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Sample records for emittance exchange technique

  1. MD2065: Emittance exchange with linear coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Amorim, David; Levens, Tom; Pesah, Arthur Chalom; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In order to better understand the luminosity imbalance between ATLAS and CMS that was observed in 2016, it was proposed to perform a test whereby the horizontal and vertical emittances are exchanged by crossing the tunes in the presence of linear coupling. The luminosity before and after the exchange could be compared to see if the imbalance stems purely from the uneven emittances or if there is an additional mechanism in play. However, due to limited machine availability only tests at injection were able to performed.

  2. Experimental studies on coherent synchrotron radiation at an emittance exchange beam line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. T. Thangaraj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate experimentally the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger at short bunch lengths. In this paper, we present experimental and simulation studies of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector. We report on time-resolved CSR studies using a skew-quadrupole technique. We also demonstrate the advantages of running the EEX with an energy-chirped beam.

  3. Experimental studies on coherent synchrotron radiation at an emittance exchange beam line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, J. C. T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Ruan, J.; Johnson, A. S.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Santucci, J.

    2012-11-01

    One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate experimentally the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger at short bunch lengths. In this paper, we present experimental and simulation studies of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector. We report on time-resolved CSR studies using a skew-quadrupole technique. We also demonstrate the advantages of running the EEX with an energy-chirped beam.

  4. Experimental Study of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in the Emittance Exchange Line at the A0-Photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, Jayakar C. T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Edwards, H.; Ruan, J.; Santucci, J.; Sun, Y. E.; Church, M.; Piot, P.

    2010-11-01

    Next generation accelerators will require a high current, low emittance beam with a low energy spread. Such accelerators will employ advanced beam conditioning systems such as emittance exchangers to manipulate high brightness beams. One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation could limit high current operation of the emittance exchanger. In this paper, we report on the preliminary experimental and simulation study of the coherent synchroton radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector.

  5. Beam dynamics in rf guns and emittance correction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a general review of beam dynamics in a laser-driven rf gun. The peculiarity of such an accelerating structure versus other conventional multi-cell linac structures is underlined on the basis of the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem, which is found to give a theoretical background for the well known Kim's model. A basic explanation for some proposed methods to correct rf induced emittance growth is also derived from the theorem. We also present three emittance correction techniques for the recovery of space-charge induced emittance growth, namely the optimum distributed disk-like bunch technique, the use of rf spatial harmonics to correct spherical aberration induced by space charge forces and the technique of emittance filtering by clipping the electron beam. The expected performances regarding the beam quality achievable with different techniques, as predicted by scaling laws and simulations, are analyzed, and, where available, compared to experimental results. (orig.)

  6. Bent solenoids for spectrometers and emittance exchange sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1999-01-01

    Bent solenoids can be used to transport low energy beams as they provide both confinement and dispersion of particle orbits. Solenoids are being considered both as emittance exchange sections and spectrometers in the muon cooling system as part of the study of the muon collider. They present the results of a study of bent solenoids which considers the design of coupling sections between bent solenoids to straight solenoids, drift compensation fields, aberrations, and factors relating to the construction, such as field ripple, stored energy, coil forces and field errors

  7. Transverse-to-longitudinal Emittance-exchange with an Energy Chirped Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangaraj, J.; Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Santucci, J.; Sun, Y.-E; Maxwell, T.; Edwards, H.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Emittance exchange has been proposed to increase the performance of free electron lasers by tailoring the phase space of an electron beam. The principle of emittance exchange - where the transverse phase space of the electron beam is exchanged with the longitudinal phase space - has been demonstrated recently at the A0 photoinjector. The experiment used a low charge bunch (250 pC) with no energy chirp. Theory predicts an improvement in the emittance exchange scheme when the incoming beam has an energy chirp imparted on it. The energy chirp helps to overcome the thick lens effect of the deflecting mode cavity and other second order effects that might lead to an incomplete emittance exchange at higher charges. In this work, we report experimental and simulation results from operating the emittance exchange beam line using an energy chirped beam with higher charge (500 pC) at different RF-chirp settings.

  8. Numerical studies of emittance exchange in 2-D charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    We describe results obtained from a two-dimensional particle-following computer code that simulates a continuous, nonrelativistic, elliptical charged-particle beam with linear continuous focusing. Emittances and focusing strengths can be different in the two transverse directions. The results can be applied, for example, for a quadrupole transport system in a smooth approximation to a real beam with unequal emittances in the two planes. The code was used to study emittance changes caused by kinetic-energy exchange between transverse directions and by shifts in charge distributions. Simulation results for space-charge-dominated beams agree well with analytic formulas. From simulation results, an empirical formula was developed for a ''partition parameter'' (the ratio of kinetic energies in the two directions) as a function of initial conditions and beamline length. Quantitative emittance changes for each transverse direction can be predicted by using this parameter. Simulation results also agree with Hofmann's generalized differential equation relating emittance and field energy

  9. An Observation of a Transverse to Longitudinal Emittance Exchange at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeth, Timothy W [State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2009-05-01

    An experimental program to perform a proof of principle of transverse to longitudinal emittance exchangexin ↔ ϵzout and ϵxin ↔ ϵzout) has been developed at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector. A new beamline, including two magnetic dogleg channels and a TM110 deflecting mode radio frequency cavity, were constructed for the emittance exchange experiment. The first priority was a measurement of the Emittance Exchange beamline transport matrix. The method of difference orbits was used to measure the transport matrix. Through varying individual beam input vector elements, such as xin, x'in, yin, y'in, zin, or δin, and measuring the changes in all of the beam output vector's elements, xout, x'out, yout, y'out, zout, δout, the full 6 x 6 transport matrix was measured. The measured emittance exchange transport matrix was in overall good agreement with our calculated transport matrix. A direct observation of an emittance exchange was performed by measuring the electron beam's characteristics before and after the emittance exchange beamline. Operating with a 14.3 MeV, 250pC electron bunch, ϵzin of 21.1 ± 1.5 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵxout of 20.8 ± 2.00 mm • mrad. Diagnostic limitations in the ϵzout measurement did not account for an energy-time correlation, thus potentially returning values larger than the actual longitudinal emittance. The ϵxin of 4.67 ± 0.22 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵzout of 7.06 ± 0.43 mm • mrad. The apparent ϵzoutgrowth is consistent with calculated values in which the correlation term is neglected.

  10. Emittance reconstruction technique for the Linac4 high energy commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; Posocco, PA

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H-) presently under construction which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. Linac4 is 80 meters long and comprises a Low Energy Beam Transport line, a 3 MeV RFQ, a MEBT, a 50 MeV DTL, a 100 MeV CCDTL and a PIMS up to 160 MeV. The commissioning of the Linac is scheduled to start in 2013. It will be divided into several steps corresponding to the commissioning of the different accelerating structures. A temporary measurement bench will be dedicated to the high energy commissioning from 30 to 100 MeV (DTL tanks 2 and 3, and CCDTL). The commissioning of the PIMS will be done using the permanent equipment installed in between the end of the Linac and the main dump. This note describes the technique we will use for reconstructing the transverse emittances and the expected results.

  11. Experimental studies on coherent synchrotron radiaiton in the emittance exchange line at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Keup, R.; Johnson, A.; Ruan, J.; Piot, P.; Church, M.; Edwards, H.; Lumpkin, A.; Sun, Y.-E.; Santucci, J.

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerators will employ advanced beam conditioning systems such as emittance exchangers to manipulate high brightness beams. Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the dipoles could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger. In this paper, we report the experimental studies on measuring CSR and its effects on the beam at the A0 photoinjector in the emittance exchange line. After reporting the CSR power measurements, we report on the diagnostic scheme based on a weak skew quad in the emittance exchange line to study the CSR effects on the beam and other beam dynamics. In this work, we have reported on CSR measurements and the effect of skew quad on the dogleg line with the 5-cell turned on and off. We plan to study CSR effects on the bunch with the 5-cell on at larger chirp. This is will not only increase the CSR self-effect but also reduce the beamsize at the screen for convenient beamsize measurements.

  12. Porous Emitter Colloid Thruster Performance Characterization Using Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    that the surface of the cone is equipotential . In order to include this constraint, Laplace’s Equation was used in the axisymmetric case to solve...43 ix Page 3.3 Emitter Surface Imaging...3. Taylor Cone geometry showing the opposing electric and internal surface tension stresses

  13. Observation of High Transformer Ratio of Shaped Bunch Generated by an Emittance-Exchange Beam Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Ha, G; Jing, C; Antipov, S P; Power, J G; Conde, M; Gai, W; Chen, H; Shi, J; Wisniewski, E E; Doran, D S; Liu, W; Whiteford, C E; Zholents, A; Piot, P; Baturin, S S

    2018-03-16

    Collinear wakefield acceleration has been long established as a method capable of generating ultrahigh acceleration gradients. Because of the success on this front, recently, more efforts have shifted towards developing methods to raise the transformer ratio (TR). This figure of merit is defined as the ratio of the peak acceleration field behind the drive bunch to the peak deceleration field inside the drive bunch. TR is always less than 2 for temporally symmetric drive bunch distributions and therefore recent efforts have focused on generating asymmetric distributions to overcome this limitation. In this Letter, we report on using the emittance-exchange method to generate a shaped drive bunch to experimentally demonstrate a TR≈5 in a dielectric wakefield accelerator.

  14. Novel non-intercepting diagnostic techniques for low-emittance relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.J.; Chang, B.

    1988-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams are being generated with emittances low enough that diffraction radiation can be used for beam diagnostics. Techniques based on diffraction radiation can be used to measure the beam transverse momentum distribution and to measure the transverse spatial distribution. The radiation is intense and can be in the visible spectral region where optical diagnostic techniques can be used to maximum advantage. 4 refs. 3 figs

  15. Design and Development of Emittance Measurement Device by Using the Pepper-pot Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakluea, S.; Rimjaem, S.

    2017-09-01

    Transverse emittance of a charged particle beam is one of the most important properties that reveals the quality of the beam. It is related to charge density, transvers size and angular displacement of the beam in transverse phase space. There are several techniques to measure the transverse emittance value. One of practical methods is the pepper-pot technique, which can measure both horizontal and vertical emittance value in a single measurement. This research concentrates on development of a pepper-pot device to measure the transverse emittance of electron beam produced from an accelerator injector system, which consists of a thermionic cathode RF electron gun and an alpha magnet, at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University. Simulation of beam dynamics was conducted with programs PARMELA, ELEGANT and self-developed codes using C and MATLAB. The geometry, dimensions and location of the pepper-pot as well as its corresponding screen station position were included in the simulation. The result from this study will be used to design and develop a practical pepper-pot experimental station.

  16. 3D Emittances Tailoring Techniques and Optimization with Space Charge for the Future CERN PS Booster Operations with Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Vincenzo; Benedetto, Elena; Bracco, Chiara; Cieslak-Kowalska, Magdalena; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of the LIU (LHC Injectors Upgrade) project, the CERN PS Booster is going to be renovated to host a new H⁻ charge-exchange injection from the Linac4. One important feature of the new injection scheme is the possibility to tailor a wide range of 3D emittances for CERN's different users in an intensity span in the order of 5·10⁹ to 1.6·10¹³ protons per PSB ring. This paper gives an overview of 3D multi-turn injection techniques, focusing on the future LHC beams, which aim at reaching high brightness, and on highest intensity beams (ISOLDE), where losses are the main concern. Complete RF capture simulations and transverse injection maps, including space charge effects, are presented and also intended to be used during the commissioning with Linac4.

  17. Double Emittance Exchanger as a Bunch Compressor for the MaRIE XFEL electron beam line at 1GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyzhenkov, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Yampolsky, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carlsten, Bruce Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    We demonstrate an alternative realization of a bunch compressor (specifically the second bunch compressor for the MaRIE XFEL beamline, 1GeV electron energy) using a double emittance exchanger (EEX) and a telescope in the transverse phase space.We compare our results with a traditional bunch compressor realized via chicane, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) and Space Charge (SC) effects. In particular, we use the Elegant code for tracking particles through the beam line and analyze the eigen-emittances evolution to separate the influence of the CSR/SC effects from the nonlinear dynamics effects. We optimize the scheme parameters to reach a desirable compression factor and minimize the emittance growth. We observe dominant CSR-effects in our scheme resulting in critical emittance growth and introduce alternative version of an emittance exchanger with a reduced number of bending magnets to minimize the impact of CSR effects.

  18. An explosive-emitter cathode produced using the heavy ion track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akap'ev, G.N.; Korenev, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    A cathode based on thin metallic foils with a homogeneous needle surface is described. The cathode was manufactured using the heavy ion track technique which permits the production of cathodes with an unlimited area and a needle density ranging from about 10 3 to 10 9 needles per cm 2 . An electron gun using this type of cathode has a current of 200-900 A and an energy of 100-300 keV. The cross section of the electron beam is fairly uniform. It is shown that needle emitters of similar shape and size play the principal role in forming a homogeneous cathode plasma

  19. Interface control: A modified rooting technique for enhancing field emission from multiwall carbon nanotube based bulk emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Indranil [Nanomaterials and Device Lab, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Choi, Wonbong, E-mail: choiw@fiu.edu [Nanomaterials and Device Lab, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised hopes that these materials might find wide application as cold cathodes in various electron sources. The excellent field emission properties shown by CNT-based field emitters has further stimulated this expectation. However, efficient performance of a practical field emitter, which comprises a large number of randomly or regularly oriented CNTs, is restricted primarily due to poor junctions formed between CNTs and substrates. This study is aimed at enhancing the junction performance by way of a modified 'rooting' technique-interface control. In this process, the interface between CNTs and substrate has been tailored with different metals in an attempt to improve the CNT-substrate junction performance. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized on different interface-controlled substrates, i.e. Cu, Al, W, Si and low-temperature co-fired ceramic. All the samples produced mat-type, randomly oriented MWCNT structures. Among the four different substrates studied, MWCNT-based field emitters on Cu substrate demonstrated the best field emission response, in terms of low turn-on field, high emission current, good field enhancement factor and excellent stability in long-term operation. Emitter structures and their field emission behavior were correlated and it was shown that interface control, as an advanced 'rooting' process, plays an important role in determining the emission response from a bulk field emitter.

  20. Interface control: A modified rooting technique for enhancing field emission from multiwall carbon nanotube based bulk emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Indranil; Choi, Wonbong

    2011-01-01

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised hopes that these materials might find wide application as cold cathodes in various electron sources. The excellent field emission properties shown by CNT-based field emitters has further stimulated this expectation. However, efficient performance of a practical field emitter, which comprises a large number of randomly or regularly oriented CNTs, is restricted primarily due to poor junctions formed between CNTs and substrates. This study is aimed at enhancing the junction performance by way of a modified 'rooting' technique-interface control. In this process, the interface between CNTs and substrate has been tailored with different metals in an attempt to improve the CNT-substrate junction performance. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized on different interface-controlled substrates, i.e. Cu, Al, W, Si and low-temperature co-fired ceramic. All the samples produced mat-type, randomly oriented MWCNT structures. Among the four different substrates studied, MWCNT-based field emitters on Cu substrate demonstrated the best field emission response, in terms of low turn-on field, high emission current, good field enhancement factor and excellent stability in long-term operation. Emitter structures and their field emission behavior were correlated and it was shown that interface control, as an advanced 'rooting' process, plays an important role in determining the emission response from a bulk field emitter.

  1. Measurement techniques for low emittance tuning and beam dynamics at CESR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, M. G.; Dobbins, J. A.; Forster, M. J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Meller, R. E.; Peterson, D. P.; Ramirez, G. A.; Rendina, M. C.; Rider, N. T.; Sagan, D. C.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J. P.; Stedinger, M. G.; Strohman, C. R.; Williams, H. A.; Palmer, M. A.; Holtzapple, R. L.; Flanagan, J.

    2018-03-01

    After operating as a High Energy Physics electron-positron collider, the Cornell Electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has been converted to become a dedicated synchrotron light source for the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Over the course of several years CESR was adapted for accelerator physics research as a test accelerator, capable of studying topics relevant to future damping rings, colliders and light sources. Initially some specific topics were targeted for accelerator physic research with the storage ring in this mode, labeled CesrTA. These topics included 1) tuning techniques to produce low emittance beams, 2) the study of electron cloud (EC) development in a storage ring and 3) intra-beam scattering effects. The complete conversion of CESR to CesrTA occurred over a several year period, described elsewhere [1–3]. A number of specific instruments were developed for CesrTA. Much of the pre-existing instrumentation was modified to accommodate the scope of these studies and these are described in a companion paper [4]. To complete this research, a number of procedures were developed or modified, often requiring coordinated measurements among different instruments [5]. This paper provides an overview of types of measurements employed for the study of beam dynamics during the operation of CesrTA.

  2. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing [Daly City, CA; Yang, Peidong [Kensington, CA; Kim, Woong [Seoul, KR; Fan, Rong [Pasadena, CA

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  3. Ground Receiving Station Reference Pair Selection Technique for a Minimum Configuration 3D Emitter Position Estimation Multilateration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik Shehu Yaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilateration estimates aircraft position using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA with a lateration algorithm. The Position Estimation (PE accuracy of the lateration algorithm depends on several factors which are the TDOA estimation error, the lateration algorithm approach, the number of deployed GRSs and the selection of the GRS reference used for the PE process. Using the minimum number of GRSs for 3D emitter PE, a technique based on the condition number calculation is proposed to select the suitable GRS reference pair for improving the accuracy of the PE using the lateration algorithm. Validation of the proposed technique was performed with the GRSs in the square and triangular GRS configuration. For the selected emitter positions, the result shows that the proposed technique can be used to select the suitable GRS reference pair for the PE process. A unity condition number is achieved for GRS pair most suitable for the PE process. Monte Carlo simulation result, in comparison with the fixed GRS reference pair lateration algorithm, shows a reduction in PE error of at least 70% for both GRS in the square and triangular configuration.

  4. EXCHANGE-RATES FORECASTING: EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING TECHNIQUES AND ARIMA MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezsi Eva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates forecasting is, and has been a challenging task in finance. Statistical and econometrical models are widely used in analysis and forecasting of foreign exchange rates. This paper investigates the behavior of daily exchange rates of the Romanian Leu against the Euro, United States Dollar, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Chinese Renminbi and the Russian Ruble. Smoothing techniques are generated and compared with each other. These models include the Simple Exponential Smoothing technique, as the Double Exponential Smoothing technique, the Simple Holt-Winters, the Additive Holt-Winters, namely the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model.

  5. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  6. Techniques for the improvement of heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyghe, J.

    1983-01-01

    The target of the described techniques is either to improve the performances of the equipements or to reduce their cost price. These techniques were developed at the laboratory scale and some of them were tested in pilot units. Neither of them has yet been applied in commercial plants. Different type of corrogated tubes, thin film evaporation, dropwise condensation, plastic tube or plates, tube configuration and heat pipes are examined [fr

  7. Aperture Determination in the LHC Based on an Emittance Blowup Technique with Collimator Position Scan

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; del Carmen Alabau, M; Giovannozzi, M; Muller, GJ; Redaelli, S; Schmidt, F; Tomas, R; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D

    2011-01-01

    A new method to determine the LHC aperture was proposed. The new component is a collimator scan technique that refers the globally measured aperture limit to the shadow of the primary collimator, expressed in sigmas of rms beam size. As a by-product the BLM response to beam loss is quantified. The method is described and LHC measurement results are presented.

  8. Development of technique for quantifying gamma emitters in metal waste. New technique of precise and automatic measurements for confirmation of clearance level of metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takatoshi

    2002-01-01

    A New technique of precise and automatic measurements of gamma emitters in metal waste has been developed using 3D non-contact shape measurement and monte-carlo calculation techniques in order to confirm that specific radioactivity level of metal waste satisfies the clearance level and furthermore the surface contamination level of the metal waste is below the legal standard level. The technique can give a calibration factor every measurement target automatically and realize an automatic correction for reduction of background count rate in gamma measurements due to self-shield effect of the measurement target. The accuracy of the present method has been made clear using mock-metal wastes with various types of shape, number and size. Assuming the goal of the detection limit for practical use is 25OBq in radioactivity, a concept of the practical gamma monitor has been designed so as to be able to confirm both the clearance level and surface contamination level simultaneously and to cope with the metal waste at a speed of 2-10 ton a day. (author)

  9. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, I.; Delgado, A.; Navarro, T.; Macias, M. T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs

  10. Low emittance photoinjectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    Photon colliders require high charge polarized electron beams with very low normalized emittances, possibly lower than the actual damping rings design goals. Recent analytical and numerical efforts in understanding beam dynamics in RF photoinjectors have raised again the question as to whether the performances of an RF electron gun based injector could be competitive with respect to a damping ring. As a matter of discussion we report in this paper the most recent results concerning low emittance photoinjector designs: the production of polarized electron beams by DC and/or RF guns is illustrated together with space charge compensation techniques and thermal emittance effects. New ideas concerning multi-gun injection system and generation of flat beams by RF gun are also discussed

  11. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  12. Nonintercepting emittance monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; James, M.B.; Sheppard, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    A nonintercepting emittance monitor is a helpful device for measuring and improving particle beams in accelerators and storage rings as it allows continuous monitoring of the beam's distribution in phase space, and perhaps closed loop computer control of the distributions. Stripline position monitors are being investigated for use as nonintercepting emittance monitors for a beam focused by a FODO array in the first 100 meters of our linear accelerator. The technique described here uses the signal from the four stripline probes of a single position monitor to measure the quadrupole mode of the wall current in the beam pipe. This current is a function of the quadrupole moment of the beam, sigma 2 /sub x/ - sigma 2 /sub y/. In general, six independent measurements of the quadrupole moment are necessary to determine the beam emittance. This technique is dependent on the characteristically large variations of sigma 2 /sub x/ - sigma 2 /sub y/ in a FODO array. It will not work in a focusing system where the beam is round at each focusing element

  13. Asymmetrical field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  14. Alpha-particle autoradiography in CR-39: a technique for quantitative assessment of alpha-emitters in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fews, A.P.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques for α-particle autoradiography based on the plastic nuclear track detector CR-39, previously reported, have been developed considerably. The techniques are applied to α-autoradiography of human lung tissue in particular but are applicable to any biological tissue. The most important developments are: (i) Improvements in the manufacture and pre-etching of the plastic. (ii) High resolution α-particle spectroscopy in CR-39 plastic based on the analysis of the structure of the etched track. (iii) Calculation of the effective thickness of tissue sampled by the plastic. (iv) A deconvolution analysis which takes the distributions of track length and dip angle in the plastic and determines the α-particle range spectrum and distribution of tissue activity with height above the plastic surface. (v) The analysis of radon diffusion in tissue to determine the mean radon diffusion distance in tissue and plastic. (author)

  15. Novel Method for Exchange of Impella Circulatory Assist Catheter: The "Trojan Horse" Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Colin T; Tamez, Hector; Tu, Thomas M; Yeh, Robert W; Pinto, Duane S

    2017-07-01

    Patients with an indwelling Impella may require escalation of hemodynamic support or exchange to another circulatory assistance platform. As such, preservation of vascular access is preferable in cases where anticoagulation cannot be discontinued or to facilitate exchange to an alternative catheter or closure device. Challenges exist in avoiding bleeding and loss of wire access in these situations. We describe a single-access "Trojan Horse" technique that minimizes bleeding while maintaining arterial access for rapid exchange of this percutaneous ventricular assist device.

  16. Transverse beam emittance optimization for the injection into BESSY II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Felix [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institut Beschleunigerphysik (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For top up injection into the storage ring BESSY II an average injection efficiency of at least 90% is required. In low alpha mode the injection efficiency does not meet the requirements. Future BESSY II features will include shorter bunches in the storage ring (VSR) and user transparent injection with a non linear kicker. These will raise the demands on the quality of the injected beam even further. This work investigates the development of transverse emittance over the acceleration cycle in the synchrotron and the possibility of transverse emittance exchange by a sequence of skew quadrupoles in the transfer line. Results of emittance measurements and emittance exchange simulations will be given.

  17. Realisation of a ultra-high vacuum system and technique development of microscopical emitters preparation in silicium. First measurements of field emission current and field photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Manouni, A.

    1990-12-01

    The development of research in the domain of photocathode (electron sources) illuminated by laser light to produce intense multiple bunches of electrons in short time is needed by many applications as linear collider e + e - , free electron laser, lasertron, etc... In this way, after a study of field emission, of photoemission and of photofield emission, we prepared microscopical emitters in silicium heavy and weakly doped a boron using a technique of microlithography. Then, we realized a system of ultra-high vacuum of studying property of emission from photocathodes realized. The experiment results obtained in field emission and photofield emission have shown that a behaviour unexpected for P-silicium tips array compared to P + -silicon tips array. With P-type silicon, a quantum yield of 21 percent has been measured for laser power of 140 mW and for applied field of 1.125 x 10 7 V/m and an instantaneous response to laser light beam has been observed. It has been noted that presence of oxyde at the surface of photocathode limits extensively the emission current. The fluctuations of emission current are due to quality of vacuum [fr

  18. An iterative homogenization technique that preserves assembly core exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondot, Ph.; Sanchez, R.

    2003-01-01

    A new interactive homogenization procedure for reactor core calculations is proposed that requires iterative transport assembly and diffusion core calculations. At each iteration the transport solution of every assembly type is used to produce homogenized cross sections for the core calculation. The converged solution gives assembly fine multigroup transport fluxes that preserve macro-group assembly exchanges in the core. This homogenization avoids the periodic lattice-leakage model approximation and gives detailed assembly transport fluxes without need of an approximated flux reconstruction. Preliminary results are given for a one-dimensional core model. (authors)

  19. Radioanalytical determination of plutonium and americium using ion exchange and extraction chromatography technique in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanakrishnan, V.; Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Ravi, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of anion exchange chromatography for the separation of Pu and extraction chromatography technique for the separation of Am from urine samples was studied. In the earlier method, Pu separation was carried out by anion exchange chromatography followed by Am separation by cation exchange chromatography. The chemical recovery of Am obtained by cation exchange separation method was inconsistent and low in the range 30-70%. In this study, the average Pu recovery obtained using anion exchange chromatography was 89.2 with standard deviation of 10.4 and the average Am recovery obtained using extraction chromatography with TRU resin was 77.4 with standard deviation of 14.8. Moreover, Am separation could be completed within three hours using the TRU column compared to two days that were required for the cation exchange chromatography. (author)

  20. Impact of Detoxification Techniques on Pulmonary Gas Exchange Function in Patients with Generalized Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mlinnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of different detoxification techniques on pulmonary gas exchange function in patients with generalized peritonitis complicated by multiple organ failure. Subjects and methods. One hundred and thirty patients with generalized peritonitis were examined. According to the used detoxification techniques, the patients were divided into 5 groups. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination, the key element of which was the evaluation of gas exchange parameters. Results. Membrane plasmapheresis and plasmapheresis with sodium hypochlorite infusion to the plasma filter in patients with peritonitis are shown to improve pulmonary blood oxygenation.

  1. Measurement of emittance of metal interface in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, N.; Makino, A.; Nakamura, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new technique for measuring the total normal emittance of a metal in a semi-transparent liquid has been proposed and this technique has been applied to measure the emittance of stainless steel (SUS304), nickel, and gold in molten potassium nitrate KNO 3 . These emittance data are indispensable to analyzing the radiative heat transfer between a metal and a semitransparent liquid, such as a molten salt

  2. Impact of airway gas exchange on the multiple inert gas elimination technique: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C; Hlastala, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    The multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) provides a method for estimating alveolar gas exchange efficiency. Six soluble inert gases are infused into a peripheral vein. Measurements of these gases in breath, arterial blood, and venous blood are interpreted using a mathematical model of alveolar gas exchange (MIGET model) that neglects airway gas exchange. A mathematical model describing airway and alveolar gas exchange predicts that two of these gases, ether and acetone, exchange primarily within the airways. To determine the effect of airway gas exchange on the MIGET, we selected two additional gases, toluene and m-dichlorobenzene, that have the same blood solubility as ether and acetone and minimize airway gas exchange via their low water solubility. The airway-alveolar gas exchange model simulated the exchange of toluene, m-dichlorobenzene, and the six MIGET gases under multiple conditions of alveolar ventilation-to-perfusion, VA/Q, heterogeneity. We increased the importance of airway gas exchange by changing bronchial blood flow, Qbr. From these simulations, we calculated the excretion and retention of the eight inert gases and divided the results into two groups: (1) the standard MIGET gases which included acetone and ether and (2) the modified MIGET gases which included toluene and m-dichlorobenzene. The MIGET mathematical model predicted distributions of ventilation and perfusion for each grouping of gases and multiple perturbations of VA/Q and Qbr. Using the modified MIGET gases, MIGET predicted a smaller dead space fraction, greater mean VA, greater log(SDVA), and more closely matched the imposed VA distribution than that using the standard MIGET gases. Perfusion distributions were relatively unaffected.

  3. Application of the Guided Wave Technique to the Heat Exchanger Tube in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dong Soon; Kim, Hyung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Joo

    2005-01-01

    The heat exchanger tube is examined by the method of eddy current test(ECT) to identify the integrity of the nuclear power plant. Because ECT probe is moved through the tube inside to identify flaws, the ECT probe should be exchanged periodically due to the wear of probe surface in order to remove the noise form the ECT signal. Moreover, it is impossible to examine the tube by ECT method because the ECT probe can not move through the inside due to the deformation such as dent. Recently, the theory of guided wave was established and the equipment applying the theory has been actively developed so as to overcome the limitation of ECT method for the tube inspection of heater exchanger in nuclear power plant. The object of this study is to know the application of the guided wave technique to heat exchanger tube in NPP

  4. Development of Emittance Analysis Software for Ion Beam Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, M.J.; Liu, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a figure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally, a high-quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profiles, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fitting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplified, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF EMITTANCE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR ION BEAM CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M. J.; Liu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a fi gure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally a high quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifi eld Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profi les, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fi tting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplifi ed, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate.

  6. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Sampling technique. Use of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egner, H; Eriksson, E; Emanuelsson, A

    1947-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of atmospheric precipitations in Sweden, a technique using ion exchange resins has been developed. The possibilities of nitrate reduction, and ammonia losses, when the precipitation is collected in zinc gauges is stressed. Glass funnels are used, and they are effectively protected from bird droppings. The ion exchange resins so far available are quite serviceable but show some deficiencies as to stability, and activity in alkaline solutions. New resins, which are not yet available, seem to offer definite advantages.

  7. Determination of substraces of alpha emitter elements in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine alpha emitter elements in water by alpha spectrometry, it is necessary to use large volumes of samples, concentration techniq-ues and to separate the elements of interest. In this report a study is presented about two concentration techniques and the process of analysis. Firstly, the stages of concentration method by iron hydroxide coprecipitation were studied in order to improve the results. The combination of liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange techniques was the best way. Secondly, the technique by adsorption on manganese dioxide was studied. To apply this technique it was necessary to develop analysis methods to separate uranium, thorium, plutonium, americium and radium. These methods were designed combining several techniques of separation: liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-solid extraction, ionic exchange and coprecipitation. After the analysis methods were developped the adsorption on manganese dioxide with artificial samples was studied in the laboratory. Finally, the method of adsorption on manganese dioxide was studied to determine uranium, thorium and radium in the drinking water of Madrid. (Author)

  8. Emittance control in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Before completing a realistic design of a next-generation linear collider, the authors must first learn the lessons taught by the first generation, the SLC. Given that, they must make designs fault tolerant by including correction and compensation in the basic design. They must also try to eliminate these faults by improved alignment and stability of components. When these two efforts cross, they have a realistic design. The techniques of generation and control of emittance reviewed here provide a foundation for a design which can obtain the necessary luminosity in a next-generation linear collider

  9. Cancer from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of 226 Ra or medical injections of 224 Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes

  10. Heat Exchanger Tube Inspection of Nuclear Power Plants using IRIS Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Song, Seok Yoon; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Hee Jong

    2005-01-01

    Inspection of heat exchange tubing include steam generator of nuclear power plant mostly performed with eddy current method. Recently, various inspection technique is available such as remote field eddy current, flux leakage and ultrasonic methods. Each of these techniques has its merits and limitations. Electromagnetic techniques are very useful to locate areas of concern but sizing is hard because of the difficult interpretation of an electric signature. On the other hand, ultrasonic methods are very accurate in measuring wall loss damage, and are reliable for detecting cracks. Additionally ultrasound methods is not affected by support plates or tube sheets and variation of electrical conductivity or permeability. Ultrasound data is also easier to analyze since the data displayed is generally the remaining wall thickness. It should be emphasized that ultrasound is an important tool for sizing defects in tubing. In addition, it can be used in situations where eddy current or remote field eddy current is not reliable, or as a flaw assessment tool to supplement the electromagnetic data. The need to develop specialized ultrasonic tools for tubing inspection was necessary considering the limitations of electromagnetic techniques to some common inspection problems. These problems the sizing of wall loss in carbon steel tubes near the tube sheet or support plate, sizing internal erosion damage, and crack detection. This paper will present an IRIS(Internal Rotating Inspection System) ultrasonic tube inspection technique for heat exchanger tubing in nuclear power plant and verify inspection reliability for artificial flaw embedded to condenser tube

  11. Use of the neutron diffraction - H/D exchange technique to determine the conformational dynamics of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossiakoff, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Reported here are studies analyzing the extent and nature of the inherent conformational fluctuations in trypsin by neutron diffraction - hydrogen exchange techniques. The pattern of exchange investigates systematic relationships between exchangeable sites and the structural and chemical properties of the molecule. Our findings that pH 7, 20 0 and 1 year of soaking all sites of trypsin are fully exchanged except those which are especially well protected by the structure. Essentially all the sites in which the peptide hydrogens are bonded directly to water molecules - either in the bulk solvent regions or in interior clusters - are fully exchanged. 41 references, 10 figures

  12. Emittance control in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the generation and control of the emittance in a next-generation linear collider. The beams are extracted from a damping ring and compressed in length by the first bunch compressor. They are then accelerated in a preaccelerator linac up to an energy appropriate for injection into a high gradient linac. In many designs this pre-acceleration is followed by another bunch compression to reach a short bunch. After acceleration in the linac, the bunches are finally focused transversely to a small spot. The proposed vertical beam sizes at the interaction point are the order of a few nanometers while the horizontal sizes are about a factor of 100 larger. This cross-sectional area is about a factor of 10 4 smaller than the SLC. However, the main question is: what are the tolerances to achieve such a small size, and how do they compare to present techniques for alignment and stability? These tolerances are very design dependent. Alignment tolerances in the linac can vary from 1 μm to 100 μm depending upon the basic approach. In this paper we discuss techniques of emittance generation and control which move alignment tolerances to the 100 μm range

  13. Review of disposal techniques for radioactively contaminated organic ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inman, J.R.; Mack, J.

    1993-03-01

    Organic ion-exchange resins are used in the UK nuclear industry to remove radioactive nuclides from dilute aqueous solution. Resins represent a significant proportion of the organic content of ILW and LLW, particularly ILW. Spent resins are destined to be disposed of in the UK deep repository. There are concerns regarding the potential effects of organic materials on long-term repository performance, and these effects have been the subject of much recent research work. The object of this study has been to conduct a worldwide review of treatment and conditioning techniques available for spent organic ion-exchange resins with the intention of recommending the best option for dealing with the waste in the UK. Data on available techniques have been gathered together, and are presented in tabular form at the back of the report. The techniques have been reviewed and compared considering safety, practicality and cost, and a best option selected on the basis of current knowledge. On balance it would appear that wet oxidation using hydrogen peroxide with residue encapsulation in BFS/OPC is the most appropriate technique, probably implemented using a mobile plant. This conclusion and recommendation is not however clear cut and further advice regarding the acceptability of organic material in the repository is necessary before a definite recommendation can be made. (Author)

  14. FACET Emittance Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  15. FACET Emittance Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, Joel

    2011-01-01

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to ∼20 (micro)m long and ∼10 (micro)m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  16. Quadrupole Transfer Function for Emittance Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter; Jansson, Andreas; Tan, Cheng-Yang

    2008-01-01

    Historically the use of the quadrupole moment measurement has been impeded by the requirement for large dynamic range, as well as measurement sensitivity to beam position. We investigate the use of the transfer function technique [1-3] in combination with the sensitivity and 160dB revolution line rejection of the direct diode detection analog front end [4] to open the possibility of an emittance diagnostic that may be implemented without operational complication, quasi- parasitic to the operation of existing tune measurement systems. Such a diagnostic would be particularly useful as an emittance monitor during acceleration ramp development in machines like RHIC and the LHC.

  17. Electron emitter pulsed-type cylindrical IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Gu, Y.; Stubbers, R.; Zich, R.; Anderl, R.; Hartwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    A cylindrical version of the single grid Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device (termed the C-device) has been developed for use as a 2.5-MeV D-D fusion neutron source for neutron activation analysis. The C-device employs a hollow-tube type cathode with similar anodes backed up by ''reflector'' dishes. The resulting discharge differs from a conventional hollow cathode discharge, by creating an explicit ion beam which is ''pinched'' in the cathode region. Resulting fusion reactions generate ∼10 6 neutron/s. A pulsed version is under development for applications requiring higher fluxes. Several pulsing techniques are under study, including an electron emitter (e-emitter) assisted discharge in a thorated tungsten wire emitter located behind a slotted area in the reflector dishes. Pulsing is initiated after establishing a low power steady-state discharge by pulsing the e-emitter current using a capacitor switch type circuit. The resulting electron jet, coupled with the discharge by the biased slot array, creates a strong pulse in the pinched ion beam. The pulse length/repetition rate are controlled by the e-emitter pulse circuit. Typical parameters in present studies are ∼30micros, 10Hz and 1-amp ion current. Corresponding neutron measurements are an In-foil type activation counter for time averaged rates. Results for a wide variety of operating conditions are presented

  18. Diamond-based single-photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Simpson, D A; Su, C-H; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.

  19. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  20. Ultrafiltration technique in conjunction with competing ligand exchange method for Ni–humics speciation in aquatic environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Boissel, M.; Reuillon, A.; Babu, P.V.R.; Parthiban, G.

    The combination of ultrafiltration technique with competing ligand exchange method provides a better understanding of interactions between Ni and different molecular weight fractions of humic acid (HA) at varying pH in aquatic environment...

  1. Low-emittance Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron radiation on particle motion in storage rings are discussed. In the absence of radiation, particle motion is symplectic, and the beam emittances are conserved. The inclusion of radiation effects in a classical approximation leads to emittance damping: expressions for the damping times are derived. Then, it is shown that quantum radiation effects lead to excitation of the beam emittances. General expressions for the equilibrium longitudinal and horizontal (natural) emittances are derived. The impact of lattice design on the natural emittance is discussed, with particular attention to the special cases of FODO-, achromat- and theoretical-minimum-emittance-style lattices. Finally, the effects of betatron coupling and vertical dispersion (generated by magnet alignment and lattice tuning errors) on the vertical emittance are considered.

  2. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  3. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  5. Separation of individual lanthanides through the combined techniques of urea fractionated homogeneous precipitation and ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K; Abrao, A

    1975-06-01

    The separation of individual lanthanides, especially Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm and La, from a rare earth chlorides concentrate by the industrial processing of monazite sand is made. To reach this goal the homogeneous fractional precipitation and ion exchange techniques were combined. Using the rare earths concentrate depleted in Cerium, fractions enriched in Nd, Pr and Sm, and one final filtrate enriched in La were obtained, by the hydrolysis of urea. The separation of individual lanthanides (Nd, Pr, Sm and La) was accomplished using two strong cationic ion exchanger columns, the second with Cu(II) as retaining ion, and EDTA-NH/sub 4/ solution buffered with acetic acid as eluant. The annoying problem of precipitation into the column during the RE elution was solved. The difficult EDTA and Cu(II) recovery was the precipitation of Cu/sub 2/S and disruption of Cu-EDTA complex by hydrolysis of thiourea. The combination of both techniques allowed the preparation of individual lanthanides as Nd, Pr and La with 99% and Sm with 90% purity.

  6. Separation of individual lanthanides through the combined techniques of urea fractionated homogeneous precipitation and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, K.; Abrao, A.

    1975-01-01

    The separation of individual lanthanides, especially Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm and La, from a rare earth chlorides concentrate by the industrial processing of monazite sand is made. To reach this goal the homogeneous fractional precipitation and ion exchange techniques were combined. Using the rare earths concentrate depleted in Cerium, fractions enriched in Nd, Pr and Sm, and one final filtrate enriched in La were obtained, by the hydrolysis of urea. The separation of individual lanthanides (Ns, Pr, Sm and La) was accomplished using two strong cationic ion exchanger columns, the second with Cu(II) as retaining ion, and EDTA-NH 4 solution buffered with acetic acid as eluant. The annoy problem of precipitation into the column during the RE elution was solved. The difficult EDTA and Cu(II) recovery was the precipitation of Cu 2 S and disruption of CU-EDTA complex by hydrolysis of thiourea. The combination of both techniques allowed the preparation of individual lanthanides as Nd, Pr and La with 99% and Sm with 90% purity

  7. Oral to nasal tube exchange under fibroscopic view: a new technique for nasal intubation in a predicted difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Enric; Garcés, Antonio; Artés, David; Mabrock, Maged

    2008-07-01

    For a predicted difficult airway, oral intubation techniques are well established in pediatric anesthesia, but nasotracheal intubation remains a problem. There are many reports concerning this, but the risk of bleeding, added to the lack of cooperation make this procedure difficult and hazardous. We describe a modification of the nasal intubation technique in two stages. First an oral intubation and then exchanging the oral for a nasal tube, in the case of a 13-year-old boy affected by an advanced stage of cherubism. Oral intubation using a laryngeal mask technique has already been reported, but problems appear during the exchange procedure and even more when direct laryngoscopy is impossible. Fiberscopic control of the exchange, and the introduction of a Cook Exchange Catheter into the trachea through the oral tube before withdrawal, permits oxygenation of the patient and acts as a guide for oral tube reintroduction if required.

