State of Magdalena, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was designed, with a secondary analysis of registration of the Psychosocial Care Program and Victim Integral Health (PAPSIVI) in the State of Magdalena, from 2013 to 2014. The profile formula grouped demographic variables, victimising events, and a set of symptoms of emotional distress (perceived discrimination, depressive and anxiety-stress). Odds ratio (OR, 95%CI) were established as measures of association. A total of 943 people were included, with 67.4% women, and ages between18 and 94 years (mean 47.9±14.2). A total of 109 (11.7%) suffered from multiple victimisation. Multiple victimisation events were associated with more emotional distress, depressive symptoms (OR=1.5; 95%CI, 1.3-1.8), perceived stigma (OR=1.3; 95%CI, 1.1-1.5), and anxiety-stress (OR=1.2; 95%CI 1.0-1.4) than a single event. There is more emotional distress in multiple victimisations than in a single victimisation event during armed conflict in this region of Colombia. Further studies are required on this topic. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosario; Elipe, Paz; Mora-Merchán, Joaquin A; Genta, M Luisa; Brighi, Antonella; Guarini, Annalisa; Smith, Peter K; Thompson, Fran; Tippett, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N = 1,964), Spain (N = 1,671), and England (N = 2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Emotions and Heuristics: The State of Perplexity in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, Inés M.

    2017-01-01

    Using data provided by an empirical exploratory study with mathematics undergraduates, this paper discusses some key variables in the interaction between affective and cognitive dimensions in the perplexity state in problem solving. These variables are as follows: heuristics, mathematical processes, appraisal processes [pleasantness, attentional…

  3. Introduction: welfare state reform, recognition and emotional labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Grootegoed, E.; Duyvendak, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment and its corollary, the encouragement of ‘active citizenship’, are widespread phenomena in Western countries today. While public and academic debates have focused on the practical consequences of changing rules and shrinking entitlements, there has been much less attention

  4. Emotional Intelligence and the Conflict Resolution Repertoire of Couples in Tertiary Institutions in Imo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnodum, B. I.; Ugwuegbulam, C. N.; Agbaenyi, I. G.

    2016-01-01

    This study is a descriptive survey that investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict resolution repertoire of couples in tertiary institutions. A sample of 250 married people were drawn from the population of couples in tertiary institutions in Imo State. Two researcher made and validated instruments were used in…

  5. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0–30 and 60–150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state. PMID:25540618

  6. Automatic feedback on cognitive load and emotional state of traffic controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Harbers, M.; Lim, D.; Tas, V. van der

    2014-01-01

    Workload research in command, information and process-control centers, resulted in a modular and formal Cognitive Load and Emotional State (CLES) model with transparent and easy-to-modify classification and assessment techniques. The model distinguishes three representation and analysis layers with

  7. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  8. More than a feeling: Emotional cues impact the access and experience of autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Donahue, Julia

    2017-07-01

    Remembering is impacted by several factors of retrieval, including the emotional content of a memory cue. Here we tested how musical retrieval cues that differed on two dimensions of emotion-valence (positive and negative) and arousal (high and low)-impacted the following aspects of autobiographical memory recall: the response time to access a past personal event, the experience of remembering (ratings of memory vividness), the emotional content of a cued memory (ratings of event arousal and valence), and the type of event recalled (ratings of event energy, socialness, and uniqueness). We further explored how cue presentation affected autobiographical memory retrieval by administering cues of similar arousal and valence levels in a blocked fashion to one half of the tested participants, and randomly to the other half. We report three main findings. First, memories were accessed most quickly in response to musical cues that were highly arousing and positive in emotion. Second, we observed a relation between a cue and the elicited memory's emotional valence but not arousal; however, both the cue valence and arousal related to the nature of the recalled event. Specifically, high cue arousal led to lower memory vividness and uniqueness ratings, but cues with both high arousal and positive valence were associated with memories rated as more social and energetic. Finally, cue presentation impacted both how quickly and specifically memories were accessed and how cue valence affected the memory vividness ratings. The implications of these findings for views of how emotion directs the access to memories and the experience of remembering are discussed.

  9. Relationships between pediatric obesity and maternal emotional states and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Aynur Pekcanlar; Ozturk, Yesim; Avcil, Sibel Nur; Kavurma, Canem; Tufan, Evren

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate depression and anxiety levels of mothers whose child (7-11 years) and adolescent (12-18 years) offspring had obesity, as well as those mothers' attitudes toward their children and their family relationships. This is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 100 dyads. All mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. Maternal state anxiety in the group with obesity was significantly higher than controls (p = 0.03). As measured by Family Assessment Device, affective involvement (p = 0.05) and behavior control (p = 0.00) scores were significantly higher for those with obesity. Obesity and adolescence have independent effects on maternal state anxiety; affective involvement domain of family function is affected by both obesity and its interaction with adolescence, while behavior control domain is singularly affected by obesity. Our results may demonstrate that, for the mothers of children who have obesity, this condition may have an adverse effect on their lives and their family relationships. Pediatric obesity and developmental stage of offspring may have different effects on maternally reported psychometric variables. Cross-sectional design may hinder causal explanations. Further studies with longitudinal designs are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The Impact of Experiential Avoidance on the Inference of Characters' Emotions: Evidence for an Emotional Processing Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Scott M; Kurby, Christopher A

    2010-12-01

    Experiential avoidance is a functional class of maladaptive strategies that contribute to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Although previous research has demonstrated group differences in the interpretation of aversive stimuli, there is limited work on the influence of experiential avoidance during the online processing of emotion. An experimental design investigated the influence of self-reported experiential avoidance during emotion processing by assessing emotion inferences during the comprehension of narratives that imply different emotions. Results suggest that experiential avoidance is partially characterized by an emotional information processing bias. Specifically, individuals reporting higher experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating negative emotion inferences, whereas individuals reporting lower experiential avoidance scores exhibited a bias towards activating positive emotion inferences. Minimal emotional inference was observed for the non-bias affective valence. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of experiential avoidance as a cognitive vulnerability for psychopathology.

  11. The impact of furloughs on emotional exhaustion, self-rated performance, and recovery experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Wheeler, Anthony R; Paustian-Underdahl, Samantha C

    2013-05-01

    The notion that strain can result as employees' resources are threatened or lost is well established. However, the transition from resource threats to resource losses is an important but understudied aspect of employee strain. We argue that the threat-to-loss transition triggers accelerated resource loss and a shift in how employees utilize their remaining resources unless employees engage in recovery experiences during the transition. Using a discontinuous change framework, we examine employee furloughs-the placement of employees on leave with no salary of any kind-in terms of the transition from resource threat to loss: Resources may be threatened when the furlough is announced and lost when the furlough occurs. Using 4 data collections with 180 state government employees, we found mean levels of emotional exhaustion increased and mean levels of self-reported performance decreased following the furlough. The discontinuous changes in exhaustion and performance were significantly impacted by employees' recovery experiences during the furlough. We discuss the implications of these findings for other threat-to-loss and recovery research as well as for organizations implementing furloughs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Personal Narratives of Genetic Testing: Expectations, Emotions, and Impact on Self and Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E; Wasson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The stories in this volume shed light on the potential of narrative inquiry to fill gaps in knowledge, particularly given the mixed results of quantitative research on patient views of and experiences with genetic and genomic testing. Published studies investigate predictors of testing (particularly risk perceptions and worry); psychological and behavioral responses to testing; and potential impact on the health care system (e.g., when patients bring DTC genetic test results to their primary care provider). Interestingly, these themes did not dominate the narratives published in this issue. Rather, these narratives included consistent themes of expectations and looking for answers; complex emotions; areas of contradiction and conflict; and family impact. More narrative research on patient experiences with genetic testing may fill gaps in knowledge regarding how patients define the benefits of testing, changes in psychological and emotional reactions to test results over time, and the impact of testing on families.

  13. Study of psycho-emotional state of patients with acne depending on the severity and hereditary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Petrenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne is one of the most common skin disease in young adults and occurs in 85% of boys and girls. The disease is characterized by progressive course of the formation of psycho-emotional disorders, mainly depression row in about half of patients. Installed heredity is almost 80% of first-degree relatives of patients with acne. In patients with positive family history of acne the disease occurs earlier and course harder. The aim of the study – is to determine the impact of acne on psycho-emotional status in patients. Materials and methods. We examined 78 patients with severe and moderate acne. All patients were questioned by questionnaire CADI (Cardiff Acne Disability Index. Results. Among the surveyed men with moderate acne average value was 6, median – 6, mode – 6; in men with severe acne course average value was 8.6, median – 9.5, mode – 10. Among women surveyed the results of the form were somewhat different from data that were shown by male patients. Women with moderate acne had average value 7 points, the median – 7.5 mode – 8; among women who had severe acne course the average value was – 8, median – 9. Conclusions. As can be seen from the results of the questionnaire, respondents in all groups were shown a significant effect of disease on the psycho-emotional state of patients.

  14. From specificity to sensitivity: affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Thomas; Sachse, Pierre; Furtner, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that visual working memory (VWM) preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in VWM. To explore the influence of affective context on VWM for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a VWM task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1) and pleasant (Experiment 2) IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively) compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of VWM for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced VWM for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in VWM to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of VWM along with flexible resource allocation. In VWM, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events.

  15. From Specificity to Sensitivity: Affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eMaran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings suggest that visual working memory preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in visual working memory. To explore the influence of affective context on visual working memory for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a visual working memory task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1 and pleasant (Experiment 2 IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of visual working memory for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced visual working memory for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in visual working memory to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of visual working memory along with flexible resource allocation. In visual working memory, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events.

  16. Nonlinear analysis of EEGs of patients with major depression during different emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir Akar, Saime; Kara, Sadık; Agambayev, Sümeyra; Bilgiç, Vedat

    2015-12-01

    Although patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have dysfunctions in cognitive behaviors and the regulation of emotions, the underlying brain dynamics of the pathophysiology are unclear. Therefore, nonlinear techniques can be used to understand the dynamic behavior of the EEG signals of MDD patients. To investigate and clarify the dynamics of MDD patients׳ brains during different emotional states, EEG recordings were analyzed using nonlinear techniques. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether there are different EEG complexities that discriminate between MDD patients and healthy controls during emotional processing. Therefore, nonlinear parameters, such as Katz fractal dimension (KFD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Shannon entropy (ShEn), Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) and Kolmogorov complexity (KC), were computed from the EEG signals of two groups under different experimental states: noise (negative emotional content) and music (positive emotional content) periods. First, higher complexity values were generated by MDD patients relative to controls. Significant differences were obtained in the frontal and parietal scalp locations using KFD (pemotional bias was demonstrated by their higher brain complexities during the noise period than the music stimulus. Additionally, we found that the KFD, HFD and LZC values were more sensitive in discriminating between patients and controls than the ShEn and KC measures, according to the results of ANOVA and ROC calculations. It can be concluded that the nonlinear analysis may be a useful and discriminative tool in investigating the neuro-dynamic properties of the brain in patients with MDD during emotional stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark A; Tamir, Diana I

    2017-06-06

    Successful social interactions depend on people's ability to predict others' future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others' current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others' future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others' emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others' future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1-3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants' ratings of emotion transitions predicted others' experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation-valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind-inform participants' mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants' accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone.

  19. Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark A.; Tamir, Diana I.

    2017-01-01

    Successful social interactions depend on people’s ability to predict others’ future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others’ current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others’ future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others’ emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others’ future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1–3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants’ ratings of emotion transitions predicted others’ experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation—valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind—inform participants’ mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants’ accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone. PMID:28533373

  20. Here, There and Everywhere: Emotion and Mental State Talk in Different Social Contexts Predicts Empathic Helping in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDrummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents’ emotion and mental state talk with their toddlers relates to toddlers’ helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n=38 interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g. happy, sad and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g. think, know in joint play. Parents’ emotion and mental state discourse related to children’s empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As emotion and mental state talk both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization

  1. The Impact of Social Cognitive Theory and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Interventions on Beliefs, Emotions, and Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey Melvin

    2010-01-01

    Mental health continues to be a concern for individuals of all ages in the United States. Teachers and students are greatly affected by the impact of mental health related issues. Teachers perform in less than effective ways and student success is hindered when distress is experienced at school. Professional school counselors are in an excellent…

  2. The Impact of Avatar Personalization and Immersion on Virtual Body Ownership, Presence, and Emotional Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemate, Thomas; Gall, Dominik; Roth, Daniel; Botsch, Mario; Latoschik, Marc Erich

    2018-04-01

    This article reports the impact of the degree of personalization and individualization of users' avatars as well as the impact of the degree of immersion on typical psychophysical factors in embodied Virtual Environments. We investigated if and how virtual body ownership (including agency), presence, and emotional response are influenced depending on the specific look of users' avatars, which varied between (1) a generic hand-modeled version, (2) a generic scanned version, and (3) an individualized scanned version. The latter two were created using a state-of-the-art photogrammetry method providing a fast 3D-scan and post-process workflow. Users encountered their avatars in a virtual mirror metaphor using two VR setups that provided a varying degree of immersion, (a) a large screen surround projection (L-shape part of a CAVE) and (b) a head-mounted display (HMD). We found several significant as well as a number of notable effects. First, personalized avatars significantly increase body ownership, presence, and dominance compared to their generic counterparts, even if the latter were generated by the same photogrammetry process and hence could be valued as equal in terms of the degree of realism and graphical quality. Second, the degree of immersion significantly increases the body ownership, agency, as well as the feeling of presence. These results substantiate the value of personalized avatars resembling users' real-world appearances as well as the value of the deployed scanning process to generate avatars for VR-setups where the effect strength might be substantial, e.g., in social Virtual Reality (VR) or in medical VR-based therapies relying on embodied interfaces. Additionally, our results also strengthen the value of fully immersive setups which, today, are accessible for a variety of applications due to the widely available consumer HMDs.

  3. Negative emotion impacts memory for verbal discourse in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel H; Pavuluri, Mani N; Schenkel, Lindsay S; Palmer, Anne; Shah, Khushbu; Vemuri, Deepthi; Whited, Stefanie; Little, Deborah M

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive and emotional deficits have been documented in youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD); however, to date, a systematic evaluation of comprehension and memory for verbally presented information has not been conducted. The effect of emotion on comprehension and memory for verbally presented material also has not been examined. We examined whether youth with PBD have difficulty recalling the big picture (macrostructure) as well as the story details (microstructure). A total of 35 youth with PBD and 25 healthy controls completed an Affective Story Task. A psychological processing model allowed for the examination of both the macrostructure and microstructure of language comprehension. Youth with PBD were capable of comprehending the gist of the stories and were not impaired by emotion when comprehending and remembering macrostructure. However, negative emotional material was found to proactively interfere with the encoding and recall of microstructure. Level of depression appeared to impact recall of microstructure, but not macrostructure. Negatively valenced material may impair subsequent comprehension and memory for details among youth with PBD. This deficit could impact the daily functioning of these youth, as the perception of negative affect may derail aspects of successful comprehension and learning. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  4. The impact of the implementation of work hour requirements on residents' career satisfaction, attitudes and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongseok; Dickey, Jamie; Wessel, Kristen; Girard, Donald E

    2006-10-17

    To assess the impact of work hours' limitations required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) on residents' career satisfaction, emotions and attitudes. A validated survey instrument was used to assess residents' levels of career satisfaction, emotions and attitudes before and after the ACGME duty hour requirements were implemented. The "pre" implementation survey was distributed in December 2002 and the "post" implementation one in December 2004. Only the latter included work-hour related questions. The response rates were 56% for the 2002 and 72% for the 2004 surveys respectively. Although career satisfaction remained unchanged, numerous changes occurred in both emotions and attitudes. Compared to those residents who did not violate work-hour requirements, those who did were significantly more negative in attitudes and emotions. With the implementation of the ACGME work hour limitations, the training experience became more negative for those residents who violated the work hour limits and had a small positive impact on those who did not violate them. Graduate medical education leaders must innovate to make the experiences for selected residents improved and still maintain compliance with the work hour requirements.

  5. Bias to negative emotions: a depression state-dependent marker in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Fadi T; Clark, Luke; Tavitian, Lucy; Sahakian, Barbara J; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-06-30

    The aim of the current research was to examine for the first time the extent to which bias to negative emotions in an inhibitory control paradigm is a state or trait marker in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. We administered the affective go/no go task which measures the ability to switch attention to or away from positive or negative emotional stimuli to 40 adolescents with MDD (20 in acute episode (MDDa) and 20 in remission (MDDr)) and 17 healthy controls (HC). MDDa were significantly faster on the shift to negative target blocks as compared to shift to positive target blocks while HC and MDDr displayed the opposite pattern as measured by an "emotional bias index" (EBI=latency (shift to negative targets)-latency (shift to positive targets)). There was also a trend for an effect of group on commission errors, suggesting more impulsive responding by MDDa than both MDDr and HC independently of stimulus valence throughout the task. Negative bias was not associated with depression severity or medication status. In conclusion, bias to negative emotional stimuli appears to be present in the acute stage of MDD and absent in remission suggesting that it is a depression state-specific marker of MDD in adolescents. Latency emerges as a better proxy of negative bias than commission errors and accuracy on this inhibitory control task in adolescents with MDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Features of psycho-emotional state of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchuko, A A; Yureva, T N; Zlobina, A N

    to investigate peculiarities of psycho-emotional reactions in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). The study involved 35 patients with CSCR (mean age of 47.7±8.5 years) and 26 volunteers without visual impairment (mean age of 35.8±4.5 years). Their psycho-emotional state was studied using the SCL-90-R questionnaire (the severity of psychopathological symptomatology), TOBOL method (the type of attitude to the disease), Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ) (strategies for controlling behavior), Spielberger-Hanin method (the level of anxiety), and the VFQ-25 questionnaire (quality of life). The psycho-emotional state of CSCR patients is characterized by elevated levels of depressive and paranoiac symptoms, obsessions, compulsions, and anxiety. Such patients tend to show supernatural, sthenic desire to maintain their professional status. They tend to try to resolve the conflict by denying the problem, imagining things and distracting oneself. They also show reactive and personal anxiety. In this study, their quality of life was significantly lower than that in healthy volunteers, vision-related criteria particularly concerned. Patients with CSCR demonstrate certain psycho-emotional features that can aggravate their general medical condition as well as the ophthalmic status.

  7. Decision Rightness and Emotional Responses to Abortion in the United States: A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne H Rocca

    Full Text Available Arguments that abortion causes women emotional harm are used to regulate abortion, particularly later procedures, in the United States. However, existing research is inconclusive. We examined women's emotions and reports of whether the abortion decision was the right one for them over the three years after having an induced abortion.We recruited a cohort of women seeking abortions between 2008-2010 at 30 facilities across the United States, selected based on having the latest gestational age limit within 150 miles. Two groups of women (n=667 were followed prospectively for three years: women having first-trimester procedures and women terminating pregnancies within two weeks under facilities' gestational age limits at the same facilities. Participants completed semiannual phone surveys to assess whether they felt that having the abortion was the right decision for them; negative emotions (regret, anger, guilt, sadness about the abortion; and positive emotions (relief, happiness. Multivariable mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in each outcome over time, to compare the two groups, and to identify associated factors.The predicted probability of reporting that abortion was the right decision was over 99% at all time points over three years. Women with more planned pregnancies and who had more difficulty deciding to terminate the pregnancy had lower odds of reporting the abortion was the right decision (aOR=0.71 [0.60, 0.85] and 0.46 [0.36, 0.64], respectively. Both negative and positive emotions declined over time, with no differences between women having procedures near gestational age limits versus first-trimester abortions. Higher perceived community abortion stigma and lower social support were associated with more negative emotions (b=0.45 [0.31, 0.58] and b=-0.61 [-0.93, -0.29], respectively.Women experienced decreasing emotional intensity over time, and the overwhelming majority of women felt that termination was the right

  8. The Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) Programme: Parental Perceptions of Its Impact in School and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Lucy; Claridge, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) programme is an example of an individualised intervention to support pupils experiencing a range of social and emotional needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore parents' constructions of several aspects of the programme: its aims and how these are achieved; its impact on children,…

  9. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  10. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioural impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-05-01

    Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an 'emotional reaction' scale in previous research. We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction-related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Discrete emotions and persuasion: the role of emotion-induced expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Petty, Richard E; Rucker, Derek D; Wegener, Duane T; Braverman, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The authors argue that specific emotions can alter the persuasive impact of messages as a function of the emotional framing of persuasive appeals. Because specific emotions inflate expectancies for events possessing matching emotional overtones (D. DeSteno, R. E. Petty, D. T. Wegener, & D. D. Rucker, 2000), the authors predicted that attempts at persuasion would be more successful when messages were framed with emotional overtones matching the emotional state of the receiver and that these changes would be mediated by emotion-induced biases involving expectancies attached to arguments contained in the messages. Two studies manipulating discrete negative emotional states and message frames (i.e., sadness and anger) confirmed these predictions. The functioning of this emotion-matching bias in parallel with emotion-induced processing differences and the limitations of a valence-based approach to the study of attitude change are also considered.

  12. Are Eyes a Mirror of the Soul? What Eye Wrinkles Reveal about a Horse's Emotional State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hintze

    Full Text Available Finding valid indicators of emotional states is one of the biggest challenges in animal welfare science. Here, we investigated in horses whether variation in the expression of eye wrinkles caused by contraction of the inner eyebrow raiser reflects emotional valence. By confronting horses with positive and negative conditions, we aimed to induce positive and negative emotional states, hypothesising that positive emotions would reduce whereas negative emotions would increase eye wrinkle expression. Sixteen horses were individually exposed in a balanced order to two positive (grooming, food anticipation and two negative conditions (food competition, waving a plastic bag. Each condition lasted for 60 seconds and was preceded by a 60 second control phase. Throughout both phases, pictures of the eyes were taken, and for each horse four pictures per condition and phase were randomly selected. Pictures were scored in random order and by two experimenters blind to condition and phase for six outcome measures: qualitative impression, eyelid shape, markedness of the wrinkles, presence of eye white, number of wrinkles, and the angle between the line through the eyeball and the highest wrinkle. The angle decreased during grooming and increased during food competition compared to control phases, whereas the two phases did not differ during food anticipation and the plastic bag condition. No effects on the other outcome measures were detected. Taken together, we have defined a set of measures to assess eye wrinkle expression reliably, of which one measure was affected by the conditions the horses were exposed to. Variation in eye wrinkle expression might provide valuable information on horse welfare but further validation of specific measures across different conditions is needed.

  13. Trait and State Positive Emotional Experience in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Cao, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Song, Li-Ling; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior meta-analyses indicated that people with schizophrenia show impairment in trait hedonic capacity but retain their state hedonic experience (valence) in laboratory-based assessments. Little is known about what is the extent of differences for state positive emotional experience (especially arousal) between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. It is also not clear whether negative symptoms and gender effect contribute to the variance of positive affect. Methods and Findings The current meta-analysis examined 21 studies assessing state arousal experience, 40 studies measuring state valence experience, and 47studies assessing trait hedonic capacity in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significant impairment in trait hedonic capacity (Cohen’s d = 0.81). However, patients and controls did not statistically differ in state hedonic (valence) as well as exciting (arousal) experience to positive stimuli (Cohen’s d = −0.24 to 0.06). They also reported experiencing relatively robust state aversion and calmness to positive stimuli compared with controls (Cohen’s d = 0.75, 0.56, respectively). Negative symptoms and gender contributed to the variance of findings in positive affect, especially trait hedonic capacity in schizophrenia. Conclusions Our findings suggest that schizophrenia patients have no deficit in state positive emotional experience but impairment in “noncurrent” hedonic capacity, which may be mediated by negative symptoms and gender effect. PMID:22815785

  14. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the firs...

  15. THE EMOTIONAL STATE OF PARENTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE STAHES OF THE EXPERIENCE OF HAVING A CHILD WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDANNA ANDREYKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses research data and scholarly approaches to the study: of problems of parents arising from their child’s illness; the emotional states of parents raising a child with developmental disabilities; stages of emotional experience related to the birth of a sick child. The family as an integral unit has to face various situations determined by the social impact of the child’s disease or impairment, as well as emotional and psychological reactions of the parents to it. Being aware of the psychological stages singled out in the grief theory helps professionals: to understand the reaction of the family of a child with developmental disabilities; realise when and how it is best to intervene, flexibly apply the theory of stages, and account for the specific characteristics of a particular family and individual reactions to such shocks.

