WorldWideScience

Sample records for emission energy dependence

  1. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaiki, Shuji; Ichida, Hideki; Bamba, Motoaki; Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki; Mizoguchi, Kohji; Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Kanematsu, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon

  2. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: s.wakaiki@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.

  3. Prompt Dipole gamma -Ray Emission in Fusion Heavy-Ion Collisions: Incident Energy Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Inglima, G.; Boiano, A.; de Rosa, A.; La Commara, M.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Cardella, G.; de Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Pirrone, S.; Glodariu, T.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.

    2007-04-01

    The evolution with beam energy of the prompt dipole radiation, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, was studied in the fusion reactions: 36Ar+96Zr and 40Ar+92Zr at Elab=16 and 15.1 MeV/u, respectively. Both reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, the same compound nucleus at the same average excitation energy and with identical spin distribution. By studying the gamma -ray energy spectra of the considered reactions, and by comparing the present result with previous ones obtained at lower energies, we deduce that the prompt dipole gamma -ray emission presents a maximum value at 9 MeV/u and decreases toward lower and higher energies. Moreover, the centroid and the width of the preequilibrium dipole component were found to remain constant, within the errors, by increasing the beam energy.

  4. Fermi energy dependence of the optical emission in core/shell InAs nanowire homostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Oliveira, D. S.; Sahoo, P. K.; Cotta, M. A.; Iikawa, F.; Motisuke, P.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.

    2017-07-01

    InAs nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method are investigated by photoluminescence. We observe that the Fermi energy of all samples is reduced by ˜20 meV when the size of the Au nanoparticle used for catalysis is increased from 5 to 20 nm. Additional capping with a thin InP shell enhances the optical emission and does not affect the Fermi energy. The unexpected behavior of the Fermi energy is attributed to the differences in the residual donor (likely carbon) incorporation in the axial (low) and lateral (high incorporation) growth in the VLS and vapor-solid (VS) methods, respectively. The different impurity incorporation rate in these two regions leads to a core/shell InAs homostructure. In this case, the minority carriers (holes) diffuse to the core due to the built-in electric field created by the radial impurity distribution. As a result, the optical emission is dominated by the core region rather than by the more heavily doped InAs shell. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra and the Fermi energy become sensitive to the core diameter. These results are corroborated by a theoretical model using a self-consistent method to calculate the radial carrier distribution and Fermi energy for distinct diameters of Au nanoparticles.

  5. Dipole γ-ray emission in fusion heavy-ion reactions: beam energy dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Inglima, G.; Boiano, A.; De Rosa, A.; Di Pietro, M.; La Commara, M.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Maiolino, C.; Pagano, A.; Pellegriti, N.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Glodariu, T.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the prompt dipole γ-ray emission, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40Ar + 92Zr and 36Ar + 96Zr fusion reactions at Elab= 15 and 16 MeV/nucleon, respectively, with the aim to probe its evolution with incident energy. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, the 132Ce compound nucleus at an average excitation energy of 304 MeV with identical spin distribution. Fusionlike events were selected by detecting high-energy γ-rays in coincidence with evaporation residues. By studying the differential γ-ray multiplicity spectra of the considered reactions, it was shown that the dipole γ-ray intensity increases by ˜14% for the more charge asymmetric system. This result, associated with those reported for the 32,36S + 100,96Mo reaction pair at lower beam energies, implies a "rise and fall" trend of the prompt dipole γ-ray emission in the studied beam energy range with a maximum value at 9 MeV/nucleon.

  6. Dipole γ-ray emission in fusion heavy-ion reactions: beam energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; De Rosa, A.; La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Di Pietro, M.; Romoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Maiolino, C.; Pellegriti, N.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the prompt dipole γ-ray emission, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40Ar + 92Zr and 36Ar + 96Zr fusion reactions at Elab= 15 and 16 MeV/nucleon, respectively, with the aim to probe its evolution with incident energy. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, the 132Ce compound nucleus at an average excitation energy of 304 MeV with identical spin distribution. Fusionlike events were selected by detecting high-energy γ-rays in coincidence with evaporation residues. By studying the differential γ-ray multiplicity spectra of the considered reactions, it was shown that the dipole γ-ray intensity increases by ∼14% for the more charge asymmetric system. This result, associated with those reported for the 32,36S + 100,96Mo reaction pair at lower beam energies, implies a 'rise and fall' trend of the prompt dipole γ-ray emission in the studied beam energy range with a maximum value at 9 MeV/nucleon

  7. Novel scatter compensation with energy and spatial dependent corrections in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Bastien

    2010-01-01

    We developed and validated a fast Monte Carlo simulation of PET acquisitions based on the SimSET program modeling accurately the propagation of gamma photons in the patient as well as the block-based PET detector. Comparison of our simulation with another well validated code, GATE, and measurements on two GE Discovery ST PET scanners showed that it models accurately energy spectra (errors smaller than 4.6%), the spatial resolution of block-based PET scanners (6.1%), scatter fraction (3.5%), sensitivity (2.3%) and count rates (12.7%). Next, we developed a novel scatter correction incorporating the energy and position of photons detected in list-mode. Our approach is based on the reformulation of the list-mode likelihood function containing the energy distribution of detected coincidences in addition to their spatial distribution, yielding an EM reconstruction algorithm containing spatial and energy dependent correction terms. We also proposed using the energy in addition to the position of gamma photons in the normalization of the scatter sinogram. Finally, we developed a method for estimating primary and scatter photons energy spectra from total spectra detected in different sectors of the PET scanner. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of our new spatio-spectral scatter correction and that of the standard spatial correction using realistic Monte Carlo simulations. These results showed that incorporating the energy in the scatter correction reduces bias in the estimation of the absolute activity level by ∼ 60% in the cold regions of the largest patients and yields quantification errors less than 13% in all regions. (author)

  8. Charged particle emission from 194Hg compound nuclei: Energy and spin dependence of fission-evaporation competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, M.; Logan, D.; Ball, J.W.; Kaplan, M.; Delagrange, H.; Rivet, M.F.; Alexander, J.M.; Vaz, L.C.; Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Twelve reactions have been studied that produce the compound system 194 Hg* at excitation energies of 57--195 MeV and with l/sub crit/ values of 25--142h. Beams of 12 C, 19 F, 20 Ne, and 40 Ar ions in conjunction with appropriate targets have been used to measure cross sections for evaporative H/He, fission, and evaporation residues. These results confirm that most 1 H and 4 He is evaporated prior to fission or instead of fission and very little if any from the fission fragments. The probability of H/He evaporation increases dramatically with excitation energy. The evaporation residue cross sections (sigma/sub ER//πlambda-dash-bar 2 ) indicate fission survival for entrance channel l up to 27--39h. Fission survival becomes stronger and corresponding fission competition becomes weaker for excitation > or =100 MeV; a connection with charged particle emission is suggested. The dimensionless cross section for evaporation residue (sigma/sub ER//πlambda-dash-bar 2 ) depends on both the entrance channel and on energy, indicating that nonequilibrium mechanisms must play an important role, even for l< or approx. =40. Heretofore evaporation residue production has been usually thought to arise from lower partial waves while direct reactions have been thought to dominate only for the higher partial waves

  9. A new model of dependence of secondary electron emission yield on primary electron energy for application to polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaux, J [LASSI/UTAP, Faculte des Sciences, BP1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2005-07-21

    A new analytical model for the secondary electron (SE) emission yield, {delta}, is applied to polymers. It involves a parameter k, k = z{sub C}/R, between the most probable energy dissipation depth, z{sub C}, of primary electrons (PE) and their range R, where k ranges from 0.5 and 0.45 for low-density, low atomic-weight materials. Reduced yield curves (RYC), {delta}/{delta}{sub (max)} versus E{sup 0}/E{sup 0}{sub (max)}, and normal yield curves, {delta} versus E{sup 0}, obtained from published experimental data on a wide variety of polymers (polystyrene, PET, polyimide; Kapton; PTFE; Teflon, PMMA, nylon, polyurethane) are compared with the calculated change of {delta} with PE energy, E{sup 0}. In contrast to the use of the conventional constant loss model where the best fit requires an empirical change in the exponent 'n' in the power law expression of the PE range, R versus E{sup 0}, the present approach is based on the usual choice for n, n = 1.35, and on a choice for k governed by physical arguments. This physical basis then enables one to predict the RYC of other polymers. Finally, values of the SE escape probability and SE attenuation length are estimated for the polymers of interest and a new mechanism is suggested for the contrast reversal in scanning electron microscopy.

  10. A new model of dependence of secondary electron emission yield on primary electron energy for application to polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazaux, J

    2005-01-01

    A new analytical model for the secondary electron (SE) emission yield, δ, is applied to polymers. It involves a parameter k, k = z C /R, between the most probable energy dissipation depth, z C , of primary electrons (PE) and their range R, where k ranges from 0.5 and 0.45 for low-density, low atomic-weight materials. Reduced yield curves (RYC), δ/δ (max) versus E 0 /E 0 (max) , and normal yield curves, δ versus E 0 , obtained from published experimental data on a wide variety of polymers (polystyrene, PET, polyimide; Kapton; PTFE; Teflon, PMMA, nylon, polyurethane) are compared with the calculated change of δ with PE energy, E 0 . In contrast to the use of the conventional constant loss model where the best fit requires an empirical change in the exponent 'n' in the power law expression of the PE range, R versus E 0 , the present approach is based on the usual choice for n, n = 1.35, and on a choice for k governed by physical arguments. This physical basis then enables one to predict the RYC of other polymers. Finally, values of the SE escape probability and SE attenuation length are estimated for the polymers of interest and a new mechanism is suggested for the contrast reversal in scanning electron microscopy

  11. Italy's recurrent energy dependency dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper first critically assesses the objectives of Italy's 1988 National Energy Plan which, in light of the moratorium on nuclear energy, called for moderate but steady reductions in imported energy supplies through the implementation of energy conservation programs and the development of available domestic conventional and renewable energy sources. The economics and energy analyses evidence that, in view this nation's current troubled economic situation, the Energy Plan's target for the year 2000 of a 76% dependency on foreign oil is just not good enough and not in line with stricter European environmental normatives limiting carbon dioxide emissions. It is argued that in order to effectively reduce the nation's excessively high energy costs, keep pace with other industrialized countries in a highly competitive market (Italy's energy tariffs are almost 55% greater than those of Germany and France), and to respect new European anti-pollution laws, Italy must restart its nuclear program and take advantage of the recent advances being made in passive reactor safety systems

  12. Trends in onroad transportation energy and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher

    2018-03-28

    Globally, 1.3 billion onroad vehicles consume 79 quadrillion BTU of energy, mostly gasoline and diesel fuels, emit 5.7 gigatonnes of CO 2 , and emit other pollutants to which approximately 200,000 annual premature deaths are attributed. Improved vehicle energy efficiency and emission controls have helped offset growth in vehicle activity. New technologies are diffusing into the vehicle fleet in response to fuel efficiency and emission standards. Empirical assessment of vehicle emissions is challenging because of myriad fuels and technologies, inter-vehicle variability, multiple emission processes, variability in operating conditions, and varying capabilities of measurement methods. Fuel economy and emissions regulations have been effective in reducing total emissions of key pollutants. Real-world fuel use and emissions are consistent with official values in the U.S. but not in Europe or countries that adopt European standards. Portable emission measurements systems, which uncovered a recent emissions cheating scandal, have a key role in regulatory programs to ensure conformity between "real driving emissions" and emission standards. The global vehicle fleet will experience tremendous growth, especially in Asia. Although existing data and modeling tools are useful, they are often based on convenience samples, small sample sizes, large variability and unquantified uncertainty. Vehicles emit precursors to several important secondary pollutants, including ozone and secondary organic aerosols, which requires a multipollutant emissions and air quality management strategy. Gasoline and diesel are likely to persist as key energy sources to mid-century. Adoption of electric vehicles is not a panacea with regard to greenhouse gas emissions unless coupled with policies to change the power generation mix. Depending on how they are actually implemented and used, autonomous vehicles could lead to very large reductions or increases in energy consumption. Numerous other trends are

  13. PsbS-specific zeaxanthin-independent changes in fluorescence emission spectrum as a signature of energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Dogsom, Bolormaa; Lee, Chung Yeol; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    The PsbS protein of photosystem II is necessary for the development of energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (qE), and PsbS-deficient Arabidopsis plant leaves failed to show qE-specific changes in the steady-state 77 K fluorescence emission spectra observed in wild-type leaves. The difference spectrum between the quenched and un-quenched states showed a negative peak at 682 nm. Although the level of qE development in the zeaxanthin-less npq1-2 mutant plants, which lacked violaxanthin de-epoxidase enzyme, was only half that of wild type, there were no noticeable changes in this qE-dependent difference spectrum. This zeaxanthin-independent DeltaF682 signal was not dependent on state transition, and the signal was not due to photobleaching of pigments either. These results suggest that DeltaF682 signal is formed due to PsbS-specific conformational changes in the quenching site of qE and is a new signature of qE generation in higher plants.

  14. Life cycle emissions from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.; Watkiss, P.; Thorpe, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in the ETSU review, together with the detailed results for three of the technologies studied: wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and small, stand-alone solar thermal systems. These emissions are then compared with those calculated for both other renewables and fossil fuel technology on a similar life cycle basis. The life cycle emissions associated with renewable energy technology vary considerably. They are lowest for those technologies where the renewable resource has been concentrated in some way (e.g. over distance in the case of wind and hydro, or over time in the case of energy crops). Wind turbines have amongst the lowest emissions of all renewables and are lower than those for fossil fuel generation, often by over an order of magnitude. Photovoltaics and solar thermal systems have the highest life cycle emissions of all the renewable energy technologies under review. However, their emissions of most pollutants are also much lower than those associated with fossil fuel technologies. In addition, the emissions associated with PV are likely to fall further in the future as the conversion efficiency of PV cells increases and manufacturing technology switches to thin film technologies, which are less energy intensive. Combining the assessments of life cycle emissions of renewables with predictions made by the World Energy Council (WEC) of their future deployment has allowed estimates to be made of amount by which renewables could reduce the future global emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It estimated that under the WEC's 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, renewables might lead to significant reductions of between 3650 and 8375 Mt in annual CO 2 emissions depending on the fossil fuel technology they are assumed to displace. (author)

  15. Temperature dependence of anuran distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenderink, Sebastlaan W. F.; Van Dijk, Pim

    To study the possible involvement of energy dependent mechanisms in the transduction of sound within the anuran ear, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were recorded in the northern leopard frog over a range of body temperatures. The effect of body temperature depended on the stimulus

  16. Uranium energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkes, P.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium supply and demand as projected by the Uranium Institute is discussed. It is concluded that for the industrialized countries, maximum energy independence is a necessity. Hence it is necessary to achieve assurance of supply for uranium used in thermal power reactors in current programs and eventually to move towards breeders

  17. Dependence of secondary electron emission on the incident angle and the energy of primary electrons bombarding bowl-structured beryllium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Jun; Ohya, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the secondary electron emission from beryllium is combined with a model of bowl structure for surface roughness, for analyzing the difference between the electron emissions for normal and oblique incidences. At normal incidence, with increasing the roughness parameter H/W, the primary energy E pm at which the maximum electron yield occurs becomes higher, and at more than the E pm , the decrease in the yield is slower; where H and W are the depth and width of the bowl structure, respectively. The dispersion of incident angle to the microscopic surface causes a small increase in the yield at oblique incidence, whereas the blocking of primary electrons from bombarding the bottom of the structure causes an opposite trend. The strong anisotropy in the polar angular distribution with respect to the azimuthal angle is calculated at oblique incidence. (author)

  18. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  19. Energy strategies and greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Nakicenovic, N.

    1992-01-01

    Concern about the availability of energy resources has given way in recent years to increasing awareness of the environmental impacts of energy production, conversion and use. Future energy policies must be based on limiting and even reducing future emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, a number of national carbon dioxide reduction plans have been announced, which are aimed at stabilizing and in some cases even reducing further emissions.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  1. The fine particle emissions of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlstroem, M.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this master's thesis was to define the fine particle (PM2.5, diameter under 2,5 μm) emissions of the energy production and to compare the calculated emission factors between different energy production concepts. The purpose was also to define what is known about fine particle emissions and what should still be studied/measured. The purpose was also to compare briefly the fine particle emissions of energy production and vehicle traffic, and their correlations to the fine particle concentrations of urban air. In the theory part of this work a literature survey was made about fine particles in energy production, especially how they form and how they are separated from the flue gas. In addition, the health effects caused by fine particles, and different measuring instruments were presented briefly. In the experimental part of this work, the aim was to find out the fine particle emissions of different energy production processes by calculating specific emission factors (mg/MJ fuel ) from powerplants' annual total particulate matter emissions (t/a), which were obtained from VAHTI-database system maintained by the Finnish Environmental Institute, and by evaluating the share of fine particles from total emissions with the help of existing measurement results. Only those energy production processes which produce significantly direct emissions of solid particles have been treated (pulverised combustion and oil burners from burner combustion, fluidized bed combustion processes, grate boilers, recovery boilers and diesel engines). The processes have been classified according to boiler type, size category, main fuel and also according to dust separation devices. To be able to compare different energy production processes, shared specific emission factor have been calculated for the similar subprocesses. The fine particle emissions depend strongest on the boiler size category and dust separation devices used. Spent fuel or combustion technique does not have

  2. Climate, energy and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.; Philibert, C.

    2007-01-01

    The authors question the 4 main concerns that have arisen since the implementation of emission trade markets 3 years ago. First, the allowance policy was not accurate enough and has led to a surplus offer of CO 2 allowances. Secondly, the impact on electricity prices of carbon emission costs was all the higher as it happened at the moment of the deregulation of electricity markets. Thirdly, the CO 2 allowances whose price will near 14 euros a ton for the 2008-2012 period are accused of hindering the competitiveness of the European industrial sector. Fourth, the present allowance system that gives to new comers free CO 2 allowances is not very conducive to the adoption by these new comers of technologies that are less CO 2 emitting. Some ways of improvement are given. (A.C.)