  8. Performance evaluation of anion exchange resins Purolite NRW-5050 and Duolite A-611 by application of radioisotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2014-01-01

    Radioanalytical techniques using 131 I and 82 Br as tracer isotopes were applied to study the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions taking place between the external labeled ionic solution and the resin surface. The results indicate low values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction as compared to that obtained for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction performed at 35.0 C, 1 000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were 0.340, 0.394, 0.134 and 20.2 respectively for Purolite NRW-5050 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.216, 0.290, 0.063 and 18.2 as that obtained by using Duolite A-611. The results of present investigation indicate that during the two ion-isotopic exchange reactions, for both the resins, there exists a strong positive linear correlation between amount of ions exchanged and concentration of ionic solution; and strong negative correlation between amount of ions exchanged and temperature of exchanging medium. From the results it appears that as compared to Duolite A-611 resins, Purolite NRW-5050 resins shows superior performance under identical experimental conditions.

  9. Retrospective Study of Rapid-Exchange Monorail Versus Over-the-Wire Technique for Femoropopliteal Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, Thomas; Schaefer, Jost Philipp; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz; Michalek, Jens; Charalambous, Nicholas; Sapoval, Marc; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to compare procedural outcome of rapid-exchange (RX) monorail versus conventional over-the-wire (OTW) technique for femoropopliteal angioplasty.Materials and MethodsDemographic data, procedure details, angioplasty success, and complications of 328 consecutive percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTAs) were collected from a prospective database and retrospectively analyzed. Procedure details included duration of fluoroscopy, area-dose product, amount of contrast agent, sheath sizes, access route, length of stenosis, presence of total occlusion, technical and anatomical success (residual stenosis <30% in the absence of complications), need for bail-out stenting, and periprocedural complications. The RX technique alone was used in 102 of 328 cases (31%); the OTW technique, in 226 of 328 of cases (68%).ResultsTechnical success was 98% for the RX versus 95.4% for the OTW technique (p = 0.2). A significantly greater number of stents had to be implanted due to angioplasty failure when the OTW technique was used (RX, 5.9%; OTW, 13.7%; p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in fluorocopy time, dose-area product, or amount of contrast medium used. The RX system facilitated the use of smaller sheath sizes (5 Fr = 38% and 6 Fr = 59% for RX versus 5 Fr = 16.8% and ≥6 Fr = 82.5% for OTW) but showed only a tendency toward lower overall complication rates (16.6% [17/102] in the RX group versus 19.9% [45/226] in the OTW group; p = 0.09). There was no effect on length of hospitalization. RX monorail systems were not associated with higher procedural costs when compared to conventional OTW technique.ConclusionWe conclude that RX monorail systems seem to enhance the technical success of femoropopliteal angioplasty. Although smaller sheath sizes can be used due to the lower profile of the RX systems, there is only a tendency toward lower complication rates.

  10. Movement of Irrigation Water in Soil from a Surface Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abbas Dawood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available rickle irrigation is one of the most conservative irrigation techniques since it implies supplying water directly on the soil through emitters. Emitters dissipate energy of water at the end of the trickle irrigation system and provide water at emission points. The area wetted by an emitter depends upon the discharge of emitter, soil texture, initial soil water content, and soil permeability. The objectives of this research were to predict water distribution profiles through different soils for different conditions and quantify the distribution profiles in terms of main characteristics of soil and emitter. The wetting patterns were simulated at the end of each hour for a total time of application of 12 hrs, emitter discharges of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lph, and five initial volumetric soil water contents. Simulation of water flow from a single surface emitter was carried out by using the numerically-based software Hydrus-2D/3D, Version 2.04. Two approaches were used in developing formulas to predict the domains of the wetted pattern. In order to verify the results obtained by implementing the software Hydrus-2D/3D a field experiment was conducted to measure the wetted diameter and compare measured values with simulated ones. The results of the research showed that the developed formulas to express the wetted diameter and depth in terms of emitter discharge, time of application, and initial soil water content are very general and can be used with very good accuracy.

  11. Low emittance electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    Low-emittance electron (positron) beams are essential for synchrotron light sources, linear collider damping rings, and circular Crab Waist colliders. In this review, the principles and methods of emittance minimization are discussed, prospects for developing relativistic electron storage rings with small beam phase volume are assessed, and problems related to emittance minimization are examined together with their possible solutions. The special features and engineering implementation aspects of various facilities are briefly reviewed.

  12. Gas exchange at the air-sea interface: a technique for radon measurements in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirazza, G.; Roveri, M.

    1991-01-01

    The rate of exchange of various gas species, such as O 2 , CO 2 etc. across the air-water interface can be evaluated from the 222 Rn vertical profiles in the water column. Radon profiles were measured in 4 stations in the NW Adriatic Sea, in September 1990, using solvent extraction and liquid scintillation counting techniques, directly on board the ship. The radiochemical procedure is described in detail. The lower limit of detection is approximately 0.4 mBq 1 -1 . The radon deficiency in the profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the air-sea interface ranging from 0.9 to 7.0 m d -1 . The suitability of the radon deficiency method in shallow water, enclosed seas is briefly discussed. (Author)

  13. Analysis and optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell using modeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Valdés, Ing. Raciel de la; García Parra, MSc. Lázaro Roger; González Rodríguez, MSc. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional, non-isothermal and steady-state model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell using Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques, specifically ANSYS FLUENT 14.5. It's considered multicomponent diffusion and two-phasic flow. The model was compared with experimental published data and with another model. The operation parameters: reactants pressure and temperature, gases flow direction, gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer porosity, reactants humidification and oxygen concentration are analyzed. The model allows the fuel cell design optimization taking in consideration the channels dimensions, the channels length and the membrane thickness. Furthermore, fuel cell performance is analyzed working with SPEEK membrane, an alternative electrolyte to Nafion. In order to carry on membrane material study, it's necessary to modify the expression that describes the electrolyte ionic conductivity. It's found that the device performance has got a great sensibility to pressure, temperature, reactant humidification and oxygen concentration variations. (author)

  14. Comparative study on ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by application of tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    2007-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reactions using industrial grade ion exchange resins Amberlite IRA-400. The experiments were performed to understand the effect of temperature and concentration of ionic solution on kinetics of exchange reactions. Both the exchange reactions were greatly influenced by rise in temperature, which result in higher percentage of ions exchanged. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions, the calculated values of specific reaction rate/min -1 , and amount of ions exchanged/mmol were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (orig.)

  15. Application of resin in pulp technique for ion exchange separation of uranium from alkaline leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.; Chakravorty, J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of uranium from different ores uses ion exchange (IX) technique for the separation of dissolved uranium values. Conventionally, the IX process is carried out on leach solution obtained after the filtration or counter-current decantation of the leach slurries. Amongst the two types of leach pulps generated in uranium ore processing, viz acidic and alkaline, the latter one consists of predominantly fine-size pulps of higher viscosity, thus making the solid-liquid separation an arduous task. Sustained research for improvising the efficiency of various unit operations in the uranium process flowsheet have resulted in advent of new generation resins which are mechanically re-silent, posses higher exchange capacity thereby enabling separation of dissolved uranium ions from the leach pulps directly. Some of the prominent low-grade uranium ore deposits in India are hosted in acid consuming gangue matrix. These ore deposits necessitate fine grinding as well as application of alkaline leaching for the dissolution of uranium values. The leach pulps analyse 500 – 600 mg/l of U3O8 and contain total dissolved solutes (TDS) to the extent of about 50 g/l. Analysis of the characteristics of the leach pulp indicated suitability of resin-in-pulp technique for the separation of uranyl carbonate anions from the leachate. This paper describes the results of the RIP test work on alkaline leach slurry using various commercially available strong base anionic exchange resins. Parametric variation studies were conducted to establish the adsorption isotherm and sorption kinetics followed by elution of loaded uranium. Based on these results semi-continuous experiments on “carousel” mode were carried out. The results indicate superiority of gel type polystyrene based resins grafted with quaternary ammonium ion in comparison to the macro-porous resins. Semi-continuous counter-current extraction and elution tests indicated that about 98% of

  16. Activity measurements of the high-energy pure beta-emitters Sr-89 and Y-90 by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available rise to a set of linear algebraic equations that can be expressed in matrix form. The solution is given by a matrix inversion technique. This gives the values and uncertainties for the three coefficients N1, N2 and N3. Slide 11 © CSIR 2006...

  17. Remote detection of single emitters via optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Patrick; Razinskas, Gary; Feichtner, Thorsten; Haas, Philippe; Wild, Andreas; Bellini, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto; Cerullo, Giulio; Hecht, Bert

    2014-05-01

    The integration of lab-on-a-chip technologies with single-molecule detection techniques may enable new applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology, and medicine. We describe a method based on the reciprocity theorem of electromagnetic theory to determine and optimize the detection efficiency of photons emitted by single quantum emitters through truncated dielectric waveguides of arbitrary shape positioned in their proximity. We demonstrate experimentally that detection of single quantum emitters via such waveguides is possible, confirming the predicted behavior of the detection efficiency. Our findings blaze the trail towards efficient lensless single-emitter detection compatible with large-scale optofluidic integration.

  18. Retrospective study of rapid-exchange monorail versus over-the-wire technique for femoropopliteal angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Thomas; Schäfer, Jost Philipp; Bolte, Hendrik; Schäfer, Fritz; Michalek, Jens; Charalambous, Nicholas; Sapoval, Marc; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare procedural outcome of rapid-exchange (RX) monorail versus conventional over-the-wire (OTW) technique for femoropopliteal angioplasty. Demographic data, procedure details, angioplasty success, and complications of 328 consecutive percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTAs) were collected from a prospective database and retrospectively analyzed. Procedure details included duration of fluoroscopy, area-dose product, amount of contrast agent, sheath sizes, access route, length of stenosis, presence of total occlusion, technical and anatomical success (residual stenosis or = 6 Fr = 82.5% for OTW) but showed only a tendency toward lower overall complication rates (16.6% [17/102] in the RX group versus 19.9% [45/226] in the OTW group; p = 0.09). There was no effect on length of hospitalization. RX monorail systems were not associated with higher procedural costs when compared to conventional OTW technique. We conclude that RX monorail systems seem to enhance the technical success of femoropopliteal angioplasty. Although smaller sheath sizes can be used due to the lower profile of the RX systems, there is only a tendency toward lower complication rates.

  19. Accurate measurement of directional emittance of solar energy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugo-Le Gof, A.; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Directional emittance plays an important role in the calculation of radiative heat exchange. It partly determines the thermal insulation of single and multiple glazing and the efficiency of solar collectors. An emissiometer has been designed and built, capable for measurements of the directional

  20. Emittance growth in rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    As the space-charge limit is approached, the current that can be accelerated in an rf linac and the output emittance that can be expected are discussed. The role of the envelope equations to estimate limits is outlined. The results of numerical experiments to explore general properties of emittance growth are given

  1. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1990-12-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation and to treat two particular examples

  2. First demonstration of orange-yellow light emitter devices in InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure using strain-induced quantum well intermixing technique

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed A.

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, a novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique is employed on InGaP/InAlGaP material system to promote interdiffusion via application of a thick-dielectric encapsulant layer, in conjunction with cycle annealing at elevated temperature. Broad area devices fabricated from this novel cost-effective QWI technique lased at room-temperature at a wavelength as short as 608nm with a total output power of ~46mW. This is the shortest- wavelength electrically pumped visible semiconductor laser, and the first report of lasing action yet reported from post- growth interdiffused process. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the first yellow superluminescent diode (SLD) at a wavelength of 583nm with a total two-facet output power of ~4.5mW - the highest optical power ever reported at this wavelength in this material system. The demonstration of the yellow SLD without complicated multiquantum barriers to suppress the carrier overflow will have a great impact in realizing the yellow laser diode. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. First demonstration of orange-yellow light emitter devices in InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure using strain-induced quantum well intermixing technique

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Al-Jabr, Ahmad; Elafandy, Rami T.; Oubei, Hassan M.; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alnahhas, Bayan A.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ng, Tien Khee; Shehata, Mohamed; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique is employed on InGaP/InAlGaP material system to promote interdiffusion via application of a thick-dielectric encapsulant layer, in conjunction with cycle annealing at elevated temperature. Broad area devices fabricated from this novel cost-effective QWI technique lased at room-temperature at a wavelength as short as 608nm with a total output power of ~46mW. This is the shortest- wavelength electrically pumped visible semiconductor laser, and the first report of lasing action yet reported from post- growth interdiffused process. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the first yellow superluminescent diode (SLD) at a wavelength of 583nm with a total two-facet output power of ~4.5mW - the highest optical power ever reported at this wavelength in this material system. The demonstration of the yellow SLD without complicated multiquantum barriers to suppress the carrier overflow will have a great impact in realizing the yellow laser diode. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  4. Interlaboratory comparison of techniques for measuring lung burdens of low-energy X-ray emitters. Part of a coordinated programme on the calibration of burdens of inhaled plutonium by external counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.; Fry, F.A.; Taylor, B.T.; Eagle, M.C.; Sharma, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    An interlaboratory exercise has been conducted to assess techniques of detection and calibration in the direct measurement of lung contamination with plutonium and other nuclides emitting only low-energy X-rays. Three volunteers, of small, intermediate and large physique, inhaled an aerosol incorporating Pd-103, a 20-keV X-ray emitter, and visited 13 other laboratories in the UK, Europe and North America. Participants in the exercise were asked to estimate each subject's lung content, using their procedures for assessing burdens of plutonium, and their estimates were compared with values derived independently from measurements of Cr-51, also incorporated in the inhaled particles, by gamma-ray spectrometry. Laboratories' calibration procedures were in most cases based on elaborate thorax phantoms, and these generally led to underestimates of the subjects' contents, in some instances by a factor of three or more; only one such laboratory produced estimates in satisfactory agreement with the independently-known values. The ''phoswich'' detectors, employed by most participants, appeared to be more sensitive than gas counters. If a standard configuration were required, offering the highest sensitivity in most situations, the choice would be a pair of 12-cm diameter phoswich detectors viewing the left and right anterior surfaces of the upper thorax. No improvement in sensitivity would result from increasing the size, although larger units may offer other advantages

  5. Laser Stimulated Genomic Exchange in Stem Cells. Laser Non-cloning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2012-02-01

    I propose a novel technique for a pluripotent stem cell generation. Genomic exchange is stimulated by the beat-wave free electron laser, (B-W FEL), frequency matching with the frequencies of the DNAootnotetextJ.D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick, Nature, 171, 737-738 (1953). eigen-oscillations. B-W FEL-1ootnotetextV. Stefan, B.I.Cohen, C. Joshi Science, 243,4890, (Jan 27,1989); Stefan, et al., Bull. APS. 32, No. 9, 1713 (1987); Stefan, APS March-2011, #S1.143; APS- March-2009, #K1.276. scans entire stem cell; B-W FEL-2 probes the chromosomes. The scanning and probing lasers: 300-500nm and 100-300nm, respectively; irradiances: the order-of-10s mW/cm^2 (above the threshold value for a particular gene structure); repetition rate of few-100s Hz. A variety of genetic-matching conditions can be arranged. Genomic glitches, (the cell nucleus transferootnotetextScott Noggle et al. Nature, 478, 70-75 (06 October 2011).), can be hedged by the use of lasers.

  6. Alternative solidification techniques for radioactive ion exchange resins and liquid concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    Methods, that are used or are under development for solidification of radioactive ion exchange resins or liquid concentrates, utilize normally cement, bitumen or some polymere as matrix material. This report contains a review and a description of these solidification processes and their products, especially of relatively new techniques that are under development in different countries. It is possible that solidification in thermosetting resins will be more used in the future, especially when product quality requirements are high (for instance when solidifying medium level resins) or when special waste categories has to be solidified. However it is not probable that thermosetting resins will be extensively used in a broad application as matrix material. In that case the methods are to complicated and expensive compared to, for instance, solidification in concrete. Systems for incorporation in polyesteremulsions (Dow-process) have a potential as they are quite simple and can accept a large variation of liquid wastes. Some methods in an early stage of development (for instance Inert Carrier Radwaste Process) will have to be tested in active application before they can be further evaluated. (author)

  7. Application of Resin in Pulp Technique for Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium from Alkaline Leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Resin-in-pulp technique was applied for purification and enrichment of uranium values from a finely ground uranium ore leach slurry of alkaline nature using strong base anion exchange resin (size 500 - 675μm). • The chemical composition of the solution phase of the alkaline leach slurry (pH 9.5) was consisting of about 40 g/L of total dissolved solutes (TDS) predominantly with Na_2CO_3 and NaHCO_3 and minor levels of Na_2SO_4. The uranium content was only 730 mg/L and d50 of solids was 34μm. • Amongst the various commercially available resins studied PFA 4740 and 4783 having quaternary ammonium ion on polystyrene crosslink with divibyl benzez (DVB) gave best performance. The maximum loading capacity achieved in the RIP studies was about 60-65 g of U_3O_8/L of wet settled resin amounting to 98% of loading. This has necessitated 4 stages of counter-current extraction with overall contact time of 100 minutes at a resin to leach slurry volume ratio of about 1:50. Practically the entire uranium values loaded on the resin were eluted using NaCl. • The RIP process was found quite efficient for uranium bearing alkaline leach slurries.

  8. Few emitters in a cavity: from cooperative emission to individualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffeves, A; Portolan, S; Gerace, D; Drezet, A; Franca Santos, M

    2011-01-01

    We study the temporal correlations of the field emitted by an electromagnetic resonator coupled to a mesoscopic number of two-level emitters that are incoherently pumped by a weak external drive. We solve the master equation of the system for increasing number of emitters and as a function of the cavity quality factor, and we identify three main regimes characterized by well-distinguished statistical properties of the emitted radiation. For small cavity decay rates, the emission events are uncorrelated and the number of photons in the emitted field becomes larger than one, resembling the build-up of a laser field inside the cavity. At intermediate decay rates (as compared with the emitter-cavity coupling) and for a few emitters, the statistics of the emitted radiation is bunched and strikingly dependent on the parity of the number of emitters. The latter property is related to the cooperativity of the emitters mediated by their coupling to the cavity mode, and its connection with steady-state subradiance is discussed. Finally, in the bad cavity regime the typical situation of emission from a collection of individual emitters is recovered. We also analyze how the cooperative behavior evolves as a function of pure dephasing, which allows us to recover the case of a classical source made of an ensemble of independent emitters, similar to what is obtained for a very leaky cavity. State-of-the-art techniques of Q-switch of resonant cavities, allied with the recent capability of tuning single emitters in and out of resonance, suggest this system to be a versatile source of different quantum states of light.

  9. Few emitters in a cavity: from cooperative emission to individualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffeves, A; Portolan, S [CEA/CNRS/UJF Joint Team ' Nanophysics and Semiconductors' , Institut Neel-CNRS, BP 166, 25 Rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gerace, D [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and UdR CNISM, Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Drezet, A [Institut Neel-CNRS, BP 166, 25 Rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Franca Santos, M, E-mail: msantos@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, CP 702, 30123-970 (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    We study the temporal correlations of the field emitted by an electromagnetic resonator coupled to a mesoscopic number of two-level emitters that are incoherently pumped by a weak external drive. We solve the master equation of the system for increasing number of emitters and as a function of the cavity quality factor, and we identify three main regimes characterized by well-distinguished statistical properties of the emitted radiation. For small cavity decay rates, the emission events are uncorrelated and the number of photons in the emitted field becomes larger than one, resembling the build-up of a laser field inside the cavity. At intermediate decay rates (as compared with the emitter-cavity coupling) and for a few emitters, the statistics of the emitted radiation is bunched and strikingly dependent on the parity of the number of emitters. The latter property is related to the cooperativity of the emitters mediated by their coupling to the cavity mode, and its connection with steady-state subradiance is discussed. Finally, in the bad cavity regime the typical situation of emission from a collection of individual emitters is recovered. We also analyze how the cooperative behavior evolves as a function of pure dephasing, which allows us to recover the case of a classical source made of an ensemble of independent emitters, similar to what is obtained for a very leaky cavity. State-of-the-art techniques of Q-switch of resonant cavities, allied with the recent capability of tuning single emitters in and out of resonance, suggest this system to be a versatile source of different quantum states of light.

  10. Leak detection in a high-pressure heat exchanger system in a refinery using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantray, J.S.; Sunil Goswami; Sharma, V.K.; Jayashree Biswal; Pant, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a diesel hydrotreater (DHDT) unit in a refinery for leak detection in a breech-lock heat exchanger system. The main objectives of the study were to identify the leaking heat exchanger in a system with six heat exchangers and estimate the leak rate. Bromine-82 as dibromobiphenyl was selected and used as radiotracer for the investigation. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the suction end of the feed pump line to the heat exchanger of the DHDT unit. The movement of the tracer was measured at strategically selected locations using NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. Based upon the results of the radiotracer investigation, it was found that out of six heat exchangers, exchanger E-1F was leaking. (author)

  11. Longitudinal emittance measurement at the ATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottingame, W.B.; Cortez, J.H.; Higgins, W.W.; Sander, O.R.; Sandoval, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    With increasing brightness, beam diagnostic techniques requiring interception of the beam become impractical. For H - particle beams, solutions for this problem based on the phenomenon of photodissociation are now being investigated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory accelerator test stand (ATS). A laser can be used to selectively neutralize portions of the beam than can be characterized after the charged particles have been swept away. We have used this technique for measuring longitudinal emittance at the output of the ATS radio-frequency quadrupole

  12. Electrohydrodynamic emitters of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, V.G.; Shabalin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Physical processes determining generation of ion beams with high emission current density in electrohydrodynamic emitters are considered. Electrohydrodynamic effects developing in ion emission features and kinetics of ion interaction in beams with high density are discussed. Factors determining the size of the emission zone, emission stability at high and low currents, cluster generation, increase of energy spread and decrease of brightness are analyzed. Problems on practical provision of stable EHD emitter functioning are considered. 94 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli [El Cerrito, CA; Fabbri, Jason D [San Francisco, CA; Melosh, Nicholas A [Menlo Park, CA; Hussain, Zahid [Orinda, CA; Shen, Zhi-Xun [Stanford, CA

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  14. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  15. A device for electron gun emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, B.; Corveller, P.; Jablonka, M.; Joly, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    In order to improve the final emittance of the beam delivered by the ALS electron linac a new gun is going to be installed. To measure its emittance and evaluate the contribution of different factors to emittance growth we have developed an emittance measurement device. We describe the experimental and mathematical procedure we have followed, and give some results of measurements

  16. Passive emitter location with Doppler frequency and interferometric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S.; Dam, F.A.M.; Theil, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ground based emitters can be located with a receiver installed on an airborne platform. This paper discusses techniques based on Doppler frequency and differential phase measurements (interferometry). Measurements of the first technique are provided, while we discuss and compare the theoretical

  17. Two Inexpensive and Non-destructive Techniques to Correct for Smaller-Than-Gasket Leaf Area in Gas Exchange Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Savvides

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology, like the widely-used off-the-shelf portable photosynthesis systems, for the quantification of leaf gas exchange rates and chlorophyll fluorescence offered photosynthesis research a massive boost. Gas exchange parameters in such photosynthesis systems are calculated as gas exchange rates per unit leaf area. In small chambers (<10 cm2, the leaf area used by the system for these calculations is actually the internal gasket area (AG, provided that the leaf covers the entire AG. In this study, we present two inexpensive and non-destructive techniques that can be used to easily quantify the enclosed leaf area (AL of plant species with leaves of surface area much smaller than the AG, such as that of cereal crops. The AL of the cereal crop species studied has been measured using a standard image-based approach (iAL and estimated using a leaf width-based approach (wAL. iAL and wAL did not show any significant differences between them in maize, barley, hard and soft wheat. Similar results were obtained when the wAL was tested in comparison with iAL in different positions along the leaf in all species studied. The quantification of AL and the subsequent correction of leaf gas exchange parameters for AL provided a precise quantification of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance especially with decreasing AL. This study provides two practical, inexpensive and non-destructive solutions to researchers dealing with photosynthesis measurements on small-leaf plant species. The image-based technique can be widely used for quantifying AL in many plant species despite their leaf shape. The leaf width-based technique can be securely used for quantifying AL in cereal crop species such as maize, wheat and barley along the leaf. Both techniques can be used for a wide range of gasket shapes and sizes with minor technique-specific adjustments.

  18. An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M J; Nellis, G F; Kelin, S A; Zhu, W; Gianchandani, Y

    2010-11-01

    Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid.

  19. Evaluating a nursing erasmus exchange experience: Reflections on the use and value of the Nominal Group Technique for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Nominal Group Technique (NGT) for European nursing exchange evaluation at one university. The NGT is a semi-quantitative evaluation method derived from the Delphi method popular in the 1970s and 1980s. The NGT was modified from the traditional version retaining the structured cycles and but adding a broader group discussion. The NGT had been used for 2 successive years but required analysis and evaluation itself for credibility and 'fit' for purpose which is presented here. It aimed to explore nursing students' exchange experiences and aid programme development futures exchanges and closure from exchange. Results varied for the cohorts and students as participants enthusiastically engaged generating ample data which they ranked and categorised collectively. Evaluation of the NGT itself was two fold: by the programme team who considered purpose, audience, inclusivity, context and expertise. Secondly, students were asked for their thoughts using a graffiti board. Students avidly engaged with NGT but importantly also reported an effect from the process itself as an opportunity to reflect and share their experiences. The programme team concluded the NGT offered a credible evaluation tool which made use of authentic student voice and offered interactive group processes. Pedagogially, it enabled active reflection thus aiding reorientation back to the United Kingdom and awareness of 'transformative' consequences of their exchange experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A classification system of intraocular lens dislocation sites under operating microscopy, and the surgical techniques and outcomes of exchange surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken; Ogawa, Soichiro; Manabe, Shin-Ichi; Hirata, Akira; Yoshimura, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the recent status of intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation according to a classification system based on vertical dislocation position, as well as the surgical techniques and outcomes of IOL exchange surgery. The medical records of 230 eyes from 214 consecutive patients who experienced IOL dislocation and underwent exchange surgery between 2006 and 2014 were reviewed. Vertical dislocation sites observed preoperatively under operating microscopy were examined, along with the surgical techniques and outcomes of IOL exchange. Dislocation sites included (1) the anterior chamber (12.2 %), (2) pseudophakodonesis (19.1 %), (3) the anterior vitreous cavity (47.4 %), (4) trap door-like dislocation (dangling in the peripheral vitreous cavity; 16.1 %), and (5) the retinal surface (5.2 %). The IOL retained in the anterior segment was moved onto the iris by pulling it up through the limbal side ports with an anterior vitrectomy (67.8 %), or by pushing it up from the pars plana with an anterior vitrectomy (26.5 %), while the IOL dropped on the retina was lifting it up from the retina after pars plana vitrectomy (5.7 %). Mean uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuity significantly improved postoperatively (p system, approximately 95 % of dislocated IOLs were retained in the anterior segment, and these IOLs were exchanged using an anterior approach through limbal incisions with an anterior vitrectomy. Visual acuity improved significantly, and serious complications were uncommon, probably because the IOL exchange techniques were standardized and simplified without pars plana vitrectomy.

  1. A Comparison of Selected Statistical Techniques to Model Soil Cation Exchange Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledian, Yones; Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Fattah, Mohammed A.; Tazikeh, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) measures the soil's ability to hold positively charged ions and is an important indicator of soil quality (Khaledian et al., 2016). However, other soil properties are more commonly determined and reported, such as texture, pH, organic matter and biology. We attempted to predict CEC using different advanced statistical methods including monotone analysis of variance (MONANOVA), artificial neural networks (ANNs), principal components regressions (PCR), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) in order to compare the utility of these approaches and identify the best predictor. We analyzed 170 soil samples from four different nations (USA, Spain, Iran and Iraq) under three land uses (agriculture, pasture, and forest). Seventy percent of the samples (120 samples) were selected as the calibration set and the remaining 50 samples (30%) were used as the prediction set. The results indicated that the MONANOVA (R2= 0.82 and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) =6.32) and ANNs (R2= 0.82 and RMSE=5.53) were the best models to estimate CEC, PSO (R2= 0.80 and RMSE=5.54) and PCR (R2= 0.70 and RMSE=6.48) also worked well and the overall results were very similar to each other. Clay (positively correlated) and sand (negatively correlated) were the most influential variables for predicting CEC for the entire data set, while the most influential variables for the various countries and land uses were different and CEC was affected by different variables in different situations. Although the MANOVA and ANNs provided good predictions of the entire dataset, PSO gives a formula to estimate soil CEC using commonly tested soil properties. Therefore, PSO shows promise as a technique to estimate soil CEC. Establishing effective pedotransfer functions to predict CEC would be productive where there are limitations of time and money, and other commonly analyzed soil properties are available. References Khaledian, Y., Kiani, F., Ebrahimi, S., Brevik, E.C., Aitkenhead

  2. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  3. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques; Evaluacion en muestras biologicas de radionucleidos emisores beta mediante espectrometria de centelleo en fase liquida. Aplicaciones al estudio de dosis internas en tecnicas de investigacion de biologia molecular y celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, I.; Delgado, A.; Navarro, T.; Macias, M. T.

    2007-07-01

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs.

  4. Transverse emittance dilution due to coupler kicks in linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Buckley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns in the design of low emittance linear accelerators (linacs is the preservation of beam emittance. Here we discuss one possible source of emittance dilution, the coupler kick, due to transverse electromagnetic fields in the accelerating cavities of the linac caused by the power coupler geometry. In addition to emittance growth, the coupler kick also produces orbit distortions. It is common wisdom that emittance growth from coupler kicks can be strongly reduced by using two couplers per cavity mounted opposite each other or by having the couplers of successive cavities alternate from above to below the beam pipe so as to cancel each individual kick. While this is correct, including two couplers per cavity or alternating the coupler location requires large technical changes and increased cost for superconducting cryomodules where cryogenic pipes are arranged parallel to a string of several cavities. We therefore analyze consequences of alternate coupler placements. We show here that alternating the coupler location from above to below compensates the emittance growth as well as the orbit distortions. For sufficiently large Q values, alternating the coupler location from before to after the cavity leads to a cancellation of the orbit distortion but not of the emittance growth, whereas alternating the coupler location from before and above to behind and below the cavity cancels the emittance growth but not the orbit distortion. We show that cancellations hold for sufficiently large Q values. These compensations hold even when each cavity is individually detuned, e.g., by microphonics. Another effective method for reducing coupler kicks that is studied is the optimization of the phase of the coupler kick so as to minimize the effects on emittance from each coupler. This technique is independent of the coupler geometry but relies on operating on crest. A final technique studied is symmetrization of the cavity geometry in the

  5. Development of techniques to dispose of the Windscale AGR heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, H.; Wakefield, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    In a gas-cooled nuclear power plant the gas side of the heat exchanger tubes becomes contaminated with radioactive deposits carried from the reactor in the coolant stream. In order to dispose of the heat exchangers in the safest and most cost-effective way during plant decommissioning, the deposits have to be removed. In situ chemical decontamination is considered to be the only viable method. This paper describes the research and development of chemical decontamination methods for the Windscale AGR heat exchangers, and the testing of a selected method on an in situ superheater. The research involved characterization of tube corrosion and radioactivity deposits, laboratory testing of chemical reagents on actual tube samples, and the provision and operation of a plant to apply the selected reagent. Disposal of radioactive effluent is an important consideration in chemical decontamination and in the present case was the major factor in determining the process

  6. Radiation emitter-detector package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.T.; Limm, A.C.; Nyul, P.; Tassia, V.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Mounted on the metallic base of a radiation emitter-detector is a mounting block is a first projection, and a second projection. A radiation detector is on the first projection and a semiconductor electroluminescent device, i.e., a radiation emitter, is on the second projection such that the plane of the recombination region of the electroluminescent device is perpendicular to the radiation incident surface of the radiation detector. The electroluminescent device has a primary emission and a secondary emission in a direction different from the primary emission. A radiation emitter-detector package as described is ideally suited to those applications wherein the secondary radiation of the electroluminescent device is fed into a feedback circuit regulating the biasing current of the electroluminescent device

  7. International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, Jose Maria; Rodriguez, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of β, α and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

  8. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-02-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation, with three particular examples, and to introduce a beam envelope-ellipse and the β-function, emphasing the statistical features of its properties. (author) 14 refs.; 11 figs

  9. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, R.S. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  10. Study of iodine-iodate isotopic exchange reaction in neutral aqueous solutions by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Ram, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic exchange of iodine atoms in neutral aqueous solutions of iodate ions and iodine (in KI) is found to obey the rate law R = k [IO 3 - ] 0.4 [I 2 ] 1.2 at 175 o C. The addition of neutral ionic salts, e.g. KCl and KNO 3 , in the reaction mixture showed a slight catalytic effect on the exchange rate. Further, the kinetic salt effect indicated the involvement of at least one neutral species on the rate-determining step. The activation energy in neutral aqueous solutions of iodate ions and iodine is found to be 86 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , which decreases in the presence of KCl (79 ± 3 kJ mol -1 and KNO 3 (82 + 3 kJ mol -1 ). The activation parameters, viz. free energy of activation, enthalpy of activation and entropy of activation, were also calculated. Based on these results, an association-dissociation type of reaction mechanism is proposed for this exchange reaction in neutral aqueous medium, similar to that proposed earlier for iodide-iodate isotopic exchange reaction in neutral aqueous solutions, nitrate eutectic melts and iodide-iodate melts. (author)

  11. Emittance measurements from the LLUMC proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Gillespie, G.H.; Hubbard, J.; Sanders, E.

    2005-01-01

    A new method of calculating beam emittances at the extraction point of a particle accelerator is presented. The technique uses the optimization programs NPSOL and MINOS developed at Stanford University in order to determine the initial values of beam size, divergence and correlation parameters (i.e. beam sigma matrix, σ ij ) that best fit measured beam parameters. These σ ij elements are then used to compute the Twiss parameters α, β, and the phase space area, ε, of the beam at the extraction point. Beam size measurements in X and Y throughout the transport line were input to the optimizer along with the magnetic elements of bends, quads, and drifts. The σ ij parameters were optimized at the accelerator's extraction point by finding the best agreement between these measured beam sizes and those predicted by TRANSPORT. This expands upon a previous study in which a 'trial and error' technique was used instead of the optimizer software, and which yielded similar results. The Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab TM ) program used for this paper integrates particle beam optics and other codes into a single intuitive graphically-based computing environment. This new software provides a seamless interface between the NPSOL and MINOS optimizer and TRANSPORT calculations. The results of these emittance searches are presented here for the eight clinical energies between 70 and 250 MeV currently being used at LLUMC

  12. Study of electron-molecule collisions via the finite-element method and R-matrix propagation technique: Model exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolsalami, F.; Abdolsalami, M.; Gomez, P.

    1994-01-01

    We have applied the finite-element method to electron-molecule collisions. All the calculations are done in the body frame within the fixed-nuclei approximation. A model potential, which is added to the static and polarization potential, has been used to represent the exchange effect. The method is applied to electron-H 2 scattering and the eigenphase sums and the cross sections obtained are in very good agreement with the corresponding results from the linear-algebraic approach. Finite-element calculations of the R matrix in the region where the static and exchange interactions are strong, however, has about one-half to one-fourth of the memory requirement of the linear-algebraic technique

  13. Determination of metallic elements in water by the combined preconcentration techniques of ion exchange and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, M.H. de.

    1981-01-01

    Having as an aim the utilization of atomic absorption method with flame's excitement, the limits of detection in water of six metals (Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn) were determined in synthetical samples through atomic absorption spectroscopy. Techniques to optimize the data have been pointed out and presented their statistical treatment. By means of the routine and the addition methods three 'real' samples have also been analysed in order to determine the contents of Cu and Zn. Aiming a pre-concentration and by utilizing the 60 Co obtained activating a sample of cobalt in the CDTN/NUCLEBRAS TRIGA MARK-I reactor, the retainement of this cobalt in ion exchange resin and the variation of the factor of elution within different concentration of HCl in water have been determined. The limits of detection are presented and so are the quantitative ones, with and without pre-concentration in an ion exchanger resin and latter elution. (Author) [pt

  14. Low emittance configuration for spear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.N.; Harris, J.; Stege, R.; Cerino, J.; Hettel, R.; Hofmann, A.; Liu, R.Z.; Wiedemann, H.; Winick, H.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of synchrotron radiation beams from SPEAR, in particular the brilliance of undulator radiation, can be improved significantly by reducing the emittance of the stored electron beam. A reduction of the horizontal emittance by a factor of 3.5 to a value of 130 nanometer-radians (nm-r) at 3 GeV has been achieved by using stronger focussing, mainly in the horizontal plane. The low emittance configuration also reduces the dispersion and vertical beta functions in the straight sections, making them more suitable for wigglers. The higher betatron tunes lead to a larger phase advance between the two kickers, which has to be corrected during injection by shunting current from some quadrupoles. The configuration was optimized within SPEAR hardware limitations and tested for dynamic aperture with the tracking program PATRICIA. After implementation of this scheme, beam was successfully injected and accumulated. The measured emittance of the stored beam was in agreement with calculations. Presently the configuration is being made operational

  15. Measuring emittances and sigma matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.; Rivkin, L.

    1984-03-01

    The method used for measuring emittance at the SLAC Linac and the linear collider damping ring is described. The basis of the method is derived using one two-by-two matrix to specify the state of the input beam (sigma matrix) and another to describe the lens-drift transport system (R-matrix)

  16. Optimization of fuel exchange machine operation for boiling water reactors using an artificial intelligence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimizu, K.; Araki, T.; Tatemichi, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    Optimization of fuel assembly exchange machine movements during periodic refueling outage is discussed. The fuel assembly movements during a fuel shuffling were examined, and it was found that the fuel assembly movements consist of two different movement sequences;one is the ''PATH,'' which begins at a discharged fuel assembly and terminates at a fresh fuel assembly, and the other is the ''LOOP,'' where fuel assemblies circulate in the core. It is also shown that fuel-loading patterns during the fuel shuffling can be expressed by the state of each PATH, which is the number of elements already accomplished in the PATH actions. Based on this fact, a scheme to determine a fuel assembly movement sequence within the constraint was formulated using the artificial intelligence language PROLOG. An additional merit to the scheme is that it can simultaneously evaluate fuel assembly movement, due to the control rods and local power range monitor exchange, in addition to normal fuel shuffling. Fuel assembly movements, for fuel shuffling in a 540-MW(electric) boiling water reactor power plant, were calculated by this scheme. It is also shown that the true optimization to minimize the fuel exchange machine movements would be costly to obtain due to the number of alternatives that would need to be evaluated. However, a method to obtain a quasi-optimum solution is suggested

  17. Chemical or electrochemical techniques, followed by ion exchange, for recycle of textile dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, S; Ahmed Basha, C

    2007-10-22

    This paper examines the use of chemical or electrocoagulation treatment process followed by ion-exchange process of the textile dye effluent. The dye effluent was treated using polymeric coagulant (cationic dye-fixing agent) or electrocoagulation (iron and aluminum electrode) process under various conditions such as various current densities and effect of pH. Efficiencies of COD reduction, colour removal and power consumption were studied for each process. The chemical or electrochemical treatment are indented primarily to remove colour and COD of wastewater while ion exchange is used to further improve the removal efficiency of the colour, COD, Fe concentration, conductivity, alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS). From the results chemical coagulation, maximum COD reduction of about 81.3% was obtained at 300 mg/l of coagulant whereas in electrocoagulation process, maximum COD removal of about 92.31% (0.25 A/dm2) was achieved with energy consumption of about 19.29 k Wh/kg of COD and 80% (1A/dm(2)) COD removal was obtained with energy consumption of about 130.095 k Wh/kg of COD at iron and aluminum electrodes, respectively. All the experimental results, throughout the present study, have indicated that chemical or electrocoagulation treatment followed by ion-exchange methods were very effective and were capable of elevating quality of the treated wastewater effluent to the reuse standard of the textile industry.

  18. Shielding in ungated field emitter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J. R. [U.S. Navy Reserve, Navy Operational Support Center New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70143 (United States); Jensen, K. L. [Code 6854, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Shiffler, D. A. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Petillo, J. J. [Leidos, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Cathodes consisting of arrays of high aspect ratio field emitters are of great interest as sources of electron beams for vacuum electronic devices. The desire for high currents and current densities drives the cathode designer towards a denser array, but for ungated emitters, denser arrays also lead to increased shielding, in which the field enhancement factor β of each emitter is reduced due to the presence of the other emitters in the array. To facilitate the study of these arrays, we have developed a method for modeling high aspect ratio emitters using tapered dipole line charges. This method can be used to investigate proximity effects from similar emitters an arbitrary distance away and is much less computationally demanding than competing simulation approaches. Here, we introduce this method and use it to study shielding as a function of array geometry. Emitters with aspect ratios of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} are modeled, and the shielding-induced reduction in β is considered as a function of tip-to-tip spacing for emitter pairs and for large arrays with triangular and square unit cells. Shielding is found to be negligible when the emitter spacing is greater than the emitter height for the two-emitter array, or about 2.5 times the emitter height in the large arrays, in agreement with previously published results. Because the onset of shielding occurs at virtually the same emitter spacing in the square and triangular arrays, the triangular array is preferred for its higher emitter density at a given emitter spacing. The primary contribution to shielding in large arrays is found to come from emitters within a distance of three times the unit cell spacing for both square and triangular arrays.

  19. Scanning Emitter Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Spontaneous Emission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimmer, Martin; Chen, Yuntian; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2011-01-01

    We report an experimental technique to map and exploit the local density of optical states of arbitrary planar nanophotonic structures. The method relies on positioning a spontaneous emitter attached to a scanning probe deterministically and reversibly with respect to its photonic environment while...

  20. The development of RFT technique for carbon steel tubes in balance-of-plant heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Han Jong; Moon, Yong Sick; Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Wang Bae; Nam, Min Woo

    2005-01-01

    The NDT method of carbon steel tubes is applied RFT technique. As other NDT methods, It is surprising that RFT has been rapidly developed over the past decade. These improvements have resulted in multi-frequency system, dual driver probes and development of analysis technique. Also these improvements give some profit to power plants as well as general industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to improve the reliability of RFT technique for carbon steel tubes. To uplift RFT technique, probes, calibration standards and specimen was developed.