  16. The dynamic relationship between emotional and physical states: an observational study of personal health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ye-Seul Lee,1 Won-Mo Jung,1 Hyunchul Jang,2 Sanghyun Kim,2 Sun-Yong Chung,3 Younbyoung Chae1 1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 2Mibyeong Research Center, Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: Recently, there has been increasing interest in preventing and managing diseases both inside and outside medical institutions, and these concerns have supported the development of the individual Personal Health Record (PHR. Thus, the current study created a mobile platform called “Mind Mirror” to evaluate psychological and physical conditions and investigated whether PHRs would be a useful tool for assessment of the dynamic relationship between the emotional and physical conditions of an individual.Methods: Mind Mirror was used to collect 30 days of observational data about emotional valence and the physical states of pain and fatigue from 20 healthy participants, and these data were used to analyze the dynamic relationship between emotional and physical conditions. Additionally, based on the cross-correlations between these three parameters, a multilevel multivariate regression model (mixed linear model [MLM] was implemented.Results: The strongest cross-correlation between emotional and physical conditions was at lag 0, which implies that emotion and body condition changed concurrently. In the MLM, emotional valence was negatively associated with fatigue (β =-0.233, P<0.001, fatigue was positively associated with pain (β =0.250, P<0.001, and pain was positively associated with fatigue (β =0.398, P<0.001.Conclusion: Our study showed that emotional valence and one’s physical condition negatively influenced one another, while fatigue and pain positively affected each other. These findings suggest that the mind and body interact instantaneously, in

  17. Culture and mixed emotions: co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Uchida, Yukiko; Ellsworth, Phoebe C

    2010-06-01

    Previous cross-cultural comparisons of correlations between positive and negative emotions found that East Asians are more likely than Americans to feel dialectical emotions. However, not much is known about the co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions in a given situation. When asked to describe situations in which they felt mixed emotions, Japanese and American respondents listed mostly similar situations. By presenting these situations to another group of respondents, we found that Japanese reported more mixed emotions than Americans in the predominantly pleasant situations, whereas there were no cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly unpleasant situations or the mixed situations. The appraisal of self-agency mediated cultural differences in mixed emotions in the predominantly pleasant situations. Study 2 replicated the findings by asking participants to recall how they felt in their past pleasant, unpleasant, and mixed situations. The findings suggest that both Americans and Japanese feel mixed emotions, but the kinds of situation in which they typically do so depends on culture.

  18. The psychological and emotional state of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on the background of excessive body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Velichko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we studied the parameters of the psychological and emotional state of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on the background of excessive body weight. Psychological and emotional state studies were conducted using the Patient Health Questionnaire-PHQ-9, questionnaire the hospital scale of anxiety and depression (HADS. A comparison of the frequency of occurrence of anxiety-depressive disorders and the study of the degree of their severity in the patients under study. The study revealed that negative changes in the indicators of psychological and emotional state in patients with type 2 diabetes are six times more likely than in healthy people.

  19. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Malakhov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  20. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakhov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  1. Here, there and everywhere: emotion and mental state talk in different social contexts predicts empathic helping in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jesse; Paul, Elena F; Waugh, Whitney E; Hammond, Stuart I; Brownell, Celia A

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents' frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents' emotion and mental state talk (EMST) with their toddlers relates to toddlers' helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n = 38) interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g., happy, sad) and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g., think, know) in joint play. Parents' emotion and mental state discourse related to children's empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As EMST both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization in emerging prosociality.

  2. The Cross-Cultural study of Emotional Expression in Japan and the United States : The Non-monolithic Nature of Individualism and Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Isamu; Stephan, Cookie White; Stephan, Walter G.; Morrison, Shara L.

    1996-01-01

    In this study 3 hypotheses were tested concerning differences between the expression of emotions in collectivistic and individualistic cultures using samples from Japan and the United States. American participants anticipated feeling more comfortable expressing emotions that affirm independence but participants from Japan anticipated feeling equally comfortable expressing independent and interdependent emotions. Japanese participants anticipated feeling equally comfortable expressing emotions...

  3. Impact of Psychosocial Environment on Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Petraviciene, Inga; Balseviciene, Birute

    2017-10-24

    Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children's mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4-6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4-6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51-3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children's emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  4. Impact of Psychosocial Environment on Young Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children’s mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4–6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children’s mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4–6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51–3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  5. Boundaryless career and career success: the impact of emotional and social competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Pizzi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries).

  6. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for African American Women at Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddie; Bovbjerg, Dana

    2005-01-01

    ... to their fatalistic attitudes towards the disease. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional, biological, and cognitive processes among women of African descent at familial breast cancer risk...

  7. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for Women at Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2006-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional biological and cognitive processes among women at familial breast cancer risk...

  8. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for African American Women at Familial Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2007-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional biological, and cognitive processes among women at familial breast cancer risk...

  9. Impact of emotional intelligence on teacher׳s performance in higher education institutions of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims at investigating the impact of emotional intelligence on teacher׳s job performance in the education sector of Pakistan. Sample size consists of 166 teachers from universities in the area of central Punjab, Pakistan. Theories of emotional intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer (1989–1990 were used as the conceptual framework and its relationship with the job performance of teachers was examined. Reliability and validity of variables was tested through measurement model of PLS-SEM. The result indicated that emotional intelligence has a significant impact on the teacher׳s job performance. Key research finding revealed that emotional self-awareness, self-confidence, achievement, developing others and conflict management have a positive and significant relationship with the teacher׳s job performance. Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Performance, Teachers, Pakistan

  10. Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Manja; Buskas, Julia; Altimiras, Jordi; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator of welfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs to highlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be a more or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person). That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test. Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could be shown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were tested in four sessions (of 20s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases (1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying resting in a quiet familiar room. A new method of 'stitching' short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis. When testing different stimuli, no significant differences were observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power in low frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarly for all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associated with the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the person or eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences of inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympathetic deactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction

  11. Emotional and cultural impacts of ICT on learners: A case study of Opuwo, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambira, N.; Lim, C. K.; Tan, K. L.

    2017-10-01

    It is believed that the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) among learners and teachers can tremendously enhance the quality of teaching and learning. Besides, the advancement of the ICT technology is also used to improve the academic performance of the learners in learning and has given space to the teachers to boost their teaching in a more effective manner. However, it is also crucial to identify the impacts on the cultural and emotional among the learners. Nonetheless, it is also difficult to imagine contemporary learning environments that are not supported by ICT since the impacts of these technological developments vary among the various communities. In this paper, the contributions are three folds: (i) to investigate the impacts in the cultural and emotional aspects from the perceptions of the teachers about the learners in disadvantaged and marginalized communities, (ii) to design an assessment instrument to survey and determine the different impacts of ICT use on learners from various communities through a set of questionnaires and (iii) to validate the assessment instrument through Cronbach's Alpha reliability testing. Then, the survey is conducted on learners from disadvantaged and marginalized communities in Opuwo, Namibia that makes it an ideal case study for the context of this research. This study made use of a quantitative approach using survey research design through the application of questionnaires to collect data. The size of the population of these community is approximately 500 teachers (from 16 schools, 2 High schools and 14 Primary) and the sample size that is taken into consideration is 42 (8.4% of approximate population). The research revealed that the use of ICT has emotional benefits as well cultural impacts on learners. Careful planning of ICT curriculum was suggested as it will be beneficial to the disadvantaged and marginalized learners.

  12. The impact of emotional intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Arabshahi,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities and institutions of higher education with a professional, special, educational and cultural environment, play an important role in effective knowledge management and preparing the background for knowledge sharing. Faculty members are known as the main elements of the university who own mental and intellectual property. Their knowledge sharing under certain conditions along with knowledge sharing behaviors improve individual and organizational operations. Moreover, the tendency to do these actions is the most important factor in knowledge sharing behavior and emotional intelligence (EQ, as one of the social intelligence factors, can guide individual thinking and activity. This study examines the impact of emotional intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Regarding the purpose and nature, this study was functional and its methodology was exploratory and due to evaluation of the relations and impacts among variables, it was a correlational method. Data collection included interviews with experts for the qualitative part and a questionnaire for the quantitative part. The qualitative findings indicate different emotional intelligence dimensions, which includes self-awareness, social skills, coping with pressure, adaptability and overall creation. In addition, the result of EQ dimensions on knowledge sharing behavior reveal that “social skills, coping with pressure, and overall creation” share a link with faculty members' research behavior among the four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior and that “adaptability” has no significant relationship with knowledge sharing behavior.

  13. Comparative reference of accommodation tension in schoolchildren of junior classes depending on emotional state

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    L. E. Fedorischeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.

  14. Comparative reference of accommodation tension in schoolchildren of junior classes depending on emotional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Fedorischeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.

  15. The impact of limbic system morphology on facial emotion recognition in bipolar I disorder and healthy controls

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    Bio DS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Danielle Soares Bio,1 Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza,1 Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy,2 Rodrigo Machado-Vieira,3 Ricardo Alberto Moreno11Mood Disorders Unit, 2Institute of Radiology, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch (ETPB, National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAIntroduction: Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD subjects during all mood states. This study aims to investigate the impact of limbic system morphology on FER scores in BD subjects and healthy controls.Material and methods: Thirty-nine euthymic BD I (type I subjects and 40 healthy controls were subjected to a battery of FER tests and examined with 3D structural imaging of the amygdala and hippocampus.Results: The volume of these structures demonstrated a differential pattern of influence on FER scores in BD subjects and controls. In our control sample, larger left and right amygdala demonstrated to be associated to less recognition of sadness faces. In BD group, there was no impact of amygdala volume on FER but we observed a negative impact of the left hippocampus volume in the recognition of happiness while the right hippocampus volume positively impacted on the scores of happiness.Conclusion: Our results indicate that amygdala and hippocampus volumes have distinct effects on FER in BD subjects compared to controls. Knowledge of the neurobiological basis of the illness may help to provide further insights on the role of treatments and psychosocial interventions for BD. Further studies should explore how these effects of amygdala and hippocampus volumes on FER are associated with social networks and social network functioning.Keywords: bipolar disorder, social cognition, facial emotion recognition

  16. A Study of the Effect of Emotional State upon the Variation of the Fundamental Frequency of a Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Vasile GHIURCAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Telephone banking or brokering, building accesssystems or forensics are some of the areas in which speakerrecognition is continuously developing. Fundamental frequencyrepresents an important speech feature used in theseapplications. In this paper we present a study of the effect ofemotional state of a speaker upon the variation of thefundamental frequency of the speech signal. Human beings arequite frequently overwhelmed by various emotions and most ofthe time one can not really control these emotional states. Forthe purpose of our work we have used the Berlin emotionalspeech database which contains utterances of 10 speakers indifferent emotional situations: happy, angry, fearful, bored andneutral. The mean fundamental frequency and also the standarddeviation for every speaker in all the emotional states werecomputed. The results show a very strong influence of theemotional state upon frequency variation.

  17. Impact of emotional competence on supportive care needs, anxiety and depression symptoms of cancer patients: a multiple mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, A-S; Lelorain, S; Mahieuxe, M; Christophe, V

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence on cancer patients' supportive care needs, as mediated by anxiety and depression symptoms. Cross-sectional design: 137 cancer patients (42% breast or ovarian cancer, 58% gastrointestinal cancer) in 4 French hospitals completed the Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form (SCNS-SF). Bootstrap methods with PROCESS Macro were used to test multiple mediation models. Emotional competence presented a direct or indirect beneficial effect on the satisfaction of supportive care needs, anxiety and depression symptoms. As expected, anxiety and depression symptoms had also strong positive correlations with unmet needs. All multiple mediation models were significant, except for physical needs: intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence impacted anxiety and depression symptoms, which in turn impacted psychological, sexual, care/support, and information needs. These innovative results show the important effect of patients' emotional competence on their supportive care need satisfaction, as mediated by anxiety and depression. Consequently, patients with high emotional competence may require less psychosocial input from medical clinicians. Thus, emotional competence may be integrated into health models and psychosocial interventions to improve patient adjustment. Further investigation is, however, needed to know which are the most beneficial specific emotional competences and at what point of the cancer pathway.

  18. The impact of emotional intelligence on work engagement of registered nurses: the mediating role of organisational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Liu, Congcong; Guo, Bingmei; Zhao, Lin; Lou, Fenglan

    2015-08-01

    To explore the impact of emotional intelligence and organisational justice on work engagement in Chinese nurses and to examine the mediating role of organisational justice to provide implications for promoting clinical nurses' work engagement. The importance of work engagement on nurses' well-being and quality of care has been well documented. Work engagement is significantly predicted by job resources. However, little research has concentrated simultaneously on the influence of both personal and organisational resources on nurses' work engagement. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 511 nurses from four public hospitals were enrolled by multistage sampling. Data collection was undertaken using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Organizational Justice questionnaire and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9. We analysed the data using structural equation modelling. Emotional intelligence and organisational justice were significant predictors and they accounted for 44% of the variance in nurses' work engagement. Bootstrap estimation confirmed an indirect effect of emotional intelligence on work engagement via organisational justice. Emotional intelligence and organisational justice positively predict work engagement and organisational justice partially mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and work engagement. Our study supports the idea that enhancing organisational justice can increase the impact of emotional intelligence. Managers should take into account the importance of emotional intelligence and perceptions of organisational justice in human resources management and apply targeted interventions to foster work engagement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Emotion-cognition interaction in people at familial high risk for schizophrenia: the impact of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Laura K; Giuliano, Anthony J; Lee, Erica H; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2011-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are fundamental to schizophrenia, and research suggests that negative emotion abnormally interferes with certain cognitive processes in those with the illness. To a lesser extent, cognitive impairment is found in persons at risk for schizophrenia, but there is limited research on the impact of emotion on cognitive processing in at-risk groups. It is unknown whether interference of negative emotion precedes illness and contributes to vulnerability for the disorder. We studied the extent to which negative emotional information interferes with working memory in 21 adolescent and young adult first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia and 22 community controls. Groups were comparable in age, sex, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Primary measures were n-back tasks varying in cognitive load (1-back, 2-back, 3-back) with emotional faces (neutral, happy, fearful) as stimuli. The control group's response times (RTs) and the women's RTs, regardless of group, differed depending on the emotion condition. In contrast, the RTs of the relatives and of the men, regardless of group, did not differ by emotion. This study is the first to examine emotion-cognition interactions in relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. Reduced efficiency in processing emotional information may contribute to a greater vulnerability for schizophrenia that may be heightened in men. Additional research with larger samples of men and women is needed to test these preliminary findings.

  20. [Resting state fMRI study of emotional network in patients with postconcussion syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Qian, R B; Fu, X M; Lin, B; Zhang, D; Xia, C S; Wei, X P; Niu, C S; Wang, Y H

    2017-07-04

    Objective: To discuss functional connectivity changes in the emotional network of patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and their clinical significance by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: Twenty-seven patients with PCS were recruited from the Department of Neurosurgery of Anhui provincial hospital affiliated to Anhui medical university from October 2015 to April 2016, and 27 healthy subjects were recruited as the controls. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were used to evaluate the emotional state of two groups of subjects. All fMRI data were preprocessed after RS-fMRI scanning, the left and right amygdala were selected as region of interest (ROI) to make functional connectivity (FC) calculation with the whole brain and then the results were did statistical analysis in order to obtain the altered brain areas of amygdala and whole brain functional connectivity in the PCS patient, to understand the functional changes of emotional network. Results: HAMA and HAMD scores of PCS group and the health controls had significant statistical difference (HAMA: the PCS group 9.8±1.5, the health controls 4.5±1.2, P =0.044; HAMD: the PCS group 12±1.2, the health controls was 4.2±1.5, P =0.024). Compared with the health controls, the left amygdala in PCS patients showed decreased FC with left insula, left putamen, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left inferior orbital frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal pole, bilateral supramarginal gyrus et al, on the contrary with the increased FC with right superior orbital frontal gyrus, right middle frontal lobe, right orbital frontal lobe, right middle frontal gyrus. The right amygdala in PCS patients showed decreased FC with bilateral putamen, right inferior orbital frontal gyrus, left insula, bilateral precuneus, bilateral superior temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus

  1. Emotional processes and their impact accompanying the competitor at the start of a sports event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Rybarczyk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present information about the psychological and physical condition of athletes participating in sports competitions. Study was conducted among 33 active athletes. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 26 questions. The results showed that athletes are aware of the fact that the emotional state affects the outcome of the competition. It was also proved, that the strongest emotion accompanies them before the competition is the joy, satisfaction and pride. Majority of athletes experience moderate stress and excitation during the competitions. The biggest stress appears the most often in a  few minutes before competition, the day before and a few hours before the competition. Athletes are people whose excitability is low.  Potentially distracting external factors do not interfere with their performances and are often motivating. The most common motives for athletes are internal motives.

  2. Positive and negative affect mediate the bidirectional relationship between emotional processing and symptom severity and impact in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibelli, Alice; Chalder, Trudie; Everitt, Hazel; Chilcot, Joseph; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with IBS report higher levels of psychological distress compared to healthy controls. Distress has been associated with emotional processing difficulties but studies have not explored how the relationship between distress and emotional processing affects IBS. There is little research on the role of positive affect (PA) in IBS. (a) If difficulties in self-reported emotional processing are associated with affect and IBS measures (i.e., symptom severity, interference in life roles) (b1) If affect mediates the relationship between emotional processing and IBS measures (b2) Alternative model: if affect mediates the relationship between IBS and emotional processing (c) If PA moderates the relationship between distress and IBS. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of IBS (n=558) completed a questionnaire including measures of emotional processing (i.e., unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions, impoverished emotional experience), distress, PA, and IBS symptoms/interference. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted with Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Distress and PA mediated or partly mediated the relationship between unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions/impoverished emotional experience and both IBS measures. The alternative models were also valid, suggesting a two-way relationship between emotional processing and IBS through affect. PA did not moderate the relationship between distress and IBS. Future interventions in IBS may benefit from not only targeting the management of physical symptoms and their daily impact but also aspects related to the experience of both negative and positive affect, and the acceptance and expression of negative emotions. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm causal relationships within the explored models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level

  4. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  5. The ethics of managing affective and emotional states to improve informed consent: autonomy, comprehension, and voluntariness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Hillel; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Over the past several decades the 'affective revolution' in cognitive psychology has emphasized the critical role affect and emotion play in human decision-making. Drawing on this affective literature, various commentators have recently proposed strategies for managing therapeutic expectation that use contextual, symbolic, or emotive interventions in the consent process to convey information or enhance comprehension. In this paper, we examine whether affective consent interventions that target affect and emotion can be reconciled with widely accepted standards for autonomous action. More specifically, the ethics of affective consent interventions is assessed in terms of key elements of autonomy, comprehension and voluntariness. While there may appear to be a moral obligation to manage the affective environment to ensure valid informed consent, in circumstances where volunteers may be prone to problematic therapeutic expectancy, this moral obligation needs to be weighed against the potential risks of human instrumentalization. At this point in time we do not have enough information to be able to justify clearly the programmatic manipulation of human subjects' affective states. The lack of knowledge about affective interventions requires corresponding caution in its ethical justification. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The Effects of Emotional Target and Mood State of Participants on Attentional Blink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Shan Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that attentional blink (AB, a failure to report targets temporally close to each other, can be attenuated separately by (1 emotionally significant test stimuli (T2 and (2 the emotional state of the observer. In the present study, we asked whether and how the (1 and (2 interact. Participants were induced with either positive or negative music and asked to complete an AB task which consisted of low-arousal positive, neutral and negative words as T2. We found low arousal negative words significantly reduced AB more than did other words, while no main nor interaction effect for mood was observed. However, on repeating the experiment and replacing low arousal words with high-arousal ones we not only were able to replicate the finding of an advantage of negative words over others, but detected an effect for the mood of the observer: participants who were induced to become happier using music performed better in detecting T2 across lags and word categories than did participants who became sadder. Our findings suggest an interaction of arousal level of emotional target with the induced mood of participants although the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect need further investigation.

  7. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  8. The impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, and family social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics such as size and durability. The participants were parents of 23 children with disabilities-10 with orthopedic disabilities (average age 30.1 months) and 13 with cerebral palsy (average age 47.0 months). Pretest assessments were completed two times: at initial wheelchair evaluation and at wheelchair delivery. A posttest assessment was completed after each child had used the wheelchair for 4-6 months. Parents reported a lower perceived level of stress at the time of wheelchair delivery, although the magnitude of this effect was fairly small, standardized mean difference (δ) = .27. They also reported an increased satisfaction with their child's social and play skills (δ = .38), ability to go where desired (δ = .86), sleep/wake pattern (δ = .61), and belief that the general public accepts their child (δ = .39) after several months using the wheelchair. Parents reported an increase in interactions within the family at the time of wheelchair delivery (δ = .66). There was no decrease in negative emotions. Parents were satisfied with most factors relating to the wheelchair itself, with areas of concern being wheelchair size and difficulty adjusting the wheelchair. The findings suggest that self-initiated powered mobility for a young child had a positive impact on the family.

  9. Cultural syndromes and age moderate the emotional impact of illness intrusiveness in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Gupta, Anita; Cameron, Jill; Woodend, Kirsten; Mah, Kenneth; Gladman, Dafna

    2009-02-01

    The authors investigated cultural syndromes (multidimensional vectors comprising culturally based attitudes, values, and beliefs) and age as moderators of the emotional impact of illness intrusiveness--illness-induced lifestyle disruptions--in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and examined illness intrusiveness effects in total and separately for three life domains (relationships and personal development, intimacy, and instrumental). People with RA (n = 105) completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings, Individualism-Collectivism, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression scales in a one-on-one interview. Controlling for disease and background characteristics, the association between illness intrusiveness (total score and the Relationships and Personal Development subscale) and distress was inverse when young adults with RA endorsed high horizontal individualism. Illness intrusiveness into intimacy was associated with increased distress, and this intensified when respondents endorsed high vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism, vertical collectivism, or low horizontal individualism. The negative emotional impact of illness intrusiveness into intimacy diminished with increasing age. Given an aging and increasingly pluralistic society, diversity can no longer be ignored in addressing the psychosocial impact of chronic, disabling disease.

  10. State Anxiety Carried Over From Prior Threat Increases Late Positive Potential Amplitude During an Instructed Emotion Regulation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S.; Larson, Christine L.

    2018-01-01

    Emotion regulation has important consequences for emotional and mental health (Saxena, Dubey & Pandey, 2011) and is dependent on executive function (Eisenberg, Smith & Spinrad, 2011). Because state anxiety disrupts executive function (Robinson, Vytal, Cornwell & Grillon, 2013), we tested whether state anxiety disrupts emotion regulation by having participants complete an instructed emotion regulation task, while under threat of unpredictable shock and while safe from shock. We used the late positive potential (LPP) component of the event related potential to measure emotion regulation success. We predicted that LPP responses to negatively valenced images would be modulated by participants’ attempts to increase and decrease their emotions when safe from shock, but not while under threat of shock. Our manipulation check revealed an order effect such that for participants who completed the threat of shock condition first self-reported state anxiety carried over into the subsequent safe condition. Additionally, we found that although instructions to regulate affected participants’ ratings of how unpleasant the images made them feel, instructions to regulate had no effect on LPP amplitude regardless of threat condition. Instead we found that participants who received the threat condition prior to safe had greater LPP responses to all images in the safe condition. We posit that the carryover of anxiety resulted in misattribution of arousal and potentiation of neural responses to the images in the safe condition. Thus, our results imply that physiological arousal and cognition combine to influence the basic neural response to emotional stimuli. PMID:27055095

  11. Which patient will feel down, which will be happy? The need to study the genetic disposition of emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Bartels, Meike; Veenhoven, Ruut; Baas, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; Ropka, Mary E; Shinozaki, Gen; Swaab, Dick

    2010-12-01

    In quality-of-life (QL) research, the genetic susceptibility of negative and positive emotions is frequently ignored, taken for granted, or treated as noise. The objectives are to describe: (1) the major findings of studies addressing the heritable and environmental causes of variation in negative and positive emotional states and (2) the major biological pathways of and genetic variants involved in these emotional states. Literature overview. The heritability estimates for anxiety and depression are 30-40%. Related traits as neuroticism and loneliness are also highly heritable. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is the 'final common pathway' for most depressive symptoms. The many findings of investigated genes are promising but not definitive. Heritability estimates of positive emotional states range between 40 and 50%. Life satisfaction and mental health share common genetic factors with optimism and self-esteem. The prefrontal cortex is a candidate brain area for positive emotional states. Biological and genetic research into positive emotional states is scarce. Genetically informative studies may provide insights into a wide variety of complex questions that traditional QL studies cannot deliver. This insight in turn will help us to design more effective supportive programs that could moderate the outcomes of genetically based predispositions.

  12. The Impact of Top-Down Prediction on Emotional Face Processing in Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Ran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that people with social anxiety show abnormal processing of emotional faces. To investigate the impact of top-down prediction on emotional face processing in social anxiety, brain responses of participants with high and low social anxiety (LSA were recorded, while they performed a variation of the emotional task, using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. Behaviorally, we reported an effect of prediction with higher accuracy for predictable than unpredictable faces. Furthermore, we found that participants with high social anxiety (HSA, but not with LSA, recognized angry faces more accurately than happy faces. For the P100 and P200 components, HSA participants showed enhanced brain activity for angry faces compared to happy faces, suggesting a hypervigilance to angry faces. Importantly, HSA participants exhibited larger N170 amplitudes in the right hemisphere electrodes than LSA participants when they observed unpredictable angry faces, but not when the angry faces were predictable. This probably reflects the top-down prediction improving the deficiency at building a holistic face representation in HSA participants.