  3. A Healthy Reduction in Oil Dependence and Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.; Higgins, M.

    2003-12-01

    Societal dependence on oil as an energy source for personal transportation leads to increasingly negative social consequences including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Our heavy reliance on the automobile for transportation, determined in part by urban sprawl, also contributes to the population's increasingly sedentary lifestyle and to a concomitant degradation in health. We have shown that widespread substitution of exercise, commensurate with previously recommended levels, through biking or walking instead of driving can substantially reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions. For example, if all individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 substituted one hour of cycling for driving the reduction in gasoline demand would be equivalent to the gas produced from 34.9 percent of current oil consumption. Relative to 1990 net US emissions, this constitutes a 10.9 percent reduction in carbon emissions. Therefore, substitution of exercise for driving could improve health, reduce carbon emissions and save more oil than even upper estimates of that contained in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

  4. Economics of the Nuclear Energy Considered CO2 Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Yong Min

    2011-01-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has greatly increased along with its rapid economic growth and industrialization since the 1970s. Total energy consumption increased at an average annual growth rate. Due to the lack of domestic energy resources, however, the overseas dependence rate of energy consumption has continuously increased. Also Climate change, resulting from increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), is considered one of the biggest environmental dangers facing the world today. The objective and approach of this study are to compare the different types of scenarios in terms of the power plant type and CO 2 emission from each power plant. We estimated cost of electricity generation using fuel cost, O and M cost(Operation and Maintenance Cost) and CO 2 emission

  5. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  6. Energy Dependence of the Intermodule Widening Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Mcblane, Neil Fraser

    2017-01-01

    This project looked to investigate the energy dependence of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter Intermodule Widening correction factors. A clear energy dependence was observed, with possible parameterisations of the dependency were briefly explored. In addition, official correction factors were validated on a new software release.

  7. Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei

  8. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  9. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier

  10. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  11. Electron emission from materials at low excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urma, N.; Kijek, M.; Millar, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: An experimental system has been designed and developed with the purpose of measuring the total electron emission yield from materials at low energy excitation. In the first instance the reliability of the system was checked by measuring the total electron emission yield for a well defined surface (aluminium 99.45%). The obtained data was in the expected range given by the literature, and consequently the system will be used further for measuring the total electron yield for a range of materials with interest in the instrumentation industry. We intend to measure the total electron emission yield under electron bombardment as a function of incident electron energy up to 1200 eV, angle of incidence, state of the surface and environment to which the surface has been exposed. Dependence of emission on total electron irradiated dose is also of interest. For many practical application of the 'Secondary Electron Emission', the total electron yield is desired to be as large as possible. The above phenomenon has practical applicability in electron multiplier tube and Scanning electron microscopy - when by means of the variation of the yield of the emitted electrons one may produce visible images of small sample areas. The electron multiplier tube, is a device which utilises the above effect to detect and amplify both single particles and low currents streams of charged particles. The majority of electron tubes use electrons with low energy, hundreds of eV. Not a lot has been published in the literature about this regime and also about the emission when the impinging electrons have small energy, up to 1 KeV. The information obtained from the experimental measurements concerning the total electron emission yield is used to asses the investigated materials as a potential electron emitting surfaces or dynodes in an electron multiplier tube

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The share of energy production of the world-wide total N 2 O emissions is about 10 %. In 1991 the N 2 O emissions estimated to be up to 30 %. The previous estimates based on incorrect measurements. The measurement methods have been improved during the past few years. The present measurements have shown that the share of the combustion of fossil fuels is about 2.0 % and the share biomass combustion about 5.0 % of the total. The uncertainty of the values can be few percentage units. According to the present measurements the share of natural emissions and the fertilizers of the total N 2 O emissions is up to 60 %. The formation of nitrous oxide has been studied widely in various countries in the world. In Finland nitrous oxide has been studied in the national LIEKKI research programme. As a result of the research carried out in the programme it has been possible to reduce the formation of N 2 O by using appropriate catalysts and combustion technologies. Nitrous oxide is formed e.g. in fluidized-bed combustion of nitrogen containing fuels. The combustion temperature of other combustion methods is so high that the gas disintegrates in the furnace. By the new methods the nitrous oxide emissions of the fluidized-bed combustion has been possible to reduce from 100-200 ppm to the level less than 50 ppm of the flue gas volume. The Japanese research has shown that the nitrous oxide emissions of bubbling beds vary in between 58 - 103 ppm, but when combusting paper the emissions are 6 - 29 ppm. The corresponding value of circulating fluidized beds is 40 - 153 ppm

  13. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  14. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  15. Distance dependence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deviations from the usual -6 dependence of the rate of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on the distance between the donor and the acceptor have been a common scenario in the recent times. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the distance dependence of FRET, and try to illustrate the non--6 ...

  16. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  17. Emissions Trading and Promotion of Renewable Energy: We Need Both

    OpenAIRE

    Kemfert, Claudia; Diekmann, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    Emissions trading and the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources are key elements of German and European energy and climate policy. However, some critics oppose a targeted promotion of renewable energy, arguing in particular that this is ineffective or even damaging in conjunction with European emissions trading. Yet upon closer examination, the coexistence of emissions trading and promotion of renewable energy is not only possible, it is essential-provided the interactions bet...

  18. Linear representation of energy-dependent Hamiltonians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 326, 1/2 (2004), s. 70-76 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : energy-dependent Hamiltonians * Quasi-Hermitian linear representation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.454, year: 2004

  19. Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Martinez, C.I. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of La Salle, Bogota (Colombia); Silveira, S [Energy and Climate Studies, Department of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  20. Energy dependence of nonlocal optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. E.; Bacq, P.-L.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Titus, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a variety of studies have shown the importance of including nonlocality in the description of reactions. The goal of this work is to revisit the phenomenological approach to determining nonlocal optical potentials from elastic scattering. We perform a χ2 analysis of neutron elastic scattering data off 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb at energies E ≈5 -40 MeV, assuming a Perey and Buck [Nucl. Phys. 32, 353 (1962), 10.1016/0029-5582(62)90345-0] or Tian et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1550006 (2015), 10.1142/S0218301315500068] nonlocal form for the optical potential. We introduce energy and asymmetry dependencies in the imaginary part of the potential and refit the data to obtain a global parametrization. Independently of the starting point in the minimization procedure, an energy dependence in the imaginary depth is required for a good description of the data across the included energy range. We present two parametrizations, both of which represent an improvement over the original potentials for the fitted nuclei as well as for other nuclei not included in our fit. Our results show that, even when including the standard Gaussian nonlocality in optical potentials, a significant energy dependence is required to describe elastic-scattering data.

  1. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000–2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985 million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. - Highlights: • Creation of an energy consumption model using system dynamics. • The effect of different policies on energy consumption and emission reductions. • An ascending trend for the environmental costs caused by CO 2 emissions is observed. • An urgent need for energy saving and emission reductions in Iran.

  2. Temperature-dependent and optimized thermal emission by spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K. L.; Merchiers, O.; Chapuis, P.-O.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the temperature and size dependencies of thermal emission by homogeneous spheres as a function of their dielectric properties. Different power laws obtained in this work show that the emitted power can depart strongly from the usual fourth power of temperature given by Planck's law and from the square or the cube of the radius. We also show how to optimize the thermal emission by selecting permittivities leading to resonances, which allow for the so-called super-Planckian regime. These results will be useful as spheres, i.e. the simplest finite objects, are often considered as building blocks of more complex objects.

  3. High-Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Usov, Vladimir V.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars is investigated in a model for acceleration and pair cascades on open field lines above the polar caps. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, but the majority do not produce sufficient pairs to completely screen the accelerating electric field. In these sources, the primary and secondary electrons continue to accelerate to high altitude and their Lorentz factors are limited by curvature and synchrotron radiation reaction. The accelerating particles maintain high Lorentz factors and undergo cyclotron resonant absorption of radio emission, that produces and maintains a large pitch angle, resulting in a strong synchrotron component. The resulting spectra consist of several distinct components: curvature radiation from primary electrons dominating from 1 - 100 GeV, synchrotron radiation from primary and secondary electrons dominating up to about 100 MeV, and much weaker inverse-Compton radiation from primary electrons a t 0.1 - 1 TeV. We find that the relative size of these components depends on pulsar period, period derivative, and neutron star mass and radius with the level of the synchrotron component also depending sensitively on the radio emission properties. This model is successful in describing the observed X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of PSR J0218+4232 as synchrotron radiation, peaking around 100 MeV and extending up to a turnover around several GeV. The predicted curvature radiation components from a number of millisecond pulsars, as well as the collective emission from the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, should be detectable with AGILE and GLAST. We also discuss a hidden population of X-ray-quiet and radio-quiet millisecond pulsars which have evolved below the pair death line, some of which may be detectable by telescopes sensitive above 1 GeV. Subject headings: pulsars: general

  4. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Roed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32 

  5. CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

  6. Methane converted to low emission energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Michael; McLennan, Tim

    2006-01-01

    A new project is underway at a major mine site in China to capture and use waste methane gas from coal mines. The three-year joint project will develop and demonstrate an innovative new Australian technology that captures harmful methane gas from coal mine ventilation air and uses it to produce low emission energy. The project will demonstrate that ventilation air from coal mines, which is largely untapped to date, can be safely captured to provide a source of electricity. An additional benefit of using ventilation air methane from coal mines is an increase in mine safety due to the reduced risk of gas explosions. The project is based on ventilation air methane catalytic combustion gas turbine (VAMCAT) technology. The project will fabricate a prototype demonstration unit and demonstrate the technology in a laboratory in Australia. Once tested in the laboratory the operational performance data and experience obtained will be used to design a 1% I methane turbine for demonstration at Huainan Mine, China. This project will develop technology that uses waste coal mine methane currently vented i into the atmosphere to create electricity and by doing so will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve mine safety. Development of this prototype will advance Australia's and China's capacity to reduce the potential greenhouse impact of coal through the development and deployment of VAMCAT technology as a practical solution for mitigating and utilising mine methane to generate power. The project will be implemented by the CSIRO with the Australian Government contributing a grant worth $350 000 to this $1.9 million project. Copyright (2006) Reed Business Information

  7. CHP Energy and Emissions Savings Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download the CHP Emissions Calculator, a tool that calculates the difference between the anticipated carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions from a CHP system to those of a separate heat and power system.

  8. Penetration length-dependent hot electrons in the field emission from ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Li, Zhibing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of field emission, whether or not hot electrons can form in the semiconductor emitters under a surface penetration field is of great concern, which will provide not only a comprehensive physical picture of field emission from semiconductor but also guidance on how to improve device performance. However, apart from some theoretical work, its experimental evidence has not been reported yet. In this article, the field penetration length-dependent hot electrons were observed in the field emission of ZnO nanowires through the in-situ study of its electrical and field emission characteristic before and after NH3 plasma treatment in an ultrahigh vacuum system. After the treatment, most of the nanowires have an increased carrier density but reduced field emission current. The raised carrier density was caused by the increased content of oxygen vacancies, while the degraded field emission current was attributed to the lower kinetic energy of hot electrons caused by the shorter penetration length. All of these results suggest that the field emission properties of ZnO nanowires can be optimized by modifying their carrier density to balance both the kinetic energy of field induced hot electrons and the limitation of saturated current under a given field.

  9. Orbitally-Modulated High Energy Emission from Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Kust Harding, Alice; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.

    2017-08-01

    Radio, optical and X-ray followup of unidentified Fermi sources has expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries from four to nearly 30. Several systems observed by Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and NuSTAR exhibit double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation. This is attributed to synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated in an intrabinary shock and Doppler boosting by mildly relativistic bulk flow along the shock. It is anticipated that NICER will also detect such emission from B1957+20 and other targets. The structure of the orbital X-ray light curves depend upon the binary inclination, shock geometry, and particle acceleration distribution. In particular, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index yields energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future high energy phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein. We also briefly discuss stability of the shock to dynamical perturbations for redbacks and how observations of correlated X ray-optical variability may test self-regulatory stabilizing mechanisms.

  10. The energy and CO2 emissions impact of renewable energy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Tianyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Karplus, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    China has adopted targets for developing renewable electricity that would require expansion on an unprecedented scale. During the period from 2010 to 2020, we find that current renewable electricity targets result in significant additional renewable energy installation and a reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions of 1.8% relative to a No Policy baseline. After 2020, the role of renewables is sensitive to both economic growth and technology cost assumptions. Importantly, we find that the CO 2 emissions reductions due to increased renewables are offset in each year by emissions increases in non-covered sectors through 2050. We consider sensitivity to renewable electricity cost after 2020 and find that if cost falls due to policy or other reasons, renewable electricity share increases and results in slightly higher economic growth through 2050. However, regardless of the cost assumption, projected CO 2 emissions reductions are very modest under a policy that only targets the supply side in the electricity sector. A policy approach that covers all sectors and allows flexibility to reduce CO 2 at lowest cost – such as an emissions trading system – will prevent this emissions leakage and ensure targeted reductions in CO 2 emissions are achieved over the long term. - Highlights: • The 2020 targets and subsidies make renewable electricity economically viable in the short term. • Cumulative CO 2 emissions (2010-2020) are reduced by 1.8% in the Current Policy scenario. • Displacing fossil fuels from electricity leads to increases in other sectors, offsetting emissions reductions. • The expansion of renewables after 2020 depends on cost reductions achieved

  11. CO2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO 2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO 2 ) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO 2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO 2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO 2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  12. Incident energy dependence of pt correlations at relativistic energies

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta, M R; Mazumdar; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jedynak, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2005-01-01

    We present results for two-particle transverse momentum correlations, , as a function of event centrality for Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 20, 62, 130, and 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We observe correlations decreasing with centrality that are similar at all four incident energies. The correlations multiplied by the multiplicity density increase with incident energy and the centrality dependence may show evidence of processes such as thermalization, minijet production, or the saturation of transverse flow. The square root of the correlations divided by the event-wise average transverse momentum per event shows little or no beam energy dependence and generally agrees with previous measurements at the Super Proton Synchrotron.

  13. Temperature dependence of the step free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Gurlu, O.; Poelsema, Bene

    2001-01-01

    We have derived an expression for the step free energy that includes the usual thermally induced step meandering term and a vibrational entropy term related to the step edge atoms. The latter term results from the reduced local coordination of the step atoms with respect to the terrace atoms and was introduced recently by Frenken and Stoltze as well as by Bonzel and Emundts. Additionally, we have added third and fourth terms that deal with the vibrational entropy contribution of the thermally generated step and kink atoms. At elevated temperatures the two latter vibrational entropy terms are of the same order of magnitude. Incorporation of these vibrational entropy terms results in a faster decrease of the step free energy with increasing temperature than anticipated previously. This enhanced temperature dependence of the step free energy results in a lower thermal roughening temperature of the facet

  14. Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T. von; Bucurescu, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the energy-dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear-level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter σ as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, σ 2 =0.391 A 0.675 (E-0.5Pa ' ) 0.312 , is proposed up to about 10 MeV that is in very good agreement with experimental σ values and is applied to improve the systematics of level-density parameters.

  15. [Spin dependent phenomena in medium energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souder, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Syracuse University Medium Energy Physics Group was actively engaged in several research projects. A laser was used to polarize muonic atoms with the goal of measuring fundamental spin-dependent parameters in the reaction μ - + 3 He → 3 H + ν. Time-averaged polarizations of 26.8±2.3% were achieved for the muon in muonic 3 He. The new approach uses atomic spin-dependent reactions between laser polarized Rb vapor and muonic helium. To exploit these high polarizations in a muon capture experiment an ion chamber which will detect the recoil tritons and also serve as a polarizing cell. Final data-taking will begin for an experiment to measure the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron. A 288-element hodoscope system which features good timing and precise mechanical tolerances was constructed and evaluated

  16. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  17. Directional emissivity and reflectance: dependence on emergence angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, Alessandro; Helbert, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Dependence of laboratory measured emissivity spectra from the emergence angle is a subject that still needs a lot of investigations to be fully understood. Most of the previous work is based on reflectance measurements in the VIS-NIR spectral region and on emissivity measurements of flat, solid surfaces (mainly metals), which are not directly applicable to the analysis of remote sensing data. Small bodies in particular (c.f. asteroids Itokawa and 1999JU3, the respective targets of JAXA Hayabusa and Hayabusa 2 missions) have a very irregular surface; hence the spectra from those rough surfaces are difficult to compare with laboratory spectra, where the observing geometry is always close to "nadir". At the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) we have set-up a series of spectral measurements to investigate this problem in the 1 - 16 µm spectral region. We measured the emissivity for two asteroid analog materials (meteorite Millbillillie and a synthetic enstatite) in vacuum and under purged air, at surface temperature of 100°C, for emergence angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, and 60°. Emissivity of a serpentinite slab, already used as calibration target for the MARA instrument on Hayabusa 2 MASCOT lander, and for the Thermal Infrared Imager (TIR) spectrometer on Hayabusa 2 orbiter was measured under the same conditions. Additionally a second basalt slab was measured. Both slabs were not measured at 5° inclination. Complementary reflectance measurements of the four samples were taken. For all the samples measured, we found that for calibrated emissivity, significant variations from values obtained at nadir (0° emergence angle) appear only for emergence angles ≥ 40°. Reflectance measurements confirmed this finding, showing the same trend of variations.