  1. Emittance measurement for high-brightness electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Kurihara, T.; Sato, I.; Asami, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Otani, S.; Ishizawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    An emittance measurement system based on a high-precision pepper-pot technique has been developed for electron guns with low emittance of around πmm-mrad. Electron guns with a 1 mmφ cathode, the material of which is impregnated tungsten or single-crystal lanthanum hexaboride (La 1-x Ce x )B 6 , have been developed. The performance has been evaluated by putting stress on cathode roughness, which gives rise to an angular divergence, according to the precise emittance measurement system. A new type of cathode holder, which is a modified version of the so called Vogel type, was developed and the beam uniformity has been improved. (Author) 5 figs., tab., 9 refs

  2. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Modelling Using Moving Least Squares Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Tirnovan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell, with low polluting emissions, is a great alternative to replace the traditional electrical power sources for automotive applications or for small stationary consumers. This paper presents a numerical method, for the fuel cell modelling, based on moving least squares (MLS. Experimental data have been used for developing an approximated model of the PEMFC function of the current density, air inlet pressure and operating temperature of the fuel cell. The method can be applied for modelling others fuel cell sub-systems, such as the compressor. The method can be used for off-line or on-line identification of the PEMFC stack.

  3. Carbon dioxide exchange in subarctic ecosystems measured by a micrometeorological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, M.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the surface air temperatures have increased since the pre-industrial era, and the increase in both is predicted to continue during the 21st century. The feedback mechanisms between the changing climate and the carbon cycle are complex, and more information is needed about carbon exchange in different ecosystems. Northern Finland lies in the transition zone between boreal forest and tundra where the ecosystems are especially sensitive to any changes in the climate. In 1995-2004, micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements were conducted to yield continuous data on the CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere in northern Finland on four different ecosystems: an aapa mire, a mountain birch forest, a Scots pine forest and a Norway spruce forest. A measurement system enabling year-round measurements in the harsh subarctic conditions was developed and shown to be suitable for long-term exchange studies. A comparison of the CO 2 flux components, photosynthesis and respiration, at different ecosystems in the European subarctic and arctic regions showed that the leaf area index (LAI) is the key determinant of the gross photosynthetic rates, explaining greatest part of the variation between these ecosystems. Respiration did not show such a strong correlation with LAI, but in general, high respiration rates were related to high values of LAI. The first continuous round-the-year measurements of net ecosystem CO 2 exchange on a subarctic wetland were conducted at Kaamanen. The winter-time CO 2 efflux (of about 90 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) was shown to constitute an essential part of the annual CO 2 balance (of -79 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 in 1997-2002). The annual CO 2 balances at all sites in northern Finland were relatively small compared with those in lower latitudes. The interannual variation of the CO 2 balance at Kaamanen was marked (-15 to -195 g CO 2 m -2 yr -1 ) during the years 1997-2002. The most important factor

  4. NMR characterization of segmental dynamics in poly(alkyl methacrylate) using CODEX and PUREX exchange techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Slow side group dynamics in a series of five poly(alkyl methacrylate)s with varying side group sizes (PMAA, PMMA, PEMA, PiBMA, and PcHMA, with -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 , and -cyclohexyl alkyl substituents, respectively) have been studied quantitatively by center band-only detection of exchange (CODEX) and pure exchange (PUREX) 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Flips and small-angle motions of the ester groups associated with the β-relaxation are observed distinctly, and the fraction of slowly flipping groups has been measured with 3% precision. In PMMA, 34% of side groups flip, while the fraction is 31% in PEMA at 25 C. Even the large isobutyl ether and cyclohexylester side groups can flip in the glassy state, although the flipping fraction is reduced to 22% and ∼10%, respectively. In poly methacrylic acid, no slow side group flips are detected. In PMMA, the flipping fraction is temperature-independent between 25 C and 80 C, while in Pemal it increases continuously from 31 to 60% between 25 C and 60 C. A similar doubling is also observed in Pi BMA. (author)

  5. Developing a technique to enhance durability of fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate for space greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivobok, A. S.; Berkovich, Yu. A.; Shcherbakova, V. A.; Chuvilskaya, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    One way to cut consumables for space plant growth facilities (PGF) with artificial soil in the form of fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate (FIERS) is on-board regeneration of the used medium. After crop harvest the procedure includes removal of the roots from the fibrous media with preservation of the exchanger properties and capillary structure. One type of FIERS, namely BIONA-V3ۛ, has been used in Russian prototypes of space conveyors. We describe a two-stage treatment of BIONA-V3ۛ including primary microwave heating of the used FIERS until (90 ± 5) °C in alkali-peroxide solution during 3.5 hrs. The second stage of the treatment is decomposition of root vestiges inside pores of BIONA-V3ۛ by using thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic bacteria Clostridium thermocellum, Clostridium cellulolyticum and Cellulosilyticum lentocellum during 7-10 days at 55 °C. The two-stage procedure allows extraction of 90% dead roots from the FIERS' pores and the preservation of root zone hydro-physical properties. A posterior enrichment of the FIERS by minerals makes BIONA- V3ۛ reusable.

  6. New separation techniques of cesium by redox type ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihara, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    RIECS method, new cesium separation method, was developed in which a porous strong base anionic exchanger with copper ferrocyanide (CuFC) and inhibitor were used. Cesium could be separated from the high concentration nitric solution. By developing new impregnation method, large amount of CuFC was impregnated into the micropolar porous resin and silica gel pores. KFC adhered to outside of pores was recovered. Good complex with CuFC was prepared by use of copper chloride in ethyl alcohol solution. The adsorption ratio of cesium increased radically to 80% level in the very small range of hydrazine concentration 1.7 to 2.4x10 -4 M. The adsorption-desorption ratio of cesium did not decrease by repeating it seven times. The glassificated materials decreased large amount of γ-ray unless increase of volume could be produced by built RIECS method in the high level waste processing system. (S.Y.)

  7. Determination of Ni{sup 2+} using an equilibrium ion exchange technique: Important chemical factors and applicability to environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [CABE - Analytical and Biophysical Environmental Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wilkinson, Kevin J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada)], E-mail: KJ.Wilkinson@umontreal.ca

    2008-05-26

    In natural waters, the determination of free metal concentrations is a key parameter for studying bioavailability. Unfortunately, few analytical tools are available for determining Ni speciation at the low concentrations found in natural waters. In this paper, an ion exchange technique (IET) that employs a Dowex resin is evaluated for its applicability to measure [Ni{sup 2+}] in freshwaters. The presence of major cations (e.g. Na, Ca and Mg) reduced both the times that were required for equilibration and the partition coefficient to the resin ({lambda}{sup '}{sub Ni}). IET measurements of [Ni{sup 2+}] in the presence of known ligands (citrate, diglycolate, sulfoxine, oxine and diethyldithiocarbamate) were verified by thermodynamic speciation models (MINEQL{sup +} and VisualMINTEQ). Results indicated that the presence of hydrophobic complexes (e.g. Ni(DDC){sub 2}{sup 0}) lead to an overestimation of the Ni{sup 2+} fraction. On the other hand, [Ni{sup 2+}] measurements that were made in the presence of amphiphilic complexes formed with humic substances (standard aquatic humic acid (SRHA) and standard aquatic fulvic acid (SRFA)) were well correlated to free ion concentrations that were calculated using a NICA-DONNAN model. An analytical method is also presented here to reduce the complexity of the calibration (due to the presence of many other cations) for the use of Dowex equilibrium ion exchange technique in natural waters.

  8. New force replica exchange method and protein folding pathways probed by force-clamp technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouza, Maksim; Hu, Chin-Kun; Li, Mai Suan

    2008-01-28

    We have developed a new extended replica exchange method to study thermodynamics of a system in the presence of external force. Our idea is based on the exchange between different force replicas to accelerate the equilibrium process. This new approach was applied to obtain the force-temperature phase diagram and other thermodynamical quantities of the three-domain ubiquitin. Using the C(alpha)-Go model and the Langevin dynamics, we have shown that the refolding pathways of single ubiquitin depend on which terminus is fixed. If the N end is fixed then the folding pathways are different compared to the case when both termini are free, but fixing the C terminal does not change them. Surprisingly, we have found that the anchoring terminal does not affect the pathways of individual secondary structures of three-domain ubiquitin, indicating the important role of the multidomain construction. Therefore, force-clamp experiments, in which one end of a protein is kept fixed, can probe the refolding pathways of a single free-end ubiquitin if one uses either the polyubiquitin or a single domain with the C terminus anchored. However, it is shown that anchoring one end does not affect refolding pathways of the titin domain I27, and the force-clamp spectroscopy is always capable to predict folding sequencing of this protein. We have obtained the reasonable estimate for unfolding barrier of ubiquitin, using the microscopic theory for the dependence of unfolding time on the external force. The linkage between residue Lys48 and the C terminal of ubiquitin is found to have the dramatic effect on the location of the transition state along the end-to-end distance reaction coordinate, but the multidomain construction leaves the transition state almost unchanged. We have found that the maximum force in the force-extension profile from constant velocity force pulling simulations depends on temperature nonlinearly. However, for some narrow temperature interval this dependence becomes

  9. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  10. Use of variance techniques to measure dry air-surface exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1988-07-01

    The variances of fluctuations of scalar quantities can be measured and interpreted to yield indirect estimates of their vertical fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. Strong correlations among scalar fluctuations indicate a similarity of transfer mechanisms, which is utilized in some of the variance techniques. The ratios of the standard deviations of two scalar quantities, for example, can be used to estimate the flux of one if the flux of the other is measured, without knowledge of atmospheric stability. This is akin to a modified Bowen ratio approach. Other methods such as the normalized standard-deviation technique and the correlation-coefficient technique can be utilized effectively if atmospheric stability is evaluated and certain semi-empirical functions are known. In these cases, iterative calculations involving measured variances of fluctuations of temperature and vertical wind velocity can be used in place of direct flux measurements. For a chemical sensor whose output is contaminated by non-atmospheric noise, covariances with fluctuations of scalar quantities measured with a very good signal-to-noise ratio can be used to extract the needed standard deviation. Field measurements have shown that many of these approaches are successful for gases such as ozone and sulfur dioxide, as well as for temperature and water vapor, and could be extended to other trace substances. In humid areas, it appears that water vapor fluctuations often have a higher degree of correlation to fluctuations of other trace gases than do temperature fluctuations; this makes water vapor a more reliable companion or “reference” scalar. These techniques provide some reliable research approaches but, for routine or operational measurement, they are limited by the need for fast-response sensors. Also, all variance approaches require some independent means to estimate the direction of the flux.

  11. Gamma emitters in Hong Kong water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun-Yin, L.; Chung-Keung, M.; Wai-Kwok, N.; Shiu-Chun, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity in water originates from natural and artificial sources. The development of a nuclear powerplant near Hong Kong necessitates that attention be given to formulating techniques to assess the possible resultant environmental radioactive contamination. Water samples collected from various sites in Hong Kong in the spring and summer of 1987, representing seawater, river water, reservoir water, drinking water, and underground water were studied through gamma-ray spectral analysis. Only gamma emitters in the U238 and Th232 series and K40 were detected. No fission product was detected with specific activity above 0.1 Bq/kg. The data could be the baseline for future monitoring of the radioactivity released from a nuclear plant being built at a 50-km distance from Hong Kong. The variation of detected specific activities may be due to geological differences and the effect of plants. 1 ref., 3 tabs

  12. Strong Coupling and Entanglement of Quantum Emitters Embedded in a Nanoantenna-Enhanced Plasmonic Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensen, Matthias [Institut; Heilpern, Tal [Center; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Pfeiffer, Walter [Fakultät

    2017-10-12

    Establishing strong coupling between spatially separated and thus selectively addressable quantum emitters is a key ingredient to complex quantum optical schemes in future technologies. Insofar as many plasmonic nanostructures are concerned, however, the energy transfer and mutual interaction strength between distant quantum emitters can fail to provide strong coupling. Here, based on mode hybridization, the longevity and waveguide character of an elliptical plasmon cavity are combined with intense and highly localized field modes of suitably designed nanoantennas. Based on FDTD simulations a quantum emitter-plasmon coupling strength hg = 16.7 meV is reached while simultaneously keeping a small plasmon resonance line width h gamma(s) = 33 meV. This facilitates strong coupling, and quantum dynamical simulations reveal an oscillatory exchange of excited state population arid a notable degree of entanglement between the quantum emitters spatially separated by 1.8 mu m, i.e., about twice the operating wavelength.

  13. Study of electron-molecule collision via finite-element method and r-matrix propagation technique: Exact exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolsalami, F.; Abdolsalami, M.; Perez, L.; Gomez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have applied the finite-element method to electron-molecule collision with the exchange effect implemented rigorously. All the calculations are done in the body-frame within the fixed-nuclei approximation, where the exact treatment of exchange as a nonlocal effect results in a set of coupled integro-differential equations. The method is applied to e-H 2 and e-N 2 scatterings and the cross sections obtained are in very good agreement with the corresponding results the authors have generated from the linear-algebraic approach. This confirms the significant difference observed between their results generated by linear-algebraic method and the previously published e-N 2 cross sections. Their studies show that the finite-element method is clearly superior to the linear-algebraic approach in both memory usage and CPU time especially for large systems such as e-N 2 . The system coefficient matrix obtained from the finite-element method is often sparse and smaller in size by a factor of 12 to 16, compared to the linear-algebraic technique. Moreover, the CPU time required to obtain stable results with the finite-element method is significantly smaller than the linear-algebraic approach for one incident electron energy. The usage of computer resources in the finite-element method can even be reduced much further when (1) scattering calculations involving multiple electron energies are performed in one computer run and (2) exchange, which is a short range effect, is approximated by a sparse matrix. 17 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Development of the gas puff charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (GP-CXRS) technique for ion measurements in the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R. M.; Theiler, C.; Lipschultz, B.; Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Viezzer, E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic method is presented, which uses a simple thermal gas puff for its donor neutral source, instead of the typical high-energy neutral beam. This diagnostic, named gas puff CXRS (GP-CXRS), is used to measure ion density, velocity, and temperature in the tokamak edge/pedestal region with excellent signal-background ratios, and has a number of advantages to conventional beam-based CXRS systems. Here we develop the physics basis for GP-CXRS, including the neutral transport, the charge-exchange process at low energies, and effects of energy-dependent rate coefficients on the measurements. The GP-CXRS hardware setup is described on two separate tokamaks, Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade. Measured spectra and profiles are also presented. Profile comparisons of GP-CXRS and a beam based CXRS system show good agreement. Emphasis is given throughout to describing guiding principles for users interested in applying the GP-CXRS diagnostic technique

  15. Development of the gas puff charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (GP-CXRS) technique for ion measurements in the plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. M.; Theiler, C.; Lipschultz, B. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Viezzer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: Alcator C-Mod Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2013-09-15

    A novel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic method is presented, which uses a simple thermal gas puff for its donor neutral source, instead of the typical high-energy neutral beam. This diagnostic, named gas puff CXRS (GP-CXRS), is used to measure ion density, velocity, and temperature in the tokamak edge/pedestal region with excellent signal-background ratios, and has a number of advantages to conventional beam-based CXRS systems. Here we develop the physics basis for GP-CXRS, including the neutral transport, the charge-exchange process at low energies, and effects of energy-dependent rate coefficients on the measurements. The GP-CXRS hardware setup is described on two separate tokamaks, Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade. Measured spectra and profiles are also presented. Profile comparisons of GP-CXRS and a beam based CXRS system show good agreement. Emphasis is given throughout to describing guiding principles for users interested in applying the GP-CXRS diagnostic technique.

  16. A critical evaluation of multistage equilibration technique for preconcentration by ion-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Capabilities of the method of preconcentration of heavy metal ions from aqueous samples by Chelex 100 using a successive equilibration technique has been evaluated. The process of successive equilibrations may be looked upon in one of the two ways: one of equilibrating a given amount of resin with n successive aliquots so that sample size increases n-fold. Alternatively one may consider this as dividing a large-sized sample into n equal aliquots and carrying out the equilibrations with a smaller amount of resin maintaining the v/m ratio. Expressions have been derived for overall recovery, percentage recovery and decontamination factor for the successive equilibration technique. The validity of the expressions has been checked with experimental data. The values for recovery and decontamination factor have been compared with those for a single equilibration using the whole sample. Finally the factors which affect the value of recovery have been examined and their effect on the recovery has been evaluated. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 1 appendix

  17. An investigation of flow and resistance characteristics of heat exchanger with the 2-D LDV system and visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zongsen; Shen Xiong; Xu Yuanhui; Bi Shuxun

    1987-12-01

    An experimental study of the heat exchanger which would be used in a nuclear reactor for low temperature heat-supplying is presented. A 2-D Laser Doppler Velocimeter was used as a unique technique to measure the mean velocity and turbulence intensity distributions in different sections of the model. The relationship between the resistance coefficient and Reynolds number also obtained in terms of the total pressure rakes covered by the casings and the wall static pressure pick-up holes. The flow visualization has realized by using a piece of light source with an Argon-Ion laser. It is apparent that the polystyrene particles seeded in the flow can trace the mean flow. The results showed that the self-similar phenomenon exists in the tube bundle flow system. There are some secondary vortices in the cross sections between two passages of the model

  18. Emittance Growth in the NLCTA First Chicane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the emittance growth in the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator) first chicane region is evaluated by simulation studies. It is demonstrated that the higher order fields of the chicane dipole magnet and the dipole corrector magnet (which is attached on the quadrupoles) are the main contributions for the emittance growth, especially for the case with a large initial emittance (γε 0 = 5 (micro)m for instance). These simulation results agree with the experimental observations.

  19. Production of alpha emitters for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.; Orlic, M.; Lukic, D.

    2006-01-01

    The basis for the introduction of alpha emitters into nuclear medical practice are their radiobiological properties. High LET values and short ranges in biological tissues are advantageous in comparison with nowadays most often used beta emitters, primarily 90 Y and 131 I. Given are the most important criteria for the introduction of a given radionuclide in the routine use. Shown are the procedures for the production of the most important alpha emitters 211 At, 212 Bi and 213 Bi. (author)

  20. Emittance measurements by variable quadrupole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, D.

    2005-01-01

    The beam emittance is a measure of both the beam size and beam divergence, we cannot directly measure its value. If the beam size is measured at different locations or under different focusing conditions such that different parts of the phase space ellipse will be probed by the beam size monitor, the beam emittance can be determined. An emittance measurement can be performed by different methods. Here we will consider the varying quadrupole setting method.

  1. Analysis of low energy beta-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    A survey was made of the instruments used for the determination of low energy beta radioactivity. Techniques commonly used are gas flow proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, solid scintillation counting, and internal ionization chamber counting, solid state detector counting, and radiochemical separation followed by counting using one of the preceeding techniques. The first four techniques were examined and compared with each other. The sensitivities of the techniques were compared on the basis of the detection limits quoted for instruments described in the technical and reviewed literature. The detection limits were then related to the occupational and public individual maximum levels for air and water. Attention is focused primarily on the continuous monitoring of air for 3 H and 85 Kr, a medium energy β-emitter. It is clear that several continuous air monitoring instruments are readily available for measuring low energy β concentrations, even in presence of certain other activity, at occupational levels. However, these instruments do not typically have sensitivities comparable to the public individual levels. Moreover, their capabilities for giving results in real time and for differentiating among the radionuclides actually present is limited

  2. Separation and sampling technique of light element isotopes by chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shunsaku; Oi, Kenta; Takagi, Norio; Hirotsu, Takafumi; Kano, Hirofumi; Sonoda, Akinari; Makita, Yoji

    2000-01-01

    Lithium and boron isotope separation technique were studied. Granulation of lithium isotope separation agent was carried out by cure covering in solution. Separation of lithium isotope was stepped up by ammonium carbonate used as elusion agent. Styrene and ester resin derived three kinds of agents such as 2-amino-1, 3-propanediol (1, 3-PD), 2-amino-2-methyl-1, 3-propanediol (Me-1,3-PD) and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (Tris) were used as absorbent.The ester resin with Tris showed larger amount of adsorption (1.4 mmol/g) than other resins. However, all resins with agent indicated more large adsorption volume of boron than the objective value (0.5 mmol/g). Large isotope shift was shown by the unsymmetrical vibration mode of lithium ion on the basis of quantum chemical calculation of isotope effect on dehydration of hydrated lithium ion. (S.Y.)

  3. Field test of radioactive high efficiency filter and filter exchange techniques of fuel cycle examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka.

    1997-12-01

    The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs

  4. Information exchange mainly on HTGR operation and maintenance technique between JAEA and INET in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yukio; Hino, Ryutaro; Yu Suyuan

    2006-06-01

    The worldwide interests in the HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) have been growing because the high temperature heat produced by the reactor can be utilized not only for efficient power generation but also for broad process heat applications, especially for thermo-chemical hydrogen production to fuel a prospective hydrogen economy in future. Presently only two HTGR reactors are operational in the world, including the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the HTR-10 in the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University in China. JAEA and INET have cooperated since 1986 in the field of HTGR development, particularly on the HTTR and HTR-10 projects. This report describes the cooperation with emphasis on HTGR operation and maintenance techniques between JAEA and INET and outlines cooperation activities during the fiscal year 2005. (author)

  5. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  6. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei

    2015-01-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)

  7. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  8. Emittance investigation of RF photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Mao Rong; Li Zheng; Li Ming; Xu Zhou

    2002-01-01

    A high-power laser beam illuminates a photocathode surface placed on an end wall of an RF cavity. The emitted electrons are accelerated immediately to a relativistic energy by the strong RF find in the cavity. But space charge effect induces beam emittance growth especially near the cathode where the electrons are still nonrelativistic. The author analyzes the factors which lead the transverse emittance growth and method how to resolve this problem. After introducing solenoidal focusing near the photocathode, the beam emittance growth is suppressed dramatically. The beam emittance is given also after compensation and simulation results. The measurements show these results are coincident

  9. Auger electron emitters: Insights gained from in vitro experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makrigiorgos, G.; Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the evolution of the current rationale for research into the biological effects of tissue-incorporated Auger electron emitters. The first section is a brief review of the research conducted by several groups in the last fifteen years. The second section describes the in vitro model used in our studies, dosimetric calculations, experimental techniques and recent findings. The third section focuses on the use of Auger electron emitters as in vitro microprobes for the investigation of the radiosensitivity of distinct subcellular components. Examination of the biological effects of the Auger electron emitter 125 I located in different cellular compartments of a single cell line (V 79 hamster lung fibroblast) verifies that DNA is the critical cell structure for radiation damage and that the sensitive sites are of nanometer dimensions. The data from incorporation of several Auger electron emitters at the same location within DNA suggest that there are no saturation effects from the decay of these isotopes (i.e. all the emitted energy is biologically effective) and provide some insight into which of the numerous physical mechanisms accompanying the Auger decay are most important in causing cell damage. Finally the implications of Auger electron emission for radiotherapy and radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine are detailed and further research possibilities are suggested. (orig.)

  10. Evidence for two compartments of exchangeable calcium in isolated rat liver mitochondria obtained using a 45Ca exchange technique in the presence of magnesium, phosphate, and ATPase at 370C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barritt, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of calcium between isolated rat liver mitochondria and the extramitochondrial medium at 37 degrees C and in the presence of 2 mM inorganic phosphate, 3 mM ATP, 0.05 or 1.1 mM free magnesium and a calcium buffer, nitrilotriacetic acid, was investigated using a 45 Ca exchange technique. The amounts of 40 Ca in the mitochondria and medium were allowed to reach equilibrium before initiation of the measurement of 45 Ca exchange. At 0.05 mM free magnesium and initial extramitochondrial free calcium concentrations of between 0.15 and 0.5 microM, the mitochondria accumulated calcium until the extramitochondrial free calcium concentration was reduced to 0.15 microM. Control experiments showed that the mitochondria were stable under the incubation conditions employed. The 45 Ca exchange data were found to be consistent with a system in which two compartments of exchangeable calcium are associated with the mitochondria. Changes in the concentration of inorganic phosphate did not significantly affect the 45 Ca exchange curves, whereas an increase in the concentration of free magnesium inhibited exchange. The maximum rate of calcium outflow from the mitochondria was estimated to be 1.7 nmol/min per mg of protein, and the value of K0.5 for intramitochondrial exchangeable calcium to be about 1.6 nmol per mg of protein. Ruthenium Red decreased the fractional transfer rate for calcium inflow to the mitochondria while nupercaine affected principally the fractional transfer rates for the transfer of calcium between the two mitochondrial compartments. The use of the incubation conditions and 45 Ca exchange technique described in this report for studies of the effects of agents which may alter mitochondrial calcium uptake or release (e.g., the pre-treatment of cells with hormones) is briefly discussed

  11. Probing the mechanism of sister chromatid exchange formation with the fluorescent plus Giemsa technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of x rays and light flashes on the SCE formation in BrdUrd-substituted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are examined using the fluorescent plus Giemsa (FPG) technique, which allows SCE's to be visualized with greater precision than 3 H autoradiography does. Near-diploid cells are selected and scoring SCE from every chromosome of near-diploid cells or from chromosome no. 1 is found to give a more accurate measure of the SCE induction. Double synchronous cells are used for the x ray study and asynchronous cells are used for the light flash study. The results indicate that x rays can induce SCE's throughout the cell cycle with S the most sensitive stage and G 2 the least sensitive stage. Light flashes can induce an appreciable amount of SCE's while no appreciable amount of chromosomal aberrations can be detected under conditions used in this study. For x-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations, G 2 is the most sensitive stage with G 1 being slightly more sensitive than S, which is consistent with other observations. Additionally, aberration induction is shown to be a more sensitive indicator of x-ray-induced cell damage than SCE induction, but SCE induction is a potentially good indicator of mutation induction. This study also suggests that symmetrically reunited isochromatid breaks can not be the sole source of SCE's and SCE induction is a different but not independent radiobiological effect from chromosomal aberration induction. SCE formation is proposed to be a consequence of specific type(s) of single strand breaks in DNA

  12. A novel approach to water polution monitoring by combining ion exchange resin and XRF-scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. J.; Lin, S. C.; Löwemark, L.; Liou, Y. H.; Chang, Q. M.; Chang, T. K.; Wei, K. Y.; Croudace, I. W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the rapid industrial expansion, environments are subject to irregular fluctuations and spatial distributions in pollutant concentrations. This study proposes to use ion exchange resin accompanied with the XRF-scanning technique to monitor environmental pollution. As a passive sampling sorbent, the use of ion exchange resin provides a rapid, low cost and simple method to detect episodic pollution signals with a high spatial sampling density. In order to digest large quantities of samples, the fast and non-destructive Itrax-XRF core scanner has been introduced to assess elemental concentrations in the resin samples. Although the XRF scanning results are often considered as a semi-quantitative measurement due to possible absorption or scattering caused by the physical variabilities of scanned materials, the use of resin can minimize such influences owing to the standarization of the sample matrix. In this study, 17 lab-prepared standard resin samples were scanned with the Itrax-XRF core scanner (at 100 s exposure time with the Mo-tube) and compared with the absolute elemental concentrations. Six elements generally used in pollution studies (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were selected, and their regression lines and correlation coefficients were determined. In addition, 5 standard resin samples were scanned at different exposure time settings (1 s, 5 s, 15 s, 30 s, 100 s) to address the influence of exposure time on the accuracy of the measurements. The results show that within the test range (from few ppm to thousands ppm), the correlation coefficients are higher than 0.97, even at the shortest exposure time (1 s). Furthermore, a pilot field survey with 30 resin samples has been conducted in a potentially polluted farm area in central Taiwan to demonstrate the feasibility of this novel approach. The polluted hot zones could be identified and the properties and sources of wastewater pollution can therefore be traced over large areas for the purposes of

  13. Different Techniques of Respiratory Support Do Not Significantly Affect Gas Exchange during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Newborn Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Maurer, Miriam; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Waitz, Markus; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based recommendations on the use of different techniques of respiratory support and chest compressions (CC) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We studied the short-term effects of different ventilatory support strategies along with CC representing clinical practice on gas exchange [arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)], hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation. We hypothesized that in newborn piglets with cardiac arrest, use of a T-piece resuscitator (TPR) providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves gas exchange as measured by SaO2 during CPR as compared to using a self-inflating bag (SIB) without PEEP. Furthermore, we explored the effects of a mechanical ventilator without synchrony to CC. Thirty newborn piglets with asystole were randomized into three groups and resuscitated for 20 min [fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.21 for 10 min and 1.0 thereafter]. Group 1 received ventilation using a TPR [peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min] with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 2 received ventilation using a SIB (PIP of 20 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min) with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 3 received ventilation using a mechanical ventilator (PIP/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min). CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We found no significant differences in SaO2 between the three groups. However, there was a trend toward a higher SaO2 [TPR: 28.0% (22.3-40.0); SIB: 23.7% (13.4-52.3); ventilator: 44.1% (39.2-54.3); median (interquartile range)] and a lower PaCO2 [TPR: 95.6 mm Hg (82.1-113.6); SIB: 100.8 mm Hg (83.0-108.0); ventilator: 74.1 mm Hg (68.5-83.1); median (interquartile range)] in the mechanical ventilator group. We found no significant effect on gas exchange using different respiratory support strategies

  14. Coupling single emitters to quantum plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the controlled coupling of single-photon emitters to propagating surface plasmons has been intensely studied, which is fueled by the prospect of a giant photonic nonlinearity on a nanoscaled platform. In this article, we will review the recent progress on coupling single emitters...

  15. Emittance measurements of the CLIO electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, R.; Devanz, G.; Joly, P.; Kergosien, B.; Lesrel, J.

    1997-02-01

    We have designed a setup to measure the transverse emittance at the CLIO accelerator exit, based on the "3 gradients" method. The beam transverse size is measured simply by scanning it with a steering coil across a fixed jaw and recording the transmitted current, at various quadrupole strengths. A code then performs a complete calculation of the emittance using the transfer matrix of the quadrupole instead of the usual classical lens approximation. We have studied the influence of various parameters on the emittance: Magnetic field on the e-gun and the peak current. We have also improved a little the emittance by replacing a mismatched pipe between the buncher and accelerating section to avoid wake-field effects; The resulting improvements of the emittance have led to an increase in the FEL emitted power.

  16. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  17. High current plasma electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications

  18. Shaping the electron beams with submicrosecond pulse duration in sources and electron accelerators with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Gushenets, V I

    2001-01-01

    One studies the techniques in use to shape submicrosecond electron beams and the physical processes associated with extraction of electrons from plasma in plasma emitters. Plasma emitter base sources and accelerators enable to generate pulse beams with currents varying from tens of amperes up to 10 sup 3 A, with current densities up to several amperes per a square centimeter, with pulse duration constituting hundreds of nanoseconds and with high frequencies of repetition

  19. Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri, R. [Sengunthar Engineering College, Tiruchengode (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering], e-mail: gay3civil@gmail.com; Senthil Kumar, P. [SSN College of Engineering, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], E-mail: senthilkumarp@ssn.edu.in

    2010-01-15

    The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI). This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI) is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively. (author)

  20. Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, R.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2010-01-01

    The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI). This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI) is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively. (author)

  1. Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gayathri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI. This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively.

  2. Fabrication of gas diffusion layer based on x-y robotic spraying technique for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitanggang, Ramli; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Iyuke, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The x-y robotic spraying technique developed in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is capable of fabricating various sizes of thickness and porosity of gas diffusion layer (GDL) used in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). These parameters are obtained by varying the characteristic spray numbers of the robotic spraying machine. This investigation results were adequately represented with mathematical equations for hydrogen gas distribution in GDL. Volumetric modulus (M) parameter is used to determine the value of current density produced on the electrode of a single cell PEMFC. Thus the M parameter can be employed as indicator for a successful GDL fabrication. GDL type 4 has three variables of layer design that can be optimized to function as gas distributor, gas storage, flooding preventer on GDL surface, to evacuate water from the electrode and to control the electrical conductivity. The gas distribution in GDL was mathematically represented with average error of 15.5%. The M value of GDL type 4 according to the model was 0.22 cm 3 /s and yielded a current density of 750 A/m 2 .

  3. Beam diagnostics using an emittance measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Becker, R.; Klein, H.; Maaser, A.; Mueller, J.; Thomae, R.; Weber, M.

    1995-01-01

    For beam diagnostics aside from Faraday cups for current measurements and analysing magnets for the determination of beam composition and energy the most important tool is an emittance measurement device. With such a system the distribution of the beam particles in phase-space can be determined. This yields information not only on the position of the particles but also on their angle with respect to the beam axis. There are different kinds of emittance measurement devices using either circular holes or slits for separation of part of the beam. The second method (slit-slit measurement), though important for the determination of the rms-emittance, has the disadvantage of integrating over the y- and y'-coordinate (measurement in xx'-plane assumed). This leads to different emittance diagrams than point-point measurements, since in xx'-plane for each two corresponding points of rr'-plane there exists a connecting line. With regard to beam aberrations this makes xx'-emittances harder to interpret. In this paper the two kinds of emittance diagrams are discussed. Additionally the influence of the slit height on the xx'-emittance is considered. The analytical results are compared to experimental measurements in rr'-, rx'- and xx'-phase-space. (orig.)

  4. Beam emittance measurement from CERN thermionic guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, O.; Rao, R.; Rinolfi, L.

    1992-01-01

    In the LEP Injector Linacs (LIL) a thermionic gun provides electron beams with different peak intensities at an energy of 80 keV. The beam emittances were estimated from the EGUN programme. Since the gun is of triode type, the main contribution to the emittance comes from the grid. The simulation programme does not model the real geometry by assuming a cylindrical symmetry, while the grid does not have such symmetry. A Gun Test Facility (GTF), allowing emittance measurements, based on the 3-gradients-method was installed. The experimental results are presented. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Characterization of microstructured fibre emitters: in pursuit of improved nano electrospray ionization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinyun; Oleschuk, Richard D; Cann, Natalie M

    2012-09-21

    Full-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are presented for nano electrospray ionization (ESI) with various emitter designs. Our CFD electrohydrodynamic simulations are based on the Taylor-Melcher leaky-dielectric model, and the volume of fluid technique for tracking the fast-changing liquid-gas interface. The numerical method is first validated for a conventional 20 μm inner diameter capillary emitter. The impact of ESI voltage, flow rate, emitter tapering, surface hydrophobicity, and fluid conductivity on the nano-ESI behavior are thoroughly investigated and compared with experiments. Multi-electrospray is further simulated with 2-hole and 3-hole emitters with the latter having a linear or triangular hole arrangement. The simulations predict multi-electrospray behavior in good agreement with laboratory observations.

  6. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the beam profile will be described

  7. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the b...

  8. Engineered Emitters for Improved Silicon Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ronak A.

    In 2014, installation of 5.3GW of new Photovoltaic (PV) systems occurred in the United States, raising the total installed capacity to 16.36GW. Strong growth is predicted for the domestic PV market with analysts reporting goals of 696GW by 2020. Conventional single crystalline silicon cells are the technology of choice, accounting for 90% of the installations in the global commercial market. Cells made of GaAs offer higher efficiencies, but at a substantially higher cost. Thin film technologies such as CIGS and CdTe compete favorably with multi-crystalline Si (u-Si), but at 20% efficiency, still lag the c-Si cell in performance. The c-Si cell can be fabricated to operate at approximately 25% efficiency, but commercially the efficiencies are in the 18-21% range, which is a direct result of cost trade-offs between process complexity and rapid throughput. With the current cost of c-Si cell modules at nearly 0.60/W. The technology is well below the historic metric of 1/W for economic viability. The result is that more complex processes, once cost-prohibitive, may now be viable. An example is Panasonic's HIT cell which operates in the 22-24% efficiency range. To facilitate research and development of novel PV materials and techniques, RIT has developed a basic solar cell fabrication process. Student projects prior to this work had produced cells with 12.8% efficiency using p type substrates. This thesis reports on recent work to improve cell efficiencies while simultaneously expanding the capability of the rapid prototyping process. In addition to the p-Si substrates, cells have been produced using n-Si substrates. The cell emitter, which is often done with a single diffusion or implant has been re-engineered using a dual implant of the same dose. This dual-implanted emitter has been shown to lower contact resistance, increase Voc, and increase the efficiency. A p-Si substrate cell has been fabricated with an efficiency of 14.6% and n-Si substrate cell with a 13

  9. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  10. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  11. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma

  12. Self-powered detectors with thulium emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Klar, E.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to fission chambers, prompt-indicating self-powered (SPN) detectors are used for measuring the neutron flux density in the core of power reactors. Although current SPN detectors with a cobalt emitter give satisfactora results, detectors with other emitter materials have been analyzed and tested. The author describes the properties and decay pattern of the nuclide thulium and presents the results of measurements made while testing thulium detectors. (orig.) [de

  13. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop on ''Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy'' was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference

  14. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  15. Biologic data, models, and dosimetric methods for internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters has been and will remain a pivotal factor in assessing risk and therapeutic utility in selecting radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment. Although direct measurements of absorbed dose and dose distributions in vivo have been and will continue to be made in limited situations, the measurement of the biodistribution and clearance of radiopharmaceuticals in human subjects and the use of this data is likely to remain the primary means to approach the calculation and estimation of absorbed dose from internal emitters over the next decade. Since several approximations are used in these schema to calculate dose, attention must be given to inspecting and improving the application of this dosimetric method as better techniques are developed to assay body activity and as more experience is gained in applying these schema to calculating absorbed dose. Discussion of the need for considering small scale dosimetry to calculate absorbed dose at the cellular level will be presented in this paper. Other topics include dose estimates for internal emitters, biologic data mathematical models and dosimetric methods employed. 44 refs

  16. Photonic emitters and circuits based on colloidal quantum dot composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vinod M.; Husaini, Saima; Valappil, Nikesh; Luberto, Matthew

    2009-02-01

    We discuss our work on light emitters and photonic circuits realized using colloidal quantum dot composites. Specifically we will report our recent work on flexible microcavity laser, microdisk emitters and integrated active - passive waveguides. The entire microcavity laser structure was realized using spin coating and consisted of an all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector with a poly-vinyl carbazole cavity layer embedded with InGaP/ZnS colloidal quantum dots. These microcavities can be peeled off the substrate yielding a flexible structure that can conform to any shape and whose emission spectra can be mechanically tuned. The microdisk emitters and the integrated waveguide structures were realized using soft lithography and photo-lithography, respectively and were fabricated using a composite consisting of quantum dots embedded in SU8 matrix. Finally, we will discuss the effect of the host matrix on the optical properties of the quantum dots using results of steady-state and time-resolved luminescence measurements. In addition to their specific functionalities, these novel device demonstrations and their development present a low cost alternative to the traditional photonic device fabrication techniques.

  17. Nanometer emittance ultralow charge beams from rf photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the generation of a new class of high brightness relativistic electron beams, characterized by ultralow charge (0.1–1 pC and ultralow normalized emittance (<50  nm. These beams are created in rf photoinjectors when the laser is focused on the cathode to very small transverse sizes (<30  μm rms. In this regime, the charge density at the cathode approaches the limit set by the extraction electric field. By shaping the laser pulse to have a cigarlike aspect ratio (the longitudinal dimension much larger than the transverse dimension and a parabolic temporal profile, the resulting space charge dominated dynamics creates a uniformly filled ellipsoidal distribution and the emittance can be nearly preserved to its thermal value. We also present a new method, based on a variation of the pepper-pot technique, for single shot measurements of the ultralow emittances for this new class of beams.

  18. Emittance compensation with dynamically optimized photoelectron beam profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, J.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: rosen@physics.ucla.edu; Cook, A.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); England, R.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dunning, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Anderson, S.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ferrario, Massimo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionale di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 41, Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    Much of the theory and experimentation concerning creation of a high-brightness electron beam from a photocathode, and then applying emittance compensation techniques, assumes that one must strive for a uniform density electron beam, having a cylindrical shape. On the other hand, this shape has large nonlinearities in the space-charge field profiles near the beam's longitudinal extrema. These nonlinearities are known to produce both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth. On the other hand, it has recently been shown by Luiten that by illuminating the cathode with an ultra-short laser pulse of appropriate transverse profile, a uniform density, ellipsoidally shaped bunch is dynamically formed, which then has linear space-charge fields in all dimensions inside of the bunch. We study here this process, and its marriage to the standard emittance compensation scenario that is implemented in most recent photoinjectors. It is seen that the two processes are compatible, with simulations indicating a very high brightness beam can be obtained. The robustness of this scheme to systematic errors is examined. Prospects for experimental tests of this scheme are discussed.

  19. Emittance compensation with dynamically optimized photoelectron beam profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cook, A.M.; England, R.J.; Dunning, M.; Anderson, S.G.; Ferrario, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Much of the theory and experimentation concerning creation of a high-brightness electron beam from a photocathode, and then applying emittance compensation techniques, assumes that one must strive for a uniform density electron beam, having a cylindrical shape. On the other hand, this shape has large nonlinearities in the space-charge field profiles near the beam's longitudinal extrema. These nonlinearities are known to produce both transverse and longitudinal emittance growth. On the other hand, it has recently been shown by Luiten that by illuminating the cathode with an ultra-short laser pulse of appropriate transverse profile, a uniform density, ellipsoidally shaped bunch is dynamically formed, which then has linear space-charge fields in all dimensions inside of the bunch. We study here this process, and its marriage to the standard emittance compensation scenario that is implemented in most recent photoinjectors. It is seen that the two processes are compatible, with simulations indicating a very high brightness beam can be obtained. The robustness of this scheme to systematic errors is examined. Prospects for experimental tests of this scheme are discussed

  20. Multinozzle emitter arrays for ultrahigh-throughput nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing; Mao, Pan; Wang, Hung-Ta; Yang, Peidong

    2017-10-17

    The present invention provides for a structure comprising a plurality of emitters, wherein a first nozzle of a first emitter and a second nozzle of a second emitter emit in two directions that are not or essentially not in the same direction; wherein the walls of the nozzles and the emitters form a monolithic whole. The present invention also provides for a structure comprising an emitter with a sharpened end from which the emitter emits; wherein the emitters forms a monolithic whole. The present invention also provides for a fully integrated separation of proteins and small molecules on a silicon chip before the electrospray mass spectrometry analysis.

