WorldWideScience

Sample records for emissions trading system

  1. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  2. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  3. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  4. Restricted linking of emissions trading systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Lambert; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Asselt, van Harro

    2017-01-01

    With over 17 emissions trading systems (ETSs) now in place across four continents, interest in linking ETSs is growing. Linking ETSs offers economic, political, and administrative benefits. It also faces major challenges. Linking can affect overall ambition, financial flows, and the location and

  5. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  6. The European Union’s Emissions Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Andriana Vlachou

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which is often presented as the cornerstone of the EU’s strategy for fighting climate change. The paper analyses the basic design of the scheme, its workings during the first trading period (2005–07), the adjustments made for the second trading period (2008–12) and its performance during the years 2008 and 2009. It also discusses the European Commission’s (EC) proposal to revise the EU ETS for the period 2013–20 a...

  7. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  8. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  9. Emissions and targets of greenhouse gases not included in the Emission Trading System 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.

    2011-06-15

    This report evaluates the European Commission's (EC) proposal to calculate Member States' targets for emissions not included in the Emission Trading System (ETS) (as announced in the so-called Effort Sharing Decision). The calculation procedures and data sources proposed by the EC have been used for calculating non-ETS emission targets for the Netherlands, for the years from 2013 to 2020. In order to compare results, an alternative approach also was introduced and evaluated. In this approach more transparent data sources were used. Furthermore, the report updates the emission forecast of non-ETS emission levels in the Netherlands, for 2020, and evaluates the consequences of excluding uncertainties related to monitoring from the (updated) emission forecast. It is concluded that, for the Netherlands, the non-ETS emission caps as proposed by the EC would result in an emission cap of 105 Mt CO2 equivalent by 2020. This is higher than in the alternative approach, which would result in a cap of 103 Mt CO2 equivalents. The difference is explained by the different data sources that were used. A drawback of the data sources used in the EC proposal is the lack of transparency of part of the data, which resulted in an additional uncertainty as not all issues could be verified. However, other Member States may not have similar data sources available, in case the EC decides to adopt the alternative approach. The calculated emission caps are to be considered as estimates based on the most recent (but sometimes uncertain) statistics. The EC will determine the definite caps by the end of 2012. Based on a 2010 forecast, and including both an updated division of emissions into ETS and non-ETS emissions and a revised methodology for calculating nitrous oxide emissions, we estimate that non-ETS emissions in the Netherlands would be 104 Mt CO2 equivalents by 2020, with an uncertainty range of between 96 and 112 Mt CO2 equivalents. It is our conclusion that non-ETS emission

  10. Emissions trading: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietenberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Evolution of Emissions Trading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Evolution of Design Features...

  11. European union emissions trading system with regard to climate change mitigation in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruse, Ilze

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse the volumes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the European Union Emissions Trading System's (EU ETS) participants in Latvia in relation to their participation therein. After describing and discussing the EU ETS mechanism and its operation in Latvia in the period 2005-2010, the interconnectedness between the GHG emissions and the EU ETS participants' operation is analysed. The analysis concludes that, although the EU ETS has contributed towards GHG emission reduction, due to the growth of the economy, overall GHG emissions from the EU ETS participants in Latvia are increasing.

  12. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how...

  13. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Important aspects of sinks for linking emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsbrunner, Simon; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [Adelphi Research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The discussion on how to design policy instruments to reduce emissions and enhance removals from land use, land use change, and forestry is likely to be a key feature of a future global climate protection framework and will also influence the design of an emerging global carbon market. By analyzing different ETSs it turns out that very specific provisions are in place to deal with carbon sinks. Different instruments, eligible activities and standards reflect the prevailing emissions profile and cultural preferences of a geographic area. The inclusion of forestry in a cap, for instance, makes provisions on additionality and non-permanence obsolete, but increases the relevance of other issues such as accounting and enforcement. (orig.)

  15. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  16. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  17. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  18. Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.

    1999-01-31

    Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

  19. Interaction with environmental policy tools with the Emissions Trading System; Interactie Milieubeleidsinstrumenten met het ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Successively, this paper first discusses some characteristics of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) and then gives the main objectives of the most important targets of interest for the deployment of additional environmental policy instruments. The memo concludes with an analysis in which the interaction between the ETS and some characteristic environmental policy instruments are explained. Next the question is posed whether the implementation of those environmental policy instruments can be understood on the basis of other targets [Dutch] Achtereenvolgens bespreekt deze notitie eerst enkele kenmerken van het ETS om vervolgens een overzicht te geven van de belangrijkste doelstellingen die van belang zijn bij de inzet van aanvullende milieubeleidsinstrumenten. De notitie sluit af met een analyse waarin de interactie tussen het ETS en enkele karakteristieke milieubeleidsinstrumenten wordt toegelicht om vervolgens de vraag te stellen of de inzet van deze milieubeleidsinstrumenten wellicht vanuit andere doelstellingen begrepen kan worden.

  20. Emissions trading under market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, P.

    2013-08-15

    In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the effects of uncertain permit price on the firms choice of emission intensive and clean inputs in an multi-input production process. We also assess the risk aversion factors of some Finnish heat and power producers. Second, we study imperfect competition in output and permit markets with a two-stage model, where output decision is made before permit trades. The emphasis is on the strategic interaction between firms and on the efficiency increasing regulation. Third, we turn back to uncertainty and analyse the welfare difference between emissions trading and emission tax, when some of the firms may be noncompliant. The main finding is that welfare is greater with emission tax than with emissions trading, when at least one firm is noncompliant. Finally, we extend some existing models of permit banking and borrowing to encompass also noncompliant behavior of firms. Here, we analyse the incentives of compliant firms to become noncompliant at some point in time and also the time paths of the choice variables. (orig.)

  1. Price floors for emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Peter John, E-mail: Peter.J.Wood@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Jotzo, Frank, E-mail: frank.jotzo@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Price floors in greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes can guarantee minimum abatement efforts if prices are lower than expected, and they can help manage cost uncertainty, possibly as complements to price ceilings. Provisions for price floors are found in several recent legislative proposals for emissions trading. Implementation however has potential pitfalls. Possible mechanisms are government commitments to buy back permits, a reserve price at auction, or an extra fee or tax on acquittal of emissions permits. Our analysis of these alternatives shows that the fee approach has budgetary advantages and is more compatible with international permit trading than the alternatives. It can also be used to implement more general hybrid approaches to emissions pricing. - Research highlights: {yields} Price floors for emissions trading schemes guarantee a minimum carbon price. {yields} Price floors mean that emissions can be less than specified by the ETS cap. {yields} We examine how price floors can relate to different policy objectives. {yields} We compare different mechanisms for implementing a price floor. {yields} We find that a mechanism where there is an extra tax or fee has advantages.

  2. The EU system for emissions trading after year 2012; EU:s system foer handel med utslaeppsraetter efter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Mathias; Mjureke, David (eds.)

    2007-01-15

    The Government has instructed the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to put forward a proposal for how the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) should be developed after 2012, subject to the overall objective of continuing to reduce emissions with the aim of achieving the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change. In its Council Conclusions (7619/1/05) the EU has interpreted the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change as aiming to achieve emission reductions of 15-30 % in the industrialised countries by 2020. According to Council Conclusions (13435/05), the EU has also decided that the Emissions Trading Scheme should continue after 2012. The starting point for this report is that, after 2012, the Scheme will be a key instrument in achieving cost-efficient emission reductions, not only within the EU but also globally, and regardless of whether, with effect from 2013, the Scheme has become a part of an international climate regime, or is serving as a transition to some future new international climate regime. The purpose of this report is to provide a proposal for how the Emissions Trading Scheme should be developed after 2012. The aim is to construct a system that helps to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases (maintaining climate integrity), that assists measures being taken where they are cheapest (cost efficiency), that is accepted by parties concerned and by the general public (confidence inspiring), and which does not adversely affect the competitiveness of business or industry (competition-neutral). The Agencies recommend that Sweden should adopt the following standpoints concerning development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme after 2012. (Recommended changes to the system presuppose a harmonised implementation throughout the EU.): In connection with international negotiations, Sweden should press for the Emissions Trading Scheme to be developed in such a way as to make it possible to

  3. Emissions Trading: Trends and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides the latest developments of announced, proposed and existing greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes (ETS) around the world since 2006. It also examines different potential design options for ETS (e.g. coverage, allocation mode, provision for offsets), and how these options are treated in the existing, announced or proposed schemes.

  4. The Optimization Model for Interregional Power System Planning considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Renewable Energy Quota Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the rapid construction of ultra-high-voltage (UHV transmission lines promotes interregional resource optimizing configuration and interregional power system planning. This paper analyzes external environment of interregional power system planning from geographical, technical, and policy environments. Then, the paper takes the minimum system investment cost as the optimization objective and constructs the optimization model of interregional power system planning considering carbon emissions trading (CET and renewable energy quota mechanism (REQ. Finally, this paper sets base scenario, carbon emissions trading scenario, renewable energy quota mechanism scenario, and comprehensive scenario for case simulation. The results show that interregional power system planning could connect power grids in different regions, enlarge wind power consumption space, and relieve the inconformity problem between power resource and load demand. CET and REQ can increase the installed proportion of clean energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but the cost of transmission lines construction and system reserve will increase correspondingly. The optimization effect of REQ on power system planning is better than CET. When they are both introduced, the power structure will reach the best, carbon dioxide emissions will achieve the minimum, and comprehensive benefits will become more balanced.

  5. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  6. Emissions credits traded : solar developer sees potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    The issue of buying and selling carbon dioxide emissions reductions through credit trades was discussed. Canada`s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Trading (GERT) pilot program is a first step toward developing a commodity market for greenhouse gas offsets. The program is based on a credit system in which site-specific baselines for emissions are defined. As currently set up, a source reducing its emissions below its baseline receives a credit which can be sold to another source if needed. The first trade submitted to GERT displaces fossil-fuelled electricity with electricity produced by wind turbines. In this deal Calgary`s distribution utility, Enmax, is selling wind power and the resulting emissions reductions to the federal government for use in its own buildings . Another deal which may soon be submitted to GERT is a solar pool-heating project at a recreation centre in Lillooet, British Columbia. It will replace a propane heater. The amount of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions will be calculated from the amount of propane that has been displaced by solar heating.

  7. Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    1998-12-01

    This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Five essays on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2005-03-01

    The thesis discusses energy, environmental and economic aspects of polluting emissions with emphasis on greenhouse gas trade and political measures. 5 papers are included with titles: 1) Carbon trading across sources and periods constrained by the Marrakesh Accords which examines examine the potential effects on permit prices and abatement costs of four compliance rules governing emissions trade across sources and periods in the Kyoto Protocol: The banking rule that allows excess permits to be used later; the restoration rate rule that penalizes borrowing; the commitment period reserve rule that limits sales; and finally, the suspension rule that restricts borrowing and sales. Our framework is a two-period model where parties may be out of compliance in the Kyoto period, but are assumed to comply at a later time. Under varying assumptions about market power and US participation, we find that the rules may have pronounced effects on individual costs, but overall efficiency is not severely affected. 2) Affine price expectations and equilibrium in strategic markets which considers equilibrium in imperfect markets, featuring agents who exchange property rights. Important cases include trade in emission permits of greenhouse gases, or exchange of catch quotas of fish. Some players act strategically while others are price-takers. The ''demand curve'' is endogenous, and it affects all parties. The resulting, reduced objectives need not be concave. Therefore, existence of equilibrium is a delicate matter. To simplify things, and to ensure availability of ''equilibria up to first order'', we presume that all strategic agents form affine price expectations. 3) Greenhouse gases, quota exchange and oligopolistic competition that discusses the problem how quotas can be shared in the ''emissions market'' and how can the agents reach as overall equilibrium in the product market. 4) Strategic markets in property rights

  9. Evaluating CO2 emissions, cost, and service quality trade-offs in an urban delivery system case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Wygonik

    2011-07-01

    The results demonstrate there is not a trade-off between CO2 emissions and cost, but that these two metrics trend together. This suggests the most effective way to encourage fleet operators to limit emissions is to increase the cost of fuel or CO2 production, as this is consistent with current incentives that exist to reduce cost, and therefore emissions.

  10. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices.

  11. Companies and the EU emissions trading system in the period of 2013-2020; Unternehmen und der EU-Emissionshandel in der Periode 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Klaus; Pacher, Christian; Geres, Roland [FutureCamp Climate GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    An increasing number of states are adopting national climate objectives whose implementation is based on the introduction of variously designed emissions trading systems. The third period of the European emissions trading scheme is starting against the backdrop of these developments. For companies the renewed framework further intensifies business implications however it also provides them with new opportunities to expand their business segments on an international scale. An integrated management of a company's emissions position represents an adequate solution in which tracking and evaluating developments in climate policy build an analytical superstructure.

  12. 40 CFR 1042.720 - Trading emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading emission credits. 1042.720..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.720 Trading emission credits. (a) Trading is the exchange of... further trading transactions. (b) You may trade actual emission credits as described in this subpart. You...

  13. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  14. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada, E-mail: hayashi@affrc.go.jp [Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Nagumo, Yoshifumi [Crop Research Center, Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, 857 Nagakura-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-0826 (Japan); Domoto, Akiko [Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute, 530 Kawakita-cho, Ureshino, Matsusaka, Mie 515-2316 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. - Highlights: • Correlated uncertainties were integrated into environment-productivity trade-offs. • Life cycle GHG emissions and crop yields were analyzed using field and survey data. • Three rice production systems using chemical or organic fertilizers were compared. • There were portfolio (insurance) effects in matured technologies. • Analysis of trade-offs and correlated uncertainties will be useful for decisions.

  15. How to design a border adjustment for the European Union Emissions Trading System?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjon, Stephanie; Quirion, Philippe [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED), CNRS, Jardin Tropical, 45 bis Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, F 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne (France)

    2010-09-15

    Border adjustments are currently discussed to limit the possible adverse impact of climate policies on competitiveness and carbon leakage. We discuss the main choices that will have to be made if the European Union implements such a system alongside the EU ETS. Although more analysis is required on some issues, on others some design options seem clearly preferable to others. First, the import adjustment should be a requirement to surrender allowances rather than a tax. Second, the general rule to determine the amount of allowances per ton imported should be the product-specific benchmarks that the European Commission is currently elaborating for a different purpose (i.e. to determine the amount of free allowances). Third, this obligation should apply when the imported product is registered at the EU border, and not after the end of the year as is the case for domestic emitters. Fourth, the export adjustment should take the form of a rebate on the amount of allowances a domestic emitter has to surrender. Five, this rebate should equal the above-mentioned product-specific benchmarks, not the emissions of the particular exporting plant or firm. Finally, the adjustment does not have to apply to consumer products but mostly to basic products. (author)

  16. Cosmopolitanism, climate change, and greenhouse emissions trading

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether international markets in allowances conferring the right to emit greenhouse gases are consistent with a cosmopolitan approach to global and intergenerational justice. After placing emissions trading within the context of both climate change policy and cosmopolitan political theory, three normative objections are examined to the use of emissions trading to mitigate the threat of dangerous climate change. Each objection arises from a different appli...

  17. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system : An agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based

  18. A Joint Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Energy Storage Systems considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Aiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power random on system operation, energy storage systems (ESSs and demand response (DR are introduced to the traditional scheduling model of wind power and thermal power with carbon emission trading (CET. Firstly, a joint optimization scheduling model for wind power, thermal power, and ESSs is constructed. Secondly, DR and CET are integrated into the joint scheduling model. Finally, 10 thermal power units, a wind farm with 2800 MW of installed capacity, and 3×80 MW ESSs are taken as the simulation system for verifying the proposed models. The results show backup service for integrating wind power into the grid is provided by ESSs based on their charge-discharge characteristics. However, system profit reduces due to ESSs’ high cost. Demand responses smooth the load curve, increase profit from power generation, and expand the wind power integration space. After introducing CET, the generation cost of thermal power units and the generation of wind power are both increased; however, the positive effect of DR on the system profit is also weakened. The simulation results reach the optimum when both DR and CET are introduced.

  19. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada; Nagumo, Yoshifumi; Domoto, Akiko

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation-methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 1033.720 - Trading emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading emission credits. 1033.720... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.720 Trading emission credits. (a) Trading is the exchange of emission credits between certificate holders. You...

  1. The implementation of emissions trading in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Antes, R.; Hansjürgens, B.; Letmathe, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates what activities large companies have undertaken to utilize emissions trading and/or offset projects as part of a strategy for climate change. The main objective is to explore how the political conditions in home countries have affected corporate activity towards emissions

  2. Enforcement of emissions trading - sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Weishaar, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the need of an

  3. Enforcement of emissions trading: Sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.; Chen, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the

  4. Models of Co2 emission trading system for projections in MSG6. Documentation and guidance; Utviklingen i stroemforbruket, prisfoelsomheten og stroemmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehn, Taran; Stroem, Birger

    2012-08-15

    Present context of the EU Co2 Emission Trading System (EU ETS) from 2008, involves new measures directed towards a large portion of present emissions sources. Currently there is no basis in statistics figures to offset the consequences of these international obligations in SSB models. In the model projections is nevertheless necessary to model both the current instruments and expected future changes in the rules and forms of association. This paper documents the Ministry of Finance to establish a arrangements for implementing Norway's association with the EU ETS in the model MSG6. It also addresses the EU ETS policy instruments interacting with other objectives and instruments of climate policy, including the Kyoto commitments and various domestic Climate tax systems. The European emissions trading price affect the Norwegian economy through several channels. Firstly, allowances mean that the EU ETS will cover activities that gets an emission rate equal to the permit price, which will influence the players to reduce emissions through various adaptations. Second, the remaining emissions occur subject to quotas, and the proportion who do not receive free allowances will give the state the auction revenue / proceeds. Third, quotas purchased in international markets will affect account surplus. This paper outlines various solutions and concludes by recommending a system that easily can be adapted for studies of any interaction between the EU ETS system and other climate policy objectives. The system can also be easily updated to new data.(eb)

  5. Community system updating and extension concerning greenhouse gas emissions duties trading; Actualizacion y ampliacion del regimen comunitario de comercio de derechos de emision de gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta-Langarika, I.

    2010-07-01

    Approving 29/2009/CE Directive, that amends Directive 2003/87/EC, relating to a trading system for allowances of greenhouse gas emissions in the Community, the European Union wants to improve this system, and, in that way, providing an appropriate tool for achieving the emissions reduction targets, set for 2020: in particular, reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a 20% compared to 1990 levels. Recognizing the virtues of this system as an innovative tool for reducing emissions, it should be harmonized through the use of common standards that ensure equal conditions of the facilities affected and their update, among others, increasing their scope and establishing a system of re-allocation to reduce emissions. At the same time, the regulation adopted by the EU should not address possible competition difficulties, that may arise for the industries affected by this emission trading system, more specifically, the problem of carbon leakage: the phenomenon refers to the risk that European industries must move outside the EU for not being able to cope with competition from other countries with less stringent limitations on this matter. In any case, the regime established by Directive 29/2009/CE is subject to possible changes in function of international countries might conclude. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2011-01-15

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the relative influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors and public acceptance) and firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size and vision). Empirically, our qualitative analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers and project developers in the German power sector which were conducted in 2008/09. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack of stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies significantly across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and organizational changes. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS on its own may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate innovation activities at a level which ensures political long-term targets can be achieved. (author)

  7. Lobbying during the revision of the European emissions trading system: Easier for Swedish industrial insiders than for Norwegian outsiders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miard, Kadri

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and compares the lobbying routes taken by Swedish and Norwegian energy-intensive industry firms during the revision of the European Emissions Trading System. Two key explanatory factors are in focus here - whether the company has its origin in the EU member state Sweden or in non-member Norway; and the size of the company. Six companies are chosen as cases: Norsk Hydro, Norcem and Norske Skog from Norway; and SSAB, Cementa and Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget from Sweden. A key finding is the extensive use of European associations by all these firms in lobbying EU institutions. Also prevalent is the use of national associations, which would indicate benefits in the form of better institutional response to collective lobbying and resource-sharing aspects. Although Norwegian firms seem to have struggled more than Swedish firms when it comes to lobbying EU institutions, due to lack of access to the EU, not all differences can be explained by the fact of originating in an EU member state Sweden or non-member Norway. While company size has a positive effect on the number of available lobbying routes, this appears to depend on cross-border production and possibly other influences as well.(auth)

  8. Sectoral and regional expansion of emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Bouwe, Dijkstra; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    We consider an international emissions trading scheme with partial sectoral and regional coverage. Sectoral and regional expansion of the trading scheme is beneficial in aggregate, but not necessarily for individual countries. We simulate international CO{sub 2} emission quota markets using marginal abatement cost functions and the Copenhagen 2020 climate policy targets for selected countries that strategically allocate emissions in a bid to manipulate the quota price. Quota exporters and importers generally have conflicting interests about admitting more countries to the trading coalition, and our results indicate that some countries may lose substantially when the coalition expands in terms of new countries. For a given coalition, expanding sectoral coverage makes most countries better off, but some countries (notably the USA and Russia) may lose out due to loss of strategic advantages. In general, exporters tend to have stronger strategic power than importers.(Author)

  9. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...... all the six relevant greenhouse gases or only CO2 should be traded. What is the simplest and most practicable solution? We argue in favour of the latter option for three main reasons: the possible dominating global warming potential of CO2, expected future developments in CO2 emissions and the fact...

  10. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    that industry will have most influence on government policy, with environmental organizations taking second place. Our conclusion is that most interest groups prefer a combination of government trading and credit trading even though permit trading is more efficient. Furthermore, some governments prefer......The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...... government trading because it retains the possibility of hot air trading. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  11. Combined Heat and Power and Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this IEA Information Paper is to help policy makers and other stakeholders understand the challenges facing the incorporation of high efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) into greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) -- and to propose options for overcoming them.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The major regulatory experiment with greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU enables legal scholars to learn lessons regarding its design options and implementation problems. Some fundamental concerns are: (1) the issue of how to develop a fair allocation method, also in view of carbon leakage;

  13. Evaluation of Emissions Trading. Final Report; Evaluatie Emissiehandel. Eindrapportage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, V. (and others)

    2007-08-15

    Evaluation of emission trading with recommendations for improving and simplifying the trading system. The research limits itself to the aspects that can be adjusted by the Dutch government or improvements that can be influenced in the European Union. [mk]. [Dutch] Evaluatie van de emissiehandel met aanbevelingen om het handelssysteem te verbeteren en te vereenvoudigen. Het onderzoek beperkt zich tot hetgeen de Nederlandse overheid aan het systeem kan aanpassen of verbeteringen die het in de Europese Unie kan beinvloeden.

  14. Non-utility producers fear emission trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J

    1990-02-01

    This paper reports on the reaction of a non-utility power organization to the emission trading provisions of the Clean Air Act. The proposed amendments now being considered by both houses of Congress would place an absolute cap on the total SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions that can be released from fossil-fired electric generating plants nationwide. Under the proposal, emissions of SO{sub 2} from fossil-fired plants must be reduced by 9 million tons/year below those of 1980. This would be accomplished in two phases: plants over 100 MW must reduce emissions down to 2.5 lb/MMBtu after 1995; and by 2001 plants larger than 75 MW must not exceed emissions of 1.2 lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2}.

  15. The Liability Rules under International GHG Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    Article 17 or the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. in designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability rules has been considered to be one

  16. EU emissions trading: Distinctive behavior of small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Naegele, Helene; ZAKLAN, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the cornerstone of the European Union's climate policy and covers just under half of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions. More than ten years since the EU ETS was first introduced, there continues to be substantial research interest regarding its functioning and the behavior of participating companies. DIW Berlin conducted three econometric studies based on microdata at company and/or installation level. The findings suggest that, overall, there are o...

  17. Emissions trading: a transatlantic journey for an idea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which the EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading system (ETS) affected the design of similar programs in North America. It investigates the conditions under which EU pioneering policy can play a role in extra-EU jurisdictions’ policy-making. The empirical

  18. Carbon pricing : transaction costs of emissions trading vs. carbon taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Coria, Jessica; Jaraite, Jurate

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we empirically compare the transaction costs from monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of two environmental regulations directed to cost-efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions: a carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and a tradable emissions system. We do this in the case of Sweden, where a set of firms are covered by both types of regulations, i.e., the Swedish CO2 tax and the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). This provides us with an excellent case study as i...

  19. The trading game : emissions trading schemes offer pollution as a market commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, D.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the market mechanisms for emissions trading. The concept emerged in signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol in response to their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions trading systems allow large polluters to buy and sell pollution credits in order to meet emission reduction targets. While member states in the European Union (EU) started trading in February 2005, Canada is still developing its own proposal that will be introduced in 2008 to correspond with the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol. In contrast to the European model that places absolute limits on GHG emissions, the Canadian system is intensity-based. Heavy polluters, known as large final emitters, will have to cut emissions of the 6 GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol as a percentage of their total industrial output. Companies that reduce their emissions more than their defined targets can trade the surplus as credits on the open domestic market. It was argued that this allows businesses to meet their own emissions targets while failing to contribute effectively to Canada's overall Kyoto target. In addition, in order to lessen the burden to industry, Canada has imposed a $15 cap on the price of credits, which is in contrast to the European system. It was argued that businesses in Europe will be more motivated to meet their targets because of the higher value on European pollution credits. With less onus on business in Canada to reduce absolute targets, the burden of reducing GHG emissions has shifted to federal taxpayers. The paper addressed some of the factors that led to Canada's decision to use an intensity-based system. One main factor was the refusal of the United States to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and the cost disadvantage this would create for Canadian firms. However, some argue that by paying more attention to energy use, companies can reduce emissions and increase shareholder value by achieving cost savings that are greater than the

  20. Lobbying in climate protection. The national arrangement of the European emission trading system; Lobbyismus im Klimaschutz. Die nationale Ausgestaltung des europaeischen Emissionshandelssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendinger, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    The national implementation of the European Union's Emission Trading Scheme in the member states shows a wide variation in regard to the ambition of reduction targets and allocation rules. While Germany, Europe's biggest emitter, flooded the market with emission permits and provided an abundance of generous privileges to powerful coal companies, Great Britain as Europe's second biggest emitter was stingy and put significant reduction burdens on its domestic economy. In a comparative assessment of the National Allocation Plans of the EU Emission Trading Directive in Germany, the UK and the Netherlands, our study assesses explanatory factors for these differences, based on the conceptual frame of the neo-institutionalistic approach. The study reveals that the institutional opportunity structures of the respective political system and the structure of state-associations-relations represent the crucial factors for interest groups' influence rather than adaptation and/or problem pressure, and thus account for the differences in the environmental ambitiousness of National Allocation Plans. In particular, the German Bundesrat as a veto point and the antagonism between the Ministries for the Environment and for the Economy can be observed as important opportunities for interest groups to push forward their interests. The implementation of the EU Emission Trading Scheme was neither a mere administrative performance of European requirements, nor the elegant transfer of a policy instrument from the academic textbooks into reality, but rather a complex national decision-making process faced with severe distributional conflicts. Only the interaction of interests, institutions and logics of political competition can deliver an explanation for the variance of national policy implementation observed.

  1. Trading sulphur emissions under the Second Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foersund, Finn R.; Naevdal, Eric

    1997-07-01

    Emission trading is a potent policy instrument in theoretical analyses of environmental policy. However, trading in emission quotas of non-uniformly dispersed pollutants requires that the offsetting quantities vary with location of sources. Such a system is not yet in use. The Second Sulphur Protocol for Europe makes it possible to try out a system of ``exchange rates`` through a clause allowing ``joint implementation`` of emission reductions. In this report, the authors investigate some properties of a system with exogenous exchange rates within a simultaneous trade model based on cost efficiency. Incorporation of constraints on depositions in third party countries may be necessary in order to get third party country cooperation. It is demonstrated that imposition of constraints is feasible, but it is also revealed what demands such incorporation places on the design of the institutional setting. Constraints on trade should only be introduced when the concern for the environment of the various receptors fail to be captured adequately by the calibration of the exchange rates. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Emissions trading and profit-neutral grandfathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, Cameron; Ritz, Robert; Quah, John (Oxford Univ., Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the amount of grandfathering needed for an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to have a neutral impact on firm profits. We provide a simple formula to calculate profit-neutral grandfathering in an asymmetric Cournot model with a general demand function. Using this formula, we obtain estimates of profit-neutral grandfathering for the electricity, cement, newsprint and steel industries. Under the current EU ETS, firms obtain close to full grandfathering. We find no evidence that any industry as a whole could be worse off with full grandfathering. We also show that the common presumption that a higher rate of cost pass-through lowers profit-neutral grandfathering is unreliable

  3. Summary: Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  4. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  5. Emissions Trading and Promotion of Renewable Energy: We Need Both

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2009-01-01

    Emissions trading and the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources are key elements of German and European energy and climate policy. However, some critics oppose a targeted promotion of renewable energy, arguing in particular that this is ineffective or even damaging in conjunction with European emissions trading. Yet upon closer examination, the coexistence of emissions trading and promotion of renewable energy is not only possible, it is essential-provided the interactions bet...

  6. Contribution of an emission trading scheme to reduce road traffic induced CO2 emissions in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Christoph; Stark, Juliane; Sonntag, Axel; Hössinger, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The Emission Trading Scheme for green house gases is a key tool of European climate protection. Including the road transport sector might be a promising strategy to limit its CO2 emissions. This could be realized within a common market (trans-sectoral trading permitted) or separated markets (trans-sectoral trading not permitted). Starting from different assumptions on emission reduction objectives, the impact of both options is analyzed using a quantitative model. Although an emission trading...

  7. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  8. Linking CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping to the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per [Nature Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of the report is to analyse the feasibility of a cap-and-trade system for CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping linked to the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). The idea presented in the paper is to tie the permission for a ship to call at a port of a participating country to the vessels participation in a scheme for emissions trading under a common cap. The ship would be liable for emissions from fuel bunkered during, say, six months prior to a call at a participating port. With this design, emissions from the return voyages of ships involved in intercontinental traffic would automatically be covered, and shipowners and operators would gain nothing by calling at ports just outside the European Union. The geographical scope would thus be global, albeit limited to ships that call at ports of the European Union (and other participating states). The fuel consumption, that the surrendered CO{sub 2} allowances would have to match, could be declared by using the existing mandatory bunker delivery notes that all ships above 400 GT need to keep according to Regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI. The report discusses various ways for initial allocation of allowances and concludes that the least distorting method would be to sell them on auction and recycle all or most of the revenues to the shipping sector in a way that does not interfere with the objective of the trading scheme. In the case where Maritime Emissions Trading Scheme (METS) is initially limited to the ports of the European Union, at least 6 200 million ton less CO{sub 2} would be emitted over the 23 years between 2012 and 2035 compared to a business-as-usual scenario. However, a great part of this would be reductions in land-based sources paid indirectly by the shipping sector. (orig.)

  9. Influence of the Emissions Trading Scheme on generation scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockar, Ivana; McDonald, James R. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Conejo, Antonio J. [University of Castilla, La Mancha Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The paper investigates the effects of emissions constraints and Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on the generation scheduling outcome. ETS is a cap-and-trade market mechanism that has been introduced in European Union in order to facilitate CO{sub 2} emissions management. This scheme gives generators certain amount of CO{sub 2} allowances which they can use to cover emissions produced during energy generation. In a current setting, most of the allowances are given for free. However, under ETS generators also have an opportunity to buy and sell CO{sub 2} allowances on the market. Since generation power outputs are bounded by the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions that they are allowed to produce over time, it is becoming increasingly important for generating units to manage their allocations in the most profitable way and decide when and how much of permissions to spent to produce electricity. The method proposed here allows for modeling of this new limitation by including costs of buying and selling of CO{sub 2} allowance in the generation scheduling procedure. It also introduces additional emissions constraints in the problem formulation. Although CO{sub 2} permissions and energy are traded in separate markets, the proposed formulation permits analysis on how emission caps and emission market prices can influence market outcome. The method is illustrated on a 5-unit system. Given examples compare (i) a base-case when all generators have made a decision to use portions of their total free allocations that do not cause any shortfall during the investigated time period; (ii) two cases when the least expensive generators' decisions on the amount of free allowances they are willing to use during the considered period are insufficient. In all cases generators also submit prices at which they expect to be able to ''top-up'' or sell allowances on the market, however, only in the second and third case the ''buying'' option becomes

  10. Investigating trade-offs between the operating cost and green house gas emissions from water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Ruben; Kadehjian, K; Abraham, E.; Stoianov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    For electricity grids with an increasing share of intermittent renewables, the power generation mix can have significant daily variations. This leads to time-dependent emission intensities and volatile electricity prices in the day-ahead and spot market tariffs that can be better utilised by energy

  11. The EU Emissions Trading Directive: Opportunities and Potential Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Pizer, William; Kruger, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The European Union is on the verge of establishing an emissions trading program ten times the size of the Acid Rain trading program in the United States. Its design takes advantage of many lessons from existing experience with trading programs, as well as economic theory, and innovates in important ways. While we view this as an impressive development, concerns about equity, enforcement, and efficiency remain. Specifically, a lack of data and weaker environmental institutions in some EU Membe...

  12. the europeanisation of emissions trading gerard h.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    ABSTRACT. The adoption of carbon market trading in the European Union (EU) was far from assured. Prior to the Kyoto Protocol, the EU had been critical of market trading and had expressed grave reservations regarding its potential contribution to climate governance. Given this historical backdrop, the EU's conversion to ...

  13. The European Union's Emissions Trading System. Written testimony for US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbeke, J. [Directorate-General for Climate Action, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-07-15

    Both Europe and the USA have clearly stated in the 2010 ICAO Assembly that they support global goals to limit global international aviation emissions at or below 2005 levels by 2020. Part of the the conclusion of this testimony is as follows: The EU wants to see a comprehensive and non-discriminatory multilateral agreement in ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) on aviation emissions as soon as possible, and the US, EU and other players now need to work together to develop renewed momentum for substantive talks in ICAO at global level. The European Union and the United States have a key role to play in crafting such an international consensus. Working together also requires respecting each others' rules and regulations.

  14. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  15. Impact of Carbon Quota Allocation Mechanism on Emissions Trading: An Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes an agent-based simulation system of the carbon emissions trading in accordance with the complex feature of the trading process. This system analyzes the impact of the carbon quota allocation mechanism on emissions trading for three different aspects including the amount of emissions reduction, the economic effect on the emitters, and the emissions reduction cost. Based on the data of the carbon emissions of different industries in China, several simulations were made. The results indicate that the emissions trading policy can effectively reduce carbon emissions in a perfectly competitive market. Moreover, by comparing separate quota allocation mechanisms, we obtain the result that the scheme with a small extent quota decrease in a comprehensive allocation mechanism can minimize the unit carbon emission cost. Implementing this scheme can also achieve minimal effects of carbon emissions limitation on the economy on the basis that the environment is not destroyed. However, excessive quota decrease cannot promote the emitters to reduce emission. Taking into account that several developing countries have the dual task of limiting carbon emissions and developing the economy, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive allocation mechanism of the carbon quota and increase the initial proportion of free allocation.

  16. Greenhouse Gases Emissions Reduction and WTO Trade Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwan Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reductioGreenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reduction, this paper examines recently proposed border GHGs adjustment measures and various WTO agreements as potential tools that are promising or not promising. This paper also suggests how to make WTO’s potential tools ready and how to build global consensus so that we can avoid unilateral trade measures for climate change. Finally, policy implications for Korea are discussed.