  18. Electronic emission produced by light projectiles at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two aspects of the electronic emission produced by light projectiles of intermediate energies have been studied experimentally. In the first place, measurements of angular distributions in the range from θ = 0 deg -50 deg induced by collisions of 50-200 keV H + incident on He have been realized. It was found that the double differential cross section of electron emission presents a structure focussed in the forward direction and which extends up to relatively large angles. Secondly, the dependence of the double differential cross section on the projectile charge was studied using H + and He 3 2+ projectiles of 50 and 100 keV/amu incident on He. Strong deviations from a constant scaling factor were found for increasing projectile charge. The double differential cross sections and the single differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle, and the ratios of the emissions induced by He 3 2+ and H + at equal incident projectile velocities are compared with the 'Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State' (CDW-EIS) approximation and the 'Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo' (CTMC) method. Both approximations, in which the potential of the projectile exercises a relevant role, reproduce the general aspects of the experimental results. An electron analyzer and the corresponding projectile beam line has been designed and installed; it is characterized by a series of properties which are particularly appropriate for the study of double differential electronic emission in gaseous as well as solid targets. The design permits to assure the conditions to obtain a well localized gaseous target and avoid instrumental distortions of the measured distributions. (Author) [es

  19. Iodine Emissions from Seaweeds: Species-dependent and Seasonal Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Ball, Stephen; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Emissions of iodine from macroalgae into the marine boundary layer (MBL) significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and the biogeochemical cycling of iodine. Gas-phase iodine chemistry perturbs the usual HOx and NOx radical cycles, provides additional sink reactions for tropospheric ozone, and modifies atmospheric oxidizing capacity. Iodine oxides (IxOywith x ≥ 2) formed through the reaction of iodine atoms with ozone nucleate new aerosol particles which, if they grow sufficiently, can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and so influence the local climate in coastal regions. Some seaweeds, such as brown algae, are important bio-accumulators of iodine. They specifically induce iodine metabolism to protect themselves against oxidative stress, both as a defence mechanism and when exposed to air around low tide. Indeed the dominant emission source of iodine into the atmosphere in coastal regions comes from intertidal macroalgal beds, particularly those of kelp species. We present results from an extensive laboratory study of molecular iodine (I2) emissions from five seaweed species (two Fucales, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, and three kelp species, Laminaria digitata, L. hyperborea and Saccharina latissima). Eighty-four incubation experiments were performed at the Station Biologique in Roscoff (Brittany, France) between September 2012 and June 2013 to quantify species-dependent I2 emission rates in response to progressive air exposure, mimicking low tide, and to investigate any seasonal differences. Measurements were conducted on 'fresh' biological samples: Ascophyllum and Fucus thalli were collected whilst still submerged on an ebbing tide, transported in seawater to the laboratory and analysed immediately; kelp samples were collected by boat, stored in an outside aquarium in running seawater and analysed within a few days. I2 emissions were quantified at high time resolution by broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometry (1σ detection limit

  20. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  1. Energy, emissions, and social consequences of telecommuting. Technical Report One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    By reducing transportation use, telecommuting can help reduce some of the social costs of travel (traffic congestion, time lost, emissions, dependence on imported fuels, accident deaths and property damage). These positive direct effects will be both offset and supplemented by indirect effects of telecommuting: improved traffic flow, latent demand (people will start driving more), and increased urban sprawl. The study indicates that the energy and emissions benefits of telecommuting are not likely to be entirely offset by latent travel demand or by the geographical expansion of cities; perhaps half the potential reduction in vehicle-miles traveled will be replaced by new traffic. From a fuel-use perspective, the indirect benefit of lower average emissions and fuel consumption rates appears sufficient to offset impacts from the third indirect effect, additional travel brought about by increased suburbanization. Substantial levels of telecommuting will also reduce the need for highway capacity expansion, saving capital, maintenance, and urban land. Telecommuting and its benefits will be concentrated in the largest, most congested, and most polluted urban areas (20--25% in the NYC and LA areas; 50% in the 10 largest cities; 90% in the 75 largest).Telecommuting may also have a synergistic beneficial effect on other transportation strategies, e.g., congestion pricing, parking fees, taxes discouraging travel during peak periods, etc. Other beneficial effects may include greater presence of adults at home and on residential communities. Effects of improved telecommunications technology on transportation, freight, economy, industrial operations are discussed, including implications of an ``information superhighway.``

  2. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO 2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO 2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO 2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  3. Momentum distribution dependence of induced electron-cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.; Dillenburg, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence of the electron-cyclotron wave amplification in an inhomogeneous plasma slab on the electron momentum distribution is investigated. Two types of distributions are considered, both featuring a loss cone and a Maxwellian component. It is shown that the perpendicular emission at the fundamental frequency is in general greatly reduced by the presence of a Maxwellian component and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. The transition from the pure loss cone to the pure Maxwellian case is accompanied by a peculiar behaviour of the dielectric tensor components, which may invalidate the geometrical optics approximation in the calculation of the emission and the commonly held belief that the real part of the refractive index is insensitive to the shape of the momentum distribution function. (Author) [pt

  4. The energy price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading—Theory and evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Fan-Ping; Kuo, Hsiao-I.; Chen, Chi-Chung; Hsu, Chia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading from theoretical and empirical models are developed. • The theoretical findings show that the price effects of these two schemes depend on the market structures. • Energy prices under a carbon tax is lower than an issions trading in an imperfectly competitive market. • A case study from Taiwan gasoline market is applied here. - Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to estimate the energy price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading in an energy market. To this end, both the carbon tax and emissions trading systems are designed in the theoretical model, while alternative market structures are taken into consideration. The theoretical findings show that the economic effects of these two schemes on energy prices depend on the market structures. Energy prices are equivalent between these two schemes given the same amount of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) reduction when the market structure is characterized by perfect competition. However, energy prices will be lower when a carbon tax is introduced than when emissions trading is implemented in an imperfectly competitive market, which implies that the price effects of a carbon tax and emissions trading depend on the energy market structure. Such a theoretical basis is applied to the market for gasoline in Taiwan. The empirical results indicate that the gasoline prices under a carbon tax are lower than under emissions trading. This implies that the structure of the energy market needs to be examined when a country seeks to reduce its GHGE through the implementation of either a carbon tax or emissions trading.

  5. Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document supports the other measurement procedures and all building energy-monitoring projects by providing methods to calculate the source energy and emissions from the energy measured at the building. Energy and emission factors typically account for the conversion inefficiencies at the power plant and the transmission and distribution losses from the power plant to the building. The energy and emission factors provided here also include the precombustion effects, which are the energy and emissions associated with extracting, processing, and delivering the primary fuels to the point of conversion in the electrical power plants or directly in the buildings.

  6. CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Chebbi, Houssem Eddine; Boujelbene, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this country specific study is to understand long and short-run linkages between economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emission using Tunisian data over the period 1971-2004. Statistical findings indicate that economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emission are related in the long-run and provide some evidence of inefficient use of energy in Tunisia, since environmental pressure tends to rise faster than economic growth. In the short run, results support the argument tha...

  7. North European Understanding of Zero Energy/Emission Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Nieminen, Jyri

    2010-01-01

    countries are still to adopt a national definition for these types of buildings. This results often in more than one understanding of ZEBs in each country. This study provides a concise source of information on the north European understanding of zero energy/emission buildings. It puts forward a number......The worldwide CO2 emission mitigation efforts, the growing energy resource shortage and the fact that buildings are responsible for a large share of the world’s primary energy use drives research towards new building concepts, in particular Zero Energy/Emission Buildings (ZEBs). Unfortunately...... may observe a correlation between the zero energy/emission building approach adopted by a country and this particular country’s utility grid characteristics. Moreover, it is to be noted that the ZEB concept is not well defined at the national level in northern Europe and that all of the participating...

  8. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-09-29

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T{sub fill} =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T{sub fill}<130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B{sub i}O{sub i} defects, or negative contributions from three deep

  9. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-01-01

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10 14 cm -2 . In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T fill =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T fill <130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V 2 , V 3 and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B i O i defects, or negative contributions from three deep acceptors H(116K), H(140K) and H(152K).

  10. Reference projection energy and emissions. 2012 Update. Energy and emissions for the years 2012, 2020 and 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdonk, M.; Wetzels, W.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants and the use of renewable energy for the year 2020. An outlook is presented for the year 2030. This estimate is an update of the Reference Projection Energy and Emissions 2010-2020, published in 2010. The goal of the update is to provide insight into the progress in realizing the targets for Dutch policies with regard to climate, air and energy. [nl

  11. High-Energy Emission at Shocks in Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust Harding, Alice; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    A large number of new Black Widow (BW) and Redback (RB) energetic millisecond pulsars have been discovered through radio searches of unidentified Fermi sources, increasing the known number of these systems from 4 to 28. We model the high-energy emission components from particles accelerated to several TeV in intrabinary shocks in BW and RB systems, and their predicted modulation at the binary orbital period. Synchrotron emission is expected at X-ray energies and such modulated emission has already been detected by Chandra and XMM. Inverse Compton emission from accelerated particles scattering the UV emission from the radiated companion star is expected in the Fermi and TeV bands. Detections or constraints on this emission will probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds.

  12. Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom); Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [Independent Researcher (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship between economic growth, pollutant emissions and energy consumption for South Africa for the period 1965-2006 in a multivariate framework which includes labour and capital as additional variables. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between pollutant emissions and economic growth. Further, applying a modified version of the Granger causality test we also found a unidirectional causality running from pollutant emissions to economic growth; from energy consumption to economic growth and from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions all without a feedback. The econometric evidence suggests that South Africa has to sacrifice economic growth or reduce its energy consumption per unit of output or both in order to reduce pollutant emissions. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country and at the same time reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by developing energy alternatives to coal, the main source of CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the econometric results upon which the policy suggestions are made should be interpreted with care, as they may not be sufficiently robust enough to categorically warrant the choice of an unpalatable policy option by South Africa. (author)

  13. Energy, emissions and emergency medical services: Policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lawrence H.; Blanchard, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption and emissions associated with health services is important for minimizing their environmental impact and guiding their adaptation to a low-carbon economy. In this post-hoc analysis, we characterize the energy burden of North American emergency medical services (EMS) agencies and estimate the potential marginal damage costs arising from their emissions as an example of how and why health services matter in environmental and energy policy, and how and why environmental and energy policy matter to health services. We demonstrate EMS systems are energy intensive, and that vehicle fuels represent 80% of their energy burden while electricity and natural gas represent 20%. We also demonstrate that emissions from EMS operations represent only a small fraction of estimated health sector emissions, but for EMS systems in the United States the associated marginal damage costs are likely between $2.7 million and $9.7 million annually. Significant changes in the supply or price of energy, including changes that arise from environmental and energy policy initiatives designed to constrain fossil fuel consumption, could potentially affect EMS agencies and other health services. We encourage cross disciplinary research to proactively facilitate the health system's adaptation to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► Estimated EMS-related emissions less than 1% of health sector emissions. ► Damage costs of U.S. EMS-related emissions estimated at $2.7 to $9.7 million. ► EMS energy burden is approximately 442 MJ per ambulance response. ► Approximately 80% of EMS energy burden is vehicle fuels. ► Energy supply, price and policy could impact EMS (and other health) services. ► Research needed to facilitate health services’ adaptation to a low carbon economy.

  14. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  15. On particle emission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, P.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations of fast particle emission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock mean-field approximation (TDHF) have been performed for one-dimensional slab collisions. For a fixed target mass number and incident velocity the total yields of PEP exhibit pronounced srtructures as a function of the pro ectile mass number, which strongly correcate with the binding energy of the last nucleon in the projectnle. This is in explicit disagreement with experiment. The conclusion has been drawn that the Fermi-jet mechanism cannot be responsible for most of the fast particles observed in experiment, even if quantum diffraction is taken into account (as in TDHF). After PEP emission large amplitude density oscillations, which are the only possible modes in the slab geometry, are found to be damped by further particle emission

  16. Energy development and CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin Xi

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO 2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO 2 emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO 2 emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO 2 emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO 2 emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined

  17. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reference Projections Energy and Emissions 2005-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dril, A.W.N.; Elzenga, H.E.

    2005-10-01

    The Reference Projection 2005-2020 covers the future development of Dutch energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution up to 2020. The Reference projection is based on assumptions regarding economic, structural, technological and policy developments. Two scenarios have been used. The Strong Europe (SE) scenario is characterized by moderate economic growth and strong public responsibility. The Global Economy (GE) scenario assumes high economic growth and has a strong orientation towards private responsibility. Energy consumption continues to grow in both scenarios and energy intensity is declining in the GE-scenario. Gradual rise of temperature is now included in the estimates for space heating and air conditioning. Energy prices for end users will rise, due to increased imports of natural gas and rising costs of electricity generation. The share of renewables in electricity consumption increases considerably due to subsidies for wind at sea and biomass, up to the target of 9% in 2010. Emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases are reduced and stabilise after 2010. The Dutch Kyoto target is probably met in both scenarios, assuming considerable emission reduction ef-forts abroad. Acidifying emissions of NOx and SO2 stabilise after reductions, but at levels that exceed their national emission ceiling (NEC). Emissions of volatile organic compounds are projected to fall with approximately 25% between 2002 and 2010 below their NEC. Emissions of ammonia are projected to meet their NEC. The emission of particulate matter (PM10) will stabilise at present levels

  19. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, C.; Aksoy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO 2 emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO 2 emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m 2 room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  20. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission from energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, S.; Koyama, S.

    1992-01-01

    A linear programming model MARKAL is used to explore technology options and cost for meeting energy demands while reducing CO 2 emissions from energy system of Japan. The model consists of an extension of the existing energy system and possible alternative energy technologies available during 45 years from 1983 to 2027. Using two scenarios of high- and low-energy demand, an optimal configuration of the model is examined under the mix of specified constraints on the use of technologies and fuels. The results show that energy conservation is robust in yielding reduction in CO 2 emissions under a variety of conditions, and that stringent constraints on the national CO 2 emissions produce major shifts in the market shares of fossil and non-fossil fuels that necessitate advanced technologies and an increase in the total system cost

  1. Light Emission and Energy Transfer in Nanoscale Semiconductor Photonic Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolbas, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this experimental program is to control the light emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms in nanoscale semiconductor structures in order to realize new or improved photonic devices...

  2. Mechanism of intermediate mass fragment emission at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, A.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Krishan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of intermediate mass fragment emission in fusion-fission processes has been carried out. The average kinetic energies and relative yield ratio of different fragments are calculated and compared with experimental values

  3. Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaetzle, O.; Paz-García, J.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  5. Coherence energies in pre-equilibrium emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, A.; Inglima, C.; Perillo, E.; Rosato, E.; Sandoli, M.; Spadaccini, G.

    1979-01-01

    A method, based on the spectral density analysis, has been developped in order to evaluate coherence of statistical fluctuations. It is specially suitable for reactions showing the contemporary presence of different emission mechanism (e.g. preequilibrium and evaporation - like mechanism)

  6. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO 2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO 2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO 2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO 2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO 2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  7. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  8. Simulation of Energy Consumption and Emissions from Rail Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    , aerodynamic, gravitational and acceleration. A necessary element in the calculation is the driving pattern, that is, the distribution of speeds and accelerations for typical operation.In the report, data are analyzed to provide operation condition distributions on both a spatial and temporal basis....... The calculation procedure is evaluated with respect to resolution of operation conditions, and then evaluated by comparison with experimental data for a variety of passenger and goods trains. The results indicate that the energy consumption from modeling approach is valid to better that 10% for known operating...... characteristics. Emissions are calculated from the energy consumption using average fuel based emissions factors and electrical production emissions factors....

  9. Strategic research on CO2 emission reduction for China. Application of MARKAL to China energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongping

    1995-09-01

    MARKAL was applied to the energy system for analyzing the CO 2 emission reduction in China over the time period from 1990 to 2050. First the Chinese Reference Energy System (CRES) was established based on the framework of MARKAL model. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. When shifting from scenario LH (low useful energy demand and high import fuel prices) to HL (high demand and low prices), another 33 EJ of primary energy will be consumed and another 2.31 billion tons of CO 2 will be emitted in 2050. Detailed analyses on the disaggregation of CO 2 emissions by Kaya Formula show. The energy intensity (primary energy/GDP) decreases much faster in scenario HL, but the higher growth rate of GDP per capita is the overwhelming factor that results in higher CO 2 emission per capita in the baseline case of scenario HL in comparison with LH. When the carbon taxes are imposed on CO 2 emissions, the residential sector will make the biggest contribution to CO 2 emission abatement from a long-term point of view. However, it's difficult to stabilize CO 2 emission per capita before 2030 in both scenarios even with heavy carbon taxes. When nuclear moratorium occurs, more 560 million tons of CO 2 will be emitted to the atmosphere in 2050 under the same CO 2 tax regime. From the analysis of value flow, CO 2 emission reduction depends largely on new or advanced technologies particularly in the field of electricity generation. The competent technologies switch to those CO 2 less-emitting technologies when surcharging CO 2 emissions. Nuclear power shows significant potential in saving fossil energy resources and reducing CO 2 emissions. (J.P.N.)

  10. The energy dependence of the nucleon-nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    By way of evaluating a new procedure for energy-dependent inversion we have compared the energy dependence of the local potential phase equivalent to the Perey-Buck non-local potential with the energy dependence of local potentials derived from RGM and phenomenology. (author)

  11. Some scenarios of CO2 emission from the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liik, O.; Landsberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    After Estonia regained its independence, planning of energy policy became topical. Since 1989, several expert groups have worked on the urgent problems and developments of Estonia's power engineering. Comprehensive energy system planning by mathematical modeling was accomplished in 1994. Then Tallinn Technical University acquired the MARKAL model from the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). The influence of air pollution constraints on energy system development was first investigated in 1995. At the end of 1995, under the U.S. Country Studies Program, a detailed analysis of future CO 2 emissions and their reduction options began. During 1990-1993, energy demand lowered due to economic decline and sharp rise in the fuel and energy prices as well as a decrease in electricity exports, has resulting in 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions. For the same reasons, Estonia has been able to meet the requirements set in the agreements on SO 2 and NO x emissions with no special measures or costs. To meet the rigid ing SO 2 restrictions and growing energy consumption in the future, Estonia must invest in abatement and in new clean and efficient oil-shale combustion technology. Along with the old oil-shale plants closing and electricity consumption growing, other fuels will be used. The increase in energy demand then should not be fast due to constantly rising prices and efficient energy use. Measures to reduce SO 2 , and NO x emissions will also reduce CO 2 . In MARKAL runs the 1990 level of CO 2 emissions will be exceeded only along with high demand growth and absence of emissions control. Restricted availability of imported fuels and nuclear power or enabling electricity import can change the results significantly. The results discussed here can also change because the data base is being improved (such as detailed description of energy networks, description of demand-side technologies, accounting of energy conservation measures, addition of

  12. Very high energy emission from passive supermassive black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedaletti, Giovanna

    2009-10-22

    The H.E.S.S. experiment, an array of four Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, widened the horizon of Very High Energy (VHE) astronomy. Its unprecedented sensitivity is well suited for the study of new classes of expected VHE emitters, such as passive galactic nuclei that are the main focus of the work presented in this thesis. Acceleration of particles up to Ultra High Energies is expected in the magnetosphere of supermassive black holes (SMBH). The radiation losses of these accelerated particles are expected to reach the VHE regime in which H.E.S.S. operates. Predicted fluxes exceed the sensitivity of the array. However, strong photon fields in the surrounding of the acceleration region might absorb the produced radiation. Therefore observations focus on those galactic nuclei that are underluminous at lower photon energies. This work presents data collected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes on the test candidate NGC 1399 and their interpretation. While no detection has been achieved, important constraints can be derived from the obtained upper limits on the maximum energy attainable by the accelerated particles and on the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region. A limit on the magnetic field of B < 74 Gauss is given. The limit is model dependent and a scaling of the result with the assumptions is given. This is the tightest empirical constraint to date. Because of the lack of signal from the test candidate, a stacking analysis has been performed on similar sources in three cluster fields. A search for signal from classes of active galactic nuclei has also been made in the same three fields. None of the analyzed samples revealed a significant signal. Also presented are the expectations for the next generation of Cherenkov Telescopes and an outlook on the relativistic effects expected on the VHE emission close to SMBH. (orig.)

  13. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  14. North European Understanding of Zero Energy/Emission Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, J. S.; Nieminen, J.