  1. Temperature dependence of exchange bias in (NiFe/IrMn)n multilayer films studied through static and dynamic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Daniel J.; Khanal, Shankar; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Maksymov, Artur; Spinu, Leonard

    2018-05-01

    The in-plane temperature dependence of exchange bias was studied through both dc magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy in a series of [NiFe/IrMn]n multilayer films, where n is the number of layer repetitions. Major hysteresis loops were recorded in the temperature range of 300 K to 2 K to reveal the effect of temperature on the exchange bias in the static regime while temperature-dependent continuous-wave ferromagnetic resonance for frequencies from 3 to 16 GHz was used to determine the exchange bias dynamically. Strong divergence between the values of exchange bias determined using the two different types of measurements as well as a peak in temperature dependence of the resonance linewidth were observed. These results are explained in terms of the slow-relaxer mechanism.

  2. Measurements of Thermal Emittance for Cesium Telluride Photocathodes at PITZ

    CERN Document Server

    Miltchev, V; Grabosch, H J; Han, J H; Krasilnikov, M; Oppelt, A; Petrosian, B; Staykov, L; Stephan, F

    2005-01-01

    The thermal emittance determines the lower emittance limit and its measurement is of high importance to understand the ultimate injector performance. In this contribution we present results of thermal emittance measurements under rf operation conditions for various Cs2Te cathodes and different accelerating gradients. Measurements of thermal emittance scaling with the cathode laser spot size are presented and analysed. The significance of the Schottky effect in the emittance formation process is discussed.

  3. NON DESTRUCTIVE APPLICATION OF RADIOACTIVE TRACER TECHNIQUE FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL GRADE ANION EXCHANGE RESINS INDION GS-300 AND INDION-860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. SINGARE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, 131I and 82Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min−1, amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 °C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins.

  4. Non Destructive Application of Radioactive Tracer Technique for Characterization of Industrial Grade Anion Exchange Resins Indio GS-300 and Indion-860

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P. U.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, 131 I and 82 Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 .deg. C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins

  5. A low-emittance lattice for SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safranek, J.; Wiedemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    The design and implementation of a low emittance lattice for the SPEAR storage ring including measurements of the performance of the lattice are presented (J. Safranek, Ph. D. thesis, Stanford University, 1991). The low emittance lattice is designed to optimize the performance of SPEAR as a synchrotron radiation source while keeping SPEAR hardware changes at a minimum. The horizontal emittance of the electron beam in the low emittance lattice is reduced by a factor of 4 from the previous lattice. This reduces the typical horizontal source size and divergence of the photon beams by a factor of 2 each and increases the photon beam brightness. At 3 GeV the horizontal emittance is 129 π nm rad, which makes the low emittance lattice the lowest emittance, runnning synchroton radiation source in the world in the 1.5 to 4.0 GeV energy range for the emittance scaled to 3 GeV. The measured vertical emittance was reduced to half that typically seen at SPEAR in the past. The brightness of the photon beams was further incrased by reducing β y at the insertion devices to 1.1 m and reducing the energy dispersion at the insertion devices by more than a factor of 2 on average. The horizontal despersion at the rf cavities was reduced by a factor of nearly 4 which gives much less problems with synchrobetatron resonances. The dynamic and physical apertures of the lattice are large, giving long beam lifetimes and easy injection of electrons. The measurements of the linear optics and intensity dependent phenomena gave resonable agreement with the design . The overall performance of the machine was very good. Injection rates of 10 to 20 mA/min and larger were achieved routinely, and 100 mA total current was stored. Repeated ramping of stored beam from the injection energy of 2.3 GeV to the running energy of 3.0 GeV was achieved with very little beam loss. This low emittance configuration is expected to be the operating configuration for SPEAR starting in January 1992. (orig.)

  6. Low-emittance tuning of storage rings using normal mode beam position monitor calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wolski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new technique for low-emittance tuning of electron and positron storage rings. This technique is based on calibration of the beam position monitors (BPMs using excitation of the normal modes of the beam motion, and has benefits over conventional methods. It is relatively fast and straightforward to apply, it can be as easily applied to a large ring as to a small ring, and the tuning for low emittance becomes completely insensitive to BPM gain and alignment errors that can be difficult to determine accurately. We discuss the theory behind the technique, present some simulation results illustrating that it is highly effective and robust for low-emittance tuning, and describe the results of some initial experimental tests on the CesrTA storage ring.

  7. Low-emittance tuning of storage rings using normal mode beam position monitor calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, A.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Shanks, J.

    2011-07-01

    We describe a new technique for low-emittance tuning of electron and positron storage rings. This technique is based on calibration of the beam position monitors (BPMs) using excitation of the normal modes of the beam motion, and has benefits over conventional methods. It is relatively fast and straightforward to apply, it can be as easily applied to a large ring as to a small ring, and the tuning for low emittance becomes completely insensitive to BPM gain and alignment errors that can be difficult to determine accurately. We discuss the theory behind the technique, present some simulation results illustrating that it is highly effective and robust for low-emittance tuning, and describe the results of some initial experimental tests on the CesrTA storage ring.

  8. Optimal artificial neural network architecture selection for performance prediction of compact heat exchanger with the EBaLM-OTR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayasekara, Dumidu, E-mail: wija2589@vandals.uidaho.edu [Department of Computer Science, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Manic, Milos [Department of Computer Science, University of Idaho, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Utgikar, Vivek [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Performance prediction of PCHE using artificial neural networks. > Evaluating artificial neural network performance for PCHE modeling. > Selection of over-training resilient artificial neural networks. > Artificial neural network architecture selection for modeling problems with small data sets. - Abstract: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used in the past to predict the performance of printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) with satisfactory accuracy. Typically published literature has focused on optimizing ANN using a training dataset to train the network and a testing dataset to evaluate it. Although this may produce outputs that agree with experimental results, there is a risk of over-training or over-learning the network rather than generalizing it, which should be the ultimate goal. An over-trained network is able to produce good results with the training dataset but fails when new datasets with subtle changes are introduced. In this paper we present EBaLM-OTR (error back propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms for over training resilience) technique, which is based on a previously discussed method of selecting neural network architecture that uses a separate validation set to evaluate different network architectures based on mean square error (MSE), and standard deviation of MSE. The method uses k-fold cross validation. Therefore in order to select the optimal architecture for the problem, the dataset is divided into three parts which are used to train, validate and test each network architecture. Then each architecture is evaluated according to their generalization capability and capability to conform to original data. The method proved to be a comprehensive tool in identifying the weaknesses and advantages of different network architectures. The method also highlighted the fact that the architecture with the lowest training error is not always the most generalized and therefore not the optimal. Using the method the testing

  9. Optimal artificial neural network architecture selection for performance prediction of compact heat exchanger with the EBaLM-OTR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayasekara, Dumidu; Manic, Milos; Sabharwall, Piyush; Utgikar, Vivek

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Performance prediction of PCHE using artificial neural networks. → Evaluating artificial neural network performance for PCHE modeling. → Selection of over-training resilient artificial neural networks. → Artificial neural network architecture selection for modeling problems with small data sets. - Abstract: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used in the past to predict the performance of printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) with satisfactory accuracy. Typically published literature has focused on optimizing ANN using a training dataset to train the network and a testing dataset to evaluate it. Although this may produce outputs that agree with experimental results, there is a risk of over-training or over-learning the network rather than generalizing it, which should be the ultimate goal. An over-trained network is able to produce good results with the training dataset but fails when new datasets with subtle changes are introduced. In this paper we present EBaLM-OTR (error back propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms for over training resilience) technique, which is based on a previously discussed method of selecting neural network architecture that uses a separate validation set to evaluate different network architectures based on mean square error (MSE), and standard deviation of MSE. The method uses k-fold cross validation. Therefore in order to select the optimal architecture for the problem, the dataset is divided into three parts which are used to train, validate and test each network architecture. Then each architecture is evaluated according to their generalization capability and capability to conform to original data. The method proved to be a comprehensive tool in identifying the weaknesses and advantages of different network architectures. The method also highlighted the fact that the architecture with the lowest training error is not always the most generalized and therefore not the optimal. Using the method the

  10. Technique employed to seal a tube leaking in a heat exchanger of the tube type by explosives with supporting means for the adjacent tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    This invention concerns the technique employed to seal a tube leaking in a heat exchanger of the tube and tube plate type by detonating metal plugs activated by an explosive and inserted in both ends of the tube. It refers in particular to an apparatus and process in which the deformation or distortion of the adjacent tubes and tube plate ties under the effect of the explosive forces is significantly reduced [fr

  11. Investigation of slice emittance using an energy-chirped electron beam in a dispersive section for photo injector characterization at PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanisenko, Yevgeniy

    2012-06-15

    This work describes a transverse slice emittance diagnostics with an RMS temporal resolution down to 2 ps that was implemented at the Photo Injector Test facility in Zeuthen (PITZ). The measurements were performed for several bunch charges generated by a laser pulse that has a flat-top temporal profile of 21-22 ps FWHM duration. This diagnostics allows to study the beam projected emittance compensation with a solenoid magnetic field experimentally and therefore contributes to the beam emittance optimization for the needs of short wavelength linac-based FELs in particular. The diagnostics is based upon the usage of electron bunches which have a correlation between the longitudinal position and the momentum of the bunch particles. This property allows to convert the bunch longitudinal distribution into a transverse one in a dipole magnet. A slit with a narrow opening at the dipole exit selects a fraction of the particle ensemble, a slice, which emittance is analyzed at a screen downstream. Slit scan and quadrupole scan techniques can be used to measure the emittance of the slices. In the experiments it was found that the slice emittance values are 5-10% lower than the projected emittance values, indicating a good effectivity of the solenoid compensation. The emittance obtained using quadrupole scan technique has shown different results when compared to slit scan technique due to a beam halo. The observed beam halo in phase space contributes up to 40% of the emittance value while having only 10% of the bunch charge.

  12. Investigation of slice emittance using an energy-chirped electron beam in a dispersive section for photo injector characterization at PITZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanisenko, Yevgeniy

    2012-06-01

    This work describes a transverse slice emittance diagnostics with an RMS temporal resolution down to 2 ps that was implemented at the Photo Injector Test facility in Zeuthen (PITZ). The measurements were performed for several bunch charges generated by a laser pulse that has a flat-top temporal profile of 21-22 ps FWHM duration. This diagnostics allows to study the beam projected emittance compensation with a solenoid magnetic field experimentally and therefore contributes to the beam emittance optimization for the needs of short wavelength linac-based FELs in particular. The diagnostics is based upon the usage of electron bunches which have a correlation between the longitudinal position and the momentum of the bunch particles. This property allows to convert the bunch longitudinal distribution into a transverse one in a dipole magnet. A slit with a narrow opening at the dipole exit selects a fraction of the particle ensemble, a slice, which emittance is analyzed at a screen downstream. Slit scan and quadrupole scan techniques can be used to measure the emittance of the slices. In the experiments it was found that the slice emittance values are 5-10% lower than the projected emittance values, indicating a good effectivity of the solenoid compensation. The emittance obtained using quadrupole scan technique has shown different results when compared to slit scan technique due to a beam halo. The observed beam halo in phase space contributes up to 40% of the emittance value while having only 10% of the bunch charge.

  13. Demonstration of a novel technique to measure two-photon exchange effects in elastic e±p scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteabbed, M.; Niroula, M.; Raue, B. A.; Weinstein, L. B.; Adikaram, D.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Lachniet, J.; Rimal, Dipak; Ungaro, M.; Afanasev, A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; Fassi, L. El; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lewis, S.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moriya, K.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2013-08-01

    Background: The discrepancy between proton electromagnetic form factors extracted using unpolarized and polarized scattering data is believed to be a consequence of two-photon exchange (TPE) effects. However, the calculations of TPE corrections have significant model dependence, and there is limited direct experimental evidence for such corrections.Purpose: The TPE contributions depend on the sign of the lepton charge in e±p scattering, but the luminosities of secondary positron beams limited past measurement at large scattering angles, where the TPE effects are believe to be most significant. We present the results of a new experimental technique for making direct e±p comparisons, which has the potential to make precise measurements over a broad range in Q2 and scattering angles.Methods: We use the Jefferson Laboratory electron beam and the Hall B photon tagger to generate a clean but untagged photon beam. The photon beam impinges on a converter foil to generate a mixed beam of electrons, positrons, and photons. A chicane is used to separate and recombine the electron and positron beams while the photon beam is stopped by a photon blocker. This provides a combined electron and positron beam, with energies from 0.5 to 3.2 GeV, which impinges on a liquid hydrogen target. The large acceptance CLAS detector is used to identify and reconstruct elastic scattering events, determining both the initial lepton energy and the sign of the scattered lepton.Results: The data were collected in two days with a primary electron beam energy of only 3.3 GeV, limiting the data from this run to smaller values of Q2 and scattering angle. Nonetheless, this measurement yields a data sample for e±p with statistics comparable to those of the best previous measurements. We have shown that we can cleanly identify elastic scattering events and correct for the difference in acceptance for electron and positron scattering. Because we ran with only one polarity for the chicane, we are unable

  14. Semi-automated technique for the separation and determination of barium and strontium in surface waters by ion exchange chromatography and atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, F.D.; Brown, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    A semi-automated method for the separation and the analysis of barium and strontium in surface waters by atomic emission spectrometry is described. The method employs a semi-automated separation technique using ion exchange and an automated aspiration-analysis procedure. Forty specimens can be prepared in approximately 90 min and can be analyzed for barium and strontium content in 20 min. The detection limits and sensitivities provided by the described technique are 0.003 mg/l and 0.01 mg/l respectively for barium and 0.00045 mg/l and 0.003 mg/l respectively for strontium

  15. Generalized superradiant assembly for nanophotonic thermal emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallawaarachchi, Sudaraka; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Stockman, Mark I.; Premaratne, Malin

    2018-03-01

    Superradiance explains the collective enhancement of emission, observed when nanophotonic emitters are arranged within subwavelength proximity and perfect symmetry. Thermal superradiant emitter assemblies with variable photon far-field coupling rates are known to be capable of outperforming their conventional, nonsuperradiant counterparts. However, due to the inability to account for assemblies comprising emitters with various materials and dimensional configurations, existing thermal superradiant models are inadequate and incongruent. In this paper, a generalized thermal superradiant assembly for nanophotonic emitters is developed from first principles. Spectral analysis shows that not only does the proposed model outperform existing models in power delivery, but also portrays unforeseen and startling characteristics during emission. These electromagnetically induced transparency like (EIT-like) and superscattering-like characteristics are reported here for a superradiant assembly, and the effects escalate as the emitters become increasingly disparate. The fact that the EIT-like characteristics are in close agreement with a recent experimental observation involving the superradiant decay of qubits strongly bolsters the validity of the proposed model.

  16. Revisiting the level scheme of the proton emitter 151Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Sun, B.H.; Liu, Z.; Scholey, C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kettelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Sorri, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Ashley, S.F.; Cullen, I.J.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Gelletly, W.; Jones, G.A.; Pietri, S.; Podolyak, Z.; Steer, S.; Thompson, N.J.; Walker, P.M.; Williams, S.; Bianco, L.; Darby, I.G.; Joss, D.T.; Page, R.D.; Pakarinen, J.; Rigby, S.; Cullen, D.M.; Khan, S.; Kishada, A.; Gomez-Hornillos, M.B.; Simpson, J.; Jenkins, D.G.; Niikura, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Shizuma, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    An experiment aiming to search for new isomers in the region of proton emitter 151 Lu was performed at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä (JYFL), by combining the high resolution γ-ray array JUROGAM, gas-filled RITU separator and GREAT detectors with the triggerless total data readout acquisition (TDR) system. In this proceeding, we revisit the level scheme of 151 Lu by using the proton-tagging technique. A level scheme consistent with the latest experimental results is obtained, and 3 additional levels are identified at high excitation energies. (author)

  17. BEAM EMITTANCE MEASUREMENT TOOL FOR CEBAF OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevtsov, Pavel; Tiefenback, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A new software tool was created at Jefferson Lab to measure the emittance of the CEBAF electron beams. The tool consists of device control and data analysis applications. The device control application handles the work of wire scanners and writes their measurement results as well as the information about accelerator settings during these measurements into wire scanner data files. The data analysis application reads these files and calculates the beam emittance on the basis of a wire scanner data processing model. Both applications are computer platform independent but are mostly used on LINUX PCs recently installed in the accelerator control room. The new tool significantly simplifies beam emittance measurement procedures for accelerator operations and contributes to a very high availability of the CEBAF machine for the nuclear physics program at Jefferson Lab.

  18. On the preservation of single- and multi-bunch emittance in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevlak, M.

    1995-11-01

    This document is concentrated on the investigation of the dynamics of a particle beam in a linear accelerator. We numerically simulate a number of effects and evaluate the severity of their impact on the beam. Furthermore, we examine the applicability of several correction techniques aiming at the suppression or correction of the effects diluting the beam emittance. First, there is the issue of single-bunch dynamics : we see that wake field effects and dispersive errors can cause a significant emittance growth. Secondly, long range dipole wakes and dispersive effects arising from the energy spread between different bunches will cause relative offsets between the individual bunches and likewise result in emittance growth. Finally, we observe interactions between the single-bunch and multi-bunch dynamics in a bunch train, which further aggravate these effects. The corrective measures against emittance growth are first tested with respect to individual effects relating to issues of single- or multi-bunch dynamics. Later, these different correction techniques are joined to one machine tuning procedure that will be applied in order to achieve good emittance preservation for operation of the accelerator with a full beam consisting of the full number of bunches. The performance of this procedure is tested in simulations of the combined single- and multi-bunch dynamics. Finally, tolerances on the machine alignment as well as machine and beam parameters are established. (orig.)

  19. Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)

  20. Studies of emittance growth in the ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1997-03-01

    Several different mechanisms of emittance growth in the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK are investigated: the author calculates rise times of the fast beam-ion instability for the damping ring (DR), and discusses the emittance growth caused by coherent synchrotron radiation in the beam-transport line (BT), the effect of quadrupole wake fields in the injector linac, and, finally, a single-bunch head-tail ion effect that can occur in both the DR and the BT. A first attempt to measure the quadrupole wake on the real machine is also reported

  1. Improvement of electron emission characteristics of porous silicon emitter by using cathode reduction and electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, He; Wenjiang, Wang, E-mail: wwj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xiaoning, Zhang

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • An electron emitter based on porous silicon having the strong application potential was prepared in the studying. • A new simple and convenient post-treat technique was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the PS emitter. • It demonstrated that the improving of the PS morphology and the oxygen distribution is very important to the PS emitter. - Abstract: A new simple and convenient post-treat technique combined the cathode reduction (CR) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO) was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the surface-emitting cold cathodes based on the porous silicon (PS). It is demonstrated here that by introducing this new technique combined CR and ECO, the emission properties of the diode have been significantly improved than those as-prepared samples. The experimental results showed that the emission current densities and efficiencies of sample treated by CR were 62 μA/cm{sup 2} and 12.10‰, respectively, nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of as-prepared sample. Furthermore, the CR-treated PS emitter shows higher repeatability and stability compared with the as-prepared PS emitter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), furier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the improved mechanism is mainly due to the passivation of the PS, which not only improve the PS morphology by the passivation of the H{sup +} but also improve the uniformity of the oxygen content distribution in the whole PS layer. Therefore, the method combined the CR treatment and ECO is expected to be a valuable technique to enhance the electron emission characteristics of the PS emitter.

  2. Improvement of electron emission characteristics of porous silicon emitter by using cathode reduction and electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, He; Wenjiang, Wang; Xiaoning, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electron emitter based on porous silicon having the strong application potential was prepared in the studying. • A new simple and convenient post-treat technique was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the PS emitter. • It demonstrated that the improving of the PS morphology and the oxygen distribution is very important to the PS emitter. - Abstract: A new simple and convenient post-treat technique combined the cathode reduction (CR) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO) was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the surface-emitting cold cathodes based on the porous silicon (PS). It is demonstrated here that by introducing this new technique combined CR and ECO, the emission properties of the diode have been significantly improved than those as-prepared samples. The experimental results showed that the emission current densities and efficiencies of sample treated by CR were 62 μA/cm"2 and 12.10‰, respectively, nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of as-prepared sample. Furthermore, the CR-treated PS emitter shows higher repeatability and stability compared with the as-prepared PS emitter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), furier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the improved mechanism is mainly due to the passivation of the PS, which not only improve the PS morphology by the passivation of the H"+ but also improve the uniformity of the oxygen content distribution in the whole PS layer. Therefore, the method combined the CR treatment and ECO is expected to be a valuable technique to enhance the electron emission characteristics of the PS emitter.

  3. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  4. Tunable Subpicosecond Electron-Bunch-Train Generation Using a Transverse-To-Longitudinal Phase-Space Exchange Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-E; Piot, P.; Maxwell, T. J.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beam line capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  5. The Development of a Patient-Identification-Oriented Nursing Shift Exchange Support System Using Wireless RFID PDA Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Pin-Jen; She, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Polun

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to technically testing the feasibility of combining RFID and PDA technologies in nursing care and to develop a support system for the nursing shift exchange, which featured with “Positive Patient Identification” and “Point of Care” for patient’s safety and security. The most challenging part for the future work would be to embed the system into the real workflow. Future study would be to examine the practical effectiveness of the system....

  6. A fabrication method for field emitter array of carbon nanotubes with improved carbon nanotube rooting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouhan, V., E-mail: vchouhan@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Noguchi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, S. [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    We have developed a technique for fabrication of a field emitter array (FEA) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to obtain a high emission current along with a high current density. The FEA was prepared with many small equidistant circular emitters of randomly oriented multiwall carbon nanotubes. The fabrication of a FEA substrate followed with deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) film on a tantalum (Ta) substrate and circular titanium (Ti) islands on the TiN coated Ta substrate in a DC magnetron sputtering coater. CNTs were dispersed on the substrate and rooted into the circular Ti islands at a high temperature to prepare an array of circular emitters of CNTs. The TiN film was applied on a Ta substrate to make a reaction barrier between the Ta substrate and CNTs in order to root CNTs only into the Ti islands without a reaction with the Ta substrate at the high temperature. A high emission current of 31.7 mA with an effective current density of 34.5 A/cm{sup 2} was drawn at 6.5 V/μm from a FEA having 130 circular emitters in a diameter of 50 μm and with a pitch of 200 μm. The high emission current was ascribed to the good quality rooting of CNTs into the Ti islands and an edge effect, in which a high emission current was expected from the peripheries of the circular emitters. - Highlights: • We developed a method to fabricate a field emitter array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). • CNT rooting into array of titanium islands was improved at a high temperature. • Titanium nitride film was used to stop reaction between CNT and tantalum substrate. • Strong edge effect was achieved from an array of small circular emitters of CNTs. • The good quality CNT rooting and the edge effect enhanced an emission current.

  7. A low emittance configuration for spear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.N.; Cerino, J.; Harris, J.; Hettel, R.; Hofmann, A.; Liu, R.Z.; Stego, R.; Wiedemann, H.; Winick, H.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of synchrotron radiation beams from SPEAR, in particular the brilliance of undulator radiation, can be improved significantly by reducing the emittance of the stored electron beam. A reduction of the horizontal emittance by a factor of 3.5 to a value of 130 nanometer-radians (nm-r) at 3 GeV has been achieved by using stronger focussing, mainly in the horizontal plane. The low emittance configuration also reduces the dispersion and vertical beta functions in the straight sections, making them more suitable for wigglers. The higher betatron tunes lead to a larger phase advance between the two kickers, which has to be corrected during injection by shunting current from some quadrupoles. The configuration was optimized within SPEAR hardware limitations and tested for dynamic aperture with the tracking program PATRICIA. After implementation of this scheme, beam was successfully injected and accumulated. The measured emittance of the stored beam was in agreement with calculations. Presently the configuration is being made operational

  8. Simple-to-prepare multipoint field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominskii, G. G.; Taradaev, E. P.; Tumareva, T. A.; Mishin, M. V.; Kornishin, S. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate multitip field emitters prepared by electroerosion treatment of the surface of molybdenum samples. Their characteristics are determined for operation with a protecting activated fullerene coating. Our experiments indicate that such cathodes are promising for high-voltage electron devices operating in technical vacuum.

  9. Emittance measuring system on the UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrich, A.; Glatz, J.; Strahl, P.

    A description is given of one of the beam emittance measuring systems designed for the UNILAC at GSI. The measuring system mechanics and the detector system are detailed, and the associated electronics are discussed. Computer programming and data processing and evaluation are described

  10. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system

  11. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  12. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  13. Test results on two thermionic converters with cermet emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.; Danielson, L.; Huffman, F.

    1983-01-01

    An emitter made of a directionally solidified Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 eutectic was provided by Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Although the high temperature braze cycle used in bonding this electrode to the emitter substrate destroyed its characteristic needle microstructure, the converter gave good performance. Apparently, chemical species evaporated from the emitter onto the collector provided a low collector work function. The resulting low barrier indices suggest that this surface is a promising emitter

  14. Multi-component Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the hydrodynamics in drip emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcucci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient numerical technique based on the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM to model the flow through a reference drip emitter geometry. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBM as a reliable simulation tool for the hydraulic optimisation of irrigation systems. Results for the water flow through a rectangular drip emitter are in good agreement with literature numerical and experimental data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model to simulate a multi-component flow that could be used to simulate the presence of additives, contaminants, and suspended particles.

  15. Application of anion-exchange techniques to the determination of traces of molybdenum in sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, T.; Kuroda, R.

    1984-01-01

    A combined ion-exchange spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of molybdenum in sea-water. Molybdenum is sorbed strongly on Amberlite CG 400 (Cl - ) at pH 3 from sea-water containing ascorbic acid and is easily eluted with 6 M nitric acid. Molybdenum in the effluent can be determined spectrophotometrically with potassium thiocyanate and stannous chloride. The combined method allows selective and sensitive determination of traces of molybdenum in sea-water. The precision of the method is 2% at a molybdenum level of approx. 10 μg/l. (author)

  16. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of γϵx = 3x10-6 m-rad and γϵy = 3x10-8 m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate ``fundamental`` limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  17. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate fundamental'' limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  18. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of γε x = 3x10 -6 m-rad and γε y = 3x10 -8 m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate ''fundamental'' limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future

  19. DNA damage by Auger emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.F.; d'Cunha, Glenn; Gibbs, Richard; Murray, Vincent; Pardee, Marshall; Allen, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    125 I atoms can be introduced at specific locations along a defined DNA target molecule, either by site-directed incorporation of an 125 I-labelled deoxynucleotide or by binding of an 125 I-labelled sequence-selective DNA ligand. After allowing accumulation of 125 I decay-induced damage to the DNA, application of DNA sequencing techniques enables positions of strand breaks to be located relative to the site of decay, at a resolution corresponding to the distance between adjacent nucleotides [0.34 nm]. Thus, DNA provides a molecular framework to analyse the extent of damage following [averaged] individual decay events. Results can be compared with energy deposition data generated by computer-simulation methods developed by Charlton et al. The DNA sequencing technique also provides information about the chemical nature of the termini of the DNA chains produced following Auger decay-induced damage. In addition to reviewing the application of this approach to the analysis of 125 I decay induced DNA damage, some more recent results obtained by using 67 Ga are also presented. (author)

  20. Emittance control of a beam by shaping the transverse charge distribution, using a tomography diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimenko, V.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.J.

    1998-06-01

    A high-brightness beam is very important for many applications. A diagnostic that measures the multi-dimensional phase-space density-distribution of the electron bunch is a must for obtaining such beams. Measurement of a slice emittance has been achieved. Tomographic reconstruction of phase space was suggested and implemented using a single quadrupole scan. In the present work the authors give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This diagnostic, coupled with control of the radial charge distribution of presents an opportunity to improve the beam brightness. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics lead to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections

  1. Low emittance electron beam formation with a 17 GHz RF gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Brown

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on electron beam quality measurement results from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 17 GHz RF gun experiment. The 1.5 cell RF gun uses a solenoid for emittance compensation. It has produced bunch charges up to 0.1 nC with beam energies up to 1 MeV. The normalized rms emittance of the beam after 35 cm of transport from the gun has been measured by a slit technique to be 3π mm mrad for a 50 pC bunch. This agrees well with PARMELA simulations at these beam energies. At the exit of the electron gun, we estimate the emittance to be about 1π mm mrad, which corresponds to a beam brightness of about 80 A/(π mm mrad^{2}. Improved beam quality should be possible with a higher energy output electron beam from the gun.

  2. Preparation of Polyimide/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite Films via an Ion-Exchange Technique and Their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Mu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyimide (PI composite films with ZnO nanoparticles embedded in the surface layer were prepared by alkali hydrolyzation following ion exchange in Zn(NO32 solution and thermal treatment of the zinc ion-doped PI films in air atmosphere. The effect of alkali treatment, ion exchange, and thermal treatment conditions was investigated in relation to the amount of zinc atomic loading, morphology, photoluminescence (PL, and thermal properties of the PI/ZnO composite films using ICP, XPS, FE-SEM, TEM, Raman microscope, TGA, and DSC. ZnO nanoparticles were formed slowly and dispersed uniformly in the surface-modified layers of PI films with an average diameter of 20 nm. The PL spectra of all the PI/ZnO nanocomposite films obtained at 350°C/7 h possessed a weak ultraviolet emission peak and a broad and strong visible emission band. The PI/ZnO nanocomposite films maintained the excellent thermal property of the host PI films.

  3. Net ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alekseychik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2 and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May–August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pine-covered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to 202 gC m−2 for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.

  4. 2-D emittance equation with acceleration and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.D.; Smith, L.

    1988-10-01

    Since both acceleration and compression are required for an Inertial Fusion Driver, the understanding of their effect on the beam quality, emittance, is important. This report attempts to generalize the usual emittance formula for the drifting beam to include these effects. The derivation of the 2-D emittance equation is carried out and a comparison with the particle code results is given. The 2-D emittance at a given axial location is reasonable to consider for a long beam, particularly with velocity tilt; transverse emittance averaged over the entire bunch is not a useful quantity. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Small horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decking, W.

    2001-01-01

    The present TESLA damping ring is designed for a normalized horizontal emittance of 8x10 -6 m. γ-γ collisions at the TESLA linear collider will benefit from a further decrease of the horizontal emittance. This paper reviews the processes which limit the horizontal emittance in the damping ring. Preliminary estimates on the smallest horizontal emittance for the present TESLA damping ring design as well as an ultimate limit of the emittance reachable with the TESLA damping ring concept will be given

  6. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  7. Computing Eigen-Emittances from Tracking Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexahin, Y. [Fermilab

    2014-09-18

    In a strongly nonlinear system the particle distribution in the phase space may develop long tails which contribution to the covariance (sigma) matrix should be suppressed for a correct estimate of the beam emittance. A method is offered based on Gaussian approximation of the original particle distribution in the phase space (Klimontovich distribution) which leads to an equation for the sigma matrix which provides efficient suppression of the tails and cannot be obtained by introducing weights. This equation is easily solved by iterations in the multi-dimensional case. It is also shown how the eigen-emittances and coupled optics functions can be retrieved from the sigma matrix in a strongly coupled system. Finally, the developed algorithm is applied to 6D ionization cooling of muons in HFOFO channel.

  8. Reducing longitudinal emittance growth in RFQ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    1994-08-01

    Bunching and capture of a monochromatic beam into an rf bucket inevitably lead to substantial emittance growth through the mechanisms of filamentation and non-adiabatic variation of parameters. We describe a three step strategy for minimizing this growth, based on a clear understanding of the non-linear beam dynamics, and apply to acceleration of heavy ions with Z/A = 1/60 (and initial kinetic energy 60 keV/u) in a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) operating at 25 MHz. We also describe a scheme, to further reduce the emittance, based upon the use of an external RFQ-type prebuncher before the main accelerator. The external unit permits the bunching voltage to be reduced, to inject into a moving bucket, and to reduce the structure length. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  9. Emittance growth in coast in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Alekou, A; Bartosik, H; Calaga, R

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS will be used as a test-bed for the LHCprototype crab-cavities, which will be installed and testedin the SPS in 2018. As the time available for experimen-tal beam dynamics studies with the crab cavities installedin the machine will be limited, a very good preparation isrequired in advance. One of the main concerns is the in-duced emittance growth, driven by phase jitter in the crabcavities. In this respect, several machine development (MD)studies were performed during the past years to quantifyand characterize the emittance evolution of proton beamsin coast in the SPS. In these proceedings, the experimentalobservations from past years are summarized and the MDstudies from 2016 are presented. Finally, a proposal for anexperimental program for 2017 is discussed.

  10. Mesoscopic quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lykke

    for the spontaneous emission of mesoscopic quantum emitters is developed. The light-matter interaction is in this model modied beyond the dipole expectancy and found to both suppress and enhance the coupling to plasmonic modes in excellent agreement with our measurements. We demonstrate that this mesoscopic effect......This thesis reports research on quantum dots coupled to dielectric and plasmonic nano-structures by way of nano-structure fabrication, optical measurements, and theoretical modeling. To study light-matter interaction, plasmonic gap waveguides with nanometer dimensions as well as samples for studies...... to allow for e- cient plasmon-based single-photon sources. Theoretical studies of coupling and propagation properties of plasmonic waveguides reveal that a high-refractive index of the medium surrounding the emitter, e.g. nGaAs = 3.5, limits the realizability of ecient plasmon-based single-photon sources...

  11. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  12. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R; Joannopoulos, John D; Celanovic, Ivan; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system. (paper)

  13. Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.

  14. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates

  15. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-12-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates.

  16. Modified theoretical minimum emittance lattice for an electron storage ring with extreme-low emittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing efforts to reduce the beam emittance of an electron storage ring composed of theoretical minimum emittance (TME lattice, down to a level of several tens of picometers, nonlinear dynamics grows to be a great challenge to the performance of the storage ring because of the strong sextupoles needed to compensate for its large global natural chomaticities coupled with its small average dispersion function. To help in dealing with the challenge of nonlinear optimization, we propose a novel variation of theoretical minimum emittance (TME lattice, named as “modified-TME” lattice, with minimal emittance about 3 times of the exact theoretical minimum, while with more compact layout, lower phase advance per cell, smaller natural chromaticities, and more relaxed optical functions than that in a TME cell, by using horizontally defocusing quadrupole closer to the dipole or simply combined-function dipole with horizontally defocusing gradient. We present approximate scaling formulas to describe the relationships of the design parameters in a modified-TME cell. The applications of modified-TME lattice in the PEP-X storage ring design are illustrated and the proposed lattice appears a good candidate for synchrotron radiation light source with extremely low emittance.

  17. Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley: Characterizing Large Point Source Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Holland, L.; Hook, S. J.; Hulley, G. C.; Johnson, W. R.; Kuai, L.; Kuwayama, T.; Lin, J. C.; Thorpe, A. K.; Worden, J. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric pollutant that contributes to global warming and tropospheric ozone production. Methane mitigation could reduce near term climate change and improve air quality, but is hindered by a lack of knowledge of anthropogenic methane sources. Recent work has shown that methane emissions are not evenly distributed in space, or across emission sources, suggesting that a large fraction of anthropogenic methane comes from a few "super-emitters." We studied the distribution of super-emitters in California's southern San Joaquin Valley, where elevated levels of atmospheric CH4 have also been observed from space. Here, we define super-emitters as methane plumes that could be reliably detected (i.e., plume observed more than once in the same location) under varying wind conditions by airborne thermal infrared remote sensing. The detection limit for this technique was determined to be 4.5 kg CH4 h-1 by a controlled release experiment, corresponding to column methane enhancement at the point of emissions greater than 20% above local background levels. We surveyed a major oil production field, and an area with a high concentration of large dairies using a variety of airborne and ground-based measurements. Repeated airborne surveys (n=4) with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer revealed 28 persistent methane plumes emanating from oil field infrastructure, including tanks, wells, and processing facilities. The likelihood that a given source type was a super-emitter varied from roughly 1/3 for processing facilities to 1/3000 for oil wells. 11 persistent plumes were detected in the dairy area, and all were associated with wet manure management. The majority (11/14) of manure lagoons in the study area were super-emitters. Comparing to a California methane emissions inventory for the surveyed areas, we estimate that super-emitters comprise a minimum of 9% of inventoried dairy emissions, and 13% of inventoried oil emissions in this region.

  18. Where the Rubber Meets the Road; Varied Techniques for Measuring the Land-Atmosphere Exchange of Water and Energy in a California Watershed and the Driving Influences on this Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochendorfer, J.; Viers, J.; Niswonger, R.; Paw U, K.; Haas, E.; Reck, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    In conjunction with the Cosumnes Research Group, we performed a field study along the Cosumnes River in California's Central Valley. The study included tower-based evapotranspiration estimates, continuous hydrologic measurements, and analysis of remote sensing data. We estimated the effects of phreatophytic evapotranspiration on groundwater from scales as small as an individual stand of trees to as large as the watershed and explored the climactic and hydrologic controls over riparian evapotranspiration. Tower-based evapotranspiration measurements included one eddy covariance tower within a cottonwood forest (Populus fremontii), and one surface temperature/micrometeorological evapotranspiration tower within a willow stand (Salix lasiolepis). The technique used on the surface temperature/micrometeorological evapotranspiration tower was developed and chosen in preference to eddy covariance for a site where a considerable quantity of the riparian ecosystem to atmosphere exchange is advective. Hydrologic techniques included measurements of groundwater depth and volumetric soil moisture. We also examined multitemporal, multiresolution remotely sensed imagery to correlate evapotranspiration rates for a restored cottonwood forest with derived vegetation indices. These indices were evaluated for applicability to other restored riparian habitats within the Cosumnes River Preserve and to help guide future restoration actions as a function of hydrologic connectivity and water demand.

  19. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MR technique for in-vivo liver imaging at 3.0 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shu-Zhong; Deng, Min; Wang, Yi-Xiang J. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (China); Yuan, Jing [Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Medical Physics and Research Department, Happy Valley, Hong Kong (China); Wei, Juan [Philips Healthcare Asia, Shanghai (China); Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy Krieger Institute, F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI for liver imaging at 3.0-T. Images were acquired at offsets (n = 41, increment = 0.25 ppm) from -5 to 5 ppm using a TSE sequence with a continuous rectangular saturation pulse. Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) and GlycoCEST signals were quantified as the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTR{sub asym}) at 3.5 ppm and the total MTR{sub asym} integrated from 0.5 to 1.5 ppm, respectively, from the corrected Z-spectrum. Reproducibility was assessed for rats and humans. Eight rats were devoid of chow for 24 hours and scanned before and after fasting. Eleven rats were scanned before and after one-time CCl4 intoxication. For reproducibility, rat liver APTw and GlycoCEST measurements had 95 % limits of agreement of -1.49 % to 1.28 % and -0.317 % to 0.345 %. Human liver APTw and GlycoCEST measurements had 95 % limits of agreement of -0.842 % to 0.899 % and -0.344 % to 0.164 %. After 24 hours, fasting rat liver APTw and GlycoCEST signals decreased from 2.38 ± 0.86 % to 0.67 ± 1.12 % and from 0.34 ± 0.26 % to -0.18 ± 0.37 % respectively (p < 0.05). After CCl4 intoxication rat liver APTw and GlycoCEST signals decreased from 2.46 ± 0.48 % to 1.10 ± 0.77 %, and from 0.34 ± 0.23 % to -0.16 ± 0.51 % respectively (p < 0.05). CEST liver imaging at 3.0-T showed high sensitivity for fasting as well as CCl4 intoxication. (orig.)

  20. High brightness fiber laser pump sources based on single emitters and multiple single emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Torsten; Wagner, Lars; Wolf, Jürgen; Bonati, Guido; Dörfel, Falk; Gabler, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Driven by the potential of the fiber laser market, the development of high brightness pump sources has been pushed during the last years. The main approaches to reach the targets of this market had been the direct coupling of single emitters (SE) on the one hand and the beam shaping of bars and stacks on the other hand, which often causes higher cost per watt. Meanwhile the power of single emitters with 100μm emitter size for direct coupling increased dramatically, which also pushed a new generation of wide stripe emitters or multi emitters (ME) of up to 1000μm emitter size respectively "minibars" with apertures of 3 to 5mm. The advantage of this emitter type compared to traditional bars is it's scalability to power levels of 40W to 60W combined with a small aperture which gives advantages when coupling into a fiber. We show concepts using this multiple single emitters for fiber coupled systems of 25W up to 40W out of a 100μm fiber NA 0.22 with a reasonable optical efficiency. Taking into account a further efficiency optimization and an increase in power of these devices in the near future, the EUR/W ratio pushed by the fiber laser manufacturer will further decrease. Results will be shown as well for higher power pump sources. Additional state of the art tapered fiber bundles for photonic crystal fibers are used to combine 7 (19) pump sources to output powers of 100W (370W) out of a 130μm (250μm) fiber NA 0.6 with nominal 20W per port. Improving those TFB's in the near future and utilizing 40W per pump leg, an output power of even 750W out of 250μm fiber NA 0.6 will be possible. Combined Counter- and Co-Propagated pumping of the fiber will then lead to the first 1kW fiber laser oscillator.

  1. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MR technique for in-vivo liver imaging at 3.0 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Zhong; Yuan, Jing; Deng, Min; Wei, Juan; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI for liver imaging at 3.0-T. Images were acquired at offsets (n = 41, increment = 0.25 ppm) from -5 to 5 ppm using a TSE sequence with a continuous rectangular saturation pulse. Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) and GlycoCEST signals were quantified as the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.5 ppm and the total MTRasym integrated from 0.5 to 1.5 ppm, respectively, from the corrected Z-spectrum. Reproducibility was assessed for rats and humans. Eight rats were devoid of chow for 24 hours and scanned before and after fasting. Eleven rats were scanned before and after one-time CCl4 intoxication. For reproducibility, rat liver APTw and GlycoCEST measurements had 95 % limits of agreement of -1.49 % to 1.28 % and -0.317 % to 0.345 %. Human liver APTw and GlycoCEST measurements had 95 % limits of agreement of -0.842 % to 0.899 % and -0.344 % to 0.164 %. After 24 hours, fasting rat liver APTw and GlycoCEST signals decreased from 2.38 ± 0.86 % to 0.67 ± 1.12 % and from 0.34 ± 0.26 % to -0.18 ± 0.37 % respectively (p 3.0-T showed high sensitivity for fasting as well as CCl4 intoxication. • CEST MRI of in-vivo liver was demonstrated at clinical 3 T field strength. • After 24-hour fasting, rat liver APTw and GlycoCEST signals decreased significantly. • After CCl4 intoxication both rat liver APTw and GlycoCEST signals decreased significantly. • Good scan-rescan reproducibility of liver CEST MRI was shown in healthy volunteers.