  17. Why quota trade should be restricted: The arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westskog, Hege

    2001-07-01

    In this paper I try to clarify the background and arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading in negotiating the Kyoto Protocol and their suggestions of how the supplementarity cap in the Kyoto agreement can be operationalized. I discuss economic arguments for restricting quota trade with a focus on the market power issue, transaction costs, and ancillary benefits of reducing emissions of climate gases. I also address the problem of hot air as an important argument to restrict quota trade, and arguments for restrictions connected to technological innovation. Finally, I look into the ethical considerations of restrictions. (author)

  18. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of

  19. Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Management under Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang LI

    2016-01-01

    To curb global warming man has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) created to the atmosphere by human activities, and it cannot neglect the efforts of corporate communities. Indeed, companiesa direct emissions are dwarfed by supply chain GHGs from an industry sector. No matter to prepare for future environmental regulations or to improve competitive advantages, companies are realizing that they have to reduce and mitigate GHGs from the supply chain perspective. Emission trading (also ca...

  20. Contrasting emission trading in the EU and China: An exploration of the role of the courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Li, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    China and the EU have both engaged in formulating climate laws in order to contribute to a global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The focus of both is on emission trading. This instrument is designed and implemented according to very different political and legal systems in China and the EU.

  1. Emissions trading. Legal issues with the third allocation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Markus [SCHOLTKA und PARTNER, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The rules governing the allocation of emission allowances will change radically for the third allocation (trading) period starting in 2013: the allocation of allowances for emissions trading will be based on uniform European provisions. There will no longer be any free emission allowances for electricity production; all allowances will have to be purchased at auction instead. By contrast, industry will be eligible for a free allocation of emission allowances based on uniform Union-wide benchmarks, however these benchmarks are very onerous. A decision, which set out the rules, including the benchmarks of greenhouse gas emissions performance, was formally adopted by the European Commission on 27 April 2011. The demands on installation operators during the allocation process, which is supposed to be concluded by as early as autumn 2011, are therefore greater than they were before, and will also present a challenge in terms of timeframe. (orig.)

  2. Judicial aspects of emission trade. Emission trade in the European Union; Juridische aspecten van emissiehandel. Emissiehandel in de Europese Unie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beuge, M.J.J. [EnergieGroep Simmons en Simmons Trenite, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-02-01

    Emission trade will start in Europe in 2005. In a series of articles an overview will be given of several juridical aspects with respect to the international and national trade of emission. In part 1 attention was paid to the international judicial basis for the present climate policy. In this article an overview is given of developments with regard to emission trade in the European Union. [Dutch] In 2005 zal in Europa een begin worden gemaakt met de emissiehandel. In een aantal artikelen wordt een overzicht gegeven van de verschillende juridische aspecten die samenhangen met de internationale en nationale emissiehandel. In deel 1 werd ingegaan op de internationaalrechtelijke basis voor het huidige klimaatbeleid. In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van de ontwikkelingen m.b.t. emissiehandel in de Europese Unie.

  3. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... commitment period. In addition, the proposals are tested for their sensitivity to national circumstances and to market power. We find that penalties are sufficient to deter non-compliance if they are high enough and are effectively enforced. If the non-compliance penalties are weak or poorly enforced...

  4. Impacts of the EU emissions trading scheme on the industrial competitiveness in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Verena; Schumacher, Katja; Matthes, Felix C.; Mohr, Lennart [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Duscha, Vicky; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration present a discussion of methods, and provide empirical results for the analysis of effects of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on product costs and subsequent impacts on international competitiveness. The discussion shows that the combination of intensity of trade indicators and value at stake indicators reveals meaningful results that allow assessing the potential for distortion in competitiveness by the EU Emissions Trading Schemes. The analysis of trade intensities and value at stake showed that a small number of sectors may in fact be exposed to distortions in competitiveness due to both high trade intensity and high value at stake. For Germany, these include 'basic iron and steel', 'fertilizers and nitrogen compounds', 'paper and paperboard', 'aluminium and aluminium products' and 'other basic inorganic chemicals'. A number of other sectors reveal a high intensity of trade but low value at stake which implies that the increase in product costs due to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme is relatively small and negative effects on competitiveness may not be likely. For the sectors that reveal high values at stake and high trade intensities, market positions are likely to change under the EU Emissions Trading system due to increased production costs and high exposure to international competition. When deciding on which sectors are highly exposed to possible distortions in competitiveness and which measures should be implemented to address competitiveness and leakage it should be kept in mind that CO{sub 2} costs are only one of multiple factors affecting companies' production and investment decisions. Other factors that may deserve detailed investigation include product differentiation and market segmentation within a sector (including specialty products), close cooperation with domestic/European partners and intrafirm trade, differences across countries in the

  5. Examining drivers of the emissions embodied in trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leying Wu

    Full Text Available Emissions embodied in provincial trade (EEPT have important effects on provinces' responsibilities for carbon emission reductions. Based on a multi-regional input-output model, we calculated EEPT for China's 30 provinces in 2002, 2007 and 2010, and we attempted to determine the drivers of EEPT. The results showed that, during this period, the ratio of EEPT to production-based emissions increased over time, reaching 40.24% in 2010. In consideration of its important role in carbon emissions, we analyzed the factors attributable to EEPT through structure decomposition analysis. The decomposition results showed that final demand and carbon emission intensity were two major factors in EEPT, while the final demand in other provinces and the carbon emission intensity in the local province were major factors for Emissions embodied in provincial exports and the final demand in the local province and the carbon emission intensity in other provinces were major factors for Emissions embodied in provincial imports. Regarding the differences among the EEPT of different provinces, changes in the structure of trade were the primary reason.

  6. A structural decomposition analysis of the emissions embodied in trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yan; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    The aim of this study is to quantify the driving forces behind the growth of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in trade (EET). The World Input-output Database is used to estimate EET in 40 countries during 1995-2007 after which a structural decomposition analysis is applied. To avoid biases in the

  7. Does EU Emissions trading bite? : An event study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Thijs; Couwenberg, Oscar; Woerdman, Edwin

    The aim of this paper is to examine whether shareholders consider the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as value-relevant for the participating firms. An analysis is conducted of the share prices changes as caused by the first publication of compliance data in April, 2006, which disclosed an

  8. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  9. Pricing Strategies under Emissions Trading - an experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wraake, Markus; Myers, Erica; Mandell, Svante; Holt, Charles; Burtraw, Dallas

    2008-10-15

    An important feature in the design of an emissions trading program is how emission allowances are initially distributed into the market. The choice between an auction and free allocation should, according to economic theory, not have any influence on the firms' production choices nor on consumer prices. However, many observers are still incredulous that firms should be expected to raise product prices to include the value of emissions allowances they receive for free. Throughout much of Europe and the U.S., energy markets have been deregulated or are in the process of moving toward market liberalization. If market behavior does not conform to predictions of behavior in a competitive market, this may say a great deal about the nature of market liberalization in energy markets as well as about the behavior of environmental markets. If firms are able to voluntarily moderate commodity prices to be below competitive levels, it suggests an ability of these entities to exercise market power or collude - even if this is motivated by a desire to hold back and not pass through the value of emissions allowances in product prices. This paper reports on the use of experimental methods to investigate behavior with respect to how prices will be determined under a cap-and-trade program. We find participants in the experiments employ various approaches. Some participants initially recognize the opportunity cost of emission allowances and included them in their economic choices regardless of how the allowances have been obtained, and other subjects initially do not. However, given a simple economic setting in which payoffs depend on this behavior, we find that subjects learn to consider the value of allowances and overall behavior moves toward that predicted by economic theory. The observations from the experiments may help to understand the ongoing public debate over the interaction of the EU ETS and energy markets. Emission allowance markets are a new phenomenon to many

  10. Municipal solid waste management planning considering greenhouse gas emission trading under fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Gordon

    2014-03-15

    Waste management activities can release greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere, intensifying global climate change. Mitigation of the associated GHG emissions is vital and should be considered within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic integer programming (FPIM) model has been developed for waste management facility expansion and waste flow allocation planning with consideration of GHG emission trading in an MSW management system. It can address the interrelationships between MSW management planning and GHG emission control. The scenario of total system GHG emission control is analyzed for reflecting the feature that GHG emission credits may be tradable. An interactive solution algorithm is used to solve the FPIM model based on the uncertainty-averse preferences of decision makers in terms of p-necessity level, which represents the certainty degree of the imprecise objective. The FPIM model has been applied to a hypothetical MSW planning problem, where optimal decision schemes for facility expansion and waste flow allocation have been achieved with consideration of GHG emission control. The results indicate that GHG emission credit trading can decrease total system cost through re-allocation of GHG emission credits within the entire MSW management system. This will be helpful for decision makers to effectively determine the allowable GHG emission permits in practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. Wilmar - deliverable 4.1

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ravn, H.F.; Schmidt, R.; Weber, C.

    2004-01-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets” (WILMAR) and describes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEP’s) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGC’s) forelectricity produced from renewable energy sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spo...

  12. Emissions trading for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in the EU law. A contribution to the transferability of the system of the Directive 2003/87 on (other) air pollutants; Emissionshandel fuer NO{sub x} und SO{sub 2} im EU-Recht. Ein Beitrag zur Uebertragbarkeit des Systems der RL 2003/87 auf (andere) Luftschadstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, Astrid [Freiburg i.Ue. Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Europarecht

    2011-03-15

    Currently, it is discussed, whether emissions trading for NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) is introduced at EU level following the example of the Directive 2003/87 in accordance with the existing emissions trading for greenhouse gases. The contribution under consideration reports on the possible design of such a system and shows the problems involving an integration of such an emissions trading system in the Clean Air Act. There is a particular emphasis on the question whether under such a system an effective air pollution control (at local and regional level) can be ensured. Other questions are: (a) To what extent arise frictions with selected European Union legislative acts?; (b) How can these frictions be adapted?.

  13. The effect of agricultural trade liberalisation on land-use related greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse

  14. Fuel change and capacity modifications in emissions trading; Brennstoffwechsel und Kapazitaetsmodifizierungen im Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Christian P.

    2011-07-01

    Economic considerations and the need for modernization may induce power plant operators to change the mode of operation of their power systems. Against the background of European and German constitutional law, the author investigates the consequences of fuel change, with particular regard to the German laws TEHG and EEG. Also, the consequences of plant modification for emission certificates trading are gone into.

  15. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upston-Hooper, K. [c/o Greenstream Network Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Perrells, A. [VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, K. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Helsinki (Finland); Mehling, M. [University of Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  16. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.; Anttonen, K. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)). Email: kalle.maatta@joensuu.fi; Upston-Hooper, K. (GreenStream Networks, Helsinki (Finland)); Mehling, M. (Univ. of Greifswald (Germany)); Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi

    2009-07-01

    The project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  17. Does emissions trading render the promotion of renewable energies superfluous?; Macht der Emissionshandel die Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien ueberfluessig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Erik [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie; Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement; Lehmann, Paul [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie

    2011-03-15

    Since the introduction of European emissions trading there have been critical voices questioning the economic soundness of running an emissions permit trading system alongside the promotion of renewable energy through the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). They assert that rather than contributing to climate protection the EEG actually makes its realisation more expensive and that it undermines emissions trading, an instrument considered ideally suited to its purpose. However this line of argumentation overlooks the fundamental economic, political and institutional conditions that govern the market-driven competition between technologies. These conditions speak in favour of a policy mix.

  18. Air transport in the EU emissions trading system. Consequences for the air transportation sector, consumers and the environment; De luchtvaart in het EU-emissiehandelssysteem. Gevolgen voor de luchtvaartsector, consumenten en het milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkman, J.; Moorman, S.; De Wit, J.

    2012-03-15

    Research has been conducted on the effects of aviation in the EU ETS (European Emission Trading system). In this study, a model and various scenarios were used to explore a bandwidth of possible effects and their magnitude. Moreover, the effects of possible retaliatory measures of parties outside the EU have been examined [Dutch] Er is onderzoek gedaan naar de effecten van de luchtvaart in het EU-ETS (Europese emissiehandelssysteem). In het onderzoek is met behulp van een model en diverse scenario's een bandbreedte van mogelijke effecten en hun orde van grootte verkend. Tevens is gekeken naar de effecten van mogelijke vergeldingsmaatregelen van partijen buiten de EU.

  19. Define a course for the France in the european system of emissions quotas exchange in agreement with the European Emission Trading Scheme directive; Definir un cap pour la France dans le systeme europeen d'echange de quotas d'emissions en accord avec la directive 'ETS'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The project aims to define an independent evaluation of a course in France for the application of the European Emissions Trading Scheme, in the part I and II, taking into account the objective of the emission trading directive, using public data available in march 2006. In a first part the author presents the five key criteria which should be used to define the National Allocation Plan. The next part is the definition of the course and the last part the implications of the course. (A.L.B.)

  20. Emission trading scheme: market analysis and forecasting scenarios; Emission Trading scheme: analisi di mercato e scenari previsivi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clo, Stefano [Universita' di Bologna, Bologna (Italy). Facolta' di Economia; Desalvo, Tobia [Scuola Mattei Master MEDEA, (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    This article offers an economic analysis of the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) and its institutional framework; we introduce an economic model able to simulate some possible market price's scenarios. The aim of this article is to offer a better market fundamentals' comprehension and to help economic agents building their expectations about market's development. [Italian] Questo articolo offre un'analisi economica dell'Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) e delle istituzioni pubbliche che lo interessano. Viene, inoltre, presentato un modello economico elaborato per simulare l'andamento futuro dei prezzi, con l'obiettivo di contribuire ad una migliore comprensione dei meccanismi di mercato e di facilitare la formulazione di aspettative.

  1. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1. The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air, and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1 Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP. (2 The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  2. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  3. Does permit price reflect fundamentals in the European Union emissions trading market? Theory and econometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.; Ollikainen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Economics and Management

    2007-07-01

    The European Union launched the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions trading system (EU ETS) to alleviate climate change and reach its Kyoto commitment. The EU ETS is the largest and most ambitious emissions trading program in the world. Its development, price fluctuations and volumes exchanged have been of great interest before the start of the program and during the almost three years of trading. Most of the interest has focused on the following questions: Can the EU ETS actually achieve the desired reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, given the heterogeneity of countries and industries involved? Does the permit price follow fundamentals, given that the system is politically created and subject to all uncertainties associated with climate policies? Does the EU ETS provide sufficient incentives to invest in greener technologies and in renewable energy sources? The authors investigate how closely the price of emission permits reflects market fundamentals in the EU ETS. They postulate uncertain permit price and risk-averse firms. The firms produce final goods, abate their emissions and trade permits in the permit market. The dependence of the equilibrium permit price on exogenous variables is studied in a permit market model. They test their theoretical findings with empirical data from 2005--2006 in the EU ETS. They use forward prices of both EUA07 and EUA08 as their dependent variable. Given the dominant role of energy sector in the emissions trading market, they use electricity price as a representative of the price of final good and prices of fuels as the relevant cost items. They use an econometric model with stationary time series to discover that there is a strong relationship between the fundamentals, such as German electricity price and gas and coal prices and the price of EUA. The authors find that both EUA forward prices reflect the fundamentals, especially price of electricity, clean dark and clean spark spreads, as well as the gas-coal difference.

  4. 75 FR 69884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... Implementation Plan (SIP) that create and amend the Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program... Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances Program? IV. What is EPA's evaluation of the Emissions Banking...

  5. European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances; Europaeischer Emissionshandel, Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz und das Recht der Umweltbeihilfen. Plaedoyer fuer einen ''more environmental approach'' im EU-Wettbewerbsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Max

    2016-07-01

    The book on European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances covers the following issues: The European emission trading system and the European law on competition, the European emission trading system and competitive concerns; The European renewable energy law and the European law on competition, The European renewable energy law and competitive concerns; environmental protection the European competition policy.

  6. Emissions trading and fuel efficiency in road transport. An analysis of the benefits of combining instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, Bettina; Davidson, Marc D.; Faber, Jasper (CE, Delft (Netherlands))

    2008-11-15

    Despite EU and national climate policies, CO{sub 2}-emissions in the transport sector have grown steadily in the past decades, whereas many other sectors have managed to reduce emissions. Now that increasingly ambitious CO{sub 2}-emission reduction targets are being discussed for 2020 and beyond, the pressure on the transport sector to contribute to reaching these goals is clearly increasing. One of the options for additional climate policy in road transport is CO{sub 2}- emissions trading. The sector could, for example, be included in the EU ETS, or a separate trading system could be set up. The present report, commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, discusses these options. First, an overview is provided of the key literature published on this topic so far. Second, the potential drawbacks and benefits of combining this type of policy with a CO{sub 2} emission regulation for new passenger cars is assessed. In the past years, various reports have been written on emissions trading in road transport. Some of these reports were broad, scouting studies; others went into somewhat more detail, focussing on specific options or effects. From these studies we conclude that emission trading could be an effective means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the road transport sector, if an upstream trading system is chosen, i.e. a system in which the oil companies are the trading entities. It is also concluded that a CO{sub 2} tax on fuel may have the same effect as an emissions trading system, at lower cost for the society, provided that the tax rate is set at the appropriate level. This measure may, however, face political difficulties. The societal costs of emission reduction are relatively high in the road transport sector. Consequently, if a separate trading system is set up for road (or surface) transport and the transport sector is required to reduce emissions by the same percentage as other sectors, then the price of emission allowances will be much

  7. 76 FR 15 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... and amend the Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA Program establishes... Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA Program establishes a cap and trade program to...

  8. Emissions trading. A practical manual; Emissionshandel. Ein Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elspas, M. [Deutsche Bahn AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Salje, P. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Stewing, C. (eds.) [Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The book describes the ecological and economic fundamentals of emissions trading. German legislation is viewed in the context of international and European law. Legal regulations and national allocation plans of other countries are presented. Legal and practical aspects of the allocation procedure are discussed, e.g. applications, monitoring, legal protection, and of emissions trading in general, e.g. buying, selling, transfer, registration. The user is also given valuable information on emission certificates in business economy, balancing, and taxation. Specific aspects of the industries concerned are discussed explicitly. [German] Das Werk beschreibt die oekologischen und oekonomischen Grundlagen des Emissionsrechtehandels. Es stellt die nationale Umsetzung in Deutschland in den voelker- und europarechtlichen Kontext; hierbei werden u. a. die Umsetzung der Vorgaben in den wesentlichen Teilnehmerstaaten und deren nationale Allokationsplaene vorgestellt. Das Handbuch behandelt rechtliche und praktische Fragen aus dem Zuteilungsverfahren (u. a. Antrag, Monitoring, Rechtsschutz) und aus dem Emissionsrechtehandel (z. B. An- und Verkauf, Uebertragung, Register). Zusaetzlich erhaelt der Nutzer wertvolle Informationen ueber die betriebswirtschaftliche, bilanzielle und steuerliche Behandlung der Emissionszertifikate. Auf branchenspezifische Besonderheiten der betroffenen Industriezweige wird explizit eingegangen.

  9. Legal Frameworks for Emissions Trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl Upston-Hooper, K. [Greenstream Network, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, K. [VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Mehling, M. [University of Griefswald (Germany)

    2006-12-19

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. (orig.)

  10. Trade Services System Adaptation for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrichenkov, A.; Shaufler, V.; Bannikova, L.

    2017-11-01

    Under market conditions, the trade services system in post-Soviet Russia, being one of the most important city infrastructures, loses its systematic and hierarchic consistency hence provoking the degradation of communicating transport systems and urban planning framework. This article describes the results of the research carried out to identify objects and object parameters that influence functioning of a locally significant trade services system. Based on the revealed consumer behaviour patterns, we propose methods to determine the optimal parameters of objects inside a locally significant trade services system.

  11. EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Investments in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.D.; Stefanoni, S.

    2007-07-01

    How environmental regulation affects electricity players' investment decisions? Should policy makers look beyond for alternative mechanisms - such as energy efficiency, capture and storage of carbon dioxide, and incentives for renewables - to fulfill the environmental objectives set by Kyoto Protocol? This paper suggests - through a Real Option approach - how the efficacy of the EU Emission Trading Scheme on technological innovation, emissions reduction and energy price dynamics, is strongly affected by the 'hysteresis' emerging from the capital budgeting process of main utilities. As a matter of fact, long-term substitutions between coal-fired units and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine plants production only take place under quite restrictive conditions. (auth)

  12. Electricity trade and GHG emissions: Assessment of Quebec's hydropower in the Northeastern American market (2006-2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Amor, Mourad, E-mail: ben.amor@b2b2c.c [CIRAIG-Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [CIRAIG-HEC Montreal (Canada); Gaudreault, Caroline [NCASI (Canada); Samson, Rejean [CIRAIG-Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Worldwide electricity sector reforms open up electricity markets and increase trades. This has environmental consequences as exports and imports either increase or decrease local production and consequently greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper's objective is to illustrate the importance of electricity trade's impact on GHG emissions by providing an estimate of the net GHG emissions resulting from these trades. To achieve this objective, Quebec hourly electricity exchanges with adjacent jurisdictions were examined over the 2006-2008 period. In order to associate a specific GHG emission quantity to electricity trades, hourly marginal electricity production technologies were identified and validated using the Ontario hourly output per power plant and information released in the Quebec adjacent system operator reports. It is estimated that over three years, imports into Quebec were responsible for 7.7 Mt of GHG, while Quebec hydropower exports avoided 28.3 Mt of GHG emissions. Hence, the net result is 20.6 Mt of avoided emissions over 2006-2008, or about 7 Mt per year, which corresponds to more than 8% of the Quebec yearly GHG emissions. When GHG emissions from all life cycle stages (resource extraction to end-of-life) are accounted for, the net avoided GHG emissions increase by 35%, to 27.9 Mt. - Research highlights: {yields} Environmental benefits of hydropower exports are considerable. {yields} Detailed GHG assessment of such electricity trade is missing from the literature. {yields} Net GHG emissions estimate resulting from such trade is provided. {yields} GHG gains are significant in the Northeast American electricity market due to such electricity trade.

  13. An emerging equilibrium in the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredin, Don, E-mail: don.bredin@ucd.ie; Muckley, Cal, E-mail: cal.muckley@ucd.i

    2011-03-15

    The European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is the key policy instrument of the European Commission's Climate Change Program aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to eight percent below 1990 levels by 2012. A critically important element of the EU ETS is the establishment of a market determined price for EU allowances. This article examines the extent to which several theoretically founded factors including, economic growth, energy prices and weather conditions determine the expected prices of the European Union CO{sub 2} allowances during the 2005 through to the 2009 period. The novel aspect of our study is that we examine heavily traded futures instruments that have an expiry date in Phase 2 of the EU ETS. Our study adopts both static and recursive versions of the Johansen multivariate cointegration likelihood ratio test as well as a variation on this test with a view to controlling for time varying volatility effects. Our results are indicative of a new pricing regime emerging in Phase 2 and point to a maturing market driven by the fundamentals. These results are valuable both for traders of EU allowances and for those policy makers seeking to improve the design of the European Union ETS.

  14. Assuring the credibility of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolderman, H; Carrington, M. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    The EU emission trading system (EU ETS) requires installations to monitor their emissions, to compile an annual emissions report and to have it independently verified. The verifier is also required to attest to the installation's compliance with the conditions of its GHG permit, the implementation of an approved emissions monitoring methodology and other relevant regulatory requirements. The verification of emissions within the EU ETS is required to ensure that the reported emissions are complete and accurate. This is essential to ensure the environmental integrity of the scheme, to instil confidence in the scheme and to ensure the efficient functioning of the market. In this article we introduce the basic framework for monitoring, reporting and verification outlined in the EU Emissions Trading Directive, and associated national regulations. In February 2005 the PricewaterhouseCoopers Climate Change Services network conducted a survey to investigate the current status of EU ETS accreditation and verification. For this purpose we approached the competent authorities of all EU Member States with a questionnaire. In this chapter we highlight the main findings and conclusions of the PwC-survey on EU ETS verification. The articles in part 3 ('Spotlights') provide background information for a better understanding of the issues raised and may help identifying solutions.

  15. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  16. REGULATION AND TRADING WITH GREEN HOUSE EFFECT GASES AND ADVANTAGES OF SERBIA'S ENTRY IN THE EMISSION MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Petrovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendency to make flexible mechanism in order to stop climate change developed new kind of market based on emission trading system. Market as regulatory mechanism is capable to stop further pollution of the environment and achieve primary goal in allocation of emission permits between those who need them and those who possess them. Modern prediction are based on opinion that carbon markets will have great impact on global economy in near future. However today his influence is miserable comparing to some other markets, even though there are several very influential trading projects that are established inside EU, one of them is EU ETS. European Union trading scheme is not only important for developed countries, but also for those who have aspiration to become part of EU. Therefore basic purpose of this work is to represent principles of Carbon trading market, his function and historical development and connect them with possible advantages of Serbia's entry in the emission market.

  17. The feasibility of domestic CO{sub 2} emissions trading in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missfeldt, F. [ed.; Hauff, J.

    2000-10-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO{sub 2} emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector is thought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion of the coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of the coal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO{sub 2} emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion of fossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a 'core program' was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including all enterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning the instrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream

  18. Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.

  19. Efficiency versus Equality: Comparing Design Options for Indirect Emissions Accounting in the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inha Oh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Korean emissions trading scheme (ETS has one special characteristic that makes it different from other schemes, such as the EU ETS. While the other schemes consider only direct emissions from fossil fuels, the Korean ETS also regulates indirect emissions arising from the consumption of electricity. The problem of double counting arises under this setting, in which emissions from the power sector can be accounted for twice, when electricity is produced and consumed. This study aims to compare design options on indirect emissions accounting for the Korean ETS using a computable general equilibrium model. Four scenarios are generated for options accounting for direct and/or indirect emissions and are evaluated in terms of efficiency and equality. The result shows that the ETS operates most efficiently when only direct emissions are considered. However, the option that includes both direct and indirect emissions produces a competent result in terms of equality by spreading the economic burden of emissions reduction among industries. We conclude that this option can be an alternative to meet the key purposes of the Korean ETS.

  20. NOx Emission Trading in a European Context: Discussion of the Economic, Legal, and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P.A. Dekkers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission trading is a new instrument in environmental policy. It is an alien notion in most European countries and it is often viewed with hesitation. The paper discusses the economic, legal, and perhaps more importantly, the cultural aspects to consider when one tries to explore the prospects for trading emissions of NOX and other substances in Europe. Issues to be addressed are the present legal framework in Europe in relation to the national emission ceilings on NOX and other substances on the basis of relevant EU directives and UNECE protocols. The paper will discuss the extent to which the legal framework within the EU imposes constraints on the design of a national emission trading scheme, and what options are available to fit emission trading into that legislative structure. The NOX emission trading programme developed in the Netherlands will be used to demonstrate the various aspects in a European context.

  1. Emissions trading - background, responsibilities, outlook; Emissionshandel in Deutschland - Hintergrund, Aufgaben, Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettke, J. [DEKRA Umwelt GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of emissions trading in Europe has imposed new demands on companies. Classified as power-intensive, the ceramics industry is directly affected by the European Directive 2003/87/EC on emissions trading. The related duties can be grouped as follows: application for the allocation of allowances - monitoring of emissions - reporting of emissions. Since laws on emissions trading were passed in a rush, there are a number of open issues that now begin to be solved jointly by companies, consultants and the competent authorities. However, a special focus should be put on financial and management aspects which have frequently been considered the environmental officer's exclusive responsibility. (orig.)

  2. Fraud risks in emissions trading; Frauderisico's bij handel in emissierechten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [Dutch] Het systeem van emissiehandel is een complex samengesteld geheel met aan de ene kant een belangrijke milieucomponent en aan de andere kant een financiele wereld die ingehaakt heeft op dit instrument. In hoofdstuk 2 wordt een introductie gegeven op het systeem van emissiehandel. In de volgende hoofdstukken wordt dieper ingegaan op Fraudevormen (hoofdstuk 3), Bevoegdheden (hoofdstuk 4), en Instrumentarium (hoofdstuk 5). Uit het rapport blijkt dat verschillende vormen van fraude zijn optreden bij de handel in emissierechten, zoals BTW-fraude en identiteitsfraude.

  3. Impacts on CO2 Emission Allowance Prices in China: A Quantile Regression Analysis of the Shanghai Emission Trading Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Zhang; Lu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) has been implemented in China for more than two years. An investigation into the impacts of different factors on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission allowance prices provides guidance for price-making in 2017 when the nation-wide ETS of China will be established. This paper adopts a quantile regression approach to estimate the impacts of different factors in Shanghai emission trading scheme (SH-ETS), namely, economic growth, energy prices and te...

  4. Developments in the emissions trading market 2009; Utvecklingen paa utslaeppsraettsmarknaden 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, Sophie; Karlberg, Marie; Myrman, Johanna

    2010-07-01

    The Energy Agency has analyzed the development of emissions trading within the EU and globally in 2009. The analysis relates to larger events which mainly affected the prices and traded volumes during the year. The analysis includes the market for European emissions, markets for the project-based mechanisms, development of trade with the assigned emission units (AAUs), the unregulated market and developments in other trading in the world. The report is based on existing studies and monitoring of markets development during January to November 2009

  5. Multinational corporations and emissions trading. Strategic responses to new institutional constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.M.; Kolk, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the Kyoto Protocol intended to implement emissions trading globally, this has so far been impossible. As a result, particularly Multinational Corporations (MNCs) currently face a wide variety of emissions trading schemes that differ in scope and enforcement, thus creating divergent levels

  6. The best (and worst of GHG Emission Trading Schemes: Comparing the EU ETS with its followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Borghesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Emission Trading System (EU ETS is generally considered as the prototype system for the other Emission Trading Systems (ETSs for the reduction of Greenhouse Gases (GHG that are rapidly spreading around the world. To get a deeper understanding on the actual capacity of the EU ETS to stand as a model for the other ETSs, the present paper discusses the differences and similarities of the EU ETS with respect to the other main ETSs and the emerging trends that these systems seem to share, comparing the different cap and trade regimes in order to identify the best practices and the desirable features that future ETSs should have. As emerges from the comparative analysis performed in this article, although the followers share some common flaws with the EU ETS, they have also shown the capacity to innovate and possibly devise alternative ways to manage their own ETS regimes, which may in the long term jeopardise the EU leadership in the ETSs context.

  7. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An alternative trading system shall comply with the requirements in paragraph...

  8. Emission trading beyond Europe: linking schemes in a post-Kyoto world

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the economic impacts of linking the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) to emerging schemes beyond Europe, in the presence of a post-Kyoto agreement in 2020. Simulations with a numerical multi-country model of the world carbon market show that linking the European ETS induces only marginal economic benefits: As trading is restricted to energy-intensive industries that are assigned generous initial emissions, the major compliance burden is carried by non-trading industries exc...

  9. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market; Die Ueberwachung von Stromgrosshandelsmarkt und Emissionshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, Volker [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Forschungszentrum Energiewirtschaft/Energierecht (fee); Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Wettbewerbsrecht; Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  10. 76 FR 19739 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; System Cap Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Administrative Code, Chapter 101--General Air Quality, Subchapter H--Emissions Banking and Trading, Division 5... . List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; System Cap Trading...

  11. EPA`s new emissions trading mechanism: A laboratory evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, T.N. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Plott, C.R. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The centerpiece of the acid rain control program in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is a system of tradable emission permits. Utilities must hold permits to emit sulfur dioxide, and the number of available permits will decline over time to reduce total emissions. This paper reports 12 laboratory markets that investigate trader behavior in this new institution and evaluate its performance relative to the more commonly observed uniform price call mmarket The uniform price version is found to be more efficient, induces more truthful revelation of underlying values and costs, provides more accurate price information, and is more responsive to and recovers more quickly from changes in the underlying market conditions.

  12. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Dario; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J.; Bastianoni, Simone; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO2-eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO2-eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO2-eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    A debate has - most notably as a result of the introduction of fixed caps within the framework of emissions trading - been raised about the need for using additional instruments of climate and energy policy. A common line of argument is that the targets set within the emissions trading scheme are going to be met with a high degree of certainty, and flexibility among the regulated stakeholders will lead to market-based discovery processes. Additional instruments would only generate additional costs and would therefore have to be rejected. However, closer analysis of these fundamental arguments shows that they are constructed on a very high level of abstraction and sometimes rely on strongly simplifying or idealising assumptions. Their theoretical assumptions are, at least in part, very questionable and do not correspond to conditions in the real world for climate and energy policy. At the same time the debate about policy instruments cannot be held autonomously of the specific context of the problem at hand. In this sense the very extensive (complete) and above all effective decarbonisation of the economies of industrialised countries in a comparatively short time frame is the key basic condition for the analysis, assessment and design of the climate policy mix. Essentially, the question is what the best instruments are for purging the whole economic system almost entirely of CO{sub 2} emissions within a period of only forty years. The introduction of emissions trading schemes for greenhouse gases in an increasing number of OECD countries undoubtedly constitutes an important landmark of climate policy. They: - provide a high degree of certainty in terms of meeting targets; - create, on the basis of a standardised price signal, a clearing mechanism for the broad spectrum of emission reduction options close to the market, at least in the short to medium term; and - represent, by means of linking, an interesting option in terms of the globalisation of climate policy

  14. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. Wilmar - deliverable 4.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ravn, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets” (WILMAR) and describes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEP’s) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGC’s) forelectricity produced from renewable energy...... sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spot pricesat the electricity market. The variations of the spot price imply that some types of power...... generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise thefossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEP’s is expected...

  15. Incentives for energy efficiency in the EU emission trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Group for Sustainability and Technology; Betz, Regina [New South Wales Univ. (Australia). Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets

    2008-07-01

    This paper explores the incentives for energy efficiency induced by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for installations in the energy and industry sectors. Our analysis of the National Allocation Plans for 27 EU Member States for phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-2012) suggests that the price and cost effects for improvements in carbon and energy efficiency in the energy and industry sectors will be stronger than in phase 1 (2005-2007), but only because the European Commission has substantially reduced the number of allowances to be allocated by the Member States. To the extent that companies from these sectors (notably power producers) pass through the extra costs for carbon, higher prices for allowances translate into stronger incentives for demand- side energy efficiency. With the cuts in allocation to energy and industry sectors these will be forced to greater reductions, thus the non-ET sectors like household, tertiary and transport will have to reduce less, which is more in line with the cost-efficient share of emission reductions. The findings also imply that domestic efficiency improvements in the energy and industry sectors may remain limited since companies can make substantial use of credits from the Kyoto mechanisms. The analysis of the rules for existing installations, new projects and closures suggests that incentives for energy efficiency are higher in phase 2 than in phase 1 because of the increased application of benchmarking to new and existing installations and because a lower share of allowances will be allocated for free. Nevertheless, there is still ample scope to further improve the EU ETS so that the full potential for energy efficiency can be realized. (orig.)

  16. The emissions trading in view of the jurisdiction. Pt. 1; Der Emissionshandel im Lichte der Rechtsprechung. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobes, Stefan [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Emissionshandel zur Bekaempfung des Treibhauseffektes' ' ; Engel, Gernot-Ruediger [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany)

    2011-02-28

    With the introduction of emissions trading in the year 2003, the legislator has created a new, complex field of law which specially challenges the jurisdiction. The task of the jurisdiction primarily consisted to clarify constitutional issues and to design the system. Meanwhile there exist more than 100 decisions of European and German courts. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the German jurisprudence on the Directive 2003/87/EC and on general issues of emissions trading in the period between 1st September, 2004 and 30th June, 2010.

  17. Study on the Coordination of Supply Chain Based on Carbon Emissions Trading Considering the Retailers’ Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the coordination of supply chain in the context of carbon emissions trading mechanism, which considering the competition between retailers. Centralized and decentralized supply chain models were constructed to discuss the price of product, to avoid the losses of profit from the decentralized decision-making, the revenue-sharing contract was introduced to coordinate the supply chain. Research shows that the carbon emissions trading reduce emissions effectively, but the higher price of carbon emissions trading cut down the total profit of supply chain; The competition between retailers upgrades the supply chain members’ profit; Coordination was achieved by introducing the revenue-sharing contract. Finally, numerical example was given to illustrate the validity of the revenue-sharing contract, and the sensitivity analysis of parameters such as the price of the emissions trading and the retailers’ competition were presented.