    2010-01-01

    countries are still to adopt a national definition for these types of buildings. This results often in more than one understanding of ZEBs in each country. This study provides a concise source of information on the north European understanding of zero energy/emission buildings. It puts forward a number......The worldwide CO2 emission mitigation efforts, the growing energy resource shortage and the fact that buildings are responsible for a large share of the world’s primary energy use drives research towards new building concepts, in particular Zero Energy/Emission Buildings (ZEBs). Unfortunately......, the lack of a common understanding for this new type of building results in most countries to have their own, unique approaches. This paper presents the northern (Danish, Finish, Norwegian and Swedish) understanding of ZEBs and gathers together information related to ZEBs in these countries. Generally, we...

  15. CO2 Emission Reduction in Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, A.; Sustersic, A.; Voncina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, concentrations of the greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere much quicker than they naturally would. Today it is clear that climate change is the result of human activities. With the purpose of preventing, reducing and mitigating of climate change, the EU, whose member is also Slovenia, set ambitious goals. In order to keep rise of the global atmosphere temperature below 2 degrees of C, the European Council set an objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 - 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. It is important that every single individual is included in achieving of these goals. Certainly, the most important role is assumed by individual sectors especially Public Electricity and Heat Production sector as one of the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases. As a possible solution of radical reduction of the greenhouse gases emission from mentioned sector Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is implemented. In the article the range of CO 2 reduction possibilities, technology demands and environmental side effects of CCS technology are described. Evaluation of CCS implementation possibilities in Slovenia is also included.(author)

  16. Energy demand and emissions of the non-energy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daioglou, Vasileios|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345702867; Faaij, Andre P. C.; Saygin, Deger|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101; Patel, Martin K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Wicke, Birka|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    The demand for fossil fuels for non-energy purposes such as production of bulk chemicals is poorly understood. In this study we analyse data on non-energy demand and disaggregate it across key services or products. We construct a simulation model for the main products of non-energy use and project

  17. Reference projection energy and emissions 2010-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Reference Projection 2010-2020 examines the future development of Dutch energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution up to 2020. The Reference projection is based on assumptions regarding economic, structural, technological and policy developments. With regard to the latter, the 'Schoon en Zuinig' (Clean and Efficient) policy programme for energy and climate, introduced in 2007, plays an important role. According to Schoon en Zuinig, greenhouse gas emissions have to be reduced by 30% in 2020 compared to 1990; the annual energy efficiency improvement has to increase to 2% and the target share of renewable energy production in total consumption in 2020 is 20%. To assess the effects of the policy measures from the 'Schoon en Zuinig' policy programme, the Reference projection explores three policy variants: one without policies introduced after 2007, one including only post-2007 policies that are already fixed, and one including proposed policy measures as well. Here, policies refer to Dutch as well as to European policies. The results indicate that the climate and energy targets will not be reached with the current instruments. Including proposed policy measures, the estimated greenhouse gas reduction will amount to 16-24% relative to 1990, the renewable energy share will rise to 13-16% and the annual energy efficiency improvement between 2011 and 2020 will amount to between 1.1 and 1.6%. European targets for greenhouse gas emissions can be reached, especially in the case of implementation of the proposed policies. As for renewable energy, the implementation of proposed policies is imperative for attaining the target, but likely to be insufficient. Current European targets for air pollutants are within reach. 2020 emission levels of most air pollutants are lower than the current 2010 National Emission Ceilings, with the exception of ammonia, where there is a substantial chance that the 2020 emissions will exceed the 2010 ceiling. However, ceilings are

  18. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  19. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......Organic farming (OF) principles include the idea of reducing dependence of fossil fuels, but little has been achieved on this objective so far in Danish OF. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an average 39 ha cash crop farm were calculated and alternative crop rotations for bio......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  20. Guide for computing CO2 emissions related to energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aube, F.

    2001-06-01

    This guide presents a method to calculate industry-related greenhouse gas emissions. The necessary coefficients and conversion factors were presented in easy-to-use tables. The many examples that were included with the guide show that the calculation can be easily used to assess a company's annual contribution to global warming. Greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon dioxide equivalent emissions associated with energy use can be calculated by gathering all the energy bills for the year and determining the amounts of each of the fuels used, along with the amount of electricity consumed. If the computation involves finding the environmental impact caused by adding or replacing equipment, it is necessary to estimate the adjusted consumption of each type of energy source. The calculation then proceeds by converting the data on the energy bills into reference units to simplify the remaining calculations. Energy content is expressed in megajoules per unit of quantity for most types of energy carriers such as electricity (hydro or nuclear), steam, natural gas, ethane, propane, coal, or petroleum products. The guide includes two tables indicating how to convert the units of values found on typical energy bills. A table indicating the carbon dioxide equivalent emission factors for electricity by province in 1998 was included. The average for Canada was 0.222 t/MWh. The global warming potential (GWP) for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and methane are 1, 310, and 21 GWP respectively. 6 tabs

  1. Energy and emission analysis for industrial motors in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Rahim, N.A.; Ping, H.W.; Jahirul, M.I.; Mekhilef, S.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The industrial sector is the largest user of energy in Malaysia. Industrial motors account for a major segment of total industrial energy use. Since motors are the principle energy users, different energy savings strategies have been applied to reduce their energy consumption and associated emissions released into the atmosphere. These strategies include using highly efficient motors, variable speed drive (VSD), and capacitor banks to improve the power factor. It has been estimated that there can be a total energy savings of 1765, 2703 and 3605 MWh by utilizing energy-efficient motors for 50%, 75% and 100% loads, respectively. It was also found that for different motor loads, an estimated US$115,936 US$173,019 and US$230,693 can be saved in anticipated energy costs. Similarly, it is hypothesized that a significant amount of energy can be saved using VSD and capacitor banks to reduce speed and improve the power factor, thus cutting energy costs. Moreover, a substantial reduction in the amount of emissions can be effected together with the associated energy savings for different energy savings strategies. In addition, the payback period for different energy savings strategies has been found to be reasonable in some cases.

  2. Essays on the Determinants of Energy Related CO2 Emissions =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor Manuel Ferreira

    Overall, amongst the most mentioned factors for Greenhouse Gases (GHG) growth are the economic growth and the energy demand growth. To assess the determinants GHG emissions, this thesis proposed and developed a new analysis which links the emissions intensity to its main driving factors. In the first essay, we used the 'complete decomposition' technique to examine CO2 emissions intensity and its components, considering 36 economic sectors and the 1996-2009 periods in Portugal. The industry (in particular 5 industrial sectors) is contributing largely to the effects of variation of CO2 emissions intensity. We concluded, among others, the emissions intensity reacts more significantly to shocks in the weight of fossil fuels in total energy consumption compared to shocks in other variables. In the second essay, we conducted an analysis for 16 industrial sectors (Group A) and for the group of the 5 most polluting manufacturing sectors (Group B) based on the convergence examination for emissions intensity and its main drivers, as well as on an econometric analysis. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all the effects with exception to the fossil fuel intensity, while gamma convergence was verified for all the effects, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel and fossil fuel intensity in Group B. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity. In the third essay, the Tourism Industry in Portugal over 1996-2009 period was examined, specifically two groups of subsectors that affect the impacts on CO2 emissions intensity. The generalized variance decomposition and the impulse response functions pointed to sectors that affect tourism more directly, i. e. a bidirectional causality between the intensity of emissions and energy intensity. The effect of intensity of emissions is positive on energy intensity, and the effect of energy intensity on

  3. Estimate of China's energy carbon emissions peak and analysis on electric power carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xuan Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China's energy carbon emissions are projected to peak in 2030 with approximately 110% of its 2020 level under the following conditions: 1 China's gross primary energy consumption is 5 Gtce in 2020 and 6 Gtce in 2030; 2 coal's share of the energy consumption is 61% in 2020 and 55% in 2030; 3 non-fossil energy's share increases from 15% in 2020 to 20% in 2030; 4 through 2030, China's GDP grows at an average annual rate of 6%; 5 the annual energy consumption elasticity coefficient is 0.30 in average; and 6 the annual growth rate of energy consumption steadily reduces to within 1%. China's electricity generating capacity would be 1,990 GW, with 8,600 TW h of power generation output in 2020. Of that output 66% would be from coal, 5% from gas, and 29% from non-fossil energy. By 2030, electricity generating capacity would reach 3,170 GW with 11,900 TW h of power generation output. Of that output, 56% would be from coal, 6% from gas, and 37% from non-fossil energy. From 2020 to 2030, CO2 emissions from electric power would relatively fall by 0.2 Gt due to lower coal consumption, and relatively fall by nearly 0.3 Gt with the installation of more coal-fired cogeneration units. During 2020–2030, the portion of carbon emissions from electric power in China's energy consumption is projected to increase by 3.4 percentage points. Although the carbon emissions from electric power would keep increasing to 118% of the 2020 level in 2030, the electric power industry would continue to play a decisive role in achieving the goal of increase in non-fossil energy use. This study proposes countermeasures and recommendations to control carbon emissions peak, including energy system optimization, green-coal-fired electricity generation, and demand side management.

  4. Energy demand modelling and GHG emission reduction: case study Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    and develop new energy policy towards energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, in order to comply with all of the presented tasks. Planning future energy demand, considering various policy options like regulation, fiscal and financial measures, becomes one of the crucial issues of future national...... energy strategy. This paper analyses Croatian long term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG emissions. For that purpose the national energy demand model was constructed (NeD model). The model is comprised out of six modules each representing one sector, following Croatian national...... energy balance; industry, transport, households, services, agriculture and construction. For three of the modules (industry, transport and households) previously developed long term energy demand models were used, while for the remaining three new models were constructed. As an additional feature, new...

  5. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  6. Dressed projectile charge state dependence of differential electron emission from Ne atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Monti, J. M.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    We study the projectile charge state dependence of doubly differential electron emission cross section (DDCS) in ionization of Ne under the impact of dressed and bare oxygen ions. Experimental DDCS results measured at different angles are compared with the calculations based on a CDW-EIS approximation using the GSZ model potential to describe projectile active-electron interaction. This prescription gives an overall very good agreement. In general a deviation from the q2-law was observed in the DDCS. The observations crudely identify the dominance of different projectile electron loss mechanisms at certain electron energy range.

  7. Nuclear symmetry energy in density dependent hadronic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2008-12-01

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy and the correlation between parameters of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb are investigated in relativistic Hadronic models. The dependency of the symmetry energy on density is linear around saturation density. Correlation exists between the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb and the value of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density, but not with the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. (author)

  8. Emissions, energy return and economics from utilizing forest residues for thermal energy compared to onsite pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Woodam Chung; Susan Hummel

    2010-01-01

    The emissions from delivering and burning forest treatment residue biomass in a boiler for thermal energy were compared with onsite disposal by pile-burning and using fossil fuels for the equivalent energy. Using biomass for thermal energy reduced carbon dioxide emissions on average by 39 percent and particulate matter emissions by 89 percent for boilers with emission...

  9. Analysis on energy saving and emission reduction of clean energy technology in ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Qin, Cuihong; Peng, Chuansheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the application of clean energy technology in ports. Using Ningbo port Co. Ltd. Beilun second container terminal branch as an example, we analyze the effect of energy saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2 by clean energy alternative to fuel oil, and conclude that the application of clean energy technology in the container terminal is mature, and can achieve effect of energy-saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2. This paper can provide as a reference for the promotion and application of clean energy in ports.

  10. Secondary-electron-emission spectroscopy of tungsten: Angular dependence and phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Roy F.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    1978-01-01

    Angle-resolved energy-distribution measurements of secondary-electron emission (SEE) from metals reveal spectral fine structure that relates directly to the density distribution of the one-electron states throughout E-K→ space located above the vacuum level Ev. The angular dependence of the SEE...... of basically two contributions JSEEtotal=∫0πdΩ∫0EmaxjSEE (E, Ω)dE=JSEEbulk+JSEEsurface. The bulk contribution represents emission due to Bloch waves propagating out of states in the semi-infinite crystal; the surface contribution represents that part of the current due to evanescent waves at the metal-vacuum...... interface. In addition, transmission-induced spectral features are observed (transmission resonances), which are not related to the density-of-states fine structure, but are due to a quantum-mechanical enhancement in the escape probability arising from wave-function matching at the emitter-vacuum interface...

  11. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO 2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO 2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  12. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  13. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  14. Achieving CO2 Emissions Reduction Goals with Energy Infrastructure Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)

  15. Assesment of Energy Options for CO2 Emission Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, global anthropogenic CO 2 emissions grew by 52% which caused an increase in 10.8% in the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, and it tipped the 400 ppm mark in May 2013. The Fifth Assessment Report on climate impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed earlier warnings that climate change is already stressing human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems, and the effects are likely to increase in the future. While European Union has long been committed to lowering carbon emissions, this places additional pressure on current EU goals for energy sector that includes significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. Current EU commitment has been formalized in so-called '20-20-20' plan, reducing carbon emissions, increasing energy efficiency and increasing energy production from renewables by 20% by 2020. Some EU member states are even more ambitious, like United Kingdom, planning to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Bulk of carbon reduction will have to be achived in energy sector. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. In this invited lecture, predicted cost of energy production for newly bulit nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant are compared. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarious. (author)

  16. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  17. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO2 emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO 2 emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO 2 emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO 2 emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country.

  18. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Steven J; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

    2014-03-18

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations.

  19. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Byrnes, S. J.

    2014-03-03

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth\\'s thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  1. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the mutual benefits of integrating strategies for future energy and transport CO2 emissions control. The paper illustrates and quantifies the mutual benefits of integrating the transport and the energy sector in the case of Denmark. Today this issue is very relevant in Denmark...... due to the high share of fluctuating renewable energy produced in the country. In the future, such issue will apply to other countries who plan to use a high share of renewable energy. In short, the energy sector can help the transport sector to replace oil by renewable energy and combined heat...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  2. Dependence of riverine nitrous oxide emissions on dissolved oxygen levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamond, Madeline S.; Thuss, Simon J.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2012-10-01

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas, and it destroys stratospheric ozone. Seventeen per cent of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions come from the production of nitrous oxide in streams, rivers and estuaries, in turn a result of inorganic nitrogen input through leaching, runoff and sewage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and global nitrous oxide budgets assume that riverine nitrous oxide emissions increase linearly with dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, but data are sparse and conflicting. Here we report measurements over two years of nitrous oxide emissions in the Grand River, Canada, a seventh-order temperate river that is affected by agricultural runoff and outflow from a waste-water treatment plant. Emissions were disproportionately high in urban areas and during nocturnal summer periods. Moreover, annual emission estimates that are based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads overestimated the measured emissions in a wet year and underestimated them in a dry year. We found no correlations of nitrous oxide emissions with nitrate or dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but detected negative correlations with dissolved oxygen, suggesting that nitrate concentrations did not limit emissions. We conclude that future increases in nitrate export to rivers will not necessarily lead to higher nitrous oxide emissions, but more widespread hypoxia most likely will.

  3. N2O Emission from energy crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, B.J.; Nyholm Joergensen, R.

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N 2 O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N 2 O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO 2 . The contribution of N 2 O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N 2 O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N 2 O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N 2 O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N 2 O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N 2 O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N 2 O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N 2 O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N 2 O ha -1 yr -1 . This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 compared to a total CO 2 reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N 2 O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO 2 reduction per unit dry matter. Following the guidelines for good agricultural practice concerning the

  4. Energy demand and emissions from road transportation vehicles in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly growing energy demand and emissions from China's road transportation vehicles in the last two decades have raised concerns over oil security, urban air pollution and global warming. This rapid growth will be likely to continue in the next two to three decades as the vehicle ownership level in China is still very low. The current status of China's road transport sector in terms of vehicles, infrastructure, energy use and emissions is presented. Mitigation measures implemented and those that can reasonably be expected to be adopted in the near future are analysed. Recent studies exploring the future trends of road vehicle energy demand and emissions under various strategies are reviewed. Moreover, those studies which assessed various fuel/propulsion options in China from a life cycle perspective are examined to present an overview of the potential for reducing energy use and emissions. Recommendations for further developments are also made. It is concluded that comprehensive and appropriate strategies will be needed to minimise the adverse impacts of China's road vehicles on energy resources and the environment. Fortunately, China appears to be heading in this direction. (author)

  5. Carbon emission reductions by substitution of improved cookstoves and cattle mosquito nets in a forest-dependent community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somanta Chan

    2015-07-01

    Substitution of conventional cookstoves with improved cookstoves and the use of mosquito nets instead of fuelwood burning could result in using less fuelwood for the same amount of energy needed and thereby result in reduction of carbon emissions and deforestation. To realize this substitution, approximately US$ 15–25 MgCO2−1 is needed depending on discount rates and amounts of emission reduction. Substitution of cookstoves will have direct impacts on the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities and on forest protection. Financial incentives under voluntary and mandatory schemes are needed to materialize this substitution.

  6. Integrated biomass energy systems and emissions of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, U.R.; Turnbull, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled 'Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration', with the objective to investigate the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems, utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full cycle for four of these case studies, which have been examined with regard to the emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 . Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO 2 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO 2 -emissions from DFSS. External energy is required for the production and transportation of the biomass feedstock, and this energy is mainly based on fossil fuels. By using this input energy, CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are emitted. But, by utilizing biomass with fossil fuels as external input fuels, we would get about 10-15 times more electric energy per unit fossil fuel, compared to a 100% coal power system. By introducing a DFSS on former farmland, the amount of energy spent for production of crops can be reduced, the amount of fertilizers can be decreased, the soil can be improved, and a significant amount of energy will be produced, compared to an ordinary farm crop. Compared to traditional coal based electricity production, the CO 2 -emissions are in most cases reduced significantly, as much as 95%. The important conclusion is the great potential of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the offset of coal by biomass. 23 refs,, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Integrated biomass energy systems and emissions of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, U.R.; Turnbull, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled ''Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration'', with the objective of investigating the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full fuel cycle for four of these case studies, which have been examined with regard to the emissions of carbon dioxide., CO 2 . Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO 2 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO 2 emissions from the DFSS. External energy is required for the production and transportation of the biomass feedstock, and this energy is mainly based on fossil fuels. By using this input energy, CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are emitted. However, by utilizing biomass with fossil fuels as external input fuels, we would get about 10-15 times more electric energy per unit fossil fuel, compared with a 100% coal power system. By introducing a DFSS on former farmland the amount of energy spent for production of crops can be reduced, the amount of fertilizers can be decreased, the soil can be improved and a significant amount of energy will be produced compared with an ordinary farm crop. Compared with traditional coal-based electricity production, the CO 2 emissions are in the most cases reduced significantly by as much as 95%. The important conclusion is the great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the offset of coal by biomass. (author)

  8. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd, E-mail: monasr211@gmail.com; Metorima, Kouhei, E-mail: kohei.m2420@hotmail.co.jp; Ohsawa, Takaaki, E-mail: ohsawa@mvg.biglobe.ne.jp; Hashimoto, Kengo, E-mail: kengoh@pp.iij4u.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (ν{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ν{sub d}=∑Y{sub i} • P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ν{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  9. Accurate prediction of emission energies with TD-DFT methods for platinum and iridium OLED materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Glenn R

    2017-06-01

    Accurate prediction of triplet excitation energies for transition metal complexes has proven to be a difficult task when confronted with a variety of metal centers and ligand types. Specifically, phosphorescent transition metal light emitters, typically based on iridium or platinum, often give calculated results of varying accuracy when compared to experimentally determined T1 emission values. Developing a computational protocol for reliably calculating OLED emission energies will allow for the prediction of a complex's color prior to synthesis, saving time and resources in the laboratory. A comprehensive investigation into the dependence of the DFT functional, basis set, and solvent model is presented here, with the aim of identifying an accurate method while remaining computationally cost-effective. A protocol that uses TD-DFT excitation energies on ground-state geometries was used to predict triplet emission values of 34 experimentally characterized complexes, using a combination of gas phase B3LYP/LANL2dz for optimization and B3LYP/CEP-31G/PCM(THF) for excitation energies. Results show excellent correlation with experimental emission values of iridium and platinum complexes for a wide range of emission energies. The set of complexes tested includes neutral and charged complexes, as well as a variety of different ligand types.