  2. Study the Effect of the Flow on the Performance of a shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger using Experimental Design Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuher Hassan Abdullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current research an experimental study was done to show the effect of pulse flow on the effectiveness of shell and tube type heat exchanger. the study was in the case of steady and pulse flows with a changing mass flow rate of hot water flowing inside the pipes of the heat exchanger for the range between (0.0273-0.0819 kg / s  at fix mass flow rate of cold water that flows through the shell and on the outer surface of the pipes when (0.0416 kg / s, to obtain pulsing a used was solenoid valve. The research aims to measure the percentage effect of independent factors which were presenting the mass flow rate of hot water, flow type and the surrounding environment conditions of the experimental side upon shell and tube type heat exchanger performance using experimental design technique at the significant level (0.05.The results derived from the experimental tests showed that pulse flow leads to increase internal heat transfer coefficient (hi comparing with its value in the steady flow and the highest increase was by (9.75% at a mass flow rate of hot water (0.0416 kg / s and increases the overall heat transfer coefficient (U, where the highest percentage was by 4.68% at a mass flow rate of hot water (0.0416kg/s. The results also showed increasing both the number of transmitted units (NTU and the effectiveness of the shell and tube type heat exchanger ( in the case of pulse flow of its value in the steady flow and the highest percentage of increase occurring was (4.75% and (1.85%, respectively, and at the mass flow rate of hot water (0.0416 kg / s. Percentage effect of mass flow rate of hot water was (97%, 97.42%, 95.5%, 99.48% and the percentage effect of each flow type and the errors were (2.8%, 2.25%, 2.44%, 0.4% and (0. 2, 0.33%, 2.06%, 0.12 respectively

  3. Criteria for emittance compensation in high-brightness photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-xi Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical process in high-brightness photoinjectors is emittance compensation, which brings under control the correlated transverse emittance growth due to the linear space-charge force. Although emittance compensation has been used and studied for almost two decades, the exact criteria to achieve emittance compensation is not as clear as it should be. In this paper, a perturbative analysis of slice envelopes and emittance evolution close to any reference envelope is developed, via which space-charge and chromatic effects are investigated. A new criterion for emittance compensation is found, which is complementary to the well-known matching condition for the invariant envelope and agrees very well with simulations.

  4. Quantum efficiency and thermal emittance of metal photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Dowell

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths with major advances occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun and the realization of emittance compensation. These state-of-the-art electron beams are now becoming limited by the intrinsic thermal emittance of the cathode. In both dc and rf photocathode guns details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance for metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We use a consistent theory to derive the quantum efficiency and thermal emittance, and compare our results to those of others.

  5. The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D.

    2009-01-01

    Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others

  6. Dielectric optical antenna thermal emitters and metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Jonathan Aaron

    Optical antennas are critical components in nanophotonics research due to their unparalleled ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into nanoscale volumes. Researchers typically construct such antennas from wavelength-size metallic structures. However, recent research has begun to exploit the scattering resonances of high-permittivity particles to realize all-dielectric optical antennas, emitters, and metamaterials. In this thesis, we experimentally and theoretically characterize the resonant modes of subwavelength rod-shaped dielectric particles and demonstrate their use in negative index metamaterials and novel infrared light emitters. At mid-infrared frequencies, Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an ideal system for studying the behavior of dielectric optical antennas. At frequencies below the TO phonon resonance, SiC behaves like a dielectric with very large refractive index. Using infrared spectroscopy and analytical Mie calculations we show that individual rod-shaped SiC particles exhibit a multitude of resonant modes. Detailed investigations of these SiC optical antennas reveal a wealth of new physics and applications. We discuss the distinct electromagnetic field profile for each mode, and demonstrate that two of the dielectric-type Mie resonances can be combined in a particle array to form a negative index metamaterial. We further show that these particles can serve as "broadcasting" antennas. Using a custom-built thermal emission microscope we collect emissivity spectra from single SiC particles at elevated temperatures, highlighting their use as subwavelength resonant light emitters. Finally, we derive and verify a variety of general analytical results applicable to all cylindrical dielectric antennas.

  7. Dielectric Optical Antenna Emitters and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Jon

    2009-03-01

    Optical antennas are critical components in nanophotonics research due to their unparalleled ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into nanoscale volumes. Researchers typically construct such antennas from wavelength-size metallic structures. However, recent research has begun to exploit the scattering resonances of high-permittivity particles to realize all-dielectric optical antennas, emitters, and metamaterials. In this talk, we experimentally and theoretically characterize the resonant modes of subwavelength rod-shaped dielectric particles and demonstrate their use in negative index metamaterials and novel infrared light emitters. At mid-infrared frequencies, Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an ideal system for studying the behavior of dielectric optical antennas. At frequencies below the TO phonon resonance, SiC behaves like a dielectric with very large refractive index. Using infrared spectroscopy and analytical Mie calculations we show that individual rod-shaped SiC particles exhibit a multitude of resonant modes. Detailed investigations of these SiC optical antennas reveal a wealth of new physics and applications. We discuss the distinct electromagnetic field profile for each mode, and demonstrate that two of the dielectric-type Mie resonances can be combined in a particle array to form a negative index metamaterial [1]. We further show that these particles can serve as ``broadcasting'' antennas. Using a custom-built thermal emission microscope we collect emissivity spectra from single SiC particles at elevated temperatures, highlighting their use as subwavelength resonant light emitters. Finally, we derive and verify a variety of general analytical results applicable to all cylindrical dielectric antennas and discuss extensions of the demonstrated concepts to different materials systems and frequency regimes. [1] J.A. Schuller, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 107401 (2007)

  8. Investigations on cermet electrodes for thermionic emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Nazare, S.

    1975-01-01

    Unstable Ba 2 CaWO 6 -W with their own supply of Ba, as well as stable UO 2 -Mo-emitter cermets that have to be operated with an external Ba-source, have been prepared by axial hot pressing. The relevant properties of these cermets such as electrical resistivity and thermal expansion are reported and compared with theoretical predictions. The electron emission of these materials is discussed on the basis of the surface films formed. It provides the basis for optimising the behavior of these materials

  9. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  10. Emittance growth from transient coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Li, R.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    If the energies of individual particles in a bunch change as the bunch traverses a bending system, even if it is achromatic, betatron oscillations can be excited. Consequently, the transverse emittance of the bunch will grow as it moves downstream. Short bunches may be particularly susceptible to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation which can act back on the particles to change their energies and trajectories. Because a bend spans a well-defined length and angle, the bunch-excited wakefield and its effect back on the bunch are inherently transient. We outline a recently developed theory of this effect and apply it to example bending systems

  11. Tolerances for the vertical emittance in damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Future damping rings for linear colliders will need to have very small vertical emittances. In the limit of low beam current, the vertical emittance is primarily determined by the vertical dispersion and the betatron coupling. In this paper, the contributions to these effects from random misalignments are calculated and tolerances are derived to limit the vertical emittance with a 95% confidence level. 10 refs., 5 figs

  12. Emittance calculations for the Stanford Linear Collider injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Clendenin, J.E.; Helm, R.H.; Lee, M.J.; Miller, R.H.; Blocker, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    A series of measurements have been performed to determine the emittance of the high intensity, single bunch beam that is to be injected into the Stanford Linear Collider. On-line computer programs were used to control the Linac for the purpose of data acquisition and to fit the data to a model in order to deduce the beam emittance. This paper will describe the method of emittance calculation and present some of the measurement results

  13. Emittance Growth during Bunch Compression in the CTF-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O

    1999-02-26

    Measurements of the beam emittance during bunch compression in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF-II) are described. The measurements were made with different beam charges and different energy correlations versus the bunch compressor settings which were varied from no compression through the point of full compression and to over-compression. Significant increases in the beam emittance were observed with the maximum emittance occurring near the point of full (maximal) compression. Finally, evaluation of possible emittance dilution mechanisms indicate that coherent synchrotron radiation was the most likely cause.

  14. Tunable, Room Temperature THZ Emitters Based on Nonlinear Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Raju

    The Terahertz (1012 Hz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum covers the frequency range from roughly 300 GHz to 10 THz, which is in between the microwave and infrared regimes. The increasing interest in the development of ultra-compact, tunable room temperature Terahertz (THz) emitters with wide-range tunability has stimulated in-depth studies of different mechanisms of THz generation in the past decade due to its various potential applications such as biomedical diagnosis, security screening, chemical identification, life sciences and very high speed wireless communication. Despite the tremendous research and development efforts, all the available state-of-the-art THz emitters suffer from either being large, complex and costly, or operating at low temperatures, lacking tunability, having a very short spectral range and a low output power. Hence, the major objective of this research was to develop simple, inexpensive, compact, room temperature THz sources with wide-range tunability. We investigated THz radiation in a hybrid optical and THz micro-ring resonators system. For the first time, we were able to satisfy the DFG phase matching condition for the above-mentioned THz range in one single device geometry by employing a modal phase matching technique and using two separately designed resonators capable of oscillating at input optical waves and generated THz waves. In chapter 6, we proposed a novel plasmonic antenna geometry – the dimer rod-tapered antenna (DRTA), where we created a hot-spot in the nanogap between the dimer arms with a very large intensity enhancement of 4.1x105 at optical resonant wavelength. Then, we investigated DFG operation in the antenna geometry by incorporating a nonlinear nanodot in the hot-spot of the antenna and achieved continuously tunable enhanced THz radiation across 0.5-10 THz range. In chapter 8, we designed a multi-metallic resonators providing an ultrasharp toroidal response at THz frequency, then fabricated and

  15. Semiconductor Quantum Dash Broadband Emitters: Modeling and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    Broadband light emitters operation, which covers multiple wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, has been established as an indispensable element to the human kind, continuously advancing the living standard by serving as sources in important multi-disciplinary field applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing, general lighting and internet and mobile phone connectivity. In general, most commercial broadband light sources relies on complex systems for broadband light generation which are bulky, and energy hungry. \\tRecent demonstration of ultra-broadband emission from semiconductor light sources in the form of superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs) has paved way in realization of broadband emitters on a completely novel platform, which offered compactness, cost effectiveness, and comparatively energy efficient, and are already serving as a key component in medical imaging systems. The low power-bandwidth product is inherent in SLDs operating in the amplified spontaneous emission regime. A quantum leap in the advancement of broadband emitters, in which high power and large bandwidth (in tens of nm) are in demand. Recently, the birth of a new class of broadband semiconductor laser diode (LDs) producing multiple wavelength light in stimulated emission regime was demonstrated. This very recent manifestation of a high power-bandwidth-product semiconductor broadband LDs relies on interband optical transitions via quantum confined dot/dash nanostructures and exploiting the natural inhomogeneity of the self-assembled growth technology. This concept is highly interesting and extending the broad spectrum of stimulated emission by novel device design forms the central focus of this dissertation. \\tIn this work, a simple rate equation numerical technique for modeling InAs/InP quantum dash laser incorporating the properties of inhomogeneous broadening effect on lasing spectra was developed and discussed, followed by a comprehensive experimental analysis

  16. Dosimetry of internal emitters - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.; Nagaratnam, A.; Jain, S.C.; Gupta, M.M.; Mehta, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The dosimetry of internally administered radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine procedures using MIRD formalisms and dosimetry in the case of intakes of radionuclides and ICRP methodology for the purpose of radiological protection are well established working practices. It should, however, be remembered that dose or dose coefficients calculated refer to a reference individual, defined in terms of a mathematical phantom established on the basis of certain biokinetic reference parameters. The reference individual represents a typical caucasian adult of West Europe or North American origin. Recently, some attempts have been made to define a Reference Asian and a Reference Indian individual and to assess the effects of anatomical differences and changes in the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals and other radionuclides in these different reference individuals on the estimation of dose and dose coefficients in relation to the intake of internal radionuclides. The assessment of doses to the embryo/fetus due to intake of radionuclides by pregnant women, local dose estimates, microdosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection aspects relating to Auger electron emitters represent other areas of active research in the area of dosimetry of internal emitters. The present review summarises these different aspects of work. (orig.) [de

  17. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al 2 O 3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values

  18. Emittance growth of bunched beams in bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1995-01-01

    Talman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1429 (1986)] has proposed a novel relativistic effect that occurs when a charged particle beam is bent in the magnetic field from an external dipole. The consequence of this effect is that the space-charge forces from the particles do not exhibit the usual inverse-square energy dependence and some part of them are, in fact, independent of energy. This led to speculation that this effect could introduce significant emittance growth for a bending electron beam. Subsequently, it was shown that this effect's influence on the beam's transverse motion is canceled for a dc beam by a potential depression within the beam (to first order in the beam radius divided by the bend radius). In this paper, we extend the analysis to include short bunch lengths (as compared to the beam pipe dimensions) and find that there is no longer the cancellation for forces both transverse to and in the direction of motion. We provide an estimate for the emittance growth as a function of bend angle, beam radius, and current, and for magnetic compression of an electron bunch

  19. Narrowband infrared emitters for combat ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Puscasu, Irina; Daly, James; Fallon, Keith; Loges, Peter; Greenwald, Anton; Johnson, Edward

    2007-04-01

    There is a strong desire to create narrowband infrared light sources as personnel beacons for application in infrared Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) systems. This demand has augmented dramatically in recent years with the reports of friendly fire casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq. ICx Photonics' photonic crystal enhanced TM (PCE TM) infrared emitter technology affords the possibility of creating narrowband IR light sources tuned to specific IR wavebands (near 1-2 microns, mid 3-5 microns, and long 8-12 microns) making it the ideal solution for infrared IFF. This technology is based on a metal coated 2D photonic crystal of air holes in a silicon substrate. Upon thermal excitation the photonic crystal modifies the emitted yielding narrowband IR light with center wavelength commensurate with the periodicity of the lattice. We have integrated this technology with microhotplate MEMS devices to yield 15mW IR light sources in the 3-5 micron waveband with wall plug efficiencies in excess of 10%, 2 orders of magnitude more efficient that conventional IR LEDs. We have further extended this technology into the LWIR with a light source that produces 9 mW of 8-12 micron light at an efficiency of 8%. Viewing distances >500 meters were observed with fielded camera technologies, ideal for ground to ground troop identification. When grouped into an emitter panel, the viewing distances were extended to 5 miles, ideal for ground to air identification.

  20. Development of an air bleeding technique and specific duration to improve the CO tolerance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chen-Chung; Chen, Chiun-Hsun; Weng, De-Zheng

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated transient CO poisoning of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell under either a fixed cell voltage or fixed current density. During CO poisoning tests, the cell performance decreases over time. Experiments were performed to identify which method yields better performance in CO poisoning tests. The results revealed that a change in cell voltage did not affect the stable polarization behavior after CO poisoning of the cell. On the other hand, a higher fixed current density yielded better tolerance of 52.7 ppm CO. The air bleeding technique was then applied using different timings for air introduction during CO poisoning tests. Air bleeding significantly improved the CO tolerance of the cell and recovered the performance after poisoning, regardless of the timing of air introduction. The effects of different anode catalyst materials on cell performance were also investigated during poisoning tests. Without air bleeding, a Pt-Ru alloy catalyst exhibited better CO tolerance than a pure Pt catalyst. However, the air bleeding technique can effectively increase the CO tolerance of cells regardless of the type of catalyst used.

  1. Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-current, hollow cathode utilizing a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) thermionic electron emitter has been developed for use with high-power Hall thrusters and ion thrusters. LaB6 cathodes are being investigated due to their long life, high current capabilities, and less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements compared to conventional barium oxide (BaO) dispenser cathodes. The new cathode features a much smaller diameter than previously developed versions that permit it to be mounted on axis of a Hall thruster ( internally mounted ), as opposed to the conventional side-mount position external to the outer magnetic circuit ("externally mounted"). The cathode has also been reconfigured to be capable of surviving vibrational loads during launch and is designed to solve the significant heater and materials compatibility problems associated with the use of this emitter material. This has been accomplished in a compact design with the capability of high-emission current (10 to 60 A). The compact, high-current design has a keeper diameter that allows the cathode to be mounted on the centerline of a 6- kW Hall thruster, inside the iron core of the inner electromagnetic coil. Although designed for electric propulsion thrusters in spacecraft station- keeping, orbit transfer, and interplanetary applications, the LaB6 cathodes are applicable to the plasma processing industry in applications such as optical coatings and semiconductor processing where reactive gases are used. Where current electrical propulsion thrusters with BaO emitters have limited life and need extremely clean propellant feed systems at a significant cost, these LaB6 cathodes can run on the crudest-grade xenon propellant available without impact. Moreover, in a laboratory environment, LaB6 cathodes reduce testing costs because they do not require extended conditioning periods under hard vacuum. Alternative rare earth emitters, such as cerium hexaboride (CeB6) can be used in this

  2. Plasmon-Assisted Selective and Super-Resolving Excitation of Individual Quantum Emitters on a Metal Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Pan, Deng; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2018-03-14

    Hybrid systems composed of multiple quantum emitters coupled with plasmonic waveguides are promising building blocks for future integrated quantum nanophotonic circuits. The techniques that can super-resolve and selectively excite contiguous quantum emitters in a diffraction-limited area are of great importance for studying the plasmon-mediated interaction between quantum emitters and manipulating the single plasmon generation and propagation in plasmonic circuits. Here we show that multiple quantum dots coupled with a silver nanowire can be controllably excited by tuning the interference field of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Because of the period of the interference pattern is much smaller than the diffraction limit, we demonstrate the selective excitation of two quantum dots separated by a distance as short as 100 nm. We also numerically demonstrate a new kind of super-resolution imaging method that combines the tunable surface plasmon interference pattern on the NW with the structured illumination microscopy technique. Our work provides a novel high-resolution optical excitation and imaging method for the coupled systems of multiple quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides, which adds a new tool for studying and manipulating single quantum emitters and single plasmons for quantum plasmonic circuitry applications.

  3. Microdosimetry of monoclonal antibodies labeled with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The recent discovery of new techniques for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MoAB) has opened up a number of potential new applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Monoclonal antibodies labeled with alpha-emitting radionuclides promise to be particularly effective therapeutic agents due to the efficient cell killing ability of highly ionizing, short-range alpha particle tracks localized at specific antigen sites within the tumor mass. For a radioimmunotherapy treatment plan to be effective, one must be able to estimate the absorbed radiation dose to both tumor cells and normal tissues in the body. However, conventional methods used in nuclear medicine for estimating absorbed doses and specific absorbed fractions for radiopharmaceuticals do not apply to alpha emitters owing to their short range and the large variations in the local distribution of energy at the cellular level that result. Microdosimetric techniques developed for assessment of the radiological effects of internally deposited transuranic radionuclides take into account the statistical aspects of alpha particle track structure, energy distribution patterns, and radionuclide distribution within tissues, and provide a means for determining the number and frequency of cells irradiated, the probability densities in specific energy, and the average dose delivered to cells of interest. These techniques can be applied to the study of radiation absorbed dose from alpha-labeled monoclonal antibodies. 16 references, 6 figures

  4. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-03

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel approach to measure elemental concentrations in cation exchange resins using XRF-scanning technique, and its potential in water pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Lin, Sheng-Chi; Löwemark, Ludvig; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Chang, Queenie; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Croudace, Ian W.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning is a fast, and convenient technique to assess elemental variations for a wide variety of research topics. However, the XRF scanning counts are often considered a semi-quantitative measurement due to possible absorption or scattering caused by down core variability in physical properties. To overcome this problem and extend the applications of XRF-scanning to water pollution studies, we propose to use cation exchange resin (IR-120) as an "elemental carrier", and to analyze the resins using the Itrax-XRF core scanner. The use of resin minimizes the matrix effects during the measurements, and can be employed in the field in great numbers due to its low price. Therefore, the fast, and non-destructive XRF-scanning technique can provide a quick and economical method to analyze environmental pollution via absorption in the resin. Five standard resin samples were scanned by the Itrax-XRF core scanner at different exposure times (1 s, 5 s, 15 s, 30 s, 100 s) to allow the comparisons of scanning counts with the absolute concentrations. The regression lines and correlation coefficients of elements that are generally used in pollution studies (Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were examined for the different exposure times. The result shows that within the test range (from few ppm to thousands ppm), the correlation coefficients are all higher than 0.97, even at the shortest exposure time (1 s). Therefore, we propose to use this method in the field to monitor for example sewage disposal events. The low price of resin, and fast, multi elements and precise XRF-scanning technique provide a viable, cost- and time-effective approach that allows large sample numbers to be processed. In this way, the properties and sources of wastewater pollution can be traced for the purpose of environmental monitoring and environmental forensics.

  6. Comparison of Different Methods for Transverse Emittance Measurement and Recent Results from LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bovet, Claude; Jung, R

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of its position and angular transverse distributions is of utmost interest to assess the good behaviour of a beam within an accelerator. After a short reminder of beam "emittance" definitions, a review is made of various measurement techniques used so far both in single pass machines and colliders. Results of measurements made at CERN in the future LHC injection complex and in LEP are presented and discussed.

  7. Validation the quantification of beta emitters activity in urine by scintillation spectrometry in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, I.; Hernandez, C.; Benito, P.; Lopez, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the methodology used in the validation of the technique for quantifying activity of some beta emitters in urine ( 3 H, 1 4C, 3 5S, 3 2P and 9 0Sr) by scintillation spectrometry Liquid Phase (Liquid Scintillation Counting, LSC) is described in bio elimination Laboratory Service CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry accredited since last year for carrying out assays measure radiation dose based on ISO forth above. (Author)

  8. Coupling of Quantum Emitters in Nanodiamonds to Plasmonic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh

    This PhD thesis describes work towards the enhancement and efficient channeling of photons emitted from a single photon emitter. The emitter used is a defect center, the Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) center, in diamond. The NV-center has many unique properties, such as long coherence time of its electron...

  9. Emittance growth due to dipole ripple and sextupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, H.J.; Ellison, J.A.; Syphers, M.J.; Newberger, B.S.

    1993-05-01

    Ripple in the power supplies for storage ring magnets can have adverse effects on the circulating beams: orbit distortion and emittance growth from dipole ripple, tune modulation and dynamic aperture reduction from quadrupole ripple, etc. In this paper, we study the effects of ripple in the horizontal bending field of the SSC in the presence of nonlinearity, in particular, the growth in beam emittance

  10. Emittance growth due to negative-mass instability above transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, King-Yuen.

    1994-08-01

    Due to space-charge effect, there is a growth of bunch emittance across transition as a result of negative-mass instability. The models of growth at cutoff frequency and growth from high-frequency Schottky noise are reviewed. The difficulties of performing reliable simulations are discussed. An intuitive self-bunching model for estimating emittance growth is presented

  11. Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed

  12. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  13. Measurement of the transverse emittance for the NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriques, G.; Mandal, A.; Chopra, S.; Joshi, R.; Datta, S.K.; Roy, A.

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the emittance (transverse and longitudinal) of the NSC pelletron is essential for matching the acceptance of the LINAC which is to be installed to augment the pelletron beam energies. The transverse emittance of NSC pelletron has been measured by employing a focussing element and a down-stream beam profile monitor

  14. Jamming of Quantum Emitters by Active Coated Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    to effectively cloak the emitters to a far-field observer is reported and explained through thorough near- and far-field investigations. This property offers an interesting route toward the jamming of quantum emitters/nanoantennas that might be of potential use, for instance, in biological fluorescence assays...

  15. Low emittance lattices for electron storage rings revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trbojevic, D.; Courant, E.

    1994-01-01

    Conditions for the lowest possible emittance of the lattice for electron storage rings are obtained by a simplified analytical approach. Examples of electron storage lattices with minimum emittances are presented. A simple graphical presentation in the normalized dispersion space (Floquet's transformation) is used to illustrate the conditions and results

  16. Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Hitoshi, E-mail: nakahara@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I-V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6x10{sup 9} A/m{sup 2} sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

  17. Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi

    2009-11-01

    Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I- V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6×109 A/m 2 sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

  18. Emittance compensation of CW DC-gun photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Wu Dai; Xu Zhou; Li Ming; Yang Xingfan

    2011-01-01

    Emittance growth induced by space charge effect is very important, especially for CW DC-gun photoinjector. In this work, the linear space charge force and its effect on electron beam transverse emittance are studied, and the principle and properties of emittance compensation by solenoid are analyzed. The CAEP DC-gun photoinjector with a solenoid is also simulated by code Parmela. Simulated results indicate that the normalized transverse emittance of an 80 pC bunch at the 350 keV DC-gun ex-it is 5.14 mm · mrad. And after compensated by a solenoid, it becomes 1.27 mm · mrad. The emittance of beam is well compensated. (authors)

  19. Internal Auger emitters: effects on spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The in vivo biological effects of Auger emitters are investigated using [A] spermatogenesis in mouse testis, and [B] oogenesis in mouse ovary as experimental models. Spermhead survival and induction of abnormal sperm, following intratesticular administration of radiopharmaceuticals, were the end points in Model A. Of interest in Model B is primary oocyte survival after intraperitoneal injection of the radiochemicals. The effectiveness of the Auger emitter is determined relative to its beta emitting companion or external X-rays in the absence of such an analogue. Results reveal pronounced effects of Auger emitters on all end points, not dependent on mode of administration. The efficacy of the Auger emitter is related intimately to its subcellular distribution, which, is governed by the chemical form of the carrier molecule. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate and biophysically meaningful dosimetric approaches are needed to understand in vivo effects of Auger emitters. (author)

  20. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Don Mayo; Walter, Kevin Carl

    2001-01-01

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  1. Beta-delayed proton emitter $^{113}Xe$

    CERN Document Server

    Hagberg, E; Jonson, B; Jørgensen, B; Kugler, E; Mowinckel, T

    1973-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at the CERN synchrocyclotron has been used for extending the series of beta -delayed proton emitters in xenon to masses lighter than those previously observed (/sup 115,117/Xe). Owing to the rapid decrease of the yields, experiments with solid-state counters were inconclusive, and instead a new and much more sensitive method based on nuclear emulsions was developed. The mass range 111-114 showed one new activity, /sup 113/Xe, with a half-life of 2.8+or-0.2 sec. From measurements of the track lengths for a total of 1130 protons from /sup 113/Xe it was possible to determine the energy spectrum. The results extend the systematics of beta -strength functions in the light xenon isotopes. (19 refs).

  2. Passivated emitters in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In high-efficiency silicon solar cells with low metal contact coverage fractions and high bulk lifetimes, cell performance is often dominated by recombination in the oxide-passivated diffusions on the cell surface. Measurements of the emitter saturation current density, J o , of oxide-passivated, boron and phosphorus diffusions are presented, and from these measurements, the dependence of surface recombination velocity on dopant concentration was extracted. The lowest observed values of J o which are stable under UV light are given for both boron- and phosphorus-doped, oxide-passivated diffusions, for both textured and untextured surfaces. Contour plots which incorporate the above data have been applied to two types of backside-contact solar cells with large area (37.5 cm 2 ) and one-sun efficiencies up to 22.7%

  3. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  4. Theory and measurements of emittance preservation in plasma wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederico, Joel

    2016-12-01

    In this dissertation, we examine the preservation and measurement of emittance in the plasma wakefield acceleration blowout regime. Plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) is a revolutionary approach to accelerating charged particles that has been demonstrated to have the potential for gradients orders of magnitude greater than traditional approaches. The application of PWFA to the design of a linear collider will make new high energy physics research possible, but the design parameters must first be shown to be competitive with traditional methods. Emittance preservation is necessary in the design of a linear collider in order to maximize luminosity. We examine the conditions necessary for circular symmetry in the PWFA blowout regime, and demonstrate that current proposals meet these bounds. We also present an application of beam lamentation which describes the process of beam parameter and emittance matching. We show that the emittance growth saturates as a consequence of energy spread in the beam. The initial beam parameters determine the amount of emittance growth, while the contribution of energy spread is negligible. We also present a model for ion motion in the presence of a beam that is much more dense than the plasma. By combining the model of ion motion and emittance growth, we find the emittance growth due to ion motion is minimal in the case of marginal ion motion. In addition, we present a simulation that validates the ion motion model, which is under further development to examine emittance growth of both marginal and pronounced ion motion. Finally, we present a proof-of-concept of an emittance measurement which may enable the analysis of emittance preservation in future PWFA experiments.

  5. Comparison between arc drops in ignited thermionic converters with and without ion reflections at the emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, L.

    1985-01-01

    The output performance of two thermionic energy converters is compared. One converter has a normal emitter, working with zero field at the emitter which is close to the optimum working point, and the other has a low work function emitter and ion reflection at the emitter. A simple model of the plasma and the sheaths shows that a converter working with a low work function emitter and ion reflections gives a worse performance than a similar converter with a normal emitter

  6. Cooperative spontaneous emission of nano-emitters with inter-emitter coupling in a leaky microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog Woo; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2015-01-01

    We study the spontaneous emission from a few two-level nano-emitters placed in a leaky microcavity with Lorentzian spectral density near a critically damped regime. Collective features of the spontaneous emission are investigated by numerical analysis of the excitation dynamics when initially one nano-emitter is totally excited but we do not know which one. The results show that there are three decay rates in the excitation dynamics, two for simple exponential decays and one for damped oscillatory decay. The excitation dynamics is found to critically depend on the regime of the system. It is shown that the spontaneous emission is enhanced or suppressed depending on whether the system is in the underdamped or overdamped regime, respectively. On the other hand, the cooperative spontaneous emission is suppressed in the underdamped while it is enhanced in the overdamped regime. Furthermore, the effect of the direct inter-emitter coupling on the breaking of the cooperativeness of the spontaneous emission is shown as well. (paper)

  7. Étude de la technique d'échange ionique avec compétition. Cas du dépôt de platine sur support solide acide par échange cationique Research on the Ion Exchange Technique with Competition. Case of Platinum Deposit on a Solid Acid Support by Cation Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude détaillée de la technique de dépôt de platine sur support acide par échange cationique avec compétition. Cette technique permet d'obtenir à la fois une dispersion quasi atomique et une répartition macroscopique homogène du métal sur la surface du solide. En l'absence de limitations diffusionnelles extra-granulaires, les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec les prévisions théoriques . This article is a detailed examination of the technique of depositing platinum on an acid support by cation exchange with compétition. This technique produces both a quasi-atomic dispersion and a homogeneous macroscopic distribution of the métal onthe surface of the solid. In the absence of extragranular diffusion limitations, experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  8. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indarti, E; Wanrosli, W D; Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm -1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability (paper)

  9. Theoretical investigation of confocal microscopy using an elliptically polarized cylindrical vector laser beam: Visualization of quantum emitters near interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, Stepan

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically study laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy using elliptically polarized cylindrical vector excitation light as a tool for visualization of arbitrarily oriented single quantum dipole emitters located (1) near planar surfaces enhancing fluorescence, (2) in a thin supported polymer film, (3) in a freestanding polymer film, and (4) in a dielectric planar microcavity. It is shown analytically that by using a tightly focused azimuthally polarized beam, it is possible to exclude completely the orientational dependence of the image intensity maximum of a quantum emitter that absorbs light as a pair of incoherent independent linear dipoles. For linear dipole quantum emitters, the orientational independence degree higher than 0.9 can normally be achieved (this quantity equal to 1 corresponds to completely excluded orientational dependence) if the collection efficiency of the microscope objective and the emitter's total quantum yield are not strongly orientationally dependent. Thus, the visualization of arbitrarily oriented single quantum emitters by means of the studied technique can be performed quite efficiently.

  10. Effect of phonon-bath dimensionality on the spectral tuning of single-photon emitters in the Purcell regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagneux, Yannick; Jeantet, Adrien; Claude, Théo; Voisin, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    We develop a theoretical frame to investigate the spectral dependence of the brightness of a single-photon source made of a solid-state nanoemitter embedded in a high-quality factor microcavity. This study encompasses the cases of localized excitons embedded in a one-, two-, or three-dimensional matrix. The population evolution is calculated based on a spin-boson model, using the noninteracting blip approximation. We find that the spectral dependence of the single-photon source brightness (hereafter called spectral efficiency) can be expressed analytically through the free-space emission and absorption spectra of the emitter, the vacuum Rabi splitting, and the loss rates of the system. In other words, the free-space spectrum of the emitter encodes all the relevant information on the interaction between the exciton and the phonon bath to obtain the dynamics of the cavity-coupled system. We compute numerically the spectral efficiency for several types of localized emitters differing by the phonon bath dimensionality. In particular, in low-dimensional systems where this interaction is enhanced, a pronounced asymmetric energy exchange between the emitter and the cavity on the phonon sidebands yields a considerable extension of the tuning range of the source through phonon-assisted cavity feeding, possibly surpassing that of a purely resonant system.

  11. Emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1985 the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been studying current amplification and emittance variations in MBE-4, a four-cesium-beam induction linac. This experiment models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a fusion driver. Four space-charge dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at currents of 5-10 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from approximately 200 keV up to one MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Final currents of 20-40 mA per beam are typical. Recent experiments with extremely low emittance beams (var-epsilon n =0.03 mm-mRad) have investigated variations of transverse and longitudinal normalized emittance for drifting and accelerating beams. These very strongly tune-depressed beams (σ 0 =72 degree, σ∼6 degree) are difficult to match to the accelerator so as to avoid emittance growth during acceleration. During transport strong emittance fluctuations are observed in good qualitative agreement with simulations. Warmer beams with less tune depression exhibit little to no emittance growth, show smaller emittance fluctuations, and are much easier to match. A summary of findings from the MBE-4 studies is presented

  12. Emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1985 the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been studying current amplification and emittance variations in MBE-4, a four-cesium-beam induction linac. This experiment models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a fusion driver. Four space-charge dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at currents of 5--10 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from approximately 200 keV up to one MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Final currents of 20--40 mA per beam are typical. Recent experiments with extremely low emittance beams (ε n = 0.03 mm-mRad) have investigated variations of transverse and longitudinal normalized emittance for drifting and accelerating beams. These very strongly tune-depressed beams (σ o = 72 degrees, σ∼6 degree) are difficult to match the accelerator so as to avoid emittance growth during acceleration. During transport strong emittance fluctuations are observed in good qualitative agreement with simulations. Warmer beams with less tune depression exhibit little to no emittance growth, show smaller emittance fluctuations, and are much easier to match. A summary of findings from the MBE-4 studies is presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  13. Emittance and beam size distortion due to linear coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1993-01-01

    At injection, the presence of linear coupling may result in an increased beam emittance and in increased beam dimensions. Results for the emittance in the presence of linear coupling will be found. These results for the emittance distortion show that the harmonics of the skew quadrupole field close to ν x + ν y are the important harmonics. Results will be found for the important driving terms for the emittance distortion. It will be shown that if these driving terms are corrected, then the total emittance is unchanged, var-epsilon x + var-epsilon y = var-epsilon 1 + var-epsilon 2 . Also, the increase in the beam dimensions will be limited to a factor which is less than 1.414. If the correction is good enough, see below for details, one can achieve var-epsilon 1 = var-epsilon x , var-epsilon 2 = var-epsilon where var-epsilon 1 , var-epsilon 2 are the emittances in the presence of coupling, and the beam dimensions are unchanged. Global correction of the emittance and beam size distortion appears possible

  14. Transverse-emittance measurements on an S-band photocathode RF electron gun

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerge, J F; Clendenin, J E; Decker, Franz Josef; Dowell, D H; Gierman, S M; Limborg, C G; Murphy, B F

    2002-01-01

    Proposed fourth-generation light sources using SASE FELs to generate short pulse, coherent, X-rays require demonstration of high brightness electron sources. The gun test facility at SLAC was built to test high brightness sources for the proposed linac coherent light source at SLAC. The transverse-emittance measurements are made at nearly 30 MeV by measuring the spot size on a YAG screen using the quadrupole scan technique. The emittance was measured to vary from 1 to 3.5 mm mrad as the charge is increased from 50 to 350 pC using a laser pulse width of 2 ps FWHM. The measurements are in good agreement with simulation results using the LANL version of PARMELA.

  15. Studies on the photodegradation of red, green and blue phosphorescent OLED emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Schmidbauer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation behavior of four well-established iridium emitters was investigated. Irradiation of the samples in different solvents and under atmospheric as well as inert conditions helped to identify several pathways that can contribute to the deterioration of these compounds. Degradation via singlet oxygen or the excited states of the emitters as well as the detrimental influence of halogenated solvents are discussed for the different investigated iridium complexes. Some of the resulting degradation products could be identified by using LC–MS or other analytical techniques. The results show how even small structural changes can have a huge influence on rate and mechanism of the photodegradation. The observations from this study may help to better understand degradation processes occurring during the handling of the materials, but also during device processing and operation.

  16. Terahertz Focusing and Polarization Control in Large-Area Bias-Free Semiconductor Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, Joanna L.; Gow, Paul C.; Berry, Sam A.; Mills, Ben; Apostolopoulos, Vasilis

    2018-03-01

    We show that, when large-area multiplex terahertz semiconductor emitters, that work on diffusion currents and Schottky potentials, are illuminated by ultrashort optical pulses they can radiate a directional electromagnetic terahertz pulse which is controlled by the angular spectrum of the incident optical beam. Using the lens that focuses the incident near-infrared pulse, we have demonstrated THz emission focusing in free space, at the same point where the optical radiation would focus. We investigated the beam waist and Gouy phase shift of the THz emission as a function of frequency. We also show that the polarization profile of the emitted THz can be tailored by the metallic patterning on the semiconductor, demonstrating radial polarization when a circular emitter design is used. Our techniques can be used for fast THz beam steering and mode control for efficiently coupling to waveguides without the need for THz lenses or parabolic mirrors.

  17. Design of a minimum emittance nBA lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.

    1998-04-01

    An attempt to design a minimum emittance n-bend achromat (nBA) lattice has been made. One distinct feature is that dipoles with two different lengths were used. As a multiple bend achromat, five bend achromat lattices with six superperiod were designed. The obtained emittace is three times larger than the theoretical minimum. Tunes were chosen to avoid third order resonances. In order to correct first and second order chromaticities, eight family sextupoles were placed. The obtained emittance of five bend achromat lattices is almost equal to the minimum emittance of five bend achromat lattice consisting of dipoles with equal length.

  18. Multi-dimensional beam emittance and β-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1993-05-01

    The concept of r.m.s. emittance is extended to the case of several degrees of freedom that are coupled. That multi-dimensional emittance is lower than the product of the emittances attached to each degree of freedom, but is conserved in a linear motion. An envelope-hyperellipsoid is introduced to define the β-functions of the beam envelope. On the contrary of an one-degree of freedom motion, it is emphasized that these envelope functions differ from the amplitude functions of the normal modes of motion as a result of the difference between the Liouville and Lagrange invariants. (author) 4 refs

  19. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  20. Development and characterization of a novel plug and play liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) source that automates connections between the capillary trap, column, and emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereman, Michael S; Hsieh, Edward J; Corso, Thomas N; Van Pelt, Colleen K; Maccoss, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    We report the development and characterization of a novel, vendor-neutral ultra-high pressure-compatible (~10,000 p.s.i.) LC-MS source. This device is the first to make automated connections with user-packed capillary traps, columns, and capillary emitters. The source uses plastic rectangular inserts (referred to here as cartridges) where individual components (i.e. trap, column, or emitter) can be exchanged independent of one another in a plug and play manner. Automated robotic connections are made between the three cartridges using linear translation powered by stepper motors to axially compress each cartridge by applying a well controlled constant compression force to each commercial LC fitting. The user has the versatility to tailor the separation (e.g. the length of the column, type of stationary phase, and mode of separation) to the experimental design of interest in a cost-effective manner. The source is described in detail, and several experiments are performed to evaluate the robustness of both the system and the exchange of the individual trap and emitter cartridges. The standard deviation in the retention time of four targeted peptides from a standard digest interlaced with a soluble Caenorhabditis elegans lysate ranged between 3.1 and 5.3 s over 3 days of analyses. Exchange of the emitter cartridge was found to have an insignificant effect on the abundance of various peptides. In addition, the trap cartridge can be replaced with minimal effects on retention time (<20 s).

  1. Hafnium carbide nanocrystal chains for field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Song; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang

    2014-01-01

    A hafnium carbide (HfC) nanostructure, i.e., HfC nanocrystal chain, was synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were employed to characterize the product. The synthesized one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with many faceted octahedral nanocrystals possess diameters of tens of nanometers to 500 nm and lengths of a few microns. The chain-like structures possess a single crystalline structure and preferential growth direction along the [1 0 0] crystal orientation. The growth of the chains occurred through the vapor–liquid–solid process along with a negative-feedback mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of the HfC nanocrystal chains as the cold cathode emitters were examined. The HfC nanocrystal chains display good FE properties with a low turn-on field of about 3.9 V μm −1 and a high field enhancement factor of 2157, implying potential applications in vacuum microelectronics.

  2. Sources of Emittance in RF Photocathode Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-11

    Advances in electron beam technology have been central to creating the current generation of x-ray free electron lasers and ultra-fast electron microscopes. These once exotic devices have become essential tools for basic research and applied science. One important beam technology for both is the electron source which, for many of these instruments, is the photocathode RF gun. The invention of the photocathode gun and the concepts of emittance compensation and beam matching in the presence of space charge and RF forces have made these high-quality beams possible. Achieving even brighter beams requires a taking a finer resolution view of the electron dynamics near the cathode during photoemission and the initial acceleration of the beam. In addition, the high brightness beam is more sensitive to degradation by the optical aberrations of the gun’s RF and magnetic lenses. This paper discusses these topics including the beam properties due to fundamental photoemission physics, space charge effects close to the cathode, and optical distortions introduced by the RF and solenoid fields. Analytic relations for these phenomena are derived and compared with numerical simulations.

  3. Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1972-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a highly accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically conducting materials or materials with electrically conducting substrates, in the temperature range from 600 to 1400 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 μm. 1.2 The test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is suitable for research laboratories where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, but is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. However, because of its high accuracy this test method can be used as a referee method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in cases of dispute. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this stan...

  4. Filters for stochastic cooling of longitudinal beam emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Konecny, R.; Simpson, J.; Wright, A.J.