  13. The impact of emotional tone, message, and broadcast parameters in youth anti-smoking advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Ji, Ming; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Albers, Alison B

    2004-01-01

    In the context of controversy regarding the optimal characteristics of anti-smoking advertisements for youth, this study examines the impact on recall and perceived effectiveness of variations in the message, emotional tone, reach and frequency of broadcast, remoteness of broadcast, and characteristics of the adolescent audience such as changes in smoking behavior, ownership of cigarette promotional items, and demographic variables. A two-wave longitudinal survey of a population-based sample of 618 Massachusetts youth 12 to 15 years old was carried out in 1993 and 1997. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) approach was used to model the recall and perceived effectiveness of eight advertisements as a function of viewer and ad characteristics. Advertisements featuring messages about serious health consequences which had been independently rated as high in negative emotion were more likely to be recalled and were perceived as more effective by youth survey respondents than ads featuring messages about normative behavior for teens or ads relying on humor. Advertising intensity, while contributing to recall, was negatively related to perceived effectiveness. This study supports mounting evidence that negative emotion in anti-smoking advertisements is effective with youth audiences.

  14. The emotional impact of genetic testing and aspects of counseling prior to prescription of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Verena; Weber, Michael; Eichinger, Sabine

    2008-11-01

    Oral contraceptives increase the thrombotic risk in women with factor V Leiden. Emotional aspects of genetic testing prior to the prescription of oral contraceptives (OC), aspects of counseling and referral patterns are widely unknown. Two hundred forty-seven women with and 132 women without factor V Leiden were interviewed by questionnaire. One hundred sixty-one women (65%) with factor V Leiden and 63 (48%) with wild-type factor V responded. One hundred seventy-one women (76%) reported being emotionally disturbed by genetic testing. Eighty percent of women with factor V Leiden and 16% of women with wild-type factor V were discouraged from OC use. Three percent of women with factor V Leiden were encouraged to take OC. Forty-one percent of women with factor V Leiden used at least one hormone contraceptive method after diagnosis. Only 46 women (29%) with factor V Leiden were counseled about the relevance of the mutation in case of pregnancy. Testing for factor V Leiden has considerable emotional impact. Recommendations after testing are not consistently driven by the test result.

  15. Impact of adoption of yoga way of life on the emotional intelligence of managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh Adhia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The popular perception that a high intelligence quotient (IQ is not necessarily a good predictor of professional and personal success has led to a growing interest in understanding the role of emotional intelligence (EI in improving the performance of business managers. This paper studies the impact of the yoga way of life on EI using data collected from 60 managers in a business enterprise and reports enhanced EI as a result of the practice of yoga. The results indicate the importance of yoga as an integral element in improving managerial performance in organisations and the need to further explore this construct in greater detail.

  16. Deep brain stimulation reveals emotional impact processing in ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Geday, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that modulation of monoaminergic tone with deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus would reveal a site of reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that we previously identified by modulating serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms by blocking serotonin......-noradrenaline reuptake sites. We tested the hypothesis in patients with Parkinson's disease in whom we had measured the changes of blood flow everywhere in the brain associated with the deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We determined the emotional reactivity of the patients as the average impact...

  17. Beliefs about power and its relation to emotional experience: a comparison of Japan, France, Germany, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondillon, Laurie; Niedenthal, Paula M; Brauer, Markus; Rohmann, Anette; Dalle, Nathalie; Uchida, Yukiko

    2005-08-01

    This research examined the concept of power in Japan, France, Germany, and the United States, as well as beliefs about the emotions persons in power tend to elicit in others and about powerful people's regulation (specifically, inhibition) of certain emotions. Definitions of power were assessed by examining the importance of two main components: control over self versus other and freedom of action vis-à-vis social norms. Beliefs about both positive (pride, admiration) and negative (jealousy, contempt) emotions were measured. Analyses revealed that the concept of power differed across countries and that the definitions of power as well as country of origin significantly predicted beliefs about the emotions that are elicited in others by powerful people and also the regulation of expression of emotion by powerful people.

  18. Prevention of emotional states among students from collegiate basketball and soccer teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinauskas R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the questions of the prevention of emotional states among students from collegiate basketball and football teams. The experiment involved 42 athletes aged 19-25. Two methods were used in the inquiry: Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale and Stress-coping Scale (Kiseliov's Thermometer. Results have shown that higher levels of sense of coherence and stress-coping were found in student-athletes after psycho-prophylactic program against these indicators before the psycho-prophylactic program.

  19. Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is defined as “unwanted sound.” Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in the vicinity of airports. In some airports, noise constrains air traffic growth. This consensus paper was prepared by the Impacts of Science Group of the Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization and summarizes the state of the science of noise effects research in the areas of noise measurement and prediction, community annoyance, children’s learning, sleep disturbance, and health. It also briefly discusses civilian supersonic aircraft as a future source of aviation noise.

  20. Impact of health claims in prebiotic-enriched breads on purchase intent, emotional response and product liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Katie L; Miah, Emma M; Morris, Gordon A; Morris, Cecile

    2014-03-01

    The impact of health claims on purchase intent, emotional response and liking has never been previously reported. In this study, prebiotic-enriched bread was used as a model functional food. Purchase intent, emotional response and liking were investigated in three phases: (1) focus groups were used to gauge consumer perception of health claims and functional foods, (2) the impact of health claims on purchase intent and emotional responses were measured using an online survey (n = 122) and (3) hedonic ratings on bread rolls presented with or without any associated claims were obtained (n = 100). A cluster analysis of the purchase intent data identified two clusters of consumers who were either receptive or non-receptive to health claims. Receptive and non-receptive consumers significantly differed in the emotions they reported with respect to the claims. The hedonic ratings did not significantly differ between the breads tasted with or without health claims.

  1. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game.Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game.Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO.Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  2. Families that fire together smile together: Resting state connectome similarity and daily emotional synchrony in parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-05-15

    Despite emerging evidence suggesting a biological basis to our social tiles, our understanding of the neural processes which link two minds is unknown. We implemented a novel approach, which included connectome similarity analysis using resting state intrinsic networks of parent-child dyads as well as daily diaries measured across 14 days. Intrinsic resting-state networks for both parents and their adolescent child were identified using independent component analysis (ICA). Results indicate that parents and children who had more similar RSN connectome also had more similar day-to-day emotional synchrony. Furthermore, dyadic RSN connectome similarity was associated with children's emotional competence, suggesting that being neurally in-tune with their parents confers emotional benefits. We provide the first evidence that dyadic RSN similarity is associated with emotional synchrony in what is often our first and most essential social bond, the parent-child relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Sympathetic Components of Emotional Intelligence on Citizenship Behavior of Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sahafi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most important characteristics of an effective employee performance is person'sSympathetic components of emotional intelligence that has been increasingly considered in anenterprise environment. In this article, we will survey this component in promoting citizenship behaviorof physicians.Materials and methods: In a descriptive, co relational and statistical community approach Theoutstanding performance of an organization using simple random sampling method, 212 cases wereincluded as doctors having subspecialty of the infertility in the Islamic Republic of Iran. A questionnairewas used for data collection. After summarization, structural equation modeling techniques were usedfor analysis and interpretation of research data.Results: The Sympathetic component has a significant positive impact on organizational citizenshipbehavior (T=2.90 and this factor with the effect of 0.46% has the impact on organizational citizenshipbehavior.Conclusion: Considering the importance of sympathy aspect due to results of this research hospitalmanagers are recommended to consider the importance of emotional intelligence in order to enhancethe social capabilities of citizenship behaviors of physicians.

  4. Children's False Memory for Emotional Events: A Developmental Perspective on Emotion s Impact on Backwards Causal-Inference Errors.

    OpenAIRE

    Vennerød, Frida Felicia

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines how emotion affects false memory formation using the Backwards Causal-Inference Paradigm, with a developmental perspective. One-hundred-and-thirty-two children participated in the study, with 56 children aged 6-8 years, 43 children aged 9-10 years and 33 children aged 11-12 years. The children were presented with one of six different PowerPoints, which all displayed the same scripts in photographs, but differed in emotional (positive vs. negative vs. neutral) outcom...

  5. INFLUENCE OF CHORAL SINGING ON PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATE OF SINGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Grigoriev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have described certain correlation between the protein composition of mixed saliva (PCMS and human psycho-emotional state (PES. In this investigation, the analysis of PCMS was used to study the change of PES in the group in the process of creative activities, i.e. choral singing. During the experiment, three groups of singers performed different parts of songs in the course of their regular sessions. The saliva for the analysis was collected from the singers just before and after the choral singing. The results led to the following conclusions. The vast number of singers showed evidence of healthy mental state. During the experiment, in each of the three creative teams there was a relatively harmonious PES of the participants. Collective singing strengthened the positive PES of the most singers. In particular, after singing in the choir a few people were found to have changed their PES from depressive to normal. Also, the processing of the collected data showed that the analysis of the PCMS characteristics allows evaluating not only the direction of the PES change against the background of the creative process, but also the depth of the emotional experience. In conclusion, the results of the research provide an objective basis for the confirmation of the beneficial effects of choral singing on the psyche of the singers.

  6. Here, there and everywhere: emotion and mental state talk in different social contexts predicts empathic helping in toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Jesse; Paul, Elena F.; Waugh, Whitney E.; Hammond, Stuart I.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how paren...

  7. Contributions of emotional state and attention to the processing of syntactic agreement errors: evidence from P600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wilhelmina Francina Teresia Verhees

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The classic account of language is that language processing occurs in isolation from other cognitive systems, like perception, motor action and emotion. The theme of this paper is the relationship between a participant’s emotional state and language comprehension. Does emotional context affect how we process neutral words? Recent studies showed that processing of word meaning –traditionally conceived as an automatic process– is affected by emotional state. The influence of emotional state on syntactic processing is less clear. One study reported a mood-related P600 modulation, while another study did not observe an effect of mood on syntactic processing. The goals of this study were: First, to clarify whether and if so how mood affects syntactic processing. Second, to shed light on the underlying mechanisms by separating possible effects of mood from those of attention on syntactic processing.ERPs were recorded while participants read syntactically correct or incorrect sentences. Mood (happy vs. sad was manipulated by presenting film clips. Attention was manipulated by directing attention to syntactic features vs. physical features. The mood induction was effective. Interactions between mood, attention and syntactic correctness were obtained, showing that mood and attention modulated P600. The mood manipulation led to a reduction in P600 for sad as compared to happy mood when attention was directed at syntactic features. The attention manipulation led to a reduction in P600 when attention was directed at physical features compared to syntactic features for happy mood. From this we draw two conclusions: First, emotional state does affect syntactic processing. We propose mood-related differences in the reliance on heuristics as the underlying mechanism. Second, attention can contribute to emotion-related ERP effects in syntactic language processing. Therefore, future studies on the relation between language and emotion will have to control

  8. Contributions of emotional state and attention to the processing of syntactic agreement errors: evidence from P600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhees, Martine W F T; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Tromp, Johanne; Vissers, Constance T W M

    2015-01-01

    The classic account of language is that language processing occurs in isolation from other cognitive systems, like perception, motor action, and emotion. The central theme of this paper is the relationship between a participant's emotional state and language comprehension. Does emotional context affect how we process neutral words? Recent studies showed that processing of word meaning - traditionally conceived as an automatic process - is affected by emotional state. The influence of emotional state on syntactic processing is less clear. One study reported a mood-related P600 modulation, while another study did not observe an effect of mood on syntactic processing. The goals of this study were: First, to clarify whether and if so how mood affects syntactic processing. Second, to shed light on the underlying mechanisms by separating possible effects of mood from those of attention on syntactic processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read syntactically correct or incorrect sentences. Mood (happy vs. sad) was manipulated by presenting film clips. Attention was manipulated by directing attention to syntactic features vs. physical features. The mood induction was effective. Interactions between mood, attention and syntactic correctness were obtained, showing that mood and attention modulated P600. The mood manipulation led to a reduction in P600 for sad as compared to happy mood when attention was directed at syntactic features. The attention manipulation led to a reduction in P600 when attention was directed at physical features compared to syntactic features for happy mood. From this we draw two conclusions: First, emotional state does affect syntactic processing. We propose mood-related differences in the reliance on heuristics as the underlying mechanism. Second, attention can contribute to emotion-related ERP effects in syntactic language processing. Therefore, future studies on the relation between language and emotion will

  9. Impact of Social Cognition on Alcohol Dependence Treatment Outcome: Poorer Facial Emotion Recognition Predicts Relapse/Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Derntl, Birgit; Osthaus, Friederike; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset on treatment completion. Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including 3 core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: (i) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), (ii) emotional perspective taking, and (iii) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. Subjective measures were also obtained, including estimates of task performance and a self-report measure of empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index). According to treatment outcomes, patients were divided into a patient group with a regular treatment course (e.g., with planned discharge and without relapse during treatment) or an irregular treatment course (e.g., relapse and/or premature and unplanned termination of treatment, "dropout"). Compared with patients completing treatment in a regular fashion, patients with relapse and/or dropout of treatment had significantly poorer facial emotion recognition ability at treatment onset. Additional logistic regression analyses confirmed these results and identified poor emotion recognition performance as a significant predictor for relapse/dropout. Self-report (subjective) measures did not correspond with neurobehavioral social cognition measures, respectively objective task performance. Analyses of individual subtypes of facial emotions revealed poorer recognition particularly of disgust, anger, and no (neutral faces) emotion in patients with relapse/dropout. Social cognition in AUD is clinically relevant. Less successful treatment outcome was associated with poorer facial emotion recognition ability at the beginning of

  10. [Impact of Emotion Regulation and Emotional Arousal on Quality of Life and Adherence of Couples after Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Luisa; Franke, Laura; Tkachenko, Daria; Schiffer, Mario; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2018-05-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication increases the risk of graft failure. Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (ERS) seem to be a risk factor for nonadherence, whereas for patients in relationships spousal support appears as a protective resource. Emotional arousal, objectively measured by the fundamental frequency (f 0 ) during spousal supportive communication is associated with supportive behavior. This study examined the relationship between beliefs about immunosuppressive medication, quality of life, ERS, emotions and emotional arousal, assessed during social support interactions of both spouses of N=50 couples after kidney transplantation. Maladaptive ERS of the transplant recipient were associated with lower mental quality of life of the partner, marginally higher own negative affect and lower beliefs about medication. Maladaptive ERS of the partner showed negative correlations with own mental quality of life. Regarding f 0 , gender differences were found. Higher f 0 of the male transplant recipient were associated with more maladaptive ERS of the female partner. Marginally significate correlations were found with lower own beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of the wife of the male transplant recipient showed correlations with lower own positive affect, more negative affect of the male patient and lower beliefs about medication. Higher f 0 of female transplant recipients were associated with lower own maladaptive ERS and lower maladaptive ERS of the husband. The findings support the relevance of early interventions focusing on identifying and modifying maladaptive ERS for both the patient and partner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The impact of emotion on perception, attention, memory, and decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Brosch, T; Scherer, K; Grandjean, D; Sander, D

    2013-01-01

    Reason and emotion have long been considered opposing forces. However, recent psychological and neuroscientific research has revealed that emotion and cognition are closely intertwined. Cognitive processing is needed to elicit emotional responses. At the same time, emotional responses modulate and guide cognition to enable adaptive responses to the environment. Emotion determines how we perceive our world, organise our memory, and make important decisions. In this review, we provide an overvi...

  12. Affective responses to music in depressed individuals : Aesthetic judgments, emotions, and the impact of music-evoked autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sakka, Laura Stavroula

    2018-01-01

    Music’s powerful influence on our affective states is often utilized in everyday life for emotion regulation and in music-therapeutic interventions against depression. Given this ability of music to influence emotions and symptoms in depressed people, it appears imperative to understand how these individuals affectively respond to music. The primary aim of this thesis is to explore whether depressed individuals have distinct affective responses to music, in terms of aesthetic judgments, emoti...

  13. Interest, Enjoyment and Pride after Failure Experiences? Predictors of Students' State-Emotions after Success and Failure during Learning in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulis, Maria; Ainley, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The current investigation was designed to identify emotion states students experience during mathematics activities, and in particular to distinguish emotions contingent on experiences of success and experiences of failure. Students' task-related emotional responses were recorded following experiences of success and failure while working with an…

  14. The impact of early repeated pain experiences on stress responsiveness and emotionality at maturity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Gayle G; Blakely, Wendy P; Kim, Miyong

    2005-01-01

    The intensive care necessary for premature newborns is characterized by multiple procedures, many of which are painful. Given emerging evidence that such early pain during this time of high brain plasticity may affect long-term neurodevelopmental and social-emotional functioning, this study explored the impact of early repeated pain on emotionality and stress responsivity at maturity. From birth through postnatal day 7, Fischer 344 pups underwent either paw needle prick every day versus every other day or daily paw touch, or were left unperturbed. Each paw received the designated perturbation once per day. At maturity, some animals underwent emotionality testing: either a 4-day series of open field exposures or a single elevated plus-maze (EPM) exposure. The paw prick groups exhibited less open field habituation and occupied the EPM open arms more. Two weeks later, all animals were either subjected to forced swim or not. At 1h post-swim, animals underwent either blood withdrawal for plasma corticosterone (CS) levels and ex vivo natural killer cell activity (NKCA) or were injected intravenously with radiolabeled NK-sensitive syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells and assessed for lung tumor retention. Sex was a major factor in the manifestation of perturbation-related differences in the biologic outcomes. Whereas postnatal pain differentially affected baseline tumor retention between males and females, only males exhibited perturbation-related differences in swim stress-induced increases in tumor retention and CS. Finally, male-female differences were evident in CS, NKCA, and tumor responses to swim stress. These findings suggest that early pain affects neurodevelopmental function in the mature organism; however, these relationships are complicated by sex differences, the postnatal pain schedule, and the outcome measured.

  15. Emotional Lability in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann C; Sallee, Floyd R

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder defined by persistent inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These symptoms occur more frequently and are more severe in individuals with ADHD compared with those at a similar developmental level without ADHD, and can be conceptualized as deficits in executive functioning (EF). EF includes domains of metacognition and inhibition, which influence the ability to regulate responses elicited by emotional stimuli. EF deficits can lead to emotional lability (EL), which is characterized by sudden changes in emotion and behaviors of inappropriately high intensity that may include sudden bouts of anger, dysphoria, sadness, or euphoria. EL is common and estimated to occur in about 3.3-10% of the population. Recent estimates of EL prevalence in children and adolescents with ADHD range from 38 to 75%. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not include EL in diagnostic criteria for ADHD, but does include ADHD-associated features of low frustration tolerance, irritability, or mood lability. The neurobiological basis of EL is not well understood, but brain imaging studies support dividing EF into "cool" cognitive networks encompassing attention and planning activities, and "hot" motivational networks involved in temporal discounting, reward processing, and reward anticipation. Dysfunction in "hot" networks is thought to be related to EL. EL symptoms are associated with more severe ADHD and co-morbidities, have significant impact on functioning, and may respond to treatment with medications frequently used to treat ADHD. Treatment outcomes and areas for future research are discussed.

  16. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder: a PET study and neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Antje A T S; Willemsen, Antoon T M; den Boer, Johan A; Vos, Herry P J; Veltman, Dick J; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-09-30

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the differing brain-activation patterns in PTSD. While brain activation was monitored using positron emission tomography, DID individuals (n=11) and matched DID-simulating healthy controls (n=16) underwent an autobiographic script-driven imagery paradigm in a hypo-aroused and a hyper-aroused identity state. Results were consistent with those previously found in the two PTSD subtypes for the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala and insula, respectively. Furthermore, the dissociative identity state uniquely activated the posterior association areas and the parahippocampal gyri, whereas the hyper-aroused identity state uniquely activated the caudate nucleus. Therefore, we proposed an extended PTSD-based neurobiological model for emotion modulation in DID: the hypo-aroused identity state activates the prefrontal cortex, cingulate, posterior association areas and parahippocampal gyri, thereby overmodulating emotion regulation; the hyper-aroused identity state activates the amygdala and insula as well as the dorsal striatum, thereby undermodulating emotion regulation. This confirms the notion that DID is related to PTSD as hypo-aroused and hyper-arousal states in DID and PTSD are similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental state attribution and the temporoparietal junction: an fMRI study comparing belief, emotion, and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Deborah; Walker, Caren; Miller, Saul; LaViolette, Pete; Feczko, Eric; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2010-07-01

    By age 2, children attribute referential mental states such as perceptions and emotions to themselves and others, yet it is not until age 4 that they attribute representational mental states such as beliefs. This raises an interesting question: is attribution of beliefs different from attribution of perceptions and emotions in terms of its neural substrate? To address this question with a high degree of anatomic specificity, we partitioned the TPJ, a broad area often found to be recruited in theory of mind tasks, into 2 neuroanatomically specific regions of interest: Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) and Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL). To maximize behavioral specificity, we designed a tightly controlled verbal task comprised of sets of single sentences--sentences identical except for the type of mental state specified in the verb (belief, emotion, perception, syntax control). Results indicated that attribution of beliefs more strongly recruited both regions of interest than did emotions or perceptions. This is especially surprising with respect to STS, since it is widely reported in the literature to mediate the detection of referential states--among them emotions and perceptions--rather than the inference of beliefs. An explanation is offered that focuses on the differences between verbal stimuli and visual stimuli, and between a process of sentence comprehension and a process of visual detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural predictors of emotional inertia in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Christian E; Shing, Elaine Z; Avery, Bradley M; Jung, Youngkyoo; Whitlow, Christopher T; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    Assessing emotional dynamics in the brain offers insight into the fundamental neural and psychological mechanisms underlying emotion. One such dynamic is emotional inertia-the influence of one's emotional state at one time point on one's emotional state at a subsequent time point. Emotion inertia reflects emotional rigidity and poor emotion regulation as evidenced by its relationship to depression and neuroticism. In this study, we assessed changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) from before to after an emotional task and used these changes to predict stress, positive and negative emotional inertia in daily life events. Cerebral blood flow changes in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) predicted decreased non-specific emotional inertia, suggesting that the lPFC may feature a general inhibitory mechanism responsible for limiting the impact that an emotional state from one event has on the emotional state of a subsequent event. CBF changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital cortex were associated with positive emotional inertia and negative/stress inertia, respectively. These data advance the blossoming literature on the temporal dynamics of emotion in the brain and on the use of neural indices to predict mental health-relevant behavior in daily life. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. The state of the science of emotional intelligence related to nursing leadership: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerjordet, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    To explore the state of the science of emotional intelligence (EI) related to nursing leadership and its critiques. The phenomenon of EI has emerged as a potential new construct of importance for nursing leadership that enhances educational, organizational, staff and patient outcomes. Nevertheless, important questions and critical reflections related to exaggerated claims, conceptualizations and measurements exist. A literature search was conducted using international databases covering the period January 1999 to December 2009. A manual search of relevant journals and significant references increased the data. Critical reflection seems to be associated with the unsubstantiated predictive validity of EI in the area of nursing leadership. In addition, important moral issues are called into question. It is important to possess in-depth knowledge of EI and its scientific critique when integrating the concept into nursing research, education and practical settings. More attention to the nature of emotion in EI is necessary. Implications for nursing leadership The dynamics of EI should be explored in the context of both the surrounding environment and individual differences, as the latter can be adaptive in some settings but harmful in others.

  20. [Dynamics of the emotional state of patients with atherosclerosis of lower limb arteries undergoing surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, A A; Dubinina, E A

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at determining the dynamics of the emotional state and factors influencing thereupon in patients presenting with atherosclerosis of lower limb arteries and undergoing surgical treatment. The study included a total of sixty-five 36-to-90-year-old patients (53 men and 12 women) subjected to examination twice - prior to surgery and before discharge by means of semi-structured interview, self-assessment scale of feeling and mood, methods "Integrative test of anxiety" and "Type of attitude towards the disease" (TOBOL), questionnaire for assessing health-related quality of life SF-36 and Krantz questionnaire in order to determine the position in the therapeutic process. After surgery (on postoperative day 7-10 of hospital stay) the patients demonstrated a decrease in the degree of anxiety and somatic complaints. Women (p=0.037), patients with the duration of the disease from 1 to 8 years (p=0.033), with signs of personality anxiety (p≤0.045), disadaptive variants of attitude to disease and treatment (p≤0.05), as well as clearly manifesting mistrust for medical recommendations (p=0.014) belong to a group of risk of emotional stress at the postoperative stage. Clinical and socio-demographic determinants are comparatively less important in formation of pronounced anxiety of postoperative period than the patient's personality.

  1. APPLICATION OF ICT FOR FOSTERING TOLERANCE THROUGH IMPACT ON EMOTIVITY OF LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Львова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for ways and means of solving the tolerance problem is now extremely urgent for the world community. In Russia due to a number of circumstances for a considerable time some experience has been accumulated and proposed various approaches to solving such problems. Based on the research of V.I. Shakhovsky, who has studied the phenomenon of the emotivity and the possibility of impact on the personal qualities of the individual by means of it and wide spread of information and communication technologies, the author suggests an innovative method for fostering and development of tolerance by influence on emotivity of learners with situative vocabularies and linguistic quasi-corps in the telecommunicative media. Situative vocabulary is an ICT tool that contains lexical structures used in specific communicative situations as well as modern ICT tools (blogs, chats, forums, mail, etc. to supplement existing material and to discuss the ways and situations of use of various linguistic constructions or meanings of the words. Linguistic quasi-corps is an array consisting of a text (or texts, selected on any basis and includes a small (2-20 number of elements. The main task of linguistic quasi-corps is to help the user in analyzing the structure and/or vocabulary of a document while drafting own document. Experience in application of the ICT tools gives evidence of increase in motivation of students by involving them in active work in familiar to them media in particular social networks.