  10. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  11. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions. Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael R.; Cepela, Daniel J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Lewis, Geoffrey McD. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO{sub 2} and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices. (author)

  12. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions: Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael R., E-mail: micmoore@umich.ed [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Lewis, Geoffrey McD. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cepela, Daniel J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO{sub 2} and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices.

  13. A model for energy pricing with stochastic emission costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Robert J.; Lyle, Matthew R.; Miao Hong

    2010-01-01

    We use a supply-demand approach to value energy products exposed to emission cost uncertainty. We find closed form solutions for a number of popularly traded energy derivatives such as: forwards, European call options written on spot prices and European Call options written on forward contracts. Our modeling approach is to first construct noisy supply and demand processes and then equate them to find an equilibrium price. This approach is very general while still allowing for sensitivity analysis within a valuation setting. Our assumption is that, in the presence of emission costs, traditional supply growth will slow down causing output prices of energy products to become more costly over time. However, emission costs do not immediately cause output price appreciation, but instead expose individual projects, particularly those with high emission outputs, to much more extreme risks through the cost side of their profit stream. Our results have implications for hedging and pricing for producers operating in areas facing a stochastic emission cost environment.

  14. The relationship between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia: a three-way linkage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO 2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO 2 emission. Energy consumption is revealed to be an increasing function of CO 2 emission. Whereas, CO 2 emission positively and significantly depends on energy consumption and economic growth. This implies that CO 2 emission increases with an increase in both energy consumption and economic growth. Conclusively, the main drivers of CO 2 emission in Malaysia are proven to be energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, renewable energy sources ought to be considered by policy makers to curb emission from the current non-renewable sources. Wind and biomass can be explored as they are viable sources. Energy efficiency and savings should equally be emphasised and encouraged by policy makers. Lastly, growth-related policies that target emission reduction are also recommended.

  15. Transition Region Emission and the Energy Input to Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.; Haga, Leah; Raymond, John C.; Panasyuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the energetics of solar flares depends on obtaining reliable determinations of the energy input to flare plasma. X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung from hot flare plasma provide temperatures and emission measures which, along with estimates of the plasma volume, allow the energy content of this hot plasma to be computed. However, if thermal energy losses are significant or if significant energy goes directly into cooler plasma, this is only a lower limit on the total energy injected into thermal plasma during the flare. We use SOHO UVCS observations of O VI flare emission scattered by coronal O VI ions to deduce the flare emission at transition region temperatures between 100,000 K and 1 MK for the 2002 July 23 and other flares. We find that the radiated energy at these temperatures significantly increases the deduced energy input to the thermal plasma, but by an amount that is less than the uncertainty in the computed energies. Comparisons of computed thermal and nonthermal electron energies deduced from RHESSI, GOES, and UVCS are shown.

  16. Environmental efficiency of energy, materials, and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Michiyuki; Fujii, Hidemichi; Hoang, Vincent; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-09-15

    This study estimates the environmental efficiency of international listed firms in 10 worldwide sectors from 2007 to 2013 by applying an order-m method, a non-parametric approach based on free disposal hull with subsampling bootstrapping. Using a conventional output of gross profit and two conventional inputs of labor and capital, this study examines the order-m environmental efficiency accounting for the presence of each of 10 undesirable inputs/outputs and measures the shadow prices of each undesirable input and output. The results show that there is greater potential for the reduction of undesirable inputs rather than bad outputs. On average, total energy, electricity, or water usage has the potential to be reduced by 50%. The median shadow prices of undesirable inputs, however, are much higher than the surveyed representative market prices. Approximately 10% of the firms in the sample appear to be potential sellers or production reducers in terms of undesirable inputs/outputs, which implies that the price of each item at the current level has little impact on most of the firms. Moreover, this study shows that the environmental, social, and governance activities of a firm do not considerably affect environmental efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Origin of very high energy emission in galaxy clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perseus cluster of galaxies with the central galaxy NGC 1275 is ideally suitable for studying both the physics of relativistic jets from Active Galactic Nuclei and for revealing the feedback role of the central galaxy. We present the results of fifteen-year-long observations of the AGN NGC 1275 at energies 800 GeV–40 TeV discovered by the SHALON telescope in 1996. The data obtained at very high energies by SHALON, namely the images of the galaxy and its surroundings, and the flux variability indicate that TeV γ-ray emission is produced by a number of processes: in particular, part of this emission is generated by relativistic jets in the nucleus of NGC 1275 itself. Unique data on GK Per(Nova 1901 and the IC 310 radio galaxy TeV γ-ray emission were obtained with the SHALON experiment for the first time.

  18. Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzevich, O. T.; Klinov, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of 235 U nuclei

  19. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  20. Measurement of acoustic emission signal energy. Calibration and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, N.; Bernard, P.; Fayolle, J.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of using an Audimat W device for analyzing the electric energy of signals delivered by a piezo-electric sensor for acoustic emission was investigated. The characteristics of the prototype device could be improved. The tests performed revealed that the 7075-T651 aluminium alloy can be used as a reference material [fr

  1. greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    potential to generate some environmental concerns such as greenhouse emissions and energy impacts. The environmental ... à effet de serre, l'application des fertilisants se rangeait premier (72%), le second étant le transport à l'usine avec pour émission ... metric tonnes per annum, with local production at 107,900 metric ...

  2. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  3. Climate, energy and emissions trading in the EU and DK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck-Madsen, S.

    2004-04-01

    European Union member states are facing two serious challenges: human-induced climatic changes and oil shortage. Evidence that human-induced global heating is threatening the climatic balance is piling up and the conflicts over the last oil resources are becoming critical. The European Union has neither large oil resources nor foreign-political or military power to conquer additional oil resources. The EU Commission's awareness of these facts is influencing the EU energy and climate policy. Recently EU launched the directive on carbon dioxide emissions trading within certain energy-heavy sectors. The greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive requires a national ceiling on the allocation of CO 2 quotas for the heavy industry and energy sectors, thus adapting the quantity of quotas to the Kyoto requirements. This requirement can be quite extensive for the sectors affected by the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading directive, if national governments choose to abstain from political intervention in order to reduce release of greenhouse gases in sectors outside the emissions trading, e.g. agriculture, transportation, households, and smaller industry and service. Lack of action in these sectors will require the governments to impose either large burdens or use of national Joint Implementation and Clean Development agreements on the heavy industry and energy sectors outside national borders, thus conflicting with the Kyoto Protocol. (BA)

  4. Greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture in Africa is associated with low food production. The attempt to increase food productivity has the potential to generate some environmental concerns such as greenhouse emissions and energy impacts. The environmental impact of the rice production in the tropics, especially Africa, has not received much ...

  5. Energetic particle emission and nuclear dynamics around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piatteli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Colonna, N.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M.L.; Vannini, G.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P.F.; Fabbietti, L.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Margagliotti, G.; Milazzo, P.M.; Rui, R.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Scarpaci, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Energetic proton emission was investigated in the reaction 58 Ni+ 58 Ni at 30 AMeV and compared with the results of dynamical calculations with a momentum dependent mean field. Preliminary results on proton and intermediate mass fragment coincidences are also presented

  6. Energetic particle emission and nuclear dynamics around the Fermi energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piatteli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Colonna, N.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M. L.; Vannini, G.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Fabbietti, L.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Margagliotti, G.; Milazzo, P. M.; Rui, R.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Scarpaci, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Energetic proton emission was investigated in the reaction 58Ni+ 58Ni at 30 AMeV and compared with the results of dynamical calculations with a momentum dependent mean field. Preliminary results on proton and intermediate mass fragment coincidences are also presented.

  7. Energetic particle emission and nuclear dynamics around the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piatteli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Colonna, N.; Bruno, M.; D' Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M.L.; Vannini, G.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P.F.; Fabbietti, L.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Margagliotti, G.; Milazzo, P.M.; Rui, R.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Scarpaci, J.A

    2004-04-05

    Energetic proton emission was investigated in the reaction {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni at 30 AMeV and compared with the results of dynamical calculations with a momentum dependent mean field. Preliminary results on proton and intermediate mass fragment coincidences are also presented.

  8. Long-term optimal energy mix planning towards high energy security and low GHG emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Sundar Raj; Khambadkone, Ashwin M.; Karimi, Iftekhar A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop long-term energy planning considering the future uncertain inputs. • We analyze the effect of uncertain inputs on the energy cost and energy security. • Conventional energy mix prone to cause high energy cost and energy security issues. • Stochastic and optimal energy mix show benefits over conventional energy planning. • Nuclear option consideration reduces the energy cost and carbon emissions. - Abstract: Conventional energy planning focused on energy cost, GHG emission and renewable contribution based on future energy demand, fuel price, etc. Uncertainty in the projected variables such as energy demand, volatile fuel price and evolution of renewable technologies will influence the cost of energy when projected over a period of 15–30 years. Inaccurate projected variables could affect energy security and lead to the risk of high energy cost, high emission and low energy security. The energy security is an ability of generation capacity to meet the future energy demand. In order to minimize the risks, a generic methodology is presented to determine an optimal energy mix for a period of around 15 years. The proposed optimal energy mix is a right combination of energy sources that minimize the risk caused due to future uncertainties related to the energy sources. The proposed methodology uses stochastic optimization to address future uncertainties over a planning horizon and minimize the variations in the desired performance criteria such as energy security and costs. The developed methodology is validated using a case study for a South East Asian region with diverse fuel sources consists of wind, solar, geothermal, coal, biomass and natural gas, etc. The derived optimal energy mix decision outperformed the conventional energy planning by remaining stable and feasible against 79% of future energy demand scenarios at the expense of 0–10% increase in the energy cost. Including the nuclear option in the energy mix resulted 26

  9. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand.

  10. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  11. Are renewable energy policies upsetting carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso; Koengkan, Matheus

    2017-06-01

    The impact of renewable energy policies in carbon dioxide emissions was analysed for a panel of ten Latin American countries, for the period from 1991 to 2012. Panel autoregressive distributed lag methodology was used to decompose the total effect of renewable energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in its short- and long-run components. There is evidence for the presence of cross-sectional dependence, confirming that Latin American countries share spatial patterns. Heteroskedasticity, contemporaneous correlation, and first-order autocorrelation cross-sectional dependence are also present. To cope with these phenomena, the robust dynamic Driscoll-Kraay estimator, with fixed effects, was used. It was confirmed that the primary energy consumption per capita, in both the short- and long-run, contributes to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and also that renewable energy policies in the long-run, and renewable electricity generation per capita both in the short- and long-run, help to mitigate per capita carbon dioxide emissions.

  12. ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, K.; Agrawal, V. K.; Rao, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy-time lag dependence of the source NGC 4593 using XMM-Newton/EPIC pn data. We found that the time lag dependency is linear in nature with respect to the logarithm of different energy bands. We also investigate the frequency-dependent time lags and identify that at some frequency range (5 x 10 -5 Hz to 2 x 10 -4 Hz) the X-ray emission is highly coherent, mildly frequency dependent, and very strongly energy dependent. These observations can be explained in the framework of the thermal Comptonization process, and they indicate a truncated accretion disk very close to the black hole. We discuss the plausible spectral state to explain the phenomenon and conclude that the observed properties bear a close resemblance to the intermediate state or the steep power-law state, found in galactic black hole sources.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Emissions reduction scenarios in the Argentinean Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolás; Nadal, Gustavo; Lallana, Francisco; Falzon, James; Calvin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO 2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010–2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO 2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO 2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO 2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts an 11.3% reduction. The main reasons for this difference include varying assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO 2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. In terms of technology

  16. Changing Energy Policy. The proposed Energy Efficiency Directive and its consequences for Renewable Energy and EU Emission Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, D. [European Renewable Energies Federation EREF, BRussels (Belgium); Nysten, J. [Becker Buettner Held BBH, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    When the foundations for the EU Emission Trade System were laid in 1998, neither renewable energy nor energy efficiency were explicitly taken into account. Now, over a decade later, the EU's climate and energy policy include three-pronged 2020 targets to increase efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure a minimum share of renewables in the energy mix. However, without careful coordination between the different legislative measures, it is likely that one system will distort the functioning of the other and in the end, the EU will fall short of its bigger energy and climate goals. The Commission's recent Proposal for an Energy Efficiency Directive has been sent to the Parliament and, most recently, a Draft Report has been released by the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. Against this backdrop, the following article examines the compatibility of the Commission's proposal with the existing Emission Trade System and the Renewable Energy Directive.

  17. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  18. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  19. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P. [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France)]|[Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  20. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  1. Greenhouse-gas emissions from biomass energy use: Comparison with other energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.; Norman, N.A.; Gleick, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recently a major new concern has arisen: the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is now generally believed that continued emissions of these gases are current or increasing levels will lead to significant climatic changes with the potential for dramatic, adverse impacts. Since the major anthropogenic source of greenhouse gas emissions is energy production and use, it is essential to future energy policy to understand how energy sources differ with respect to greenhouse gas emissions. Characterizing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with biomass energy use is extremely complicated. It is necessary to consider both the source and alternative use of the biomass material and its alternative disposal (if any), as well as the biomass energy application itself. It is desirable also to consider not just CO 2 emissions, but also CH 4 and N 2 O, both potent greenhouse gases. The authors' analysis shows that in many cases biomass energy use can actually help to ameliorate the greenhouse effect by converting emissions that would have been CH 4 into the less potent greenhouse gas CO 2 . In many cases the beneficial effect is very dramatic. This major new research result should help increase public support for biomass research and development, and for further development of waste conversion technology and installations

  2. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Amann, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Carmichael, G.; Chadwick, M.; Cinderby, S.; Haugland, T.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Hordijk, L.; Kuylenstierna, J.; Shah, J.; Shrestha, R.; Streets, D.; Zhao, D.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Europe and North America, air pollution in Asia is increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air quality problems and higher acidic depositions. In 1989, an east-west group of scientists initiated a multi-institutional research project on Acid Rain and Emissions Reduction in Asia, funded for the past two years by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Phase I, covering 23 countries of Asia, focused on the development of PC-based software called the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation Model (RAINS-ASIA). A 94-region Regional Energy Scenario Generator was developed to create alternative energy/emission scenarios through the year 2020. A long-range atmospheric transport model was developed to calculate dispersion and deposition of sulfur, based upon emissions from area and large point sources, on a one-degree grid of Asia. The resulting impacts of acidic deposition on a variety of vegetation types were analyzed using the critical loads approach to test different emissions management strategies, including both energy conservation measures and sulfur abatement technologies. 14 refs., 7 figs

  3. Modelling lifestyle effects on energy demand and related emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.

    2000-01-01

    An approach to analyse and quantify the impact of lifestyle factors on current and future energy demand is developed. Thereby not only directly environmentally relevant consumer activities such as car use or heating have been analysed, but also expenditure patterns which induce environmental damage through the production of the consumed goods. The use of household survey data from the national statistical offices offers the possibility to cover this wide range of activities. For the available social-economic household characteristics a variety of different behavioural patterns have been observed. For evaluating the energy and emission consequences of the consumed goods enhanced input-output models are used. The additions implemented - a mixed monetary-energetic approach for inter-industry flows and a separate treatment of transport -related emissions - improve the reliability of the obtained results. The developed approach has been used for analysing current emissions profiles and distributions in West Germany, France and the Netherlands as well as scenarios for future energy demand and related emissions. It therefore provides a comprehensive methodology to analyse environmental effects in a consumer and citizen perspective and thus contributes to an increase transparency of complex economic and ecological interconnections. (author)

  4. Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F.

    2013-01-01

    We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect

  5. Sectoral analysis of energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Finland 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirjavainen, M.; Tamminen, E.