    1983-03-01

    The shorted stub filter (SSF) has been used extensively to provide the electronics gain shaping for stochastic cooling of longitudinal beam emittance. The repetitive notch of this filter results from the cancellation of the incident signal by the reflected signal at frequencies where the cable electrical length equals an integer number of half wavelengths. Variations in notch depth of the SSF have been approximately compensated by a rather complicated system. Dispersion of the notch frequency resulting from variation of the phase velocity can also be approximately corrected using tuned imperfections in the shorted cable. Dispersion due to imperfections in the coaxial cable can be quite significant and can only be compensated for by costly construction techniques. This paper describes another type of notch filter. Although this filter has been mentioned previously, this analysis demonstrates the advantages of this filter in providing small notch dispersion and other properties necessary for stochastic cooling systems. Because this filter uses only forward signals, it is quite insensitive to imperfections in cables and components, and can therefore be constructed from commercially available components

  5. Recent advances in the chemistry of positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing active interest in PET as a method for studying biochemistry in normal and pathological states in humans we can expect to see the development of new techniques for precursor preparation and synthesis. We have seen a doubling of the publication rate in the past three to four years over the previous three to four year period. As the need for these compounds, especially in the tumor and receptor areas, in a purely clinical setting, increases the trend towards true automation of production of the most needeed compounds will accelerate. The cyclotron manufacturers all offer ''black boxes'' for synthesis but the optimum approach to user friendly automation yet needs to be defined. I would note that this paper was not intended as a comprehensive review but rather my goal was to highlight just some of the exciting developments of the past several years. We are entering what may well be the most extensive and active period of research in the synthesis of positron emitter labeled compounds. If 1984 to 1985 is any gauge, many new methods and compounds will appear in the next several years. 37 refs

  6. A numerical study of emittance growths in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, K; Sobajima, M; Kitagaki, J; Ohnishi, M; Toku, H; Yoshikawa, K

    1999-01-01

    A beam with greatly reduced emittance is required for further improvements of FELs, in particular, for FELs of shorter wavelengths, and of narrower bandwidths. From this viewpoint, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6-cell S-band photocathode RF gun performance characteristics were calculated, first in order to evaluate what may contribute to the emittance growths in photocathode RF guns. We developed an RF gun to produce an electron beam with an extremely low emittance, by using a 2-D simulation code. It is found that, by optimizing the laser injection phase, the drive laser spot radius and the cavity shape around the laser spot, the beam emittance by the 1.6-cell RF gun can be greatly reduced to 2.1 pi mm mrad, from the previous 4.4 pi mm mrad of the original shape.

  7. An Online Multisensor Data Fusion Framework for Radar Emitter Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters in airborne electronic support system. In this paper, a novel online multisensor data fusion framework is proposed for radar emitter classification under the background of network centric warfare. The framework is composed of local processing and multisensor fusion processing, from which the rough and precise classification results are obtained, respectively. What is more, the proposed algorithm does not need prior knowledge and training process; it can dynamically update the number of the clusters and the cluster centers when new pulses arrive. At last, the experimental results show that the proposed framework is an efficacious way to solve radar emitter classification problem in networked warfare.

  8. Emittance measuring unit for 100% duty factor linac injector beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubaly, M R; Pachner, J Jr; Ormrod, J H; Ungrin, J; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A description is given of a system to measure the emittance of a 750 keV 100 mA dc proton beam suitable for injection into a 100% duty factor linear accelerator. A relatively slowly pulsed 45/sup 0/ magnet switches the beam to a beam dump inside the emittance measuring unit for approx. 10 s. A fast pulsed 5/sup 0/ magnet then deflects the beam to a multiple aperture ''pepper-pot'' plate for 300 ..mu..s. Beamlets passing through the plate travel 520 mm and produce a pattern on a scintillator screen. A photograph of the pattern is analyzed to determine beam emittance. Preliminary results on low current beams show a gross increase in the emittance in the horizontal plane.

  9. Localization of Narrowband Single Photon Emitters in Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Kerem; Sandstrom, Russell; Elbadawi, Christopher; Fischer, Martin; Schreck, Matthias; Shimoni, Olga; Lobo, Charlene; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-03-23

    Diamond nanocrystals that host room temperature narrowband single photon emitters are highly sought after for applications in nanophotonics and bioimaging. However, current understanding of the origin of these emitters is extremely limited. In this work, we demonstrate that the narrowband emitters are point defects localized at extended morphological defects in individual nanodiamonds. In particular, we show that nanocrystals with defects such as twin boundaries and secondary nucleation sites exhibit narrowband emission that is absent from pristine individual nanocrystals grown under the same conditions. Critically, we prove that the narrowband emission lines vanish when extended defects are removed deterministically using highly localized electron beam induced etching. Our results enhance the current understanding of single photon emitters in diamond and are directly relevant to fabrication of novel quantum optics devices and sensors.

  10. Innovative energy efficient low-voltage electron beam emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felis, Kenneth P.; Avnery, Tovi; Berejka, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced electron beams (AEB) has developed a modular, low voltage (80-125 keV), high beam current (up to 40 ma), electron emitter with typically 25 cm of beam width, that is housed in an evacuated, returnable chamber that is easy to plug in and connect. The latest in nanofabrication enables AEB to use an ultra-thin beam window. The power supply for AEB's emitter is based on solid-state electronics. This combination of features results in a remarkable electrical efficiency. AEB's electron emitter relies on a touch screen, computer control system. With 80 μm of unit density beam penetration, AEB's electron emitter has gained market acceptance in the curing of opaque, pigmented inks and coatings used on flexible substrates, metals and fiber composites and in the curing of adhesives in foil based laminates

  11. Innovative energy efficient low-voltage electron beam emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Kenneth P.; Avnery, Tovi; Berejka, Anthony J.

    2002-03-01

    Advanced electron beams (AEB) has developed a modular, low voltage (80-125 keV), high beam current (up to 40 ma), electron emitter with typically 25 cm of beam width, that is housed in an evacuated, returnable chamber that is easy to plug in and connect. The latest in nanofabrication enables AEB to use an ultra-thin beam window. The power supply for AEB's emitter is based on solid-state electronics. This combination of features results in a remarkable electrical efficiency. AEB's electron emitter relies on a touch screen, computer control system. With 80 μm of unit density beam penetration, AEB's electron emitter has gained market acceptance in the curing of opaque, pigmented inks and coatings used on flexible substrates, metals and fiber composites and in the curing of adhesives in foil based laminates.

  12. Emittance measurements in low energy ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Carli, C.; Resta-López, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2018-07-01

    The development of the next generation of ultra-low energy antiproton and ion facilities requires precise information about the beam emittance to guarantee optimum performance. In the Extra-Low ENergy Antiproton storage ring (ELENA) the transverse emittances will be measured by scraping. However, this diagnostic measurement faces several challenges: non-zero dispersion, non-Gaussian beam distributions due to effects of the electron cooler and various systematic errors such as closed orbit offsets and inaccurate rms momentum spread estimation. In addition, diffusion processes, such as intra-beam scattering might lead to emittance overestimates. Here, we present algorithms to efficiently address the emittance reconstruction in presence of the above effects, and present simulation results for the case of ELENA.

  13. Very bright, near-infrared single photon emitters in diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. M. Lau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate activation of bright diamond single photon emitters in the near infrared range by thermal annealing alone, i.e., without ion implantation. The activation is crucially dependent on the annealing ambient. The activation of the single photon emitters is only observed when the sample is annealed in forming gas (4% H2 in Ar above temperatures of 1000 °C. By contrast, no emitters are activated by annealing in vacuum, oxygen, argon or deuterium. The emitters activated by annealing in forming gas exhibit very bright emission in the 730-760 nm wavelength range and have linewidths of ∼1.5-2.5 nm at room temperature.

  14. Transverse Emittance Measurement and Preservation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082907

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a high energy storage ring that provides proton and heavy ion collisions to study fundamental particle physics. The luminosity production is closely linked to emittance preservation in the accelerator. The transverse emittance is the phase space density of the beam and should be conserved when the particle beam is transformed through the accelerator. Perturbing effects, however, can lead to emittance increase and hence luminosity degradation. Measuring the emittance growth is a complex task with high intensity beams and changing energies. The machine optics and the transverse beam size have to be measured as accurately as possible. Beta function measurements with k-modulation will be discussed. With this method the quadrupole focussing strength is varied and the resulting tune change is traced to determine the beta function at the quadrupole. A new k-modulation measurement tool was developed for the LHC. The fully automatic and online measurement system takes constra...

  15. Transverse emittance measurement at REGAE via a solenoid scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachmann, Max

    2012-12-15

    The linear accelerator REGAE at DESY produces short and low charged electron bunches, on the one hand to resolve the excitation transitions of atoms temporally by pump probe electron diffraction experiments and on the other hand to investigate principal mechanisms of laser plasma acceleration. For both cases a high quality electron beam is required. A quantity to rate the beam quality is the beam emittance. In the course of this thesis transverse emittance measurements by a solenoid scan could be realized and beyond that an improved theoretical description of a solenoid was successful. The foundation of emittance measurements are constituted by theoretical models which describe the envelope of a beam. Two different models were derived. The first is an often used model to determine the transverse beam emittance without considering space charge effects. More interesting and challenging was the development of an envelope model taking space charge effects into account. It is introduced and cross checked with measurements and simulations.

  16. Design for a practical, low-emittance damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.

    1988-01-01

    The luminosity requirements for future high-energy linear colliders calls for very low emittances in the two beams. These low emittances can be achieved with damping rings, but, in order to reach the design goal of a factor 10 improvement over present day machines, great care must be taken in their design. This paper emphasizes the need to address simultaneously all of the factors which limit the operational emittance in the ring. Particularly since in standard designs there is a conflict between different design parameters which makes it difficult to extrapolate such designs to very low emittances. The approach chosen here is to resolve such conflicts by separating their design solutions. Wigglers are used predominantly in zero-dispersion regions to achieve the desired damping rate, whereas in the arcs high dispersion insertions are made in regions of zero curvature to allow for easier chromaticity control

  17. Emittance increase caused by core depletion in collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R

    2009-01-01

    A new effect is presented, which changes the emittance during colliding-beam operation in circular colliders. If the initial transverse distribution is Gaussian, the collision probability is much higher for particles in the core of the beam than in the tails. When small-amplitude particles are removed, the remaining ones therefore have a larger transverse emittance. This effect, called core depletion, may cause a decrease in luminosity. An approximate analytic model is developed to study the effect and benchmarked against a multiparticle tracking simulation. Finally, the time evolution of the intensity and emittances of a Pb bunch in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is calculated, taking into account also other processes than collisions. The results show that integrated luminosity drops by 3--4% if core depletion is taken into account. It is also found that core depletion causes the transverse emittance to be larger when more experiments are active. This observation could be checked against experimenta...

  18. Simulation studies of emittance growth in RMS mismatched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchetti, A.; Wangler, T.; Reiser, M.

    1991-01-01

    As shown in a separate paper, a charged-particle beam, whose rms size is not matched when injected into a transport channel or accelerator, has excess energy compared with that of a matched beam. If nonlinear space-charge forces are present and the mismatched beam transforms to a matched equilibrium state, rms-emittance growth will occur. The theory yields formulas for the possible rms-emittance growth, but not for the time it takes to achieve this growth. In this paper we present the results of systematic simulation studies for a mismatched 2-D round beam in an ideal transport channel with continuous linear focusing. Emittance growth rates obtained from the simulations for different amounts of mismatch and initial charge will be presented and the emittance growth will be compared with the theory. 6 refs., 7 figs

  19. CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M.

    2015-09-11

    We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.

  20. Faster radiotoxicological analyses of alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemot, J.M.; Verry, M.

    1989-10-01

    Ion-exchange resins allow efficient separation of actinides likely to be found in human biological samples. However, time saving during the analysis is most interesting for the biologist especially if the separation and spectrum qualities are not affected. Such a result is possible with urine or feces using a macroporous resin [fr

  1. Progress on low emittance tuning for the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Alabau-Gonzalvo, J; Papaphilippou, Y

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of the CLIC main Damping Ring a study on the sensitivity of the lattice to different sources of misalignment is presented. The minimum equilibrium emittance is simulated and analytically estimated under dipole and quadrupole rolls, and quadrupole and sextupole vertical offsets. The result of this study establishes alignment tolerances to preserve the vertical emittance below the design value (1 pmrad). Non-linear dynamics studies have been done to determine the dynamic aperture in the presence of misalignments.

  2. Emittance growth from rotated quadrupoles in heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We derive a set of moment equations which incorporates linear quadrupolar focusing and space-charge defocusing, in the presence of rotational misalignments of the quadrupoles about the direction of beam propagation. Although the usual beam emittance measured relative to fixed transverse x and y coordinate axes is not constant, a conserved emittance-like quantity has been found. Implications for alignment tolerances in accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion are discussed

  3. Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Shoji, Y

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.

  4. Quantum emitters coupled to surface plasmons of an nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzsotjan, David; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a system consisting of a single, as well as two emitters strongly coupled to surface plasmon modes of a nanowire using a Green's function approach. Explicit expressions are derived for the spontaneous decay rate into the plasmon modes and for the atom-plasmon coupling as well......-qubit quantum gate. We also discuss a possible realization of interesting many-body Hamiltonians, such as the spin-boson model, using strong emitter-plasmon coupling. Udgivelsesdato: 27 August...

  5. Transverse emittance measurement at REGAE via a solenoid scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachmann, Max; Mayet, Frank; Gruener, Florian [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Floettmann, Klaus [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The linear accelerator REGAE at DESY produces short and low charged electron bunches, on the one hand to resolve the excitation transitions of atoms temporally by pump probe electron diffraction experiments and on the other hand to investigate principal mechanisms of laser plasma acceleration. For both cases a high quality electron beam is required which can be identified with a small beam emittance. The current method to measure the transverse beam emittance at REGAE and results are presented.

  6. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  7. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters ( 131 I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables

  8. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.

  9. Gamma flux responsive self-powered detector with a tubular emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A gamma-sensitive flux detector comprises tubular emitter, an insulating core within the emitter and an insulating layer about the emitter, and a tubular conductive collector electrode about the insulating layer. The emitter material may be platinum, lead, bismuth, tantalum, tungsten; platinum preferred

  10. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchenko, Oxana S; Seidman, Seth J; Guag, Joshua W; Witters, Donald M; Sponberg, Curt L

    2011-06-09

    The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz. The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guag Joshua W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  12. Measured emittance dependence on injection method in laser plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Samuel; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Lehe, Remi; Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    The success of many laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot transverse emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock induced density down-ramp injection. Notably, the measurements reveal that ionization injection results in significantly higher emittance. With the down-ramp injection configuration, emittances less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV were measured. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1415596, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  13. Experimental investigation of thermal emittance components of copper photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Qian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With progress of photoinjector technology, thermal emittance has become the primary limitation of electron beam brightness. Extensive efforts have been devoted to study thermal emittance, but experiment results differ between research groups and few can be well interpreted. Besides the ambiguity of photoemission mechanism, variations of cathode surface conditions during cathode preparation, such as work function, field enhancement factor, and surface roughness, will cause thermal emittance differences. In this paper, we report an experimental study of electric field dependence of copper cathode quantum efficiency (QE and thermal emittance in a radio frequency (rf gun, through which in situ cathode surface parameters and thermal emittance contributions from photon energy, Schottky effect, and surface roughness are extracted. It is found the QE of a copper cathode illuminated by a 266 nm UV laser increased substantially to 1.5×10^{-4} after cathode cleaning during rf conditioning, and a copper work function of 4.16 eV, which is much lower than nominal value (4.65 eV, was measured. Experimental results also show a thermal emittance growth as much as 0.92  mm mrad/mm at 50  MV/m due to the cathode surface roughness effect, which is consistent with cathode surface morphology measurements.

  14. Hybrid Integration of Solid-State Quantum Emitters on a Silicon Photonic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Je-Hyung; Aghaeimeibodi, Shahriar; Richardson, Christopher J K; Leavitt, Richard P; Englund, Dirk; Waks, Edo

    2017-12-13

    Scalable quantum photonic systems require efficient single photon sources coupled to integrated photonic devices. Solid-state quantum emitters can generate single photons with high efficiency, while silicon photonic circuits can manipulate them in an integrated device structure. Combining these two material platforms could, therefore, significantly increase the complexity of integrated quantum photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate hybrid integration of solid-state quantum emitters to a silicon photonic device. We develop a pick-and-place technique that can position epitaxially grown InAs/InP quantum dots emitting at telecom wavelengths on a silicon photonic chip deterministically with nanoscale precision. We employ an adiabatic tapering approach to transfer the emission from the quantum dots to the waveguide with high efficiency. We also incorporate an on-chip silicon-photonic beamsplitter to perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss measurement. Our approach could enable integration of precharacterized III-V quantum photonic devices into large-scale photonic structures to enable complex devices composed of many emitters and photons.

  15. Real-time radionuclide identification in γ-emitter mixtures based on spiking neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, C.; Bichler, O.; Lourenço, V.; Thiam, C.; Thévenin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Portal radiation monitors dedicated to the prevention of illegal traffic of nuclear materials at international borders need to deliver as fast as possible a radionuclide identification of a potential radiological threat. Spectrometry techniques applied to identify the radionuclides contributing to γ-emitter mixtures are usually performed using off-line spectrum analysis. As an alternative to these usual methods, a real-time processing based on an artificial neural network and Bayes’ rule is proposed for fast radionuclide identification. The validation of this real-time approach was carried out using γ-emitter spectra ( 241 Am, 133 Ba, 207 Bi, 60 Co, 137 Cs) obtained with a high-efficiency well-type NaI(Tl). The first tests showed that the proposed algorithm enables a fast identification of each γ-emitting radionuclide using the information given by the whole spectrum. Based on an iterative process, the on-line analysis only needs low-statistics spectra without energy calibration to identify the nature of a radiological threat. - Highlights: • A fast radionuclide identification algorithm applicable in spectroscopic portal monitors is presented. • The proposed algorithm combines a Bayesian sequential approach and a spiking neural network. • The algorithm was validated using the mixture of γ-emitter spectra provided by a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. • The radionuclide identification process is implemented using the whole γ-spectrum without energy calibration.

  16. Overview of laserwire beam profile and emittance measurements for high power proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S M; Bosco, A; Gabor, C; Pozimski, J; Savage, P; Hofmann, T

    2013-01-01

    Laserwires were originally developed to measure micron-sized electron beams via Compton scattering, where traditional wire scanners are at the limit of their resolution. Laserwires have since been applied to larger beamsize, high power H$^-$ ion beams, where the non-invasive method can probe beam densities that would damage traditional diagnostics. While photo-detachment of H$^-$ ions is now routine to measure beam profiles, extending the technique to transverse and longitudinal emittance measurements is a key aim of the laserwire emittance scanner under construction at the Front End Test Stand (FETS) at the RAL. A pulsed, 30 kHz, 8kW peak power laser is fibrecoupled to motorized collimating optics, which controls the position and thickness of the laserwire delivered to the H- interaction chamber. The laserwire slices out a beamlet of neutralized particles, which propagate to a downstream scintillator and camera. The emittance is reconstructed from 2D images as the laserwire position is scanned. Results from ...

  17. Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R and D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.

  18. Kinetic ion exchange studies in ultramarines by the radioactive tracer method; Etudes cinetiques d'echanges d'ions dans les outremers par la technique des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S; Goenvec, H; Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The possibility of ion exchanges in various ultramarines has been studied in the aqueous phase. The kinetics of the exchange reactions is followed by studying the behaviour of a radioactive ion, either in the solution of the exchanging salt or in the ultramarine itself. The sodium in the make-up of the ultramarine, is found to exchange with various ions in solution. The reaction speeds appear to be governed by a diffusion process inside the grains of ultramarine. The diffusion coefficients and the activation energies are determined for the exchanges studied. Several exchange studies were carried out in an organic medium. The kinetics of ion exchange is also investigated in ultramarines from which most of the constituent sulphur has been eliminated. The results obtained in these ultramarines are compared with the exchange kinetics of the same ions in ordinary ultramarine. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'echanges ioniques dans differents outremers, en phase aqueuse. L'etude cinetique des reactions d'echanges est suivie en etudiant le comportement d'ion radioactif, soit dans la solution du sel echangeant, soit dans l'outremer lui-meme. C'est le sodium de constitution de l'outremer qui s'echange avec differents ions en solution. Les vitesses de reactions semblent etre controlees par un processus de diffusion a l'interieur des grains d'outremer. Les coefficients de diffusion et les energies d'activation sont determines pour les echanges etudies. Quelques etudes sont realisees en milieu organique ou quelques echanges ont ete etudies. La cinetique d'echange d'ions est egalement etudie dans des outremers dans lesquels la majorite du soufre de constitution a ete eliminee. On compare les resultats obtenus dans ces outremers avec les cinetiques d'echanges des memes ions dans l'outremer ordinaire. (auteur)

  19. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  20. Decoupling Intensity Radiated by the Emitter in Distance Estimation from Camera to IR Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Luna Vázquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Various models using radiometric approach have been proposed to solve the problem of estimating the distance between a camera and an infrared emitter diode (IRED. They depend directly on the radiant intensity of the emitter, set by the IRED bias current. As is known, this current presents a drift with temperature, which will be transferred to the distance estimation method. This paper proposes an alternative approach to remove temperature drift in the distance estimation method by eliminating the dependence on radiant intensity. The main aim was to use the relative accumulated energy together with other defined models, such as the zeroth-frequency component of the FFT of the IRED image and the standard deviation of pixel gray level intensities in the region of interest containing the IRED image. By using the abovementioned models, an expression free of IRED radiant intensity was obtained. Furthermore, the final model permitted simultaneous estimation of the distance between the IRED and the camera and the IRED orientation angle. The alternative presented in this paper gave a 3% maximum relative error over a range of distances up to 3 m.

  1. Seminar on Detectors and measurements techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic Seminar on detectors and radionuclide measurement techniques was held in Lund, Sweden, May 3-4, 2001. The objective was to highlight recent progress and problems for techniques to study environmental radioactivity. It covered the aspect of detector sample geometry's and methods for evaluation of gamma gamma pulse height distributions. Within the field of alpha-spectrometric techniques gridded ionisation chambers, semiconductor detectors and a general description for analysis of alpha-particle-spectra were presented. Recent development in mass spectrometric techniques, AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma mass Spectrometry) for long-lived radionuclides was described. Principles for analysis of beta particle emitters, especially by liquid scintillation were presented. The seminar also covered radiochemistry such advantages and disadvantages between ion exchange, solvent extraction and extraction chromatography. The use of controlled laboratory conditions for discerning the dynamics of accumulation in organisms was demonstrated. Other techniques such as neutron activation were also shown to be useful analytical tool for certain long-lived radionuclides. The results of the intercalibration exercises within the Nordic countries showed the importance of such analytical quality control. (au)

  2. Seminar on Detectors and measurements techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (ed.) [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-07-01

    A Nordic Seminar on detectors and radionuclide measurement techniques was held in Lund, Sweden, May 3-4, 2001. The objective was to highlight recent progress and problems for techniques to study environmental radioactivity. It covered the aspect of detector sample geometry's and methods for evaluation of gamma gamma pulse height distributions. Within the field of alpha-spectrometric techniques gridded ionisation chambers, semiconductor detectors and a general description for analysis of alpha-particle-spectra were presented. Recent development in mass spectrometric techniques, AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma mass Spectrometry) for long-lived radionuclides was described. Principles for analysis of beta particle emitters, especially by liquid scintillation were presented. The seminar also covered radiochemistry such advantages and disadvantages between ion exchange, solvent extraction and extraction chromatography. The use of controlled laboratory conditions for discerning the dynamics of accumulation in organisms was demonstrated. Other techniques such as neutron activation were also shown to be useful analytical tool for certain long-lived radionuclides. The results of the intercalibration exercises within the Nordic countries showed the importance of such analytical quality control. (au)

  3. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  4. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel MOS-controlled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5 A/cm2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100 W/cm2 conduction and the 100 W/cm2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV and higher frequency (10 kHz are needed.

  5. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a cutover peatland rehabilitated with a transplanted acrotelm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagampan, J.P.; Waddington, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Peatlands are an important long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The storage function of peatland ecosystems is significantly impacted by drainage and extraction processes, which can result in the release of significant amounts of CO 2 . This paper investigated the net ecosystem CO 2 exchange of a newly developed extraction-restoration technique that preserved the acrotelm and replaced it directly on the cut surface of the peatlands. The technique used a modified block-cut method with a back-hoe to create a drainage ditch. Actrotelm and surface vegetation were removed and placed to one side, and the peat was mechanically removed. The acrotelm was then transplanted over the older and more decomposed catotelm peat to create a trench topography in which the natural peatland was higher than the extracted zone. Air temperatures, water table levels, and volumetric moisture content levels were measured throughout the experiment. Measurements of CO 2 exchange were taken for the duration of a Spring and summer growing season at 12 sampling locations. Results of the experiment showed that the technique was successful in maintaining moisture conditions similar to those observed in the natural peatlands. However, the peatlands where the technique was used were still net emitters of CO 2 . Recommendations for improving the technique included using more care when removing upper peat layers; limiting surface damage; and reducing spaces and gaps between the transplanted acrotelm. 34 refs., 8 figs

  6. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB{sub 6} thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, Mahendra A. [Savitribai Phule Pune University, Department of Physics, Centre for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Pune (India); Singh, Anil K.; Sinha, Sucharita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Phase, Deodatta M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research Indore Centre, Indore (India); Late, Dattatray J. [CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, Pune (India)

    2016-10-15

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB{sub 6}) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB{sub 6} on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ∝10{sup -8} mbar. The GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ∝1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of ∝6.0 and 7.0 V/μm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor (β) estimated using the slopes of the F-N plots indicate that the PLD GdB{sub 6} coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ∝1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB{sub 6}/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB{sub 6}/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB{sub 6} films on W and Re substrates. (orig.)

  7. Transverse emittance measurement and preservation at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Maria

    2016-06-20

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a high energy storage ring that provides proton and heavy ion collisions to study fundamental particle physics. The luminosity production is closely linked to emittance preservation in the accelerator. The transverse emittance is the phase space density of the beam and should be conserved when the particle beam is transformed through the accelerator. Perturbing effects, however, can lead to emittance increase and hence luminosity degradation. Measuring the emittance growth is a complex task with high intensity beams and changing energies. The machine optics and the transverse beam size have to be measured as accurately as possible. Beta function measurements with k-modulation are discussed. With this method the quadrupole focussing strength is varied and the resulting tune change is traced to determine the beta function at the quadrupole. A new k-modulation measurement tool was developed for the LHC. The fully automatic and online measurement system takes constraints of various systems such as tune measurement precision and powering limitations of the LHC superconducting circuits into account. With sinusoidal k-modulation record low beta function measurement uncertainties in the LHC have been reached. 2015 LHC beta function and β*, which is the beta function at the collision point, measurements with k-modulation will be presented. Wire scanners and synchrotron light monitors are presently used in the LHC to measure the transverse beam size. Accuracy and limitations of the LHC transverse profile monitors are discussed. During the 2012 LHC proton run it was found that wire scanner photomultiplier saturation added significant uncertainty on all measurements. A large discrepancy between emittances from wire scanners and luminosity was discovered but not solved. During Long Shutdown 1 the wire scanner system was upgraded with new photomultipliers. A thorough study of LHC wire scanner measurement precision in 2015 is presented

  8. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  9. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  10. Emittance growth and tune spectra at PETRA III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanzenberg, R.

    2011-08-01

    At DESY the PETRA ring has been converted into a synchrotron radiation facility, called PETRA III. 20 damping wigglers have been installed to achieve an emittance of 1 nm. The commissioning with beam started in April 2009 and user runs have been started in 2010. The design current is 100 mA and the bunch to bunch distance is 8 ns for one particular filling pattern with 960 bunches. At a current of about 50 mA a strong vertical emittance increase has been observed. During machine studies it was found that the emittance increase depends strongly on the bunch filling pattern. For the user operation a filling scheme has been found which mitigates the increase of the vertical emittance. In August 2010 PETRA III has been operated without damping wigglers for one week. The vertical emittance growth was not significantly smaller without wigglers. Furthermore tune spectra at PETRA III show characteristic lines which have been observed at other storage rings in the connection with electron clouds. Measurements at PETRA III are presented for different bunch filling patterns and with and without wiggler magnets. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of transverse emittance in the Fermilab booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, William Sproull [Wisconsin U., Madison

    1994-01-01

    A new beam profile monitor has been built and installed in the Fermilab Booster synchrotron. It nondestructively measures the beam's vertical density distribution on a fast turn-by-turn basis. This enables one to measure the beam's transverse emittance and to observe emittance growth as it occurs. For high intensities (>2 times 10^{12 } protons), the normalized 95% emittance was observed to grow from 6pi mm-mrad at injection to 16pi mm-mrad at extraction. The initial (<5 msec) emittance growth and beam losses are shown to be caused by the space charge tune shift onto integer and 1/2 integer resonance lines. The growth near injection accounts for approximately 40% of the observed emittance increase throughout the acceleration cycle. The remaining 60% is due to two factors: slow linear growth due to betatron-motion driven by noise in the rf system; and faster growth after the transition energy that is caused by coupling of the longitudinal beam motion into the transverse planes.

  12. Transverse emittance growth in staged laser-wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mehrling

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on the emittance evolution of electron bunches, externally injected into laser-driven plasma waves using the three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC code OSIRIS. Results show order-of-magnitude transverse emittance growth during the injection process, if the electron bunch is not matched to its intrinsic betatron motion inside the wakefield. This behavior is supported by analytic theory reproducing the simulation data to a percent level. The length over which the full emittance growth develops is found to be less than or comparable to the typical dimension of a single plasma module in current multistage designs. In addition, the analytic theory enables the quantitative prediction of emittance degradation in two consecutive accelerators coupled by free-drift sections, excluding this as a scheme for effective emittance-growth suppression, and thus suggests the necessity of beam-matching sections between acceleration stages with fundamental implications on the overall design of staged laser-wakefield accelerators.

  13. Graphene field emitters: A review of fabrication, characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leifeng, E-mail: chlf@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Hu; Zhong, Jiasong; Song, Lihui [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Jun, E-mail: wujun@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Electron Device & Application, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Su, Weitao [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The preparation, characterization and field emission properties for Gs are reviewed. • The review provides an updated progress on design and construction of Gs field emitters. • The review offers fundamental insights into understanding and design of Gs emitters. • The review can broach the subject and inspire readers in field of Gs based emitters. - Abstract: Graphenes are beneficial to electrons field emission due to its high aspect ratio, high carrier density, the larger carrier mobility, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability. In recent years, graphene or reduced oxide graphene field emitters have been successfully constructed by various methods such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, electrophoretic deposition, screen-printing and chemical synthesis methods. Graphene emitters are tried to construct in distribution with some angles or vertical orientation with respect to the substrate surface. The vertical alignment of graphene sheets or edges arrays can facilitate efficient electron emission from the atomically thick sheets. Therefore they have even more a low turn-on and threshold-field electronic field, high field enhancement factor, high current stability and high luminance. In this review, we shortly survey and discuss recent research progress in graphene field emission properties with particular an emphasis on their preparing method, characterization and applications in devices especially for vertical graphene and single layer graphene, also including their challenges and future prospects.

  14. Emittance measurements in Grumman 1 MeV beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiak, T.; Gammel, G.; Melnychuk, S.

    1992-01-01

    The emittance of a 30 keV H - beam has been measured with an Allison type electrostatic analyser at two positions separated by 85 cm along the Grumman 1 MeV beamline LEBT at low currents (about 4 mA, no Cs 2 O additive in the source) and at higher currents (10-15 mA, with Cs 2 O additive in the source). No emittance growth was observed between the two positions, but, at the higher current level, the emittance was about 60% higher than at the low current level (Σ n ,rms = .0045 π cm-mrad vs. 0070 π cm-mrad). Argon was then introduced up to a partial pressure of 4x10 -5 torr, and the emittance decreased back to a range corresponding to that found at the lower currents. However, beam noise was observed at the downstream position, and there is evidence for a small amount of emittance growth (<20%) between the two positions

  15. Mechanisms of alpha emitter production in 12C induced reactions at 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.P.; Delagrange, H.; Del Moral, R.

    1982-01-01

    We present cross sections, mean projected recoil ranges and angular distributions of radioactive alpha emitters produced in 12 C-induced reactions at 1 GeV on targets ranging from Gd to Pb. We use a new technique of on-line electrostatic collection. The wide spectrum of produced isotopes corresponds to nuclei close to the target up to nuclei with as much as 60 nucleons less than the target. The intranuclear cascade calculations can reproduce the main features of nuclei having lost up

  16. Electron emission from MOS electron emitters with clean and cesium covered gold surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunver; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Johansson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) electron emitters consisting of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier and a Ti (1 nm)/Au(7 nm) top-electrode, with an active area of 1 cm(2) have been produced and studied with surface science techniques under UHV (ultra high vacuum) conditions and their emission...... characteristics have been investigated. It is known, that deposition of an alkali metal on the emitting surface lowers the work function and increases the emission efficiency. For increasing Cs coverages the surface has been characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS...

  17. Gamma/neutron competition above the neutron separation energy in delayed neutron emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the β-decay properties of some well known delayed neutron emitters an experiment was performed in 2009 at the IGISOL facility (University of Jyväskylä in Finland using Total Absorption γ-ray Spectroscopy (TAGS technique. The aim of these measurements is to obtain the full β-strength distribution below the neutron separation energy (Sn and the γ/neutron competition above. This information is a key parameter in nuclear technology applications as well as in nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. Preliminary results of the analysis show a significant γ-branching ratio above Sn.

  18. Ageing and structural effects on the sorption characteristics of Cd2+ by clinoptilolite and Y-type zeolite studied using isotope exchange technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.A.M.; Young, S.D.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the long-term kinetics of Cd 2+ sorption and desorption by calcium-exchanged clinoptilolite (CaCpt) and Y-type (CaY) zeolite using isotopic exchange with 109 Cd while maintaining pH at circumneutral values. The effects of Si/Al ratio and crystal structure of these zeolitic materials on intracrystalline transport of Cd are discussed. A first-order kinetic model was developed to describe the progressive transfer of Cd 2+ to a less reactive form within the zeolite structure, following initial sorption and subsequent desorption of Cd subject to different initial contact times. The kinetic model differentiates between two forms of sorbed Cd 2+ designated 'labile' and 'non-labile' in which the labile form is in immediate equilibrium with the free Cd 2+ ion activity in solution. A model combining diffusion and first-order kinetics for cation exchange was also employed to determine Cd 2+ diffusivity and intracrystalline exchange rates in CaY and CaCpt. The efficiency of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) containing zeolitic materials in protecting water systems against lateral flow of metal-contaminated leachate was simulated for three contrasting zeolites. The slow transfer of Cd between labile and non-labile forms was particularly important in moderating high concentration pulses of Cd traversing the PRB. In addition, the reversibility of Cd fixation effectively restored the sorption capability of the zeolite through slow leakage to drainage water.

  19. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  20. A polarization-insensitive plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xurong

    2017-11-16

    We present a polarization-insensitive plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitter that uses a two-dimensional array of nanoscale cross-shaped apertures as the plasmonic contact electrodes. The geometry of the cross-shaped apertures is set to maximize optical pump absorption in close proximity to the contact electrodes. The two-dimensional symmetry of the cross-shaped apertures offers a polarization-insensitive interaction between the plasmonic contact electrodes and optical pump beam. We experimentally demonstrate a polarization-insensitive terahertz radiation from the presented emitter in response to a femtosecond optical pump beam and similar terahertz radiation powers compared to previously demonstrated polarization-sensitive photoconductive emitters with plasmonic contact electrode gratings at the optimum optical pump polarization.

  1. Control and Data Analysis for Emittance Measuring Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, T

    2001-01-01

    Due to the wide range of heavy ion beam intensities and energies in the GSI linac and the associated transfer channel to the synchrotron, several different types of emittance measurement systems have been established. Many common devices such as slit/grid or dipole-sweep systems are integrated into the GSI control system. Other systems like the single shot pepper pot method using CCD-cameras or stand-alone slit/grid set-ups are connected to personal computers. An overview is given about the various systems and their software integration. Main interest is directed on the software development for emittance front-end control and data analysis such as evaluation algorithms or graphical presentation of the results. In addition, special features for improved usability of the software such as data export, project databases and automatic report generation will be presented. An outlook on a unified evaluation procedure for all different types of emittance measurement is given.

  2. Emittance growth in the DARHT Axis-II Downstream Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schulze, Martin E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Using a particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated the possibilities for emittance growth through the quadrupole magnets of the system used to transport the high-current electron beam from an induction accelerator to the bremsstrahlung converter target used for flash radiography. We found that even highly mismatched beams exhibited little emittance growth (< 6%), which we attribute to softening of their initial hard edge current distributions. We also used this PIC code to evaluate the accuracy of emittance measurements using a solenoid focal scan following the quadrupole magnets. If the beam is round after the solenoids, the simulations indicate that the measurement is highly accurate, but it is substantially inaccurate for elliptical beams

  3. Low Emittance Tuning Studies for SuperB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuzzo, Simone; /INFN, Pisa; Biagini, Maria; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Donald, Martin; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    SuperB[1] is an international project for an asymmetric 2 rings collider at the B mesons cm energy to be built in the Rome area in Italy. The two rings will have very small beam sizes at the Interaction Point and very small emittances, similar to the Linear Collider Damping Rings ones. In particular, the ultra low vertical emittances, 7 pm in the LER and 4 pm in the HER, need a careful study of the misalignment errors effects on the machine performances. Studies on the closed orbit, vertical dispersion and coupling corrections have been carried out in order to specify the maximum allowed errors and to provide a procedure for emittance tuning. A new tool which combines MADX and Matlab routines has been developed, allowing for both corrections and tuning. Results of these studies are presented.

  4. Ion concentration in micro and nanoscale electrospray emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Elizabeth M; Baker, Lane A

    2018-06-01

    Solution-phase ion transport during electrospray has been characterized for nanopipettes, or glass capillaries pulled to nanoscale tip dimensions, and micron-sized electrospray ionization emitters. Direct visualization of charged fluorophores during the electrospray process is used to evaluate impacts of emitter size, ionic strength, analyte size, and pressure-driven flow on heterogeneous ion transport during electrospray. Mass spectrometric measurements of positively- and negatively-charged proteins were taken for micron-sized and nanopipette emitters under low ionic strength conditions to further illustrate a discrepancy in solution-driven transport of charged analytes. A fundamental understanding of analyte electromigration during electrospray, which is not always considered, is expected to provide control over selective analyte depletion and enrichment, and can be harnessed for sample cleanup. Graphical abstract Fluorescence micrographs of ion migration in nanoscale pipettes while solution is electrosprayed.

  5. Transverse and longitudinal emittance measurements in the ELSA linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loulergue, A.; Dowell, D.H.; Joly, S.; De Brion, J.P.; Haouat, G.; Schumann, F.

    1997-01-01

    The ELSA RF linac photoinjector has been designed to deliver high-brightness electron beams. The present paper deals with the transverse and longitudinal emittance measurements, at different locations along the ELSA beam line, and the analysis of their variations as a function of the photoinjector parameters : magnetic field generated by the anode focusing lens, bunch charge and pulse duration. While transverse emittance has been already studied in other similar installations, there has been little study of the electron beam longitudinal dynamics. Experimental results are presented and compared to simulation-code expectations. For 2.0 nC, 85 A electron bunches, a normalized rms emittance of 2 π mm mrad and a brightness of 4.5 x 10 13 A/(π m rad) 2 at the linac exit have been measured as well as less than 10 keV rms energy spread (or less than 0.1% at 16.5 MeV). (orig.)

  6. RF emittance in a low energy electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye Hajari, Sh.; Haghtalab, S.; Shaker, H.; Kelisani, M. Dayyani

    2018-04-01

    Transverse beam dynamics of an 8 MeV low current (10 mA) S-band traveling wave electron linear accelerator has been studied and optimized. The main issue is to limit the beam emittance, mainly induced by the transverse RF forces. The linac is being constructed at Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), Tehran Iran Labeled as Iran's First Linac, nearly all components of this accelerator are designed and constructed within the country. This paper discusses the RF coupler induced field asymmetry and the corresponding emittance at different focusing levels, introduces a detailed beam dynamics design of a solenoid focusing channel aiming to reduce the emittance growth and studies the solenoid misalignment tolerances. In addition it has been demonstrated that a prebuncher cavity with appropriate parameters can help improving the beam quality in the transverse plane.

  7. DC-SC Photoinjector with Low Emittance at Peking University

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang Rong; Hao, J; Huang, Senlin; Lu Xiang Yang; Quan, Shengwen; Zhang, Baocheng; Zhao, Kui

    2005-01-01

    High average power Free Electron Lasers require the high quality electron beams with the low emittance and the sub-picosecond bunches. The design of DC-SC photoinjector, directly combining a DC photoinjector with an SRF cavity, can produce high average current beam with moderate bunch charge and high duty factor. Because of the DC gun, the emittance increases quickly at the beginning, so a carefully design is needed to control that. In this paper, the simulation of an upgraded design has been done to lower the normalized emittance below 1.5mm·mrad. The photoinjector consists of a DC gap and a 2+1/2-cell SRF cavity, and it is designed to produce 4.2 MeV electron beams at 100pC bunch charge and 81.25MHz repetition rate (8 mA average current).

  8. Laser Process for Selective Emitter Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poulain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective emitter solar cells can provide a significant increase in conversion efficiency. However current approaches need many technological steps and alignment procedures. This paper reports on a preliminary attempt to reduce the number of processing steps and therefore the cost of selective emitter cells. In the developed procedure, a phosphorous glass covered with silicon nitride acts as the doping source. A laser is used to open locally the antireflection coating and at the same time achieve local phosphorus diffusion. In this process the standard chemical etching of the phosphorous glass is avoided. Sheet resistance variation from 100 Ω/sq to 40 Ω/sq is demonstrated with a nanosecond UV laser. Numerical simulation of the laser-matter interaction is discussed to understand the dopant diffusion efficiency. Preliminary solar cells results show a 0.5% improvement compared with a homogeneous emitter structure.