  2. Altering endocannabinoid neurotransmission at critical developmental ages: impact on rodent emotionality and cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana eTrezza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system shows functional activity from early stages of brain development: it plays an important role in fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, thus shaping brain organization during pre- and postnatal life. Cannabis sativa preparations are among the illicit drugs most commonly used by young people, including pregnant women. The developing brain can be therefore exposed to cannabis preparations during two critical periods: first, in offspring of cannabis-using mothers through perinatal and/or prenatal exposure; second, in adolescent cannabis users during neural maturation. In the last decade, it has become clear that the endocannabinoid system critically modulates memory processing and emotional responses. Therefore, it is well possible that developmental exposure to cannabinoid compounds induces enduring changes in behaviors and neural processes belonging to the cognitive and emotional domains. We address this issue by focusing on rodent studies, in order to provide a framework for understanding the impact of cannabinoid exposure on the developing brain.

  3. Impacts of NRC programs on state and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.A.; Lubenau, J.O.

    1983-12-01

    This document reports the results of an NRC staff examination of the impacts of NRC regulatory programs on State and local governments. Twenty NRC programs are identified. For each, the source of the program (e.g., statutory requirement) and NRC funding availability are described and the impacts upon State and local governments are assessed. Recommendations for NRC monitoring and assessing impacts and for enhancing NRC staff awareness of the impacts are offered

  4. An examination of personality, emotional intelligence, coping, gender and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) in undergraduate students.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Shona Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This multivariate study aimed to further understand student stress. Associations between personality, emotional intelligence, coping and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) were examined in 238 undergraduate students, using self-report measures. Gender differences in these variables were also investigated. The results showed that students low in emotional stability, extraversion, emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and those with a tendency to use emotion...

  5. Achievement goal profiles, trait-anxiety and state-emotion of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -emotion in competitive horse riding. The profile that was high in the approach orientations and low in the avoidant orientations emerged as the most emotionally robust profile. It was also the most competitively successful profile. The profiles ...

  6. Internal States and Behavioral Decision-Making: Toward an Integration of Emotion and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Asahina, Kenta; Hoopfer, Eric; Inagaki, Hidehiko; Jung, Yonil; Lee, Hyosang; Remedios, Ryan; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions, such as an aggressive encounter between two conspecific males or a mating encounter between a male and a female, typically progress from an initial appetitive or motivational phase, to a final consummatory phase. This progression involves both changes in the intensity of the animals' internal state of arousal or motivation and sequential changes in their behavior. How are these internal states, and their escalating intensity, encoded in the brain? Does this escalation drive the progression from the appetitive/motivational to the consummatory phase of a social interaction and, if so, how are appropriate behaviors chosen during this progression? Recent work on social behaviors in flies and mice suggests possible ways in which changes in internal state intensity during a social encounter may be encoded and coupled to appropriate behavioral decisions at appropriate phases of the interaction. These studies may have relevance to understanding how emotion states influence cognitive behavioral decisions at higher levels of brain function. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Toward an operational model of decision making, emotional regulation, and mental health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collura, Thomas Francis; Zalaquett, Ronald P; Bonnstetter, Carlos Joyce; Chatters, Seria J

    2014-01-01

    Current brain research increasingly reveals the underlying mechanisms and processes of human behavior, cognition, and emotion. In addition to being of interest to a wide range of scientists, educators, and professionals, as well as laypeople, brain-based models are of particular value in a clinical setting. Psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and other mental health professionals are in need of operational models that integrate recent findings in the physical, cognitive, and emotional domains, and offer a common language for interdisciplinary understanding and communication. Based on individual traits, predispositions, and responses to stimuli, we can begin to identify emotional and behavioral pathways and mental processing patterns. The purpose of this article is to present a brain-path activation model to understand individual differences in decision making and psychopathology. The first section discusses the role of frontal lobe electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry, summarizes state- and trait-based models of decision making, and provides a more complex analysis that supplements the traditional simple left-right brain model. Key components of the new model are the introduction of right hemisphere parallel and left hemisphere serial scanning in rendering decisions, and the proposition of pathways that incorporate both past experiences as well as future implications into the decision process. Main attributes of each decision-making mechanism are provided. The second section applies the model within the realm of clinical mental health as a tool to understand specific human behavior and pathology. Applications include general and chronic anxiety, depression, paranoia, risk taking, and the pathways employed when well-functioning operational integration is observed. Finally, specific applications such as meditation and mindfulness are offered to facilitate positive functioning.

  8. Thinking or feeling? An exploratory study of maternal scaffolding, child mental state talk, and emotion understanding in language-impaired and typically developing school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Little, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    Mother-child mental state talk (MST) supports children's developing social-emotional understanding. In typically developing (TD) children, family conversations about emotion, cognition, and causes have been linked to children's emotion understanding. Specific language impairment (SLI) may compromise developing emotion understanding and adjustment. We investigated emotion understanding in children with SLI and TD, in relation to mother-child conversation. Specifically, is cognitive, emotion, or causal MST more important for child emotion understanding and how might maternal scaffolding support this? Nine 5- to 9-year-old children with SLI and nine age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. We assessed children's language, emotion understanding and reported behavioural adjustment. Mother-child conversations were coded for MST, including emotion, cognition, and causal talk, and for scaffolding of causal talk. Children with SLI scored lower than TD children on emotion understanding and adjustment. Mothers in each group provided similar amounts of cognitive, emotion, and causal talk, but SLI children used proportionally less cognitive and causal talk than TD children did, and more such child talk predicted better child emotion understanding. Child emotion talk did not differ between groups and did not predict emotion understanding. Both groups participated in maternal-scaffolded causal talk, but causal talk about emotion was more frequent in TD children, and such talk predicted higher emotion understanding. Cognitive and causal language scaffolded by mothers provides tools for articulating increasingly complex ideas about emotion, predicting children's emotion understanding. Our study provides a robust method for studying scaffolding processes for understanding causes of emotion. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Mental states inside out: switching costs for emotional and nonemotional sentences that differ in internal and external focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Winkielman, Piotr; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Rotteveel, Mark; Fischer, Agneta H

    2012-01-01

    Mental states-such as thinking, remembering, or feeling angry, happy, or dizzy-have a clear internal component. We feel a certain way when we are in these states. These internal experiences may be simulated when people understand conceptual references to mental states. However, mental states can also be described from an "external" perspective, for example when referring to "smiling." In those cases, simulation of visible outside features may be more relevant for understanding. In a switching costs paradigm, we presented semantically unrelated sentences describing emotional and nonemotional mental states while manipulating their internal or external focus. The results show that switching costs occur when participants shift between sentences with an internal and an external focus. This suggests that different forms of simulation underlie understanding these sentences. In addition, these effects occurred for emotional and nonemotional mental states, suggesting that they are grounded in a similar way-through the process of simulation.

  10. Intergroup differences in the sharing of emotive states: neural evidence of an empathy gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Empathy facilitates prosocial behavior and social understanding. Here, however, we suggest that the most basic mechanism of empathy--the intuitive sharing of other's emotional and motivational states--is limited to those we like. Measuring electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha oscillations as people observed ingroup vs outgroup members, we found that participants showed similar activation patterns when feeling sad as when they observed ingroup members feeling sad. In contrast, participants did not show these same activation patterns when observing outgroup members and even less so the more they were prejudiced. These findings provide evidence from brain activity for an ingroup bias in empathy: empathy may be restricted to close others and, without active effort, may not extend to outgroups, potentially making them likely targets for prejudice and discrimination.

  11. Testosterone and estrogen impact social evaluations and vicarious emotions: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andreas; Kopsida, Eleni; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    The abilities to "read" other peoples' intentions and emotions, and to learn from their experiences, are critical to survival. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sex hormones, notably testosterone and estrogen, in these processes. Yet it is unclear how these hormones affect social cognition and emotion using acute hormonal administration. In the present double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered an acute exogenous dose of testosterone or estrogen to healthy female and male volunteers, respectively, with the aim of investigating the effects of these steroids on social-cognitive and emotional processes. Following hormonal and placebo treatment, participants made (a) facial dominance judgments, (b) mental state inferences (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (c) learned aversive associations through watching others' emotional responses (observational fear learning [OFL]). Our results showed that testosterone administration to females enhanced ratings of facial dominance but diminished their accuracy in inferring mental states. In men, estrogen administration resulted in an increase in emotional (vicarious) reactivity when watching a distressed other during the OFL task. Taken together, these results suggest that sex hormones affect social-cognitive and emotional functions at several levels, linking our results to neuropsychiatric disorders in which these functions are impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Hormonal and behavioral correlates of emotional states in sexually trained boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Malven, P V; Singleton, W L; Weesner, G D

    1999-12-01

    Physiological and behavioral traits of sexually mature boars were compared between episodes of copulation and sexual frustration in order to determine reliable indicators of the differences in emotional states. Ten boars, approximately 6 mo of age, were trained to mount a stationary artificial sow (ArtSow) and to ejaculate when digital pressure was applied to the extended penis. This method of semen collection is the typical procedure of the industry. All 10 boars used in this study were fully trained to this procedure before the onset of the study. Each boar was subjected to trials in which one of the following two treatments was applied. In the control (CTRL) treatment, boars were treated the same as during their training (i.e., allowed to complete ejaculation). In the frustration (FRUS) treatment, boars were allowed to mount the ArtSow, but because no manual pressure was applied to the extended penis, ejaculation never occurred. Blood was collected via indwelling catheters before onset of the trial, during exposure to the ArtSow, and after returning to their home pen. Concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, and beta-endorphin were quantified. Behavior of the boars was recorded during exposure to the ArtSow and for 30 min after return to their home pen. Relative to preexposure levels, serum cortisol increased (Pcortisol did not allow us to distinguish between the excitement of copulation and the negative affect associated with sexual frustration, whereas increases in serum beta-endorphin and motor activity seemed to be indicators of the negative emotional state of sexual frustration in trained boars.

  13. The effect of emotional intelligence on burnout and the impact on the nurses service quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Hanafi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the effect of emotional intelligence on emotional exhaustion and this, in turn, on the quality of hospital care nurse. The subjects were nurses and patients RS RK.Charitas Palembang. This sample was taken using Non-Probability Sampling towards the nurses and patients in the patient units of the hospital Joseph 1 & 2, with the total respondents of 200 people. These were selected as sample and the data analyzed through the process using Structural Equation Model (SEM. It shows that emotional intelligence negatively affects the emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, the emotional intelligence has positive effect on the quality of nursing care. Most importantly, there is a greater direct effect of emotional intel-ligence towards service quality than the indirect effect through the emotional ex-haustion. Emotional exhaustion negatively affects the quality of nursing services.

  14. Case studies of patient interactions, care provision and the impact of emotions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Maggi; Gumley, Virginia

    2013-12-01

    Caring is a complex phenomenon. Nurses aim to relieve patient suffering, acknowledge subjective experiences, display empathy but also manage emotions related to care provision. This study explored nurses' perceptions, experiences and emotions related to caring for cancer patients. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to explore the emotions management of 32 nurses working in a cancer hospital in Pakistan. Data saturation occurred after 20 interviews. Three themes emerged from the data related to caring, acknowledgement of patients' feelings, professional behaviour, patient involvement and emotional control. Some nurses repressed their emotions and feelings over patients who had difficulties sustaining hope. In such cases nurses require supportive networks to assist their emotions management and intra-personal skills. Educational support is needed to help nurses express their views in relation to emotional contagion, significance of repressed emotions and to identify supportive ways to assist nurses to communicate their experiences.

  15. Impact of emotional intelligence on risk behaviour with mediating effect of positive and negative affect

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, I. (Iqra)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Emotional intelligence and risk taking behaviour are considered as significant factors through which people engage in organizations and in daily life. This dissertation formulates the linkage between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative affect and risk taking behavior. The underlying principle of this study was to develop a sense of relationship between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative...

  16. Emotional Intelligence Tests: Potential Impacts on the Hiring Process for Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Shane; Wegener, Matt; Bay, Darlene; Cook, Gail Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is increasingly recognized as being important for professional career success. Skills related to emotional intelligence (e.g. organizational commitment, public speaking, teamwork, and leadership) are considered essential. Human resource professionals have begun including tests of emotional intelligence (EI) in job applicant…

  17. The Emotional States of the Consumer in Stores: The PA (Pleasure-Arousal Adapted to the Algerian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina ELBACHIR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the proposal of a scale for measuring emotional states experienced within a point of sale, for non-English speaking consumers. Since the validity of the measuring instruments may affect the relevance and quality of managerial decisions, the development of a sufficiently reliable measurement that take into account the specificity of a country becomes necessary. Following a literature review that allowed us to highlight existing measuring instruments of emotional states and their disadvantages, we have developed a measurement scale based on two emotional dimensions: pleasure and arousal (stimulation. Following the Churchill Paradigm, the results of our analysis show that the reliability and construct validity of our scale were improved.

  18. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication.

  19. Does the physician's emotional intelligence matter? Impacts of the physician's emotional intelligence on the trust, patient-physician relationship, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hui-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Much of the literature pertinent to management indicates that service providers with high emotional intelligence (EI) receive higher customer satisfaction scores. Previous studies offer limited evidence regarding the impact of physician's EI on patient-physician relationship. Using a multilevel and multisource data approach, the current study aimed to build a model that demonstrated the impact of a physician's EI on the patient's trust and the patient-physician relationship. The survey sample included 983 outpatients and 39 physicians representing 11 specialties. Results of path analyses demonstrated that the ratio of patient's follow-up visits (p impact of patient's trust on patient's satisfaction was mediated by the patient-physician relationship at a significant level (p relationship had a significantly positive effect on patient's satisfaction (p relationship; however, mutual trust and professional respect between nurses and physicians play a critical role in reinforcing the patient-physician relationship to effect improvements in the provision of patient-centered care.

  20. Impacts of suppression on emotional responses and performance outcomes: an experience-sampling study in younger and older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H

    2012-11-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that older adults used less emotional suppression to regulate their emotions than did younger adults, but the effectiveness of using this emotion regulatory strategy on psychosocial well-being across age remains largely unexplored. The present study adopted an experience-sampling method to examine whether the impacts of momentary employment of emotional suppression on momentary positive and negative emotions and job performance would be different by age. Eighty-seven Chinese insurance workers, aged between 18 and 61 years, participated in a 5-day sampling study. Their affective responses at work, momentary task performance, and sales productivity were recorded. Results showed that older workers' greater use of suppression at work was associated with lower intensity of negative emotions, whereas such association was not found among younger workers. Moreover, greater use of suppression over the sampling period was significantly predictive of sales productivity of older workers, but such a positive association was not shown in younger workers. These findings reveal that the use of suppression at work may be more effective for older workers than for younger workers.

  1. Attentional bias in clinical depression and anxiety: The impact of emotional and non-emotional distracting information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein-Vidne, L; Okon-Singer, H; Cohen, N; Todder, D; Aue, T; Nemets, B; Henik, A

    2017-01-01

    Both anxiety and major depression disorder (MDD) were reported to involve a maladaptive selective attention mechanism, associated with bias toward negative stimuli. Previous studies investigated attentional bias using distractors that required processing as part of task settings, and therefore, in our view, these distractors should be regarded as task-relevant. Here, we applied a unique task that used peripheral distractors that presented emotional and spatial information simultaneously. Notably, the emotional information was not associated in any way to the task, and thus was task-irrelevant. The spatial information, however, was task-relevant as it corresponded with task instructions. Corroborating previous findings, anxious patients showed attentional bias toward negative information. MDD patients showed no indication of this bias. Spatial information influenced all groups similarly. These results indicate that anxiety, but not MDD, is associated with an inherent negative information bias, further illustrating that the two closely related disorders are characterized by different processing patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of attachment security and emotion dysregulation on anxiety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed...... to anxiety and that emotion dysregulation would help explain the association between attachment security and anxiety. Results showed that more securely attached youths reported less emotion dysregulation and that youths who had fewer emotion regulation difficulties experienced less anxiety. The association...... between attachment security and anxiety was mediated by emotion dysregulation. The model was confirmed for both children and adolescents. Findings are discussed with respect to theoretical implications, as well as future directions....

  3. Hunger in children in the United States: potential behavioral and emotional correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E; Murphy, J M; Little, M; Pagano, M; Wehler, C A; Regal, K; Jellinek, M S

    1998-01-01

    Results from a recent series of surveys from 9 states and the District of Columbia by the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) provide an estimate that 4 million American children experience prolonged periodic food insufficiency and hunger each year, 8% of the children under the age of 12 in this country. The same studies show that an additional 10 million children are at risk for hunger. The current study examined the relationship between hunger as defined by the CCHIP measure (food insufficiency attributable to constrained resources) and variables reflecting the psychosocial functioning of low-income, school-aged children. The study group included 328 parents and children from a CCHIP study of families with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years living in the city of Pittsburgh and the surrounding Allegheny County. A two-stage area probability sampling design with standard cluster techniques was used. All parents whose child was between the ages of 6 and 12 years at the time of interview were asked to complete a Pediatric Symptom Checklist, a brief parent-report questionnaire that assesses children's emotional and behavioral symptoms. Hunger status was defined by parent responses to the standard 8 food-insufficiency questions from the CCHIP survey that are used to classify households and children as "hungry," "at-risk for hunger," or "not hungry." In an area probability sample of low-income families, those defined as hungry on the CCHIP measure were significantly more likely to have clinical levels of psychosocial dysfunction on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist than children defined as at-risk for hunger or not hungry. Analysis of individual items and factor scores on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist showed that virtually all behavioral, emotional, and academic problems were more prevalent in hungry children, but that aggression and anxiety had the strongest degree of association with experiences of hunger. Children from families that

  4. Negative Emotions Predict Elevated Interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Coe, Christopher L.; Curhan, Katherine B.; Levine, Cynthia S.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Kawakami, Norito; Karasawa, Mayumi; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Western cultures have shown that negative emotions predict higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, specifically interleukin-6 (IL-6). This link between negative emotions and IL-6 may be specific to Western cultures where negative emotions are perceived to be problematic and thus may not extend to Eastern cultures where negative emotions are seen as acceptable and normal. Using samples of 1044 American and 382 Japanese middle-aged and older adults, we investigated whether the relationship between negative emotions and IL-6 varies by cultural context. Negative emotions predicted higher IL-6 among American adults, whereas no association was evident among Japanese adults. Furthermore, the interaction between culture and negative emotions remained even after controlling for demographic variables, psychological factors (positive emotions, neuroticism, extraversion), health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption), and health status (chronic conditions, BMI). These findings highlight the role of cultural context in shaping how negative emotions affect inflammatory physiology and underscore the importance of cultural ideas and practices relevant to negative emotions for understanding of the interplay between psychology, physiology, and health. PMID:23911591

  5. Emotional states of love moderate the association between catecholamines and female sexual responses in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, Carolyn M; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests that there are three interrelated, yet distinct, emotion-motivation brain systems for human love (lust, romantic love, and attachment), each associated with a unique catecholaminergic and hormonal profile. Of interest for the current study are norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), which have a hypothesized connection with romantic love. As NE and DA are also known to facilitate sexual arousal, it is plausible that NE and DA may have a greater positive association with the sexual arousal responses of women in romantic love compared with women in lust. This study investigated if the effects of NE and DA activity on sexual arousal responses would differ depending on emotion-motivation state (Lust or Romantic). Physiological sexual arousal was assessed by photoplethysmography and subjective sexual arousal was assessed with a participant-controlled lever. Seventeen women were included in the Lust group and 29 in the Romantic group. All participants provided a urine sample (to assess NE and DA) and completed a psychophysiological assessment. Elevated NE was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective and physiological sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. Similarly, elevated DA was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. The sexual arousal responses of women in the Lust group, but not in the Romantic group, were positively and significantly associated with elevated NE and DA. It is feasible that, when women are seeking a partner (Lust), NE and DA may facilitate attention toward sexually relevant stimuli. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. The impact of aging and Alzheimer's disease on emotional enhancement of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Zeynel; Cangöz, Banu; Ozel-Kizil, Erguvan T

    2014-01-01

    Emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) has been a well-known phenomenon which corresponds to the advantage of emotional stimuli to be better recalled than neutral ones. Previous studies suggest that aging favours recollection of positive items and this pattern is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emotional valence of different stimulus modalities, i.e. pictures and words, may also have an effect on each other's memory performances. However, none of these were clearly studied in AD. This study aimed to evaluate how emotional valences of simultaneously presented stimuli affected recall in healthy young (YG, n = 30), healthy elderly (HE, n = 30) participants and in patients with AD (n = 30). A battery consisting of emotional words presented on emotional pictures was developed. An analysis of a 3 (Groups) × 3 (Emotional Valence of Picture) × 3 (Emotional Valence of Word) mixed ANOVA design was carried out. Patients with AD could process emotional information similarly to healthy participants; however, they had EEM only for picture recalling. Emotional valence of the co-presented stimulus had a boosting effect both in the YG and HE, but not in AD group, especially if both of the stimuli had the same emotional valence. This study highlights the impaired EEM for verbal and preserved EEM for non-verbal declarative memory in patients with AD, the neurobiological underpinnings of which should be addressed by future studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  8. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder : A PET study and neurobiological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; den Boer, Johan A.; Vos, Herry P. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Loewenstein, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the

  9. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  10. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  11. Feasibility and Emotional Impact of Experimentally Extending Sleep in Short-Sleeping Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, Tori R; Zhang, Nanhua; Catlin, Perry A; Cornist, Kaylin; McAlister, Shealan; Whitacre, Catharine; Beebe, Dean W

    2017-09-01

    Published experimental sleep manipulation protocols for adolescents have been limited to the summer, limiting causal conclusions about how short sleep affects them on school nights, when they are most likely to restrict their sleep. This study assesses the feasibility and emotional impact of a school-night sleep manipulation protocol to test the effects of lengthening sleep in habitually short-sleeping adolescents. High school students aged 14-18 years who habitually slept 5-7 hours on school nights participated in a 5-week experimental sleep manipulation protocol. Participants completed a baseline week followed in randomized counterbalanced order by two experimental conditions lasting 2 weeks each: prescribed habitual sleep (HAB; sleep time set to match baseline) and sleep extension (EXT; 1.5-hour increase in time in bed from HAB). All sleep was obtained at home, monitored with actigraphy. Data on adherence, protocol acceptability, mood and behavior were collected at the end of each condition. Seventy-six adolescents enrolled in the study, with 54 retained through all 5 weeks. Compared to HAB, during EXT, participants averaged an additional 72.6 minutes/night of sleep (p sleep manipulation protocol can be feasibly implemented which directly tests the potential protective effects of lengthening sleep. Many short-sleeping adolescents would benefit emotionally from sleeping longer, supporting public health efforts to promote adolescent sleep on school nights. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Maternal discussions of mental states and behaviors: relations to emotion situation knowledge in European American and immigrant Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the United States. Mothers and children read a storybook together at home, and children's ESK was assessed. Results showed that European American mothers made more references to thoughts and emotions during storytelling than did Chinese mothers, who commented more frequently on behaviors. Regardless of culture, mothers' use of mental states language predicted children's ESK, whereas their references to behaviors were negatively related to children's ESK. Finally, mothers' emphasis on mental states over behaviors partially mediated cultural effects on children's ESK. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Memristive Computational Architecture of an Echo State Network for Real-Time Speech Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-28

    recognition is simpler and requires less computational resources compared to other inputs such as facial expressions . The Berlin database of Emotional ...Processing Magazine, IEEE, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 32– 80, 2001. [15] K. R. Scherer, T. Johnstone, and G. Klasmeyer, “Vocal expression of emotion ...Network for Real-Time Speech- Emotion Recognition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6. AUTHOR(S) Q

  14. Emotional influences in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat; Abbass, Allan; Wu, Albert W

    2010-12-01

    The way that health care providers feel, both within themselves and toward their patients, may influence their clinical performance and impact patient safety, yet this aspect of provider behavior has received relatively little attention. How providers feel, their emotional or affective state, may exert a significant, unintended influence on their patients, and may compromise safety. We examined a broad literature across multiple disciplines to review the interrelationships between emotion, decision making, and behavior, and to assess their potential impact on patient safety. There is abundant evidence that the emotional state of the health care provider may be influenced by factors including characteristics of the patient, ambient conditions in the health care setting, diurnal, circadian, infradian, and seasonal variables, as well as endogenous disorders of the individual provider. These influences may lead to affective biases in decision making, resulting in errors and adverse events. Clinical reasoning and judgment may be particularly susceptible to emotional influence, especially those processes that rely on intuitive judgments. There are many ways that the emotional state of the health care provider can influence patient care. To reduce emotional errors, the level of awareness of these factors should be raised. Emotional skills training should be incorporated into the education of health care professionals. Specifically, clinical teaching should promote more openness and discussion about the provider's feelings toward patients. Strategies should be developed to help providers identify and de-bias themselves against emotional influences that may impact care, particularly in the emotionally evocative patient. Psychiatric conditions within the provider, which may compromise patient safety, need to be promptly detected, diagnosed, and managed.