  18. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  19. The Adaptation Law for emissions trading. Part 2. A level playing field for emissions trading?; De Aanpassingswet handel in emissierechten. Deel 2. Een level playing field voor emissiehandel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, S. [Praktijkgroep Energy and Carbon, De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    To supplement, clarify and simplify the regulations for emission trading, the Amendment Act emission trading II was submitted to the Dutch Lower Chamber end of 2009. This article discusses the pending bill and comments on a number of remarkable stipulations that may be important to the market parties. First a brief overview is provided of the basic principles of emission trading and the players in the CO2 market. [Dutch] Ter 'aanvulling, verduidelijking en vereenvoudiging' van de regelgeving m.b.t. emissiehandel werd eind 2009 bij de Tweede Kamer de Aanpassingswet handel in emissierechten II ingediend. Dit artikel bespreekt het hangende wetsvoorstel en plaatst kanttekeningen bij een aantal opmerkelijke bepalingen die voor marktpartijen van belang kunnen zijn. Eerst wordt een kort overzicht gegeven van de basisprincipes van emissiehandel en de spelers op de CO2-markt.

  20. Changing Energy Policy. The proposed Energy Efficiency Directive and its consequences for Renewable Energy and EU Emission Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, D. [European Renewable Energies Federation EREF, BRussels (Belgium); Nysten, J. [Becker Buettner Held BBH, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    When the foundations for the EU Emission Trade System were laid in 1998, neither renewable energy nor energy efficiency were explicitly taken into account. Now, over a decade later, the EU's climate and energy policy include three-pronged 2020 targets to increase efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure a minimum share of renewables in the energy mix. However, without careful coordination between the different legislative measures, it is likely that one system will distort the functioning of the other and in the end, the EU will fall short of its bigger energy and climate goals. The Commission's recent Proposal for an Energy Efficiency Directive has been sent to the Parliament and, most recently, a Draft Report has been released by the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. Against this backdrop, the following article examines the compatibility of the Commission's proposal with the existing Emission Trade System and the Renewable Energy Directive.

  1. 75 FR 81484 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA Program establishes a cap and trade program to...

  2. Photochemical modeling of emissions trading of highly reactive volatile organic compounds in Houston, Texas. 1. Reactivity based trading and potential for ozone hot spot formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Thompson, Tammy; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Webb, Alba; Allen, David T

    2007-04-01

    As part of the State Implementation Plan for attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality has created a Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOC) Emissions Cap and Trade Program for industrial point sources in the Houston/Galveston/Brazoria area. This program has a number of unique features, including its focus on a limited group of ozone precursors and its provisions for trading emissions based on atmospheric reactivity. This series of papers examines the potential air quality impacts of this new emission trading program through photochemical modeling of potential trading scenarios; this first paper in the series describes the air quality modeling methods used to assess potential trades, the potential for localized increases in ozone concentrations (ozone "hot spots") due to HRVOC emission trading, and the use of reactivity scales in the trading. When HRVOC emissions are traded on a mass basis, the simulations indicate that trading of HRVOC allowances between facilities resulted in less than 0.15 ppb (ozone concentrations, respectively. Maximum decreases in ozone concentrations associated with trading, as opposed to across-the-board reductions, were larger than the increases. All of these changes are small compared to the maximum changes in ozone concentrations due to the VOC emissions from these sources (up to 5-10 ppb for 8 h averages; up to 30 ppb for 1-h averages). When emissions of HRVOCs are traded for other, less reactive emissions, on a reactivity weighted basis, air quality simulations indicate that daily maximum ozone concentrations increased by less than 0.3%. Because these relatively small changes (ozone concentrations (all emissions traded into localized regions), the simulations indicate that the implementation of the trading program, as currently configured and possibly expanded, is unlikely to cause localized increases in ozone concentrations ("hot spots").

  3. The market effectiveness of electricity reform: A case of carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Xiao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the national carbon emission trading market established by 2017. The establishment of carbon emission trading market is the most important one in power reform, which helps to promote the power reform and achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction. As the bond of connecting environment energy issues and the economic development, carbon emissions trading market has become a hot research topic in the related fields, by market means, it incentive the lower cost subject emissions to undertake more reductions and therefore to benefit, the body of the high cost finished the task by buying quota reduction, to achieve the effect of having the least social total cost. Shenzhen has become the first city in China to start carbon trading pilot formally on June 16, 2013, online trading on June 18. The paper analyzes the market effectiveness of electricity reform in China, which takes carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city for example, and gives some suggestions for future development.

  4. The project-related mechanisms of the Kyoto protocol. Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation. Integration in the European emission trading system and national implementation; Die projektbezogenen Mechanismen des Kyoto-Protokolls. Clean Development Mechanism und Joint Implementation. Einbeziehung in das europaeische Emissionshandelssystem und nationale Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, Anne

    2011-07-01

    The publication discusses the legal effects of the project-related mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation, on the international and European emission trading systems. The first part describes the foundations of the mechanisms in international law and then proceeds to outline some critical aspects. The second part discusses the integration of the project-related mechanisms of the Kyoto protocol in the European emission trading system. After a general outline, the weak points resulting from the combination of the different systems are presented. The third part contains an analysis of implementation in national (German) law, in particular the Projekt-Mechanismen-Gesetz (ProMechG, Project Mechanism Act).

  5. Opportunities and trade-offs of biomass based negative emissions within planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Paris Agreement requires "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of the century" (UNFCCC, 2015). Without a full decarbonization of the energy and land use sector until the second half of this century, negative emission technologies (NETs) are required to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment studies indicate that bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), a land based NET, has the potential to contribute substantially to balancing anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. However, significant negative emission potentials from BECCS require substantial biomass potentials, which can only be achieved by intensively managed (fertilized and irrigated) large-scale biomass plantations. Additional to direct trade-offs of land and water availability, the implementation of large-scale biomass plantations implies major restructuring of the land surface on top of existing land use and would be accompanied by indirect trade-offs such as changes in moisture and energy fluxes. In the context of the planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009), BECCS might contribute to reduce the transgression of the planetary boundary (PB) for climate change, but would most likely steer the Earth system closer to the PB for freshwater use and lead to further transgression of the PBs for land system change, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows. This presentation will investigate the opportunities of second generation biomass potentials within the safe operating space for humanity and highlight the multidimensional trade-offs between biomass potentials for BECCS in relation to the PBs. Scenarios of land availability for biomass plantations and land based carbon sequestration were developed with a spatially explicit multi-criterial optimization framework, considering the precautionary need to stay within the safe operating space vis-à-vis the need to

  6. A quadranomial real options model for evaluation of emissions trading and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Joseph; Tamarkin, Maurry

    2005-11-01

    Green house gas (GHG) emissions have been tied to global climate change. One popular policy instrument that seems to have gained credibility with explicit mention of its application in the Kyoto Protocol is the use of permit trading and cap-and-trade mechanisms. Organizations functioning within this environment will need to manage their resources appropriately to remain competitive. Organizations will either have the opportunity to purchase emissions credits (offsets) from a market trading scheme or seek to reduce their emissions through different measures. Some measures may include investment in new technologies that will reduce their reliance on GHG emitting practices. In many countries, large organizations and institutions generate their own power to operate their facilities. Much of this power is generated (or bought) from GHG producing technology. Specific renewable energy sources such as wind and solar photovoltaic technology may become more feasible alternatives available to a large percentage of these organizations if they are able to take advantage and incorporate the market for GHG emissions trading in their analyses. To help organizations evaluate investment in these renewable energy technologies we introduce a real options based model that will take into consideration uncertainties associated with the technology and those associated with the GHG trading market. The real options analysis will consider both the stochastic (uncertainty) nature of the exercise price of the technology and the stochastic nature of the market trading price of the GHG emissions.

  7. 75 FR 69909 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... (SIP) that create and amend the Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA...

  8. Implementing the Kyoto protocol : why JI and CDM show more promise than international emissions trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, E.

    The Kyoto protocol allows developed countries to achieve cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions abroad by means of international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article argues that JI and CDM projects will be more

  9. Developing a strategic framework for an airline dealing with the EU emission trading scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, M.; Van der Zwan, F.; Ghijs, S.; Santema, S.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has decided that the aviation sector will be included in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in 2012. This has significant impacts on the business and the strategy of airlines. All of a sudden, airlines must possess emission rights in order to be able to operate their

  10. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    and weaknesses of the two schemes are compared in a public choice setting which focuses on group size, selective incentives, entrepreneurship and lobbyism from industry. The result is threefold. First, the big countries (due to small group advantages) dominated the Kyoto negotiations. Second...... because governments will seek to favour them and gain competitive advantages, e.g. a country may buy permits for taxpayers' money and then redistribute permits to its industry. In this way redistribution takes place from non-organized to organized groups. So, taking political acceptability into account...

  11. Climate protection and emission trading in the agriculture; Klimaschutz und Emissionshandel in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luenenbuerger, Benjamin

    2013-01-15

    The percentage of the agriculture in the greenhouse-gas emissions in Germany amounts 7.1% in the year 2010. Despite its importance, climate protection instruments in the area of the German agriculture are still not developed. There are hardly special regulatory, informational or market-based instruments for the climate protection in the agriculture. The question arises whether the emission trading can be a suitable instrument for climate protection in the agriculture. Thus, the opportunities of the emission trading in the agriculture are investigated. Moreover, alternative and additional instruments of climate protection are considered with respect to the agriculture.

  12. The political economy of emissions trading; L'economie politique des marches de permis d'emissions negociables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoteau, J

    2004-06-15

    This thesis is a positive analysis of emissions trading systems' implementation. We explain why allowances are generally granted for free even though normative economic analysis recommends their sale. We show empirically that free tradable permits, source of windfall profit, motivate rent seeking behaviours. The study focuses on the US market for SO{sub 2} emissions allowances. The initial allocation rule resulted from parliamentary discussions that looked like a zero sum game. We formalize it as an endogenous sharing rule, function of lobbying effort, and we test it using political (money) contributions.We analyse theoretically the behaviour of an influenced regulator that has chosen to organize a market for permits and that must still decide on two policy variables: the whole quantity of permits and the way to allocate them initially. We formalize this decisions making process with the common agency model of politics.We show that the choice of an initial allocation rule is not neutral in presence of political market failures (lobbying). The decision to sell the permits or to grant them for free modifies the shareholders' incentive, in a polluting industry, to pressure for or against the reduction of legal emissions.Then, we analyse the public arbitration between the two policy variables when several industrial lobbies play a partially cooperative game for the free permits. The regulator chooses in priority to grant the rights for free rather than to manipulate their quantity, and this constitutes an efficient answer to the political influence. (author)

  13. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  14. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions’ cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions’ discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322

  15. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  16. A machine learning-based automatic currency trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Brvar, Anže

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to develop an automated trading system for Forex trading, which would use machine learning methods and their prediction models for deciding about trading actions. A training data set was obtained from exchange rates and values of technical indicators, which describe conditions on currency market. We estimated selected machine learning algorithms and their parameters with validation with sampling. We have prepared a set of automated trading systems with various...

  17. Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D. Jr.; Radov, D.

    2002-03-01

    This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. The proposed Directive provides the structure for an internal European Union (EU) trading programme. As noted by the Commission, emissions trading will reduce the cost of emission reductions by encouraging these reductions to be made where they are least costly, while at the same time achieving a pre-determined emission reduction from the activities covered by the trading programme. The proposed Directive is designed to provide a EU-wide cap-and-trade market for GHG emissions at various downstream plant-level sources that is free of distortions that might arise from separate Member State emissions trading schemes. An important element left to Member States (with approval by the Commission) is the initial allocation of allowances (i.e., rights to emit a tonne of CO2 or other GHG). Initial allocations provide the starting points for cost-reducing trades among facilities covered by the cap-and-trade programme. Setting the initial allocation typically has been one of the most contentious issues in developing a workable cap-and-trade programme. Based on the results of a recent study conducted for the Commission to assess the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the total value of the allowances covered by the programme would be nearly 30 billion euro annually (substantially greater than the estimated control costs of 3.7 billion - 7

  18. EU emissions trading. The need for cap adjustment in response to external shocks and unexpected developments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of the various adaptation options will be discussed from an economic perspective. Firstly, the criteria for identifying a need for potentially legitimate adaptation should be investigated. Furthermore, the issue of appropriate timely intervention points prior to or within the trading period will be discussed. In what periods and scenarios are adjustments to the cap worthwhile from an economic perspective? To what extent could minimum prices or price ranges make sense? What role could a strategic reserve play? By addressing these issues, it will be fundamentally discussed as to how the emissions trading scheme could be further developed and strengthened by greater flexibility. After a brief characterisation of emissions trading in theory and practice in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 will identify potential external shocks and unexpected developments which may impair the functioning of an emissions trading scheme. The current problems of cap setting for the third trading period of the EU ETS will be described in Chapter 4. Against this background, cap adjustments will be discussed in Chapter 5, minimum and maximum prices in Chapter 6 and strategic reserves in emissions trading in Chapter 7. The conclusions are summarised in Chapter 8.

  19. Exploration Medical System Trade Study Tools Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, J.; Myers, J.; Latorella, K.; Cerro, J.; Hanson, A.; Hailey, M.; Middour, C.

    2018-01-01

    ExMC is creating an ecosystem of tools to enable well-informed medical system trade studies. The suite of tools address important system implementation aspects of the space medical capabilities trade space and are being built using knowledge from the medical community regarding the unique aspects of space flight. Two integrating models, a systems engineering model and a medical risk analysis model, tie the tools together to produce an integrated assessment of the medical system and its ability to achieve medical system target requirements. This presentation will provide an overview of the various tools that are a part of the tool ecosystem. Initially, the presentation's focus will address the tools that supply the foundational information to the ecosystem. Specifically, the talk will describe how information that describes how medicine will be practiced is captured and categorized for efficient utilization in the tool suite. For example, the talk will include capturing what conditions will be planned for in-mission treatment, planned medical activities (e.g., periodic physical exam), required medical capabilities (e.g., provide imaging), and options to implement the capabilities (e.g., an ultrasound device). Database storage and configuration management will also be discussed. The presentation will include an overview of how these information tools will be tied to parameters in a Systems Modeling Language (SysML) model, allowing traceability to system behavioral, structural, and requirements content. The discussion will also describe an HRP-led enhanced risk assessment model developed to provide quantitative insight into each capability's contribution to mission success. Key outputs from these various tools, to be shared with the space medical and exploration mission development communities, will be assessments of medical system implementation option satisfaction of requirements and per-capability contributions toward achieving requirements.

  20. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  1. Limiting overselling in international emissions trading 1: Costs and environmental impacts of alternative proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2002-07-01

    Emission trading allows a country with an emission limitation commitment, an Annex B Party, to sell parts of its assigned amount (AAUs) to other Annex B Parties. If the seller subsequently does not have sufficient AAUs to cover its actual emissions it will be subject to the penalties for non-compliance. The revenue from the sale of AAUs may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or difficult to enforce. Under these circumstances emission trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. Liability proposals seek to ensure that non-compliance is not rewarded, by limiting sales of AAUs to amounts surplus to the seller's compliance needs. This study develops and applies a model to assess the performance of different liability proposals. A simple model based on the Emissions Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is used for the analysis. (BA)

  2. The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030. Reviving the EU emissions trading system and bringing EU greenhouse gas emissions on a 2C track. Policy brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Gilbert, A.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H.; Lam, Long; De Vos, R. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    This paper explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). This paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. The European Commission estimates that by 2020, the companies participating in the ETS will have accumulated a surplus of 1.5 to 2.3 billion allowances, which may be banked and used beyond 2020. This is about the same size as the annual emissions budget of ETS companies (just below 2 billion tonnes). Applying equity principles to the global distribution of efforts in reaching the 2C goal, an indicative 'fair' EU contribution would be a reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by around 49% (median of a full range from 39 to 79%) by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The 2030 targets can be set in a way to also accommodate the surplus expected until 2020. If the entire surplus of allowances from the ETS were to be used after 2020, the 2030 target has to become around 7 percentage points more stringent to compensate for that. Alternatively, the trajectory of the target from 2021 to 2030 could be set to compensate for the surplus. In addition, a more ambitious trajectory towards 2030 would cast its shadow on the mitigation in the period 2013-2020. It would strengthen the ETS, in conjunction with any other ETS recalibration options such as shifting the auctioning ('backloading') or cancelling allowances before 2020.

  3. Trade and the Future of China's Black Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Oppenheimer, M.; Naik, V.

    2016-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon aerosols in China have increased by over 200% during the last 50 years, with negative implications both for human health and for regional and global climate. The Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emissions scenarios all assume that China's future black carbon emissions will decrease. However, this decline partially depends on the assumption that the evolution of future pollutant emissions in developing nations will match the observed historical relationship between air quality and income in developed nations. Recent research has demonstrated that a substantial portion of China's current black carbon emissions are driven by the production of goods exported for consumption elsewhere. This constitutes an external demand for black carbon-emitting activity in China that is much smaller in the developed nations on which the historical air quality/income relationship is based. We here show using integrated assessment model output, general circulation modeling, and emissions and economic data that (1) China must achieve a faster technological and regulatory evolution than did developed countries in order achieve the same air quality/income trajectory; (2) China's uniquely large share of export-related black carbon-emitting activities and their potential growth are a plausible explanation for this disparity; and (3) the climate and health implications of these export-related black carbon emissions, if unmitigated, are of interest from a policy perspective. Together these results indicate that the production of goods for export will steepen the mitigation curve for China relative to developed nations, if China is to achieve the future black carbon emissions reductions assumed in the RCPs.

  4. International trade and CO{sub 2} emissions; International handel og CO{sub 2}-udledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L. [AKF, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lenzen, M. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO{sub 2} emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO{sub 2} reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in international traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national greenhouse gas responsibility. Founded in the concepts of 'producer CO{sub 2} responsibility', 'consumer CO{sub 2} responsibility' and 'CO{sub 2} trade balance' the aim of the present study has been to develop the single-region input-output model as used in a previous study into a multi-region input-output model in order to get a more realistic description of the production technologies actually used in the countries of imports. The study concludes that trade is the key to define CO{sub 2} responsibility on macroeconomics level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. The study also points at the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating national reduction targets and base line scenarios within the context of international climate agreements. (BA)

  5. Essays on Energy and Climate Policy - Green Certificates, Emissions Trading and Electricity Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerberg, Anna

    2011-05-15

    Paper I: An Electricity Trading System with Tradable Green Certificates and CO{sub 2}-emission Allowances Combinations of various policy instruments to deal with the threat of climate change are used throughout the world. The aim of this article is to investigate an electricity market with two different policy instruments, Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) and CO{sub 2} emission allowances (an Emission Trading System, ETS). We analyze both the short- and long-run effects of a domestic market and a market ... more with trade. We find that increasing the TGC quota obligation will decrease the electricity produced using non-renewable sources as well as the long-run total production of electricity. For the electricity produced using renewable energy sources, an increase in the quota obligation leads to increased production in almost all cases, with assumptions based on historical data. The impacts of the ETS price on the electricity production are negative for all electricity production, which is surprising. This means that the combination of ETS and TGCs gives unexpected and unwanted results for the electricity production using renewable sources, since an increase in the ETS price leads to a decrease in this production. Paper II: The Impact of the EU Emissions Trading System on CO{sub 2} Intensity in Electricity Generation The primary objective of EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. We study the effect of the EU ETS on CO{sub 2} intensity of Swedish electricity generation, using an econometric time series analysis on weekly data for the period 2004-2008. We control for effects of other input prices and hydropower reservoir levels. Our results do not indicate any link between the price of EU ETS and the CO{sub 2} intensity. The most likely reasons to explain this is that emission reductions are generally cheaper in other sectors and that other determinants of fossil fuel use diminish the effects of the EU ETS. Paper III: Attitudes to

  6. Proposed global trading schemes for ocean disposal of greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nove, J.E.

    2000-07-01

    Current levels of climate change compared to those existing over the last 15000 years show that a major event has and is occurring. Such a major event requires major reductions in greenhouse emissions. This paper sets a policy framework for a transition between our current growth lifestyle and our desire for sustainability. Disposal of greenhouse gas emissions into select ocean locations and issuing carbon trading rights are consequently recommended. This paper concludes that UNESCO needs to be appointed the authority to control ocean disposal and the resulting trading in environmental credits. UNICEF needs to be appointed to the task of environmental education of future generations of children.

  7. International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik N G

    2018-01-01

    The carbon dioxide embodied in Chinese exports to developed countries increased rapidly from 1995 to 2008. We test the extent to which institutional reforms in China can explain this increase. We focus on five areas of reforms: trade liberalization, environmental institutions, legal and property rights, institutional risk and exchange rate policy. Our results show that trade liberalization, weak environmental institutions, exchange rate policy, and legal and property rights affect emissions. Our results also indicate that the lack of reform in the utilities sector is an important factor in the rapid increase in embodied emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The future European Emission Trading Scheme and its impact on biomass use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaiger, H.; Tuerk, A.; Pena, N. [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH/Institute of Energy Research, Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Sijm, J. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam Office, Radarport Building, Radarweg 60, NL - 1043 NT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Arrasto, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kettner, C [Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Arsenal Objekt 20, 1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Based on research carried out within the NoE, this paper assesses possible impacts of changes to the European Emission Trading Scheme on solid and the possible future inclusion of liquid biomass use in the EU. Based on these assessments, recommendations are outlined for optimising support for solid and liquid biofuels. In December 2008 the European Council agreed on the European Energy and Climate Package. This agreement contains fundamental changes to the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), which started in 2005. With some exceptions, emissions allowances in the power sector will be auctioned starting with the third trading period of the scheme in 2013. This may have significant impacts on the sector's fuel mix and investment decisions. To the extent to which the EU-ETS results in a price on CO2 emissions, it increases the competitiveness of low carbon fuels. Under current regulations no CO2 emissions are attributed to combustion of biomass, thus it functions as a zero-carbon fuel. The paper shows that while the use of biomass is already viable under CO2 prices that have been reached within the EU-ETS, investments in new biomass plants need a higher price level as well as more stable prices, conditions which cannot be predicted with any confidence. The road transport sector, which has significant scope to increase its use of biofuels is currently not part of the EU-ETS, and will not be included in the third trading period which begins in 2013 but may be included later. The likely consequences of including transportation fuels under the EU-ETS are considered as well as options which involve separate trading schemes for liquid biofuels. The paper also reviews other trading mechanisms which might serve as more effective vehicles for increasing the share of liquid biofuels, taking sustainability issues into account.

  9. Assessment of emission trading impacts on competitive electricity market price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, S.N.; Saxena, D.; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - Besides organizational changes in the electricity supply industry there are growing concerns about environmental issues derived from the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as well as promoting renewable energies. The purpose of this paper is to address the sour...

  10. Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Pei, Jiansuo; Yang, Cuihong

    An input-output framework is adopted to estimate China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as generated by its exports in 2002. More than one half of China's exports are related to international production fragmentation. These processing exports generate relatively little value added but also

  11. Functional and component structure of the population trading service system

    OpenAIRE

    Кобилін, П. О.

    2017-01-01

    Formulation the problem. Over the past decade the system of population trading service has seen substantial qualitative changes, particularly the ownership form of retail, restaurant business institutions changed, the range of products expanded, new types of stores, forms of trade (supermarkets, hypermarkets, shopping malls, internet commerce, vending machines etc.) appeared. These changes affect the functional and component structure of population trading service system that has become more ...

  12. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); McDermott, K.A. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies)

    1992-01-01

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry's SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  13. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McDermott, K.A. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies

    1992-04-01

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry`s SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  14. Strategic planning problems and emission trading; Strategische Planungsfragen im Zuge des Emissionshandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzensberger, N.; Hermes, H.D. [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The contribution outlines the consequences of emission trading for the various compartments of strategic business planning. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags soll der Einfluss des Emissionsrechtehandels und der damit verbundenen Notwendigkeit einer Emissionsrechtebewirtschaftung auf die verschiedenen Planungsbereiche der strategischen Unternehmensplanung aufgezeigt werden. (orig.)

  15. The design and implementation of an international trading scheme for greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    The inclusion of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol reflects an important decision to address climate-change issues through flexible market mechanisms. The author addresses a number of policy issues that must be considered in designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG)

  16. Trade-off between carbon dioxide emissions and logistics costs based on multiobjective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Janic, M.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the freight transport costs and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in given intermodal and truckonly freight networks. When the trade-off, which is represented as the relationship, is changed, the freight mode share and route choice are also modified. To

  17. On the efficiency gains of emissions trading when climate deals are non-cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd; Holtsmark, Bjart

    2011-07-15

    This paper studies, in a numerical environment, climate treaties with emissions trading when national quotas result from strategic individual choice. We find that the larger the number of parties to the deal, the smaller are the emissions reductions and the lower the welfare. If insisting on stability with respect to participation, climate treaties involve few parties and yield practically no emissions reductions. While these results contrast with some optimistic studies, our numerical example conforms established results if modelling the problem in the more traditional sense. (Author)

  18. Short-term impact of green certificates and CO{sub 2} emissions trading in the Swedish district heating sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsson, David; Werner, Sven; Ahlgren, Erik O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Energy Systems Technology, Department of Energy and Environment

    2006-12-15

    Swedish district-heating (DH) systems use a wide range of energy sources and technologies for heat-and-power generation. This provides the DH utilities with major flexibility in changing their fuel and technology mix when the economic conditions for generation change. Two recently introduced policy instruments have changed the DH utilities' costs for generation considerably; the tradable green-certificate (TGC) scheme introduced in 2003 in Sweden, and the tradable greenhouse-gas emission permit (TEP) scheme introduced in the EU on January 1, 2005. The objective of this study is to analyse how these two trading schemes impact on the operation of the Swedish DH sector in terms of changes in CHP generation, CO{sub 2} emissions, and operating costs. The analysis was carried out by comparing the most cost-effective operation for the DH utilities, with and without, the two trading schemes applied, using a model that handles the Swedish DH-sector system-by-system. It was found that the volume of renewable power generated in CHP plants only increased slightly owing to the TGC scheme. The TGC and the TEP schemes in force together, however, nearly doubled the renewable power-generation. CO{sub 2} emissions from the DH sector may either increase or decrease depending on the combination of TGC and TEP prices. The overall CO{sub 2} emissions from the European power-generation sector would, however, be reduced for all price combinations assuming that increased Swedish CHP generation replaces coal-condensing power (coal-fired plants with power generation only) in other European countries. The trading schemes also lower the operational costs of the DH sector since the cost increase owing to the use of more expensive fuels and the purchase of TEPs is outweighed by the increased revenues from sales of electricity and TGCs. (author)

  19. Relationship between Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth and Trade in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Palamalai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the causal nexus between various sources of energy consumption, viz. Coal, Crude Oil, Electricity and Natural Gas, CO2 emissions, economic growth and trade in India using the Perron unit root test, Gregory and Hansen cointegration test and Vector Error Correction Model. The study exhibits a long-run relationship between various sources of energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 emissions and trade in India. By and large, the empirical results confirm that economic growth fuels rate of various sources of energy consumption i.e. coal, crude petroleum, electricity and natural gas. The findings reveal that increase in CO2 emissions leads to achieve high level of economic activity in India. In addition, the study finds that foreign trade influences the various sources of non-renewable energy consumption in the long-term. However, the energy consumption do not significantly contributes towards promoting foreign trade, except crude petroleum, in the short-run.

  20. The potential for CO2 emissions trading in transport. The case of personal vehicles and freight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raux, C. [Laboratoire d' Economie des Transports, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, ISH, 14 avenue Berthelot, 69363 Lyon, Cedex 07 (France)

    2010-05-15

    Transport currently accounts for around 25-30% of global CO2 emissions and this contribution is growing rapidly. Moreover, road transport holds by far the major part in these emissions. Because of the social and political reluctance to increase fuel taxation, it is of some interest to explore the inclusion of road transport in emission trading schemes. Starting from the theory about tradable permits, their relevance in transport emissions, their appropriate targets and their potential for practical implementation are analysed. Two proposals of 'tradable rights for fuel consumption' are presented, the one for drivers of private vehicles, the other for freight transportation. Finally, potential pitfalls and implementation issues are also discussed. It is concluded that the cost of operating markets of fuel rights would be the price to be paid for an effective involvement of the transport sector in the effort to reduce emissions.

  1. EU energy-intensive industries and emissions trading: losers becoming winners?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettestad, Joergen

    2008-11-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) initially treated power producers and energy-intensive industries similarly, despite clear structural differences between these industries regarding pass through of costs and vulnerability to global competition. Hence, the energy-intensive industries could be seen as losing out in the internal distribution. In the January 2008 proposal for a reformed ETS post-2012, a differentiated system was proposed where the energy-intensive industries come out relatively much better. What is the explanation for the change taking place? Although power producers still have a dominant position in the system, the increasing consensus about windfall profits has weakened their standing. Conversely, the energy-intensive industries have become better organised and more active. This balance shift is first and foremost noticeable in several important EU-level stake holder consultation processes. Energy-intensive industries have, however, also successfully utilised the national pathway to exert influence on Brussels policy-making. Finally, growing fear of lax global climate policies and related carbon leakage has strengthened the case of these industries further. The latter dimension indicates that although energy-intensive industries have managed to reduce internal distribution anomalies, external challenges remain. (author). 9 refs

  2. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  3. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central Europe between 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlčková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and environmental policies are widely discussed, but much less is known about emissions embodied in goods traded internationally, and the distinction between emission producers and consumers. The carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central European countries are subject to examination in this paper. As a result of industrial restructuring and environmental legislation, air pollution has improved significantly in Central European countries since the 1989 transition. On the other hand, economic growth has been accompanied by a rise in consumerism. Despite the increasing role of exports, the Visegrad group countries have become net importers of carbon dioxide emissions between 1995 and 2008. This seems to be the ‘standard trajectory’ of a country’s transition toward a more developed and consumption-oriented economy. The global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in manufacturing exports are also mapped, using network analysis and constructing ‘product space’. The analysis confirms that industrial re-structuring played an important role in lowering the production of carbon dioxide emissions in the Visegrad countries.

  5. Impacts on CO2 Emission Allowance Prices in China: A Quantile Regression Analysis of the Shanghai Emission Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme (ETS has been implemented in China for more than two years. An investigation into the impacts of different factors on carbon dioxide (CO2 emission allowance prices provides guidance for price-making in 2017 when the nation-wide ETS of China will be established. This paper adopts a quantile regression approach to estimate the impacts of different factors in Shanghai emission trading scheme (SH-ETS, namely, economic growth, energy prices and temperature. The empirical analysis shows that: (i the economic growth in Shanghai leads to a drop in the carbon allowance prices; (ii the oil price has a slightly positive effect on the allowance prices regardless of the ordinary least squares (OLS or quantile regression method; (iii a long-run negative relationship exists between the coal price and the Shanghai emission allowances (SHEA prices, but a positive interaction under different quantiles, especially the 25%–50% quantiles; (iv temperature has a significantly positive effect at the 20%–30% quantiles and a conspicuous negative impact at the right tail of the allowances prices.

  6. The impact of CO{sub 2} emissions trading on the European transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to analyse how a common European scheme for CO{sub 2} emissions trading covering all sectors of society would affect the transport sector. Transport externalities other than CO{sub 2} are assumed to be internalised by kilometer charging. This means road fuels will no longer be subject to taxation. The European Union's commitment under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol can be reached at a marginal abatement cost around 65 Euro per tonne of CO{sub 2} in a case where emissions trading replaces all current taxes on fossil fuels. In a case where emissions trading is supplementary to today's energy and carbon taxes, the current average taxation (45-50 Euro per tonne CO{sub 2}) and the shadow price of the emission permits (33 Euro per tonne) would together give a total marginal abatement cost around 80 Euro per tonne Of CO{sub 2}. Having to buy emission permits would significantly raise the cost of fuel and electricity used in rail, aviation and short sea shipping, as these modes are currently not taxed at all. The resulting long-term (2025) improvement in specific energy efficiency is estimated at around 25 per cent compared to trend for rail and 20 and 40 per cent respectively for aviation and sea transport. A combination of CO{sub 2} emissions trading and km charging would moderately raise the variable cost of driving a gasoline car. The cost of using diesel vehicles would rise considerably in most Member States. Annual mileage per car would therefore decline somewhat. The fuel, however, would become cheaper than today (especially gasoline) and this would reduce the incentive to buy fuel-efficient vehicles. The reform would thus hamper the introduction of new, more efficient, technologies that might be needed for meeting more long-term commitments. Emissions trading would not encourage the introduction of biofuels in road transport. The incremental cost of producing ethanol or RME is much too high and cannot be expected to fall to the

  7. Understanding the differing governance of EU emissions trading and renewable: feedback mechanisms and policy entrepreneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Wettestad, Joergen

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a comparative study of two central EU climate policies: the revised Emissions Trading System (ETS), and the revised Renewable Energy Directive (RES). Both were originally developed in the early 2000s and revised policies were adopted in December 2008. While the ETS from 2013 on will have a quite centralized and market-streamlined design, the revised RES stands forward as a more decentralized and technology-focused policy. Differing institutional feed-back mechanisms and related roles of policy entrepreneurs can shed considerable light on these policy differences. Due to member states' cautiousness and contrary to the preferences of the Commission, the initial ETS was designed as a rather decentralized and 'politicized' market system, creating a malfunctioning institutional dynamic. In the revision process, the Commission skillfully highlighted this ineffective dynamic to win support for a much more centralized and market-streamlined approach. In the case of RES, national technology-specific support schemes and the strong links between the renewable industry and member states promoted the converse outcome: decentralization and technology development. Members of the European Parliament utilized these mechanisms through policy networking, while the Commission successfully used developments within the global climate regime to induce some degree of centralization. (Author)

  8. Potential cost savings from internal/external CO{sub 2} emissions trading in the Korean electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myunghun, E-mail: leemh@inha.ac.kr [Department of International Trade, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Korea plans to introduce an emissions trading scheme for the controlling greenhouse gas emissions in 2015. Using Shephard's (1970) output distance function, we first estimate the shadow price of CO{sub 2} for power generators in the Korean fossil-fueled electric generation industry. Then, by assuming that each power generator is required to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by one ton, we compute the potential cost savings from internal trading among generators within the same plant and from external trading across plants at prevailing market prices. The results indicate that, on average, the generators paid $14.63 to abate one ton of CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. Plants realized additional gains through external trading. In particular, cost savings from trades between different fuel-fired plants were substantial. - Highlights: > We estimated the shadow price of CO{sub 2} for the Korean steam power plants. > On average, the generators paid $14.63 to abate one ton of CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. > We computed the potential cost savings from internal trading and external trading. > Plants realized additional gains through external trading.