  9. Radiation doses and risks from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, John; Day, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This review updates material prepared for the UK Government Committee Examining Radiation Risks from Internal Emitters (CERRIE) and also refers to the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and other recent developments. Two conclusions from CERRIE were that ICRP should clarify and elaborate its advice on the use of its dose quantities, equivalent and effective dose, and that more attention should be paid to uncertainties in dose and risk estimates and their implications. The new ICRP recommendations provide explanations of the calculation and intended purpose of the protection quantities, but further advice on their use would be helpful. The new recommendations refer to the importance of understanding uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk, although methods for doing this are not suggested. Dose coefficients (Sv per Bq intake) for the inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are published as reference values without uncertainty. The primary purpose of equivalent and effective dose is to enable the summation of doses from different radionuclides and from external sources for comparison with dose limits, constraints and reference levels that relate to stochastic risks of whole-body radiation exposure. Doses are calculated using defined biokinetic and dosimetric models, including reference anatomical data for the organs and tissues of the human body. Radiation weighting factors are used to adjust for the different effectiveness of different radiation types, per unit absorbed dose (Gy), in causing stochastic effects at low doses and dose rates. Tissue weighting factors are used to take account of the contribution of individual organs and tissues to overall detriment from cancer and hereditary effects, providing a simple set of rounded values chosen on the basis of age- and sex-averaged values of relative detriment. While the definition of absorbed dose has the scientific rigour required of a basic physical quantity

  10. Optical characterization of OLED emitter properties by radiation pattern analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaemmich, Michael

    2011-09-08

    Researches in both, academia and industry are investigating optical loss channels in OLED layered systems by means of optical simulation tools in order to derive promising concepts for a further enhancement of the overall device performance. Besides other factors, the prospects of success of such optimization strategies rely severely on the credibility of the optical input data. The present thesis provides a guideline to measure the active optical properties of OLED emitter materials in situ by radiation pattern analyses. Reliable and widely applicable methods are introduced to determine the internal electroluminescence spectrum, the profile of the emission zone, the dipole emitter orientation, and the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of emissive materials from the optical far field emission of OLEDs in electrical operation. The proposed characterization procedures are applied to sets of OLEDs containing both, fluorescent polymeric materials as well as phosphorescent small-molecular emitters, respectively. On the one hand, quite expected results are obtained. On the other hand, several novel and truly surprising results are found. Most importantly, this thesis contains the first report of a non-isotropic, mainly parallel emitter orientation in a phosphorescent small-molecular guest-host system (Ir(MDQ)2(acac) in a-NPD). Due to the latter result, emitter orientation based optimization of phosphorescent OLEDs seems to be within reach. Since parallel dipoles emit preferably into air, the utilization of smart emissive materials with advantageous molecular orientation is capable to boost the efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs by 50%. Materials design, the influence of the matrix material and the substrate, as well as film deposition conditions are just a few parameters that need to be studied further in order to exploit the huge potential of the dipole emitter orientation in phosphorescent OLEDs.

  11. Calculating emittance for Gaussian and Non-Gaussian distributions by the method of correlations for slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    One common way for measuring the emittance of an electron beam is with the slits method. The usual approach for analyzing the data is to calculate an emittance that is a subset of the parent emittance. This paper shows an alternative way by using the method of correlations which ties the parameters derived from the beamlets to the actual parameters of the parent emittance. For parent distributions that are Gaussian, this method yields exact results. For non-Gaussian beam distributions, this method yields an effective emittance that can serve as a yardstick for emittance comparisons

  12. Polarization measurements made on LFRA and OASIS emitter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Sparkman, Kevin; Oleson, Jim; Laveigne, Joe; Sieglinger, Breck; Marlow, Steve; Lowry, Heard; Burns, James

    2008-04-01

    Polarization is increasingly being considered as a method of discrimination in passive sensing applications. In this paper the degree of polarization of the thermal emission from the emitter arrays of two new Santa Barbara Infrared (SBIR) micro-bolometer resistor array scene projectors was characterized at ambient temperature and at 77 K. The emitter arrays characterized were from the Large Format Resistive Array (LFRA) and the Optimized Arrays for Space-Background Infrared Simulation (OASIS) scene projectors. This paper reports the results of this testing.

  13. Beam emittance reduction during operation of Indus-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhri, Ali Akbar, E-mail: fakhri@rrcat.gov.in; Kant, Pradeep; Ghodke, A. D.; Singh, Gurnam [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Indus-2 storage ring is a 2.5 GeV third generation synchrotron radiation source. This source was commissioned using a moderate optics. Beam injection was accomplished using an off momentum electron beam to avoid difficulties faced in storage of beam at 550 MeV. The injection procedure and relevant beam dynamical studies are discussed. The switch over from the moderate optics to low emittance optics is done at 2.5 GeV after storing the electron beam. The procedure evolved to reduce the beam emittance and its implementation during the operation is discussed.

  14. Nanodiamonds with photostable, sub-gigahertz linewidth quantum emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Trong Tran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emitters with narrow linewidths are highly sought after for applications in quantum information processing and quantum communications. In this letter, we report on a bright, highly polarized near infrared single photon emitter embedded in diamond nanocrystals with a narrow, sub-GHz optical linewidth at 10 K. The observed zero-phonon line at ∼780 nm is optically stable under low power excitation and blue shifts as the excitation power increases. Our results highlight the prospect for using new near infrared color centers in nanodiamonds for quantum applications.

  15. Nanodiamonds with photostable, sub-gigahertz linewidth quantum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Toan Trong; Kianinia, Mehran; Bray, Kerem; Kim, Sejeong; Xu, Zai-Quan; Gentle, Angus; Sontheimer, Bernd; Bradac, Carlo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2017-11-01

    Single-photon emitters with narrow linewidths are highly sought after for applications in quantum information processing and quantum communications. In this letter, we report on a bright, highly polarized near infrared single photon emitter embedded in diamond nanocrystals with a narrow, sub-GHz optical linewidth at 10 K. The observed zero-phonon line at ˜780 nm is optically stable under low power excitation and blue shifts as the excitation power increases. Our results highlight the prospect for using new near infrared color centers in nanodiamonds for quantum applications.

  16. Epitaxial Growth of Germanium on Silicon for Light Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhao Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the role of Ge as an enabler for light emitters on a Si platform. In spite of the large lattice mismatch of ~4.2% between Ge and Si, high-quality Ge layers can be epitaxially grown on Si by ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition. Applications of the Ge layers to near-infrared light emitters with various structures are reviewed, including the tensile-strained Ge epilayer, the Ge epilayer with a delta-doping SiGe layer, and the Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells on Si. The fundamentals of photoluminescence physics in the different Ge structures are discussed briefly.

  17. Modulation characteristics of graphene-based thermal emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlmeister, Nathan Howard; Lawton, Lorreta Maria; Luxmoore, Isaac John; Nash, Geoffrey Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the modulation characteristics of the emission from a graphene-based thermal emitter both experimentally and through simulations using finite element method modelling. Measurements were performed on devices containing square multilayer graphene emitting areas, with the devices driven by a pulsed DC drive current over a range of frequencies. Simulations show that the dominant heat path is from the emitter to the underlying substrate, and that the thermal resistance between the graphene and the substrate determines the modulation characteristics. This is confirmed by measurements made on devices in which the emitting area is encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride.

  18. Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Román

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.

  19. Emittances Studies at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhoplav, Rodion; Melissinos, A C; Regis-Guy Piot, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector incorporates an L-band rf-gun capable of generating 1-10 nC bunches. The bunches are then accelerated to 16 MeV with a TESLA superconducting cavity. In the present paper we present parametric studies of transverse emittances and energy spread for a various operating points of the electron source (RF-gun E-field, laser length and spot size, and solenoid settings). We especially study the impact, on transverse emittance, of Gaussian and Plateau temporal distribution of the photocathode drive-laser.

  20. Mirrorless lasing from light emitters in percolating clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, Gennadiy; Rubo, Y. G.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the lasing effect in the three-dimensional percolation system, where the percolating cluster is filled by active media composed by light emitters excited noncoherently. We show that, due to the presence of a topologically nontrivial photonic structure, the stimulated emission is modified with respect to both conventional and random lasers. The time dynamics and spectra of the lasing output are studied numerically with finite-difference time-domain approach. The Fermat principle and Monte Carlo approach are applied to characterize the optimal optical path and interconnection between the radiating emitters. The spatial structure of the laser mode is found by a long-time FDTD simulation.

  1. Model of emittance growth in a self-pinched beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    A semi-phenomenological formula is proposed for the change of emittance of a self-pinched beam which is not matched to its equilibrium radius. Near equilibrium this formula, coupled with an envelope equation, yields the damped sausage oscillations observed in simulation and experiments. For a beam which is injected cold (no transverse velocity spread), the formula coincides with the analytically calculated initial growth of emittance. The basic theory is developed here and used to compute the linear damping rate for several current profiles. The resultant non-linear increase in equilibrium quantities is also calculated in lowest order of the degree of mismatch

  2. Emittance growth of an electron beam in a periodic channel due to transfer of longitudinal energy to transverse energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Most discussions about emittance growth and halo production for an intense electron beam in a periodic focusing channel assume that the total transverse energy is constant (or, in other words, that the transverse and longitudinal Hamiltonians are separable). Previous analyses that include variations in the total transverse energy are typically based on a transverse-longitudinal coupling that is either from two-dimensional space-charge modes or particle-particle Coulomb collisions. With the space-charge modes, the energy exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is periodic, and of constant magnitude. The total energy transfer for the case of the Coulomb collisions is negligible. This limited increase of energy in the transverse direction from these other effects will limit the amount of transverse emittance growth possible. In this paper, the authors investigate a mechanism in which there is a continual transfer of energy from the longitudinal direction to the transverse direction, leading to essentially unlimited potential transverse emittance growth. This mechanism is caused by an asymmetry of the beam's betatron motion within the periodic focusing elements. This analysis is based on thermodynamic principles. This mechanism exists for both solenoids and quadrupole focusing, although only solenoid focusing is studied here

  3. A technique to simulate a tube break in a high-pressure gas/cooling water heat exchanger - HTR2008-58161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antwerpen, H. J. V.; Mulder, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    The gas cycles of most High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR's) reject heat to water at some stage. In the helium/water heat exchangers of HTR's with direct Brayton cycles, the helium is usually at a much higher pressure than the water. If the pressure boundary between the helium and the water fails inside the heat exchanger. the effect on the rest of the water system has to be established in order to do a proper system design. This can be done most efficiently by using a system simulation code, however, very few system simulation codes has the capability to do gas/liquid interface tracking as required for this problem. This study describes a calculation method with which a gas/liquid heat exchanger tube rupture can be calculated in a simulation code without interface tracking. The course of events after tube rupture is described and appropriate calculation models derived. A mathematical model for a pressure relief valve (PRV) was also created. The calculation models were implemented in the system simulation software Flownex and used to study a tube rupture on a 5000 kPa helium/water heat exchanger. The assembled calculation network solved stable and within reasonable time. The simulation provided insight into the course of events following the tube break. It was shown that the acceleration of water out of the helium cooler, by choked-flow helium, caused the main pressure pulses during the event. The maximum pressure in the water loop occurs on the opposite side of the helium cooler due to constructive interference of the initial pressure wave with itself. It was also shown that by changing only pipe lengths, the system could become prone to severe oscillations after a tube rupture event. (authors)

  4. Boundary conditions on the plasma emitter surface in the presence of a particle counter flow: I. Ion emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrelin, V. T., E-mail: V.T.Astrelin@inp.nsk.su; Kotelnikov, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Emission of positively charged ions from a plasma emitter irradiated by a counterpropagating electron beam is studied theoretically. A bipolar diode with a plasma emitter in which the ion temperature is lower than the electron temperature and the counter electron flow is extracted from the ion collector is calculated in the one-dimensional model. An analog of Bohm’s criterion for ion emission in the presence of a counterpropagating electron beam is derived. The limiting density of the counterpropagating beam in a bipolar diode operating in the space-charge-limited-emission regime is calculated. The full set of boundary conditions on the plasma emitter surface that are required for operation of the high-current optics module in numerical codes used to simulate charged particle sources is formulated.

  5. Beam structure and transverse emittance studies of high-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Johnson, K.F.; Schneider, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A visual diagnostic technique has been developed to monitor and study ion beam structure shape and size along a transport line. In this technique, a commercially available fluorescent screen is utilized in conjunction with a video camera. This visual representation of the beam structure is digitized and enhanced through use of false-color coding and displayed on a TV monitor for on-line viewing. Digitized information is stored for further off-line processing (e.g., extraction of beam profiles). An optional wire grid placed upstream of the fluor screen adds the capability of transverse emittance (or angular spread) measurement to this technique. This diagnostic allows real-time observation of the beam response to parameter changes (e.g., evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position). 3 refs., 5 figs

  6. Six-dimensional muon beam cooling using a homogeneous absorber: Concepts, beam dynamics, cooling decrements, and equilibrium emittances in a helical dipole channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Derbenev

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast reduction of the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams is an essential requirement for muon colliders and also of great importance for neutrino factories based on accelerated muon beams. Ionization cooling, where all momentum components are degraded by an energy absorbing material and only the longitudinal momentum is restored by rf cavities, provides a means to quickly reduce transverse beam sizes. However, the beam energy spread cannot be reduced by this method unless the longitudinal emittance can be transformed or exchanged into the transverse emittance. Emittance exchange plans until now have been accomplished by using magnets to disperse the beam along the face of a wedge-shaped absorber such that higher momentum particles pass through thicker parts of the absorber and thus suffer larger ionization energy loss. In the scheme advocated in this paper, a special magnetic channel designed such that higher momentum corresponds to a longer path length, and therefore larger ionization energy loss, provides the desired emittance exchange in a homogeneous absorber without special edge shaping. Normal-conducting rf cavities imbedded in the magnetic field regenerate the energy lost in the absorber. One very attractive example of a cooling channel based on this principle uses a series of high-gradient rf cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas, where the cavities are in a magnetic channel composed of a solenoidal field with superimposed helical transverse dipole and quadrupole fields. In this scheme, the energy loss, the rf energy regeneration, the emittance exchange, and the transverse cooling happen simultaneously. The theory of this helical channel is described in some detail to support the analytical prediction of almost a factor of 10^{6} reduction in six-dimensional phase space volume in a channel about 56 m long. Equations describing the particle beam dynamics are derived and beam stability conditions are explored. Equations

  7. A thermionic energy converter with A molybdenum alumina cermet emitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.H.M.; Wolff, L.R.; Metselaar, R.; Yogi Goswami, D.

    1988-01-01

    The I-V characteristics of a thermionic converter equipped with a Mo-1w/o AI203 emitter and a Mo collector were measured. The conditions were varied over a limited range without, as well as with Cs. Work functions of Mo as well as Mo-1w/o AI203 were determined. Measurements were carried out in a

  8. Laser-assisted electron emission from gated field-emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, H; Yokoo, K; Mimura, H; Shimawaki, H; Hosono, A

    2002-01-01

    Enhancement of electron emission by illumination of gated field-emitters was studied using a 100 mW cw YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm, intensities up to 10 sup 7 W/m sup 2 and mechanically chopped with a rise time of 4 mu s. When shining an array of 640 silicon emitters, the emission current responded quickly to on-off of the laser. The increase of the emission current was proportional to the basic emission current at low gate voltages, but it was saturated at approx 3 mu A as the basic current approached 100 mu A with the increase of gate voltage. The emission increase was proportional to the square root of laser power at low gate voltages and to the laser power at elevated gate voltages. For 1- and 3-tip silicon emitters, the rise and fall of the current due to on-off of the laser showed a significant time lag. The magnitude of emission increase was independent of the position of laser spot on the emitter base and reached 2 mu A at a basic current of 5 mu A without showing signs of saturation. The mech...

  9. Calculation Of Extraction Optics For Ion System With Plazma Emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, B A

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D code for simulating of ion optics system of positive ion extraction from a plasma source is described. Example calculation of 100 kV optics for the extraction ion IHEP gun is presented. The trajectories of particles and emittance plots are resulted. The aberrations influ-ence strongly on ion optics for considered geometry.

  10. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter ( 11 C, 18 F, 13 N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with 11 C) is discussed in particular

  11. Emittance control and RF bunch compression in the NSRRC photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.K.; Hung, S.B.; Lee, A.P.; Chou, C.S.; Huang, N.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The high-brightness photoinjector being constructed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center is for testing new accelerator and light-source concepts. It is the so-called split photoinjector configuration in which a short solenoid magnet is used for emittance compensation. The UV-drive laser pulses are also shaped to produce uniform cylindrical bunches for further reduction of beam emittance. However, limited by the available power from our microwave power system, the nominal accelerating gradient in the S-band booster linac is set at 18 MV/m. A simulation study with PARMELA shows that the linac operating at this gradient fails to freeze the electron beam emittance at low value. A background solenoid magnetic field is applied for beam emittance control in the linac during acceleration. A satisfactory result that meets our preliminary goal has been achieved with the solenoid magnetic field strength at 0.1 T. RF bunch compression as a means to achieve the required beam brightness for high-gain free-electron laser experiments is also examined. The reduction of bunch length to a few hundred femtoseconds can be obtained.

  12. Application of positron emitters to studies on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, N S; Matsuoka, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sekine, T [and others

    1998-10-01

    A newly developed positron emitting tracer imaging system enables us to study dynamically the physiological function of plants, although this system covers, at present, a limited area in a plant. Production of the positron emitters {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, {sup 18}F and {sup 48}V for this application, using an AVF cyclotron, is described. (author)

  13. Beam emittance of the Stony Brook Tandem-LINAC booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholldorf, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is primarily a study of the longitudinal and transverse beam emittance of the Stony Brook Heavy Ion Tandem LINAC Accelerator Facility, with a secondary emphasis on the beam dynamical design of two key elements of the system: a low energy double-drift buncher, and an achromatic double-90 0 LINAC injection system. A transverse emittance measuring system consisting of two translation stages controlled by stepper motors is described. Each stage carried a pair of beam defining slits mounted so that both horizontal and vertical emittances could be measured with only linear motion of the stage assembly. Beam currents were measured directly by a low-noise, high-sensitivity electrometer circuit integrated with the second slit-stage assembly. A mini-computer controlled the motors and acquired and displayed the data. Transverse emittance areas of beams of 12 C, 16 O, 32 S, and 58 Ni were measured at ion source extraction potential, after ion source acceleration, after tandem acceleration, and after LINAC acceleration. The results were analyzed in terms of source sputter-cone geometry, angle straggling in gas and foil strippers, and a variety of other factors

  14. Emittance growth due to beam-gas scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1992-06-01

    The effect of beam-gas scattering on beam emittance is examined by deriving the beam distribution function. The distribution function is found by treating the beam-gas scattering as a filtered Poisson process and calculating the cumulants of the distribution. (author)

  15. Emittance growth in laser-driven RF electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    A simple analysis for the evolution of the electron-beam phase space distribution in laser-driven rf guns is presented. In particular, formulas are derived for the transverse and longitudinal emittances at the exit of the gun. The results are compared and found to agree well with those from simulation. (Author). 9 refs.; 4 figs

  16. A compact electron gun using field emitter array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, M.R.; Ikeda, A.; Miyabe, N.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kusaba, M.; Tsunawaki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A compact electron gun using field emitter array has been developed. With a simple triode configuration consisting of FEA, mid-electrode and anode electrode, the electron gun produces a parallel beam with a diameter of 0.5 mm. This electron gun is applicable for compact radiation sources such as Cherenkov free-electron lasers

  17. Beam aperture and emittance growth in the AGS-Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed analytical tools for calculating the variation of particle action, smear and emittance growth due to nonlinear elements in accelerators (with second order perturbation theory in two dimensions). The authors' results for the AGS-Booster is presented

  18. The emittance of high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.R.; Devaney, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ion implantation is the main application for high current heavy ion beams. Transfer ratio is defined as the ratio of the total ion current leaving the ion source to the current delivered to the endstation. This ratio is monitored and logged and its importance is explained. It is also affected by other factors, such as the isotopic and molecular composition of the total ion beam. The transfer ratio reveals the fraction of ions which are intercepted by parts of the beamline system. The effects of these ions are discussed in two categories: processing purity and reliability. In discussing the emittance of ribbon beams, the two orthogonal planes are usually considered separately. Longitudinal emittance is determined by slot length and by plasma ion temperature. It has already been revealed that the longitudinal divergence of the beams from BF3 is perhaps double that of the beam from arsenic vapour or argon, at the same total perveance from the ion source. This poses the question: why is the ion temperature higher for BF3 than for As or Ar? The transverse emittance is in practical terms dominated by the divergence. It is the most fruitful area for improvement in most real-world systems. There is an intrinsic divergence arising from initial ion energies within the plasma, and there is emittance growth that can occur as a result of aberration in the beam extraction optics. (N.K.)

  19. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  20. Development of new microencapsulated beta emitters for internal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrisot, R.; Monteil, J.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Pouliquen, D.; Jallet, P.; Beau, P.; Lepape, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed new microencapsulated beta emitter radiotracers which could be used in nuclear medicine for selective internal radiotherapy. Their efficacy was evaluated on B16 melanoma tumor model in mice, using phosphorus 31 spectroscopy. This kind of tracer would allow a precise targetting of beta irradiation

  1. A combined emitter threat assessment method based on ICW-RCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hongwei; Guo, Xiaotao; Wang, Yubing

    2017-08-01

    Considering that the tradition al emitter threat assessment methods are difficult to intuitively reflect the degree of target threaten and the deficiency of real-time and complexity, on the basis of radar chart method(RCM), an algorithm of emitter combined threat assessment based on ICW-RCM (improved combination weighting method, ICW) is proposed. The coarse sorting is integrated with fine sorting in emitter combined threat assessment, sequencing the emitter threat level roughly accordance to radar operation mode, and reducing task priority of the low-threat emitter; On the basis of ICW-RCM, sequencing the same radar operation mode emitter roughly, finally, obtain the results of emitter threat assessment through coarse and fine sorting. Simulation analyses show the correctness and effectiveness of this algorithm. Comparing with classical method of emitter threat assessment based on CW-RCM, the algorithm is visual in image and can work quickly with lower complexity.

  2. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Kosier, S.L.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps

  3. Shadow photography method for beam emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashkovskij, V.V.; Lisin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Improved technique of shadow photography which allows to measure rather simply and accurately the angular distribution of electrons extracted from betatron is described. Measurement accuracy of particle flight angles is determined by setting of rods relatively to the plane of photographic paper sheet, their diameter and shadow trace length. Incidental angle deviation of rod axes contributes mainly into the error. Mean root-square error constituted 2-3% according to the results of several measurements of angles

  4. Emitter/absorber interface of CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tao, E-mail: tsong241@gmail.com; Sites, James R. [Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Kanevce, Ana [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    The performance of CdTe solar cells can be very sensitive to the emitter/absorber interface, especially for high-efficiency cells with high bulk lifetime. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. Numerical simulations show that the emitter/absorber band alignment, the emitter doping and thickness, and the defect properties of the interface (i.e., defect density, defect type, and defect energy) can all play significant roles in the interface recombination. In particular, a type I heterojunction with small conduction-band offset (0.1 eV ≤ ΔE{sub C} ≤ 0.3 eV) can help maintain good cell efficiency in spite of high interface defect density, much like with Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) cells. The basic principle is that positive ΔE{sub C}, often referred to as a “spike,” creates an absorber inversion and hence a large hole barrier adjacent to the interface. As a result, the electron-hole recombination is suppressed due to an insufficient hole supply at the interface. A large spike (ΔE{sub C} ≥ 0.4 eV), however, can impede electron transport and lead to a reduction of photocurrent and fill-factor. In contrast to the spike, a “cliff” (ΔE{sub C} < 0 eV) allows high hole concentration in the vicinity of the interface, which will assist interface recombination and result in a reduced open-circuit voltage. Another way to mitigate performance losses due to interface defects is to use a thin and highly doped emitter, which can invert the absorber and form a large hole barrier at the interface. CdS is the most common emitter material used in CdTe solar cells, but the CdS/CdTe interface is in the cliff category and is not favorable from the band-offset perspective. The ΔE{sub C} of other n-type emitter choices, such as (Mg,Zn)O, Cd(S,O), or (Cd,Mg)Te, can be tuned by varying the elemental ratio for an optimal positive value of ΔE{sub C}. These

  5. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J. E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R. E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R. H.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, F.

    2007-01-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of ≥200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while ≥500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns

  6. Preservation of low slice emittance in bunch compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bettoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the dilution of the electron beam emittance is crucial for the performance of accelerators, in particular for free electron laser facilities, where the length of the machine and the efficiency of the lasing process depend on it. Measurements performed at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility revealed an increase in slice emittance after compressing the bunch even for moderate compression factors. The phenomenon was experimentally studied by characterizing the dependence of the effect on beam and machine parameters relevant for the bunch compression. The reproduction of these measurements in simulation required the use of a 3D beam dynamics model along the bunch compressor that includes coherent synchrotron radiation. Our investigations identified transverse effects, such as coherent synchrotron radiation and transverse space charge as the sources of the observed emittance dilution, excluding other effects, such as chromatic effects on single slices or spurious dispersion. We also present studies, both experimental and simulation based, on the effect of the optics mismatch of the slices on the variation of the slice emittance along the bunch. After a corresponding reoptimization of the beam optics in the test facility we reached slice emittances below 200 nm for the central slices along the longitudinal dimension with a moderate increase up to 300 nm in the head and tail for a compression factor of 7.5 and a bunch charge of 200 pC, equivalent to a final current of 150 A, at about 230 MeV energy.

  7. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.; Zhou, F.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of (ge)200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while (ge)500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns

  8. On the design guideline for the low emittance synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kihara, M.

    1983-09-01

    In this note we will describe how the emittance of the electron storage ring is determined by the orbit parameters of the storage ring and show the lowest value of emittance which is achieved theoretically. Implication of this note with regard to the design of the low emittance storage ring will be discussed. (author)

  9. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  10. New technique for synthesizing AMP : precipitation inside an ion-exchange resin and its application to separation of cesium from fission-products and to A137sub(m) Ba generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.T.; Abrao, A.

    1980-06-01

    A new technique for synthesizing ammonium molybdophosphate, an inorganic ion exchanger which retains selectively cesium-137 from a mixture of fission products, is dealt with. Normally the use of this exchanger in column operation requires the use of asbestos, silica-gel or organic polymers as binder, due to its microcrystalline form. The new process employs a strong anionic resin, saturated with molybdate anions. This method enables the precipitation of ammonium molybdophosphate directly into the resinous structure by adding dihydrogen ammonium phosphate in 7,5M HNO 3 . The reactants maintened at 60 0 C for a period of four hours has been found to be the optimum condition for a maximum yield of this compound (anionic resin-ammonium molybdophosphate=R-AMP). The tests performed for characterizing this compound are: molybdenum-phosphorus ratio determination, electronic absorption spectra, infra-red absorption spectra, reflection microscopy observations, electron probe micro-analysis and X-ray powder patterns. The mentioned analysis confirmed the presence of the ammonium molybdophosphate in the resinous structure, permitting, thereby, its use as a cation exchanger. R-AMP showed a capacity of 0,48mE/g of dry material. The cesium retention studies were made using columns charged with R-AMP compound. The behavior of some polivalent fission products was also studied. The R-AMP columns was finally applied to separate cesium from irradiated uranium solutions. A method for the isolation of sup(137m)Ba by successive elutions from R-AMP ( 137 Cs) exchanger (generator) is described. (Author) [pt

  11. Simulations of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell emittance compensated photocathode RF gun low energy beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Winick, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated low energy (2 to 10 MeV) experimental beam line is now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratories Accelerator Test Facility (BNL/ATF) for photocathode RF gun testing and photoemission experiments. The design of the experimental line, using the 1.6 cell photocathode RF gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA RF gun collaboration is presented. Detailed beam dynamics simulations were performed for the 1.6 cell RF gun injector using a solenoidal emittance compensation technique. An experimental program for testing the 1.6 cell RF gun is presented. This program includes beam loading caused by dark current, higher order mode field measurements, integrated and slice emittance measurements using a pepper-pot and RF kicker cavity

  12. Modeling an emittance-dominated elliptical sheet beam with a 212-dimensional particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Modeling a 3-dimensional (3-D) elliptical beam with a 212-D particle-in-cell (PIC) code requires a reduction in the beam parameters. The 212-D PIC code can only model the center slice of the sheet beam, but that can still provide useful information about the beam transport and distribution evolution, even if the beam is emittance dominated. The reduction of beam parameters and resulting interpretation of the simulation is straightforward, but not trivial. In this paper, we describe the beam parameter reduction and emittance issues related to the initial beam distribution. As a numerical example, we use the case of a sheet beam designed for use with a planar traveling-wave amplifier for high power generator for RF ranging from 95 to 300GHz [Carlsten et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33 (2005) 85]. These numerical techniques also apply to modeling high-energy elliptical bunches in RF accelerators

  13. Series Resistance Analysis of Passivated Emitter Rear Contact Cells Patterned Using Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. T. Lenio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For higher-efficiency solar cell structures, such as the Passivated Emitter Rear Contact (PERC cells, to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment, potentially low-cost techniques such as inkjet printing and metal plating are desirable. A common problem that is experienced when fabricating PERC cells is low fill factors due to high series resistance. This paper identifies and attempts to quantify sources of series resistance in inkjet-patterned PERC cells that employ electroless or light-induced nickel-plating techniques followed by copper light-induced plating. Photoluminescence imaging is used to determine locations of series resistance losses in these inkjet-patterned and plated PERC cells.

  14. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  15. The fabrication and evaluation of diamond cold cathodes for field emitter display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, N.A.

    1998-08-01

    Semiconducting diamond is a candidate wide-band gap material for applications in vacuum microelectronic devices. Its potential use in components that are operated at high frequencies, handle high powers or are subjected to extremes of temperature and radiation have yet to be commercially realised. The work presented below sets out to determine whether semiconducting diamond is a suitable material for such active electronic devices by examining the most efficient means of initiating electron emission from Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD), semiconducting diamond. Novel methods are reported for the incorporation of impurity atoms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus into CVD diamond that employ ion-implantation techniques. Demonstration of the efficient incorporation of these impurities to form donor states with low activation energies into polycrystalline diamond would facilitate efficient room temperature operation of pn junctions devices. The effectiveness of boron as a p-type dopant in CVD diamond films has enabled the investigation of potential field emitter structures using different boron concentrations in order to identify their respective conduction mechanisms and to make a comparison of their relative electron emission performance. It has been concluded that efficient electron emission is observed to originate from the interface of n + -p, silicon/diamond heterojunctions that employ thin p-type regions which are less than 5μm thick. The emission current may be controlled by the application of a low voltage forward bias of less than 1 volt. Only the np junction containing 400 ppm of boron in the p-diamond layer demonstrated forward biased electron emission. It is proposed that carrier conduction across the junction interface involves recombination and tunnelling steps between interface trap states. Furthermore it is believed that due to the junction interface being in direct contact with vacuum, within this region of the emitter structure, a surface conduction emission

  16. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball James W

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan. Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

  17. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschel, G.K.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstorm, D.K.; Ball, J.W.; Xu, Y.; Cohn, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad??? AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad??? AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Division of Geochemistry of the American Chemical Society 2003.

  18. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  19. Emittance Measurements from a Laser Driven Electron Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, David A

    2003-07-28

    The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was constructed to develop an appropriate electron beam suitable for driving a short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) such as the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). For operation at a wavelength of 1.5 {angstrom}, the LCLS requires an electron injector that can produce an electron beam with approximately 1 {pi} mm-mrad normalized rms emittance with at least 1 nC of charge in a 10 ps or shorter bunch. The GTF consists of a photocathode rf gun, emittance-compensation solenoid, 3 m linear accelerator (linac), drive laser, and diagnostics to measure the beam. The rf gun is a symmetrized 1.6 cell, s-band high gradient, room temperature, photocathode structure. Simulations show that this gun when driven by a temporally and spatially shaped drive laser, appropriately focused with the solenoid, and further accelerated in linac can produce a beam that meets the LCLS requirements. This thesis describes the initial characterization of the laser and electron beam at the GTF. A convolved measurement of the relative timing between the laser and the rf phase in the gun shows that the jitter is less than 2.5 ps rms. Emittance measurements of the electron beam at 35 MeV are reported as a function of the (Gaussian) pulse length and transverse profile of the laser as well as the charge of the electron beam at constant phase and gradient in both the gun and linac. At 1 nC the emittance was found to be {approx} 13 {pi} mm-mrad for 5 ps and 8 ps long laser pulses. At 0.5 nC the measured emittance decreased approximately 20% in the 5 ps case and 40% in the 8 ps case. These measurements are between 40-80% higher than simulations for similar experimental conditions. In addition, the thermal emittance of the electron beam was measured to be 0.5 {pi} mm-mrad.

  20. Open gas exchange system for simultaneous determination of the apparent CO2 assimilation by means of URAS technique and incorporation of 14C into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, F.; Merbach, W.; Freye, E.; Schilling, G.

    1988-01-01

    Apparent CO 2 assimilation and 14 C incorporation into intact plants (Hordeum distichon L., Beta vulgaris L., and Vicia faba L.) were simultaneously measured on the same leaf, using a simple combination of the URAS technique (infrared absorption recorder) and 14 CO 2 fumigation in an open system. As a result of 14 C discrimination during the CO 2 incorporation and respiration losses during harvest and post-harvest treatment, the 14 C method gave always lower CO 2 assimilation values (by 17 to 25%) than the URAS technique. Nevertheless, the results obtained by both methods were closely correlated. Therefore, for quantifying the assimilated CO 2 properly and simultaneously tracing the assimilates synthesized from CO 2 , it is not sufficient to measure solely 14 C incorporation, but to combine both techniques. The system presented is qualified to meet these requirements. (author)

  1. Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures of Nonconducting Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes an accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically nonconducting materials in the temperature range from 1000 to 1800 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 μm. It is particularly suitable for measuring the normal spectral emittance of materials such as ceramic oxides, which have relatively low thermal conductivity and are translucent to appreciable depths (several millimetres) below the surface, but which become essentially opaque at thicknesses of 10 mm or less. 1.2 This test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is particularly suitable for research laboratories, where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, and is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. Because of its high accuracy, this test method may be used as a reference method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in case of dispute. 1.3 This test metho...

  2. Cryogenic Thermal Emittance Measurements on Small-Diameter Stainless Steel Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Tuttle, James G.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2017-01-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument aboard the James Webb Space Telescope includes a mechanical cryocooler which cools its detectors to their 6 K operating temperature. The refrigerant flows through several meters of 2 mm diameter 304L stainless steel tubing, with some sections gold plated, and some not, which are exposed to their environment. An issue of water freezing onto the tube surfaces is mitigated by running a warm gas through the lines to sublimate the frozen water. To model the effect of this process on nearby instruments, an accurate measure of the tube emittance is needed. Previously we reported the absorptance of the gold plated stainless steel tubing as a function of source temperature (i.e. its environment). In this work the thermal emittance of the uncoated tubing is measured as a function of its temperature between 100 and 280 K. These values lead to an accurate prediction of the minimum length of time required to thermally recycle the system. We report the technique and present the results.

  3. Collective centroid oscillations as an emittance preservation diagnostic in linear collider linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.E.; Bane, K.L.F.; Spence, W.L.; Woodley, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    Transverse bunch centroid oscillations, induced at operating beam currents at which transverse wakefields are substantial, and observed at Beam Position Monitors, are sensitive to the actual magnetic focusing, energy gain, and rf phase profiles in a linac, and are insensitive to misalignments and jitter sources. In the pulse stealing set-up implemented at the SLC, they thus allow the frequent monitoring of the stability of the in-place emittance growth inhibiting or mitigating measures--primarily the energy scaled magnetic lattice and the rf phases necessary for BNS damping--independent of the actual emittance growth as driven by misalignments and jitter. The authors have developed a physically based analysis technique to meaningfully reduce the data. Oscillation beta-beating is a primary indicator of beam energy errors; shifts in the invariant amplitude reflect differential internal motion along the longitudinally extended bunch and thus are a sensitive indicator of the real rf phases in the machine; shifts in betatron phase advance contain corroborative information sensitive to both effects

  4. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  5. Stock price forecasting for companies listed on Tehran stock exchange using multivariate adaptive regression splines model and semi-parametric splines technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Reza; Arashi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important topics of interest to investors is stock price changes. Investors whose goals are long term are sensitive to stock price and its changes and react to them. In this regard, we used multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model and semi-parametric splines technique for predicting stock price in this study. The MARS model as a nonparametric method is an adaptive method for regression and it fits for problems with high dimensions and several variables. semi-parametric splines technique was used in this study. Smoothing splines is a nonparametric regression method. In this study, we used 40 variables (30 accounting variables and 10 economic variables) for predicting stock price using the MARS model and using semi-parametric splines technique. After investigating the models, we select 4 accounting variables (book value per share, predicted earnings per share, P/E ratio and risk) as influencing variables on predicting stock price using the MARS model. After fitting the semi-parametric splines technique, only 4 accounting variables (dividends, net EPS, EPS Forecast and P/E Ratio) were selected as variables effective in forecasting stock prices.

  6. Monte Carlo Transverse Emittance Study on Cs2Te

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, F; Galimberti, P G; Giannetti, C; Pagliara, S; Parmigiani, F; Pedersoli, E

    2005-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study of electron transport in Cs2Te films is performed to investigate the transverse emittance epsilon at the cathode surface. We find the photoemitted electron angular distribution and explain the physical mechanism involved in the process, a mechanism hindered by the statistical nature of the Monte Carlo method. The effects of electron-phonon scattering are discussed. The transverse emittance is calculated for different radiation wavelengths and a laser spot size of 1.5*10(-3) m. For a laser radiation at 265 nm we find epsilon = 0.56 mm-mrad. The dependence of epsilon and the quantum yield on the electron affinity Ea is also investigated. The data shows the importance of aging/contamination on the material.

  7. Low emittance optics of photon factory storage ring at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Katoh, M.; Honjo, I.; Araki, A.; Kihara, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new optics is being successfully tested at the Photon Factory Storage Ring (PF-RING) in order to reduce the emittance to 0.13 mm mrad, about one third of the present value. This optics with four additional quadrupole magnets is a modified version of one of the optics designed as an option at the early period of PF construction. One advantage of this new optics is that the beta-function at RF-sections is smaller than that of the old option. The other advantage is that the dispersion function is zero at the long straight sections for insertion devices and RF cavities. The aim of this paper is to describe the new low-emittance optics as well as the parameters of the new quadrupole magnets and power supplies. Some preliminary results of machine study are also presented

  8. Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-02

    The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based on combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated together with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.

  9. Nanodiamond composite as a material for cold electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A V; Sominski, G G; Uvarov, A A; Gordeev, S K; Korchagina, S B

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of field-induced electron emission were investigated for one of newly designed all-carbon materials - nanodiamond composite (NDC). The composite is comprised by 4-6 nm diamond grains covered with 0.2-1 nm-thick graphite-like shells that merge at grain junctions and determine such properties as mechanical strength and high electric conductivity. Large number of uniformly distributed sp 3 -sp 2 interfaces allowed to expect enhanced electron emission in electric field. Combination of these features makes NDC a promising material for cold electron emitters in various applications. Experimental testing confirmed high efficiency of electron emission from NDC. In comparison with previousely tested forms of nanocarbon, NDC emitters demonstrated better stabily and tolerance to performance conditions. Unusual activation scenarios and thermal dependencies of emission characteristics observed in experiments with NDC can add new background for explanation of facilitated electron emission from nanocarbons with relatively 'smooth' surface morphology

  10. Emittance Correction in the 2006 ILC Bunch Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A recent study [1] has indicated substantial potential emittance growth in the ILC bunch compressor due to quad misalignments, BPM misalignments, and pitches in the RF cavities. Table 1 summarizes several results from [1]. In this simulation, quad misalignments and cavity pitches are Gaussian distributed and are considered with respect to the nominal survey line; BPM misalignments are also Gaussian-distributed but are considered with respect to the quadrupole axis. It is assumed that the BPM offsets with respect to the quads are found in a previous quad-shunting BBA step which is not simulated. In this study we seek to repeat the studies documented above, and additionally to perform a study in which additional dispersion bumps are used to further reduce the projected emittance

  11. Generalized emittance measurements in a beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelly, J.; Gardner, C.; Luccio, A.; Kponou, A.; Reece, K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the need to commission 3 beam transport lines for the new AGS Booster project, we have developed a generalized emittance-measurement program; beam line specifics are entirely resident in data tables, not in program code. For instrumentation, the program requires one or more multi-wire profile monitors; one or multiple profiles are acquired from each monitor, corresponding to one or multiple tunes of the transport line. Emittances and Twiss parameters are calculated using generalized algorithms. The required matix descriptions of the beam optics are constructed by an on-line general beam modeling program. Design of the program, its algorithms, and initial experience with it will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Rose, a rotating system for 4D emittance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Michael; Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen; Mickat, Sascha; Du, Xiaonan; Gerhard, Peter; Vormann, Hartmut [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A ROtating System for Emittance measurements ROSE, to measure the full 4 dimensional transverse beam matrix of a heavy ion beam has been developed and commissioned. Different heavy ion beams behind the HLI at GSI have been used in two commissioning beam times. All technical aspects of Rose have been tested, Rose has been benchmarked against existing emittance scanners for horizontal and vertical projections and the method, hard- and software to measure the 4D beam matrix has been upgraded, refined and successfully commissioned. The inter plane correlations of the HLI beam have been measured, yet as no significant initial correlations were found to be present, controlled coupling of the beam by using a skew triplet has been applied and confirmed with Rose. The next step is to use ROSE to measure and remove the known inter plane correlations of a Uranium beam before SIS18 injection.

  13. Tellurium adsorption on tungsten and molybdenum field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, R.A.; Kiwanga, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of the adsorption of tellurium onto tungsten and molybdenum field emitters are described and the results obtained are compared with those obtained in previous work on the adsorption of silicon and selenium. The adsorption of Te onto W was found to be much more uniform than in the case of Se. Although Te is metallic in many of its properties its adsorptive behavior on field emitters is found to be similar to that of selenium and these adsorptive properties are basically common to all semiconductors. The most evident property of these adsorbates is that the work function and emission current decrease simultaneously at coverages of less than half a monolayer and the work function subsequently increases. (B.D.)