  15. The impact of emotional involvement on online service buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meina; Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2015-12-02

    When examining a buying process, changes in human brain signals and their event-related potential (ERP) components can be considered a reflection of the consumers' emotions. In this experiment, participants were shown 12 products and related services that were available for purchase. After recording ERP components, we used a questionnaire to measure the individuals' emotional involvement toward the services (i.e. the same services shown in the stimuli) of the 12 products to measure the emotional valence of the services. The emotional ERP components and the late positive potential (LPP) were elicited under the service conditions and distributed over the left frontal regions. We determined that the services may evoke an LPP and that services with a high emotional value may evoke a larger LPP, which suggests that positive emotion may be measured using the LPP amplitude in the left frontal regions. This result helps elucidate whether positive emotions are stimulated during the product-service system decision-making process and helps understand the emotional valences of different services. Our analysis of the emotional motivation of the consumer suggests that the LPP may be useful as an emotional indicator for measuring consumers' evaluation of services that provides a neural view of product-service system buying decisions.

  16. Impact of a negative emotional antitobacco mass media campaign on French smokers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Mons, Ute; Hummel, Karin; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2018-01-13

    Mass media campaigns to encourage smoking cessation have been shown to be effective in a context of comprehensive tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of antismoking ads that evoke negative emotions remains unclear, in particular in countries with high smoking prevalence and among smokers with low perceived susceptibility, low self-efficacy or who are not users of smoking cessation services. To evaluate short-term and long-term effects of a 1-month French national highly emotional media campaign, with a focus on these specific targets. A 6-month longitudinal survey by Internet. A sample of 3000 smokers were interviewed before the media campaign (T0). They were contacted again just after (T1) and 6 months after the campaign (T2). Perceived susceptibility to the risks of smoking, self-efficacy to quit smoking, use of smoking cessation services (quitline and website) and 7-day quitting. The analysis was carried out on 2241 individuals who answered at T1 and T2. Multiple logistic regressions were computed to test the association between the change in each outcome at T1 and T2 and the level of exposure based on self-reported recall. Self-reported recall was associated with an increase in perceived susceptibility and with use of cessation services. Campaign recall was also associated with higher 7-day quitting immediately after the campaign (OR=1.8 (1.0 to 3.2), Pmedia campaigns can be effective in encouraging cessation among smokers in a country with high smoking prevalence (France), but should be accompanied by convincing self-efficacy messages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed.

  18. Empathy manipulation impacts music-induced emotions: a psychophysiological study on opera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C Miu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of voluntarily empathizing with a musical performer (i.e., cognitive empathy on music-induced emotions and their underlying physiological activity. N = 56 participants watched video-clips of two operatic compositions performed in concerts, with low or high empathy instructions. Heart rate and heart rate variability, skin conductance level (SCL, and respiration rate (RR were measured during music listening, and music-induced emotions were quantified using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale immediately after music listening. Listening to the aria with sad content in a high empathy condition facilitated the emotion of nostalgia and decreased SCL, in comparison to the low empathy condition. Listening to the song with happy content in a high empathy condition also facilitated the emotion of power and increased RR, in comparison to the low empathy condition. To our knowledge, this study offers the first experimental evidence that cognitive empathy influences emotion psychophysiology during music listening.

  19. The impact of picture cue emotionality on metamemory and cued recall of associated words

    OpenAIRE

    Resch, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Judgments of learning (JOL) are subjective predictions about how well information will be remembered in the future. Emotional stimuli have shown to be better remembered in free recall experiments, but not in cued recall experiments, even though JOLs have shown to be higher for emotional stimuli. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that emotional cues lead to higher JOLs but worse recollection performance than neutral counterparts. Twenty-eight undergraduate students partic...

  20. 问题类型和情绪状态对贝叶斯推理的影响%The Influence of Different Task Context and Emotion States on Bayesian Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史滋福; 周禹希; 刘妹

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian reasoning can be used for solving meny problems in one' s life in various ways.In recent years,researchers paid attention to the topics that are related to how emotion impacts on people' s judgment,especially about the relationship between emotion and decision - making.The emotion states have exerted a far-reaching influence on people' s judgment behaviors and the results of the problems they solve.According to this discovery,researchers have conducted a number of studies,and are continuing their investigations. However,the research on the effect of negative emotion and positive emotion on the Bayesian reasoning is not sufficient.Therefore, further research is necessary to help us understand more about this. Compared to the previous studies,this study mainly focused on the effect of emotion on decision -partiality.By using the experimental method,based on the previous research,we recruited 240 undergraduate students to investigate the issues related to emotion. Participants' reasoning in different emotions were explored,we predict that people,who make a possibility assessment on events,will be affected by induced emotion types.This suggests that when people are under the positive emotion state,they will make an optimistic judgment and choice on events.On the other hand,people who are under the negative emotion state will make a pessimism judgment and choice on events.Furthermore,we predicts that people who are under the positive emotion state will do better than under the negative emotion state. In order to test this hypothesis,a 2×2 between subjects experiment was designed.The independents variables were the emotion types(negative emotion and positive emotion) and the issue types("classics developing breast cancer" and " winning the lottery "). The dependent variables were the induced emotion types,the distance between predicted value,and the possibility reasoning standard value.The material of the induced emotion types was a piece of a film

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Lecturers of Universities in Kano State: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Sulaiman Ibrahim; Bambale, Abdu Jafaru; Jakada, Balarabe A.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction are two concepts of high interest in modern work environment. They serve as a competitive edge in personal and organizational life. The educational system or lecturing profession is one of those within which the individuals could reap great advantage from the knowledge of emotional intelligence owing to…

  2. Physiological Measures of Emotion from a Developmental Perspective: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Buss, Kristin A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Bell, Martha Ann; Diaz, Anjolii; Adam, Emma K.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A.; Feldman, Ruth; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Rigterink, Tami; Strang, Nicole M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pollak, Seth D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kirwan, Michael; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany; Gunnar, Megan R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Boyce, W. Thomas; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Gates, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a dramatic growth in research examining the development of emotion from a physiological perspective. However, this widespread use of physiological measures to study emotional development coexists with relatively few guiding principles, thus reducing opportunities to move the field forward in innovative ways. The…

  3. A Cognitive and Neural Model for Adaptive Emotion Reading by Mirroring Preparation States and Hebbian Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Memon, Z.A.; Treur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of modelling approaches exist to reading an observed person's emotions: with or without making use of the observing person's own emotions. This paper focuses on an integrated approach that combines both types of approaches in an adaptive manner. The proposed models were inspired by recent

  4. Resting-state functional connectivity in adults with childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, S.J.A.; Pannekoek, J.N.; Veer, I.M.; van Tol, M.J.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D.J.; Zitman, F. G.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Elzinga, B.M.; van der Wee, N.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has been associated with disturbances in emotional and behavioral functioning, and with changes in regional brain morphology. However, whether CEM has any effect on the intrinsic organization of the brain is not known. In this study, we investigated

  5. Resting-state functional connectivity in adults with childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, S. J. A.; Pannekoek, J. N.; Veer, I. M.; van Tol, M. -J.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D. J.; Zitman, F. G.; Rombouts, S. A. R. B.; Elzinga, B. M.; van der Wee, N. J. A.

    Background. Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has been associated with disturbances in emotional and behavioral functioning, and with changes in regional brain morphology. However, whether CEM has any effect on the intrinsic organization of the brain is not known. In this study, we investigated

  6. Resting-state functional connectivity in adults with childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, S. J. A.; Pannekoek, J. N.; Veer, I. M.; van Tol, M.-J.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D. J.; Zitman, F. G.; Rombouts, S. A. R. B.; Elzinga, B. M.; van der Wee, N. J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has been associated with disturbances in emotional and behavioral functioning, and with changes in regional brain morphology. However, whether CEM has any effect on the intrinsic organization of the brain is not known. In this study, we investigated the effects

  7. Relationships between Emotional States and Emoticons in Mobile Phone Email Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shogo; Kato, Yuuki; Scott, Douglass

    2009-01-01

    Three related studies conducted on the role of emotional transfer in email messages were studied in order to better understand Japanese college students' online communications and their broader participation in online communications. The first study investigated users' initiatives in preventing emotional misunderstandings when sending email.…

  8. Changes in working conditions for home healthcare workers and impacts on their work activity and on their emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Van De Weerdt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Home healthcare is steadily growing in many countries. Nevertheless, it is known that home healthcare workers are frequently exposed to a variety of potentially serious occupational hazards. Working conditions have changed to become more emotionally and physically demanding on workers. Emotional labor is increasingly high in this profession. Time pressure is increasingly common. This paper describes an ergonomic study analyzing the working conditions of nursing assistants and nurses, as well as the impacts of their work in terms of job satisfaction, emotions at work, relationships with the others, and occupational stress. The study shows that changing working conditions are making it increasingly difficult for home healthcare workers to do their work properly. We can confirm that such workers use strategies to try to cope. They use individual strategies to preserve the relational dimension of their work activity. These strategies are specifically centered around preserving the relationships with patients, and coping with the demands of the job. The study also shows that workers use strategies to express emotions and to conceal them from others. Finally, the paper presents the recommendations that were discussed with the manager and workers for improving working conditions and that led to practical proposals: e.g. implementing certain items of equipment better suited to difficult care, encouraging assistance between workers when operations so require through appropriate organizational measures, extending emotion-focused work discussion groups with management involvement.

  9. The impact of the CACNA1C risk allele on limbic structures and facial emotions recognition in bipolar disorder subjects and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; Dias, Carolina Zadres; Bio, Danielle S; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) during all mood states. FER has been the focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies evaluating differential activation of limbic regions. Recently, the α1-C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene has been described as a risk gene for BD and its Met allele found to increase CACNA1C mRNA expression. In healthy controls, the CACNA1C risk (Met) allele has been reported to increase limbic system activation during emotional stimuli and also to impact on cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CACNA1C genotype on FER scores and limbic system morphology in subjects with BD and healthy controls. Thirty-nine euthymic BD I subjects and 40 healthy controls were submitted to a FER recognition test battery and genotyped for CACNA1C. Subjects were also examined with a 3D 3-Tesla structural imaging protocol. The CACNA1C risk allele for BD was associated to FER impairment in BD, while in controls nothing was observed. The CACNA1C genotype did not impact on amygdala or hippocampus volume neither in BD nor controls. Sample size. The present findings suggest that a polymorphism in calcium channels interferes FER phenotype exclusively in BD and doesn't interfere on limbic structures morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Yao

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder types I (BD I and II (BD II behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled.We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ, the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32, and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers.Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (- and Schizoid (- predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (- predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (- predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (- predicted MDQ.Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  11. Balancing Automatic-Controlled Behaviors and Emotional-Salience States: A Dynamic Executive Functioning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago W; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how executive functions are conceptualized in psychopathology. Since several models have been proposed, the major issue lies within the definition of executive functioning itself. Theoretical discussions have emerged, narrowing the boundaries between "hot" and "cold" executive functions or between self-regulation and cognitive control. Nevertheless, the definition of executive functions is far from a consensual proposition and it has been suggested that these models might be outdated. Current efforts indicate that human behavior and cognition are by-products of many brain systems operating and interacting at different levels, and therefore, it is very simplistic to assume a dualistic perspective of information processing. Based upon an adaptive perspective, we discuss how executive functions could emerge from the ability to solve immediate problems and to generalize successful strategies, as well as from the ability to synthesize and to classify environmental information in order to predict context and future. We present an executive functioning perspective that emerges from the dynamic balance between automatic-controlled behaviors and an emotional-salience state. According to our perspective, the adaptive role of executive functioning is to automatize efficient solutions simultaneously with cognitive demand, enabling individuals to engage such processes with increasingly complex problems. Understanding executive functioning as a mediator of stress and cognitive engagement not only fosters discussions concerning individual differences, but also offers an important paradigm to understand executive functioning as a continuum process rather than a categorical and multicomponent structure.

  12. Relationship between Personality Disorder Functioning Styles and the Emotional States in Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiashu; Xu, You; Qin, Yanhua; Liu, Jing; Shen, Yuedi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled. Methods We therefore administered the Plutchick – van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32), and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers. Results Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependant, Paranoid (-) and Schizoid (-) predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (-) predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (-) predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependant (-) predicted MDQ. Conclusion Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome. PMID:25625553

  13. How to decrease the emotional impact of cadaver dissection in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javadnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching anatomy is based on cadaver dissection. Working  with cadavers, whether through active dissection or by examination of prosected specimens, constitutes a potential stressor in medical  education.Purpose.To reduce the anxiety of the medical students by mentally preparing them before going to the dissection room.Methods: The questionnaires were distributed among 68 medical students. The pre-dissection questionnaire comprised questions related to demographic data and the first encounter with a cadaver. The students were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was prepared psychologically prior to dissection, but the control group entered the dissection room without any preparation. After the first dissection class, all students were surveyed by the second questionnaire  which surveyed physical and cognitive symptoms of anxiety, resulting from exposure to the dissection room at the first visit and six weeks later.Results: There was a significant difference (p<.05 in the rate of anxiety between experimental and control group in the initial visit. The difference in the rate of anxiety between the first exposure and six weeks later was significant in control group (p<.008, while it was not significant in the experimental group.Conclusion: The initial preparation could relatively reduce the rate of stress, so that the experimental group experienced less errs tonal effects during dissection compared to control group.Keyword: Emotional impact, cadaver dissection, medical students

  14. Exploring the Potential Emotional and Behavioural Impact of Providing Personalised Genomic Risk Information to the Public: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Amelia K; Keogh, Louise A; Newson, Ainsley J; Hersch, Jolyn; Butow, Phyllis; Cust, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    To explore the potential emotional and behavioural impact of providing information on personalised genomic risk to the public, using melanoma as an example, to aid research translation. We conducted four focus groups in which 34 participants were presented with a hypothetical scenario of an individual's lifetime genomic risk of melanoma (using the term 'genetic risk'). We asked about understanding of genetic risk, who would choose to receive this risk information, potential emotional and behavioural impacts, and other concerns or potential benefits. Data were analysed thematically. Participants thought this risk information could potentially motivate preventive behaviours such as sun protection and related it to screening for other diseases including breast cancer. Factors identified as influencing the decision to receive genetic risk information included education level, children, age and gender. Participants identified potential negative impacts on the recipient such as anxiety and worry, and proposed that this could be mitigated by providing additional explanatory and prevention information, and contact details of a health professional for further discussion. Participants' concerns included workplace and insurance discrimination. Participants recognised the potential for both positive and negative emotional and behavioural impacts related to receiving information on the personalised genomic risk of melanoma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Conditions of Trust Among Leaders at the Kentucky Department for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Redmond Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health. The Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH serves as Kentucky’s state governmental health department. KDPH is led by a Commissioner and composed of seven primary divisions and 25 branches within those divisions. The study was a non-randomized cross-sectional study utilizing electronic surveys that evaluated conditions of trust among staff members and emotional intelligence among supervisors. Pearson correlation coefficients and corresponding p-values are presented to provide the association between emotional intelligence scales and the conditions of trust. Significant positive correlations were observed between supervisors' stress management and the staff members' trust or perception of supervisors' loyalty(r=0.6, p=0.01, integrity(r=0.5, p=0.03, receptivity(r=0.6, p=0.02, promise fulfillment(r=0.6, p=0.02 and availability (r=0.5, p=0.07. This research lays the foundation for emotional intelligence and trust research and leadership training in other governmental public health settings, such as local, other state, national or international organizations. This original research provides metrics to assess the public health workforce with attention to organizational management and leadership constructs. The survey tools could be used in other governmental public health settings in order to develop tailored training opportunities related to emotional intelligence and trust organizations.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of the FRIENDS for Life Program on Students' and Teachers' Emotional States for a School in a Low Socio-Economic Status Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Christina A.; Barrett, Paula M.; Gillies, Robyn; Cook, Clayton R.; Marinovic, Welber

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the FRIENDS for Life program on students' and teachers' emotional outcomes in a school serving a high-poverty population. The focus of the intervention was to train/coach teachers with strategies to develop social and emotional skills for students. A single group, pre/post-test design was used…

  17. Economic development and workforce impacts of state DOT highway expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research measured the impact of Georgia Department of Transportations highway : expenditures on economic activity in the State. The analysis covered awards made between January 2009 : and April 2013. The research is unique in that it not only ...

  18. The emotional impact of loss narratives: event severity and narrative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2010-06-01

    Out of the complex influences of event, narrative and listener characteristics on narrative emotions, this paper focuses on event severity, narrative perspectives, mood, and dispositions for emotion regulation and empathy. Event severity and perspective representation were systematically varied in sad autobiographical narratives to study their influence on quantity and quality of readers' emotional response. Each of three stories were manipulated to contain elaborated perspectives, only the past protagonists' perspective (dramatic narration), and very little perspectives at all (impersonal narration). We predicted that event severity influences the quantity of emotional response, while degree of perspective representation influences plausibility and whether emotional responses are sympathetic or interactional, that is, directed against the narrator. Hypotheses were confirmed except for plausibility, and perspective representation had an effect only on anger against and dislike of the narrator. In a second study, impersonal narration evoked anger at and negative evaluations of the narrator which were related to blaming the narrator for showing too little emotional involvement. The generalizability of findings across emotions and implications for sharing of emotions in everyday and clinical settings are discussed.

  19. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  20. The impact of evoked consumption contexts and appropriateness on emotion responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory and consumer scientists are seeing the need to explore broader measures, such as product-driven emotions, to be able to fully understand and satisfy consumers’ demands. However, to date, the consumer methodologies used in food-related emotion research have neglected a crucial element linked

  1. Emotion and persuasion: cognitive and meta-cognitive processes impact attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework.

  2. Mixed emotions across the adult life span in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed emotions involve the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect, such that people feel happy and sad at the same time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in the experience of mixed emotions across the adult life span in two nationally representative samples of U.S. residents. Data collected by the Princeton Affect and Time Survey (PATS, n = 3,948) and by the 2010 Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS, n = 12,828) were analyzed. In both surveys, respondents (aged 15 years or older) provided a detailed time diary about the preceding day and rated their happiness and sadness for three of the day's episodes. From these reports, three different indices of mixed emotions were derived. Results indicated small, but robust, increases in mixed emotions with age. Linear age increases were consistently evident in both PATS and ATUS, and replicated across the different indices of mixed emotions. There was no significant evidence for curvilinear age trends in either study. Several sociodemographic factors that could plausibly explain age-differences in mixed emotions (e.g., retirement, disability) did not alter the age-effects. The present study adds to the growing literature documenting vital changes in the complexity of emotional experience over the lifespan. PMID:25894487

  3. Patient education and emotional support practices in abortion care facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Heather; Perrucci, Alissa; Barar, Rana; Sinkford, Danielle; Foster, Diana Greene

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how patient education and emotional support is provided at abortion facilities. This pilot study documents 27 facilities' practices in this aspect of abortion care. We conducted confidential telephone interviews with staff from 27 abortion facilities about their practices. The majority of facilities reported they rely primarily on trained nonclinician staff to educate patients and provide emotional support. As part of their informed consent and counseling processes, facilities reported that staff always provide patients with information about the procedure (96%), assess the certainty of their abortion decisions (92%), assess their feelings and provide emotional support (74%), and provide contraceptive health education (92%). Time spent providing these components of care varied across facilities and patients. When describing their facility's care philosophy, many respondents expressed support for "patient-centered," "supportive," "nonjudgmental" care. Eighty-two percent agreed that it is the facility's role to provide counseling for emotional issues related to abortion. All facilities valued informed consent, patient education, and emotional support. Although the majority of facilities considered counseling for emotional issues to be a part of their role, some did not. Future research should examine patients' preferences regarding abortion care and counseling and how different approaches to care affect women's emotional well-being after having an abortion. This information is important in light of current, widespread legislative efforts that aim to regulate abortion counseling, which are being proposed without an understanding of patient needs or facility practices. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The influence of birth modus on the emotional state of the mother, bonding, and the newborn's neurobehavioural state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth is an important event, both in a woman's, and in her family's lives, an event which carries a huge emotional charge and influences the functioning of a triad. Labour is a physiological process which may have health (somatic, psychological, mental) and economic consequences. Irrespective of the reasons why it is performed; caesarean section involves surgical, obstetric and anaesthesiological intervention, as well as the necessity for pharmacological agents. Bonding between parents and their children serves as a basis for optimal psychomotor development, and the first year is important for the rest of life. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of the labour mode on the mother's emotional state, mother-child bonding, and the infant's neurobehavioural state. The plan of this study was approved by the Bioethical Commission of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin (BN-001/108/08). The research material comprised 200 women and their children. The following instruments were used in this study: an original questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Mother-Child Relationship FIRST score (MCR FIRST score), the Brazelton Scale, also known as the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS). The umbilical blood was used to determine the level of cortisol as a stress marker. Statistical analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, the χ2 test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Fisher test, and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The accepted significance level (p) was equal to 0.05 (the acceptable type I error). Around 35% of the women took part in prenatal education, and 59% of them declared the intention to participate in postnatal education. The respondents wanted someone close to be with them during delivery (65.5%), although only 35% had such a possibility. Women giving birth naturally were more often accompanied by their partners (p = 0.00005). Less than half of the women (35%) had skin-to-skin contact with

  5. [Impact of physical disability and concomitant emotional disturbances on post-stroke quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, N; Trabelsi, S; Turki, M; Mâalej Bouali, M; Zouari, L; Dammak, M; Ben Thabet, J; Mhiri, C; Mâalej, M

    2017-10-01

    The physical and/or psycho-cognitive changes after stroke may lead to a decline in the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The aims of our study were to evaluate the QOL of stroke survivors and to investigate its relationships with the physical disability degree and the emotional disorders (anxiety and depression). We conducted a cross-sectional study, which included 147 patients, followed for stroke that had occurred over the past year, in the outpatient neurology department at the university hospital Habib Bourguiba of Sfax (Tunisia). For each patient, we collected socio-demographic characteristics and clinical and therapeutic data. The quality of life of our patients was assessed using the SF-36 scale. The HAD scale was used to screen for anxiety and depression, whereas the modified Rankin scale was used to measure the degree of disability. The average age of our patients was 60.58 years. The overall mean score of the SF-36 ranged from 20.81 to 89.81 with an average of 55.27. Impaired QOL was found in 68% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that only two dimensions of the SF-36 were not altered: physical pain and life and relationship with others. The physical component was slightly more altered than the mental component (41.4 and 42.9 respectively). A minimal disability was found in 32% of patients, while a moderate and severe disability was found in 19% and 21.1% of patients. Anxiety was detected in 55.1% of patients and depression in 67.3% of them. Impaired mental component QOL was significantly correlated with the presence of anxiety (P=0.008) and depression (Pnegative impact on all areas of QOL except that of life and relationships with others. It appears from our study that among the important effects of stroke is the constant deterioration of QOL in its various dimensions. The occurrence of emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression and the degree of physical disability seem to be predictors of QOL impairment

  6. Who do you trust? The impact of facial emotion and behaviour on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Timothy R; Kring, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    During social interactions, we use available information to guide our decisions, including behaviour and emotional displays. In some situations, behaviour and emotional displays may be incongruent, complicating decision making. This study had two main aims: first, to investigate the independent contributions of behaviour and facial displays of emotion on decisions to trust, and, second, to examine what happens when the information being signalled by a facial display is incongruent with behaviour. Participants played a modified version of the Trust Game in which they learned simulated players' behaviour with or without concurrent displays of facial emotion. Results indicated that displays of anger, but not happiness, influenced decisions to trust during initial encounters. Over the course of repeated interactions, however, emotional displays consistent with an established pattern of behaviour made independent contributions to decision making, strengthening decisions to trust. When facial display and behaviour were incongruent, participants used current behaviour to inform decision making.

  7. Mothers' accounts of the impact on emotional wellbeing of organised peer support in pregnancy and early parenthood: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-13

    The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed. This was a descriptive qualitative study, informed by phenomenological social psychology, exploring women's experiences of the impact of organised peer support on their emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and in early parenthood. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with women who had received peer support provided by ten projects in different parts of England, including both projects offering 'mental health' peer support and others offering more broadly-based peer support. The majority of participants were disadvantaged Black and ethnic minority women, including recent migrants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. 47 mothers were interviewed. Two key themes emerged: (1) 'mothers' self-identified emotional needs', containing the subthemes 'emotional distress', 'stressful circumstances', 'lack of social support', and 'unwilling to be open with professionals'; and (2) 'how peer support affects mothers', containing the subthemes 'social connection', 'being heard', 'building confidence', 'empowerment', 'feeling valued', 'reducing stress through practical support' and 'the significance of "mental health" peer experiences'. Women described how peer support contributed to reducing their low mood and anxiety by overcoming feelings of isolation, disempowerment and

  8. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. St. Cloud State University's Impact on the Local Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Mark D.