    2002-03-01

    This study describes the development of energy consumption and energy related CO 2 emissions in Finland between 1990-1999. For better understanding of the factors behind the development in main sectors, special indicators are calculated to evaluate how the overall development of the sector is affected by the general activity of the sector, changes in sectoral structure and changes in end-use intensities within the sector. The specific energy consumption of space heating reduced especially during the first half of the decade. Also the total CO 2 emissions caused by space heating reduced, in spite of the increase in the building stock. The main reason for this has been the reduction in specific CO 2 emissions in production of district heat. Regardless of the increased traffic and slightly increased use of passenger cars over public transport, the total energy consumption as well as total CO 2 emissions in passenger transport reduced during the decade. The main reason for this is that the specific fuel consumption of passenger cars has reduced significantly. Volumes in freight traffic increased rapidly after the recession, and as no significant changes have occurred in either specific consumptions or in shares of different transport modes, the total energy use as well as total CO 2 emissions of freight transport have increased. The major factors affecting the energy use and CO 2 emissions of the manufacturing sector have been changes in production volumes. After the recession, growth has been rapid and that has resulted in increased total energy use and CO 2 emissions. Anyway, the especially rapid growth of the less energy intensive electronics industry has resulted in downward overall energy intensity within manufacturing sector. Major factors affecting the specific CO 2 emissions in energy production have been changes in the primary energy supply mix. In electricity production, the major factors have been the increase in nuclear capacity and the variation in net

  6. Energy scenarios for Switzerland and emission control, estimated with a normative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1990-06-01

    The reported work presents results of the IEA-ETSAP project (International Energy Agency - Energy Technology Systems Analysis Project) concerning the interrelations among energy use, emissions to the atmosphere and the cost of emission control. The energy simulation model SMEDE, which has been developed at PSI and applies the engineering simulation (bottom up) approach, and the IEA optimization model MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) have been used to analyse the energy demand and supply system of Switzerland. The purpose of this analysis is to identify technical options and their cost for reducing the energy dependent atmospheric emissions in Switzerland to the levels of the 'clean air concept'. The study addresses also the question of the feasibility and the economic implications of reducing the CO 2 emissions to the levels recommended by the Toronto conference. The implications of a stringent 'clean air concept' and these of the Toronto recommendations have been analysed under different nuclear supply options i.e. an unconstrained nuclear supply case (reference), a nuclear status-quo (moratorium) and under the conditions of a nuclear phase-out programme by the year 2025. The main conclusions of this analysis indicate that the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide could be reduced back to the levels of 1950 respectively 1960, by the introduction of emission control technologies which go above the present performance limits defined by the 'clean air ordinance' (LRV). A probable time horizon to satisfy the NO x constraints is the year 2000 and not 1995. Organizational measures necessary to improve the air quality in cities are complementary to the measures proposed in this analysis. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  7. Causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission for Malaysia using maximum entropy bootstrap approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sehrish; Zou, Xiang; Hassan, Che Hashim; Azam, Muhammad; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the causal framework, as the direction of causality remains has a significant policy implication for developed and developing countries. The study employed maximum entropy bootstrap (Meboot) approach to examine the causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission using bivariate as well as multivariate framework for Malaysia, over a period of 1975-2013. This is a unified approach without requiring the use of conventional techniques based on asymptotical theory such as testing for possible unit root and cointegration. In addition, it can be applied in the presence of non-stationary of any type including structural breaks without any type of data transformation to achieve stationary. Thus, it provides more reliable and robust inferences which are insensitive to time span as well as lag length used. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission both in the bivariate model and multivariate framework, while controlling for broad money supply and population density. The results indicate that Malaysia is an energy-dependent country and hence energy is stimulus to carbon emissions.

  8. Future energy and emissions policy scenarios in Ireland for private car transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a technological model of Ireland's future car stock to simulate the impact of a range of policy measures on the baseline trend in energy demand in the period to 2030. The policies and measures modelled comprise meeting deployment targets for electric vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles, an EU regulation for the improvement of vehicle efficiency, implementation of a national biofuel obligation, as well as several behavioural measures (encouraging modal shifting and reduced travel demand). The impact of the different measures simulated is measured in terms of their contribution to meeting Ireland's ambitious targets for energy savings, for renewable energy penetration and for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The results point to a possible improvement of 32% in car stock efficiency, the achievement of 7.8% renewable energy share of road and rail transport and a 22% reduction in non-ETS private car CO 2 emissions relative to 2009 levels. A scenario analysis on meeting the EV penetration target shows a significant range of CO 2 emissions reductions depending on the cars (and mileage) displaced and on the electricity generation portfolio. - Highlights: ► Private car policy scenarios for Ireland modelled. ► Impact of vehicle efficiency, fuel switching and behavioural measures evaluated. ► Highlights distance to EU non-ETS emissions and renewable energy targets. ► Analysis of EV target shows that GHG mitigation potential is very sensitive.

  9. Full energy chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    The field of work of the Advisory Group Meeting/Workshop, i.e. full-energy chain emissions of greenhouse gases, is defined, and its environment, i.e. the Earth Summit -the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio-, is discussed. It is inferred that countries that ratified the Earth Summit's Convention on Climate Change have committed themselves to lower the greenhouse gas emissions from their energy use, and that this can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy chain emissions of all greenhouse gases. The scatter in literature values of greenhouse gas emission factors of the full energy chain of individual energy sources is discussed. The scatter among others is due to different analytical methods, data bases and system boundaries, and due to neglect of the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases and professional biases. Generic values for greenhouse gas emission factors of energy and materials use are proposed. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Energy payback period and carbon dioxide emissions in different power generation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivistoe, A.

    1995-01-01

    The energy payback period, efficiency factor and carbon dioxide emissions in different power generation methods were studied. Nuclear, coal, peat, natural gas, wind and photovoltaic power were examined. To calculate the energy payback period of power generation, the energy inputs of different power generation methods were examined by using hybrid analysis, which is a combination of process analysis and the input-output method. The energy inputs of power generation were examined starting from raw material and fuel resources in the soil and ending up in the power station. The study also considered the handling of spent fuel and combustion residues. The energy payback periods were as follows: nuclear power 20-33 months, coal power 33 months, peat power 26-27 months, gas power 21-27 months, wind power 7 months and photovoltaic power 60-95 months. The energy payback period of nuclear power was strongly influenced by the uranium enrichment method. In natural gas power the energy payback period was influenced by the amount of natural gas used as fuel in compression stations and production fields and in photovoltaic power by the semiconductor material of the cells. The most significant carbon dioxide emissions were produced in the power generation methods based on combustion. Depending on the way of examination, both nuclear power, wind power and photovoltaic power produce carbon dioxide emissions, but on a significantly lower level. (author)

  11. Radionuclide air emissions at Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvall, K. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Facilities operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) handle and process radioactive materials in conjunction with their research, nuclear materials production, remediation and waste disposal activities. Radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere from DOE facilities are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H for emissions other than radon. Subpart H requires DOE to monitor emissions from stacks and calculate a potential offsite dose to an individual using EPA approved methods and procedures. DOE has applied to EPA for approval to use alternative methods for some of the EPA requirements for continuous monitoring. The use of alternative methods such as single-point sampling with a shrouded probe will have an impact at several major DOE facilities. These facilities are identified.

  12. Solar energy and the abatement of atmospheric emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Diakoulaki, D.; Assimacopoulos, D.

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the fact that solar energy is a ''clean'' energy form, gaseous pollutants are emitted during the manufacturing of the systems necessary for its utilisation. An attempt is made in this paper to estimate the level of atmospheric pollutants emitted during the successive stages which make up the manufacture process for solar water heating (SWH) systems, and to evaluate these results in comparison with the respective pollutant emission levels attributed to the generation of electricity in Greece's conventional power plants. As energy consumption is recognised as the main source of atmospheric pollution, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) method was applied, focusing on the most energy-consuming stages of the SWH system production process. The conclusions of the analysis indicate that the emissions of gaseous pollutants associated with the utilisation of solar energy are considerably lower than those caused by the production of electricity in conventional systems, thereby substantiating that solar energy utilisation can make a notable contribution to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. (author)

  13. Effect of energy taxation on fuel choice and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leino, P.; Kosunen, P.; Rauhamaeki, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project was to study how various tax models for power plant fuels affect the fuel consumption and emissions of particles, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). First, the development of Finnish energy taxation is discussed, followed by a survey of the energy production structure for 1994. For this purpose, it was necessary to prepare a large boiler database, which covers about 95 % of the fuel consumption of Finnish energy production. The boiler database was used to calculate the emissions of particles, SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 in 1994. The year 2010 selected under review is the year by which the Ministry of Trade and Industry has prepared their primary energy consumption estimates. Four different alternatives were studied as future tax models. In the first alternative taxation would be as it in years 1995-1996 and in the second alternative taxation would be as in January 1997. In the third alternative the Finnish application of EU taxes would be in force in full, i.e., the tax on heavy fuel oil would be 10 US dollars a barrel. In the fourth alternative there would be no taxes on fuels. The boiler database was used to find out how the consumption distribution of the fuels used in 2010 would change in the various tax models. The tax models affect most the position of fuel peat and natural gas in Finland. If the EU alternative, which is favourable for fuel peat and natural gas, comes true, the consumption of fuel peat will grow by two thirds and the consumption of natural gas will more than double from the present level. If the taxation is as 1 January 1997, the consumption of peat will remain the same as today and the consumption of natural gas will grow by about 50 %. However, if there are no taxes on fuels, the consumption of fuel peat will fall by almost a third and the consumption of natural gas will remain the same as expected at the existing and planned plants. The effect of the various tax models on emissions

  14. Particle emissions from ships: dependence on fuel type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnes, Hulda; Fridell, Erik

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents the results of field emission measurements that have been carried out on the 4500-kW four-stroke main engine on-board a product tanker. Two fuel qualities--heavy fuel oil (HFO) and marine gas oil (MGO)-have been tested on the same engine for comparable load settings. A fuel switch within the marine sector is approaching and the aim of this study is to draw initial conclusions on the subsequent effects on ship exhaust gas composition and emission factors with a focus on particles. Measurements on exhaust gas concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total hydrocarbons (HCs), and particulate matter (PM) were conducted. The gases, except SO2, did not show any major differences between the fuels. Specific PM emissions were generally higher for HFO than for MGO; however, for the smallest size-fraction measured containing particles 0.30-0.40 microm in diameter, the opposite is observed. This finding emphasizes that to minimize negative health effects of particles from ships, further regulation may be needed to reduce small-sized particles; a fuel shift to low sulfur fuel alone does not seem to accomplish this reduction. The average of this and previously published data from on-board studies on particle emissions from ships results in emissions factors of 0.33 and 1.34 g/kWh for marine distillate oil (MDO) and HFO, respectively. Accounting for 1 standard deviation in each direction from the average values gives a range of 0.18-0.48 g/kWh for MDO and 0.56-2.12 g/kWh for HFO.

  15. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO₂, NO(x), SO₂, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Hirschberg, S.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Incentives for energy efficiency in the EU emission trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Group for Sustainability and Technology; Betz, Regina [New South Wales Univ. (Australia). Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets

    2008-07-01

    This paper explores the incentives for energy efficiency induced by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for installations in the energy and industry sectors. Our analysis of the National Allocation Plans for 27 EU Member States for phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-2012) suggests that the price and cost effects for improvements in carbon and energy efficiency in the energy and industry sectors will be stronger than in phase 1 (2005-2007), but only because the European Commission has substantially reduced the number of allowances to be allocated by the Member States. To the extent that companies from these sectors (notably power producers) pass through the extra costs for carbon, higher prices for allowances translate into stronger incentives for demand- side energy efficiency. With the cuts in allocation to energy and industry sectors these will be forced to greater reductions, thus the non-ET sectors like household, tertiary and transport will have to reduce less, which is more in line with the cost-efficient share of emission reductions. The findings also imply that domestic efficiency improvements in the energy and industry sectors may remain limited since companies can make substantial use of credits from the Kyoto mechanisms. The analysis of the rules for existing installations, new projects and closures suggests that incentives for energy efficiency are higher in phase 2 than in phase 1 because of the increased application of benchmarking to new and existing installations and because a lower share of allowances will be allocated for free. Nevertheless, there is still ample scope to further improve the EU ETS so that the full potential for energy efficiency can be realized. (orig.)

  18. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To accurately represent how conservation and efficiency policies affect energy demand, both direct and indirect impacts need to be included in the accounting. The indirect impacts are defined here as the resource savings that accrue over the fuel production chain, which when added to the energy consumed at the point of use, constitute the full-fuel- cycle (FFC) energy. This paper uses the accounting framework developed in (Coughlin 2012) to calculate FFC energy metrics as time series for the period 2010-2040. The approach is extended to define FFC metrics for the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air-borne pollutants. The primary focus is the types of energy used in buildings and industrial processes, mainly natural gas and electricity. The analysis includes a discussion of the fuel production chain for coal, which is used extensively for electric power generation, and for diesel and fuel oil, which are used in mining, oil and gas operations, and fuel distribution. Estimates of the energy intensity parameters make use of data and projections from the Energy Information Agency’s National Energy Modeling System, with calculations based on information from the Annual Energy Outlook 2012.

  19. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, G.; Ferron, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He + , Ne + and Ar + ) and Li + ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  20. Energy consumption, income and CO2 emissions in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia S. Gómez-López

    2009-01-01

    I describe and compare the environment policies of European Union and of 12 Latin Americans economies. For this, I use common statistical methods, such as non-parametric tests, convergence analysis (Beta and Sigma) and panel data, in order to verify the hypothesis that emissions and energy use in Latin America has been increasing since the mid-20th century. The statistical tests used confirm the proposed hypothesis. I also rely upon the Environmental Kuznets Curve- whereby economies that are ...

  1. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus `Giganteus` (M. `Giganteus`) and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substituion for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO{sub 2} reduction

  2. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the

  3. Realistic level densities in fragment emission at high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.G.; Blann, M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy fragment emission from a 44 100 Ru compound nucleus at 400 and 800 MeV of excitation is analyzed to study the influence of level density models on final yields. An approach is used in which only quasibound shell-model levels are included in calculating level densities. We also test the traditional Fermi gas model for which there is no upper energy limit to the single particle levels. We compare the influence of these two level density models in evaporation calculations of primary fragment excitations, kinetic energies and yields, and on final product yields

  4. Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework.

  5. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users

  6. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  7. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018

  8. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T.

    2005-09-15

    Societal dependence on oil leads to increasingly negative social consequences throughout the world, including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability, and habitat degradation. Reliance on the automobile for transportation also contributes to a sedentary lifestyle, an obesity epidemic and poor health. These problems are particularly pronounced in the USA, which currently consumes c. 27% of global oil production and produces c. 25% of global carbon emissions, and where c. 65% of adults are overweight or obese. Other countries throughout the world that replicate or hope to replicate the automobile-based lifestyle of the USA face similar problems now or in the near future. This paper develops and applies calculations relating the distances that could be travelled through recommended daily walking or cycling with weight loss, oil consumption and carbon emissions. These straightforward calculations demonstrate that widespread substitution of driving with distances travelled during recommended daily exercise could reduce the USA's oil consumption by up to 38%. This saving far exceeds the amount of oil recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, suggesting that exercise can reduce foreign oil dependence and provide an alternative to oil extraction from environmentally sensitive habitat. At the same time, an average individual who substitutes this amount of exercise for transportation would burn respectively c. 12.2 and 26.0 kg of fat per year for walking and cycling. This is sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without dangerous or draconian diet plans. Furthermore, a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of c. 35% is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. As a result, exercise-based transportation may constitute a favourable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently being implemented in the USA and may

  9. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  10. Dependency of climate change and carbon cycle on CO2 emission pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, Daisuke; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Ohba, Masamichi

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the response of globally average temperature is approximately proportional to cumulative CO 2 emissions, yet evidence of the robustness of this relationship over a range of CO 2 emission pathways is lacking. To address this, we evaluate the dependency of climate and carbon cycle change on CO 2 emission pathways using a fully coupled climate–carbon cycle model. We design five idealized pathways (including an overshoot scenario for cumulative emissions), each of which levels off to final cumulative emissions of 2000 GtC. The cumulative emissions of the overshoot scenario reach 4000 GtC temporarily, subsequently reducing to 2000 GtC as a result of continuous negative emissions. Although we find that responses of climatic variables and the carbon cycle are largely independent of emission pathways, a much weakened Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is projected in the overshoot scenario despite cessation of emissions. This weakened AMOC is enhanced by rapid warming in the Arctic region due to considerable temporary elevation of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and induces the decline of surface air temperature and decrease of precipitation over the northern Atlantic and Europe region. Moreover, the weakened AMOC reduces CO 2 uptake by the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. However, the weakened AMOC contributes little to the global carbon cycle. In conclusion, although climate variations have been found to be dependent on emission pathways, the global carbon cycle is relatively independent of these emission pathways, at least superficially. (letter)

  11. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-25

    Industry accounts for about one-third of global energy demand. Most of that energy is used to produce raw materials: chemicals, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper and non-ferrous metals. Just how efficiently is this energy put to work? This question was on the minds of the G8 leaders at their summit in Gleneagles in 2005, when they set a 'Plan of Action for Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development'. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide information and advice in a number of areas including special attention to the industrial sector. Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions responds to the G8 request. This major new analysis shows how industrial energy efficiency has improved dramatically over the last 25 years. Yet important opportunities for additional gains remain, which is evident when the efficiencies of different countries are compared. This analysis identifies the leaders and the laggards. It explains clearly a complex issue for non-experts. With new statistics, groundbreaking methodologies, thorough analysis and advice, and substantial industry consultation, this publication equips decision makers in the public and private sectors with the essential information that is needed to reshape energy use in manufacturing in a more sustainable manner.

  12. ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY AND SEEKING FOR NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan Nesimioglu, Serife

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, energy poverty and as a result of this energy import dependency and its possible negative results have been examined by taking European Union (EU) into consideration. This analysis has two aims: the first one is questioning the European Unions’ energy security from supply perspective and the second one is investigating the solutions produced by European Union to get away or at least to reduce its energy import dependency. To guarantee its energy supply security at affordable pr...

  13. Energy balance, carbon emissions, and costs of sortyard debris disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC), with funding from Natural Resources Canada, conducted this study to determine the main environmental and energy use issues regarding the landfilling, burning or processing of dryland sortyard debris accumulated in the wood products industry. The wood residues that are generated when logs are processed, sorted and remanufactured, have traditionally been burned or landfilled. This is no longer appropriate. Converting the large woody debris into usable products such as hog fuel or compost requires grinding, smashing or chipping into small pieces to facilitate transportation. In order to make smart decisions about alternative methods of handling sortyard debris, information is needed about the comparative amount of fuel used and carbon dioxide produced. This study compared the treatment alternatives with respect to fuel consumption, net energy balance, carbon dioxide emissions and environmental impact. Recommendations were then presented for the treatment of debris from the point of view of net energy balance and environmental impact. Life cycle techniques were used to determine the environmental impact of alternatives for managing sortyard debris. It was determined that wood wastes are valuable as hog fuel for power generation. Burning hog fuel to recover its energy offsets the need to supply energy from other sources such as natural gas. This reduces the total carbon emissions by the amount of debris that would have been burned as waste. Annual carbon emissions can be reduced by nearly half by switching from a maximize burn strategy to a maximize hog strategy that combines composting of fine materials. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Angular dependence of secondary ion emission from silicon bombarded with inert gas ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmaack, K.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of positive and negative, atomic and molecular secondary ions sputtered from silicon has been studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The sample was bombarded with 2-12 keV Ar + and Xe + ions at angles of incidence between 0 0 and 60 0 to the surface normal. The angular dependence of the secondary ion intensity as well as the energy spectra of Si + and Si - were found to differ significantly. The effect is attributed mostly do differences in the rate of neutralization. The stability of molecular ions appears to be independent of the charge state. Supporting evidence is provided for the idea that multiply charged secondary ions are due to Auger de-excitation of sputtered atoms in vacuum. (orig.)