  9. Information report on greenhouse gas emission trading systems, in the name of the Sustainable Development and Land Management Commission; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la mission d'information sur les marches de quotas de gaz a effet de serre au nom de la commission du developpement durable et de l'amenagement du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In its first part, this report explains the choice of trading systems due to the impossibility to define taxes on carbon emissions and to the influence of international negotiations. It also describes the operation of the European system with its three allocation phases (an experimental framework between 2005 and 2007, an actually constraining framework between 2008 and 2012, and a sustainable frame from 2013), and outlines the realistic character of emission reduction objective by 2020. It identifies and discusses the weaknesses of the European system, notably due to an insufficiently regulated market and to a partial taking into account of emission. The second part identifies ways to improve the system by extending it (including new sectors, taking some particular emissions into account, and valuing carbon sequestration), by preserving the competitiveness of European industries, and by aiming at the construction of a de-carbonated Europe

  10. Emissions trading within the international air transport. An empirical analysis on the economic effects on selected air lines; Emissionshandel im internationalen Luftverkehr. Eine empirische Analyse der oekonomischen Effekte auf ausgewaehlte Fluggesellschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheelhaase, J.; Grimme, W. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The European Commission plans to integrate international aviation into the European Emissions Trading System (EUETS). This paper outlines first how international aviation could be included in existing emissions trading schemes in principle. It continues with an empirical, model-based estimation of the impacts on operating costs and transport demand for low cost carriers and full service airlines considering Ryanair and Lufthansa as example under three different design options for an emissions trading scheme. Finally, conclusions on the impacts on airline competition within Europe and with carriers from other continents are drawn. (orig.)

  11. Game Analysis and Simulation of the River Basin Sustainable Development Strategy Integrating Water Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water emission trading (WET is promising in sustainable development strategy. However, low participation impedes its development. We develop an evolutionary game model of two enterprise populations’ dynamics and stability in the decision-making behavior process. Due to the different perceived value of certain permits, enterprises choose H strategy (bidding for permit or D strategy (not bidding. External factors are simplified according to three categories: rH-bidding related cost, G-price and F-penalty. Participation increase equals reaching point (H,H in the model and is treated as an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS. We build a system dynamics model on AnyLogic 7.1.1 to simulate the aforementioned game and draw four conclusions: (1 to reach ESS more quickly, we need to minimize the bidding related cost rH and price G, but regulate the heavy penalty F; (2 an ESS can be significantly transformed, such as from (D,D to (H,H by regulating rH, G and F accordingly; (3 the initial choice of strategy is essential to the final result; (4 if participation seems stable but unsatisfying, it is important to check whether it is a saddle point and adjust external factors accordingly. The findings benefit both water management practice and further research.

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE CAP-AND-TRADE SYSTEM ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint (Platon Judit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of pollution is an important contemporary issue. Within the last 20 years, there have been global studies on how to stop global warming. The European Union is the world leader in concrete measures undertaken in this respect. The introduction of the cap-and-trade system, begun in 2005 with the carbon emission certificate trade mechanism is considered a a modest succes that needs perfecting. The new EU directives of 2009, that come into effect in 2013, test member countries in the area of conventional and renewable energy strategies which have to be adapted to the national environmental protection strategies.

  13. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...

  14. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. A Laboratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, T.N. [Department of Economics, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1310 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability.

  15. The real option to fuel switch in the presence of expected windfall profits under the EU Emission Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca Taschini; Simon Urech [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom). Grantham Research Institute

    2010-07-01

    This paper develops a simple model to evaluate the value and the activation frequencies of a generation system consisting of coal-fired and a gas-fired power plants using a real options approach, and the notions of clean-spark and clean-dark spreads. Under a cap-and-trade scheme, the use of emission permits represents an opportunity cost. In the energy industry different generation technologies produce different levels of CO{sub 2} emissions and, therefore, different opportunity costs. Addressing the question of how expected windfall profits affect the profitability of a generation plant and its activation frequencies, the paper shows that conventional findings are reversed. When the opportunity cost is internalized, the rate of activation of the gas plant decreases while that of the coal plant increases.

  16. System аnalysis concession maritime trade ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Shmatock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the significance of maritime commercial ports as strategic for the country. The urgency of port concessions to improve transport infrastructure. The definition of ports in terms of system analysis and determination of management port. Outlined the sequence of system analysis concessions maritime trade ports in the table. Selection of qualified managers is based on the concession tender under prescribed conditions. These criteria should be considered when determining the concessionaire. These stages of the concession tender. Meeting the needs of the economy, international trade, public inquiries into transportation of goods is not possible without the efficient operation of maritime trade ports. Only complex technological modernization of maritime trade ports will enable them to take leadership positions. Tree depicted objectives effectively manage commercial sea port. Therefore, initiation of concessions needs to implement measures to achieve the talented and skillful result.

  17. Emissions trading in the transport sector. Feasible approach for an upstream model. Executive summary; Emissionshandel im Verkehr. Ansaetze fuer einen moeglichen Up-Stream-Handel im Verkehr. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertenrath, Roman; Liebig, Lars [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Betz, Regina; Rogge, Karoline; Schade, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Duennebeil, Frank; Lambrecht, Udo [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Bergmann, Heidi

    2005-11-15

    In July, 2003, FiFo Koeln (Cologne Centre for Public Economics) was mandated by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) with the examination of the UFOPLAN scheme 'Emissions Trading System for the Transport Sector - Development of a possible Trading Approach'. The main task of this study was the development of a concrete emissions trading approach for the transport sector, which triggers off a compulsory holding of emissions certificates at the beginning of the energy supply chain (upstream approach). The main focus was rather put on the practical options of the implementation of an upstream approach in the transport sector and its specific problems. The transaction costs of a trading system in the transport sector had to be kept at a minimum level. The upsteam approach discussed in his study seems to be more adequate to include further carbon dioxide emissions of other sectors than the EU downstream model. This can mainly be attributed to the amount and nature of the respective transaction costs. In Germany allocative failure in fuel taxation between diesel and petrol can be diminished regardless of the prices for CO{sub 2}. Emissions trading therefore leads to structural changes. An upstream approach has only indirect effects on the motorcar industry and refiners. Therefore, technical CO{sub 2} reduction can primarily be realised via an increased consumer demand for ore fuel-efficient vehicles, new propulsion technology or alternative fuels based on renewable energies. In the case of an open trading system the amount of transport emissions was estimated that actually could be reduced to be relatively small. The authors of the contribution under consideration are not convinced that the full potential of existing adaptation options in the transport sector can be tapped by an open emissions trading. The transport sector will cope with additional CO{sub 2} costs without tapping the potential of relatively cheap adaptation options. Also at closed

  18. Municipal waste incineration and emissions trading; Die Einbeziehung von Siedlungsabfallverbrennungsanlagen in den Emissionsrechtehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, Martin [ITAD und VKU (Germany). AG Klimaschutz und Abfallwirtschaft

    2011-11-15

    The task of energetic waste recovery is the disposal of nonrecyclable waste in an environmentally sound way, while recovering as much of the energetic content as possible. The objective therefore is to reach a complete combustion of the biogenic and fossil carbon, thus transforming it into carbon dioxide. Hence the amount of greenhouse gas emitted solely depends on the amount and type of waste incinerated. Taking into account the climate neutrality of the biogenic fraction and the fossil fuels substituted, the German WtE-plants are contributing to climate protection by relieving it of a burden of around 4 billion each year. For these reasons municipal waste incineration plants are not included in the emissions trading scheme. Since the term 'municipal waste' is not defined within the acts, it is vital to settle for an interpretation including all wastes stemming from municipal wastes. Otherwise plants accepting presorted or conditioned municipal waste are prone to an inclusion in the emissions trading scheme. This would not only cause costs for the emission allowances without any sensible steering effects, but also face the operator with numerous reporting-, measuring and sampling obligations. This would lead to shifts in waste mass flows but also cause waste fees to increase. (orig.)

  19. From Pilot to the National Emissions Trading Scheme in China: International Practice and Domestic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle climate change and build a low-carbon economy, China has selected seven provinces and cities as carbon trading pilots and plans to establish the national emissions trading scheme (ETS in 2017. However, since China has not yet reached peak carbon emissions, and as a major developing country, the conflict between increasing energy demand and the requirement to reduce emissions brings challenges to the design of a national ETS suitable for China’s development. In this paper, we summarize the current situation of China’s seven ETS pilots with respect to coverage, allowance allocation, transactions, punishment mechanisms and especially the market performance. By analyzing the common practice of three international mandatory schemes, combined with China’s current circumstances and characteristics of market construction and regulation, we emphasize China’s own economic reality, and propose several recommendations for building a suitable and effective national ETS. This paper could provide new perspectives towards scheme design for China and other similar countries.

  20. Robustness Trade-offs in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The governance of common-pool resources can be meaningfully examined from the somewhat broader perspective of the governance of social-ecological systems (SESs. Governance of SESs invariably involves trade-offs; trade-offs between different stakeholder objectives, trade-offs between risk and productivity, and trade-offs between short-term and long-term goals. This is especially true in the case of robustness in social-ecological systems - i.e. the capacity to continue to meet a performance objective in the face of uncertainty and shocks. In this paper we suggest that effective governance under uncertainty must include the ongoing analysis of trade-offs between robustness and performance, and between investments in robustness to different types of perturbations. The nature of such trade-offs will depend on society's perception of risk, the dynamics of the underlying resource, and the governance regime. Specifically, we argue that it is impossible to define robustness in absolute terms. The choice for society is not only whether to invest in becoming robust to a particular disturbance, but rather, what suit of disturbances to address and what set of associated vulnerabilities is it willing to accept as a necessary consequence.

  1. The law as an instrument for climate protection: the case of integrated approaches to understanding emissions trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Cörvers, Ron; de Kraker, Joop; Martens, Pim; Kemp, René; van Lente, Harro

    2016-01-01

    This chapter illustrates the need for cross-cutting studies regarding the question how the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, particularly by means of "emissions trading", can be regulated in an effective and efficient way within the boundaries of the rule of law. It identifies the following

  2. Emission allowance origination and trading : How does it affect ABB and its Group Treasury Operations?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Jonas; Lund, Linus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to determine how ABB’s treasury department (GTO) should respond to an increasing awareness and interest in the carbon credit markets. Emission caps have been introduced on national levels and also for certain industries in Europe as a consequence of the Kyoto Protocol. This allows for trading of certain carbon credits as well as for the creation of new credits. ABB is a company which has many solutions for efficient energy use; solutions that aim to reduce electri...

  3. Optimal design methodologies under the carbon emission trading program using MIP, GA, SA, and TS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadegheih, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Yazd University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, an adaptation of MIP, GA, SA, and TS to network planning under the carbon emission trading program is described and computational results are given. As will be shown, the results are very encouraging. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses, the power generation costs and carbon emission costs. The optimization model has the ability to minimize the total costs and provides the best solutions, which are both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. This method of solution is demonstrated on the real problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed procedure is compared with that of the most well-known as mixed-integer programming. (author)

  4. Market power in tradable emission markets. A laboratory testbed for emission trading in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, Timothy N. [Department of Economics, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1310 (United States); Gangadharan, Lata [Department of Economics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Duke, Charlotte [Economics Branch, Natural Resources and the Environment, Level 13, 8 Nicholson St, East Melbourne, Vic. 3002 (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    In theory, competitive emission permit markets minimize total abatement costs. Permit markets are often imperfectly competitive, however, and may be thin and dominated by large firms. The dominant firm(s) could exercise market power and increase other firms' costs of pollution control, while reducing their own emission control costs. This paper reports a testbed laboratory experiment to examine whether a dominant firm can exercise market power in a permit market organized using the double auction trading institution. Our parameters approximate the abatement costs of sources in a proposed tradable emissions market for the reduction of nitrogen in the Port Phillip Watershed in Victoria, Australia. We vary across treatments the initial allocation of permits to sources, so that in one treatment the seller of permits is a monopolist and in another treatment the market is duopolistic. We also vary the information that subjects have about the number and abatement costs of their competitors. We find that prices and seller profits are higher and efficiency is lower on average in the monopoly sessions compared with the duopoly sessions, but the differences are not substantial and are not statistically significant due to pronounced variation across sessions. Moreover, prices, profits and transaction volumes are usually much closer to the competitive equilibrium (CE) than the monopoly equilibrium.

  5. Emissions embodied in global trade have plateaued due to structural changes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Li, Shantong; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng

    2017-09-01

    In the 2000s, the rapid growth of CO2 emitted in the production of exports from developing to developed countries, in which China accounted for the dominant share, led to concerns that climate polices had been undermined by international trade. Arguments on "carbon leakage" and "competitiveness"—which led to the refusal of the U.S. to ratify the Kyoto Protocol—put pressure on developing countries, especially China, to limit their emissions with Border Carbon Adjustments used as one threat. After strong growth in the early 2000s, emissions exported from developing to developed countries plateaued and could have even decreased since 2007. These changes were mainly due to China: In 2002-2007, China's exported emissions grew by 827 MtCO2, amounting to almost all the 892 MtCO2 total increase in emissions exported from developing to developed countries, while in 2007-2012, emissions exported from China decreased by 229 MtCO2, contributing to the total decrease of 172 MtCO2 exported from developing to developed countries. We apply Structural Decomposition Analysis to find that, in addition to the diminishing effects of the global financial crisis, the slowdown and eventual plateau was largely explained by several potentially permanent changes in China: Decline in export volume growth, improvements in CO2 intensity, and changes in production structure and the mix of exported products. We argue that growth in China's exported emissions will not return to the high levels during the 2000s, therefore the arguments for climate polices focused on embodied emissions such as Border Carbon Adjustments are now weakened.

  6. Operational management system for warehouse logistics of metal trading companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Logistics is an effective tool in business management. Metal trading business is a part of metal promotion chain from producer to consumer. It's designed to serve as a link connecting the interests of steel producers and end users. We should account for the specifics warehousing trading. The specificity of warehouse metal trading consists primarily in the fact that the purchase is made in large lots, and the sale - in medium and small parties. Loading and unloading of cars and trucks is produced by overhead cranes. Some part of the purchased goods are shipped in relatively large lots without presales preparation. Another part of the goods undergoes presale preparation. Indoor and outdoor warehouses are used with the address storage system. In the process of prolonged storage the metal rusts. Some part of the goods is subjected to final completion (cutting, welding, coloration in service centers and small factories, usually located at the warehouse. The quantity of simultaneously shipped cars, and the quantity of the loader workers brigade can reach few dozens. So it is necessary to control the loading workers, to coordinate and monitor the performance of loading and unloading operations, to make the daily analysis of their work, to evaluate the warehouse operations as a whole. There is a need to manage and control movement of cars and trucks on the warehouse territory to reduce storage and transport costs and improve customer service. ERP-systems and WMS-systems, which are widely used, do not cover fully the functions and processes of the warehouse trading, and do not effectively manage all logistics processes. In this paper the specialized software is proposed. The software is intended for operational logistics management in warehouse metal products trading. The basic functions and processes of metal warehouse trading are described. The effectiveness indices for logistics processes and key effective indicators of warehouse trading are proposed

  7. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  8. Are Emissions Trading Policies Sustainable? A Study of the Petrochemical Industry in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Korea inaugurated an emissions trading scheme (ETS. In this regard, many studies have considered the sustainable performance and efficiency of industries that emit carbon; however, few have examined ETS at company level. This paper focuses on companies’ data related to Korean ETS in the petrochemical industry. Based on the non-radial, nonparametric directional distance function (DDF, the paper evaluates the governance factors related to ETS policies and sustainable performance in terms of carbon technical efficiency (CTE, the shadow price of carbon emissions, and Morishima elasticity between the input and undesirable output of carbon emissions. Using a dual model, the paper shows that Korean ETS has huge potential for participating companies to improve CTE. If all companies consider the production possibility frontier, they could potentially improve efficiency by 52.8%. Further, Morishima elasticity shows strong substitutability between capital and energy, implying that green technology investment should bring a higher degree of energy-saving performance. Unfortunately, however, the market price of carbon emissions is far too low compared with its shadow price, suggesting that the Korean government’s price-oriented market intervention has resulted in the ETS producing poor sustainable performance. As the title suggests, ETS of Korea is not sustainable at the current stage, but with more efforts on the transition period, all the developing countries should support the governance factors of the ETS in terms of the more effective green investment with easier access to the green technology.

  9. The effect of a consumption-based accounting method in national GHG inventories: a trilateral trade system application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBastianoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact of countries in the climate change and their responsibility in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we apply a new theoretical framework that allocates the emissions embodied in international trade and computes the consequent carbon transferred across countries, according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a average national emissions coefficient.. We analyze a trilateral trade system composed by Sweden, Italy and Poland during the period 2000-2008. We find that, with respect to the conventional greenhouse gas national inventory schemes, consumption-based accounting implies an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4% and 11.8%, respectively, and a decrease of Polish one by 2.81%. We also assess the relevance of this framework at the sectoral level by hypothesizing a shift of Italian imports of Machinery and Transport Equipment from Poland to Sweden. We deduce that, through appropriate policies, importer nations could be encouraged to find producers with the best environmental performances while exporter nations could be induced to reduce their carbon intensity to stimulate the international demand for their goods. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.

  10. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  11. Simple adaptive control system design trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the design of a Model Reference Adaptive Control system, a reference model serves as the (well-known) basis through which system and user requirements can find their way into the design. By tuning the design parameters, the response of the actual vehicle should track the response of the

  12. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  13. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  14. Development Risk Methodology for Whole Systems Trade Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    in this report is $112,400. DEVELOPMENT RISK METHODOLOGY FOR WHOLE SYSTEMS TRADE ANALYSIS DESTRUCTION NOTICE Destroy by any method that...official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial hardware or software. The report may not be cited for purposes of advertisement ...4 Figure 4. Criticality and Schedule Overrun

  15. The Impact Of The Introduction of The Automated Trading System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the impact of the introduction of the Automated Trading System (ATS) on the quoted stock prices on the Nigerian stock market. Using monthly data over the period, December 1986 to December 2006, residual analysis methodology was used to investigate stock price reaction to the introduction of the ...

  16. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  17. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  18. Auction Market System in Electronic Security Trading Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi Hao

    2012-01-01

    Under the background of the electronic security trading platform Xetra operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange, we consider the Xetra auction market system (XAMS) from `bottom-up', which the interaction among heterogeneous traders and Xetra auction market mechanism generates non-equilibrium price dynamics. First we develop an integrative framework that serves as general guidance for analyzing the economic system from `bottom-up' and for seamlessly transferring the economic system into the corres...

  19. Viability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration Retrofits for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants under an Emission Trading Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2016-12-06

    Using data on the coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) in Texas we assess the economic feasibility of retrofitting existing units with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in order to comply with the Clean Power Plan's rate-based emission standards under an emission trading scheme. CCS with 90% capture is shown to be more economically attractive for a range of existing units than purchasing emission rate credits (ERCs) from a trading market at an average credit price above $28 per MWh under the final state standard and $35 per MWh under the final national standard. The breakeven ERC trading prices would decrease significantly if the captured CO 2 were sold for use in enhanced oil recovery, making CCS retrofits viable at lower trading prices. The combination of ERC trading and CO 2 use can greatly reinforce economic incentives and market demands for CCS and hence accelerate large-scale deployment, even under scenarios with high retrofit costs. Comparing the levelized costs of electricity generation between CCS retrofits and new renewable plants under the ERC trading scheme, retrofitting coal-fired EGUs with CCS may be significantly cheaper than new solar plants under some market conditions.

  20. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  1. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output.

  2. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China. An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, Michael [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Economics and World Trade; Loeschel, Andreas; Voigt, Sebastian [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.

  3. MODELLING CO2 EMISSIONS IMPACTS ON CROATIAN POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pašičko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's electrical energy landscape is characterized by new challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities, and demand to cut CO2 emissions. All mentioned challenges are calling for consideration of various options (like nuclear, coal, gas or renewable scenarios and for better understanding of energy systems modelling in order to optimize proper energy mix. Existing models are not sufficient any more and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. European emission trading scheme (EU ETS started in 2005 and it has great influence on power system short term and long term planning. Croatia is obliged to establish a national scheme for trading of greenhouse gas emission allowances from the year 2010, which will be focused on monitoring and reporting only until accession to EU when it will be linked with EU ETS. Thus, for Croatian power system it is very important to analyze possible impacts of CO2 emissions. Analysis presented in this paper was done by two different models: mathematical model, based on short run marginal costs (SRMC, relevant for fuel switch in existing power plant and merit order change and long run marginal costs (LRMC, relevant for new investment decisions; and electricity market simulation model PLEXOS, which was used for modelling Croatian power system during development of the Croatian energy strategy in 2008. Results of the analysis show important impacts that emission trading has on Croatian power system, such as influence of emission price rise on price of electricity and on emission quantity, and changes in power plants output that appear with emission price rise. Breakeven point after which gas power plant becomes more competitive than coal is 62 €/tCO2 for SRMC and 40 €/tCO2 for LRMC. With CO2 prices above 31 €/tCO2 wind is more competitive than gas or coal, which emphasizes

  4. 6. Analisis Implementasi Cyber Security Di Uni Eropa: Studi Kasus Carbon Credits Hacking Dalam European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aisya, Naila Sukma; Putranti, Ika Riswanti; Wahyudi, Fendy Eko

    2017-01-01

    Since the last two decades in the 20th century, the European Union (EU) has presented itself as a leader in climate change issues. The leadership manifested in the formation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as an effort to fulfill the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions in the region. But the existence of the EU ETS has been challenged by the emergence of carbon credits hacking case in some national registration systems in the EU ETS. This study discuss...

  5. EUROPEAN EMISSION TRADING SCHEME AT A TURNING POINT – FROM THE PILOT PHASE TO POST-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Carmen Slate

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change action has become a top priority for the European governments and for the European Union. Since the polluters are part of the energy-intensive industries, the mechanisms designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions should focus on the economic sector as a primary source of concern. Therefore, environmental issues interrelate with the economic ones and one viable expression of this relation is the EU ETS, a cap-and-trade mechanism. The ETS started with a pilot phase in year 2005 and will continue with a third phase after 2012, period which coincides with the end of Kyoto’s commitment. Although statistical data prove that the EU ETS is becoming more efficient with each phase, in the absence of global involvement the efforts invested in the scheme will be made in vain.

  6. Development of a model for the prediction of the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emission trade-off for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Baldi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The international regulations on fuel efficiency and NOx emissions of commercial ships motivate the investigation of new system layouts, which can comply with the regulations. In combustion engines, measures to reduce the fuel consumption often lead to increased NOx emissions and careful consider......The international regulations on fuel efficiency and NOx emissions of commercial ships motivate the investigation of new system layouts, which can comply with the regulations. In combustion engines, measures to reduce the fuel consumption often lead to increased NOx emissions and careful...... consideration of this trade-off mechanism is required in the design of marine propulsion systems. This study investigates five different configurations of two-stroke diesel-based machinery systems for large ships and their influence on the mentioned trade-off. Numerical models of a low-speed two-stroke diesel...... engine, turbochargers and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle), are used for the optimisation of the NOx and fuel consumption at design and part-load conditions, using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. Moreover, the effects of engine tuning and exhaust gas recirculation are investigated. The results suggest...

  7. Resilience of the global virtual water trade system

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Carr, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The food security of human societies partly depends on the trade and transport of food commodities around the world. The trade of these goods is associated with a virtual exchange of the water needed for their production. The intensification of international trade has recently led to a globalization of water resources through a network of virtual water trade. We investigate the resilience of the virtual water network and the societal ability to cope with droughts and water stress conditions in a world of globalized water resources. Specifically, we evaluate the effect of the removal of vertices from the virtual water network, due to the choice or inability of a vertex to participate in the import and export of virtual water (e.g., embargo, autarchy, or other economical or environmental reasons). The resilience of the virtual water network is assessed by calculating changes in the average virtual flow between pairs of vertices and the emergence or intensification of water deficit conditions as a function of the number of vertices removed. When coupled with a model of population growth, this analysis sheds light on the fragility of the food security system and of the underlying virtual water network.

  8. Manajemen Proyek Online Trading System PT Universal Broker Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noerlina Noerlina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The articles purpose was to setting for global project management including determination of project organization, work breakdown structure, network diagram, and project scheduling, whenever in case to avoid the failure of project or minimize the failure and risk of Online Trading System project on PT Universal Broker Indonesia. The research method was literature study by reading books, internet articles, and others references related to subsequent project management and do survey by directly interviewing to those parties whom related to subsequent project. The research result indicates that PT Universal Broker Indonesia's Online Trading System project is executed according to it's schedule and it hits the requirements. By conclusion, good project's planning and controlment start from beginning until the end will assist the project's running to achieve its purpose.

  9. Efficiency of the emission trading. A contribution to the climate protection law; Effizienz im Emissionshandel. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht; Wimmers, Kristina [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution discusses the following topics: Inclusion of additional sectors into the emission trading: road traffic and sea traffic, the stepwise realization and difficulties; the failed inclusion of air traffic, rigid penalties in case of violation of the fee delivery, thread for the complete mechanism, over-compliance in Germany and international perspectives.

  10. Manajemen Proyek Online Trading System PT Universal Broker Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Noerlina Noerlina; Deliusno Deliusno; Retdonero Retdonero; Dennis Eryanto

    2008-01-01

    The articles purpose was to setting for global project management including determination of project organization, work breakdown structure, network diagram, and project scheduling, whenever in case to avoid the failure of project or minimize the failure and risk of Online Trading System project on PT Universal Broker Indonesia. The research method was literature study by reading books, internet articles, and others references related to subsequent project management and do survey by directly...

  11. Impacts of the abolition of NOx emission trade; Effecten van de afschaffing van NOx- emissiehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The consequences of abolishing the NOx emission trade have been analyzed for the installations that are covered by BEMS legislation (Dutch decree on emission limits for medium-sized combustion plants). The following aspects have been analyzed: What are the enforcement costs if these installations need to comply with BEMS requirements as of 2014?; How are these costs distributed across the various sectors and in particular for the sectors of onshore/offshore gas and oil extraction, greenhouse horticulture and hospitals?; To what extent can costs be lowered by allowing a 2-,3- or 5-year delay of the implementation date for existing installations in BEMS? To answer the above questions, data were used from the NEA (Netherlands Emission Authority) at sector level. Model calculations were conducted to determine the costs and effects [Dutch] De gevolgen van de afschaffing van NOx-emissiehandel zijn geanalyseerd voor het installatiepark dat terugvalt op BEMS-wetgeving (Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties). De volgende zaken zijn geanalyseerd: Wat zijn de nalevingskosten indien vanaf 2014 deze installaties aan de BEMS-eisen moeten voldoen?; Hoe zijn deze kosten verdeeld over de verschillende sectoren en in het bijzonder voor de sectoren offshore/onshore gas- en oliewinning, de glastuinbouw en ziekenhuizen?; In hoeverre zijn de kosten te verlagen door 2, 3 of 5 jaar uitstel te geven ten opzichte van de implementatiedatum voor bestaande installaties in BEMS? Voor het beantwoorden van de bovenstaande vragen is gebruik gemaakt van gegevens van de NEa (Nederlandse Emissie autoriteit) op sectorniveau. Met modelberekeningen zijn hiermee kosten en effecten bepaald.

  12. Strengthening the European Union emissions trading scheme and raising climate ambition. Facts, measures and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Matthes, Felix C. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    EU energy and climate policy faces manifold challenges. The debate on tougher emis-sions reduction targets for 2020 is gaining momentum, the need for an integrated framework and long-term targets as well as consistent and interim targets for 2020 and 2030 is becoming clear and adjustments to the EU's Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) seem to be indispensable to preserve its role as a central pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy mix. The EU is very close to fulfilling its recent greenhouse gas emission commitments for 2020. Including the committed and projected use of external emissions reduction credits, only a gap of three percentage points remains, which is theoretically already gap-filled with the cap of the EU ETS by 2020. The current situation is also challenging for the EU ETS, which is facing significantly falling allowance prices. The fundamental reason for this price trend is the massive supply of EU emission allowances (EUA) and emission reduction credits which exceeds the demand significantly. This surplus was 950 million EUA in 2011, will reach approx. 2 billion EUA in 2013 and still amount to 1.4 billion EUA in 2020. It results from huge entitlements for the use of external emission reduction credits from CDM and JI and the long-term impacts of the economic crisis. Only a minor contribution to the surplus results from the support for renewable energy sources (RES) with complementary policies to the EU ETS because the recent growth plans for RES match quite well with the assumptions made for cap-setting in 2008. Two different approaches were used to analyse potential interventions and adjustments of the EU ETS. Firstly, a set aside of 1,400 million allowances combined with a tighter cap for the EU ETS by increasing the linear reduction factor from a recent 1.74 % to 2.25 % from 2014 onwards. Secondly, the adjustment of the linear reduction factor was derived from more ambitious goals for the total domestic emission reductions. An

  13. 17 CFR 242.302 - Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative trading systems. 242.302 Section 242.302 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.302 Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems. To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(8) of § 242.301, an...

  14. 17 CFR 242.303 - Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.303 Section 242.303 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.303 Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(9) of...

  15. Dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment.

  16. A Panel Estimation of the Relationship Between Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrara Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies have found an inverted-U relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation. This relationship, known as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC, suggests that environmental degradation increases in the early stages of growth, but it eventually decreases as income exceeds a threshold level. However, this paper investigation relationship between per capita CO2 emission, growth economics and trade liberalization based on econometric techniques of unit root test, co-integration and a panel data set during the period 1960-1996 for BRICS countries. Data properties were analyzed to determine their stationarity using the LLC , IPS , ADF and PP unit root tests which indicated that the series are I(1. We find a cointegration relationship between per capita CO2 emission, growth economics and trade liberalization by applying Kao panel cointegration test. The evidence indi\tcates that in the long-run trade liberalization has a positive significant impact on CO2 emissions and impact of trade liberalization on emissions growth depends on the level of income Our findings suggest that there is a quadratic relationship between relationship between real GDP and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The estimated long-run coefficients of real GDP and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in all of studied countries. Our estimation shows that the inflection point or optimal point real GDP per capita is about 5269.4 dollars. The results show that on average, sample countries are on the positive side of the inverted U curve. The turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. Thus, our findings suggest that all BRICS countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease their emission levels

  17. Parametric trade studies on a Shuttle 2 launch system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Talay, Theodore A.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Morris, W. Douglas; Naftel, J. Christopher; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1991-01-01

    A series of trade studies are presented on a complementary architecture of launch vehicles as a part of a study often referred to as Shuttle-2. The results of the trade studies performed on the vehicles of a reference Shuttle-2 mixed fleet architecture have provided an increased understanding of the relative importance of each of the major vehicle parameters. As a result of trades on the reference booster-orbiter configuration with a methane booster, the study showed that 60 percent of the total liftoff thrust should be on the booster and 40 percent on the orbiter. It was also found that the liftoff thrust to weight ratio (T/W) on the booster-orbiter should be 1.3. This leads to a low dry weight and still provides enough thrust to allow the design of a heavy lift architecture. As a result of another trade study, the dry weight of the reference booster-orbiter was chosen for a variety of operational considerations. Other trade studies on the booster-orbiter demonstrate that the cross feeding of propellant during boost phase is desirable and that engine-out capability from launch to orbit is worth the performance penalty. Technology assumptions made during the Shuttle-2 design were shown to be approx. equivalent to a 25 percent across the board weight reduction over the Space Shuttle technology. The vehicles of the Shuttle-2 architecture were also sized for a wide variety of payloads and missions to different orbits. Many of these same parametric trades were also performed on completely liquid hydrogen fueled fully reusable concepts. If a booster-orbiter is designed using liquid hydrogen engines on both the booster and orbiter, the total vehicle dry weight is only 3.0 percent higher than the reference dual-fuel booster-orbiter, and the gross weight is 3.8 percent less. For this booster-orbiter vehicle, a liftoff T/W of 1.3, a thrust of about 60 percent on the booster, and a Mach staging number of 3 all proved to be desirable. This modest dry weight increase for a

  18. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  19. Additional profits of selected German companies and economic sectors within the EU emission trading system. Analysis for the period from 2005 to 2012; Zusatzertraege von ausgewaehlten deutschen Unternehmen und Branchen im Rahmen des EU-Emissionshandelssystems. Analyse fuer den Zeitraum 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Gores, Sabine; Hermann, Hauke

    2011-05-15

    The first two trading periods of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) included extensive free allocation of emission allowances. Since in electricity production the carbon price is passed on - in an economically rational way - to the electricity price, the utility companies were able to reap substantial additional revenue, a significant amount of which result from the free allocation of emission allowances. Taking into account the nuclear fuel tax (introduced in Germany since 2011) which also aims to absorb additional revenue from the EU ETS, the additional revenue for utility companies from the first and second trading periods of the EU ETS considered in this paper are estimated to amount to Euro 38 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or approx. Euro 35.6 billion (with nuclear fuel tax). The following results arise for the utilities under consideration in the period from 2005 to 2012: - For E.ON the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 13.4 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 12.3 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For RWE the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 10.3 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 9.6 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For Vattenfall Europe the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 5.7 billion, the consideration of the nuclear fuel tax causes only marginal changes because of the non-operational nuclear power plants Krummel and Brunsbuttel; - For EnBW the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 6.4 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 5.9 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For Evonik the additional revenue remains unchanged by the introduction of the nuclear fuel tax and amounts to approx. Euro 2.1 billion for the period from 2005 to 2012. In the first two trading periods the free allocation of emission allowances to plants of energy-intensive industry which are outside of the electricity production sector and covered by the EU ETS sometimes substantially exceeded the emission levels of these plants

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  1. Reference system architecture for trade promotion management: leveraging business intelligence technologies and decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balmus, Andra Bianca; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Busschbach, Murk

    Working towards gaining competitive advantage and establishing stable relationships with their supply chain intermediaries, fast moving consumer goods companies are currently focusing their attention on intelligent, goal-based funds investment. Traditional trade promotion management systems (TPMS),

  2. Research paper no. 18. Trading rules for CO{sub 2} emission permits systems. A proposal for ceilings on quantities and prices; Cahier de recherche no. 18. Regulation des marches de droits d'emission negociables pour le CO{sub 2}. Une proposition de plafonds pour les quantites et pour les prix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criqui, P.; Viguier, L

    2000-01-01

    Tradable emission permit (TEP) systems for greenhouse gases (GHGs) as they could develop following the Kyoto Protocol - that is if they are limited to Annex B countries and are not bound by exchange regulations - do not appear to be greatly acceptable today, either to the United States or to the European Union. The problem of the uncertainty related to the cost of reducing emissions is strongly highlighted in the United States: in fact, the approach adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that of quantitative emissions targets, leaves the question of the reduction programme costs wide open. For the European Union, the unregulated TEP system is hardly acceptable because it would not guarantee that the principle of 'supplementarity' adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that is, the fact that the purchase of permits should be in addition to action taken within each of the Annex B countries. The section two of this paper is an in-depth economic analysis of the european proposal for ''concrete ceilings''. The alternative proposals, formulated in the United States and relating more to permit price ceilings or''trigger price'', are examined in Section 3. After showing that each of the foregoing proposals could have consequences unacceptable to some or others of the parties to the Protocol, Section 4 offers the proposal of a hybrid formula for regulating the rights market. In fact, the main aim of this paper is to show that the implementation of a 'hybrid solution', consisting of limiting the volume of exchanges while at the same time introducing a TEP price ceiling, could provide a market regulation framework effect allowing the benefits of most of the economic advantages to be enjoyed and also having characteristics acceptable to the various parties from an environmental as well as from an international fairness point of view. (A.L.B.)

  3. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during the 1...

  4. Preparing enterprises in Baden-Wuerttemberg for emission trading: determining their need for information, consulting services and training.; Vorbereitung baden-wuerttembergischer Unternehmen auf den Emissionsrechtehandel: Ermittlung von Informations-, Beratungs- und Schulungsbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Betz, R.; Kaeser, S.