    The economic impact of St. Cloud State University, Minnesota, on the local economy was studied. Using models developed by the American Council on Education, estimates were made of the dollar outlays by the local economic sectors that are associated with or influenced by the university. The focus is the measurable impacts, in dollar terms, of the…

  10. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  11. The impact of emotional intelligence in health care professionals on caring behaviour towards patients in clinical and long-term care settings: Findings from an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Suzanne; Spiby, Helen; Sheen, Kayleigh; Slade, Pauline

    2018-04-01

    Over recent years there has been criticism within the United Kingdom's health service regarding a lack of care and compassion, resulting in adverse outcomes for patients. The impact of emotional intelligence in staff on patient health care outcomes has been recently highlighted. Many recruiters now assess emotional intelligence as part of their selection process for health care staff. However, it has been argued that the importance of emotional intelligence in health care has been overestimated. To explore relationships between emotional intelligence in health care professionals, and caring behaviour. To further explore any additional factors related to emotional intelligence that may impact upon caring behaviour. An integrative review design was used. Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL Plus, Social Sciences Citation Index, Science Citation Index, and Scopus were searched for studies from 1995 to April 2017. Studies providing quantitative or qualitative exploration of how any healthcare professionals' emotional intelligence is linked to caring in healthcare settings were selected. Twenty two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three main types of health care professional were identified: nurses, nurse leaders, and physicians. Results indicated that the emotional intelligence of nurses was related to both physical and emotional caring, but emotional intelligence may be less relevant for nurse leaders and physicians. Age, experience, burnout, and job satisfaction may also be relevant factors for both caring and emotional intelligence. This review provides evidence that developing emotional intelligence in nurses may positively impact upon certain caring behaviours, and that there may be differences within groups that warrant further investigation. Understanding more about which aspects of emotional intelligence are most relevant for intervention is important, and directions for further large scale research have been identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and appraisals of emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, R A; Sampson, M J

    2006-01-01

    A new measure assessing respondents' perceptions of the threat posed by their own emotions (the Perception of Threat from Emotion Questionnaire; the PTEQ) is presented. A range of data relating to the psychometric properties of the PTEQ indicates that it is a reliable measure of people's stable beliefs about their emotions, and is not highly correlated with either mood or measures of responsibility and thought-action fusion. In a student sample, regression analyses indicate that responses to the PTEQ significantly predict responses to a general measure of obsessionality (the Padua Inventory), even when levels of depression and anxiety are controlled for. Moreover, when compared with measures of responsibility and thought-action fusion, the PTEQ emerges as the strongest independent predictor of obsessionality. Of the seven different emotions to which the PTEQ relates, it is found that beliefs about 'anger' are the strongest predictor of obsessionality. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Differential MR/GR Activation in Mice Results in Emotional States Beneficial or Impairing for Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids regulate stress response and influence emotion, learning, and memory via two receptors in the brain, the high‐affinity mineralocorticoid (MR and low‐affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR. We test the hypothesis that MR- and GR-mediated effects interact in emotion and cognition when a novel situation is encountered that is relevant for a learning process. By adrenalectomy and additional constant corticosterone supplement we obtained four groups of male C57BL/6J mice with differential chronic MR and GR activations. Using a hole board task, we found that mice with continuous predominant MR and moderate GR activations were fast learners that displayed low anxiety and arousal together with high directed explorative behavior. Progressive corticosterone concentrations with predominant action via GR induced strong emotional arousal at the expense of cognitive performance. These findings underline the importance of a balanced MR/GR system for emotional and cognitive functioning that is critical for mental health.

  14. Mediating toxic emotions in the workplace--the impact of abusive supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    This study explores whether abusive supervision can effectively predict employees' counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and the role of toxic emotions at work as a potential mediator of these relationships in nursing settings. Workplace bullying is widespread in nursing. Despite the growing literature on abusive supervision and employees' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour, few studies have examined the relationships between abusive supervision and these work behaviours from the viewpoint of the victimed employee's emotion process. This study adopted a two-stage survey of 212 nurses, all of whom were employed by hospitals in Taiwan. Hypotheses were tested through the use of hierarchical multiple regression. The results showed that abusive supervision was positively associated with toxic emotions. Moreover, toxic emotions could effectively predict nurses' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Finally, it was found that toxic emotions partially mediated the negative effects of abusive supervision on both work behaviours. Toxic emotions at work are a critical mediating variable between abusive supervision and both counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Hospital administrators can implement policies designed to manage events effectively that can spark toxic emotions in their employees. Work empowerment may be an effective way to reduce counterproductive work behaviour and to enhance organisational citizenship behaviour among nurses when supervisors do not promote a healthy work environment for them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  16. Fulfilment of knowledge expectations and emotional state among people undergoing hip replacement: a multi-national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson Stark, Asa; Ingadottir, Brynja; Salanterä, Sanna; Sigurdardottir, Arun; Valkeapää, Kirsi; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Unosson, Mitra

    2014-11-01

    Patient education in connection with hip replacement is intended to prepare patients for surgery, discharge and postoperative recovery. Patients experience symptoms and emotions due to disease or upcoming surgery which can affect how their knowledge expectations are fulfilled. To describe the differences between received and expected knowledge in patients undergoing elective hip replacement in three Nordic countries, and to analyse how these differences are related to patients' characteristics, preoperative symptoms and emotions. A descriptive, prospective survey with two data collection points; before admission and at hospital discharge after surgery. Two Finnish, three Icelandic and two Swedish hospitals. The population consisted of patients on a waiting list for hip replacement. Of the consecutively included patients, 320 answered questionnaires both before admission and at discharge and were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 64 years, and 55% were women. Structured questionnaires were used; the knowledge expectations of hospital patients scale and self-reported scales for symptoms and emotions before admission and received knowledge of hospital patients scale at discharge. Fulfilment of knowledge expectation was assessed by calculating the difference between received and expected knowledge with a paired sample t-test. A multiple stepwise regression model was used to explain the variance of fulfilled knowledge expectations. Patients expected more knowledge than they received (p<0.001) and 77% of them had unfulfilled knowledge expectations. Patients with a higher level of education were more likely to have unfulfilled knowledge expectations. A higher level of education was also related to a greater difference between received and expected knowledge. The difference was more correlated with patients' emotions than their symptoms. A depressive state was the major predictor of the variance in the difference between received and expected

  17. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helen eImmordino-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior insula (AI maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain’s ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural

  18. The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W; Peperkorn, Henrik M; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user's sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom-up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution model of

  19. Parents' Involvement in Children's Learning in the United States and China: Implications for Children's Academic and Emotional Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined parents' involvement in children's learning in the United States and China. Beginning in seventh grade, 825 American and Chinese children (mean age = 12.74 years) reported on their parents' involvement in their learning as well as their parents' psychological control and autonomy support every six months until the end of eighth grade. Information on children's academic and emotional adjustment was obtained. American (vs. Chinese) parents' involvement was associated less...

  20. Adherence to treatment, emotional state and quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Llana, Helena; Remor, Eduardo; Selgas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    A low rate of adherence to treatment is a widespread problem of great clinical relevance among dialysis patients. The objective of the present study is to determine the relationship between adherence, emotional state (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress), and healthrelated quality of life (HRQOL) in renal patients undergoing dialysis. Method: Two patient groups (30 in hemodialysis and 31 in peritoneal dialysis) participated in this study. We evaluated aspects of adhere...

  1. Analysis of the Impact of Emotional Intelligence Employees on Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vukasović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern company needs as the foundation of its successful operationclearly defined vision, employees values and high, but still reachablebusiness goals, which are based on high level involvement of employeesin the company and on the basis of their participation. Knowledge,skills and experience, that employees possess, are strong arguments ofsuccessful company, but it is not all the same, with what kind of emotionsarguments are expressed in their own practice. Research showsthat emotional intelligence respondents attach great influence in thesuccess of the company. Emotional intelligence should help both tobetter work performance, as well as to improve the physical well-beingand emotional stability.

  2. Environmental impact assessment in the Fijian state sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, Jane

    2003-01-01

    For over 20 years, the South Pacific state of Fiji has required developers to conduct more than 70 environmental impact assessments (EIA), without specifying the environmental quality or impacts it considers (in)appropriate. It has ignored aspects of EIA to which agencies funding development have paid little attention--assessing alternatives, monitoring outcomes and enforcing consent conditions. This infers the Fijian state is not serious about using EIA to control environmental quality. Factors other than technical shortcomings are shaping the way the state constrains EIA practice. Unless these factors change, the comprehensive EIA system proposed in Sustainable Development legislation will not prevent environmental degradation

  3. The Effect of Emotional State on the Processing of Morphosyntactic and Semantic Reversal Anomalies in Japanese: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masataka; Suzuki, Yui; Koizumi, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the locus responsible for the effect of emotional state on sentence processing in healthy native speakers of Japanese, using event-related brain potentials. The participants were induced into a happy, neutral, or sad mood and then subjected to electroencephalogram recording during which emotionally neutral sentences,…

  4. Comparison of mental health, happiness, and emotion control with adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization and family reared adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that adolescents’ residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigated the mental health, happiness and emotion control among adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a causal –comparative research. The 80 adolescents’ residential centers were chosen through available sampling and 80 adolescents of schools of Alborz city were selected through cluster method. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test. The research instruments were Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldenberg, and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI.Results: The significantly different was observed in mental health, happiness and emotion control between two adolescents groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results indicate that the institutional-reared decrease the level of mental health, happiness and emotion control in adolescents. Thus, counselors should be considered these factors in therapeutic intervention to enhancing the mental health of adolescents’ residential centers.

  5. The impact of emotional intelligent leadership on staff nurse empowerment: the moderating effect of span of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Victoria; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Wong, Carol A

    2008-11-01

    To test a model linking nurses' perceptions of their nurse manager's emotionally intelligent leadership style and nurses' structural empowerment, and the impact of nurse manager span of control (number of direct reports) on the emotional intelligence/empowerment relationship. Hospital restructuring in the 1990s resulted in a dramatic reduction in nurse manager positions, yet nurse managers are critical to empowering nurses for professional practice. A descriptive correlational survey design was used to test the hypothesized model in two community hospitals in Ontario. Two hundred and three nurses from two hospitals returned useable questionnaires (68% response rate). Span of control was a significant moderator of the relationship between nurses perceptions of their managers' emotionally intelligent behaviour and feelings of workplace empowerment. The results suggest that even managers with strong emotional intelligence may not be able to empower their staff if their span of control is large. Every effort must be made to ensure that managers have reasonable spans of control that allow them to develop and use the leadership skill necessary for empowering their staff to practice to the full scope of their professional role.

  6. IMPACT OF CANINE ASSISTED THERAPY ON EMOTIONS AND MOTIVATION LEVEL IN CHILDREN WITH REDUCED MOBILITY IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Niewiadomska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine assisted therapy is increasingly used in the treatment of children with various diseases. The participation of a dog in classes evokes positive emotions in children, which are often an important factor in the success of a therapy. Purpose: The aim of this study was to present the influence of emotions on the level of motivation toward physical activity in children with reduced mobility. Material: The study involved six 5-year-old children, i.e. 5 boys and one girl, who had refused to participate in physical activity classes. They reacted with anxiety, anger and did not want to exercise. Assessment of feelings and emotions of the children was based on observations and interviews with parents. Results: After introducing a dog to the physical activity classes, the children changed their attitude not only to training, but also to themselves and their classmates. There was an observed increase in their motivation for the exercises. Such a significant impact of a dog on child’s emotions can be very important in the therapeutic process and is reported and recognized by many specialists. Conclusions: Canine assisted therapy sessions could be promoted in the treatment of children with locomotor impairment, as well as with other disabilities such as autism, obesity, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and depression.

  7. IMPACT OF CANINE ASSISTED THERAPY ON EMOTIONS AND MOTIVATION LEVEL IN CHILDREN WITH REDUCED MOBILITY IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadomska Monika

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine assisted therapy is increasingly used in the treatment of children with various diseases. The participation of a dog in classes evokes positive emotions in children, which are often an important factor in the success of a therapy. Purpose: The aim of this study was to present the influence of emotions on the level of motivation toward physical activity in children with reduced mobility. Material: The study involved six 5-year-old children, i.e. 5 boys and one girl, who had refused to participate in physical activity classes. They reacted with anxiety, anger and did not want to exercise. Assessment of feelings and emotions of the children was based on observations and interviews with parents. Results: After introducing a dog to the physical activity classes, the children changed their attitude not only to training, but also to themselves and their classmates. There was an observed increase in their motivation for the exercises. Such a significant impact of a dog on child’s emotions can be very important in the therapeutic process and is reported and recognized by many specialists. Conclusions: Canine assisted therapy sessions could be promoted in the treatment of children with locomotor impairment, as well as with other disabilities such as autism, obesity, cerebral palsy, learning difficulties and depression.

  8. The impact of verbal framing on brain activity evoked by emotional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisley, Michael A; Campbell, Alana M; Larson, Jenna M; Naftz, Andrea E; Regnier, Jesse T; Davalos, Deana B

    2011-12-01

    Emotional stimuli generally command more brain processing resources than non-emotional stimuli, but the magnitude of this effect is subject to voluntary control. Cognitive reappraisal represents one type of emotion regulation that can be voluntarily employed to modulate responses to emotional stimuli. Here, the late positive potential (LPP), a specific event-related brain potential (ERP) component, was measured in response to neutral, positive and negative images while participants performed an evaluative categorization task. One experimental group adopted a "negative frame" in which images were categorized as negative or not. The other adopted a "positive frame" in which the exact same images were categorized as positive or not. Behavioral performance confirmed compliance with random group assignment, and peak LPP amplitude to negative images was affected by group membership: brain responses to negative images were significantly reduced in the "positive frame" group. This suggests that adopting a more positive appraisal frame can modulate brain activity elicited by negative stimuli in the environment.

  9. The Impact of Emotion on Negotiation Behaviour during a Realistic Training Scenario

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomson, Michael H; Adams, Barbara D; Waldherr, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    ...) to be very angry and aggressive (experimental condition) or more neutral and yielding (baseline condition). Two competing theories suggest that an emotion like anger could influence negotiators in different ways...

  10. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively......Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...

  11. Electron impact excitation of xenon from the metastable state to the excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jun; Dong Chenzhong; Xie Luyou; Zhou Xiaoxin [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Jianguo [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematic, Beijing 100088 (China)], E-mail: dongcz@nwnu.edu.cn

    2008-12-28

    The electron impact excitation cross sections from the lowest metastable state 5p{sup 5}6sJ = 2 to the six lowest excited states of the 5p{sup 5}6p configuration of xenon are calculated systematically by using the fully relativistic distorted wave method. In order to discuss the effects of target state descriptions on the electron impact excitation cross sections, two correlation models are used to describe the target states based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. It is found that the correlation effects play a very important role in low energy impact. For high energy impact, however, the cross sections are not sensitive to the description of the target states, but many more partial waves must be included.

  12. Sales impact of servicescape's emotional and rational stimuli: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Morone, Andrea; Nemore, Francesco; Schirone, Dario Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Environmental psychologists suggest that people feelings and emotions determine what they do and how they do it. According to the stimulus organism respons model (SOR), the environment creates a behavioral/emotional response in individuals that, in turn, induces approach or avoidance behaviors. We conducted survey in six stores, settled in six different Italian cities, of a Swedish-founded Dutch-based multinational group, that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances ...

  13. The emotional impact of fundamentalist religious participation: an empirical study of intragroup variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert C; Wintrob, Ronald M

    1980-04-01

    The relationship between religious activity within a Pentecostal congregation and the emotional status of the congregants is described. Data derived from a field study conducted in a Newfoundland coastal community. The more frequently people engaged in religious activities, the less likely they were to report symptoms of emotional distress. Significant within-group variation was found in terms of the frequency and type of religious activity.

  14. Emotional Suppression as a Moderator for the Impact of a Transgression on Consumers’ Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Mantovani; José Carlos Korelo; Paulo Henrique Muller Prado; Tatiane SIlva dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a ...

  15. Emotional Suppression as A Moderator of the Impact of Transgression on Consumers’ Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Mantovani; José Carlos Korelo; Paulo Henrique Muller Prado; Tatiane SIlva dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a ...

  16. The Impact of Ethical Climate on Emotional Organizational Commitment: A Survey in the Accommodation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Gül

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is crucial in the service-oriented hospitality industry. A service-oriented firm may achieve high quality service standards and customer satisfaction by employing qualified occupations. Employing qualified staff requires motivation and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, having a positive working ethical climate in the firm is crucial for profitability and productivity. Thus, hospitality businesses can achieve industrial competitiveness. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of the ethical climate on the emotional organizational commitment in the accommodation enterprises. The study addresses ethical climate scale developed by Victor and Cullen (1993 and emotional organizational commitment sub-scale developed by Meyer and Allen (1991. The survey data were obtained from a total of 340 participants who employ at six different 5-star hotels operating in Antalya. The first part of the questionnaire covers questions that determine the relationship between employees' organizational ethical climate perceptions and emotional organizational commitment. In the second part, there are questions asked to determine the demographic characteristics of the participants. The ongoing analyzes will be tested by structural equation modelling. Research result will be show positive relationships between positive ethical climate and emotional organizational commitment in accommodation enterprises. In addition, the study examines whether the emotional organizational commitment levels of employees differ or not according to sex, marital status, age, income level, education, study period and departments.

  17. [Impact of violence on the health of families at Fortaleza, Ceará State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Arcoverde, Márcia Liduína Vasconcelos; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá

    2009-01-01

    The study describes the impact of the violence on the quality of life of the families, which were attended at the Relatives and Friends Violence Victims Association (ARFVV) in Fortaleza, Ceará State. The case study was accomplished among five mothers that were involved in a NGO on the battle against the violence. The semi-structured interview, the participation at the institution's meetings and the documental research were the data collecting techniques, being these last ones, submitted to the thematic analysis and discussed according to the literature and Letters of Health Promotion. The impacts caused by the violence comprise the physical, emotional and social family's health, cause changes on behavior between the members, and lead to the increasing of smoking, drinking, social isolation and exacerbate revolt feelings, vengeance and pessimism. The NGO's work has been important to support the families on the conflicts overcoming, health familiar restoration, redeeming the self-expectation, the hope on the justice and social mobility. The health of families' victims from violence is affected on the biological, emotional and social aspects, favoring the process of sickness. These have appealed to the support from NGOs to transform the 'victim condition' - violence hostage to the 'responsible citizenship' - guardians of peace on the battle against the urban violence.

  18. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  19. The interaction between state and dispositional emotions in decision making: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Zhou, Chenglin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on decision making in high-anxious individuals, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. Behavioral and electroencephalography responses were recorded to explore the stages of option assessment and outcome evaluation during decision making, respectively. Incidental emotions were elicited by facial expression pictures presented on the background, which included four conditions (control, neutral, fearful, and happy). Results showed smaller feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes in high-anxious participants than low-anxious participants in the control, neutral, and fearful conditions, but not in the happy condition, for small outcomes. The P3 amplitudes were larger in high-anxious participants compared to their counterparts in the fearful and happy conditions, but not in the other conditions. In short, the interaction effects between trait anxiety and facial emotions manifested on the outcome evaluation stage of decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of self-blaming moral emotions in major depression and their impact on social-economical decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ePulcu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available People with major depressive disorder (MDD are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognises excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotions in MDD. These self-blaming moral emotions have been purported to influence people when they make social and financial decisions in cognitive studies, particularly those using neuroeconomical paradigms. Such paradigms aim to predict social behaviour in activities of daily living, by using important resource tangibles (especially money in laboratory conditions. Previous literature suggests that guilt promotes altruistic behaviour via acting out reparative tendencies, whereas shame reduces altruism by means of increasing social and interpersonal distance. In the second part of this review, we will discuss the potential influence of self-blaming moral emotions on overt behaviour in MDD, reviewing clinical and experimental studies in social and financial decision-making, in which guilt and shame were manipulated. This is not a well-established area in the depression literature, however in this opinion paper we will argue that studies of moral emotions and their impact on behavioural decision-making are of potential importance in the clinical field, by linking specific symptoms of a disorder to a behavioural outcome which may lead to stratification of clinical diagnoses in the future.

  1. The role of self-blaming moral emotions in major depression and their impact on social-economical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem; Zahn, Roland; Elliott, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    People with major depressive disorder (MDD) are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognizes excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotions in MDD. These self-blaming moral emotions have been purported to influence people when they make social and financial decisions in cognitive studies, particularly those using neuroeconomical paradigms. Such paradigms aim to predict social behavior in activities of daily living, by using important resource tangibles (especially money) in laboratory conditions. Previous literature suggests that guilt promotes altruistic behavior via acting out reparative tendencies, whereas shame reduces altruism by means of increasing social and interpersonal distance. In the second part of this review, we will discuss the potential influence of self-blaming moral emotions on overt behavior in MDD, reviewing clinical and experimental studies in social and financial decision-making, in which guilt, and shame were manipulated. This is not a well-established area in the depression literature, however in this opinion paper we will argue that studies of moral emotions and their impact on behavioral decision-making are of potential importance in the clinical field, by linking specific symptoms of a disorder to a behavioral outcome which may lead to stratification of clinical diagnoses in the future.

  2. The Role of Self-Blaming Moral Emotions in Major Depression and Their Impact on Social-Economical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcu, Erdem; Zahn, Roland; Elliott, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    People with major depressive disorder (MDD) are more prone to experiencing moral emotions related to self-blame, such as guilt and shame. DSM-IV-TR recognizes excessive or inappropriate guilt as one of the core symptoms of current MDD, whereas excessive shame is not part of the criteria for MDD. However, previous studies specifically assessing shame suggested its involvement in MDD. In the first part of this review, we will consider literature discussing the role of self-blaming moral emotions in MDD. These self-blaming moral emotions have been purported to influence people when they make social and financial decisions in cognitive studies, particularly those using neuroeconomical paradigms. Such paradigms aim to predict social behavior in activities of daily living, by using important resource tangibles (especially money) in laboratory conditions. Previous literature suggests that guilt promotes altruistic behavior via acting out reparative tendencies, whereas shame reduces altruism by means of increasing social and interpersonal distance. In the second part of this review, we will discuss the potential influence of self-blaming moral emotions on overt behavior in MDD, reviewing clinical and experimental studies in social and financial decision-making, in which guilt, and shame were manipulated. This is not a well-established area in the depression literature, however in this opinion paper we will argue that studies of moral emotions and their impact on behavioral decision-making are of potential importance in the clinical field, by linking specific symptoms of a disorder to a behavioral outcome which may lead to stratification of clinical diagnoses in the future. PMID:23750148

  3. The effectiveness of cognitive- behavior therapy on illness representations of multiple-sclerosis and improving their emotional states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Hazhir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illness representations (based on Leventhal's model are associated with chronic illness outcomes. It has been suggested that targeting these cognitive components improves illness outcomes. Multiple sclerosis is a common disorder between neural and immune systems that creates physical and psychological consequences. There are few pre psychological trails on these patients. The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy on altering illness representations and improving emotional states of the patients.Methods: By using a randomized controlled trial design, among 52 selected patients, 35 volunteers randomly were allocated into intervention and control groups. An extensive interventional cognitive behavior therapy based package was conducted to intervention group in 10 weekly sessions. The control group stayed in waiting list and participated in 5 group meeting sessions. (IPQR and (DASS-42 psychological scales were administered, Leven and T statistical tests were applied for dat analysis.Results: The results showed positive changes in four illness representation components of patients including illness (identity, consequences, coherence and personal control. Associated improvement occurred in depression, anxiety, stress and emotional representations.Conclusion: Mooney and Padeskey's theoretically based cognitive-behavior therapy, is effective on illness representations modification and improving emotional states of the patients. The findings are less similar to Goodman's trial on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients and more similar to Petrie's trail on cardiac patients.

  4. LOW ADHERENCE TO TREATMENT AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: CAUSES AND WAYS OF ADJUSTMENT CONSIDERING PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATE OF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kuzheleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the reasons of low adherence to treatment in patients after myocardial infarction as well as methods of its correction considering the mental and emotional state of patients. Material and methods. Patients (n=115 after myocardial infarction registered in "Acute Myocardial Infarction Register» were enrolled into the study. The Moriscos-Green scale was used to determine the degree of adherence to treatment, and psycho-emotional state of patients was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The special questionnaire was used to study the causes of poor adherence. Results. Only 45% of patients after myocardial infarction have a high commitment to the doctor's recommendations. The main reason for low adherence was forgetfulness (42%. Among other reasons were: fear of side effects (16%; lack of therapeutic effect according to patients' opinion (12%; doubts about the doctor's prescriptions (14%; a large number of prescribed drugs (12%; high cost of drugs (4%. The structure of the causes of poor adherence to treatment varied greatly depending on the psycho-emotional status. Adherence to treatment can be improved by specific physician’s actions (48.5% of patients. At the same time 14% of patients did not want to take drugs for a long time under any circumstances. Conclusion. Adherence to treatment of patients after myocardial infarction deserves attention from doctors. The personalized approach considering patient’s opinion, as well as their specific features, is essential for the development of ways to improve adherence.