  15. Energy dependent neutron sputtering and surface damage cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; Doiron, D.R.; Kennerley, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results clearly indicate that damage function analysis might be usefully applied to define both the neutron and primary recoil energy dependence of sputtering yields. Even with relatively large data errors, it appears that it is possible to both detect the existence and indicate the form of the deviation of sputtering yield from linear damage energy dependence (if such deviation exists). This information would be very useful in developing improved models of the sputtering phenomena

  16. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  17. Management Methods of Energy Efficiency and reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actina, G.; Grackova, L.; Zebergs, V.; Zeltins, N.

    2007-01-01

    The management methods of energy efficiency and reduction of GHG emissions and their introduction depend on the financing possibilities and the management structures. Analysis is made of the following methods for the management of the process of raising energy efficiency: an energy audit and certification; the third-party financing; networks for energy efficiency and services of raising energy efficiency. In Latvia more than a half of all the energy resources are consumed for heating and the supply of hot water. The thermal parameters of buildings are poor therefore wide introduction of buildings certification, based on energy audit is of particular importance. The third-party financing would allow resolving the justified problems of audit and certification in order to hasten the heating process of buildings, particularly, owing to the appearance of respective foreign third-party financing companies, although the privatisation of dwelling houses and reorganisation of their management is not yet completed. The networks for energy efficiency have not found supporters in Latvia, however, great importance is attached to the thermal parameters of industrial premises, which are as poor as in the other buildings of the country, and here is a considerable potential of energy economy. Concerning the services of raising energy efficiency, the management method of this process is supposed to reach maximum energy economy after thermo and technical renovation of buildings at their various stages. It is connected with general organisational and financial adjustment of the management of buildings, as well as with the development of the energy service company.(author)

  18. Energetic proton emission in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy. Pre-equilibrium and cooperative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Finocchiaro, P.; Migneco, E.; Bellia, G.; Greco, V.; Catania Univ.

    2002-01-01

    Energetic proton emission has been investigated as a function of the centrality in the reaction 58 Ni + 58 Ni at 30 AMeV. Protons with energy extending up to a relevant fraction of the total available energy in the reaction were measured and studied. The dependence on the reaction centrality has been extensively investigated and data have been compared with the results of microscopic transport calculations. The more striking observation concerns the extremely energetic proton (E p NN ≥ 130 MeV) multiplicity which is found to increase almost quadratically with the number of participant nucleons thus indicating the onset of a mechanism beyond one and two-body dynamics. (author)

  19. Energy Dependence of Near-relativistic Electron Spectrum at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In view of the renewed interest in the study of energetic par- ticles in the outer radiation belt of the earth, we feel it will be helpful in looking for the energy dependence of the electron energy spectrum at geo- stationary orbit. This may give us some insight into how we can safeguard geostationary satellites from ...

  20. A random energy model for size dependence : recurrence vs. transience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the size dependence of disordered spin models having an infinite number of Gibbs measures in the framework of a simplified 'random energy model for size dependence'. We introduce two versions (involving either independent random walks or branching processes), that can be seen as

  1. Impact of density-dependent symmetry energy and Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Articles Volume 82 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 515-527 ... In this paper, we study the time evolution, impact parameter, and excitation energy dependence of IMF production for the different forms of density-dependent symmetry ... School of Physics and Material Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004, India ...

  2. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    Global energy markets and climate change in the twenty first century depend, to an extraordinary extent, on China. China is now, or will soon be, the world's largest energy consumer. Since 2007, China has been the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite its large and rapidly expanding influence on global energy markets and the global atmosphere, on a per capita basis energy consumption and GHG emissions in China are low relative to developed countries. The Chinese economy, and with it energy use and GHG emissions, are expected to grow vigorously for at least the next two decades, raising a question of critical historical significance: How can China's economic growth imperative be meaningfully reconciled with its goals of greater energy security and a lower carbon economy? Most scholars, governments, and practitioners have looked to technology---energy efficiency, nuclear power, carbon capture and storage---for answers to this question. Alternatively, this study seeks to root China's future energy and emissions trajectory in the political economy of its multiple transitions, from a centrally planned to a market economy and from an agrarian to a post-industrial society. The study draws on five case studies, each a dedicated chapter, which are organized around three perspectives on energy and GHG emissions: the macroeconomy; electricity supply and demand; and nitrogen fertilizer production and use. Chapters 2 and 3 examine how growth and structural change in China's macroeconomy have shaped energy demand, finding that most of the dramatic growth in the country's energy use over the 2000s was driven by an acceleration of its investment-dominated, energy-intensive growth model, rather than from structural change. Chapters 4 and 5 examine efforts to improve energy efficiency and increase the share of renewable generation in the electric power sector, concluding that China's power system lacks the flexibility in generation, pricing, and demand to

  3. Very high energy emission sources beyond the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are considered as potential extragalactic sources of very and ultra high energy cosmic rays. According to theoretical predictions cosmic ray acceleration can take place at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei as well as at AGN jets. The measurements of AGN TeV spectra, the variability time scale of TeV emission can provide essential information on the dynamics of AGN jets, the localization of acceleration region and an estimation of its size. SHALON observations yielded data on extragalactic sources of different AGN types in the energy range of 800 GeV–100 TeV. The data from SHALON observations are compared with those from other experiments at high and very high energies.

  4. Energy and emissions characterization of an eco-efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bayer, Juan F.; Graciano-Bustamante, Diana S.; Gómez-Betancur, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Around 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level) on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBT) and Controlled Cooking (CCT) Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24 % with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3 % due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3 % and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the 'Plancha' wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is necessary to redesign wood stoves according to their geographical location in order to optimize the cooking process. (author)

  5. Emission of high-energy, light particles from intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.; Auble, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early surprises in examining reaction products from heavy ion reactions at 10 MeV/nucleon and above was the large yield of light particles emitted and the high energies to which the spectra of these particles extended. The interpretation of the origin of the high energy light ions has evolved from a picture of projectile excitation and subsequent evaporation to one of pre-equilibrium (or nonequilibrium) emission. The time scale for particle emission has thus moved from one that occurs following the initial collision to one that occurs at the very early stages of the collision. Research at ORNL on this phenomenon is reviewed

  6. Solar Energy as an Alternative to Energy Saving and Pollutant Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is analyzed thermal solar systems efficiency from the point of view of energy savings and pollutant emissions concentrations exhausted during these installations operation. For this purpose were taking into account four versions of solar panel systems combined with different types of conventional heating sources, for which were simulated the operation conditions. As a result of the simulation, there were obtained the values of energy savings and pollutant emissions during the four systems operation. By analyzing these values, the combined thermal system optimum solution was selected.

  7. Dynamics of secondary ion emission Novel energy and angular spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Jalowy, T; Hattass, M; Fiol, J; Afaneh, F; Pereira, J A M; Collado, V; Silveira, E F D; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Groeneveld, K O

    2002-01-01

    A new spectrometer has been developed based on the combination of standard time-of-flight technique and position sensitive delay line detectors. The basic features of the spectrometer, particularly of the multi-hit capable detector, are described. To demonstrate the performance of this new system, the dynamic emission characteristics, i.e. the three-dimensional velocity distribution, of desorbed H sub 2 sup + from Al target by Ar sup 0 impact (570 keV) is presented. It is found that the desorption yield is maximum for radial and axial emission velocities at 1.2 and 12 km/s respectively, corresponding to 1.5 eV ions emitted at 57 deg. to normal (following the projectile radial direction). The initial energy distribution spreads out over 16 eV.

  8. Dynamics of secondary ion emission: Novel energy and angular spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalowy, T. E-mail: jalowy@hsb.uni-frankfurt.de; Neugebauer, R.; Hattass, M.; Fiol, J.; Afaneh, F.; Pereira, J.A.M.; Collado, V.; Silveira, E.F. da; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Groeneveld, K.O

    2002-06-01

    A new spectrometer has been developed based on the combination of standard time-of-flight technique and position sensitive delay line detectors. The basic features of the spectrometer, particularly of the multi-hit capable detector, are described. To demonstrate the performance of this new system, the dynamic emission characteristics, i.e. the three-dimensional velocity distribution, of desorbed H{sub 2}{sup +} from Al target by Ar{sup 0} impact (570 keV) is presented. It is found that the desorption yield is maximum for radial and axial emission velocities at 1.2 and 12 km/s respectively, corresponding to 1.5 eV ions emitted at 57 deg. to normal (following the projectile radial direction). The initial energy distribution spreads out over 16 eV.

  9. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    and taxes on the trends in CO2 emissions on the basis of a novel method that relies on sector-specific energy prices. Whereas previous research has been unable to account for the implications of complex tax exemptions and price discounts, the present report bridges the gap and provides innovative estimates...... for own-price and cross-price elasticities of the individual fuels. Whereas elasticities for electricity and gas are found to be moderate, the own-price elasticity for oil, coal and waste is relatively high (-0.4 to -0.6), indicating that consumption of these fuels is relatively price elastic....... This finding suggests that price increases, whether induced by taxes or market fluctuations, can be effective in curbing CO2 emissions when they accurately reflect the CO2 burden. It also suggests that CO2-specific taxes on fuels are more effective than end-user electricity taxes which do not reflect actual...

  10. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  11. Density and starting-energy dependent effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Norio; Nagata, Sinobu; Kasuga, Teruo

    1979-01-01

    A new effective potential constructed from the reaction matrix calculation of nuclear matters is proposed, taking three-body effects into account. Starting from the two-body scattering equation for nuclear matters, an equation with averaged momentum is introduced as the definition of effective interaction. The parameters in the equation are the Fermi momentum and the starting energy. The nuclear density dependence and the starting energy dependence are independently treated in the potential. The effective interactions including three-body effects were calculated. The dependence on the starting energy is large. The effective interaction is more attractive in the triplet E state, and assures overall saturation without any artificial renormalization. The reaction matrix calculation can be well reproduced by the calculation with this effective potential. The results of calculation for the binding energy of He-4 and O-16 and the shell model matrix elements of O-16 are represented. (Kato, T.)

  12. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-01-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process. (letter)

  13. Fragment emission studies in low energy light heavy-ion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana T. K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragment emission mechanisms have been studied in 12C on 12C and 13C on 12C reactions at same excitation energy. The inclusive energy distributions of the complex fragments (3≤ Z ≤ 5 emitted from the composite system have been measured in the angular range 14° to 36°. The present experiments have been performed with the motivation to study the isotopic dependence of fragment yields in these two reactions. From the preliminary analysis, it has been observed that fragments are emitted from a completely equilibrated and long lived composite system for both 12C + 12C and 13C + 12C reactions. It has also been observed that the emission of neutron-rich fragments are more in 13C + 12C compared to 12C + 12C reaction.

  14. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  15. Time Dependent Leptonic and Lepto-Hadronic Modeling of Blazar Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIltz, Christopher S.

    2016-08-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known to exhibit multi-wavelength variability across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. In the context of blazars, the variability timescale can be as short as a few minutes. Correlated variability has been seen in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum: from radio wavelengths to high energy gamma-rays. This correlated variability in different wavelength bands can put constraints on the particle content, acceleration mechanisms and radiative properties of the relativistic jets that produce blazar emission. Two models are typically invoked to explain the origin of the broadband emission across the electromagnetic spectrum: Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling. Both models have had success in reproducing the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazar emission with different input parameters, making the origin of the emission difficult to determine. However, flaring events cause the spectral components that produce the SED to evolve on different timescales, producing different light curve behavior for both models. My Ph.D. research involves developing one-zone time dependent leptonic and lepto-hadronic codes to reproduce the broadband SEDs of blazars and then model flaring scenarios in order to find distinct differences between the two models. My lepto-hadronic code also considers the time dependent evolution of the radiation emitted by secondary particles (pions and muons) generated from photo-hadronic interactions between the photons and protons in the emission region. I present fits to the broadband SEDs of the flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) 3C 273 and 3C 279 using my one-zone leptonic and lepto-hadronic model, respectively. I showed that by considering perturbations of any one of the selected input parameters for both models: magnetic field, particle injection luminosity, particle spectral index, and stochastic acceleration time scale, distinct differences arise in the light curves for the optical, X-ray and

  16. Telecommunications energy and greenhouse gas emissions management for future network growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chien Aun; Gygax, André F.; Leckie, Christopher; Wong, Elaine; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Hinton, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Model to evaluate key interdependencies of a fast growing telecommunications network. • Network growth analysis using real data and Monte Carlo simulation. • Importance of both operational and embodied energy efficiency improvements. • Embodied energy expected to dominate in the future under current energy efficiency trends. • Carbon footprint and energy management through optimum network replacement cycle. - Abstract: A key aspect of greener network deployment is how to achieve sustainable growth of a telecommunications network, both in terms of operational and embodied energy. Hence, in this paper we investigate how the overall energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a fast growing telecommunications network can be minimized. Due to the complexities in modeling the embodied energy of networks, this aspect of energy consumption has received limited attention by network operators. Here, we present the first model to evaluate the interdependencies of the four main contributing factors in managing the sustainable growth of a telecommunications network: (i) the network’s operational energy consumption; (ii) the embodied energy of network equipment; (iii) network traffic growth; and (iv) the expected energy efficiency improvements in both the operational and embodied phases. Using Monte Carlo techniques with real network data, our results demonstrate that under the current trends in overall energy efficiency improvements the network embodied energy will account for over 40% of the total network energy in 2025 compared to 20% in 2015. Further, we find that the optimum equipment replacement cycle, which will result in the lowest total network life cycle energy, is directly dependent on the technological progress in energy efficiency improvements of both operational and embodied phases. Our model and analysis highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to better understand the interactions between network growth, technological

  17. Material identification based upon energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying a material in a sample and imaging the sample are described herein. The material is identified by computing energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons that is caused by presence of the sample in travel paths of the neutrons. A mono-energetic neutron generator emits the neutron, which is downscattered in energy by a first detector unit. The neutron exits the first detector unit and is detected by a second detector unit subsequent to passing through the sample. Energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons passing through the sample is computed based upon a computed energy of the neutron, wherein such energy can be computed based upon 1) known positions of the neutron generator, the first detector unit, and the second detector unit; or 2) computed time of flight of neutrons between the first detector unit and the second detector unit.

  18. The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orphal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.

  19. The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixneuf, S.; Ruth, A. A.; Vaughan, S.; Varma, R. M.; Orphal, J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.

  20. Emissions of trace gases from Australian temperate forest fires: emission factors and dependence on modified combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérette, Elise-Andrée; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Smith, Thomas E. L.; Volkova, Liubov; Weston, Christopher J.; Meyer, Carl P.

    2018-03-01

    We characterised trace gas emissions from Australian temperate forest fires through a mixture of open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) measurements and selective ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and White cell FTIR analysis of grab samples. We report emission factors for a total of 25 trace gas species measured in smoke from nine prescribed fires. We find significant dependence on modified combustion efficiency (MCE) for some species, although regional differences indicate that the use of MCE as a proxy may be limited. We also find that the fire-integrated MCE values derived from our in situ on-the-ground open-path measurements are not significantly different from those reported for airborne measurements of smoke from fires in the same ecosystem. We then compare our average emission factors to those measured for temperate forest fires elsewhere (North America) and for fires in another dominant Australian ecosystem (savanna) and find significant differences in both cases. Indeed, we find that although the emission factors of some species agree within 20 %, including those of hydrogen cyanide, ethene, methanol, formaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene, others, such as acetic acid, ethanol, monoterpenes, ammonia, acetonitrile and pyrrole, differ by a factor of 2 or more. This indicates that the use of ecosystem-specific emission factors is warranted for applications involving emissions from Australian forest fires.

  1. Global Energy Trends - 2016 report. Towards a Peak in Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    Celebrating the 20. anniversary of this yearly publication, Enerdata has newly released its annual Global Energy Trends publication for 2016. The full report presents in-depth information on the energy markets as well as upcoming trends for all energies in the G20. With over 400 premium sources, Enerdata analysts highlight major developments in 2015 concerning global demand, supply and key indicators across the globe. The main trends outlined in the report are: - Economic slowdown: the lowest growth since 2002; - Almost no growth in energy consumption; - New decrease of energy intensity; - Stabilization of CO 2 -energy emissions; - INDC targets achievement requires a double breakthrough. The Global Energy Trends Analysis also provides additional graphs about trends by energy: - Coal: most consumed energy source in G20 countries; - Oil: fall in prices to around 40-50 US$/bbl; - Oil production: USA overtake Russia and catch up with Saudi Arabia; - Gas: Stabilisation of gas demand for the 2. consecutive year; - Electricity: Stagnation of electricity consumption; - Wind Power and Solar PV: Asia engine of development. Growth in energy consumption (%/year) for G20 countries: - Second consecutive year of decline: low growth and decrease in energy intensity; - India drives the energy consumption growth; - Near stagnation in China (after a first sharp slowdown in 2014); - Economic recession in Brazil and Russia; - USA: decrease primarily linked to the industrial sector (energy efficiency + less energy-intensive industry); - Rebound in Europe: economic growth + climate effect 2015/2014

  2. [Decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Qing; Shi, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary industry has been developed in recent years. And it is very important to find the factors influenced the energy-related carbon emissions in tertiary industry. A decomposition model of energy-related carbon emissions for China is set up by adopting logarithmic mean weight Divisia method based on the identity of carbon emissions. The model is adopted to analyze the influence of energy structure, energy efficiency, tertiary industry structure and economic output to energy-related carbon emissions in China from 2000 to 2009. Results show that the contribution rate of economic output and energy structure to energy-related carbon emissions increases year by year. Either is the contribution rate of energy efficiency or the tertiary industry restraining to energy-related carbon emissions. However, the restrain effect is weakening.

  3. Replacement policy of residential lighting optimized for cost, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixi; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Saitou, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Accounting for 10% of the electricity consumption in the US, artificial lighting represents one of the easiest ways to cut household energy bills and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by upgrading to energy-efficient technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and light emitting diodes (LED). However, given the high initial cost and rapidly improving trajectory of solid-state lighting today, estimating the right time to switch over to LEDs from a cost, primary energy, and GHG emissions perspective is not a straightforward problem. This is an optimal replacement problem that depends on many determinants, including how often the lamp is used, the state of the initial lamp, and the trajectories of lighting technology and of electricity generation. In this paper, multiple replacement scenarios of a 60 watt-equivalent A19 lamp are analyzed and for each scenario, a few replacement policies are recommended. For example, at an average use of 3 hr day-1 (US average), it may be optimal both economically and energetically to delay the adoption of LEDs until 2020 with the use of CFLs, whereas purchasing LEDs today may be optimal in terms of GHG emissions. In contrast, incandescent and halogen lamps should be replaced immediately. Based on expected LED improvement, upgrading LED lamps before the end of their rated lifetime may provide cost and environmental savings over time by taking advantage of the higher energy efficiency of newer models.