  14. Electron Cloud at Low Emittance in CesrTA

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Mark; Billing, Michael; Calvey, Joseph; Conolly, Christopher; Crittenden, James; Dobbins, John; Dugan, Gerald; Eggert, Nicholas; Fontes, Ernest; Forster, Michael; Gallagher, Richard; Gray, Steven; Greenwald, Shlomo; Hartill, Donald; Hopkins, Walter; Kreinick, David; Kreis, Benjamin; Leong, Zhidong; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; Livezey, Jesse; Lyndaker, Aaron; Makita, Junki; McDonald, Michael; Medjidzade, Valeri; Meller, Robert; O'Connell, Tim; Peck, Stuart; Peterson, Daniel; Ramirez, Gabriel; Rendina, Matthew; Revesz, Peter; Rider, Nate; Rice, David; Rubin, David; Sagan, David; Savino, James; Schwartz, Robert; Seeley, Robert; Sexton, James; Shanks, James; Sikora, John; Smith, Eric; Strohman, Charles; Williams, Heather; Antoniou, Fanouria; Calatroni, Sergio; Gasior, Marek; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pfingstner, Juergen; Rumolo, Giovanni; Schmickler, Hermann; Taborelli, Mauro; Asner, David; Boon, Laura; Garfinkel, Arthur; Byrd, John; Celata, Christine; Corlett, John; De Santis, Stefano; Furman, Miguel; Jackson, Alan; Kraft, Rick; Munson, Dawn; Penn, Gregory; Plate, David; Venturini, Marco; Carlson, Benjamin; Demma, Theo; Dowd, Rohan; Flanagan, John; Jain, Puneet; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Sakai, Hiroshi; Shibata, Kyo; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Tobiyama, Makoto; Gonnella, Daniel; Guo, Weiming; Harkay, Katherine; Holtzapple, Robert; Jones, James; Wolski, Andrzej; Kharakh, David; Ng, Johnny; Pivi, Mauro; Wang, Lanfa; Ross, Marc; Tan, Cheng-Yang; Zwaska, Robert; Schachter, Levi; Wilkinson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for a program of electron cloud (EC) research at ultra low emittance. The instrumentation in the ring has been upgraded with local diagnostics for measurement of cloud density and with improved beam diagnostics for the characterization of both the low emittance performance and the beam dynamics of high intensity bunch trains interacting with the cloud. A range of EC mitigation methods have been deployed and tested and their effectiveness is discussed. Measurements of the electron cloud’s effect on the beam under a range of conditions are discussed along with the simulations being used to quantitatively understand these results

  15. Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2016-03-01

    The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based in combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth from CSR can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.

  16. Nanodiamond composite as a material for cold electron emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, A V; Sominski, G G; Uvarov, A A [St.Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 29 Politchnicheskaya, St.Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation); Gordeev, S K; Korchagina, S B [FSUE ' Central Research Institute for Materials' , 8 Paradnaya Street, St.Petersburg, 191014 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: arkhipov@rphf.spbstu.ru

    2008-03-15

    Characteristics of field-induced electron emission were investigated for one of newly designed all-carbon materials - nanodiamond composite (NDC). The composite is comprised by 4-6 nm diamond grains covered with 0.2-1 nm-thick graphite-like shells that merge at grain junctions and determine such properties as mechanical strength and high electric conductivity. Large number of uniformly distributed sp{sup 3}-sp{sup 2} interfaces allowed to expect enhanced electron emission in electric field. Combination of these features makes NDC a promising material for cold electron emitters in various applications. Experimental testing confirmed high efficiency of electron emission from NDC. In comparison with previousely tested forms of nanocarbon, NDC emitters demonstrated better stabily and tolerance to performance conditions. Unusual activation scenarios and thermal dependencies of emission characteristics observed in experiments with NDC can add new background for explanation of facilitated electron emission from nanocarbons with relatively 'smooth' surface morphology.

  17. Emittance growth in non-symmetric beam configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1996-06-01

    Emittance growth in intense beams due to nonuniformity, mismatch, and misalignment has been analyzed by Reiser for the special case of axisymmetry. A more complex problem occurs in cases where a number of discrete beamlets are to be merged into a single focusing channel, for example, in designs for Heavy Ion Fusion drivers or Magnetic Fusion negative-ion systems. Celata, assuming the system to be perfectly matched and aligned, analyzed the case of four round beamlets arranged in a square array. We generalize these previous studies and analyze emittance growth in systems that are less symmetric. We include beam systems that are not necessarily matched and where the x and y moments may be unequal. We also include the possibility of initial convergence velocities that may differ in the two planes and allow for misalignment of the beam center-of-mass position and direction

  18. From classical to quantum plasmonics: Classical emitter and SPASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykin, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The key advantage of plasmonics is in pushing our control of light down to the nanoscale. It is possible to envision lithographically fabricated plasmonic devices for future quantum information processing or cryptography at the nanoscale in two dimensions. A first step in this direction is a demonstration of a highly efficient nanoscale light source. Here we demonstrate two types of nanoscale sources of optical fields: 1) the classical metallic nanostructure emitter and 2) the plasmonic nanolaser - SPASER.

  19. A program to research emittance growth in bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    A research program to explore the phenomenon of emittance growth in bends due to noninertial space-charge effects has been defined and initiated. The program combines theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations. This paper summarizes the motivation of the work and highlights CEBAF's need for immediate results. The program's key elements, some of which qualitatively differ from the standard approach used to investigate the production and effects of coherent synchrotron radiation in synchrotrons and storage rings, are enumerated and discussed. 1 fig

  20. Interconnection network architectures based on integrated orbital angular momentum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffardi, Mirco; Zhang, Ning; Malik, Muhammad Nouman; Lazzeri, Emma; Klitis, Charalambos; Lavery, Martin; Sorel, Marc; Bogoni, Antonella

    2018-02-01

    Novel architectures for two-layer interconnection networks based on concentric OAM emitters are presented. A scalability analysis is done in terms of devices characteristics, power budget and optical signal to noise ratio by exploiting experimentally measured parameters. The analysis shows that by exploiting optical amplifications, the proposed interconnection networks can support a number of ports higher than 100. The OAM crosstalk induced-penalty, evaluated through an experimental characterization, do not significantly affect the interconnection network performance.

  1. Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Actively targeted alpha-particles offer specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. During the last decade, radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on the tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents both in the preclinical and clinical settings. Advantages of radiolabeled peptides over antibodies include relatively straightforward chemical synthesis, versatility, easier radiolabeling, rapid clearance from the circulation, faster penetration and more uniform distribution into tissues, and less immunogenicity. Rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptides with equally rapid re-expression of the cell surface target is a highly desirable property that enhances the total delivery of these radionuclides into malignant sites. Peptides, such as octreotide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, bombesin derivatives, and others may all be feasible for use with alpha-emitters. The on-going preclinical work has primarily concentrated on octreotide and octreotate analogues labeled with Bismuth-213 and Astatine-211. In addition, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue has been labeled with Lead-212/Bismuth-212 in vivo generator and demonstrated the encouraging therapeutic efficacy in treatment of experimental melanoma. Obstacles that continue to obstruct widespread acceptance of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides are primarily the supply of these radionuclides and concerns about potential kidney toxicity. New sources and methods for production of these medically valuable radionuclides and better understanding of mechanisms related to the peptide renal uptake and clearance should speed up the introduction of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides into the clinic. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Device for the radiation centering at electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Jessat, K.; Bahr, G.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been directed at a device for a simplified and reliable centering of electron beams at electron emitters in particular for welding and thermal surface modifications. The electron beam has been focussed relatively to an electron-optical lens. A movable masked electron detector has been arranged at the electron beam deflection plane. The electron detector is connected with an electronic data evaluation equipment

  3. Industrial application of electron sources with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Belyuk, S I; Rempe, N G

    2001-01-01

    Paper contains a description, operation, design and parameters of electron sources with plasma emitters. One presents examples of application of these sources as part of automated electron-beam welding lines. Paper describes application of such sources for electron-beam deposition of composite powders. Electron-beam deposition is used to rebuild worn out part and to increase strength of new parts of machines and tools. Paper presents some examples of rebuilding part and the advantages gained in this case

  4. Multi-gated field emitters for a micro-column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hidenori; Kioke, Akifumi; Aoki, Toru; Neo, Yoichiro; Yoshida, Tomoya; Nagao, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a multi-gated field emitter (FE) such as a quadruple-gated FE with a three-stacked electrode lens and a quintuple-gated FE with a four-stacked electrode lens. Both the FEs can focus the electron beam. However, the quintuple-gated FE has a stronger electron convergence than the quadruple-gated FE, and a beam crossover is clearly observed for the quintuple-gated FE.

  5. Wire scanner data analysis for the SSC Linac emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.Y.; Hurd, J.W.; Sage, J.

    1993-07-01

    The wire scanners are designed in the SSC Linac for measurement of beam emittance at various locations. In order to obtain beam parameters from the scan signal, a data analysis program was developed that considers the problems of noise reduction, machine modeling, parameter fitting, and correction. This program is intended as a tool for Linac commissioning and also as part of the Linac control program. Some of the results from commissioning runs are presented

  6. Impact of water temperature and structural parameters on the hydraulic labyrinth-channel emitter performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Al-Amoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water temperature and structural parameters of a labyrinth emitter on drip irrigation hydraulic performance were investigated. The inside structural parameters of the trapezoidal labyrinth emitter include path width (W and length (L, trapezoidal unit numbers (N, height (H, and spacing (S. Laboratory experiments were conducted using five different types of labyrinth-channel emitters (three non-pressure compensating and two pressure-compensating emitters commonly used for subsurface drip irrigation systems. The water temperature effect on the hydraulic characteristics at various operating pressures was recorded and a comparison was made to identify the most effective structural parameter on emitter performance. The pressure compensating emitter flow exponent (x average was 0.014, while non-pressure compensating emitter’s values average was 0.456, indicating that the sensitivity of non-pressure compensating emitters to pressure variation is an obvious characteristic (p<0.001 of this type of emitters. The effects of water temperature on emitter flow rate were insignificant (p>0.05 at various operating pressures, where the flow rate index values for emitters were around one. The effects of water temperature on manufacturer’s coefficient of variation (CV values for all emitters were insignificant (p>0.05. The CV values of the non-pressure compensating emitters were lower than those of pressure compensating emitters. This is typical for most compensating models because they are manufactured with more elements than non-compensating emitters are. The results of regression analysis indicate that N and H are the essential factors (p<0.001 to affect the hydraulic performance.

  7. A high-throughput 2D-analytical technique to obtain single protein parameters from complex cell lysates for in silico process development of ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Frieder; Elsäßer, Dennis; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-11-29

    The accelerating growth of the market for biopharmaceutical proteins, the market entry of biosimilars and the growing interest in new, more complex molecules constantly pose new challenges for bioseparation process development. In the presented work we demonstrate the application of a multidimensional, analytical separation approach to obtain the relevant physicochemical parameters of single proteins in a complex mixture for in silico chromatographic process development. A complete cell lysate containing a low titre target protein was first fractionated by multiple linear salt gradient anion exchange chromatography (AEC) with varying gradient length. The collected fractions were subsequently analysed by high-throughput capillary gel electrophoresis (HT-CGE) after being desalted and concentrated. From the obtained data of the 2D-separation the retention-volumes and the concentration of the single proteins were determined. The retention-volumes of the single proteins were used to calculate the related steric-mass action model parameters. In a final evaluation experiment the received parameters were successfully applied to predict the retention behaviour of the single proteins in salt gradient AEC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Analysis of A, B Type and Exchange Traded Funds Performances with Mutual Fund Performance Measures, Regression Analysis and Manova Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arslan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate risk- reward relationship and relative performances of the 4 different groups of mutual funds. To this end, daily return data of these 12 mutual funds (3 type variable fund; 3 B type variable fund; 3 A type stock fund and 3 A type Exchange traded fund together with daily market index (imkb100 return and daily return of riskless rate for the period from January 2006 to Feb 2010. The 180-day maturity T-Bill has been selected to represent riskless rate. To determine performances of mutual funds; Sharpe ratio, M2 measure, Treynor index, Jensen index, Sortino ratio, T2 ratio, Valuation ratio has been applied and these indicators produced conflicting results in ranking mutual funds. Then timingand selection capability of the fund manager has been determined by applying simple regression and Quadratic regression. Interestingly all funds found to have positive coefficient, indicating positive election capability of managers; but in terms of timing capability only one fund managers showed success. Finally, to determine extent to which mean returns are differs between mutual funds, market index (imkb100 and riskless rate (180 day TBill results of the analysis revealed that mean returns of individual security returns differs at P≤0,01 level. That shows instability in returns and poor ex-ante forecast modeling capability.

  9. Low Emittance Gun Project based on Field Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ganter, Romain; Dehler, M; Gobrecht, Jens; Gough, Chris; Ingold, Gerhard; Leemann, Simon C; Shing-Bruce-Li, Kevin; Paraliev, Martin; Pedrozzi, Marco; Raguin, Jean Yves; Rivkin, Leonid; Schlott, Volker; Sehr, Harald; Streun, Andreas; Wrulich, Albin F; Zelenika, Sasa

    2004-01-01

    The design of an electron gun capable of producing beam emittance one order of magnitude lower than current technology would reduce considerably the cost and size of a free electron laser emitting at 0.1nm. Field emitter arrays (FEAs) including a gate and a focusing layer are an attractive technology for such high brightness sources. Electrons are extracted from micrometric tips thanks to voltage pulses between gate and tips. The focusing layer should then reduce the initial divergence of each emitted beamlets. This FEA will be inserted in a high gradient diode configuration coupled with a radiofrequency structure. In the diode part very high electric field pulses (several hundreds of MV/m) will limit the degradation of emittance due to space charge effect. This first acceleration will be obtained with high voltage pulses (typically a megavolt in a few hundred of nanoseconds) synchronized with the low voltage pulses applied to the FEA (typically one hundred of volts in one nanosecond at frequency below kilohe...

  10. Transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, T.; Eylon, S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.

    1991-01-01

    Current amplification of heavy ion beams is an integral feature of the induction linac approach to heavy ion fusion. As part of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at LBL the authors have been studying the evolution of the transverse emittance of ion beams while they are undergoing current amplification, achieved by longitudinal bunch compression and acceleration. Experiments are conducted on MBE-4, a four beam Cs + induction linac. The space-charge dominated beams of MBE-4 are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles while they are accelerated from nominally 200 keV up to ∼ 1 MEV by 24 accelerating gaps. Initially the beams have currents of typically 4 mA to 10 mA per beam. Early experimental results showed a growth of the normalized emittance by a factor of 2 while the beam current was amplified by up to 9 times its initial value. The authors will discuss the results of recent experiments in which a mild bunch length compression rate, more typical of that required by a fusion driver, has shown that the normalized emittance can be maintained at its injection value (0.03 mm-mr) during acceleration

  11. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  12. Emittance scans for CMS luminosity calibration in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Emittance scans are short van der Meer type scans performed at the beginning and at the end of LHC fills. The beams are scanned against each other in X and Y planes in 7 displacement steps. These scans are used for LHC diagnostics and since 2017 for a cross check of the CMS luminosity calibration. An XY pair of scans takes around 3 minutes. The BRIL project provides to LHC three independent online luminosity measurement from the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT), the Fast Beam Condition Monitor (BCM1F) and the Forward calorimeter (HF). The excellent performance of the BRIL detector front-ends, fast back-end electronics and CMS XDAQ based data processing and publication allow the use of emittance scans for linearity and stability studies of the luminometers. Emittance scans became a powerful tool and dramatically improved the understanding of the luminosity measurement during the year. Since each luminometer is independently calibrated in every scan the measurements are independent and ratios of luminometers ca...

  13. 1024x1024 resistive emitter array design and fabrication status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Paul T.; Oleson, Jim; McHugh, Stephen W.; Beuville, Eric; Schlesselmann, John D.; Woolaway, James T.; Barskey, Steve; Solomon, Steven L.; Joyner, Thomas W.

    2002-07-01

    Santa Barbara Infrared (SBIR) is producing a high performance 1,024 x 1,024 Large Format Resistive emitter Array (LFRA) for use in the next generation of IR Scene Projectors (IRSPs). LFRA requirements were developed through close cooperation with the Tri-Service IR Scene Projector working group, and through detailed trade studies sponsored by the OSD Central T&E Investment Program (CTEIP) and a Phase I US Navy Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. The CMOS Read-In Integrated Circuit (RIIC) is being designed by SBIR and Indigo Systems under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. Performance and features include 750 K MWIR maximum apparent temperature, 5 ms radiance rise time, 200 Hz full frame update, and 400 Hz window mode operation. Ten 8-inch CMOS wafers will be fabricated and characterized in mid-2002, followed by emitter fabrication in late 2002. This paper discusses array performance, requirements flow-down, array design, fabrication of 2 X 2-inch CMOS devices, and plans for subsequent RIIC wafer test and emitter pixel fabrication.

  14. Fowler Nordheim theory of carbon nanotube based field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parveen, Shama; Kumar, Avshish [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi (India); Husain, Samina [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi (India); Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi (India)

    2017-01-15

    Field emission (FE) phenomena are generally explained in the frame-work of Fowler Nordheim (FN) theory which was given for flat metal surfaces. In this work, an effort has been made to present the field emission mechanism in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which have tip type geometry at nanoscale. High aspect ratio of CNTs leads to large field enhancement factor and lower operating voltages because the electric field strength in the vicinity of the nanotubes tip can be enhanced by thousand times. The work function of nanostructure by using FN plot has been calculated with reverse engineering. With the help of modified FN equation, an important formula for effective emitting area (active area for emission of electrons) has been derived and employed to calculate the active emitting area for CNT field emitters. Therefore, it is of great interest to present a state of art study on the complete solution of FN equation for CNTs based field emitter displays. This manuscript will also provide a better understanding of calculation of different FE parameters of CNTs field emitters using FN equation.

  15. Energy dependence of the emittance of damping ring beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiening, R.

    1985-01-01

    The energy at which the SLC damping rings are operated was chosen to be 1.21 GeV. At the time that that specification was made, the repetition rate of the SLC was expected to be 180 Hz. It is now anticipated that the repetition rate during the initial year of operation of the SLC will be 120 Hz. The following curves which show the output emittance of the damping rings as a function of input emittance and energy suggest that there is a range of energies over which the rings can be operated without changing the SLC luminosity. It should be noted that in the era of polarized beams, the damping ring energy will be fixed at the design value on account of the spin precession required in the LTR and RTL transport lines. The SLC design output emittance of the damping rings is 3 x 10 -5 radian-meters. Because of space charge disruption and quantum emission downstream of the damping rings, much lower values than the design value may not have a large beneficial effect on the luminosity. 3 figures

  16. Superconducting wiggler magnets for beam-emittance damping rings

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-low emittance beams with a high bunch charge are necessary for the luminosity performance of linear electron-positron colliders, such as the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). An effective way to create ultra-low emittance beams with a high bunch charge is to use damping rings, or storage rings equipped with strong damping wiggler magnets. The remanent field of the permanent magnet materials and the ohmic losses in normal conductors limit the economically achievable pole field in accelerator magnets operated at around room temperature to below the magnetic saturation induction, which is 2.15 T for iron. In wiggler magnets, the pole field in the center of the gap is reduced further like the hyperbolic cosine of the ratio of the gap size and the period length multiplied by pi. Moreover, damping wiggler magnets require relatively large gaps because they have to accept the un-damped beam and to generate, at a small period length, a large magnetic flux density amplitude to effectively damp the beam emittance....

  17. Sm isotope composition and Sm/Eu ratio determination in an irradiated 153Eu sample by ion exchange chromatography-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with double spike isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Isnard, H.; Gourgiotis, A.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Mialle, S.; Nonell, A.; Chartier, F.

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of the research undertaken by the French Atomic Energy Commission on transmutation of long-lived radionuclides, targets of highly enriched actinides and fission products were irradiated in the fast neutron reactor Phenix. Precise and accurate measurements of the isotopic and elemental composition of the enriched elements are therefore required. In order to obtain the uncertainties of several per mil and to reduce handling time and exposure to analyst on radioactive material, the on-line coupling of ion exchange chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been associated with the technique of the double spike isotope dilution. We present in this paper the results obtained on an irradiated sample of Europium oxide powder (enriched at 99.13% in 153 Eu). After irradiation of around 5 mg of Eu 2 O 3 powder the theoretical calculations predict the formation of several micrograms of gadolinium and samarium isotopes. In relation to the very high activity of the sample after irradiation and the very low quantity of Sm formed, the on-line ion exchange chromatography separation of Gd, Sm and Eu before Sm isotope ratio measurements has been developed for the quantification of the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio. These on-line measurements were associated with the double spike isotope dilution technique after calibration of a 147 Sm/ 151 Eu spike solution. The external reproducibility of Sm isotopic ratios was determined to be around 0.5% (2 σ) resulting in a final uncertainty on the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio of around 1% (2 σ). These on-line measurements present therefore a robust and high-throughput alternative to the thermal-ionisation mass spectrometry technique used so far in combination with off-line chromatographic separation, particularly in nuclear applications where characterisation of high activity sample solutions is required. (authors)

  18. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  19. The effects of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange volatility on exports

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Ibrahima Amadou

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses panel data cointegration techniques to study the impacts of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility on total exports for a panel of 42 developing countries from 1975 to 2004. The results show that both real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility affect negatively exports. The results also illustrate that real exchange rate volatility is more harmful to exports than misalignment. These outcomes are corroborated by estimations on s...

  20. Impulse Response of the Exchange Rate Volatility to a Foreign Exchange Intervention Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Lin's technique (1997) to report on the impulse response function analysis that traces the dynamics of exchange rate volatility from innovations in Japanese foreign exchange intervention. Using a multivariate GARCH model, we employed a volatility impulse response function based on Lin (1997) to detect the impulse response of exchange rate volatility on a one-unit foreign exchange intervention shock. The main findings of t his paper are as follows: (1) a foreign exchange inter...

  1. A comparative study of the plasmon effect in nanoelectrode THz emitters: Pulse vs. continuous-wave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Il-Min; Han, Sang-Pil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Kyung Hyun, E-mail: khp@etri.re.kr [Terahertz Basic Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyong [Metal-Insulator Transition Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Donghun [Optical Internet Components Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Plasmonic field enhancement in terahertz (THz) generation is one of the recently arisen techniques in the THz field that has attracted considerable interest. However, the reported levels of enhancement of THz output power in the literature are significantly different from each other, from less than two times to about two orders of magnitude of enhancement in power, which implies the existence of other major limiting factors yet to be revealed. In this work, the contribution of the plasmonic effect to the power enhancement of THz emitters is revisited. We show that the carrier collection efficiency in a THz emitter with plasmonic nanostructures is more critical to the device performance than the plasmonic field enhancement itself. The strong reverse fields induced by the highly localized plasmonic carriers in the vicinity of the nanoelectrodes screen the carrier collections and seriously limit the power enhancement. This is supported by our experimental observations of the significantly enhanced power in a plasmonic nanoelectrode THz emitter in continuous-wave radiation mode, while the same device has limited enhancement with pulsed radiation. We hope that our study may provide an intuitive but practical guideline in adopting plasmonic nanostructures with an aim of enhancing the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Phosphorus fertility recapitalization of nutrient-depleted tropical acid soils with reactive phosphate rock: An assessment using the isotopic exchange technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.-C.; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    A 'soil P fertility recapitalization' initiative utilizing large rates of phosphate rocks (PRs) was proposed to improve the soil P status and increase the sustainable food production in acid and P-deficient tropical soils. Two series of experiments were carried out using five tropical acid soils treated with heavy applications of Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR). In the first series, the soils were mixed with GPR at the following application rates: 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg P·kg -1 , and incubated for one month in moist conditions. In another series, 1000 mg P kg -1 applied as GPR was added to three soils and incubated for 1.5 month; thereafter 50 mg P kg -1 as triple superphosphate (TSP) were added. The 32 P isotopic exchange method was utilized to assess the contribution of GPR to the available soil P. Changes in amounts, E, of P transferred with time as phosphate ions from the soil particles to the soil solution as well as changes in pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in soil suspensions were determined. It was found that: (i) the contribution of P from GPR to recapitalization of soil P fertility was mainly assessed by E pool size, pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations; other variables were not significant at the 0.1 level; (ii) heavy applications of GPR did not saturate all the P sorption sites, P freshly applied as water-soluble P was still sorbed; (iii) recapitalization of soil P fertility using GPR was partly obtained in some acid tropical soils; (iv) Upon dissolution, GPR provided calcium ions to crops and to soils, thus reducing Al toxicity, but its liming effect was limited. To explain these effects with heavy application rates of GPR, it was postulated that a coating of Al and Fe compounds is formed around PR particles with time, thus reducing further dissolution. (author)

  3. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  4. Study of the time and space distribution of β+ emitters from 80MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agodi, C.; Bellini, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Collamati, F.; Cuttone, G.; De Lucia, E.; De Napoli, M.; Di Domenico, A.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Iarocci, E.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Paoloni, A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear 511keV photons produced by positrons annihilation from β + emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the 511keV photons emitted after the interactions of a 80MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the β + rate was parametrized and the dominance of 11 C emitters over the other species ( 13 N, 15 O, 14 O) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating β + emitters to be (10.3±0.7)×10 -3 . The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from β + emitters was also measured, D β + =5.3±1.1mm, to be compared to the expected Bragg peak depth D Bragg =11.0±0.5mm obtained from simulations.

  5. Study of the time and space distribution of {beta}{sup +} emitters from 80MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agodi, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Collamati, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Napoli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Di Domenico, A.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Fiore, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Iarocci, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M., E-mail: michela.marafini@roma1.infn.it [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma Tre Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Paoloni, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others

    2012-07-15

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear 511keV photons produced by positrons annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the 511keV photons emitted after the interactions of a 80MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the {beta}{sup +} rate was parametrized and the dominance of {sup 11}C emitters over the other species ({sup 13}N, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating {beta}{sup +} emitters to be (10.3{+-}0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters was also measured, D{sub {beta}{sup +}}=5.3{+-}1.1mm, to be compared to the expected Bragg peak depth D{sub Bragg}=11.0{+-}0.5mm obtained from simulations.

  6. High performance emitter for thermionic diode obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faron, R.; Bargues, M.; Durand, J.P.; Gillardeau, J.

    1973-01-01

    Vapor deposition process conditions presently known for tungsten and molybdenum (specifically the range of high temperatures and low pressures) permit the achievement of high performance thermionic emitters when used with an appropriate technology. One example of this uses the following series of successive vapor deposits, the five last vapor deposits constituting the fabrication of the emitting layer: Mo deposit for the formation of the nuclear fuel mechanical support; Mo deposit, which constitutes the sheath of the nuclear fuel; epitaxed Mo--W alloy deposit; epitaxed tungsten deposit; fine-grained tungsten deposit; and tungsten deposit with surface orientation according to plane (110)W. In accordance with vapor deposition techniques previously developed, such a sequence of deposits can easily be achieved with the same equipment, even without having to take out the part during the course of the process. (U.S.)

  7. Continuous micron-scaled rope engineering using a rotating multi-nozzle electrospinning emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunchen; Gao, Chengcheng; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Li, Jing-Song

    2016-10-01

    Electrospinning (ES) enables simple production of fibers for broad applications (e.g., biomedical engineering, energy storage, and electronics). However, resulting structures are predominantly random; displaying significant disordered fiber entanglement, which inevitably gives rise to structural variations and reproducibility on the micron scale. Surface and structural features on this scale are critical for biomaterials, tissue engineering, and pharmaceutical sciences. In this letter, a modified ES technique using a rotating multi-nozzle emitter is developed and utilized to fabricate continuous micron-scaled polycaprolactone (PCL) ropes, providing control on fiber intercalation (twist) and structural order. Micron-scaled ropes comprising 312 twists per millimeter are generated, and rope diameter and pitch length are regulated using polymer concentration and process parameters. Electric field simulations confirm vector and distribution mechanisms, which influence fiber orientation and deposition during the process. The modified fabrication system provides much needed control on reproducibility and fiber entanglement which is crucial for electrospun biomedical materials.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations of Si-based photonic crystals with ordered Ge quantum dots emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannesari, R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years quasi-two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals, also known as photonic crystal slabs, have been the subject of extensive research. The present work is based on photonic crystals where a hexagonal 2D lattice of air holes is etched through a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slab. Light is guided in the horizontal plane using photonic band-gap properties, and index guiding provides the optical confinement in the third dimension. This work discusses photonic crystal slabs with Ge quantum dots (QDs) as internal sources. Ge quantum dots have luminescence around 1500nm, which is well suited for optical fiber communication in a way that is fully compatible with standard silicon technology. QD emission can be controlled by epitaxial growth on a pre-patterned SOI substrate. In this way the position of the QDs is controlled, as well as their homogeneity and spectral emission range. During this thesis, photonic crystal fabrication techniques together with techniques for the alignment of the photonic crystal holes with the QDs positions were developed. The employed techniques involve electron beam lithography (EBL) and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE). Perfect ordering of the QDs position was achieved by employing these techniques for pit patterning and the subsequent growth of Ge dots using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A second EBL step was then used for photonic crystal writing, which needed to be aligned with respect to the pit pattern with a precision of about ± 30nm. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy was used for the optical characterization of the photonic crystal. The emission from ordered quantum dots in different symmetry positions within a unit cell of photonic crystal was theoretically and experimentally investigated and compared with randomly distributed ones. Besides, different geometrical parameters of photonic crystals were studied. The theoretical investigations were mainly based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA

  9. Magnetic moment of short lived {beta}-emitter {sup 24m}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, D., E-mail: daiki@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Komurasaki, J.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Matsumiya, R. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Momota, S. [Kochi University of Technology (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, RI Center (Japan); Hirano, H. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Ishikawa, D. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan); Watanabe, R.; Kubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nojiri, Y. [Kochi University of Technology (Japan); Alonso, J. R. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The magnetic moment of short lived {beta}-emitter {sup 24m}Al (426 keV, I{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}, T{sub 1/2} = 131 ms) has been measured by means of {beta}-NMR technique, for the first time. From the {beta}-NMR spectrum, the magnetic moment was determined as |{mu}({sup 24m}Al)|=(2.99{+-}0.09){mu}{sub N}. Combined with the known magnetic moment of the mirror partner {sup 24m}Na, the expectation value of < S{sub z} > is obtained to be (0.08 {+-} 0.12). These values are reproduced well by the shell model calculation.

  10. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  11. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  12. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  13. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  14. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  15. Application of inorganic ion exchangers for low and medium activity radioactive effluent decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.; Gambade, R.; La Rosa, G.

    1986-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative pretreatment or treatment for low and medium activity liquid wastes, allowing to improve the quality of containment and decrease the cost of storage. Inorganic ion exchangers are used to remove alpha emitters and long lived fission products and concentrate them in a small volume; these exchangers can be converted into a stable matrix by thermal treatment. This treatment, at least for some liquid wastes, don't exclude a complementary decontamination by chemical precipitation. Sludges, arising from precipitation, exempt from alpha emitters and long lived fission products can be stored in a shallow land burial. This study includes two parts: - Measurements of distribution coefficients for the main nuclides in order to choose, for each liquid wastes, the most suitable ion exchanger. - Estimation of performances of selected inorganic ion exchangers, from tests of percolation of genuine effluents

  16. A novel method to achieve selective emitter for silicon solar cell using low cost pattern-able a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent phosphorus diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da Ming; Liang, Zong Cun; Zhuang, Lin; Lin, Yang Huan; Shen, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► a-Si thin films as semitransparent phosphorus diffusion barriers for solar cell. ► a-Si thin films on silicon wafers were patterned by the alkaline solution. ► Selective emitter was formed with patterned a-Si as diffusion barrier for solar cell. -- Abstract: Selective emitter for silicon solar cell was realized by employing a-Si thin films as the semi-transparent diffusion barrier. The a-Si thin films with various thicknesses (∼10–40 nm) were deposited by the electron-beam evaporation technique. Emitters with sheet resistances from 37 to 145 Ω/□ were obtained via POCl 3 diffusion process. The thickness of the a-Si diffusion barrier was optimized to be 15 nm for selective emitter in our work. Homemade mask which can dissolve in ethanol was screen-printed on a-Si film to make pattern. The a-Si film was then patterned in KOH solution to form finger-like design. Selective emitter was obtainable with one-step diffusion with patterned a-Si film on. Combinations of sheet resistances for the high-/low-level doped regions of 39.8/112.1, 36.2/88.8, 35.4/73.9 were obtained. These combinations are suitable for screen-printed solar cells. This preparation method of selective emitter based on a-Si diffusion barrier is a promising approach for low cost industrial manufacturing.

  17. Emittance growth caused by bends in the Los Alamos free-electron laser energy recovery experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimentally transporting the beam from the wiggler to the decelerators in the energy recovery experiment (ERX) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory free-electron laser was more difficult than expected because of the large initial emittance in the beam. This emittance was apparently caused in an early 60 0 achromatic bend. To get this beam through subsequent bends without wall interception, the quadrupole focusing had to be changed from the design amount; as a result, the emittance grew further. This paper discusses various mechanisms for this emittance growth in the 60 0 bend, including effects caused by path changes in the bend resulting from wake-field-induced energy changes of particles in the beam and examines emittance filters, ranging from a simple aperture near a beam crossover to more complicated telescope schemes designed to regain the original emittance before the 60 0 bend

  18. Radial arrays of nano-electrospray ionization emitters and methods of forming electrosprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan T [West Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2010-10-19

    Electrospray ionization emitter arrays, as well as methods for forming electrosprays, are described. The arrays are characterized by a radial configuration of three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters without an extractor electrode. The methods are characterized by distributing fluid flow of the liquid sample among three or more nano-electrospray ionization emitters, forming an electrospray at outlets of the emitters without utilizing an extractor electrode, and directing the electrosprays into an entrance to a mass spectrometry device. Each of the nano-electrospray ionization emitters can have a discrete channel for fluid flow. The nano-electrospray ionization emitters are circularly arranged such that each is shielded substantially equally from an electrospray-inducing electric field.

  19. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  20. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust.

  1. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust. (paper)

  2. A program to research emittance growth in bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    A research program to explore the phenomenon of emittance growth in bends due to noninertial space-charge effects has been defined and initiated. The program combines theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations. This paper summarizes the motivation of the work and highlights CEBAF close-quote s need for immediate results. The program close-quote s key elements, some of which qualitatively differ from the standard approach used to investigate the production and effects of coherent synchrotron radiation in synchrotrons and storage rings, are enumerated and discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. The Brookhaven ATF low-emittance beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Kirk, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    One component of the experimental program at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) consists of a class of experiments which will study the acceleration of electrons through micron-size structures which are exposed in coincidence to a 100 GW CO 2 laser beam. These experiments require the development and control of an electron beam with geometric emittances on the order of 10 -10 m-rad and intensities on the order of 10 6 electrons. In this paper, the authors describe the strategies for producing such beams and the effects of higher-order aberrations. Particle tracking results are presented for the final-focus system

  4. The Brookhaven ATF low-emittance beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.

    1991-01-01

    One component of the experimental program at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) consists of a class of experiments which will study the acceleration of electrons through micron-size structures which are exposed in coincidence to a 100 GW CO 2 laser beam. These experiments require the development and control of an electron beam with geometric emittances on the order of 10 -10 m-rad and intensities on the order of 10 6 electrons. In this paper, we describe the strategies for producing such beams and the effects of high-order aberrations. Particle tracking results are presented for the final-focus system. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Measurement of Alpha Emitters Concentration in Imported Cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser Allah, Z.K.; Musa, W.A.; AL-Rawi, A.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aime of this study was to measured the alpha emitters concentration of (15) different kinds of imported cigarettes. the nuclear reaction used U-235(n, f) obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons from (Am B e)neutron source with thermal flux of(5*10 3 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The Results obtained showed the values of the Uranium concentration, and varies from (0.041 ppm) in five stares kind to (2.374ppm) in Machbeth (chocolate) 100's kind. All the result obtained are within the limit levels as given by UNSCAR data

  6. Calculations of emittance and damping time effects in the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limberg, T.; Moshammer, H.; Raubenheimer, T.; Spencer, J.; Siemann, R.

    1992-03-01

    In a recent NDR machine experiment the transverse emittance was studied as a function of store time and tune. To explain the observed transverse emittance damping time constants, the magnetic measurement data of the longitudinal field of the bending magnets had to be taken into account. The variation of the transverse emittances with tune due to misalignments and the associated anomalous dispersion is studied as well as the effect of synchrobetatron coupling due to dispersion in the RF cavities

  7. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  8. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  9. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  10. Laser based stripping system for measurement of the transverse emittance of H-beams at the CERN Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, T; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Cheymol, B

    2013-01-01

    The new LINAC4 at CERN will accelerate H- particles to 160 MeV and allow high brightness proton beam transfers to the Proton Synchrotron Booster, via a charge-exchange injection scheme. This paper describes the conceptual design of a laser system proposed for transverse profile and emittance measurements based on photon detachment of electrons from the H- ions. The binding energy of the outer electron is only 0.75 eV and can easily be stripped with a laser beam. Measuring the electron signal as function of the laser position allows the transverse beam profile to be reconstructed. A downstream dipole can also be used to separate the laser neutralized H0 atoms from the main H- beam. By imaging these H0 atoms as a function of laser position the transverse emittance can be reconstructed in the same way as in traditional slit-and-grid systems. By properly dimensioning the laser power and spot size, this method results in negligible beam losses and is therefore non-destructive. In addition, the absence of material ...

  11. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  12. Emittance and trajectory control in the main linacs of the NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Thompson, K.

    1996-09-01

    The main linacs of the next generation of linear colliders need to accelerate the particle beams to energies of up to 750 GeV while maintaining very small emittances. This paper describes the main mechanisms of static emittance growth in the main linacs of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The authors present detailed simulations of the trajectory and emittance control algorithms that are foreseen for the NLC. They show that the emittance growth in the main linacs can be corrected down to about 110%. That number is significantly better than required for the NLC design luminosity

  13. Multibunch emittance growth and its corrections in S-Band linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.

    1994-11-01

    Multibunch emittance growths caused by long range wake fields with the misalignments of accelerating structures and quadrupoles in S-Band linear collider are studied. Tolerances for the misalignment errors of accelerating structures and quadrupoles are given corresponding to different detuned+damped structures. At the end of main linac, emittance corrector (EC) is proposed to be used to reduce further the multibunch emittance. Numerical simulations show that the effect of EC is obvious (multibunch emittance can be reduced about one order of magnitude), and it is believed that this kind of EC will be necessary for future linear colliders. (author). 16 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Emittance growth due to noise and its suppression with the Feedback system in large hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Stupakov, G.

    1993-03-01

    The problem of emittance growth due to random fluctuation of the magnetic field in hadron colliders is considered. Based on a simple one-dimensional linear model, a formula for an emittance growth rate as a function of the noise spectrum is derived. Different sources of the noise are analyzed and their role is estimated for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A theory of feedback suppression of the emittance growth is developed which predicts the residual growth of the emittance in the accelerator with a feedback system

  15. Improvements in emittance wake field optimization for the SLAC Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, Franz Josef

    2003-01-01

    The transverse emittances in the SLAC Linear Collider can be severely diluted by collective wakefield effects and dispersion. For the 1997/98 SLC/SLD run important changes were implemented in the way the emittance is optimized. Early in the linac, where the energy spread is large due to BNS damping, the emittance growth is dominated by dispersion. In this regime emittance tuning bumps may introduce additional wakefield tails and their use is now avoided. At the end of the linac the energy spread is minimal and the emittance measurement is most sensitive to wakefield emittance dilution. In previous years, the emittances were tuned on wire scanners located near but not at the end of the linac (after about 90% of its length). Simulations show that emittance growth of up to 100% can occur in the remaining 10%. In this run wire scanners at the entrance of the Final Focus, the last place where the emittances can be measured, were used for the optimization. Screens at the end of the linac allow additional real time ...

  16. Strong nonlinearity-induced correlations for counterpropagating photons scattering on a two-level emitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; McCutcheon, Dara; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We analytically treat the scattering of two counterpropagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the nonlinearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could be quanti......We analytically treat the scattering of two counterpropagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the nonlinearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could...

  17. Very low recombination phosphorus emitters for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P; Vetter, M; Bermejo, S; Alcubilla, R

    2008-01-01

    This work studies low recombination phosphorus emitters on c-Si. The emitters are fabricated by diffusion from solid sources and then passivated by thermal oxide yielding sheet resistances between 15 and 280 Ω/sq. Emitter saturation current densities lie in the 2.5–110 fA cm −2 range, leading to implicit open-circuit voltages between 674 and 725 mV. Bulk lifetime is limited by intrinsic recombination mechanisms. Surface recombination velocities between 80 and 300 cm s −1 have been obtained, appearing among the lowest reported in this range of emitter sheet resistances

  18. Analysis of emittance compensation and simulation results to photo-cathode RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    LiuShengGuang

    2002-01-01

    The emittance compensation technology will be used on the photo-cathode RF gun for Shanghai SDUV-FEL. The space charge force and its effect on electron beam transverse emittance in RF gun is studied, the principle of emittance compensation in phase-space is discussed. The authors have designed a compensation solenoid and calculated its magnetic field distribution. Its performance has been studied by the code PARMELA. A simulation result indicates that the normalized transverse RMS emittance for electron beam of 1.5 nC is 1.612 pi mm centre dot mrad, electron energy E = 5.71 MeV

  19. Field emission characteristics of a small number of carbon fiber emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkin W. Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experiment that studies the emission characteristics of small number of field emitters. The experiment consists of nine carbon fibers in a square configuration. Experimental results show that the emission characteristics depend strongly on the separation between each emitter, providing evidence of the electric field screening effects. Our results indicate that as the separation between the emitters decreases, the emission current for a given voltage also decreases. The authors compare the experimental results to four carbon fiber emitters in a linear and square configurations as well as to two carbon fiber emitters in a paired array. Voltage-current traces show that the turn-on voltage is always larger for the nine carbon fiber emitters as compared to the two and four emitters in linear configurations, and approximately identical to the four emitters in a square configuration. The observations and analysis reported here, based on Fowler-Nordheim field emission theory, suggest the electric field screening effect depends critically on the number of emitters, the separation between them, and their overall geometric configuration.

  20. Intelligent Variable Emittance Panels Using New, ""True"" Solid Electrolyte, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work further developed a highly promising Variable Emittance technology for spacecraft thermal control based on Conducting Polymer (CP) electrochromics...