  5. The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlak, Joseph A; Weissberg, Roger P; Dymnicki, Allison B; Taylor, Rebecca D; Schellinger, Kriston B

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The use of 4 recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs. Policy makers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Impact of variation in the BDNF gene on social stress sensitivity and the buffering impact of positive emotions: replication and extension of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Mark; Peeters, Frenk; van Winkel, Ruud; Kenis, Gunter; Collip, Dina; Geschwind, Nicole; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    2014-06-01

    A previous study reported that social stress sensitivity is moderated by the brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor(Val66Met) (BDNF rs6265) genotype. Additionally, positive emotions partially neutralize this moderating effect. The current study aimed to: (i) replicate in a new independent sample of subjects with residual depressive symptoms the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity, (ii) replicate the neutralizing impact of positive emotions, (iii) extend these analyses to other variations in the BDNF gene in the new independent sample and the original sample of non-depressed individuals. Previous findings were replicated in an experience sampling method (ESM) study. Negative Affect (NA) responses to social stress were stronger in "Val/Met" carriers of BDNF(Val66Met) compared to "Val/Val" carriers. Positive emotions neutralized the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity in a dose-response fashion. Finally, two of four additional BDNF SNPs (rs11030101, rs2049046) showed similar moderating effects on social stress-sensitivity across both samples. The neutralizing effect of positive emotions on the moderating effects of these two additional SNPs was found in one sample. In conclusion, ESM has important advantages in gene-environment (GxE) research and may attribute to more consistent findings in future GxE research. This study shows how the impact of BDNF genetic variation on depressive symptoms may be explained by its impact on subtle daily life responses to social stress. Further, it shows that the generation of positive affect (PA) can buffer social stress sensitivity and partially undo the genetic susceptibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L; Taylor, Scott N

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  8. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others), we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g) predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative. PMID:25566128

  9. Long Term Impact of Emotional, Social and Cognitive Intelligence Competencies and GMAT on Career and Life Satisfaction and Career Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAmdurer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCareer scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates’ careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence competencies assessed at graduation and g measured through GMAT at entry from an MBA program on career and life satisfaction, and career success assessed 5 to 19 years after graduation. Using behavioral measures of competencies (i.e., as assessed by others, we found that emotional intelligence competencies predict career satisfaction and success. Adaptability had a positive impact, but influence had the opposite effect on these career measures and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was negatively affected by achievement orientation and positively affected by teamwork. Current salary, length of marriage, and being younger at time of graduation positively affect all three measures of life and career satisfaction and career success. GMAT (as a measure of g predicted life satisfaction and career success to a slight but significant degree in the final model analyzed. Meanwhile, being female and number of children positively affected life satisfaction but cognitive intelligence competencies negatively affected it, and in particular demonstrated systems thinking was negative.

  10. The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W.; Peperkorn, Henrik M.; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user’s sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom–up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution

  11. Sadder but wiser : the effects of emotional states on ambiguity attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baillon, A.; Koelinger, P.; Treffers, T.

    “Many important decisions are made without precise information about the probabilities of the outcomes. In such situations, individual ambiguity attitudes influence decision making. The present study identifies emotions as a transient cause of ambiguity attitudes. We conducted two random-assignment,

  12. The Emotional Intelligence Profiles and Cognitive Measures of Nurse Anesthesia Students in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of this cross-sectional correlational study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and personal and academic factors of nurse anesthesia students at three points in a program: matriculation, at one year of study, and in the last semester of study and the relationship of these to clinical scores and…

  13. Utilization of Emotional Intelligence Traits by Public School Superintendents in the State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lisa Ann Hoffman

    2013-01-01

    A leadership shortage has been documented across professions. Emotional intelligence skills, traits, and abilities have received much attention as a tool for business leaders in the past decade as a way to increase leadership skill, meet organizational goals, and enhance profits. The study sought to determine whether public school superintendents…

  14. The overall impact of emotional intelligence on nursing students and nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare employers often criticize the lack of emotional competency and critical thinking skills demonstrated by newly licensed nurses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether emotional intelligence (EI training for nurses improves critical thinking and emotional competence enough to justify including EI in nursing curricula. A meta-analysis was conducted inclusive of EI related nursing abilities and traits such as leadership, health, reflection, ethical behavior, nursing student performance, and job retention/satisfaction. Studies of EI constructs, test instruments, and contrary viewpoints were also examined. The analysis included 395 EI studies of approximately 65,300 participants. All the studies reported a positive correlation with EI ranging from weak to strong with a moderate cumulative effect size of r = 0.3022 across all studies. This study may contribute to positive social change by reducing employers time and cost for training newly licensed nurses, thereby decreasing the overall cost of health care to the public.

  15. How Oral Contraceptives Impact Social-Emotional Behavior and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A

    2017-02-01

    Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems. Research domains and challenges for the future, as well as implications, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact and characteristics of positive and fearful emotional messages during infant social referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra A; Knieps, Linda J

    2010-04-01

    Studies of infant social referencing have indicated that infants might be more influenced by vocal information contained in emotional messages than by facial expression, especially during fearful message conditions. The present study investigated the characteristics of emotional channels that parents used during social referencing, and corresponding infants' behavioral changes. Results of Study 1 indicated that parents used more vocal information during positive message conditions. Unlike previous findings, infants' behavioral change was related to the frequency of vocal information during positive condition. For fearful messages, infants were more influenced by the number of multi-modal channels used and the frequency of visual information. Study 2 further showed that the intensity of vocal tone was related to infant regulation only during positive message conditions. The results imply that understanding of social context is important to make sense of parent-infant's emotional interaction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Inattention and Emotional Problems on Cognitive Control in Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Astri J

    2012-01-01

    by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and performance-based tests (i.e.,Color Trail Test and Digit Span Test). Symptoms of inattention and emotional problems were measured with parent and teacher reports on Swanson Nolan and Pelham-IV questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties......Objective: The present study investigated the predictive value of parent/teacher reports of inattention and emotional problems on cognitive control function in 241 children in primary school. Method: Cognitive control was measured by functions of set-shifting and working memory as assessed...

  18. Washington State Community Colleges: Impact on the Economy of the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sally; And Others

    Using a Virginia study as a model, this study assessed the effect on Washington state's economy of its 27 campus community college system. The study was based on a simple circular cash-flow model for the years 1969-1976 and measured economic impact in three areas: on the level of business volume done in-state, on employment, and on total state…

  19. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  20. The impact of healthcare workers job environment on their mental-emotional health. Coping strategies: the case of a local general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis Koinis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace stress can influence healthcare professionals’ physical and emotional well-being by curbing their efficiency and having a negative impact on their overall quality of life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact that work environment in a local public general hospital can have on the health workers’ mental-emotional health and find strategies in order to cope with negative consequences. The study took place from July 2010 to October 2010. Our sample consisted of 200 healthcare professionals aged 21-58 years working in a 240-bed general hospital and the response rate was 91.36%. Our research protocol was first approved by the hospital’s review board. A standardized questionnaire that investigates strategies for coping with stressful conditions was used. A standardized questionnaire was used in the present study Coping Strategies for Stressful Events, evaluating the strategies that persons employ in order to overcome a stressful situation or event. The questionnaire was first tested for validity and reliability which were found satisfactory (Cronbach’s α=0.862. Strict anonymity of the participants was guaranteed. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. Regression analysis showed that health professionals’ emotional health can be influenced by strategies for dealing with stressful events, since positive re-assessment, quitting and seeking social support are predisposing factors regarding the three first quality of life factors of the World Health Organization Quality of Life -BREF. More specifically, for the physical health factor, positive re-assessment (t=3.370, P=0.001 and quitting (t=−2.564, P=0.011 are predisposing factors. For the ‘mental health and spirituality’ regression model, positive re-assessment (t=5.528, P=0.000 and seeking social support (t=−1.991, P=0.048 are also predisposing factors, while regarding social relationships positive re-assessment (t=4.289, P=0

  1. The Impact of Healthcare Workers Job Environment on Their Mental-emotional Health. Coping Strategies: The Case of a Local General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis, Aristotelis; Giannou, Vasiliki; Drantaki, Vasiliki; Angelaina, Sophia; Stratou, Elpida; Saridi, Maria

    2015-04-13

    Workplace stress can influence healthcare professionals' physical and emotional well-being by curbing their efficiency and having a negative impact on their overall quality of life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact that work environment in a local public general hospital can have on the health workers' mental-emotional health and find strategies in order to cope with negative consequences. The study took place from July 2010 to October 2010. Our sample consisted of 200 healthcare professionals aged 21-58 years working in a 240-bed general hospital and the response rate was 91.36%). Our research protocol was first approved by the hospital's review board. A standardized questionnaire that investigates strategies for coping with stressful conditions was used. A standardized questionnaire was used in the present study Coping Strategies for Stressful Events, evaluating the strategies that persons employ in order to overcome a stressful situation or event. The questionnaire was first tested for validity and reliability which were found satisfactory (Cronbach's α=0.862). Strict anonymity of the participants was guaranteed. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. Regression analysis showed that health professionals' emotional health can be influenced by strategies for dealing with stressful events, since positive re-assessment, quitting and seeking social support are predisposing factors regarding the three first quality of life factors of the World Health Organization Quality of Life - BREF. More specifically, for the physical health factor, positive re-assessment (t=3.370, P=0.001) and quitting (t=-2.564, P=0.011) are predisposing factors. For the 'mental health and spirituality' regression model, positive re-assessment (t=5.528, P=0.000) and seeking social support (t=-1.991, P=0.048) are also predisposing factors, while regarding social relationships positive re-assessment (t=4.289, P=0.000) is a predisposing factor

  2. Mental Equilibrium and Rational Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal Winter; Ignacio Garcia-Jurado; Jose Mendez-Naya; Luciano Mendez-Naya

    2009-01-01

    We introduce emotions into an equilibrium notion. In a mental equilibrium each player "selects" an emotional state which determines the player's preferences over the outcomes of the game. These preferences typically differ from the players' material preferences. The emotional states interact to play a Nash equilibrium and in addition each player's emotional state must be a best response (with respect to material preferences) to the emotional states of the others. We discuss the concept behind...

  3. Global climate change impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It is largely based on results of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), a and integrates those results wit...

  4. Impact Of Human Activities On Ecosystem In Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the percent sample population size of people involved in selected human economic activities and the impact on ecosystem in Rivers State. The data for this study was obtained from a sample size of 1000 respondents who were purposively selected from the study area. Purposive sample was used ...

  5. Jurisdiction Impact of Revenue Allocation on States and Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is descriptive in nature and it tries to ascertain the variousformulas used by federal government of Nigeria to allocate Revenue from federation account and their socio-economic impact on the states and local government councils. Primary and secondary data were adequately made use of in the study. Analysis ...

  6. Teaching Methods and Their Impact on Students' Emotions in Mathematics: An Experience-Sampling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Sticca, Fabio; Brunner, Esther; Becker, Eva; Morger, Vinzenz; Hubbard, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches propose that emotions in the classroom are elicited by appraisal antecedents, with subjective experiences of control playing a crucial role in this context. Perceptions of control, in turn, are expected to be influenced by the classroom social environment, which can include the teaching methods being employed (e.g.,…

  7. The Impact of Emotional Solidarity on Residents' Attitude and Tourism Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hasani

    Full Text Available In many countries, especially one such as Malaysia, tourism has become a key factor in economic development, and the industry heavily relies on feedback from local residents. It is essential to observe and examine the perceptions of residents towards tourists and tourism development for better planning in realizing successful and sustainable tourism development. Therefore, this research measured the relationship between residents' welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding (emotional solidarity towards tourists and their respective attitudes towards supporting tourism development. To test the proposed research model, we collected data using a questionnaire survey from 333 residents in rural areas in Malaysia. We used the structural equation modelling technique (Amos to evaluate the research model, and the results revealed that the residents' willingness (welcoming nature to accept tourists is the strongest factor that effects the residents' attitudes towards supporting tourism development. However, there was no significant relationship between residents' emotional closeness and their sympathetic understanding towards tourists with their attitude and support towards tourism development. Welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding are able to predict 48% of residents' attitudes towards tourism development and 62% of their support towards tourism development.

  8. The Impact of Emotional Solidarity on Residents’ Attitude and Tourism Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Ali; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Hamzah, Amran

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, especially one such as Malaysia, tourism has become a key factor in economic development, and the industry heavily relies on feedback from local residents. It is essential to observe and examine the perceptions of residents towards tourists and tourism development for better planning in realizing successful and sustainable tourism development. Therefore, this research measured the relationship between residents’ welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding (emotional solidarity) towards tourists and their respective attitudes towards supporting tourism development. To test the proposed research model, we collected data using a questionnaire survey from 333 residents in rural areas in Malaysia. We used the structural equation modelling technique (Amos) to evaluate the research model, and the results revealed that the residents’ willingness (welcoming nature) to accept tourists is the strongest factor that effects the residents’ attitudes towards supporting tourism development. However, there was no significant relationship between residents’ emotional closeness and their sympathetic understanding towards tourists with their attitude and support towards tourism development. Welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding are able to predict 48% of residents’ attitudes towards tourism development and 62% of their support towards tourism development. PMID:27341569

  9. Child-Centered Group Play Therapy: Impact on Social-Emotional Assets of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Ju; Ray, Dee C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of child-centered group play therapy (CCGPT) on social-emotional assets of kindergarten children and the therapeutic aspect of group sizes in CCGPT outcome. A total of 43 participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention or waitlist control groups. We used Parent and Teacher forms of Social…

  10. Fading memories : the impact of stress hormones on the retrieval of emotional memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, Marieke Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the present thesis was to study the effects of stress and stress hormones on the retrieval of emotional memories in healthy humans. In addition, we were interested in the effects of stress hormones on post-retrieval processes like reconsolidation. That is, are there only acute and

  11. The Impacts of Emotional Intelligence Enhancement on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza; Khoshsima, Hooshang; Zare-Behtash, Esmail

    2018-01-01

    The current study tried to empirically examine the influence of enhancing Emotional Intelligence on writing skill. The method of doing the study was giving an "Interchange Placement Test" to the university students who majored in English (EFL learners) in Iran. After selecting intermediate level students for participating in the study,…

  12. Anger Elicitation in Tonga and Germany: The Impact of Culture on Cognitive Determinants of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Spada, Hans; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Traber, Simone; Rauss, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive appraisal of an event is crucial for the elicitation and differentiation of emotions, and causal attributions are an integral part of this process. In an interdisciplinary project comparing Tonga and Germany, we examined how cultural differences in attribution tendencies affect emotion assessment and elicitation. Data on appraising causality and responsibility and on emotional responses were collected through questionnaires based on experimentally designed vignettes, and were related to culture-specific values, norms, and the prevailing self-concept. The experimental data support our hypothesis that – driven by culturally defined self-concepts and corresponding attribution tendencies – members of the two cultures cognitively appraise events in diverging manners and consequently differ in their emotional responses. Ascription of responsibility to self and/or circumstances, in line with a more interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of shame, guilt, and sadness, whereas ascription of responsibility to others, in line with a less interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of anger. These findings support the universal contingency hypothesis and help to explain cultural differences in this domain on a fine-grained level. PMID:23112780

  13. The Impact of Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age ranges of the participants were 26- 55 years with a mean of 38.06 years and standard deviation of 8.34. Four scales of measurement were utilized to measure the variables of the study. These are the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), the General Self-efficacy scale, the Job Performance Scale ...

  14. Emotional Suppression as A Moderator of the Impact of Transgression on Consumers’ Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a seller’s transgression. An experimental study in a controlled virtual bookstore was developed, simulating a real website. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the two conditions: transgression vs. non-transgression scenario. We demonstrate that consumers who are better able to suppress the negative emotions experienced a lower decrease in their satisfaction evaluation of the relationship with the seller after a transgression than those who had a lower negative emotion suppression capacity following the behavior. These results shed light into the boundary conditions of the transgressions in the business to consumer marketing relationship. This research is therefore intended to make contributions to the literature of marketing relationship in a transgression context. 

  15. The Impact of Students' Perceived Emotional Intelligence, Social Attitudes and Teacher Expectations on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…

  16. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  17. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  18. The Experience of Anger and Sadness in Everyday Problems Impacts Age Differences in Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…

  19. The impact of emotion intensity on recognition memory: Valence polarity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianxin; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Wenwen; Ding, XinSheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Jiemin; Yuan, JiaJin

    2017-06-01

    Although the effects of emotion of different emotional intensity on memory have been investigated, it remain unclear whether the influence of emotional intensity on memory varies depending on the stimulus valence polarity (i.e., positive or negative). To address this, event-related potentials were recorded when subjects performed a continuous old/new discrimination task, for highly negative (HN), mildly negative (MN) and neutral pictures in the negative session; and for highly positive (HP), mildly positive (MP) and neutral pictures in the positive session. The results showed that relative to neutral stimuli, both HN and MN stimuli showed increased memory discrimination scores, and enhanced old/new effect in early FN400 (Frontal Negativity), but not late positive component (LPC) amplitudes. By contrast, relative to MP stimuli, HP and neutral stimuli showed increased memory discrimination scores and enhanced old/new effect in LPC but not FN400 amplitudes. Additionally, we observed a significant positive correlation between the memory discrimination score and the old/new effect in the amplitudes of the FN400 and LPC, respectively. These results indicate that both HN and MN stimuli were remembered better than neutral stimuli; whereas the recognition was worse for MP stimuli than Neutral and HP stimuli. In conclusion, in the present study, we observed that the effect of emotion intensity on memory depends on the stimulus valence polarity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Anger elicitation in Tonga and Germany: The impact of culture on cognitive determinants of emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBender

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive appraisal of an event is crucial for the elicitation and differentiation of emotions, and causal attributions are an integral part of this process. In an interdisciplinary project comparing Tonga and Germany, we examined how cultural differences in attribution tendencies affect emotion assessment and elicitation. Data on appraising causality and responsibility and on emotional responses were collected through questionnaires based on experimentally designed vignettes, and were related to culture-specific values, norms, and the prevailing self-concept. The experimental data support our hypothesis that—driven by culturally defined self-concepts and corresponding attribution tendencies—members of the two cultures cognitively appraise events in diverging manners and consequently differ in their emotional responses. Ascription of responsibility to self and/or circumstances, in line with a more interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of shame, guilt and sadness, whereas ascription of responsibility to others, in line with a less interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of anger. These findings support the universal contingency hypothesis and help to explain cultural differences in this domain on a fine-grained level.

  1. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  2. The Impact of Emotional Solidarity on Residents' Attitude and Tourism Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Ali; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Hamzah, Amran

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, especially one such as Malaysia, tourism has become a key factor in economic development, and the industry heavily relies on feedback from local residents. It is essential to observe and examine the perceptions of residents towards tourists and tourism development for better planning in realizing successful and sustainable tourism development. Therefore, this research measured the relationship between residents' welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding (emotional solidarity) towards tourists and their respective attitudes towards supporting tourism development. To test the proposed research model, we collected data using a questionnaire survey from 333 residents in rural areas in Malaysia. We used the structural equation modelling technique (Amos) to evaluate the research model, and the results revealed that the residents' willingness (welcoming nature) to accept tourists is the strongest factor that effects the residents' attitudes towards supporting tourism development. However, there was no significant relationship between residents' emotional closeness and their sympathetic understanding towards tourists with their attitude and support towards tourism development. Welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding are able to predict 48% of residents' attitudes towards tourism development and 62% of their support towards tourism development.

  3. What Students Think They Feel Differs from What They Really Feel – Academic Self-Concept Moderates the Discrepancy between Students’ Trait and State Emotional Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy pertaining to trait and state academic emotions and whether self-concept of ability moderates this discrepancy. A total of 225 secondary school students from two different countries enrolled in grades 8 and 11 (German sample; n = 94) and grade 9 (Swiss sample; n = 131) participated. Students’ trait academic emotions of enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety in mathematics were assessed with a self-report questionnaire, whereas to assess their state academic emotions experience-sampling method was employed. The results revealed that students’ scores on the trait assessment of emotions were generally higher than their scores on the state assessment. Further, as expected, students’ academic self-concept in the domain of mathematics was shown to partly explain the discrepancy between scores on trait and state emotions. Our results indicate that there is a belief-driven discrepancy between what students think they feel (trait assessment) and what they really feel (state assessment). Implications with regard to the assessment of self-reported emotions in future studies and practical implications for the school context are discussed. PMID:24647760

  4. Tracking students’ autonomization through emotion traces in logbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Chateau; Peggy Candas

    2015-01-01

    Until relatively recently the impact of emotions on language learning has often been ignored and “the nature and contribution of positive emotions and beneficial emotional states deserves further attention” (Bown & White, 2010, p. 433). Our study focuses on a flexible language learning system that combines different elements: work in a virtual learning environment, group work, counselling sessions and a logbook. One of its objectives is to help students progress towards autonomy—defined a...

  5. Processing emotion from abstract art in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Miriam H.; Carton, Amelia M.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Jaisin, Kankamol; Marshall, Charles R.; Henley, Susie M.D.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract art may signal emotions independently of a biological or social carrier: it might therefore constitute a test case for defining brain mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and the impact of disease states on those mechanisms. This is potentially of particular relevance to diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum. These diseases are often led by emotional impairment despite retained or enhanced artistic interest in at least some patients. However, the process...

  6. [Emotional regulation in aspect of action vs. state orientation, stress and self - injurious behavior among people with borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Rabska, Ewelina; Jaworska-Andryszewska, Paulina; Laso, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    In the bordeline personality disorder a large role ascribe to biopsychosocial factors. Studies have shown that more than 70% patients BPD reported experiencing traumatic events in childhood. The findings are confirming that making self-harming is a frequent symptom of bordeline disorder and 70-75% patients show at least one act of self-harming. Selfharming can be a reaction to maladaptive emotional regulation. Moreover a lowered tolerance level is characteristic of them to the stress and determined course learning dysfunctional patterns of behavior. The aim of this study is to determine the level of emotional regulation through the variable action vs state orientation and to investigate their relation to stress, self-harming and suicidal behavior. In study participated 45 persons with emotionally unstable borderline personality diagnosis. In the group was 33 women and 12 men in age 19-43. A Polish adaptation of standardized questionnaires was used to measure stress and action vs state orientation (SSI-K), self-injurious behavior (SHI) and suicidal tendencies (RFL-I). By patients with borderline personality disorder the level of action control, reasons for living and stress are predictors of selfharming behavior. The mediation analyze showed, that stress and reasons for living are mediators between action vs. state control and the level of self-harming behavior. A high level of stress correlates positively with self-harming and negatively with action control in patients with borderline personality disorder, and a high level of reasons for living correlates positively with action control and negatively with self-harming in people with BPD. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  7. OnabotulinumtoxinA effectiveness on chronic migraine, negative emotional states and sleep quality: a single-center prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinlar, Elif Ilgaz; Dikmen, Pinar Yalinay; Kosak, Seda; Kocaman, Ayse Sagduyu

    2017-12-01

    OnabotulinumtoxinA (OnabotA) is considered effective in in patients with chronic migraine (CM) who failed on traditional therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of OnabotA injection series on migraine outcome, negative emotional states and sleep quality in patients with CM. A total of 190 patients with CM (mean (SD) age: 39.3 (10.2) years; 87.9% were female) were included. Data on Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), headache frequency and severity, number of analgesics used, Migraine Disability Assessment Scale. (MIDAS) scores and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were evaluated at baseline (visit 1) and 4 consecutive follow up visits, each conducted after OnabotA injection series; at week 12 (visit 2), week 24 (visit 3), week 36 (visit 4) and week 48 (visit 5) to evaluate change from baseline to follow up. From baseline to visit 5, significant decrease was noted in least square (LS) mean headache frequency (from 19.5 to 8.4, p = 0.002), headache severity (from 8.1 to 6.1, p = 0.017), number of analgesics (from 26.9 to 10.4, p = 0.023) and MIDAS scores (from 67.3 to 18.5, p migraine outcome leading to decrease in headache frequency and severity, number of analgesics used and MIDAS scores. While no significant change was noted in overall sleep quality and prevalence of negative emotional states, patients without negative emotional states at baseline showed improved sleep quality throughout the study.

  8. Emotional Intelligence deficits in schizophrenia: The impact of non-social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Hofer, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) revealed significant performance deficits across all areas of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, none of these studies has investigated a potential influence of non-social cognition on these findings. 56 schizophrenia outpatients and 84 control subjects were investigated using the MSCEIT and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score and education. To investigate this issue in more detail, a mediation analysis was conducted. Patients showed significantly lower EI and non-social cognition levels compared to healthy controls. After adjustment for BACS composite score and education, only the group difference in the "managing emotions" branch and thus in the "strategic" EI part of the MSCEIT remained statistically significant, whereas for all other MSCEIT branches (perceiving, using, understanding emotions) statistical significance was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that the difference between schizophrenia patients and controls regarding the MSCEIT total score was almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. Our findings suggest that in schizophrenia patients EI is largely influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. Only the "managing emotions" branch was found to be independent of non-social cognition. Consequently, non-social cognitive performance was mainly responsible for the observed differences in EI between schizophrenia patients and controls. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The mediating role of state maladaptive emotion regulation in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and self-evaluation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfan, Laurel D; Cody, Meghan W; Clerkin, Elise M

    2018-03-16

    Although social anxiety symptoms are robustly linked to biased self-evaluations across time, the mechanisms of this relation remain unclear. The present study tested three maladaptive emotion regulation strategies - state post-event processing, state experiential avoidance, and state expressive suppression - as potential mediators of this relation. Undergraduate participants (N = 88; 61.4% Female) rated their social skill in an impromptu conversation task and then returned to the laboratory approximately two days later to evaluate their social skill in the conversation again. Consistent with expectations, state post-event processing and state experiential avoidance mediated the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluations of social skill (controlling for research assistant evaluations), particularly for positive qualities (e.g. appeared confident, demonstrated social skill). State expressive suppression did not mediate the relation between social anxiety symptoms and changes in self-evaluation bias across time. These findings highlight the role that spontaneous, state experiential avoidance and state post-event processing may play in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluation biases of social skill across time.