    2004-03-19

    In order to achieve the climate-related objectives of the Kyoto Protocol in the most profitable way, the EU Parliament and the Ministers' Council have decided on a regulation which obligates the operators of certain CO2-intensive systems to participate in the emission trading (Published in the Union's official gazette of 25 October 2003: Regulation 2003/87/EG OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL dt. 13 October 2003 on a system for the trade with greenhouse emission certificates in the Union and for the amendment of the regulation 96/61/EG of the Council). Starting in 2005, this includes the operators of certain systems like larger power and heat generation plants, refineries and coking plants, production plants of the iron and steel industry, cement, glass and ceramics industries and the cellulose and paper industry. To the German environmental politics, the European system of emission trading means a change in the paradigms, bringing new strategical and organisatory challenges for the enterprises involved. In order to complete lacking information regarding the approaching trading with emission rights, the first thing to do is to identify Baden-Wuerttemberg's enterprises' needs for information, consulting services and training. This should be the basis for the development of a draft concept for the need for information, consulting services and training.

  5. Trade across frontiers: an overview of International trade before the advent of modern economic system in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboyade Sunday Ariyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El área ahora designadaNigeria tiene una larga historia de las comunidades de comercio a través de las fronteras con las tierras vecinas y distantes mucho antes de la llegada de los europeos y la introducción de los modernos sistema de comercio internacional. Las diversas organizaciones políticas que surgieron y que controlan diferentes partes de la zona participa-ron y se beneficiaron de manera efectiva del comercio de larga distancia, lo que les dio la oportunidad de intercambiar sus excedentes por lo que les faltaba, pero que estaba disponible en otros lugares, lejos o cerca. Con referencia a la naturaleza del medio ambiente de Nigeria, la especialización regional, las relaciones de comercio exterior y la capacidad de la economía tradicional, este trabajo examina el comercio internacional de la Nigeria precolonial y su im-pacto en la economía. Se concluye que la distorsión del comercio interregional y de la estructura de la economía nigeriana precolonial comenzó con la penetración gradual de los euro-peos en el interior del país para llevar a cabo la compra directa de palma a los productores después de la abolición del comercio de esclavos.     Palabras clave: Comercio, Comercio internacional, el comercio a larga distancia, el comercio exterior, la economía nigeriana.  _____________________ Abstract: The area now designated Nigeria has a long history of communities trading across frontiers with neighbours and distant lands long be-fore the arrival of the Europeans and the introduction of modern international trading system. The various polities that emerged and con-trolled different parts of the area participated effectively and benefited from long distance trade, which afforded them the opportunity to exchange their abundance for what they lacked but which was available elsewhere whether far or near. With reference to the nature of the Nigerian environment, regional specialisation, external trade relations and the capacity

  6. The emissions trading in view of the jurisdiction. Pt. 2; Der Emissionshandel im Lichte der Rechtsprechung. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobes, Stefan [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Emissionshandel zur Bekaempfung des Treibhauseffektes' ' ; Engel, Gernot-Ruediger [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Meanwhile, European and German courts have clarified a variety of important legal issues of emissions trading in Germany. The authors of the contribution under conideration report on the jurisdiction up to 30th June, 2010 with regard to individual rules of allocation of the ZuG 2007 and the ZuG 2012 (ZuG - Law on the National Allocation Plan for greenhouse gas emission certificates), the reporting and sanctions procedures, the Project-related Mechanisms Act, issues of legal protection and levying fees as well as claims to information under the Environmental Information Act.

  7. CO{sub 2}-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. WILMAR - deliverable 4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Weber, C. [Univ. of Stuttgart, IER (Germany); Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Ravn, H.F.; Schmidt, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2004-06-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project 'Wind Power Inte-gration in Liberalised Electricity Markets' (WILMAR) and de-scribes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emis-sions Permits (TEPs) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) for electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spot prices at the electric-ity market. The variations of the spot price imply that some types of power generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise the fossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEPs is expected to have a signifi-cant influence on the electricity spot price. However, the expected price level of TEPs are met with great uncertainty and a study of a number of economical studies shows a price span between zero and 270 USD per ton of CO{sub 2} depending on the participation or non-participation of countries in the scheme. The price-determination at the TGC market is expected to be closely related to the price at the power spot market as the RE-producers of electricity will have expectations to the total price paid for the energy produced, i.e., for the price of electricity at the spot market plus the price per kWh obtained at the green certificate mar-ket. In the Wilmar model, the TGC market can either be handled exogenously, i.e., the increase in renewable capacity and an average annual TGC price are determined outside the model, or a simple TGC module is developed, including the long-term supply functions for the most relevant renewable technologies and an overall TGC quota. Both solutions are rather simple, but to develop a more ad-vanced model for the TGC

  8. Challenges of a common climate policy. An analysis of the development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufenanger, Vanessa

    2012-07-01

    The emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) adopted by the European Union in 2003 was a new instrument for the EU and its Member States. It is one of the most important strategies of achieving the EU's greenhouse gas reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol. This book analyses the policy cycle of the EU ETS Directive, focusing on the crucial implementation phase. The revised EU ETS Directive of 2009 includes significant changes for greater ecological effectiveness, changes that were unlikely to have been adopted in 2003. It is evident that the experiences of the first phase influenced not only the second implementation phase but also the revision. The intensive learning process that took place on all levels was necessary to overcome institutional constraints so that the EU ETS could be successfully established and further developed. The EU ETS policy-making is a good example to demonstrate that output legitimacy challenges input legitimacy. With the centralisation of the EU ETS in 2013 it is likely to become a more effective system; however, the legislators from the Member States may lose influence. This problem will have to be addressed.

  9. The innovation impact of EU emission trading. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development, and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the rela-tive influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors, public acceptance) as well as firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size, vision). Empirically, our analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers, and project developers in the German power sector which we conducted from June 2008 until June 2009. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack in stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies tremendously across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions, and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and corporate procedural change. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS by itself may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate climate innovation activities at a level adequate for reaching political long-term targets. Based on the study's findings, we derive a set of policy and research recommendations. (orig.)

  10. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.; Andres, R. J.; Blasing, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production at global, regional, and national spatial scales. The CDIAC emission time series estimates are based largely on annual energy statistics published at the national level by the United Nations (UN). CDIAC has developed a relational database to house collected data and information and a web-based interface to help users worldwide identify, explore and download desired emission data. The available information is divided in two major group: time series and gridded data. The time series data is offered for global, regional and national scales. Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751. Etemad et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication extend the energy statistics time series back to 1751. Summary compilations of fossil fuel trade were published by Mitchell (1983, 1992, 1993, 1995). Mitchell's work tabulates solid and liquid fuel imports and exports by nation and year. These pre-1950 production and trade data were digitized and CO2 emission calculations were made following the procedures discussed in Marland and Rotty (1984) and Boden et al. (1995). The gridded data presents annual and monthly estimates. Annual data presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2008 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2011), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these

  11. Putting a price on carbon. Econometric essays on the European Union emissions trading scheme and its impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of

  12. A secure online image trading system for untrusted cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munadi, Khairul; Arnia, Fitri; Syaryadhi, Mohd; Fujiyoshi, Masaaki; Kiya, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In conventional image trading systems, images are usually stored unprotected on a server, rendering them vulnerable to untrusted server providers and malicious intruders. This paper proposes a conceptual image trading framework that enables secure storage and retrieval over Internet services. The process involves three parties: an image publisher, a server provider, and an image buyer. The aim is to facilitate secure storage and retrieval of original images for commercial transactions, while preventing untrusted server providers and unauthorized users from gaining access to true contents. The framework exploits the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients and the moment invariants of images. Original images are visually protected in the DCT domain, and stored on a repository server. Small representation of the original images, called thumbnails, are generated and made publicly accessible for browsing. When a buyer is interested in a thumbnail, he/she sends a query to retrieve the visually protected image. The thumbnails and protected images are matched using the DC component of the DCT coefficients and the moment invariant feature. After the matching process, the server returns the corresponding protected image to the buyer. However, the image remains visually protected unless a key is granted. Our target application is the online market, where publishers sell their stock images over the Internet using public cloud servers.

  13. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  14. The Impact of Emissions Trading on the Price of Electricity in Nord Pool : Market Power and Price Determination in the Nordic Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Oranen, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to find out how dominant firms in a liberalised electricity market will react when they face an increase in the level of costs due to emissions trading, and how this will effect the price of electricity. The Nordic electricity market is chosen as the setting in which to examine the question, since recent studies on the subject suggest that interaction between electricity markets and emissions trading is very much dependent on conditions specific to each market ...

  15. Clean coal technology and emissions trading: Is there a future for high-sulfur coal under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McDermott, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The near-term and long-term fate of high-sulfur coal is linked to utility compliance plans, the evolution of emission allowance trading, state and federal regulation, and technological innovation. All of these factors will play an implicit role in the demand for high-sulfur coal. This paper will explore the potential impact that emissions trading will have on high-sulfur coal utilization by electric utilities. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Trade-offs between nitrous oxide emission and C-sequestration in the soil: the role of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, J.; Lubbers, I. M.; Giannopoulos, G.

    2008-12-01

    The rapidly rising concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has spurred the interest in soils as a potential carbon (C) sink. However, there are many reports indicating that C- sequestration is often negated by elevated emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is not yet clear what the driving factors behind this trade-off are, nor how it can be avoided. We suggest that earthworm activity may be partly responsible for the trade-off. Earthworm activity is increasingly recognized as being beneficial to C-sequestration through stabilization of SOM. We report experimental results suggesting that they can also lead to strongly elevated N2O-emissions. In a first experiment, dried grass residue (Lolium perenne) was applied at the top of a loamy soil or mixed through the soil, and N2O-emission was followed for three months. Treatments included presence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa. Cumulative N2O-emissions increased significantly for both species. The strongest effect was measured for L. rubellus, where N2O-emissions significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. This effect was only observed when residue was applied on top of the soil. In a second experiment we determined the effect of epigeic (L. rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) earthworms on N2O-emissions for two different soil types (loam and sand) in the presence of 15N-labeled radish residue (Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus). Both species showed significant increases in N2O-emissions, which differed with residue application method and soil type. N2O- emissions were generally larger in loamy soils and the strongest effect was measured for A. caliginosa when residue was mixed into the soil, increasing emissions from 1350.1 to 2223.2 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. L. rubellus only resulted in elevated N2O-emissions when residue was applied on top. These studies make it

  17. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion ofthe coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil...... as energy intensive industries. Such an approach wasfound feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including...... on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream component to include oil refineries, and with them thegrowing CO2 emissions from transport, seem possible. Such a pilot program would allow firms and the policy maker...

  18. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China’s power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China’s power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based modeling is one appealing new methodology that has the potential to overcome some shortcomings...... solar power generation in particular develops significantly, with final proportion increasing by 14%. (3) Emission-based allocation brings about both higher electricity and carbon prices than by output-based allocation which encourages producers to be environmentally friendly. Therefore, output......In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40–45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential...

  19. Farm scale greenhouse gas accounting as basis for emissions trading or financial support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    also farm productivity, through adoption of the efficiency measures that increase production per unit emissions, or through changes in land use, farm management or technologies that target reduction in GHG emissions. Different farm types may have very different options for emissions reductions...

  20. Managing Carbon Footprints under the Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how the retailer adjusts optimal ordering policy in the presence of cap-and-trade system and trade credit, and the corresponding changes of the retailer’s total costs and carbon footprint. Trade credit is one of the most used short-term financing tools. Our study shows that carbon emissions trading will shorten the ordering cycle for products that emit more carbon dioxide during the storage stage, and therefore reduce the buying behavior stimulation effect of trade credit on these products. Under the cap-and-trade system, the retailer’s total cost may increase or decrease, depending on the combination of carbon cap allocated to the retailer and the carbon price. Moreover, trade credit and the corresponding cost of capital affect the retailer’s carbon emission reduction strategy by changing the retailers’ consolidated cost during the ordering and inventory holding stages.

  1. Performance Assessment and Outlook of China’s Emission-Trading Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Dabo; Shan, Yuli; Liu, Zhu; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    China overtook the US as the world’s top emitter in 2007, and produced 1.5 times the emissions of the US by 2013 [1]. At present, China’s emissions make up over a quarter of the global total. China is expected to produce three times the emissions of the US by 2030 [2]. Indeed, China’s role and efforts in CO_2 reductions matter greatly for the peaking of global emissions, even without further emission leakages to less-developed regions or countries. China recently announced the launch of a nat...

  2. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  3. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature ‘well below 2°C’ and to ‘aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C’. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international ‘pro-growth’ strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve ‘sustainable development’ goals. PMID:26959977

  4. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Wagner

    Full Text Available The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015 reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1 is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP, which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN, energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison. Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  5. Assessment of real driving emissions via portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clenci, A.; Sălan, V.; Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Zaharia, C.

    2017-10-01

    The European Commission approved a so-called Real Driving Emission (RDE) test in response to the criticisms to the current driving cycle used at chassis dyno for homologation purpose (NEDC): it is considered outdated and misleading since air pollutants in real driving conditions are considerably higher than the certification thresholds. So, what’s at stake is the air quality which degraded continuously despite the ever-increasing severity of the regulations during the last almost three decades. Thus, from September 2017, the RDE test will become part of the type approval process for all cars sold in Europe. As its name points out, it will include “real world driving” using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The paper presents the RDE features (PEMS mounting, testing environment, boundary conditions, driving dynamics) and presents a case study on the influence of the driving style upon the tail-pipe emissions under the RDE testing. The results presented in the paper issued from the existing cooperation on this topic between University of Pitesti and Renault Technologie Roumanie

  6. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  7. Integration of CCS, emissions trading and volatilities of fuel prices into sustainable energy planning, and its robust optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Jamin; Han, Kyusang; Yoon, En Sup [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a new approach has been proposed that allows a robust optimization of sustainable energy planning over a period of years. It is based on the modified energy flow optimization model (EFOM) and minimizes total costs in planning capacities of power plants and CCS to be added, stripped or retrofitted. In the process, it reduces risks due to a high volatility in fuel prices; it also provides robustness against infeasibility with respect to meeting the required emission level by adopting a penalty constant that corresponds to the price level of emission allowances. In this manner, the proposed methodology enables decision makers to determine the optimal capacities of power plants and/or CCS, as well as volumes of emissions trading in the future that will meet the required emission level and satisfy energy demand from various user-sections with minimum costs and maximum robustness. They can also gain valuable insights on the effects that the price of emission allowances has on the competitiveness of RES and CCS technologies; it may be used in, for example, setting appropriate subsidies and tax policies for promoting greater use of these technologies. The proposed methodology is applied to a case based on directions and volumes of energy flows in South Korea during the year 2008. (author)

  8. Requirements Engineering Process for Sales Management System : Case study: Tin Phong Trading Co., Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Thanh Duc

    2009-01-01

    The starting point of this thesis project was to analyse the system and software requirements for the Sales Management System to help Tin Phong Trading Co., Ltd. as a final assignment for the student to get a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Information Technology. Tin Phong Trading Co., Ltd. is trading company in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. The main business of the company is to trade motorcycle spare-parts in wholesale or retail within the local market. The sales management is still using t...

  9. The European Union's potential for strategic emissions trading through permit sales contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Johan [Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel and Centrum voor Economische Studien of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Naamsestraat 69, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hagem, Cathrine [Statistics Norway (Norway)

    2011-01-15

    Strategic market behavior by permit sellers will harm the European Union (EU) as it is expected to become a large net buyer of permits in a follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper, we explore how the EU could benefit from making permit trade agreements with non-EU countries. These trade agreements involve permit sales requirement, complemented by a financial transfer from the EU to the other contract party. Such agreements would enable the EU to act strategically in the permit market on behalf of its member states, although each member state is assumed to behave as a price taker in the permit market. Using a stylized numerical simulation model, we show that an appropriately designed permit trade agreement between the EU and China could significantly cut the EU's total compliance cost. This result is robust for a wide range of parameterizations of the simulation model. (author)

  10. The European Union's potential for strategic emissions trading through minimal permit sale contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Johan [Leuven Catholic Univ. (Belgium); Hagem, Cathrine [Statistik Sentralbyra, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-09-15

    Strategic market behavior by permit sellers will harm the European Union as the EU as a whole is expected to become a large net buyer of permits in a follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we explore how the EU could benefit from making permit trade agreements with non-EU countries. These trade agreements involve a minimum permit sales requirement complemented by a financial transfer from the EU to the other contract party. Such agreements enable the EU to act strategically in the permit market on behalf of its member states, although each member state is assumed to behave as a price taker in the permit market. Using a stylized numerical simulation model we show that an appropriately designed permit trade agreement between the EU and China can cut EU's total compliance cost significantly. This result is robust for a wide range of parameterizations of the simulation model. (orig.)

  11. Ammonia emissions of a rotational grazing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmeier, Karl; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus; Ammann, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agricultural livestock production is the main source of air pollution by ammonia (NH3). Grazing is considered to reduce emissions significantly. However, ammonia emissions measurements on pastures are very rare and most emission models base their emissions factors for grazing on studies from the 1990s, which report a large emission range from 2.7% to 13.6% of the applied total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). We present first results of the Posieux pasture experiment in 2016 where NH3 concentration and fluxes were measured during the grazing season. The applied methods include an eddy covariance system with a two channel reactive nitrogen (Nr) converter measuring in parallel the sum of oxidized Nr species and the sum of the total Nr species. The difference of the two channels corresponds to the sum of reduced Nr species. Furthermore four MiniDOAS instruments for line integrated concentration measurements without an inlet system were used. The fluxes were estimated by applying a backward Lagrangian stochastic model (bLS) to the concentration difference of paired MiniDOAS up- and downwind of a sub-plot of the field. Monitoring of dung (visual survey) and urine patch locations (with soil electrical conductivity sensor) was carried out after each grazing rotation on selected sub-plots. It helped to compute statistics of the dung/urine patch distribution on the pasture. The experimental setup and the environmental conditions resulted in high temporal and spatial dynamics of NH3 concentrations and fluxes. The calculated fluxes were used to estimate the total net emission during the grazing period. Based on the average dung/urine patch distribution on the field an emission factor for the pasture was computed and compared to results from the literature. We discuss the applicability and limitations of the two measurement systems, reconsider the main emission drivers and explain differences in the results.

  12. Social-environmental trade-offs for Systems of Rice Intensification in S. India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, A.; Reddy, D. N.; Motkuri, V.; Harriss-White, B.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems will only be sustainable if social and economic considerations are included in their design. Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been proposed as more sustainable form of rice production due to reported higher yields and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However there is a research gap concerning the wider social and economic implications of SRI. We developed a model to simultaneously analyse social, economic and environmental sustainability indicators (GHG emissions, ground water use, fossil/ non-fossil energy use, costs, profits, gender, employment quality and employment quantity) to compare SRI to conventional flooded rice production systems. Data was based on farmer-recall questionnaires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data was collected per hectare and per kg of paddy. SRI substantially increased yields (157% of control), reduced ground-water requirements (64% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control) and reduced GHG emissions (72% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control). Costs were substantially lower for SRI systems, on both a hectare and a per kg basis. The high yields and lower costs resulted in a doubling of profits per hectare. However, these benefits are accrued to the farmer potentially at the expense of landless labourers. The role of agricultural employment in developing countries is a controversial issue, but in India, whose substantial economic growth has been largely jobless, agriculture retains a key role in reducing under- and un- employment. SRI labour demand was lower (70% of control ha-1). Simultaneously the ratio of male to female employment increased, from 67% female labour in control to 50% SRI. Thus trade-offs may exist between environmental, economic and social aspects of SRI. Understanding sustainability from a broad perspective facilitates better policy creation.

  13. Evaluating Future Land-use Change Scenarios: Trade-offs between Bio-energy Demand, Food Production, and Carbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the construction of consistent future climate scenario, land use scenario has important role through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects on climate change. In terms of carbon emissions by the land-use change, relative importance may be high in the lower radiative forcing and lower carbon emission scenarios, which may use large amount of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In this study, we first evaluated the CO2 emissions by land-use change in the 21st century using each RCPs scenarios. We use an offline terrestrial biogeochemical model VISIT, with book-keeping consideration of the carbon emission from deforested biomass and the regrowing uptake from abandoned cropland and pasture employing the gridded transition land-use data from RCPs. Effect of CO2 fertilization, land-use transition itself, and climate change are evaluated in the analysis. We found that constructing consistent land-use change carbon emission scenario with the gridded land-use change data requires precise considerations of effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change particularly for the regrowing uptake. Also, our result showed more emission of CO2 by the land-use change than the assumption in the integrated assessment model for RCP2.6 scenario. Then, we estimated the land-use area required to sustain the required biofuel production to match the assumption of BECCS use in RCPs with a global process based crop model. In the evaluation, we also estimated the further changes in carbon emissions by the required land-use change due to differences in crop yield assumptions, which also take into account of climate change. The trade-offs between land-use for crop, biocrop, and natural vegetation low-carbon scenario are discussed using the integrated terrestrial modeling approach.

  14. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  15. How to Set the Allowance Benchmarking for Cement Industry in China’s Carbon Market: Marginal Analysis and the Case of the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG benchmarking for allocation serves as rewards for early actions in mitigating GHG emissions by using more advanced technologies. China Hubei launched the carbon emission trading pilot in 2014, with the cement industry represented as a major contributor to the GHG emissions in Hubei. This article is set to establish a general benchmarking framework by describing and calculating the marginal abatement cost curve (MACC and marginal revenue and then comparing the different GHG benchmarking approaches for the cement industry in the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot (Hubei ETS case. Based on the comparison of three GHG benchmarking approaches, the Waxman-Markey standard, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS cement benchmarking, and the benchmarking approach applied in California Cap-and-Trade program, it is found that; (1 the Waxman-Markey benchmark is too loose to apply in Hubei as it provides little incentive for companies to mitigate; (2 the EU ETS benchmark approach fits the current cement industry in Hubei ETS; and (3 the GHG benchmarking standard in the California Cap-and-Trade Program is the most stringent standard and drives the direction of the future development for Hubei ETS.

  16. Electronic trading system and returns volatility in the oil futures market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Huei-Chu [Department of Economics, Tamkang University (China); Lee, Yi-Huey [Department of Industrial Economics, Tamkang University (China); Suen, Yu-Bo [Department of Finance and Banking, Aletheia University (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper uses daily Brent crude prices to investigate the employment of electronic trading on the returns conditional volatility in the oil futures market. After a suitable GARCH model is established, the conditional volatility series are found. The Bai and Perron model is then used to find two significant structural breaks for these conditional volatility series around two implementation dates of electronic trading. This result indicates that the change in the trading system has significant impacts on the returns volatility since our estimated second break date is very close to the all-electronic trade implementation date. Moreover, the conditional volatility in the all-electronic trading period is found to be more dominated by the temporal persistence rather than the volatility clustering effect. All these evidence can shed some light for explaining the high relationship between more volatile world oil price and the more popular electronic trade. (author)

  17. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdan, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.perdan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: > The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. > Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. > The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. > Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. > A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  18. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  19. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A Laboratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, Timothy N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of...

  20. The UK′s Emissions and Employment Footprints: Exploring the Trade-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, M; Owen, A; Barrett, J

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, the UK economy has increasingly relied on foreign markets to fulfil its material needs, becoming a net importer of both emissions and employment. While the emissions footprint reflects the pressure that consumption exerts on the planet’s climate, the labour footprint represents the employment that is created across the globe associated with the demand for products and services. This paper has a two-fold objective. First, it focuses on analysing the behaviour over time...

  1. 17 CFR 240.17a-23 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems. 240.17a-23 Section 240.17a-23 Commodity and Securities... relating to broker-dealer trading systems. (a) Scope of section. This section shall apply to any registered broker or dealer that acts as the sponsor of a broker-dealer trading system. (b) Definitions. For...

  2. The System for Management of Business Activity of Production and Trade Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenko Inna V.; Garkusha Natalia M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at deepening the theoretical and methodical approaches to the formation of a system for management of business activity of production and trading enterprises in the contemporary conditions of managing. Features of the system approach to management have been determined, a model of the system for management of business activity, taking into consideration specifics of activity of production and trade enterprises, has been developed. A characterization of the common functions...

  3. Reporting from industries covered by the emissions trading scheme for emissions trading regulations. Guide to greenhouse gas emission reporting form 2012; Rapportering fra industri omfattet av kvoteplikt etter klimakvoteforskriften. Veileder til kvoterapporteringsskjema 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-01

    Tradable carbon emissions should be reported to the Climate and Pollution Agency (KLIF) by 1 March the following year that the emissions took place. Reporting of tradable carbon emissions will be achieved by the use of Klif reporting service.(eb)

  4. A Power System Optimal Dispatch Strategy Considering the Flow of Carbon Emissions and Large Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emissions trading market and direct power purchases by large consumers are two promising directions of power system development. To trace the carbon emission flow in the power grid, the theory of carbon emission flow is improved by allocating power loss to the load side. Based on the improved carbon emission flow theory, an optimal dispatch model is proposed to optimize the cost of both large consumers and the power grid, which will benefit from the carbon emissions trading market. Moreover, to better simulate reality, the direct purchase of power by large consumers is also considered in this paper. The OPF (optimal power flow method is applied to solve the problem. To evaluate our proposed optimal dispatch strategy, an IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the performance. The effects of the price of carbon emissions and the price of electricity from normal generators and low-carbon generators with regards to the optimal dispatch are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce both the operation cost of the power grid and the power utilization cost of large consumers.

  5. Greatwhite hope for the climate protection. EU emissions trading taking a great leap into the third phase; Hoffnungtraeger fuer den Klimaschutz. EU-Emissionshandel auf dem Sprung in die dritte Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knispel, Tina [Transferstelle Emissionshandel Hessen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Consistent allocation of certificates, advanced sectors, exacerbated allocation rules - as of 2013 significant amendments belong to plant operators being involved in the European emissions trading. In this way, companies recieve new impetus for an investment in emission-saving technologies.

  6. Modeling an emissions peak in China around 2030: Synergies or trade-offs between economy, energy and climate security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Min Chai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved a political consensus around the need to transform the path of economic growth toward one that lowers carbon intensity and ultimately leads to reductions in carbon emissions, but there remain different views on pathways that could achieve such a transformation. The essential question is whether radical or incremental reforms are required in the coming decades. This study explores relevant pathways in China beyond 2020, particularly modeling the major target choices of carbon emission peaking in China around 2030 as China-US Joint Announcement by an integrated assessment model for climate change IAMC based on carbon factor theory. Here scenarios DGS-2020, LGS2025, LBS-2030 and DBS-2040 derived from the historical pathways of developed countries are developed to access the comprehensive impacts on the economy, energy and climate security for the greener development in China. The findings suggest that the period of 2025–2030 is the window of opportunity to achieve a peak in carbon emissions at a level below 12 Gt CO2 and 8.5 t per capita by reasonable trade-offs from economy growth, annually −0.2% in average and cumulatively −3% deviation to BAU in 2030. The oil and natural gas import dependence will exceed 70% and 45% respectively while the non-fossil energy and electricity share will rise to above 20% and 45%. Meantime, the electrification level in end use sectors will increase substantially and the electricity energy ratio approaching 50%, the labor and capital productivity should be double in improvements and the carbon intensity drop by 65% by 2030 compared to the 2005 level, and the cumulative emission reductions are estimated to be more than 20 Gt CO2 in 2015–2030.

  7. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  8. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9; Trading in the rain. Precipitations et emissions du secteur electrique europeen. Note d'etude n.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO{sub 2}, as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO{sub 2} in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO{sub 2}. To make the interaction with the CO{sub 2} market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe.

  9. Applying systems thinking to inform studies of wildlife trade in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mary E; Le, Minh D; Thạch, Hoàng M; Panariello, Anna; Vũ, Ngọc B; Birchette, Mark G; Sethi, Gautam; Sterling, Eleanor J

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework. We discuss how we constructed our framework, which follows a social-ecological system framework, to design an ongoing study of local, regional, and international slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) trade in Vietnam. We outline the process of iterative variable exploration and selection via this framework to inform study design. Our framework, guided by systems thinking, enables recognition of complexity in study design, from which the results can inform more holistic, site-appropriate, and effective trade management practices. We place our framework in the context of other approaches to studying wildlife trade and discuss options to address foreseeable challenges to implementing this new framework. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Country-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Trade for Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, Adebola S; Li, Vivian; Coleman, James W; Liendo, Jeanne; Jordaan, Sarah M

    2018-02-20

    In the determination of the net impact of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation. Results show that while the ultimate magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas production systems is still unknown, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions depend on country-level infrastructure (specifically, the efficiency of the generation fleet, transmission and distribution losses and LNG ocean transport distances) as well as the assumptions on what is displaced in the domestic electricity generation mix. Exogenous events such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster have unanticipated effects on the emissions displacement results. We highlight national regulations, environmental policies, and multilateral agreements that could play a role in mitigating emissions.

  11. Emissions trading from 2013 on. Auctioning of emission permits at the European level; Der Emissionshandel ab 2013. Die Versteigerung der Emissionszertifikate auf europaeischer Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greb, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    As explained in the present publication, the European Communities have general competence for the initial payable allocation of CO{sub 2} emission permits, determination of the allocation method to be used and execution of the auction. The member states retain their revenue powers. The level of regulatory density of the amending directive conforms to the requirements of essentiality and determinacy. There is nothing in Art. 295 of the EC Treaty (Art. 345 TFEU) that contravenes the reform of the emissions trading scheme. However, its centralised implementation is not in accord with the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. It is not beyond the capacity of the member states to each carry out the auction themselves, nor would its centralized execution provide an integration benefit over a decentralised procedure (provided the auctioning rules were defined in sufficient detail). Moreover, there is nothing in the goals pursued with the auction to necessitate its centralised execution. The adequacy of auctioning as an allocation method must be judged on the basis of the participatory rights of the plant operators concerned. These derive primarily from the right of equality, modified by aspects of the right of liberty. The European Court of Justice is examining the commensurability of the procedure against the general principle of equality, giving due consideration also to the scheme's impact on the liberty rights of those discriminated by it.

  12. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Three primary tasks were identified which include task 1-trade studies, task 2-trade study comparison and technology selection, and task 3-technology definition. Task 1 general objectives were to identify candidate technology trade areas, determine which areas have the highest potential payoff, define specific trades within the high payoff areas, and perform the trade studies. In order to satisfy these objectives, a structured, organized approach was employed. Candidate technology areas and specific trades were screened using consistent selection criteria and considering possible interrelationships. A data base comprising both manned and unmanned space platform documentation was used as a source of system and subsystem requirements. When requirements were not stated in the data base documentation, assumptions were made and recorded where necessary to characterize a particular spacecraft system. The requirements and assumptions were used together with the selection criteria to establish technology advancement goals and select trade studies. While both manned and unmanned platform data were used, the study was focused on the concept of an early manned space station.

  13. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  14. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: A legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, H.D.; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-à-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive

  15. Electricity and combined heat and power from municipal solid waste; theoretically optimal investment decision time and emissions trading implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, Athanasios; Rentizelas, Athanasios; Aravossis, Konstantin; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias

    2010-11-01

    Waste management has become a great social concern for modern societies. Landfill emissions have been identified among the major contributors of global warming and climate changes with significant impact in national economies. The energy industry constitutes an additional greenhouse gas emitter, while at the same time it is characterized by significant costs and uncertain fuel prices. The above implications have triggered different policies and measures worldwide to address the management of municipal solid wastes on the one hand and the impacts from energy production on the other. Emerging methods of energy recovery from waste may address both concerns simultaneously. In this work a comparative study of co-generation investments based on municipal solid waste is presented, focusing on the evolution of their economical performance over time. A real-options algorithm has been adopted investigating different options of energy recovery from waste: incineration, gasification and landfill biogas exploitation. The financial contributors are identified and the impact of greenhouse gas trading is analysed in terms of financial yields, considering landfilling as the baseline scenario. The results indicate an advantage of combined heat and power over solely electricity production. Gasification, has failed in some European installations. Incineration on the other hand, proves to be more attractive than the competing alternatives, mainly due to its higher power production efficiency, lower investment costs and lower emission rates. Although these characteristics may not drastically change over time, either immediate or irreversible investment decisions might be reconsidered under the current selling prices of heat, power and CO(2) allowances.

  16. Social absorption capability, systems of innovation and manufactured export response to preferential trade incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na-Allah, Abdelrasaq; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    In many extant analyses of non-reciprocal system of trade preferences, it is typical to focus on the details of market access value of tarrif concessions as explanation for why export beneficiaries may or may not respond to include very often the role that supply related factors can, and do play...... & Opportunity Act apparel trade incentive is used as a classical illustration of this proposition. It is shown that the comparative efficiency of Lesetho, despite emerging from a relatively weak trade performance potential background, in recording the highest level of export success among beneficiaries...

  17. The Economics of Forest Carbon Sequestration: The Challenge for Emissions Offset Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the role that forestry activities can play in mitigating climate change. The price of carbon offset credits is used for incentivizing a reduction in the release of CO2 emissions and an increase in sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through forestry activities. Forestland owners essentially have two options for creating carbon offset credits: (1) avoid or delay harvest of mature timber; or (2) harvest timber and allow natural regeneration or regeneration with `regular' or genetically-enhanced growing stock, storing carbon in post-harvest products, using sawmill and potentially logging residues to generate electricity. In this study, a model representative of the Quesnel Timber Supply Area (TSA) in the BC interior is developed. The objective is to maximize net discounted returns to commercial timber operations (and sale of downstream products) plus the benefits of managing carbon fluxes. The model tracks carbon in living trees, organic matter, and, importantly, post-harvest carbon pools and avoided emissions from substituting wood for non-wood in construction or wood bioenergy for fossil fuels. Model constraints ensure that commercial forest management is sustainable, while carbon prices incentivize sequestration to ensure efficient mitigation of climate change. The results are confirmed more generally by comparing the carbon fluxes derived from the integrated forest management model with those from a Faustmann-Hartman rotation age model that explicitly includes benefits of storing carbon. One other question is addressed: If carbon offsets are created when wood biomass substitutes for fossil fuels in power generation, can one count the saved emissions from steel/cement production when wood substitutes for non-wood materials in construction?

  18. EU emission trading. Requirement of adaptation of the Cap as a consequence of external shocks and unexpected developments?; EU-Emissionshandel. Anpassungsbedarf des Caps als Reaktion auf externe Schocks und unerwartete Entwicklungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The effectivity of the European emission trading system (EU-ETS) with respect to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions based essentially on the quantity of the emission caps. The regional, sectorial and temporal boundaries of this system as well as the regulations covering international flexible mechanisms and banking have to be considered in the evaluation of the effectivity of the EU-ETS. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different variants of adjustment. First of all, the criteria for an identification of a possible justified needs of adaptation are investigated. Furthermore, the authors discuss the question about suitable points in time for an intervention.

  19. Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO(2) emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

  20. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  1. A Stock Trading Recommender System Based on Temporal Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy B. Nair

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems capable of discovering patterns in stock price movements and generating stock recommendations based on the patterns thus discovered can significantly supplement the decision-making process of a stock trader. Such recommender systems are of great significance to a layperson who wishes to profit by stock trading even while not possessing the skill or expertise of a seasoned trader. A genetic algorithm optimized Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX–Apriori based stock trading recommender system, which can mine temporal association rules from the stock price data set to generate stock trading recommendations, is presented in this article. The proposed system is validated on 12 different data sets. The results indicate that the proposed system significantly outperforms the passive buy-and-hold strategy, offering scope for a layperson to successfully invest in capital markets.

  2. Software Architecture Coupling Metric for Assessing Operational Responsiveness of Trading Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical observation that motivates our research relies on the difficulty to assess the performance of a trading architecture beyond a few synthetic indicators like response time, system latency, availability or volume capacity. Trading systems involve complex software architectures of distributed resources. However, in the context of a large brokerage firm, which offers a global coverage from both, market and client perspectives, the term distributed gains a critical significance indeed. Offering a low latency ordering system by nowadays standards is relatively easily achievable, but integrating it in a flexible manner within the broader information system architecture of a broker/dealer requires operational aspects to be factored in. We propose a metric for measuring the coupling level within software architecture, and employ it to identify architectural designs that can offer a higher level of operational responsiveness, which ultimately would raise the overall real-world performance of a trading system.