  10. Wavelet Packet Entropy in Speaker-Independent Emotional State Detection from Speech Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Kadkhodaei Elyaderani; Seyed Hamid Mahmoodian; Ghazaal Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, wavelet packet entropy is proposed for speaker-independent emotion detection from speech. After pre-processing, wavelet packet decomposition using wavelet type db3 at level 4 is calculated and Shannon entropy in its nodes is calculated to be used as feature. In addition, prosodic features such as first four formants, jitter or pitch deviation amplitude, and shimmer or energy variation amplitude besides MFCC features are applied to complete the feature vector. Then, Support Vect...

  11. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals and 32 controls performed an ultimatum game (UG), in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, r...

  12. The emotional impact of national music on young and older adults differing in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon, Moshe; Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit

    2017-10-01

    In spite of previous evidence regarding the function of national songs as a contextual stimulus, their effect on the emotional state of older adults living with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not be been examined. Following the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, we examined the emotional effects of listening to happy national songs (songs of Independence Day) and sad national songs (Memorial Day songs) on young (N = 144, mean age = 29.4) and older adults (N = 132, mean age = 68.5). Respondents were exposed to happy or sad national songs, and completed measures of exposure to missile attacks, related PTSD symptoms, and positive and negative emotions. Sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among young adults who were lower on PTSD symptoms, but not among their older counterparts. In contrast, sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among older adults who were higher on PTSD symptoms, but not among their young counterparts. These findings support the strength and vulnerability model, as they demonstrate that relative to young adults, older adults are generally more capable to withstand negative stimuli, yet are more sensitive to negative stimuli when they suffer from chronic vulnerability, as in the case of higher level of PTSD symptoms.

  13. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry Is Enhanced by the Goal of Inferring Emotional States: Evidence for Moderation of "Automatic" Mimicry by Higher Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Aiko; Saito, Hisamichi; Schug, Joanna; Ogawa, Kenji; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like "automatic" response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target's facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target's emotional state. In the first study we show that facial mimicry, assessed by facial electromyography, occurs more frequently when participants are specifically instructed to infer a target's emotional state than when given no instruction. In the second study, we replicate this effect using the Facial Action Coding System to show that participants are more likely to mimic facial expressions of emotion when they are asked to infer the target's emotional state, rather than make inferences about a physical trait unrelated to emotion. These results provide convergent evidence that the explicit goal of understanding a target's emotional state affects the degree of facial mimicry shown by the perceiver, suggesting moderation of reflex-like motor activities by higher cognitive processes.

  14. Understanding the Impact of User Frustration Intensities on Task Performance Using the OCC Theory of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Have you heard the saying "frustration is written all over your falce"? Well this saying is true, but that is not the only place. Frustration is written all over your face and your body. The human body has various means to communicate an emotion without the utterance of a single word. The Media Equation says that people interact with computers as if they are human: this includes experiencing frustration. This research measures frustration by monitoring human body-based measures such as heart rate, posture, skin temperature. and respiration. The OCC Theory of Emotions is used to separate frustration into different levels or intensities. The results of this study showed that individual intensities of frustration exist, so that task performance is not degraded. Results from this study can be used by usability testers to model how much frustration is needed before task performance measures start to decrease.

  15. Modeling the Impact of Motivation, Personality, and Emotion on Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Zachary, Wayne; Rosoff, Andrew

    Models seeking to predict human social behavior must contend with multiple sources of individual and group variability that underlie social behavior. One set of interrelated factors that strongly contribute to that variability - motivations, personality, and emotions - has been only minimally incorporated in previous computational models of social behavior. The Personality, Affect, Culture (PAC) framework is a theory-based computational model that addresses this gap. PAC is used to simulate social agents whose social behavior varies according to their personalities and emotions, which, in turn, vary according to their motivations and underlying motive control parameters. Examples involving disease spread and counter-insurgency operations show how PAC can be used to study behavioral variability in different social contexts.

  16. Parenting stress and externalizing behavior symptoms in children: the impact of emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buodo, Giulia; Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Altoè, Gianmarco; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the parenting stress-child externalizing behavior link is moderated by children's emotional reactivity, as indexed by skin conductance responses (SCRs). Participants were 61 children aged 9-12 years and their mothers. Mothers completed measures of parenting stress and their children's externalizing symptoms; children also reported on their externalizing behavior. Children's SCRs were assessed during the viewing of standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Cluster analysis on SCRs identified two groups, labeled Lower SCRs and Higher SCRs. Regression analyses indicated that among children with lower SCRs, those exposed to increased parenting stress reported more externalizing symptoms, whereas those who experienced low parenting stress reported similar rates of externalizing problems as children with higher SCRs. No effect of parenting stress emerged for children with higher SCRs. Findings suggest that higher parenting stress renders children with lower, as opposed to higher, SCRs to emotional stimuli more vulnerable to externalizing problems.

  17. Patterns of Emotion Experiences as Predictors of Facial Expressions of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Samuel H.; Izard, Carroll E.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the relations between emotion and facial expressions of emotion in 8- to 12-year-old male psychiatric patients. Results indicated that patterns or combinations of emotion experiences had an impact on facial expressions of emotion. (Author/BB)

  18. CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING EMOTION REGULATION IN A SLEEP AND ENERGY DEPRIVED STATE INDUCED BY THE 4800KM ULTRA-ENDURANCE BICYCLE RACE; THE RACE ACROSS AMERICA (RAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Lahart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM; a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time. Coupled with this emotional disturbance, each cyclist experienced progressively worsening sleep deprivation and daily negative energy balances throughout the RAAM. Cyclists managed less than one hour of continuous sleep per sleep episode, high sleep latency and high percentage moving time. Of note, actual sleep and sleep efficiency were better maintained during longer rest periods, highlighting the importance of a race strategy that seeks to optimise the balance between average cycling velocity and sleep time. Our data suggests that future RAAM cyclists and crew should: 1 identify beliefs on the perceived functionality of emotions in relation to best (functional-optimal and worst (dysfunctional performance as the starting point to intervention work; 2 create a plan for support sufficient sleep and recovery; 3 create nutritional strategies that maintain energy intake and thus reduce energy deficits; and 4 prepare for the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation so that they are able to appropriately respond to unexpected stressors and foster functional working interpersonal relationships

  19. Language representation of the emotional state of the personage in non-verbal speech behavior (on the material of Russian and German languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherbakova Irina Vladimirovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of actualization of emotions in a non-verbal speech behavior of the character of a literary text. Emotions are considered basic, the most actively used method of literary character reaction to any object, action, or the communicative situation. Nonverbal ways of expressing emotions more fully give the reader an idea of the emotional state of the character. The main focus in the allocation of non-verbal means of communication in art is focused on the description of kinetic, proxemic and prosodic components. The material of the study is the microdialogue fragments extracted by continuous sampling of their works of art texts of the Russian-speaking and German-speaking classical and modern literature XIX - XX centuries. Fragments of the dialogues were analyzed, where the recorded voice of nonverbal behavior of the character of different emotional content (surprise, joy, fear, anger, rage, excitement, etc. was fixed. It was found that means of verbalization and descriptions of emotion of nonverbal behavior of the character are primarily indirect nomination, expressed verbal vocabulary, adjectives and adverbs. The lexical level is the most significant in the presentation of the emotional state of the character.

  20. The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-income youth experience social-emotional problems linked to chronic stress that are exacerbated by lack of access to care. Drumming is a non-verbal, universal activity that builds upon a collectivistic aspect of diverse cultures and does not bear the stigma of therapy. A pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to assess the effects of 12 weeks of school counselor-led drumming on social-emotional behavior in two fifth-grade intervention classrooms versus two standard education control classrooms. The weekly intervention integrated rhythmic and group counseling activities to build skills, such as emotion management, focus and listening. The Teacher’s Report Form was used to assess each of 101 participants (n = 54 experimental, n = 47 control, 90% Latino, 53.5% female, mean age 10.5 years, range 10–12 years. There was 100% retention. ANOVA testing showed that intervention classrooms improved significantly compared to the control group in broad-band scales (total problems (P < .01, internalizing problems (P < .02, narrow-band syndrome scales (withdrawn/depression (P < .02, attention problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales (anxiety problems (P < .01, attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, oppositional defiant problems (P < .03, and other scales (post-traumatic stress problems (P < .01, sluggish cognitive tempo (P < .001. Participation in group drumming led to significant improvements in multiple domains of social-emotional behavior. This sustainable intervention can foster positive youth development and increase student-counselor interaction. These findings underscore the potential value of the arts as a therapeutic tool.

  1. The Impact of Ethical Climate on Emotional Organizational Commitment: A Survey in the Accommodation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Gül; Kaya Nihat Pekbay; Kudret Gül

    2017-01-01

    Organizational commitment is crucial in the service-oriented hospitality industry. A service-oriented firm may achieve high quality service standards and customer satisfaction by employing qualified occupations. Employing qualified staff requires motivation and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, having a positive working ethical climate in the firm is crucial for profitability and productivity. Thus, hospitality businesses can achieve industrial competitiveness. The aim of ...

  2. Nurse Perspectives on the Practical, Emotional, and Professional Impacts of Living and Working in Post-earthquake Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Sarbjit S; Mounsey, Zoe; Brannelly, Petula; Johnston, David M

    2016-02-01

    This report explores nurses' perspectives following the Canterbury (New Zealand) 2010-2011 earthquake sequence and the subsequent recovery process. Problem Little is known about the experiences of health care professionals during a disaster recovery process, and this research generates insights about the challenges faced. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 nurses from the Christchurch (New Zealand) area to explore the challenges faced by the nurses during and following the earthquakes. The interviews took place three years after the start of the earthquake experience to enable exploration of longer term aspects of the recovery process. The interview transcripts were analyzed and coded using a grounded theory approach. The data analysis identified that the nurses had faced a number of challenges and these were characterized as practical, emotional, and professional. While some of the challenges were short-lived in the aftermath of the earthquakes, some were long-lasting due to the extended nature of the recovery process. Dealing with house damage, insurance negotiations, and working in damaged environments had a negative impact on the nurses. The nurses experienced a range of emotions, both negative and positive, after the disaster, though many had needed time to elapse before feeling able to reflect on their experiences. The findings suggest that secondary stressors have a negative impact on the psychosocial recovery process. The nurses recognized that they received support from others and were also required to focus on others. Keeping busy appeared to be the most common coping strategy. This lack of reflection on their experiences may have resulted in delayed emotional responses. Some of the nurses changed their work role, hours, and responsibilities suggesting that working in this environment was having a detrimental impact. The research indicates the challenges faced by nurses in the initial impact of the earthquakes and during the

  3. Impact of emotional support on serum cortisol in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampoornam Webster

    2016-01-01

    Methods: The study was designed to compare the effectiveness of emotional support focused nurse directed intervention in terms of verbal, written and telephone basis on serum cortisol among breast cancer patients in Cancer Centre at Erode. Participants were randomly allocated by using Sequentially Numbered Opaque Sealed Envelope (SNOSE method. 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 30 breast cancer patients who were selected randomly by adopting random number table, 10 in each experimental arm during evening at 18 hour; radioimmunoassay method was used to measure the level of serum cortisol before and after intervention. The intervention was given twice in a week for the duration of 30-45 minutes, in which early 20-30 minutes spares to express thoughts and feelings of the participants and subsequent 10-15 minutes for rendering informational support and later follow up session for the period of 1 month. Results: Emotional support was effective in reducing serum cortisol level among breast cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between arms on serum cortisol levels. Conclusions: Marginal differences were noted between posttest mean scores of serum cortisol among verbal, written and telephone arms. Further emotional support can be rendered according to the preference of the breast cancer patients.

  4. The impact of acute psychosocial stress on magnetoencephalographic correlates of emotional attention and exogenous visual attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Elling

    Full Text Available Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite.

  5. The impact of acute psychosocial stress on magnetoencephalographic correlates of emotional attention and exogenous visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, Ludger; Schupp, Harald; Bayer, Janine; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Steinberg, Christian; Dobel, Christian; Junghofer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm) was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite.

  6. Are gains in decision-making autonomy during early adolescence beneficial for emotional functioning? The case of the United States and china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children often deem as under their authority. Children also reported on their emotional functioning. American children made greater gains over time in decision-making autonomy than did Chinese children. Initial decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning similarly among American and Chinese children. However, gains over time in decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning more in the United States (vs. China) where such gains were normative.

  7. Adherence to treatment, emotional state and quality of life in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llana, Helena; Remor, Eduardo; Selgas, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    A low rate of adherence to treatment is a widespread problem of great clinical relevance among dialysis patients. The objective of the present study is to determine the relationship between adherence, emotional state (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in renal patients undergoing dialysis. Two patient groups (30 in hemodialysis and 31 in peritoneal dialysis) participated in this study. We evaluated aspects of adherence, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and HRQOL with self-report and standardized instruments. Peritoneal dialysis patients reported significantly higher levels of adherence to treatment and better HRQOL in Physical Function and Bodily Pain domains. Depression level is associated with HRQOL indicators. We did not find any differences regarding specific adherence to antihypertensive and phosphate binder drugs or in psychological variables depending on the modality of dialysis. Patients with adherence to antihypertensive drugs show better physical HRQOL. The predictors of HRQOL in dialysis patients were: work, gender and depression. Our results suggest that the modality of dialysis does not differentially affect the emotional state or specific adherence to drugs, but it is nevertheless related to their overall adherence to treatment and to their HRQOL.

  8. The effects of music listening after a stressful task on immune functions, neuroendocrine responses, and emotional states in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Eri; Ohira, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to high-uplifting or low-uplifting music after a stressful task on (a) immune functions, (b) neuroendocrine responses, and (c) emotional states in college students. Musical selections that were evaluated as high-uplifting or low-uplifting by Japanese college students were used as musical stimuli. Eighteen Japanese subjects performed stressful tasks before they experienced each of these experimental conditions: (a) high-uplifting music, (b) low-uplifting music, and (c) silence. Subjects' emotional states, the Secretory IgA (S-IgA) level, active natural killer (NK) cell level, the numbers of T lymphocyte CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels were measured before and after each experimental condition. Results indicated low-uplifting music had a trend of increasing a sense of well-being. High-uplifting music showed trends of increasing the norepinephrine level, liveliness, and decreasing depression. Active NK cells were decreased after 20 min of silence. Results of the study were inconclusive, but high-uplifting and low-uplifting music had different effects on immune, neuroendocrine, and psychological responses. Classification of music is important to research that examines the effects of music on these responses. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  9. Resting-state networks associated with cognitive processing show more age-related decline than those associated with emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Braskie, Meredith N; Mather, Mara

    2017-06-01

    Correlations in activity across disparate brain regions during rest reveal functional networks in the brain. Although previous studies largely agree that there is an age-related decline in the "default mode network," how age affects other resting-state networks, such as emotion-related networks, is still controversial. Here we used a dual-regression approach to investigate age-related alterations in resting-state networks. The results revealed age-related disruptions in functional connectivity in all 5 identified cognitive networks, namely the default mode network, cognitive-auditory, cognitive-speech (or speech-related somatosensory), and right and left frontoparietal networks, whereas such age effects were not observed in the 3 identified emotion networks. In addition, we observed age-related decline in functional connectivity in 3 visual and 3 motor/visuospatial networks. Older adults showed greater functional connectivity in regions outside 4 out of the 5 identified cognitive networks, consistent with the dedifferentiation effect previously observed in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Both reduced within-network connectivity and increased out-of-network connectivity were correlated with poor cognitive performance, providing potential biomarkers for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Affective computing and medical informatics: state of the art in emotion-aware medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneski, Andrej; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Hitoglou-Antoniadou, Madga

    2008-01-01

    The area of affective computing has received significant attention by the research community over the last few years. In this paper we review the underlying principles in the field, in an effort to draw threads for possible future development within medical informatics. The approach is lead by considering the three main affective channels, namely, visual, audio/speech, and physiological in relation to e-health, emotional intelligence and e-learning. A discussion on the importance of past and present applications together with a prediction on future literature output is also provided.

  11. Measuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Emilio; Yang, Zeyao

    2015-01-01

    Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using a random sample of Twitter users, whose activity (and the stimuli they were exposed to) was observed during a week of September 2014. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion). We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We determine that on average a negative post follows an over-exposure to 4.34% more negative content than baseline, while positive posts occur after an average over-exposure to 4.50% more positive contents. We highlight the presence of a linear relationship between the average emotional valence of the stimuli users are exposed to, and that of the responses they produce. We also identify two different classes of individuals: highly and scarcely susceptible to emotional contagion. Highly susceptible users are significantly less inclined to adopt negative emotions than the scarcely susceptible ones, but equally likely to adopt positive emotions. In general, the likelihood of adopting positive emotions is much greater than that of negative emotions.

  12. Measuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ferrara

    Full Text Available Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using a random sample of Twitter users, whose activity (and the stimuli they were exposed to was observed during a week of September 2014. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion. We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We determine that on average a negative post follows an over-exposure to 4.34% more negative content than baseline, while positive posts occur after an average over-exposure to 4.50% more positive contents. We highlight the presence of a linear relationship between the average emotional valence of the stimuli users are exposed to, and that of the responses they produce. We also identify two different classes of individuals: highly and scarcely susceptible to emotional contagion. Highly susceptible users are significantly less inclined to adopt negative emotions than the scarcely susceptible ones, but equally likely to adopt positive emotions. In general, the likelihood of adopting positive emotions is much greater than that of negative emotions.

  13. The impact of late budgets on state government borrowing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how a key component of fiscal governance, the ability of governments to pass a budget on time, affects government bond yield spreads. Based on a sample of 36 US states from 1988 to 1997, and using an original data set on budget enactment dates, we estimate that a 30. day budget delay h...... a cumulative impact that is equivalent to a one-time increase in the yield spread of around 10 basis points. States with sufficient liquidity incur no costs from late budgets, while unified governments face large penalties from not finishing a budget on time....

  14. Psychometrics of a brief measure of emotional self-efficacy among adolescents from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F; Zullig, Keith J

    2013-10-01

    Preliminary data were collected to evaluate the psychometric properties of an emotional self-efficacy (ESE) measure in a sample of 3836 public high school adolescents who completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Survey in South Carolina. Principal axis factor analysis was followed by a 4-way between-groups analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing for differences in total score means on selected demographic estimates and their interactions. Relationships between total score and selected risk behaviors were examined through a series of 1-way ANOVA procedures and subsequent Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) tests. Factor analysis results suggested that a 1-factor model best explained factor structure of the scale items (factor loadings .64 to .71, eigenvalue = 3.24, h(2)  = .46). Girls reported a significantly higher mean total ESE rating than boys; White students reported a significantly higher mean total ESE rating than Black students. Statistically significant lower mean total ESE ratings were also noted for those who reported physical fighting, lifetime alcohol use, and sexual intercourse. This 7-item scale is a reliable measure and could aid school health researchers and mental health practitioners in psychosocial screening and as an outcome of social and emotional learning as a brief measure of adolescent ESE. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  15. Mentalization of complex emotions in borderline personality disorder: The impact of parenting and exposure to trauma on the performance in a novel cartoon-based task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Walden, Sarah; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a range of interpersonal difficulties, which are, in part, related to adverse experiences during childhood. Unresponsive parenting and traumatization may cause functional impairment of mentalization, i.e. the ability to reflect upon own and others' mental states. However, the relationship of poor parenting, trauma and mentalization in BPD has not exhaustively been studied. Thirty patients diagnosed with BPD and 30 matched control subjects were asked to sequence a novel cartoon-based mentalization task involving complex emotions such as jealousy, shame, guilt etc. In addition, they were required to reason about cognitive and affective mental states of the cartoon characters. The quality of parental care was assessed using a self-report measure for recalled parental rearing style, and childhood trauma was measured in retrospect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients with BPD performed more poorly in all aspects of the cartoon task. Mentalizing skills, particularly relating to affective mental states, were uniquely associated with the quality of recalled parental care and childhood trauma. Together, the quality of parental care and the experience of childhood trauma negatively impact on mentalization in BPD, even in an experimental "offline" task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stepping Stones to Others' Minds: Maternal Talk Relates to Child Mental State Language and Emotion Understanding at 15, 24, and 33 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…

  17. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  18. Healthcare professionals' perceptions on the emotional impact of having an inadequate response to antidepressant medications: survey and prospective patient audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, Rajnish; Fagiolini, Andrea; Weiller, Emmanuelle; Weiss, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective antidepressants, about half of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display an inadequate response to their initial treatment. A large patient survey recently reported that 29.8% of MDD patients experiencing an inadequate treatment response felt frustrated about their medication and 19.2% were frustrated with their healthcare provider. This survey and chart audit evaluated healthcare professionals' (HCP) views on the emotional impact of having an inadequate response to antidepressant medication. HCPs who frequently treat patients with MDD completed a survey and chart audit of their MDD patients currently experiencing an inadequate response to antidepressant treatment. 287 HCPs completed 1336 chart audits. HCPs reported that 38% of their patients were trusting/accepting of their MDD medications and 41% of their patients trusted/felt confident with their healthcare provision. Conversely, HCPs reported that 11% of their patients were frustrated with their medication and 5% with their healthcare benefits. HCPs cited impact on daily life (53%) and treatment issues (lack of efficacy and side effects; 50%) as the main drivers for their patients' feelings of frustration. When HCPs recognized patients' feelings of frustration, the top concerns of the HCPs were worsening of symptoms (43%) and non-compliance (41%). This survey and chart audit highlights the emotional burden associated with inadequate responses to MDD treatment in addition to persistent symptoms. Differences between the views of the HCPs and patients are highlighted and suggest that HCPs may underestimate the full impact that having to try numerous medications has on their patients.

  19. The Impact of Job Involvement on Emotional Labor to Customer-Oriented Behavior: An Empirical Study of Hospital Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare is a profession that requires a high level of emotional labor (EL). Nurses provide frontline services in hospitals and thus typically experience high levels of EL. The quality of services that nurses provide impacts on how patients evaluate the service quality of hospitals. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships among EL, job involvement (JI), and customer-oriented behavior (COB) in the context of the nursing profession. The participants in this study were nurses at eight hospitals, all located in Taiwan. This study used a self-reporting questionnaire. Research data were gathered at two discrete periods (A and B). Questionnaire A collected data on EL and JI, and Questionnaire B collected data on COB. Five hundred questionnaires were sent out to qualified participants, and 472 valid questionnaires were returned. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The expression of positive emotion (EPE) and the suppression of negative emotion (SNE) were found to positively affect the patient-oriented COB. Furthermore, the EPE was found to positively affect the task-oriented COB. In terms of the moderating effect of JI, JI was found to relate positively to the EPE, patient-oriented COB, and task-oriented COB. In addition, higher values of JI were found to weaken the relationship between the SNE and the task-oriented COB. It has become an increasingly popular practice for hospital organizations to work to promote the COB of their nursing staffs. The results of this study prove empirically that a relationship exists among EL, COB, and JI in nurses. This study contributes to the related literature, enhances the knowledge of hospital and nursing administrators with regard to EL and COB, and offers a reference for hospital managers who are responsible for designing and executing multidisciplinary programs and for managing hospital-based human resources.

  20. Displays of emotion and citizen support for Merkel and Gysi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Oscar W; Masch, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Emotional appeals have always been an important instrument in the mobilization of political support in modern societies. As found in several experimental studies from the United States, the emotions displayed by leading politicians in their televised public appearances have an impact on the political attitudes and behaviors of the public. Positive emotions such as joy or happiness, pride, and amusement elicit a more positive assessment of politicians, whereas showing negative emotions such as anger or outrage often diminishes the public's support. This transfer of emotions from sender to recipient has been described as "emotional contagion." However, under specific circumstances, emotions expressed by politicians can result in counter-empathic reactions among recipients. To examine the role of emotions between political leaders and the public in an institutional and cultural setting outside the United States, this article presents experimental findings on the impact of emotions expressed by two leading German politicians on the German public. The study used emotional displays by Chancellor Angela Merkel and former parliamentary leader of the Left Party, Gregor Gysi, observing how their assessments by the German public changed in response to these displays. Consistent with existing research, we discovered positive effects on the evaluation of both politicians when they displayed positive emotions. However, the impact of negative emotions is different for Merkel and Gysi and can be described as contagion in the former and counter-contagion in the latter case. Furthermore, we found that individual recognition of the expressed emotions modified the effect they had on the evaluation of some leadership characteristics.