  3. 76 FR 28418 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 104; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Systems Americas, Inc., (Power Generation Turbine Components), Pooler, GA Pursuant to its authority under... Foreign-Trade Zone 104, has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Mitsubishi Power Systems... FTZ 104 on behalf of Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc., as described in the application and...

  4. Network design for quantifying urban CO2 emissions: assessing trade-offs between precision and network density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alexander J.; Shusterman, Alexis A.; McDonald, Brian C.; Teige, Virginia; Harley, Robert A.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2016-11-01

    The majority of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are attributable to urban areas. While the emissions from urban electricity generation often occur in locations remote from consumption, many of the other emissions occur within the city limits. Evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for controlling these emissions depends on our ability to observe urban CO2 emissions and attribute them to specific activities. Cost-effective strategies for doing so have yet to be described. Here we characterize the ability of a prototype measurement network, modeled after the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N) in California's Bay Area, in combination with an inverse model based on the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) to improve our understanding of urban emissions. The pseudo-measurement network includes 34 sites at roughly 2 km spacing covering an area of roughly 400 km2. The model uses an hourly 1 × 1 km2 emission inventory and 1 × 1 km2 meteorological calculations. We perform an ensemble of Bayesian atmospheric inversions to sample the combined effects of uncertainties of the pseudo-measurements and the model. We vary the estimates of the combined uncertainty of the pseudo-observations and model over a range of 20 to 0.005 ppm and vary the number of sites from 1 to 34. We use these inversions to develop statistical models that estimate the efficacy of the combined model-observing system in reducing uncertainty in CO2 emissions. We examine uncertainty in estimated CO2 fluxes on the urban scale, as well as for sources embedded within the city such as a line source (e.g., a highway) or a point source (e.g., emissions from the stacks of small industrial facilities). Using our inversion framework, we find that a dense network with moderate precision is the preferred setup for estimating area, line, and point sources from a combined uncertainty and cost perspective. The dense network considered here

  5. Network design for quantifying urban CO2 emissions: assessing trade-offs between precision and network density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Turner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are attributable to urban areas. While the emissions from urban electricity generation often occur in locations remote from consumption, many of the other emissions occur within the city limits. Evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for controlling these emissions depends on our ability to observe urban CO2 emissions and attribute them to specific activities. Cost-effective strategies for doing so have yet to be described. Here we characterize the ability of a prototype measurement network, modeled after the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N in California's Bay Area, in combination with an inverse model based on the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT to improve our understanding of urban emissions. The pseudo-measurement network includes 34 sites at roughly 2 km spacing covering an area of roughly 400 km2. The model uses an hourly 1  ×  1 km2 emission inventory and 1  ×  1 km2 meteorological calculations. We perform an ensemble of Bayesian atmospheric inversions to sample the combined effects of uncertainties of the pseudo-measurements and the model. We vary the estimates of the combined uncertainty of the pseudo-observations and model over a range of 20 to 0.005 ppm and vary the number of sites from 1 to 34. We use these inversions to develop statistical models that estimate the efficacy of the combined model–observing system in reducing uncertainty in CO2 emissions. We examine uncertainty in estimated CO2 fluxes on the urban scale, as well as for sources embedded within the city such as a line source (e.g., a highway or a point source (e.g., emissions from the stacks of small industrial facilities. Using our inversion framework, we find that a dense network with moderate precision is the preferred setup for estimating area, line, and point sources from a combined uncertainty and cost

  6. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the wildland fire emissions information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; Donald McKenzie; Tyler Erickson; Benjamin Koziol; Michael Billmire; K. Endsley; Naomi K.Y. Scheinerman; Liza Jenkins; Mary E. Miller; Roger Ottmar; Susan Prichard

    2014-01-01

    As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive, spatial data are needed to improve quantitative maps of carbon emissions from fire. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) provides mapped estimates of carbon emissions from historical forest fires in the United States through a web browser. WFEIS improves access to data and provides a consistent...

  7. Techniques for reactive system design: the tools in TRADE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Jansen, D.N.; Dittrich, K.R.; Geppert, A.; Norrie, M.C.

    Reactive systems are systems whose purpose is to maintain a certain desirable state of affairs in their environment, and include information systems, groupware, workflow systems, and control software. The current generation of information system design methods cannot cope with the high demands that

  8. Educational Systems and the Trade-Off between Labor Market Allocation and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Thijs; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems with a high level of tracking and vocational orientation have been shown to improve the allocation of school-leavers in the labor market. However, tracked educational systems are also known to increase inequality of educational opportunity. This presumed trade-off between equality and labor market preparation is clearly rooted…

  9. Monitoring of CO{sub 2}-emissions in refineries - Analysis of existing systems; Erfassung von CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in Raffinerien - Analyse vorliegender Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautwein, W.P.

    2003-09-01

    This report describes six different methods of monitoring and reporting of CO{sub 2}-emissions of refineries and compares these with regard to their suitability for emissions trading. As a result of this study two systems appear to be most suited: 1. ''Study on the monitoring and measurement of greenhouse gas emissions at the plant level in the context of the Kyoto mechanisms'', Center of Clean Air Policy, USA 2. ''The greenhouse gas protocol - a corporate accounting and reporting standard'', World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Switzerland. Essentially the result of this DGMK-Research Report is in agreement with a draft guideline of the EU for emissions trading, which, however, is much more detailed and comprehensive. (orig.)

  10. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  11. Emissions trading and climate strategies. The EU emission trading 2008-2012 and 2013-2020. State of the art and further developments in the project mechanisms as well as in the international climate protection. Carbon footprint, climate neutrality and climate strategies; Emissionshandel und Klimastrategien. Der EU-Emissionshandel 2008-12 und 2013-20. Aktueller Stand und weitere Entwicklungen bei den Projektmechanismen sowie im internationalen Klimaschutz. Carbon Footprint, Klimaneutralitaet und Klimastrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    At 1st January, 2008 the second period of the EU emissions trading started which also is the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. This seventh edition under consideration with the theme 'Emission trading and climate change strategies' reports on the developments and innovations made in the past year. The booklet starts with an introduction to the topic of climate change strategies. A brief review on the year 2009 in the EU emissions trading and on the litigation follows. A key chapter of this booklet deals with the inclusion of aviation in the third trading period 2013-2020. Furthermore, it describes the current status and innovations in the project mechanisms JI (Joint Implementation) and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). The brochure deals with the international climate policy, analyzes the results of the climate conference in Copenhagen and evaluates for further development of emissions trading.

  12. Water maser emission from exoplanetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmovici, C. B.; Pogrebenko, S.

    2018-01-01

    Since the first discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet in 1995 more than 2000 exo-planets have been found to exist around main sequence stars. The detection techniques are based on the radial velocity method (which involves the measurement of the star's wobbling induced by the gravitational field of the orbiting giant planets) or on transit photometry by using space telescopes (Kepler, Corot, Hubble and Spitzer) outside the absorbing Earth atmosphere. From the ground, as infrared observations are strongly limited by atmospheric absorption, radioastronomy offers almost the only possible way to search for water presence and abundance in the planetary atmospheres of terrestrial-type planets where life may evolve. Following the discovery in 1994 of the first water maser emission in the atmosphere of Jupiter induced by a cometary impact, our measurements have shown that the water maser line at 22 GHz (1.35 cm) can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool for water search outside the solar system, as comets are able to deliver considerable amounts of water to planets raising the fascinating possibility of extraterrestrial life evolution. Thus in 1999 we started the systematic search for water on 35 different targets up to 50 light years away from the Sun. Here we report the first detection of the water maser emission from the exoplanetary systems Epsilon Eridani, Lalande 21185 and Gliese 581. We have shown the peculiar feasibility of water detection and its importance in the search for exoplanetary systems especially for the Astrobiology programs, given the possibility of long period observations using powerful radiotelescopes equipped with adequate spectrometers.

  13. The long, slow birth of a U.S. emissions trading regime. Recent developments in U.S. climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, D.; Frenkil, D.J. [George Washington University Law School, Washington D.C. (United States)

    2010-11-15

    On Friday, 23 April 2010, the leadership of the 11th Congress and the Obama Administration were poised to capitalise on recent, unparalleled progress in furtherance of U.S. climate policy. Over the past year, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the first climate bill in United States history, and the Obama Administration quickly initiated the regulation of greenhouse gas ('GHG') emissions, primarily through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ('EPA') after years of neglect by the Bush Administration. Just two days were left to go until Monday, 26 April 2010, when CEOs from leading energy, financial and manufacturing corporations were scheduled to join senators from both sides of the aisle to introduce the missing link in a federal 'cap-and-trade' scheme: a climate bill that was 'filibusterproof' in the Senate - i.e. capable of gaining the necessary 60 votes out of the 100 members of the U.S. Senate to pass a procedural motion on the bill that effectively cuts off debate and brings the bill to a vote. The bill was the product of nearly a year of deal-making and compromise between leaders from both parties, which seldom occurs these days on Capital Hill. One of the pivotal aspects of that compromise was that Senate democrats were willing to accept the demand of Republicans to include a provision in the bill that would expand offshore oil drilling. However, in the midst of a turbulent political environment (a controversial immigration bill and the Deepwater Horizon drilling disaster), coupled with an economic downturn, climate policy had to take a backseat on the national agenda to issues like unemployment and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in the final months leading up to the November 2, 2010 'mid-term' elections. However slow the momentum of a GHG emission-reducing regime in the United States prior to the 2010 elections, the process came to a crashing halt when American voters handed the U.S. House of

  14. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  15. Prediction of Pig Trade Movements in Different European Production Systems Using Exponential Random Graph Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose M; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems. Three trade networks were built by aggregating movements of pig batches among premises (farms and trade operators) over 2011 in Bulgaria, Extremadura (Spain), and Côtes-d'Armor (France), where small-scale, extensive, and intensive pig production are predominant, respectively. Three ERGMs were fitted to each network with various demographic and geographic attributes of the nodes as well as six internal network configurations. Several statistical and graphical diagnostic methods were applied to assess the goodness of fit of the models. For all systems, both exogenous (attribute-based) and endogenous (network-based) processes appeared to govern the structure of pig trade network, and neither alone were capable of capturing all aspects of the network structure. Geographic mixing patterns strongly structured pig trade organization in the small-scale production system, whereas belonging to the same company or keeping pigs in the same housing system appeared to be key drivers of pig trade, in intensive and extensive production systems, respectively. Heterogeneous mixing between types of production also explained a part of network structure, whichever production system considered. Limited information is thus needed to capture most of the global structure of pig trade networks. Such findings will be useful

  16. Reducing Carbon Emissions in a Closed-Loop Production Routing Problem with Simultaneous Pickups and Deliveries under Carbon Cap-and-Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanjing Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of reverse logistics into production routing problems can promote and coordinate the implementation of sustainable development for supply chains. This study aims to incorporate reverse logistics into production routing problems and investigate the reduction of carbon emissions under carbon cap-and-trade. Mixed-integer programming models are proposed for the production routing problem with reverse logistics by considering simultaneous pickups and deliveries in vehicle routing subproblems. To solve this problem, we propose a solution method of a branch-and-cut guided search algorithm based on adaptation of known valid inequalities. Computational results highlight the trade-offs among various performance indicators, including emission levels and operational costs of production, inventory holding, fuel consumption, and drivers.

  17. Positron Emission Tomography: Current Challenges and Opportunities for Technological Advances in Clinical and Preclinical Imaging Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Juan José; Kinahan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-animal models. However, there are several challenges to using PET imaging systems. These include the fundamental trade-offs between resolution and noise, the quantitative accuracy of the measurements, and integration with X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we review how researchers and industry are addressing these challenges.

  18. Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, Maria L.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Adams, Dean C.; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego; Barton, Louise; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Pappa, Valentini A.; Bouwman, Lex; Lassaletta, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Many recent reviews and meta-analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta-analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for

  19. THE GENERAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM AT TRADE ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIMAN ADRIAN-COSMIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At trade entities, most of the activities carried out within the framework of accounting information system revolve around accounting operations, they being the basis of this system and the financial perspective over an entity activity, through the accounts, by the way, most of the accounting information resulted from accounting information system are obtained by analyzing the information in the accounts. In the context of the existence of an integrated information system almost all accounting operations can be generated automatically or semi-automatically, by retrieving data from other modules of the informatic system existent within the entity: purchasing, sales, human resources, asset ,cash register, bank, etc. Otherwise, to dispose in a trade entity of a performant financial-accounting information system it should be analyzed, designed and implemented only in conjunction with other components they interact with, namely: purchasing, sales, human resources, assets, cash register, bank, etc., in order to avoid certain inherent redundancy in other approaches.

  20. 78 FR 67927 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Bureau of the Census 15 CFR Part 30 RIN 0607-AA50 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Mandatory Automated... the Automated Export System (AES) under control number 0607-0152. DATES: The effective date of the... to report shipments of used self-propelled vehicles and temporary exports through the AES or through...

  1. Trade-FDI Linkages in a System of Gravity Equations for German Regional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Untiedt, Gerhard

    We analyse the nature of German trade-FDI linkages within the EU27 based on a simultaneous equation gravity approach for imports, exports, in- and outward FDI stocks.We adopt both a Hausman-Taylor (1981) IV approach (3SLS-GMM) and rival non-IV estimation (the system extension to the Fixed Effects...

  2. Wideband vs. Multiband Trade-offs for a Scalable Multifunction RF system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for a scalable multifunction RF (SMRF) system that allows the RF functionality (radar, electronic warfare and communications) to be easily extended and the RF performance to be scaled to the requirements of different missions and platforms. A trade-off analysis is

  3. Distribution effects and allocation effects of energy political instruments. Contradictory in the comparison of EEG and emission trading; Verteilungs- und Allokationswirkungen energiepolitischer Instrumente. Widerspruechliches beim Vergleich von EEG und Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R. [Flensburg Univ. (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The classical energy-economical target triangle requires an obligation of economics, environmental compatibility and security of supply. Despite of a common reference on certain principles for the realization of these targets, lawyers and economists come to different conclusions with respect to the analysis of environment political and energy political instruments. In accordance with the literature, the emission trading performs badly in the comparison between the environmental political and energy political flagships (renewable energy law (EEG), emission trading) and is finally illegally. For this two arguments are stated: (a) The EEG results into an annual emission reduction of nearly 41 million tons of carbon dioxide in the Federal Republic of Germany and burdens the consumer with only 57 Euro per saved ton of CO{sub 2}; (b) The market power of the great energy companies results into a strong overcharge of the emission trading. In the contribution under consideration the author reports that these to arguments only conditionally can be used for the comparison of emission trading and renewable energy law. Both arguments are based on an inadmissible mixture of efficiency arguments and distribution arguments. Under this aspect the author attributes both instruments to a common theoretical basis of an internationalization of external effects. The variability of the arguments agitates that a different dispatching of the costs of the environmental improvement is made by the emission trading. While the renewable energy law represents an application of the common load principle, the emission trade is to be assigned to the principle of economic cause.

  4. Laser space rendezvous and docking system trade-off study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, S.; Levinson, S.

    1975-01-01

    The use, design, and fabrication feasibility of scanning the laser beam by swiveling the outside mirror with a ball joint swivel system is examined along with the applicability of graphite reinforced epoxy material for the construction of reflective optics. It is indicated that (1) the cost of graphite-epoxy will be more than that of many other materials due to the amount of special tooling required; (2) the weight advantage of graphite-epoxy over beryllium is minimal; the ball joint swivel system is accurate enough to perform the scanning function; and that the ball joint will result in a simpler and more cost effective scanning mechanism.

  5. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, Trade Studies. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Keith. U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School (USAICS) Software Analysis and Management System (USAMS) Evaluation of SREM/REVS/RSL and PSL/PSA 1983: 89...VAN78] Van der Kniiff, D. "Software Physics and Program Analysis." Australian Computer Journal 1978. [VIN90] Vines, D. and T. King. Gaia : An Object

  6. Human System Risk Management - Tools of our Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The risk of infectious disease to select individuals has historically been difficult to predict in either spaceflight or on Earth with health care efforts relying on broad-based prevention and post-infection treatment. Over the past 10 years, quantitative microbial risk assessment evaluations have evolved to formalize the assessment process and quantify the risk. This process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization has been applied by the water and food safety industries to address the public health impacts associated with the occurrence of and human exposure to pathogens in water and food for the development of preventive strategies for microbial disease. NASA is currently investigating the feasibility of using these techniques to better understand the risks to astronauts and refine their microbiological requirements. To assess these techniques, NASA began an evaluation of the potable water system on the International Space Station to determine how the microbial risk from water consumption during flight differed from terrestrial sources, such as municipal water systems. The ultimate goal of this work is to optimize microbial requirements which would minimize unnecessary cargo and use of crew time, while still protecting the health of the crew. Successful demonstration of this risk assessment framework with the water system holds the potential to maximize the use of available resources during spaceflight missions and facilitate investigations into the evaluation of other routes of infection, such as through the spaceflight foods system.

  7. Trade-offs for feedback control of the linearized Ginzburg-Landau system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Simon; Oehler, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    We consider feedback control of the linearized Ginzburg-Landau system. The particular focus is on any trade-offs present in the single-input single-output control problem. The work is in three parts. First, we consider the estimation problem in which a single sensor is used to estimate the entire flow field (without any control). By considering the optimal sensor placement with varying system stability, a fundamental trade-off for the estimation problem is made clear. Second, we consider the full-information control problem in which the entire flow field is known, but only a single actuator is available for control. We show that a similar trade-off exists when placing the single actuator. Third, we consider the overall feedback control problem in which only a single sensor is available for measurement; and only a single actuator is available for control. By varying the system stability, a similar fundamental trade-off is made clear. Implications for effective feedback control with a single sensor and a single actuator are discussed.

  8. 17 CFR 249.821 - Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this... Associations § 249.821 Form PILOT, information required of self-regulatory organizations operating pilot trading systems pursuant to § 240.19b-5 of this chapter. This form shall be used by all self-regulatory...

  9. Emission trading north - benefits for the economy and the environment. A pilot project of the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein in co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzantny, Katja [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Hahn, Michael [ERM Lahmeyer Int. GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany); Kruska, Martin [EUtech Energie plus Umwelt, Technik plus Management, Aachen (Germany); Klein, Michael [500 PPM Gesellschaft fuer Emissionshandel und Beratung mbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein is carrying out the pilot project Emission Trading North. Its primary target is the regional application of the flexible mechanisms (ET, JI, CDM) together with the industry of Schleswig-Holstein. In detail, it focuses on capacity building on behalf of the different parties involved, a smooth transition to real ET and the positioning of the Energy Foundation in a future ET system. The project cycle consists of 3 phases (Phase 0: preparatory work; Phase 1: development of emission inventories, identification and evaluation of emission reduction measures; Phase 2: simulation of ET). Participating companies located in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, representing the power sector, cement production, paper and pulp production, non-ferrous metals as well as the renewable energy sector, dealt with the central question of allocation of emission allowances. During in-depth energy analyses emission reduction measures were identified and evaluated with respect to their volume of emission reductions and related costs. Participating companies developed mid and long-term trading strategies taking into account investment cycles, project risks and market prices. The strategy was tested during a multi-period trading simulation. With respect to the national allocation plan, a central element of the future European emission trading system, the pilot project proposes consistent solutions relating to CHP, capacity limits, process emissions, fuel substitutes, new entrants and shut-down of installations.

  10. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  11. Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

  12. System for trading and automation activities in Ogame

    OpenAIRE

    Čarek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The goal is to create automatized system for playing online game in order to help player. The major goal of this thesis is to create a program for playing online game Ogame(Gameforge 2015k), in order to remove from game repeated and boring operations, which allows player to be concentrated on game strategy, diplomacy and the need of being online in game. The concept of the program will be changed during development according to current requirements of operations. We used such programming lang...

  13. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  14. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  15. The Effective Design of Managerial Incentive Systems:Combining Theoretical Principles and Practical Trade'-offs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how theoretical developments in the field of agency and contract economics may be of great inspiration for the practical design of incentive- and performance-based compensation systems. Principles and stylized facts arising from the analysis of the principal-agent framework ond the economic theory of teams are presented by means of trade-offs that human resource practitioners should take into account when tailoring compensation systems to the specific needs of a particu...

  16. Quantifying Third-Party Impacts and Environmental Externalities from a Cap-And-Trade System for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Economic decision models, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. A uniformly applied cap-and-trade system can however result in significant spatially and temporally varying hydrogeologic impacts that reduce public welfare. Hydrological challenges associated with the cap-and-trade system for groundwater management include establishing appropriate system boundaries, setting system-wide sustainable yield and limiting third party impacts from extractions. Given these challenges, these economic models need to be supplemented with physically based hydrogeologic models that are able to represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in conditions across a region. This investigation assesses third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from a cap-and-trade system in a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States. The economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model. The cap-and-trade system is developed using a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. We then compare the performance of the cap-and-trade system with a smart groundwater market which, in addition to a cap on total groundwater extraction, also incorporates streamflow constraints. The results quantify third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from uncontrolled trading. This analysis demonstrates the value added by a well-designed cap-and-trade system able to account for basin-wide heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and ecological conditions by establishing trading limits, managing inter-area transfers and setting exchange rates for permit trading.

  17. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R. P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S. R.; Hillyer, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. T. P. Team,

    1999-01-01

    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 mu s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low

  18. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... and suitable swept-frequency RF spectrum analyzer using a peak hold duration of 10 minutes, no video...

  19. Modeling carbon emissions from urban traffic system using mobile monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Jian; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Rui; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive analyses of urban traffic carbon emissions are critical in achieving low-carbon transportation. This paper started from the architecture design of a carbon emission mobile monitoring system using multiple sets of equipment and collected the corresponding data about traffic flow, meteorological conditions, vehicular carbon emissions and driving characteristics on typical roads in Shanghai and Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Based on these data, the emission model MOVES was calibrated and used with various sensitivity and correlation evaluation indices to analyze the traffic carbon emissions at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels, respectively. The major factors that influence urban traffic carbon emissions were investigated, so that emission factors of CO, CO2 and HC were calculated by taking representative passenger cars as a case study. As a result, the urban traffic carbon emissions were assessed quantitatively, and the total amounts of CO, CO2 and HC emission from passenger cars in Shanghai were estimated as 76.95kt, 8271.91kt, and 2.13kt, respectively. Arterial roads were found as the primary line source, accounting for 50.49% carbon emissions. In additional to the overall major factors identified, the mobile monitoring system and carbon emission quantification method proposed in this study are of rather guiding significance for the further urban low-carbon transportation development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  1. Long-term spatio-temporal changes in a West African bushmeat trade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J; Kusimi, J M; Rowcliffe, J M; Cowlishaw, G; Brenyah, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-10-01

    Landscapes in many developing countries consist of a heterogeneous matrix of mixed agriculture and forest. Many of the generalist species in this matrix are increasingly traded in the bushmeat markets of West and Central Africa. However, to date there has been little quantification of how the spatial configuration of the landscape influences the urban bushmeat trade over time. As anthropogenic landscapes become the face of rural West Africa, understanding the dynamics of these systems has important implications for conservation and landscape management. The bushmeat production of an area is likely to be defined by landscape characteristics such as habitat disturbance, hunting pressure, level of protection, and distance to market. We explored (SSG, tense) the role of these four characteristics in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the commercial bushmeat trade around the city of Kumasi, Ghana, over 27 years (1978 to 2004). We used geographic information system methods to generate maps delineating the spatial characteristics of the landscapes. These data were combined with spatially explicit market data collected in the main fresh bushmeat market in Kumasi to explore the relationship between trade volume (measured in terms of number of carcasses) and landscape characteristics. Over time, rodents, specifically cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), became more abundant in the trade relative to ungulates and the catchment area of the bushmeat market expanded. Areas of intermediate disturbance supplied more bushmeat, but protected areas had no effect. Heavily hunted areas showed significant declines in bushmeat supply over time. Our results highlight the role that low intensity, heterogeneous agricultural landscapes can play in providing ecosystem services, such as bushmeat, and therefore the importance of incorporating bushmeat into ecosystem service mapping exercises. Our results also indicate that even where high bushmeat production is possible, current harvest levels may

  2. The effects of energy and climate policy actions on the Finnish energy sector and on the Finnish economy. Focus on EU emissions trading scheme after 2013; Energia- ja ilmastopoliittisen toimenpidekokonaisuuden vaikutukset energiajaerjestelmaeaen ja kansantalouteen vuoden 2013 jaelkeisessae paeaestoekauppajaerjestelmaessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J. (VATT Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Forsstroem, J.; Pursiheimo, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-08-15

    This report evaluates the effects of the EU emission trade Finnish energy sector and on the Finnish economy. The study uses the TIMES energy sector model to study effects in the energy sector, and the VATTAGE model of the Finnish economy to study the effects on the economy. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of emission trading, we take into account not only emission trade, but also the targets on renewable energy and energy efficiency. Thus the model simulations use the proposed measures on curbing emissions, increasing the share of renewables, and energy saving to produce estimates on effects compared to a business-as-usual scenario. The results indicate that the energy package would reduce Finnish GDP by at least 1,1 percentage points by the year 2020. Emission trading has a significant effect on the emission trading sectors, but measures to increase the share of renewable energy also account for large impacts in these sectors. Significantly, after 2013, the revenue generated by the auctioning of emission permits may alleviate the fiscal burden caused by revenue- losing measures to promote renewable energy. (orig.)

  3. Real Driving NOx Emissions of European Trucks and Detection of Manipulated Emission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Krufczik, Chsristopher; Horbanski, Martin; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the most problematic pollutant in Europe and many other countries. NO2 has a negative impact for the health and the environment, and in most European cities the currently allowed mean annual limit of 40μg/m3 is exceeded. Vehicles, especially Diesel, are the most relevant source. They emit NOx (NO + NO2), and NO can also be converted to NO2 in the atmosphere. Thus vehicle NOx emissions are regulated in the EU with the EURO Norm Standard (e.g. EURO 6 since 1.1.2013 for trucks with 400mg/kWh). Trucks achieve these low emissions with complex emission after treatment systems. All EURO 6 trucks and almost all EURO 5 trucks use the SCR system consuming AdBlue to reduce the NOx emissions. Since the diesel emission scandal for cars, it is well known that real driving emissions (RDE) can be several times higher that the EURO Norm Standard. The main problem is that RDE are only randomly investigated. Here we present a study of NOx RDE of more than 250 randomly chosen trucks on German highways. The measurements were performed with a newly developed mobile NOx-ICAD + CO2 -instrument applying the plume chasing measurement principle, where the pollutants are investigated in the emission plume and were converted to emission factors to be compared to the EURO standard. For most trucks the brand, the model name, the country of registration and its EURO class could be determined and used in a statistical analysis. The observed NOx emission data show that typical truck RDE are in the range of the expected EURO Norm or slightly higher. However, almost every fourth truck from Eastern Europe show emissions much higher that the EURO Norm. This was not observed for German trucks. As the emissions increase up to a factor of 5 to 10 these view trucks contribute significantly to the air pollution. These high emissions clearly indicate a defect emission treatment system. Most likely it indicates illegal manipulated emissions systems where the AdBlue injection is

  4. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 277--Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic Containers Production); Goodyear, Arizona On June 13, 2013, the Greater Maricopa Foreign...

  5. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. First experiences with implementation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme in Slovakia. A comparative analysis of Slovak and Dutch experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halacova, T. [CAP SD Energy and Climate Consultants, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-15

    Slovakia as a new member state of the European Union (EU) is obliged to transpose the Aquis Communitaire into national legislation. The European Directive on Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) was adopted in October 2003 with the aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in a cost effective way. The scheme will commence on 1 January 2005. The scheme will cover all large industrial emitters of CO2, including all power plants with a capacity of over 20MW thermal input. This report reviews the first practical experiences with the implementation of the EU ETS in Slovakia and identifies the main barriers and problems in the process of establishment of the scheme. It compares the experiences in and main elements of the emissions trading in Slovakia and the Netherlands and formulates the conclusions and lessons learned. The report focuses on description of the activities of two main actors of the implementation process - the government and future participants of the ETS, which involves the companies that fall within the scheme and are obliged to fulfil all the requirements under it.

  7. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  8. Muscle trade-offs in a power-amplified prey capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M Mendoza; Patek, S N

    2014-05-01

    Should animals operating at great speeds and accelerations use fast or slow muscles? The answer hinges on a fundamental trade-off: muscles can be maximally fast or forceful, but not both. Direct lever systems offer a straightforward manifestation of this trade-off, yet the fastest organisms use power amplification, not direct lever action. Power-amplified systems typically use slow, forceful muscles to preload springs, which then rapidly release elastic potential energy to generate high speeds and accelerations. However, a fast response to a stimulus may necessitate fast spring-loading. Across 22 mantis shrimp species (Stomatopoda), this study examined how muscle anatomy correlates with spring mechanics and appendage type. We found that muscle force is maximized through physiological cross-sectional area, but not through sarcomere length. Sit-and-wait predators (spearers) had the shortest sarcomere lengths (fastest contractions) and the slowest strike speeds. The species that crush shells (smashers) had the fastest speeds, most forceful springs, and longest sarcomeres. The origin of the smasher clade yielded dazzlingly high accelerations, perhaps due to the release from fast spring-loading for evasive prey capture. This study offers a new window into the dynamics of force-speed trade-offs in muscles in the biomechanical, comparative evolutionary framework of power-amplified systems. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. The TRADE experiment: shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, K W; Carta, M; Casalini, L; Kadi, Y; Monti, S; Nava, E; Palomba, M; Petrovich, C; Picardi, L; Rubbia, C; Troiani, F

    2005-01-01

    The TRADE project (TRiga Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS--the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket--are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial--in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues--for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits.

  10. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas D.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  12. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  13. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  14. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  15. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b...

  16. SELLING, DELIVERY AND TRADE MARKETING – AN OPERATIONAL TRIDENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the way in which a distribution system can be made operational in FMCG, starting from the interaction between three components of the system: selling, delivery and trade marketing. On this basis, I have categorized the improvement opportunities of each component, using the appropriate key performance indicators (KPIs of the system objectives. The optimal configuration of instruments and successful interaction of these components, improve the distribution system contribution to company performance. A specific system, defined for solving marketing problems, must be designed according to this purpose, and in this regard, all the significant elements and relationships must be subordinate to the objective by which it will achieve the desired solution. Business objectives achievement can be measured as effectiveness - the degree to which objectives were achieved, or as efficiency - the degree to which objectives have been achieved in the available resources. For evaluating the effectiveness with which an operative marketing system turns its sources into necessary results to solve a problem, it requires certain criteria to measure performance. These three elements: selling, delivery and trade marketing, are a trident of distribution which can lead to an optimal approach of market opportunities.

  17. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  18. Trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality of activated sludge processes under seasonal variations of wastewater temperature and mean cell retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingbo; Fu, Xin; Andrés Baquero, G; Sobhani, Reza; Nolasco, Daniel A; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Over the seasonal cycles, the mean cell retention time (MCRT) of the activated sludge process is varied to compensate the wastewater temperature variations. The effects of these variations on the carbon footprint (CFP) and effluent quality index (EQI) of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a nitrification/denitrification (NDN) process were quantified. The carbon emission included both biogenic and non-biogenic carbon. Carbon emissions of wasted biosolids management were also addressed. Our results confirmed that the effluent quality indicated by EQI was not necessarily improved by increasing MCRT. Higher MCRT increased the carbon emission and reduced excess sludge production, which decreased the potential for biogas energy recovery. The NDN process was preferable to the CAS process from the perspective of effluent quality. This consideration extended to the whole plant CFP if the N2O emitted during NDN was limited ([N2O]intensity (γ) derived from CFP and EQI, our work provides a quantitative tool for decision makers evaluating process alternatives when there is a trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEproductivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be more effective in reducing GWP from MIN systems due to reduced soil N2O emissions and positive effects on soil C sequestration. GM relative to CC management was shown to be more effective in mitigating NO3 leaching and

  20. Tracing trade-related telecouplings in the global land-system using the embodied human appropriation of net primary production framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, H.; Kastner, T.; Schaffartzik, A.; Erb, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Global land-system change is influenced by a complex set of drivers that transcend spatial, institutional and temporal scales. The notion of "telecouplings" is gaining importance in Land System Science as a framework to address that complexity of drivers. One of them is the trade in land-based products, which forges connections between different geographic regions. Trade in land-based products is growing rapidly, thereby creating an increasing spatial disconnect between the locations where primary products (e.g. crops, fodder or timber) are grown and harvested and where the related environmental pressures occur, and the locations where final products (e.g. food, fiber or bioenergy) are consumed. Governing land-related sustainability issues such as GHG emissions or pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems related with land-use changes requires information on trade-related telecouplings, e.g. in order to avoid leakage effects. However, tracing land use (change) related with flows of traded products is challenging, among others due to (a) the lack of easily implementable metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity, and (b) the lack of satisfactory methods to allocate land to products that are traded and consumed. Drawing from a database derived from FAO statistics that allows tracing bilateral trade flows between ~200 countries at a resolution of ~500 products for the time period 1986-2006, this presentation will discuss how the framework of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (eHANPP) can help tackling these difficult issues. The HANPP framework allows to consistently represent important aspects of land quality and land-use intensity, e.g. natural productivity potential or land-use efficiency. In terms of allocation of land to products, eHANPP is a factor-based approach, and the presentation will discuss differences to alternative methods such as environmentally extended input-output analysis. We will use the available

  1. Artificial neural network-based predictive emission monitoring system for NOx emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccone, A.; Cinnamon, C.; Niejadlik, P.R. [TransCanada Energy Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[Golder Associates, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Considering the nature of long term power supply contracts that do not include mechanisms for cost recovery, developing cost-effective ways to handle changes in legislation impacting on facilities already in operation is extremely important. Also of importance is the age of the facilities, since continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems were not required when they were originally put into operation, but they are not yet old enough for capital stock turnover to allow for equipment changes or transition to new operations. An alternative monitoring method that is less expensive and as accurate as traditional (CEM) systems is discussed. TransCanada Energy Ltd., developed a predictive emission monitoring (PEM) system that achieved the required accuracy of the regulatory authorities using four of its gas turbine power plant facilities. Using the power plant operation variables to predict the nitric oxide (NO) portion of the exhaust emissions, the systems are founded on an artificial neural network (ANN). This paper provides a summary of the PEM system architecture and provides background information on the facilities used in the development of this approach. It was concluded that the PEM system provides a cost effective method to monitor emissions accurately and reliably at low emitting natural gas fired facilities. As well, there is a great potential for the system to be used by other industries to monitor and report emissions. The PEM system is an ideal system for the low emitting natural gas fired generating plants however the system could be adapted for other types of industries. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  3. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    the positive or negative outcome of trade-offs between land and production efficiencies, in which improvement in emissions intensity using one FU may be accompanied by deterioration using another FU. The perceived environmental efficiencies of different dairy production systems in terms of their emissions intensities were susceptible to change based upon the FU employed, and hence the FU used in any study needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of results.

  4. Emissions trading. Current legal problems attending the third allocation period; Emissionshandel. Aktuelle rechtliche Probleme in der dritten Zuteilungsperiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Markus [Scholtka und Partner Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The rules for emission permit allocation will undergo radical change as of 2013. From this time on permits will be allocated on the basis of rules applicable to the whole of Europe. The power economy will lose its entitlement to free emission permits and will be obliged to acquire its permits by auction without exemption. The industry, by contrast, will receive emission permits on the basis of pan-European benchmarks, which however will be applied with great rigor. The allocation process, which must be completed by autumn 2011, places higher requirements on operators than used to be the case and it also puts them under time pressure.

  5. Acoustic emission structural health management systems (AE-SHMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Richard D.; Friesel, Mark A.; Carlos, Mark F.; Miller, Ronnie K.; Godinez, Valery

    2000-05-01

    Many of today's methods of inspecting structures are very time consuming, labor intensive and in many cases (due to limited access), impractical. In addition, long shutdown times are required to perform the inspections, thus creating tremendous expenses associated with manpower, materials and lost production. With continuing advances in signal processing and communications a significant interest has been shown in developing new diagnostic technologies for monitoring the integrity of structures with known defects, or for detecting new defects, in real time with minimum human involvement. The continued use of aging structures, especially in regard to the airworthiness of aging aircraft, is a major area of concern. Recent developments in both active and passive Acoustic Emission monitoring as an advanced tool for 'Structural Health Management Systems (SHMS),' are illustrated by using two recently developed acoustic emission systems; the Acoustic Emission-Health and Usage Monitoring System (AE-HUMS) helicopter drivetrain health monitoring system, and the Acoustic Emission Flight Instrument System (AEFIS) composite health monitoring system. The data collected with these types of systems is processed with advanced data screening and classification techniques, which are employed to take full advantage of parametric and waveform-based acoustic emission.

  6. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Lauren; Valenzuela, Viviana; Botterud, Audun; Zhou, Zhi; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2012-04-03

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  7. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  8. Design of multi-language trading system of ethnic characteristic agricultural products based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqin, Wu; Yasheng, Jin; Yugang, Dai

    2017-06-01

    Under the current situation where Internet technology develops rapidly, mobile E-commerce technology has brought great convenience to our life. Now, the graphical user interface (GUI) of most E-commerce platforms only supports Chinese. Thus, the development of Android client of E-commerce that supports ethnic languages owns a great prospect. The principle that combines front end design and database technology is adopted in this paper to construct the Android client system of E-commerce platforms that supports ethnic languages, which realizes the displaying, browsing, querying, searching, trading and other functions of ethnic characteristic agricultural products on android platforms.

  9. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...... is demonstrated. We also show that by utilizing the relatively slow dynamics of the food temperature, compared with the air temperature, we are able to further lower both the energy consumption and the peak value of power requirement. The Pareto optimal curve is found by off-line optimization....

  10. Combined heat and power plants evaluation: Lithuania State Power System, Vilnius, Lithuania. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The report, written by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Lithuania State Power System (LSPS). It is an evaluation of the Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, and Mazaikai Heating and Power Plants. The study addresses serious operating and maintenance concerns and includes a list of recommendations based on discussions with LSPS plant personnel and direct observations by engineers. The volume focuses on potential improvement project implementation schedules, technical details, cost estimates and economic justification for the recommended modifications.

  11. Trading Schemes for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from European Agriculture - A Comparative Analysis based on different Implementation Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Dominguez, I.; Britz, W.; Holm-Muller, K.

    2009-01-01

    A rational negotiation strategy for coming multilateral negotiations regarding climate change requires knowledge about possible social, economic and environmental effects of policy instruments for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. With this purpose, an agricultural sector model is expanded

  12. The Outlook of Carbon Prices. Price Range Forecast for European Union Allowances in European Union Emission Trading Scheme Phase III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunyi Chen, Connie

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Climate change mitigation policy has evolved rapidly both internationally and domestically, especially since the introduction of Kyoto Protocol flexible mechanisms - Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and Emission Tradin

  13. Desk study of CSFR: Power-transmission system. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Slovak Energy Production Company (SEP) is currently evaluating the rehabilitation/modernization of its generating plants. These generation source changes will significantly impact the SEP transmission system. In recognition of this, SEP has submitted to the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) a package of five specific proposals related to the evaluation of transmission system upgrades, modernizations, and additions. They include: Evaluate generation source changes and additions and their impact on the SEP transmission system; Evaluate for upgrade the existing transmission lines; Evaluate upgrades and modernizations to bring SEP substations up to state-of-the-art; Evaluate new 400 kV line additions; and Feasibility study of new system generation/transmission control dispatch center at Zilina. A Desk Study of the technical, economic, and financial prospects of the submitted proposal package was commissioned by TDP. As part of the Desk Study, an evaluation of the export potential for U.S. goods and services was conducted.

  14. Quantifying GHG Emissions From Terrestrial Ecosystems In Africa - The Crucial Role Of Livestock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Pelster, D.; Goopy, J.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge on GHG fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems in Africa remains limited. Published field trials on soil GHG fluxes are summarized in approx. 10 research papers. Emissions related to livestock production, which are dominating most current estimates, rely on modelling work. Thus, uncertainties for African GHG fluxes are likely the highest at continental scale. Even though total GHG fluxes from agricultural soils seem to be low (insufficient fertilizer use/ soil degradation) the opposite might be true for livestock systems. Emissions per kg edible milk protein in SSA are a magnitude higher as for Europe (>100 kg CO2eq kg-1). Differences are related to feed intake, quality and availability, species and breeds, etc. Besides, handling of animal wastes is often less sophisticated, resulting in high nutrient losses and GHG fluxes. Estimates remain unconstrained, since in-situ measurements are missing and emission factors, developed elsewhere, are applied without verification to the African situation. To support African countries to improve emission reporting, to improve productivity of the agricultural sector while minimizing GHG fluxes and to allow them to play a vital role in emission trading, , requires to build in-continent research capacity. The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), has recently established a state-of-the art GHG laboratory in East Africa, which is envisioned to build a knowledge hub for environmental research. First measurement results indicate that EF for excreta applications to rangelands might be largely overestimated, mainly due to its rather low N concentrations. On the other hand, EF for ruminant CH4 emissions might be strongly underestimated, since those do not consider that livestock is often held at sub-maintenance levels. Thus, an international initiative is needed to support African countries to learn about land based GHG fluxes and to build research capacity. When do we start?

  15. Greenhouse gas emission reduction and environmental quality improvement from implementation of aerobic waste treatment systems in swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; Vives, C A

    2008-01-01

    Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from implementation of aerobic technology in USA swine farms. Emission reductions were calculated using the approved United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) methodology in conjunction with monitoring information collected during full-scale demonstration of the new treatment system in a 4360-head swine operation in North Carolina (USA). Emission sources for the project and baseline manure management system were methane (CH4) emissions from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during storage and handling of manure in the manure management system. Emission reductions resulted from the difference between total project and baseline emissions. The project activity included an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, treatment of the separated liquid using aerobic biological N removal, chemical disinfection and soluble P removal using lime. The project activity was completed with a centralized facility that used aerobic composting to process the separated solids. Replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology reduced GHG emissions 96.9%, from 4972 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) to 153 tonnes CO2-eq/year. Total net emission reductions by the project activity in the 4360-head finishing operation were 4776.6 tonnes CO2-eq per year or 1.10 tonnes CO2-eq/head per year. The dollar value from implementation of this project in this swine farm was US$19,106/year using current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of US$4/t CO2. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of US$1.75 per finished pig. Thus, GHG emission reductions and credits can help compensate for the

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  17. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  18. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  19. A farm platform approach to optimizing temperate grazing-livestock systems: metrics for trade-off assessments and future innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Eisler, Mark; Hawkins, Jane; Misselbrook, Tom; Mcauliffe, Graham; Mcfadzean, Jamie; Murray, Phil; Orr, Robert; Jordana Rivero, M.; Wu, Lianhai; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health for 2 years (April 2011 to March 2013). Since April 2013, the platform has been progressively modified across three distinct ca. 22 ha farmlets with the underlying principle being to improve the sustainability (economic, social and environmental) by comparing contrasting pasture-based systems (permanent pasture, grass and clover swards, and reseeding of high quality germplasm on a regular cycle). This modification or transitional period ended in July 2015, when the platform assumed full post-baseline status. In this paper, we summarise the sustainability trade-off metrics developed to compare the three systems, together with the farm platform data collections used to create them; collections that can be viewed as 'big data' when considered in their entirety. We concentrate on the baseline and transitional periods and discuss the potential innovations to optimise grazing livestock systems utilising an experimental farm platform approach.

  20. Simulating the Earth System Response to Negative Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Littleton, E. W.; Jones, C.; Canadell, J.; Peters, G. P.; van Vuuren, D.; Davis, S. J.; Jonas, M.; Smith, P.; Ciais, P.; Rogelj, J.; Torvanger, A.; Shrestha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The natural carbon sinks of the land and oceans absorb approximately half the anthropogenic CO2 emitted every year. The CO2 that is not absorbed accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere and traps the suns rays causing an increase in the global mean temperature. Removing this left over CO2 using negative emissions technologies (NETs) has been proposed as a strategy to lessen the accumulating CO2 and avoid dangerous climate change. Using CMIP5 Earth system model simulations this study assessed the impact on the global carbon cycle, and how the Earth system might respond, to negative emissions strategies applied to low emissions scenarios, over different times horizons from the year 2000 to 2300. The modeling results suggest that using NETs to remove atmospheric CO2 over five 50-year time horizons has varying effects at different points in time. The effects of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks, can result in positive or negative changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Results show that historic emissions and the current state of the Earth System have impacts on the behavior of atmospheric CO2, as do instantaneous anthropogenic emissions. Indeed, varying background scenarios seemed to have a greater effect on atmospheric CO2 than the actual amount and timing of NETs. These results show how NETs interact with the physical climate-carbon cycle system and highlight the need for more research on earth-system dynamics as they relate to carbon sinks and sources and anthropogenic perturbations.

  1. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives of

  2. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  3. Portfolio of automated trading systems: complexity and learning set size issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudys, Sarunas

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we consider using profit/loss histories of multiple automated trading systems (ATSs) as N input variables in portfolio management. By means of multivariate statistical analysis and simulation studies, we analyze the influences of sample size (L) and input dimensionality on the accuracy of determining the portfolio weights. We find that degradation in portfolio performance due to inexact estimation of N means and N(N - 1)/2 correlations is proportional to N/L; however, estimation of N variances does not worsen the result. To reduce unhelpful sample size/dimensionality effects, we perform a clustering of N time series and split them into a small number of blocks. Each block is composed of mutually correlated ATSs. It generates an expert trading agent based on a nontrainable 1/N portfolio rule. To increase the diversity of the expert agents, we use training sets of different lengths for clustering. In the output of the portfolio management system, the regularized mean-variance framework-based fusion agent is developed in each walk-forward step of an out-of-sample portfolio validation experiment. Experiments with the real financial data (2003-2012) confirm the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  4. Targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Davis, Steven J.; Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Liang, Sai; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chen, Bin; Liu, Jingru; Yan, Jinyue; Guan, Dabo

    2016-02-01

    International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is economically efficient and desirable. However, if carbon-intensive manufacturing in emerging countries such as China entails drastically more CO2 emissions than making the same product elsewhere, then trade increases global CO2 emissions. Here we show that the emissions embodied in Chinese exports, which are larger than the annual emissions of Japan or Germany, are primarily the result of China’s coal-based energy mix and the very high emissions intensity (emission per unit of economic value) in a few provinces and industry sectors. Exports from these provinces and sectors therefore represent targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma by either improving production technologies and decarbonizing the underlying energy systems or else reducing trade volumes.

  5. An online emission spectral tomography system with digital signal processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Xiong, Wenlin; Zhang, Zhimin; Chang, Fangfei

    2009-03-30

    Emission spectral tomography (EST) has been adopted to test the three-dimensional distribution parameters of fluid fields, such as burning gas, flame and plasma etc. In most cases, emission spectral data received by the video cameras are enormous so that the emission spectral tomography calculation is often time-consuming. Hence, accelerating calculation becomes the chief factor that one must consider for the practical application of EST. To solve the problem, a hardware implementation method was proposed in this paper, which adopted a digital signal processor (DSP) DM642 in an emission spectral tomography test system. The EST algorithm was fulfilled in the DSP, then calculation results were transmitted to the main computer via the user datagram protocol. Compared with purely VC++ software implementations, this new approach can decrease the calculation time significantly.

  6. Emission versus Fermi coordinates: applications to relativistic positioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bini, D [Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo ' M. Picone' , CNR I-00161 Rome (Italy); Geralico, A [ICRA, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Ruggiero, M L; Tartaglia, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    A four-dimensional relativistic positioning system for a general spacetime is constructed by using the so-called emission coordinates. The results apply in a small region around the world line of an accelerated observer carrying a Fermi triad, as described by the Fermi metric. In the case of a Schwarzschild spacetime modeling the gravitational field around the Earth and an observer at rest at a fixed spacetime point, these coordinates realize a relativistic positioning system alternative to the current GPS system. The latter is indeed essentially conceived as Newtonian, so that it necessarily needs taking into account at least the most important relativistic effects through post-Newtonian corrections to work properly. Previous results concerning emission coordinates in flat spacetime are thus extended to this more general situation. Furthermore, the mapping between spacetime coordinates and emission coordinates is completely determined by means of the world function, which in the case of a Fermi metric can be explicitly obtained.

  7. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.

    2012-04-01

    Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System Misha Krassovski and Tom Boden Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production each year at global, regional, and national spatial scales. These estimates are vital to climate change research given the strong evidence suggesting fossil-fuel emissions are responsible for unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. The CDIAC fossil-fuel emissions time series are based largely on annual energy statistics published for all nations by the United Nations (UN). Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751 before the Industrial Revolution. From these core fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series, CDIAC has developed a number of additional data products to satisfy modeling needs and to address other questions aimed at improving our understanding of the global carbon cycle budget. For example, CDIAC also produces a time series of gridded fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates and isotopic (e.g., C13) emissions estimates. The gridded data are generated using the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011) and provide monthly and annual estimates for 1751-2008 at 1° latitude by 1° longitude resolution. These gridded emission estimates are being used in the latest IPCC Scientific Assessment (AR4). Isotopic estimates are possible thanks to detailed information for individual nations regarding the carbon content of select fuels (e.g., the carbon signature of natural gas from Russia). CDIAC has recently developed a relational database to house these baseline emissions estimates and associated derived products and a web-based interface to help users worldwide query these data holdings. Users can identify, explore and download desired CDIAC

  8. MARKET-MAKING STRATEGY IN THE SYSTEM OF ALGORITHMIC HIGH-FREQUENCY TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Toropov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Market maker is the most important participant of modern exchange trading, it provides the increase of market liquidity and reduces the difference between bid and ask (spread. The paper presents automatic market-making strategy for quoting of options and other kinds of financial instruments on electronic markets. Quotes are based on theoretical pricing which is a resource-intensive task. Presented algorithmic optimizations, in particular quotes caching and smoothing of underlying asset price oscillation, give the possibility up to four times boost for quote modify scenario on real market data. Mechanism of quotes caching precalculates quotes in certain diapason around current underlying price. If underlying price changes within the diapason, algorithm sends already filled message for quote modification, instead of new complex computation. Smoothing of underlying asset price oscillation prevents permanent moving of the diapason and reacts only on significant market moving. A size of caching diapason which provides optimal correlation between speed of quotes modification and resource consumption has been defined experimentally (40 elements. In case of quoting 36 options on Eurex Exchange an average delay between underlying price change and quote modification is 277 usec. The measurements were carried out on the Sun X4170 M3: CPU(s: 2xXeon 2.9GHz RAM: 128 GB server under Solaris 10 operating system. Obtained results correspond to modern market-making requirements. The developed strategy is used by big European banks and trading firms.

  9. Current available strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in livestock systems: an animal welfare perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; Haskell, M J; Dewhurst, R J; Turner, S P

    2017-02-01

    Livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so will play a significant role in the mitigation effort. Recent literature highlights different strategies to mitigate GHG emissions in the livestock sector. Animal welfare is a criterion of sustainability and any strategy designed to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock production should consider animal welfare amongst other sustainability metrics. We discuss and tabulate the likely relationships and trade-offs between the GHG mitigation potential of mitigation strategies and their welfare consequences, focusing on ruminant species and on cattle in particular. The major livestock GHG mitigation strategies were classified according to their mitigation approach as reducing total emissions (inhibiting methane production in the rumen), or reducing emissions intensity (Ei; reducing CH4 per output unit without directly targeting methanogenesis). Strategies classified as antimethanogenic included chemical inhibitors, electron acceptors (i.e. nitrates), ionophores (i.e. Monensin) and dietary lipids. Increasing diet digestibility, intensive housing, improving health and welfare, increasing reproductive efficiency and breeding for higher productivity were categorized as strategies that reduce Ei. Strategies that increase productivity are very promising ways to reduce the livestock carbon footprint, though in intensive systems this is likely to be achieved at the cost of welfare. Other strategies can effectively reduce GHG emissions whilst simultaneously improving animal welfare (e.g. feed supplementation or improving health). These win-win strategies should be strongly supported as they address both environmental and ethical sustainability. In order to identify the most cost-effective measures for improving environmental sustainability of livestock production, the consequences of current and future strategies for animal welfare must be scrutinized and contrasted against their effectiveness

  10. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  11. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R.P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S.R.; Hillyer, T.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, 228 Walker Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A.J. [FOM-Inst. voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Association Euratom-FOM (International organizations without location); RTP team

    1999-01-01

    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 {mu}s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array. Unlike conventional ECE diagnostics, the sample volumes of the ECE imaging system are aligned vertically, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the local oscillator frequency, making possible 2D measurements of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. The poloidal/radial wavenumber spectra and correlation lengths of T{sub e} fluctuations in the plasma core can also be obtained by properly positioning the focal plane of the imaging system. Due to these unique features, ECE imaging is an ideal tool for plasma transport study. Technical details of the system are described, together with preliminary experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Generation of electricity from industrial waste heat in the context of European emissions trading. A missed opportunity; Stromgewinnung aus industrieller Abwaerme im europaeischen Zertifikatehandel. Eine vertane Chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Dirk [Landgericht Muenster (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) poses a major financial burden for many branches of industry in Europe. While its role as a model for the world and its great significance in the struggle against global warming are undisputed, at least in the short term it is in the immediate interest of the industry to keep this burden as small as possible. The decision of the European Commission on the free allocation of emission permits (referred to as the benchmarking decision) in the scheme's third phase starting in 2013 offers a number of options to this end. Not all of these are explicitly named in the official ETS legislation, some having only been later accepted by the Commission's Directorate General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA), upon pressure from the industry, as a permissible interpretation of the existing rules. One especially complicated and unhappy example of European management policy under the ETS regime is the promotion of electricity generation from industrial waste heat from the production of ferrosilicon.

  13. 77 FR 12799 - Foreign-Trade Zone 104-Savannah, GA Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Mitsubishi Power Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Foreign-Trade Zone 104--Savannah, GA Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Power Generation Turbines) Pooler, GA An application has been submitted to the Foreign... Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (MPSA), in Pooler, Georgia. The application was submitted pursuant to...

  14. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a... manufacturers in trading. These credits must be used in the same averaging set as generated. (b) Credits for...

  15. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits banked...

  16. Applications of eTag trade mark assay platform to systems biology approaches in molecular oncology and toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Hui, P-Y; Stephens, K; Warnock, R A; Singh, S

    2004-05-01

    We have developed a universal eTag trade mark multiplex assay platform that can be uniquely applied to survey the molecule profiles of biologic systems in sub-global large-scale analyses. The effectiveness of eTag trade mark assays when applied to focused system biology studies in molecular oncology and predictive toxicology is herein described while reviewing the current methods commonly used. The multi-analyte and multi-parameter assay approach for parallel analysis will form the basis of an emerging paradigm of multiplexed molecular profiling for signaling pathway networks and various aspects of drug development processes.

  17. Trade-off between Multiple Constraints Enables Simultaneous Formation of Modules and Hubs in Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter , and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of , resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real networks. The discrepancy

  18. Trade-off between multiple constraints enables simultaneous formation of modules and hubs in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Chen

    Full Text Available The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter α, and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of α, resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of α values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real

  19. Life support systems analysis and technical trades for a lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Ganapathi, G. B.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/JPL life support systems analysis (LISSA) software tool was used to perform life support system analysis and technology trades for a Lunar Outpost. The life support system was modeled using a chemical process simulation program on a steady-state, one-person, daily basis. Inputs to the LiSSA model include metabolic balance load data, hygiene load data, technology selection, process operational assumptions and mission parameter assumptions. A baseline set of technologies has been used against which comparisons have been made by running twenty-two cases with technology substitutions. System, subsystem, and technology weights and powers are compared for a crew of 4 and missions of 90 and 600 days. By assigning a weight value to power, equivalent system weights are compared. Several less-developed technologies show potential advantages over the baseline. Solid waste treatment technologies show weight and power disadvantages but one could have benefits associated with the reduction of hazardous wastes and very long missions. Technology development towards reducing the weight of resupplies and lighter materials of construction was recommended. It was also recommended that as technologies are funded for development, contractors should be required to generate and report data useful for quantitative technology comparisons.

  20. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of the current rules of WTO that reinforce the disadvantages faced by developing economies. This essay deals with these unfair trade rules and disadvantages inherent in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system by .... also expand their exports given the comparative advantage they have in respect of those national ...

  1. Potential Trade Effects of Adding Vietnam to the Generalized System of Preferences Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    .... The GSP statute provides the President with the authority to designate any country a beneficiary developing country, provided the country complies with various trade policy and labor conditions...

  2. Application of an Environmental Decision Support System to a Water Quality Trading Program Affected by Surface Water Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon’s (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  3. Spatial and functional organization of pig trade in different european production systems: implications for disease prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eRelun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases such as Classical or African swine fever. Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organisation in other systems like outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organisation of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e. commercial vs small-scale; outdoor vs indoor. Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community level. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in Western France, Northern Italy, Northern Spain and North-Western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in Western Spain, South-Western and Central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently according to the

  4. Spatial and Functional Organization of Pig Trade in Different European Production Systems: Implications for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Feliziani, Francesco; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of live pig trade organization is a key factor to predict and control major infectious diseases, such as classical swine fever (CSF) or African swine fever (ASF). Whereas the organization of pig trade has been described in several European countries with indoor commercial production systems, little information is available on this organization in other systems, such as outdoor or small-scale systems. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the spatial and functional organization of live pig trade in different European countries and different production systems. Data on premise characteristics and pig movements between premises were collected during 2011 from Bulgaria, France, Italy, and Spain, which swine industry is representative of most of the production systems in Europe (i.e., commercial vs. small-scale and outdoor vs. indoor). Trade communities were identified in each country using the Walktrap algorithm. Several descriptive and network metrics were generated at country and community levels. Pig trade organization showed heterogeneous spatial and functional organization. Trade communities mostly composed of indoor commercial premises were identified in western France, northern Italy, northern Spain, and north-western Bulgaria. They covered large distances, overlapped in space, demonstrated both scale-free and small-world properties, with a role of trade operators and multipliers as key premises. Trade communities involving outdoor commercial premises were identified in western Spain, south-western and central France. They were more spatially clustered, demonstrated scale-free properties, with multipliers as key premises. Small-scale communities involved the majority of premises in Bulgaria and in central and Southern Italy. They were spatially clustered and had scale-free properties, with key premises usually being commercial production premises. These results indicate that a disease might spread very differently

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  6. Design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing costs and pollutant emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Rivas-Ascaso, David M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    In this paper we expound, for the first time, the application of the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm to the Multi-Objective design of isolated hybrid systems. The design is posed as an optimisation problem whose solution allows obtaining the configuration of the system as well as the control strategy that simultaneously minimises both the total cost through the useful life of the installation and the pollutant emissions. As an example, we have designed a PV-wind-diesel system for two different load profiles, obtaining a set of possible solutions from which the designer can choose those which he prefers considering the costs and pollutant emissions of each one of them. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the design method used. (author)

  7. Enhanced Sensitivity Beam Emission Spectroscopy System for Nonlinear Turbulence Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Deepak K; McKee, George R; Schlossberg, David J; Shafer, Morgan W

    2008-01-01

    An upgraded Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) system has been deployed to access low amplitude turbulence regions near internal transport barriers on the DIII-D tokamak. Sixteen high sensitivity channels are being installed. A significant increase in total signal to noise is achieved by: 1.) Increased spatial volume sampling tailored to known turbulence characteristics; 2.) An increased throughput spectrometer assembly to isolate the local beam fluorescence, coupled to new large-area photoconductive photodiodes; 3.) A new sharp edge interference filter designed to optimize detection of the beam emission plus a significant fraction of the thermal deuterium charge exchange. A new data acquisition system has been installed, providing an 8 times increase in integration time or an increased sample rate. Preliminary results from the upgraded system show a signal enhancement of greater than an order of magnitude. A clear broadband density fluctuation signal is observed in H-mode discharges with the upgraded BES syste...

  8. To mitigate or not to mitigate: Regulatory treatment of emissions trading and its effect on marketplace incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (hereafter CAAA) have created a market-based mechanism that is designed to employ a profit-oriented incentive to enable electric utilities to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions at the least cost. One of the most important challenges facing state regulatory utility commissions in the next decade is the integration of this marker-based profit-incentive process into the traditional rate-base, rate-of-return, profit-control approach to regulation. How the struggle to meld two potentially contradictory control and incentive programs will be resolved remains to be seen. As of now, it is an open question. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify some of the issues that need to be addressed and to offer some policy recommendations that will allow regulators to employ the effectiveness of market forces while they still retain overall control of the evolution of the regulated electric supply market.

  9. To mitigate or not to mitigate: Regulatory treatment of emissions trading and its effect on marketplace incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (hereafter CAAA) have created a market-based mechanism that is designed to employ a profit-oriented incentive to enable electric utilities to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions at the least cost. One of the most important challenges facing state regulatory utility commissions in the next decade is the integration of this marker-based profit-incentive process into the traditional rate-base, rate-of-return, profit-control approach to regulation. How the struggle to meld two potentially contradictory control and incentive programs will be resolved remains to be seen. As of now, it is an open question. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify some of the issues that need to be addressed and to offer some policy recommendations that will allow regulators to employ the effectiveness of market forces while they still retain overall control of the evolution of the regulated electric supply market.

  10. Standard guide for acoustic emission system performance verification

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 System performance verification methods launch stress waves into the examination article on which the sensor is mounted. The resulting stress wave travels in the examination article and is detected by the sensor(s) in a manner similar to acoustic emission. 1.2 This guide describes methods which can be used to verify the response of an Acoustic Emission system including sensors, couplant, sensor mounting devices, cables and system electronic components. 1.3 Acoustic emission system performance characteristics, which may be evaluated using this document, include some waveform parameters, and source location accuracy. 1.4 Performance verification is usually conducted prior to beginning the examination. 1.5 Performance verification can be conducted during the examination if there is any suspicion that the system performance may have changed. 1.6 Performance verification may be conducted after the examination has been completed. 1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other u...

  11. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-15

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  12. Design and Implementation of a Simulation-Based Learning System for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guo-Heng; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional instructional method used in international trade, teachers provide knowledge to learners by lecturing using slides and setting assignments; however, these methods merely deliver international trade knowledge rather than facilitating student development of relevant skills. To solve these problems, we proposed a simulation-based…

  13. The longview diesel emission control system : emissions performance of a combined DPF and NOx reduction catalyst system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, B.; Streichsbier, M. [Cleaire Advanced Emissions Controls, San Leandro, CA (United States)]|[Cummins Emissions Solutions, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diesel engines operating in underground mines must be equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) to control particulate matter (PM). Although wall flow filters offer the desired levels of PM/EC control, the use of precious metals as part of the regeneration strategy has an adverse impact on nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) formation. Therefore, the reductions in PM/EC are offset by increases in NO{sub 2}. This study presented a new system that offers the benefits of a passive regeneration system without the disadvantage of high NO{sub 2} formation. The Longview{sup R} system was initially developed for above ground mine facilities concerned with PM and ozone levels. The system combines HC-SCR with catalyzed DPF to reduce nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. HC-SCR refers to active hydrocarbon dosing upstream of a NOx reduction catalyst. This paper presented details of the system design features as well as emission performance test results. The impact of fuel sulfur level on emissions was also investigated at a Cummins test laboratory. The cycle averaged emissions from the Longview system using ULSD were a 40 per cent reduction in NOx; a 50 per cent reduction in NO{sub 2}; nearly a complete removal of CO; and, a 5 per cent increase in CO{sub 2}. It was determined that the system's fuel injection and NOx reduction catalysts play an important role in NO, NO{sub 2} and NOx emissions. The catalyzed PDF plays an important role in CO, HC and PM reductions. The Longview system is currently being tested in underground mining field trials. tabs., figs.

  14. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  15. Modelling environmental cooperation on reciprocal emission reduction via virtual market system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, Andries; Shibayev, Sergey; Meijer, G; Heijman, WJM; VanOphem, JAC; Verstegen, BHJ

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory views international agreements on reduction of trans-boundary pollution as a Pareto-optimal outcome of negotiations among self-interested parties. This paper elaborates that notion by modelling negotiation as a multilateral trade in reciprocal emission reductions within

  16. Justification of sector-specific regulatory interventions in the emissions trading markets of the energy sector from 2013; Rechtfertigung sektorspezifisch-regulatorischer Eingriffe auf den Emissionshandelsmaerkten in der Energiewirtschaft ab 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Lukas [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Europaeische Integrationsforschung (ZEI); Landgericht Koeln (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The author discusses the sector-specific regulations for European emissions trading from 2013, with particular regard to the structures prevailing in the power generation markets. The third trading period is to start soon. The regulatory structure has been revised in consideration of the experience gained since 2005, when the legal structure was revised. One central element is the transition from free allocation of certificates to allocation by auctioning, which will be introduced in the power industry without a transition phase. This raises a number of questions concerning competition. In particular, it appears that the new legal framework of emissions trading is not advanced far enough for consequent pursuing of the goals that were set by deregulation of the power industry. It is now necessary to build on the competition efforts observed so far and to stabilize market integration - which is slow to start but is starting nevertheless - by developing an appropriate structure of emission trading so as not to jeopardize the deregulation success achieved so far.

  17. 78 FR 27468 - Order of Suspension of Trading in the Matter of CoreCare Systems, Inc., Forticell Bioscience, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading in the Matter of CoreCare Systems, Inc., Forticell Bioscience, Inc... concerning the securities of Forticell Bioscience, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  18. Sustainability of pasture-based livestock farming systems in the European Mediterranean context: Synergies and trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernués, A.; Ruiz, R.; Olaizola, A.; Villalba, D.; Casasús, I.

    2011-01-01

    The sustainability of livestock farming systems (LFS) in relation to global concerns about climate change, population dynamics and the quality of the agro-ecosystem services that are provided to society and their trade-offs has become a fundamental issue for public and scientific debate. However,

  19. Critiquing the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) : Systemic Consequences for Global Governance and the Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) for the architecture of global (economic) governance, including the international rule of law, the article addresses some of the most pertinent systemic consequences TTIP is likely to produce, based on the

  20. Further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in Germany and the European Union under consideration of experiences in other EU Member States; Weiterentwicklung des Emissionshandels - national und auf EU-Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S.; Klaus, S.; Scharte, M.; Harnisch, J. [Ecofys GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Heilmann, S.; Bertenrath, R. [FiFo Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The study analyses options for further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) after 2012. The first analysis focuses on the effects of the EU-ETS on companies, power prices, competitiveness and employment. It is followed by an analysis of overlaps or lacking coverage regarding the climate policies EU-ETS, Eco-Tax (Oekosteuer) resp. Energy Tax, the Renewable Energy Sources Act and the Combined Heat and Powert Act. These instruments are analysed with regards to their coherence. As a next step, the national allocation plans of France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Poland are evaluated and recommendations are developed. Best practice recommendations for further developing the EU-ETS after 2012 both at the European and the national level are developed from the comparison of these European national allocation plans. Finally, design features of certificate systems relevant for international linking of such systems are addressed. In the analysis such design features are identified and approaches for problems potentially arising when certificate systems are linked, are developed. (orig.)

  1. Simulating industrial emissions using atmospheric dispersion modeling system: model performance and source emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Abi-Esber, L

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the Gaussian Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS4) was coupled with field observations of surface meteorology and concentrations of several air quality indicators (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2)) to test the applicability of source emission factors set by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) at an industrial complex. Best emission factors and data groupings based on receptor location, type of terrain and wind speed, were relied upon to examine model performance using statistical analyses of simulated and observed data. The model performance was deemed satisfactory for several scenarios when receptors were located at downwind sites with index of agreement 'd' values reaching 0.58, fractional bias 'FB' and geometric mean bias 'MG' values approaching 0 and 1, respectively, and normalized mean square error 'NMSE' values as low as 2.17. However, median ratios of predicted to observed concentrations 'Cp/Co' at variable downstream distances were 0.01, 0.36, 0.76 and 0.19 for NOx, CO, PM10 and SO2, respectively, and the fraction of predictions within a factor of two of observations 'FAC2' values were lower than 0.5, indicating that the model could not adequately replicate all observed variations in emittant concentrations. Also, the model was found to be significantly sensitive to the input emission factor bringing into light the deficiency in regulatory compliance modeling which often uses internationally reported emission factors without testing their applicability.

  2. A Soft Detector with Good Performance/Complexity Trade-Off for a MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Liu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a hybrid soft detector that has a good performance/complexity trade-off for a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO wireless communication system with known channel information. The new soft detector combines the merits of a simple unstructured least-squares (LS-based soft detector and a list sphere decoder (LSD-based soft detector for data bit detection. The former is computationally much more efficient than the latter at the cost of poorer performance. The poor performance of the former occurs mainly when the channel matrix is ill-conditioned. Whenever this happens, we use the LSD-based soft detector in the hybrid soft detector; otherwise, we use the LS-based one. Moreover, we provide a tight radius for a sphere decoder, a hard detector, via using the output of an LS-based hard detector. These two hard detectors are needed to determine if LS or LSD should be used in the hybrid soft detector. As an application example, we consider doubling the maximum data rate of the IEEE 802.11a conformable wireless local area networks by a MIMO system with two transmit and two receive antennas. For this application, the new soft detector is about 10 times faster than the LSD-based one and is about 10 times slower than the LS-based one. Yet the packet error rate due to using the new soft detector is quite close to that of using the LSD-based one.

  3. A Multiple Period Problem in Distributed Energy Management Systems Considering CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroda, Yuki; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    Consider a special district (group) which is composed of multiple companies (agents), and where each agent responds to an energy demand and has a CO2 emission allowance imposed. A distributed energy management system (DEMS) optimizes energy consumption of a group through energy trading in the group. In this paper, we extended the energy distribution decision and optimal planning problem in DEMSs from a single period problem to a multiple periods one. The extension enabled us to consider more realistic constraints such as demand patterns, the start-up cost, and minimum running/outage times of equipment. At first, we extended the market-oriented programming (MOP) method for deciding energy distribution to the multiple periods problem. The bidding strategy of each agent is formulated by a 0-1 mixed non-linear programming problem. Secondly, we proposed decomposing the problem into a set of single period problems in order to solve it faster. In order to decompose the problem, we proposed a CO2 emission allowance distribution method, called an EP method. We confirmed that the proposed method was able to produce solutions whose group costs were close to lower-bound group costs by computational experiments. In addition, we verified that reduction in computational time was achieved without losing the quality of solutions by using the EP method.

  4. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  5. The cost of inaction. Auctioning revenues under different climate ambition scenarios for the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Graichen, Verena

    2012-11-06

    Compared to the reference scenario auctioning revenues increase for all coun-tries in all action scenarios, even in the backloading scenario. If the EU continues with its current 20% emission reduction target until 2020, the revenue losses for European Member States will be in the range of Euro{sub 2012} 62 billion (compared to revenues in the 25% domestic scenario) and Euro{sub 2012} 78 billion (compared to revenues in the 30% domestic scenario). Overall the impact of reduced auctioning quantities and higher climate targets on industrial competitiveness is very limited and will be compensated. The sectors concerned have enjoyed over allocation in the past. From 2013 onwards they will receive 100% free allocation (based on benchmarks). A compensation mechanism for higher electricity prices has also been established. The proposal by the Commission which includes the back-loading measure is a first step forward; however, the respective amount of allowances should be back-loaded for a period of a decade or more. It would be best to retire the back-loaded allowances at the earliest point in time. This first move should be complemented by the adoption of higher reduction targets since previous re-search has clearly shown that a stand-alone back-loading approach will not be sufficient to solve the surplus problem and restore a robust CO{sub 2} price signal. Considering that the EU ETS Directive includes special provisions on redistribu-tion designed to support Central and Eastern European countries, these Member States would benefit more (compared to other Member States) from an in-crease in auctioning revenues even without introducing additional redistribution mechanisms under the ETS.

  6. Historical (1750 – 2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emission Data System (CEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoesly, Rachel M.; Smith, Steven J.; Feng, Leyang; Klimont, Z.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Pitkanen, Tyler T.; Seibert, Jonathan J.; Vu, Linh D.; Andres, Robert J.; Bolt, Ryan M.; Bond, Tami C.; Dawidowski, Laura; Kholod, Nazar; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Li, Meng; Liu, Liang; Lu, Zifeng; Pinto De Moura, Maria C.; O' Rourke, Patrick; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-01-29

    We present a new dataset of annual historical (1750 - 2014) anthropogenic acidifying gases (NH3, NOX, SO2), carbonaceous gases (CO2 and CO) and carbonaceous aerosols (BC and OC) developed with the Community Emissions Database System (CEDS). We improve upon existing inventories with a more consistent and reproducible methodology applied to all emissions species, updated emission factors, and recent estimates through 2014. The data system relies on existing energy consumption data sets and regional and country-specific inventories to produce trends over recent decades. All emissions species are consistently estimated using the same activity data over all time periods. Emissions are provided on an annual basis at the level of country and sector and gridded with monthly seasonality. These estimates are comparable to, but generally slightly higher than, existing global inventories. Emissions over the most recent years are more uncertain, particularly in low- and middle-income regions where country-specific emission inventories are less available. Future work will involve refining and updating these emission estimates, estimating emissions uncertainty, and publication of the system as open source software.

  7. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  8. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  10. Efficiency of the mexican trucking system within the framework of international trade: the case of the trade of Mexico with Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Ivonne Zamora-Torres

    2017-11-01

    trade and, despite its great national and international commercial operation, there are not any business strategies focused on creating an efficient sector. From the literature review, some variables which may help to increase the economic efficiency of the Mexican trucking system with Canada and the USA have been identified in this research. This research work is based on the hypothesis which states that the efficiency of the Mexican trucking system depends on these variables: Transport Costs, Quality, Logistical Infrastructure, Information Technologies and Safety of the Logistics Chain. With the aim of confirming this, a Granger causality analysis for the period 2004-2013 and an OLS regression analysis for the period 1994-2014 were conducted. According to the results obtained from these tests, the variables with the greatest influence on the sector are the costs and the logistical infrastructure. Another influential variable is the positive behavior of the commercial operations of the Mexican trucking system with Canada and with the USA – especially with the latter, since the signing of the NAFTA agreement.

  11. Potential gains from CO2 trading in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    the EU could reduce the total abatement costs by 32 % compared to a system with no trading. In comparison, a Community-wide system containing only the electricity and steam sector would reduce the total abatement costs by 13 % only. Though a tradable CO2 permit market for the power and steam sector can......A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining...... the proposed system. Our contribution is therefore to follow the Green Paper proposal and investigate whether member countries and the largest industrial boilers in the electricity sector actually will get significant net gains from CO2 trade in the European Union rather than undertaking domestic actions...

  12. Preference Evaluation System for Construction Products Using QFD-TOPSIS Logic by Considering Trade-Off Technical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of quality function deployment, technique for the order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (QFD-TOPSIS in presenting user preferences for multiple alternatives, such as construction technologies, products, systems, and design solutions, with trade-off technical characteristics (TC. The original QFD as house of quality (HOQ defines the requirements and features as subjective matrix relations, which cause interpretations to vary across users and limit its industrial applications. QFD-TOPSIS is a new model that combines the benefits of QFD with those of TOPSIS, maintains the subjectivity and objectivity evaluation of the technical characteristics (TC, and rates the preferences by considering users’ individual propensity for requirements. In addition, QFD-TOPSIS rates the preferences through the reciprocal compensation effects of trade-off TC and filters unsuitable alternatives with predefined restrictive conditions. Trade-off refers to conflicts and/or contradictions between attributes, often arising in multicriteria decision-making. Users or project stakeholder groups define the priorities of trade-off TC that directly influence product preferences and decision-making. In the present study, we have developed a Web system based on the QFD-TOPSIS logic and tested its operation to verify its industrial applicability and viability for automatic quality evaluation.

  13. Factors of formation and development the system of population trading service in Kharkiv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Kobylin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination the factors of formation and development the system of population trading service in Kharkiv region. For identifying these factors the method of factor analysis was chosen. The aim of the factor analysis is to reduce a number of investigated parameters and to analyze relationships between them. The initial database served 91 indicators, which describes demographic, social, economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Determining a number of factors was carried out based on three criteria: Kaiser criterion, cumulative percentage, Cattell "scree" criterion. The most optional were identified 5 factors which can be interpreted as: socio-economic, agro-resettlement (agro-ecistic, housing and commercial, socio-demographic, ecological. The factor weights were calculated for each factor within cities of regional subordination and districts to assess the effect degree of the factor in a certain administrative-territorial unit. The greatest effect of socio-economic, agro-resettlement, housing and commercial factors is characterized for the city of Kharkiv, cities of regional subordination and districts located around the regional center. Socio-demographic factor is manifested the best in administrative-territorial units with favorable demographic situation, high share of the main population age group. Ecological factor operates in districts and cities, where environmentally "dirty" enterprises work.

  14. A Preliminary Study Application Clustering System in Acoustic Emission Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bahari Nur Amira Afiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE is a non-destructive testing known as assessment on damage detection in structural engineering. It also can be used to discriminate the different types of damage occurring in a composite materials. The main problem associated with the data analysis is the discrimination between the different AE sources and analysis of the AE signal in order to identify the most critical damage mechanism. Clustering analysis is a technique in which the set of object are assigned to a group called cluster. The objective of the cluster analysis is to separate a set of data into several classes that reflect the internal structure of data. In this paper was used k-means algorithm for partitioned clustering method, numerous effort have been made to improve the performance of application k-means clustering algorithm. This paper presents a current review on application clustering system in Acoustic Emission.

  15. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavich, Thomas A.; Beer, Reinhard

    1991-01-01

    A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of polar-orbiting platforms is described. TES is aimed at studying tropospheric chemistry, in particular, the exchange of gases between the surface and the atmosphere, urban and regional pollution, acid rain precursors, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and the interchange of gases between the troposphere and the stratosphere. TES is a high-resolution (0.025/cm) infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the passive thermal-emission mode in a very wide spectral range (600 to 4350/cm; 2.3 to 16.7 microns). TES has 32 spatial pixels in each of four optically conjugated linear detector arrays, each optimized for a different spectral region.

  16. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-06-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process.

  17. Evaluation of the Trade Space Between UAS Maneuver Performance and SAA System Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, nearterm UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements for a wide range of encounters. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. The simulator is described herein and has both a graphical user interface and batch interface to support detailed analysis of individual UAS encounters and macro analysis of a very large set of UAS and encounter models, respectively. Results from the simulator using approximate performance data from a well-known manned aircraft is presented to provide insight into the problem and as verification and validation of the simulator. Analysis of climb, descent, and level turn maneuvers to avoid a collision is presented. Noting the diversity of backgrounds in the UAS community, a description of the UAS aerodynamic and propulsive design and performance parameters is included. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how

  18. Games of climate change with international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemfert, C.; Lise, W.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse games of greenhouse gas emission reduction in which the emissions and the emission reduction costs of one country depend on other countries' emission abatement. In an analytically tractable model, we show that international trade effects on costs and emissions can either increase or

  19. Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.

  20. Systems and methods to mitigate NO.sub.x and HC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Chilumukuru, Krishna P.

    2017-06-14

    Systems and methods are provided for managing low temperature NO.sub.x and HC emissions, such as during a cold start of an internal combustion engine. The systems and methods include storing NO.sub.x and HC emissions at low temperatures and passively releasing and treating these emissions as the temperature of the exhaust system increases.

  1. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Handel, Ian G; Rydevik, Gustaf; Hamman, Saidou M; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent N; Morgan, Kenton L; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Porphyre, Thibaud

    2017-01-01

    Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017) recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p traded live cattle (p traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households.

  2. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch eGiechaskiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories are used to quantify sources and identify trends in the emissions of air pollutants. They use vehicle-specific emission factors that are typically determined in the laboratory, through remote-sensing, vehicle chasing experiments and, more recently, on-board Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Although PEMS is widely applied to measure gaseous pollutants, their application to Solid Particle Number (SPN emissions is new. In this paper, we discuss the current status of determining SPN emission factors both on the chassis dynamometer and on-road using PEMS-SPN. First, we determine the influence of the measurement equipment, ambient temperature, driving style and cycle characteristics, and the extra mass of the PEMS equipment on the SPN emissions. Afterward, we present the SPN emissions under type-approval conditions as well as on the road of two heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF (one Euro VI, two light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF, one light-duty vehicle equipped with a Port Fuel Injection engine (PFI, and seven Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI passenger cars (two Euro 6. We find that cold-start and strong accelerations tend to substantially increase SPN emissions. The two heavy-duty vehicles showed emissions around 2×10^13 p/km (Euro V truck and 6×10^10 p/km (Euro VI truck, respectively. One of the DPF-equipped light-duty vehicles showed emissions of 8×10^11 p/km, while the other one had one order of magnitude lower emissions. The PFI car had SPN emissions slightly higher than 1×10^12 p/km. The emissions of GDI cars spanned approximately from 8×10^11 p/km to 8×10^12 p/km. For the cars without DPF, the SPN emissions remained within a factor of two of the laboratory results. This factor was on average around 0.8 for the Euro 6 and 1.6 for the Euro 5 GDIs. The DPF equipped vehicles showed a difference of almost one order of magnitude between laboratory and on-road tests

  3. New and Revised Emissions Factors for Flares and New Emissions Factors for Certain Refinery Process Units and Determination for No Changes to VOC Emissions Factors for Tanks and Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    New and Revised Emission Factors for Flares and New Emission Factors for Certain Refinery Process Units and Determination for No Changes to VOC Emission Factors for Tanks and Wastewater Treatment Systems

  4. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  5. The Audi ultra low emission system: requirements for development and system integration; Das Audi Ultra Low Emission System: Anforderungen an Entwicklung und Systemintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middelhauve, Georg; Meister, Alexander; Halbei, Julia [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Based on a combination of engine modifications and the introduction of a new technology into the exhaust aftertreatment the Audi ultra low emission system achieves a very efficient minimization of the exhaust emissions and a reduction of the fuel consumption. The new technology sets a new standard in the successful history of TDI engines. The present article focuses on the NOx reduction in the exhaust aftertreatment and the related AdBlue registered -tank system of the Audi A4 3,0 I V6-TDI with ultra low emission system. In the centre of the attention is the integration of a complex system containing hydraulic, electr(on)ic and mechatronic components into the package and system control of an existing vehicle. (orig.)

  6. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  7. Common action and electricity trade in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, T.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Unander, F.

    1998-01-01

    Common action (CA) increases the possibilities to adapt to restrictions on CO2 emissions. In this paper the value of common action is quantifed for Denmark, Norway and Sweden using a systems engineering model, MARKAL. Electricity trade as a means for CA is studied in more detail. © 1998 IFORS...

  8. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Motta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017 recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p < 0.01. Also, strong, but complex, relationships were found between cattle prices and both local human and bovine population densities. Finally, the model highlighted a positive association between the number of incoming trading connections of a livestock market and the price of the traded live cattle (p < 0.01. Although our analysis did not account for factors informing on specific phenotypic traits nor breed characteristics of cattle traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households.

  9. A Review on the Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-Off in Evolutionary Multi-Objective Fuzzy Systems (EMOFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Shukla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Interpretability and accuracy are two important features of fuzzy systems which are conflicting in their nature. One can be improved at the cost of the other and this situation is identified as “Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-Off”. To deal with this trade-off Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA are frequently applied in the design of fuzzy systems. Several novel MOEA have been proposed and invented for this purpose, more specifically, Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms (NSGA-II, Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2, Fuzzy Genetics-Based Machine Learning (FGBML, (2 + 2 Pareto Archived Evolutionary Strategy ((2 + 2 PAES, (2 + 2 Memetic- Pareto Archived Evolutionary Strategy ((2 + 2 M-PAES, etc. This paper introduces and reviews the approaches to the issue of developing fuzzy systems using Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization (EMO algorithms considering ‘Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-off’ and mainly focusing on the work in the last decade. Different research issues and challenges are also discussed.

  10. Nitrogen use in the global food system: past trends and future trajectories of agronomic performance, pollution, trade, and dietary demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Bouwman, Lex; Velazquez, Eduardo; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Gerber, James S.

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) limits crop and grass production, and it is an essential component of dietary proteins. However, N is mobile in the soil-plant system and can be lost to the environment. Estimates of N flows provide a critical tool for understanding and improving the sustainability and equity of the global food system. This letter describes an integrated analysis of changes in N in human diets, N use efficiency (NUE) of cropping and livestock systems, N pollution and N in traded food and feed products for 12 world regions for the period 1960-2050. The largest absolute change in consumption of animal proteins during the period 1960-2009 is seen in China, while the largest share of animal protein per capita is currently observed in North America, Europe and Oceania. Due to the substantial growth of the livestock sector, about three quarters of contemporary global crop production (expressed in protein and including fodder crops and bioenergy byproducts) is allocated to livestock. Trends and levels of NUE and N surpluses in crop production are also diverse, as some regions show soil N depletion (developing regions, e.g. Africa), improving efficiency (industrialized regions, e.g. USA and Europe) and excessive N use (e.g. China, India). Global trade between the 12 regions has increased by a factor of 7.5 for vegetable proteins and by a factor of 10 for animal proteins. The scenarios for 2050 demonstrate that it would be possible to feed the global population in 2050 with moderate animal protein consumption but with much less N pollution, and less international trade than today. In such a scenario, optimal allocation of N inputs among regions to maximize NUE would further decrease pollution, but would require increased levels of N trade comparable to those in a BAU scenario.

  11. Emissions Trading Policy -- Technical Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  13. 78 FR 16365 - Foreign Trade Regulations: Mandatory Automated Export System Filing for All Shipments Requiring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... trade community may continue to use the same SRN for internal purposes. However, an analysis of the AES... Protection. The Census Bureau revised this definition to correct errors in grammar. Voluntary Self-Disclosure... for ``U.S. Customs and Border Protection'' to correct errors in grammar. In Sec. 30.1(c), revise the...

  14. 75 FR 70654 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; System Cap Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Trading (SCT) Program at Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 101--General Air Quality Rules... is being taken under section 110 and parts C and D of the Federal Clean Air Act (the Act or CAA... Clean Air Act.\\1\\ In response, Mr. Mark Vickery, the TCEQ Executive Director, submitted a letter to EPA...

  15. 78 FR 56541 - Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... timing (often randomized) of child orders. In addition to automated execution, ATSs may also operate... platforms is in many cases substantially complete. An established body of data indicates the importance of... off-exchange transactions such as block trades. \\11\\ See Paul Zubulake & Sang Lee, The High Frequency...

  16. Design and development for a low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

  17. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A nonroad...

  18. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... international economic system, and the obvious concomitant administrative inadequacies that profusely characterized GATT, another body known as the. World Trade Organization (WTO) came into existence in 1995, to officiate as the recognized international organization on trade and trade relations. The.

  19. Efficiency of Working Capital Management in the System of Financial Safety of Trade Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates theoretical and methodological and practical aspects of managing the financial security of enterprises of wholesale and retail trade in Ukraine, summarizes the scientific approaches to assessing enterprise financial security. There justified the influence of the level of efficiency of working capital management on improving the indicators of profitability of financial and economic activity, business activity; increasing financial sustainability and stability of development; ensuring an acceptable level of financial safety of trade enterprises. The main results of financial and economic activities of Ukrainian trade enterprises for the period 2010-2015 that influenced the level of their financial security are analyzed, the negative trends in the dynamics of receiving net profit, low profitability of sales and unprofitableness of using the current assets are highlighted. There revealed a significant disproportion in the structure of capital formation sources, high deficit of own financial resources, trend of financing the current assets entirely from borrowed funds, rapid growth of the level of credit interest rates. There performed an estimation of indicators of financial sustainability by means of the coefficient and aggregate approaches, which indicated the unstable and crisis financial condition of the majority of enterprises of wholesale and retail trade in Ukraine. There determined reserves of increasing financial security with the identification of the key components in the subsystems of financial security, criteria and indicators for an objective assessment of the financial status, taking into account the influence of the external environment, which will allow making sound management decisions regarding the analysis, prevention and neutralization of real and potential threats to trade enterprises.

  20. A Decision Support System for Assessing Trade-Offs between Ecosystem Management Goals: An Application in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cork oak (Quercus suber L. and holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia ecosystems are characteristic of Mediterranean forestry in Portugal. Even though cork is the most valuable product, these ecosystems provide multiple products and services. Assessing trade-offs between multiple goals is thus critical for the effectiveness of oak ecosystem management planning. This paper focuses on the development of a decision support system for oak ecosystems’ scenario analysis including multiple criteria. It includes an innovative decision support systems (DSS functionality to assess trade-offs between the criteria that may support negotiation and consensus building between decision-makers and forest stakeholders. Specifically, a module that encapsulates the Feasible Goals Method/Interactive Decision Maps (FGM/IDM technique is developed for interactive visualization of the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier illustrates the degree to which improving one particular criterion requires accepting sacrifices in the achievements of others. It thus provides information about trade-offs between competing decision-makers’ preferences. Results are discussed for a large-scale application encompassing over 1 million ha of cork and holm oak forest ecosystems in Southern Portugal. This study demonstrates the potential of the new DSS functionality to enhance multi-objective forest planning, namely by facilitating participation by stakeholders and providing transparency to the decision-making processes.

  1. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  2. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  3. Dynamic Management of NOx and SO2 Emissions in the Texas and Mid-Atlantic Electric Power Systems and Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Buller, Elena; Kimura, Yosuke; Craig, Michael; McGaughey, Gary; Allen, David; Webster, Mort

    2016-02-02

    Cap and trade programs have historically been designed to achieve annual or seasonal reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants. Emissions reductions may not be temporally coincident with meteorological conditions conducive to the formation of peak ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations. Integrated power system and air quality modeling methods were developed to evaluate time-differentiated emissions price signals on high ozone days in the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) Interconnection and Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grids. Sufficient flexibility exists in the two grids with marked differences in demand and fuel generation mix to accommodate time-differentiated emissions pricing alone or in combination with a season-wide program. System-wide emissions reductions and production costs from time-differentiated pricing are shown to be competitive with those of a season-wide program on high ozone days and would be more cost-effective if the primary policy goal was to target emissions reductions on these days. Time-differentiated pricing layered as a complement to the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule had particularly pronounced benefits for the Mid-Atlantic PJM system that relies heavily on coal-fired generation. Time-differentiated pricing aimed at reducing ozone concentrations had particulate matter reduction co-benefits, but if particulate matter reductions are the primary objective, other approaches to time-differentiated pricing may lead to greater benefits.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography imaging with the SmartPET system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cooperrj@ornl.gov; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P.; Mather, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-21

    The Small Animal Reconstruction Tomograph for Positron Emission Tomography (SmartPET) project is the development of a small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) demonstrator based on the use of High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and state of the art digital electronics. The experimental results presented demonstrate the current performance of this unique system. By performing high precision measurements of one of the SmartPET HPGe detectors with a range of finely collimated gamma-ray beams the response of the detector as a function of gamma-ray interaction position has been quantified, facilitating the development of parametric Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in detector performance. These algorithms have then been applied to data from PET imaging measurements using two such detectors in conjunction with a specially designed rotating gantry. In this paper we show how the use of parametric PSA approaches allows over 60% of coincident events to be processed and how the nature and complexity of an event has direct implications for the quality of the resulting image.

  5. Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R L M; Eriksen, Jørgen; Ledgard, S F

    2013-01-01

    Herbivores are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. They account for a large share of manure-related N2O emissions, as well as soil-related N2O emissions through the use of grazing land, and land for feed and forage production. It is widely acknowledged that mitigation measures...

  6. Development and application of a model for the analysis of trades between space launch system operations and acquisition costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Michael B.

    2005-12-01

    Early design decisions in the development of space launch systems determine the costs to acquire and operate launch systems. Some sources indicate that as much as 90% of life cycle costs are fixed by the end of the critical design review phase. System characteristics determined by these early decisions are major factors in the acquisition cost of flight hardware elements and facilities and influence operations costs through the amount of maintenance and support labor required to sustain system function. Operations costs are also dependent on post-development management decisions regarding how much labor will be deployed to meet requirements of market demand and ownership profit. The ability to perform early trade-offs between these costs is vital to the development of systems that have the necessary capacity to provide service and are profitable to operate. An Excel-based prototype model was developed for making early analyses of trade-offs between the costs to operate a space launch system and to acquire the necessary assets to meet a given set of operational requirements. The model, integrating input from existing models and adding missing capability, allows the user to make such trade-offs across a range of operations concepts (required flight rates, staffing levels, shifts per workday, workdays per week and per year, unreliability, wearout and depot maintenance) and the number, type and capability of assets (flight hardware elements, processing and supporting facilities and infrastructure). The costs and capabilities of hypothetical launch systems can be modeled as a function of interrelated turnaround times and labor resource levels, and asset loss and retirement. The number of flight components and facilities required can be calculated and the operations and acquisition costs compared for a specified scenario. Findings, based on the analysis of a hypothetical two stage to orbit, reusable, unmanned launch system, indicate that the model is suitable for the

  7. Resolving the challenges in the international comparison of health systems: the must do's and the trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Ian; Morgan, David; Klazinga, Niek S

    2013-09-01

    Countries are increasingly publishing health system performance statistics alongside those of their peers, to identify high performers and achieve a continuously improving health system. The aim of the paper is to identify, and discuss resolution of, some key methodological challenges, which arise when comparing health system performance. To illustrate the issues, we focus on two OECD flagship initiatives: the System of Health Accounts (SHA) and the Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI) project and refer to two main actors: a coordinating agency, which proposes and collates performance data and second, data correspondents in constituent health systems, who submit data to the coordinating centre. Discussion is structured around two themes: a set of must-do's (legitimacy of the coordinating centre, validity of proposed indicators, feasibility of data collection and technical support for data correspondents) and a set of trade-offs (depth vs. breadth in the number of system elements compared, aggregation vs. granularity of data, flexibility vs. consistency of indicator definitions and inclusion criteria). Robust fulfillment of the must-do's and transparent resolution of the trade-offs both depend upon effective collaboration between the coordinating centre and data correspondents, and a close working relationship between a technical secretariat and a body of experts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  9. A wireless data acquisition system for acoustic emission testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. T.; Lynch, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    As structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have seen increased demand due to lower costs and greater capabilities, wireless technologies have emerged that enable the dense distribution of transducers and the distributed processing of sensor data. In parallel, ultrasonic techniques such as acoustic emission (AE) testing have become increasingly popular in the non-destructive evaluation of materials and structures. These techniques, which involve the analysis of frequency content between 1 kHz and 1 MHz, have proven effective in detecting the onset of cracking and other early-stage failure in active structures such as airplanes in flight. However, these techniques typically involve the use of expensive and bulky monitoring equipment capable of accurately sensing AE signals at sampling rates greater than 1 million samples per second. In this paper, a wireless data acquisition system is presented that is capable of collecting, storing, and processing AE data at rates of up to 20 MHz. Processed results can then be wirelessly transmitted in real-time, creating a system that enables the use of ultrasonic techniques in large-scale SHM systems.

  10. Trade-Off Analysis to Solve a Probabilistic Multi-Objective Problem for Passive Filtering System Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinelli, Guido; Ferruzzi, Gabriella; Russo, Angela

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, modern distribution networks have rapidly evolved toward complex systems due to the increasing level of penetration of distributed generation units, storage systems, and information and communication technologies. In this framework, power quality disturbances such as waveform distortions should be minimized to guarantee optimal system behavior. This article formulates the planning problem of passive filtering systems in a multi-convertor electrical distribution system as a probabilistic multi-objective optimization problem whose input random variables are characterized with probability density functions. A heuristic simplified approach including trade-off analysis issues is applied to solve the planning problem with the aim of optimizing several objectives and meeting proper probabilistic equality and inequality constraints. The approach is able to quickly find solutions on the Pareto frontier that can help the decision-maker to select the final planning alternative for practical operation. The proposed approach is applied to a 17-busbar distribution test system to evidence its effectiveness.

  11. Measurement of ammonia emissions from three ammonia emission reduction systems for dairy cattle using a dynamic flux chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Mosquera, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest among dairy farmers in The Netherlands for animal friendly housing systems that at the same moment reduce the ammonia emission compared to currently available systems. Therefore, there is a need for a relatively cheap and easy measuring method to investigate the

  12. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  13. Evaluating the Life Cycle Environmental Benefits and Trade-Offs of Water Reuse Systems for Net-Zero Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasik, Vaclav; Anderson, Naomi E; Collinge, William O; Thiel, Cassandra L; Khanna, Vikas; Wirick, Jason; Piacentini, Richard; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2017-02-07

    Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and trade-offs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems. We investigated the NZB's impacts over varying lifetimes, conducted a break-even analysis, and included Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. The results show that, although the NZB performs better in most categories than the conventional building, the water efficient building generally outperforms the NZB. The lifetime of the NZB, septic tank aeration, and use of solar energy have been found to be important factors in the NZB's impacts. While these findings are specific to the case study building, location, and treatment technologies, the framework for comparison of water and wastewater impacts of various buildings can be applied during building design to aid decision making. As we design and operate high-performance buildings, the potential trade-offs of advanced decentralized water treatment systems should be considered.

  14. Roles of production, consumption and trade in global and regional aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Tong, D.; Davis, S. J.; Ni, R.; Tan, X.; Pan, D.; Zhao, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Feng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.; Jiang, X.; Geng, G.; He, K.; Huang, Y.; Guan, D.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols exert strong radiative forcing on the climate system. Prevailing view regards aerosol radiative forcing as a result of emissions from regions' economic production, with China and other developing regions having the largest contributions to radiative forcing at present. However, economic production is driven by global demand for computation, and international trade allows for separation of regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. It has recently been recognized that regions' consumption and trade have profoundly altered the spatial distribution of aerosol emissions and pollution. Building upon our previous work, this study quantifies for the first time the roles of trade and consumption in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions. We contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers like Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences in radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of

  15. Characterization of time resolved photodetector systems for Positron Emission Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Powolny, François

    The main topic of this work is the study of detector systems composed of a scintillator, a photodetector and readout electronics, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In particular, the timing properties of such detector systems are studied. The first idea is to take advantage of the good timing properties of the NINO chip, which is a fast preamplifier-discriminator developed for the ALICE Time of flight detector at CERN. This chip uses a time over threshold technique that is to be applied for the first time in medical imaging applications. A unique feature of this technique is that it delivers both timing and energy information with a single digital pulse, the time stamp with the rising edge and the energy from the pulse width. This entails substantial simplification of the entire readout architecture of a tomograph. The scintillator chosen in the detector system is LSO. Crystals of 2x2x10mm3 were used. For the photodetector, APDs were first used, and were then replaced by SiPMs to make use of their highe...

  16. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  17. 40 CFR 63.3554 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system efficiency? 63.3554 Section 63.3554 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements for the Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3554 How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency? The capture efficiency of your emission capture system must be 100 percent to...

  18. Acoustic Emissions (AE) Electrical Systems' Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acoustic Emissions (AE) are associated with physical events, such as thermal activity, dielectric breakdown, discharge inception, as well as crack nucleation and...

  19. Potential of IC-engines as minimum emission propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlseder, Helmut; Wimmer, Andreas

    Forced by the increasing mobility and the greenhouse effect a further reduction of emissions of pollutants and CO 2 is required. The main demand for improvement will be reduction of NO x and particulate emissions from diesel engines and fuel consumption/CO 2-emission from spark ignition (SI)-engines. New technologies for combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment being under development are introduced and discussed. These technologies with increased complexity show significant potential for minimum emission and are able to fulfil future demands.

  20. Scheduling and Optimization of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Transparency/Performance Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of fault-tolerant schedules and for the mapping of fault-tolerant applications. Our techniques handle transparency/performance trade-offs and use the faultoccurrence information to reduce the overhead due to fault tolerance. Processes and m...... of the application so that they do not affect the schedule of other processes and messages. While leading to longer schedules, transparent recovery has the advantage of both improved debuggability and less memory needed to store the faulttolerant schedules....

  1. Performance of Technical Trading Systems in the Yen/Dollar Market

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the profitability of 1,024 moving average and momentum models and their components in the yen/dollar market. It turns out that all models would have been profitable between 1976 and 1999. The pattern of profitability is as follows: the models produce more single losses than single profits, however, the size of the single profits is on average much higher than the size of single losses. Hence, the profitability of technical currency trading is exclusively due to the expl...

  2. Algerian Economy and Multilateral Trading System: Why Is It So Hard to Join the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to provide a overview on different stages of the negotiations with World Trade Organization, since 1987 date of submission the application for accession, Algeria still trying to snatch accession card with minimum cost, where it tries to provide small guarantees, but some WTO members raises reservations over some issues like aspects related to investment, for example: the Rule of 49/51, and domestic component, prevention of exporting, besides the agricultural issue which takes advantage of domestic subsidies and exporting subsides, also services industry knows low degree of openness, especially In some sensitive areas such as financial services, telecommunications.

  3. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management: A System Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-04-18

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems is urgently needed to help mitigate climate change and to improve atmospheric air quality. This study presents a meta-analysis and an integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for NH3, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (direct and indirect) losses from four typical swine manure management systems (MMSs). The resultant emission factors and mitigation efficiencies allow GHG and NH3 emissions to be estimated, as well as mitigation potentials for different stages of swine operation. In particular, changing swine manure management from liquid systems to solid-liquid separation systems, coupled with mitigation measures, could simultaneously reduce GHG emissions by 65% and NH3 emissions by 78%. The resultant potential reduction in GHG emissions from China's pig production alone is greater than the entire GHG emissions from agricultural sector of France, Australia, or Germany, while the reduction in NH3 emissions is equivalent to 40% of the total NH3 emissions from the European Union. Thus, improved swine manure management could have a significant impact on global environment issues.

  4. The central importance of the EU emission trading scheme for achievement of the German climate protection target of 40% until 2020; Die zentrale Bedeutung des EU-Emissionshandels zur Erreichung des deutschen Klimaziels in Hoehe von 40 % bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Cludius, Johanna

    2014-02-15

    Both Germany and the European Union have set themselves targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EU was the forerunner in 2008 when it adopted the Climate and Energy package and set a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 compared to 1990. Two years later, Germany adopted a range of national GHG targets in the context of the German government's Energy Concept. This includes a 40% emissions reduction target to be met by 2020. One of the main instruments for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which covers all large industrial and combustion installations in Europe. According to the agreement made in 2008 (Climate and Energy Package), the effort to achieve the EU's 20 % reduction target by 2020 was split between the ETS sector (2/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 21 % reduction in GHG emissions for installations covered under the ETS compared to 2005) and the non-ETS sector (1/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 10 % reduction compared to 2005). Logically, GHG emissions reductions occurring in German ETS installations count both towards the EU and the national target. This research project has been commissioned to analyse whether the ETS in its cur-rent design can contribute its fair share in efforts to meet the national emissions reduc-tion target. This question is particularly relevant in light of the following considerations: - The new German Coalition Agreement, signed in December 2013, reiterated the national target of a 40 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. - At the same time, the new Coalition Agreement stated that changes to the ETS are only to be considered if the EU GHG emissions reduction target will not be met. - There is a surplus of CO2 allowances on the ETS market, which undermines the credibility of the instrument as well as the integrity of the emissions reduction tar-gets (both European and national). At the same

  5. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes....... By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...... argues that case outcomes should be expected to be largely the product of domestic political institutions and policy processes, and how these intersect with developments in the WTO dispute settlement system. Brief studies of the Australian government's dispute settlement strategy and two high-profile WTO...

  6. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2018-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. A System Trade Study of Remote Infrared Imaging for Space Shuttle Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Ross, Martin N.; Baize, Rosemary; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Krasa, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    A trade study reviewing the primary operational parameters concerning the deployment of imaging assets in support of the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project was undertaken. The objective was to determine key variables and constraints for obtaining thermal images of the Space Shuttle orbiter during reentry. The trade study investigated the performance characteristics and operating environment of optical instrumentation that may be deployed during a HYTHIRM data collection mission, and specified contributions to the Point Spread Function. It also investigated the constraints that have to be considered in order to optimize deployment through the use of mission planning tools. These tools simulate the radiance modeling of the vehicle as well as the expected spatial resolution based on the Orbiter trajectory and placement of land based or airborne optical sensors for given Mach numbers. Lastly, this report focused on the tools and methodology that have to be in place for real-time mission planning in order to handle the myriad of variables such as trajectory ground track, weather, and instrumentation availability that may only be known in the hours prior to landing.

  8. Navy mobility fuels forecasting system report: World petroleum trade forecasts for the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.

    1991-12-01

    The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.

  9. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  10. Productivity gains and greenhouse gas emissions intensity in dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Steinfeld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between productivity of dairy production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global scale. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess GHG emissions from dairy production and processing chains. Milk yield expressed as kg fat and protein

  11. MTU locomotive drive systems for EU emissions stage IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions limits for diesel locomotives within the European Union are regulated by EU Non-road Directive 97/68/EC which places restrictions on the pollutants NOx, particulate, CO and HC. MTU has developed suitable diesel engines for EU Emissions stage IIIB. (orig.)

  12. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  13. Modeling ecological synergies and trade-offs in livestock production systems in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, V. A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Hamel, P.

    2016-12-01

    Livestock production is critical to maintaining livelihoods in many of the world's rural economies, and interacts with complex ecological processes in ways that present both opportunities and risks for ecosystems and the benefits they provide to people. We present a new dynamic simulation model to examine cattle production in the savannas of East Africa, and its synergies and trade-offs with co-benefits such as wildlife conservation and related tourism. The InVEST rangeland production model couples biomass production from the CENTURY model with diet selection and herbivore physiology from the GRAZPLAN animal biology model. This powerful and flexible model demonstrates that through their interactions mediated by forage availability and tick-borne disease, cattle and wildlife may benefit from integration.

  14. Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems : natural emissions and anthropogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Styles, R.V.; Kroeze, C.

    2000-01-01

    Context Abstract: Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas, are increasing due to human activities. Our analysis suggests that a third of global anthropogenic N2O emission is from aquatic sources (rivers, estuaries, continental shelves) and the terrestrial sources comprise the

  15. 47 CFR 73.758 - System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service. 73.758 Section 73.758 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... § 73.758 System specifications for digitally modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service. (a...

  16. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  17. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  18. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  19. Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for crop management system scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for CMAQ is a high-end computer interface that simulates daily fertilizer application information for any gridded domain. It integrates the Weather Research and Forecasting model and CMAQ.

  20. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...