  4. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-07-01

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO2, NOX, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM10 (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO2e by 6-23 g CO2e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO2 and PM10 emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  5. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer, E-mail: mchester@cal.berkeley.edu, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.edu, E-mail: madanat@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM{sub 10} (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO{sub 2}e by 6-23 g CO{sub 2}e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  6. Assessing GHG emissions, and energy and economic analysis of cotton production in the Golestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Taheri-Rad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Golestan province is one of Northern provinces in Iran. The area under cultivation of agricultural products in this province is 724.697 hectares, of which about 694.618 hectares are used for farm products (AJMDC, 2011. Cotton as one of oilseed is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production (Ahmad et al., 2011. In the study of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for cotton production in Alborz province, results showed that the total energy input was 31.237 MJ ha-1. Energy efficiency and energy productivity were 1.85 and 0.11, respectively, and greenhouse gas emissions of cotton production in Alborz province were 1195.25 kg CO2eq ha-1 (Pishgar-Komleh et al., 2012. Another study on energy analysis, greenhouse gas emissions and economic analysis of agricultural production was performed in Northern Iran (AghaAlikhani et al., 2013; Royan et al., 2012; Pishgar-Komleh et al., 2011; Mohammadi et al., 2010; Taheri-Garavand et al., 2010. The aims of this study were to determine the energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and economic analysis of cotton production in the Golestan province and also to determine the effect of energy inputs on cotton yield. Materials and methods: This research was conducted during 2011-2012 in three areas including Gorgan, Aq’qala and Gonbad in the Golestan province. The primary data were collected from the rice producers through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The number of subjects were studied by the Cochran formula (Snedecor and Cochran, 1980. Accordingly, 43 cotton producers were determined. In this study, eight energy inputs including seed, labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, chemicals, water for irrigation and farmyard manure for cotton production system were considered as independent variables. The outputs of the system including lint and seed were considered as dependent variable. Energy indices including energy efficiency, energy productivity

  7. A time dependent search for neutrino emission from micro-quasars with the ANTARES telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galata, S.

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration has successfully built, deployed and is currently operating an underwater Cherenkov detector dedicated to high energy neutrino astronomy. The primary aim of the experiment is to detect cosmic sources of neutrinos in order to reveal the production sites of cosmic rays. Among the sources likely to be significant sources of neutrinos are those accelerating relativistic jets, like gamma ray bursts, active galactic nuclei and micro-quasars. Micro-quasars are binary systems formed by a compact object accreting mass from a companion star. The mass transfer causes the emission of X-rays, whereas the onset of magnetic forces in the accreting plasma can cause the acceleration of relativistic jets, which are observed by radio telescopes via their non-thermal synchrotron emission. In some systems, a correlation between X-ray and radio light curves indicates an interplay between accretion and ejection respectively. Some micro-quasars are also high energy and very high energy gamma ray emitters. In this thesis, a time dependent search for neutrino emission from micro-quasars was performed with a multi-messenger approach (photon/neutrino). The data from the X-ray monitors RXTE/ASM and SWIFT/BAT, and the gamma-ray telescope FERMI/LAT were used to select transient events in which the source was supposed to accelerate relativistic jets. The restriction of the analysis to the ejection periods allows a drastic reduction of atmospheric muon and neutrino background, and thus to increase the chances of a discovery. The search was performed with the ANTARES data taken between 2007 and 2010. Statistical analysis was carried out using an un-binned likelihood method based on a likelihood ratio test. The cuts for the event selection were optimized in order to maximize the chance of a discovery. As no neutrino signal was observed in correlation with these micro-quasars, upper limits on the neutrino fluxes of the micro-quasars under study were calculated and compared

  8. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Unexpected high-energy γ emission from decaying exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gottardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The N=52 Ga83 β decay was studied at ALTO. The radioactive 83Ga beam was produced through the ISOL photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of γ-ray emission following β decay. While β-delayed neutron emission has been measured to be 56–85% of the decay path, in this experiment an unexpected high-energy 5–9 MeV γ-ray yield of 16(4% was observed, coming from states several MeVs above the neutron separation threshold. This result is compared with cutting-edge QRPA calculations, which show that when neutrons deeply bound in the core of the nucleus decay into protons via a Gamow–Teller transition, they give rise to a dipolar oscillation of nuclear matter in the nucleus. This leads to large electromagnetic transition probabilities which can compete with neutron emission, thus affecting the β-decay path. This process is enhanced by an excess of neutrons on the nuclear surface and may thus be a common feature for very neutron-rich isotopes, challenging the present understanding of decay properties of exotic nuclei.

  10. High-Energy Emission from Colliding Winds in Massive Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael; Gull, Theodore; Pollock, Andy; Moffat, Anthony; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Pittard, Julian; Russell, Christopher

    Strong shocks produced by colliding winds in massive binaries was originally understood as a mechanism by which massive stellar systems could generate observable X-ray emission. The first X-ray observations of massive stars showed that most massive stars (binary or not) were X-ray sources, and also indicated that massive binaries were only slightly brighter in X-rays than their single cousins. Over the past three and a half decades, observations at X-ray and higher energy have confirmed the presence of variable, hard emission associated with colliding wind shocks in a number of important system. In this talk I'll review the status of our understanding of the production of X-rays from wind-wind shocks, and review some key observational X-ray spectral and temporal properties for some important colliding wind systems. I'll also discuss how the study of the X-ray emission generated along the colliding wind bow shock provides important information about the mass-loss process in massive binaries.

  11. High Energy Neutrino Emission from Astrophysical Jets in the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smponias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We address simulated neutrino emission originated from astrophysical jets of compact objects within the Galaxy. These neutrinos are of high energies (Eν of the order up to a few TeV and for their observation specialized instruments are in operation, both on Earth and in orbit. Furthermore, some next generation telescopes and detector facilities are in the process of design and construction. The jet flow simulations are performed using the modern PLUTO hydrocode in its relativistic magnetohydrodynamic version. One of the main ingredients of the present work is the presence of a toroidal magnetic field that confines the jet flow and furthermore greatly affects the distribution of the high energy neutrinos.

  12. Energy use and carbon emissions: Some international comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report examines international energy use patterns, trends, and energy-related carbon emissions since 1970. The main focus of this study is on the developed countries, represented by the members of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The study is organized as follows: (1) the OECD is placed in a world context; (2) aggregate-level information is then presented for an important part of the OECD, namely the Group of Seven (G-7) major industrialized countries (the US, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany -- defined in this report as western Germany only, except where indicated); and (3) individual economic sectors within the G-7 countries are broken out for detailed review

  13. CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the energy use; Les emissions de CO{sub 2} dues a l'utilisation de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document brings statistical data on the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the energy use only. Tables and charts present data for the CO{sub 2} emissions in France, in the world (2001-2002), in the OECD (2000-2002), the CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants and refineries in France (1996-1999) and archives of statistics on CO{sub 2} emissions. (A.L.B.)

  14. Role of nuclear energy in CO2 emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1675 and 1992 worldwide primary energy consumption has been multiplied by about 100 and has reached about 11 billions of tons of equivalent weight of coal, while human population has been multiplied by 8 and will probably reach 9 billions in 2030. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 production due to fossil fuel burn up will become a critical pollution and climatic problem which can be significantly reduced by a more widely use of nuclear energy in replacement of primary energies. However, perspectives of nuclear energy depend principally on the safety improvements of nuclear plants and on the solutions found to solve the management of radioactive waste. Renewable energies sources such as photovoltaic plants, wind engines, hydraulic plants have not yet been used at a large scale because they require large surfaces for their installation. To avoid any monolithic solution to solve the energy and environmental problems, a combination of renewable and nuclear energies seems to be a good compromise. For instance, the conception of a safety non-refueling nuclear reactor with an overheating hybrid system combining solar and fossil fuel energies should be conceivable. (J.S.)

  15. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.H.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  16. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H., E-mail: chyang@nuist.edu.c [Faculty of Maths and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xu, W. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  17. Total kinetic energy release in 239Pu(n ,f ) post-neutron emission from 0.5 to 50 MeV incident neutron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Duke, D. L.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Manning, B.; Meharchand, R.; Mosby, S.; Shields, D.

    2016-09-01

    The average total kinetic energy (T K E ¯) in 239Pu(n ,f ) has been measured for incident neutron energies between 0.5 and 50 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) using the neutron time-of-flight technique, and the kinetic energy of fission fragments post-neutron emission was measured in a double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. This represents the first experimental study of the energy dependence of T K E ¯ in 239Pu above neutron energies of 6 MeV.

  18. Estimating emissions on vehicular traffic based on projected energy and transport demand on rural roads: Policies for reducing air pollutant emissions and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozan, Cenk; Haldenbilen, Soner; Ceylan, Halim

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the estimation of emissions caused by vehicular traffic based on transport demand and energy consumption. Projected transport demand is calculated with Genetic Algorithm (GA) using population, gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the number of vehicles. The energy consumption is modelled with the GA using the veh-km. The model age of the vehicles and their corresponding share for each year using the reference years is obtained. The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. All the calculations are made in line to meet the European standards. For this purpose, two cases are composed. Case 1: Emissions based on energy consumption, and Case 2: Emissions based on transport demand. The both cases are compared. Three policies are proposed to control demand and the emissions. The policies provided the best results in terms of minimum emissions and the reasonable share of highway and railway mode as 70% and 30% usage for policy I, respectively. The emission calculation procedure presented in this study would provide an alternative way to make policies when there is no adequate data on emission measurement in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Emissions caused by vehicular traffic are modelled. → The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. → All the calculations are made in line with to meet the European standards. → The calculation procedure will provide an alternative way to make policies. → The procedure will help planners to convince politicians to impose policies.

  19. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-01-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from ~5 K to ~300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Energy based model for temperature dependent ferromagnetic behavior. • Simultaneously accounts for effect of temperature and inhomogeneities. • Benchmarked against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K.

  20. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  1. Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.

  2. Energy resources' utilization in organic and conventional vineyards: Energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavargiris, Stefanos E.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Nikolaidou, Anna E.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.

    2009-01-01

    An energy analysis, in conventional and organic vineyards, combined with ethanol production and greenhouse gas emissions, is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy flow between organic and conventional vineyards in three locations, to calculate CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O-emissions based on the used fossil energy and to explore if wine industry wastes can be used to extract bioethanol. The data were collected through personal interviews with farmers during 2004-2005. Eighteen farmers, who owned vineyards about 1 ha each, were randomly selected to participate in this study [(3 conventional and 3 organic) x 3 locations]. The means averaged over all locations for fertilizer application, plant protection products application, transportation, harvesting, labor, machinery, fuels, plant protections products and tools energy inputs, total energy inputs, outputs (grapes), outputs (grapes + shoots), grape yield, man hour, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher in conventional than in organic vineyards, while the opposite occurred for the pruning. Means averaged over two farming systems for harvesting, tools energy inputs, energy outputs (grapes), grape yield, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher at location A, followed by location C and location B. Finally, for irrigation, the means averaged over the two farming systems were significantly lower at location C. Greenhouse gas emissions were significant lower in organic than in conventional vineyards. The results show a clear response of energy inputs to energy outputs that resulted from the farming system and location. (author)

  3. Constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.G.; Zhang, Y.; Coupland, D.; Danielewicz, P; Famiano, M.; Li, Z.; Tsang, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The density dependence of the symmetry energy plays an important role in nuclear masses, fission barriers, collective excitations, and neutron skin thicknesses of neutron-rich nuclei. It also governs many properties of the neutron stars such as their radii, the thickness of their inner crusts, phase transitions in the stellar interior, seismic activity, and cooling rates. Experiments are beginning to provide constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities. This talk will review the measurements and some of the constraints that have been obtained so far. (author)

  4. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-12-06

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  5. Energy and environmental policies relating to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions mitigation and energy conservation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.T.

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are becoming significant energy and environmental issues relating to energy consumption in Taiwan. The nation, although not a party to the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol, has diligently strived to mitigate the emissions and phase out use of the responsible materials. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are now mostly used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, are the main GHGs associated with strong global warming potential. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the industrial/commercial uses of HFCs in Taiwan. Because of their high impacts on climate change, the description is then centered on estimating the potential emissions of HFCs according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and the governmental organizations responses to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The regulatory systems relating to HFCs mitigation and energy conservation and energy policies and promotion measures for providing technological assistances and financial incentives in the energy management, resource recovery and HFCs reduction/recycling technologies are also addressed in the paper

  6. Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

  7. Towards real energy economics: Energy policy driven by life-cycle carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, R.; Law, C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy technologies (AETs) have emerged as a solution to the challenge of simultaneously meeting rising electricity demand while reducing carbon emissions. However, as all AETs are responsible for some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during their construction, carbon emission 'Ponzi Schemes' are currently possible, wherein an AET industry expands so quickly that the GHG emissions prevented by a given technology are negated to fabricate the next wave of AET deployment. In an era where there are physical constraints to the GHG emissions the climate can sustain in the short term this may be unacceptable. To provide quantitative solutions to this problem, this paper introduces the concept of dynamic carbon life-cycle analyses, which generate carbon-neutral growth rates. These conceptual tools become increasingly important as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy by reducing fossil fuel combustion. In choosing this method of evaluation it was possible to focus uniquely on reducing carbon emissions to the recommended levels by outlining the most carbon-effective approach to climate change mitigation. The results of using dynamic life-cycle analysis provide policy makers with standardized information that will drive the optimization of electricity generation for effective climate change mitigation.

  8. Accounting for time-dependent effects in biofuel life cycle greenhouse gas emissions calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alissa; Chang, Brenda; Sharpe, Benjamin

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a time correction factor (TCF) to properly account for the timing of land use change-derived greenhouse gas emissions in the biofuels life cycle. Land use change emissions occur at the outset of biofuel feedstock production, and are typically amortized over an assumed time horizon to assign the burdens of land use change to multiple generations of feedstock crops. Greenhouse gas intensity calculations amortize emissions by dividing them equally over a time horizon, overlooking the fact that the effect of a greenhouse gas increases with the time it remains in the atmosphere. The TCF is calculated based on the relative climate change effect of an emission occurring at the outset of biofuel feedstock cultivation versus one amortized over a time horizon. For time horizons between 10 and 50 years, the TCF varies between 1.7 and 1.8 for carbon dioxide emissions, indicating that the actual climate change effect of an emission is 70-80% higher than the effect of its amortized values. The TCF has broad relevance for correcting the treatment of emissions timing in other life cycle assessment applications, such as emissions from capital investments for production systems or manufacturing emissions for renewable energy technologies.

  9. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  10. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant.

  11. Secondary-electron-emission spectroscopy of tungsten: Angular dependence and phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, R.F.; Christensen, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    Angle-resolved energy-distribution measurements of secondary-electron emission (SEE) from metals reveal spectral fine structure that relates directly to the density distribution of the one-electron states throughout E-K space located above the vacuum level E/sub v/. The angular dependence of the SEE spectra from (100), (110), and (111) tungsten surfaces has been studied as a function of polar angle 0 0 0 along azimuthal directions phi such that the energy- and angle-resolved SEE current j/sub SEE/ (E, Ω) effectively scans states throughout the 1/48th irreducible body-centered-cubic zone. Calculations have been carried out in both ''reduced'' and ''extended'' K space in order to assess the relative contribution of elastic umklapp scattering to the density distribution of contributing states profiles. The results indicate that the overall secondary-electron yield may be represented as the sum of basically two contributions J/sup total//sub SEE/ = ∫/sup π/ 0 dΩ ∫/sup E//sup max/ 0 j/sub SEE/ (E,Ω)2dE = J/sup bulk//sub SEE/ + J/sup surface/ /sub SEE/. The bulk contribution represents emission due to Bloch waves propagating out of states in the semi-infinite crystal; the surface contribution represents that part of the current due to evanescent waves at the metal-vacuum interface. Transmission-induced spectral features are observed (transmission resonances), which are not related to the density-of-states fine structure, but are due to a quantum-mechanical enhancement in the escape probability arising from wave-function matching at the emitter-vacuum interface. Bulk and surface band-structure effects are concurrently manifest in the SEE spectra via the wave-matching conditions imposed at the solid-vacuum interface. Results are discussed within the general conceptual framework provided by ''the (time-reversed) incoming final-state wave-function'' approach to electron emission phenomenology of metal surfaces

  12. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies, including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution, was developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (1 the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed, (2 the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand, and (3 the use of other renewable energy sources, including a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pumping station, with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid. The use of an integrated solution (water and energy proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power, and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations, as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  13. Study of heavy quarkonium with energy dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pramila; Mehrotra, I

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that charmonium and bottonium states can be calculated by using a nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation. The basic reasons are: 1) the mass of charm and bottom quarks is much larger than QCD scale, which makes this system free of strong normalization effects and 2) the binding energy is small compared to the mass energy ψ and γ states in terms of nonrelativistic qq system governed by more or less phenomenological potentials. In the present work we have studied mass spectra of charmonium and bottonium using the following energy dependent model in the framework of nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation

  14. Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Li; Dong, Suocheng; Xue, Li; Yang, Quanxi; Liang; Wangzhou

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based dynamic OLS to re-investigate the co-movement and relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1985 to 2007. The empirical results show that there is a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption variables. Furthermore, we investigate two cross-regional groups, namely the east China and west China groups, and get more important results and implications. In the long-term, a 1% increase in real GDP per capita increases the consumption of energy by approximately 0.48-0.50% and accordingly increases the carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.41-0.43% in China. The economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and the income elasticity of energy consumption in east China is over 2 times that of the west China. At present, China is subject to tremendous pressures for mitigating climate change issues. It is possible that the GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions would be controlled in a range from 0.2 to 0.3 by the great effort. (author)

  15. Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emission Factors from Energy Consumption in Guangdong Province from 1990 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions research based on regional perspective is necessary and helpful for China to achieve its reduction targets. This research aims at analyzing the energy-related carbon emissions and finding out the most important driving forces for the carbon emissions increments in Guangdong province. LMDI (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method based on the extended Kaya identity has been used to explore the main driving factors for energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong province annually between 1990 and 2014. Research results show that the impacts and influences of various factors on carbon emissions are different in the different development stages. Economic growth effect and population size effect are the two most important driving factors for the increased carbon emissions. Energy intensity effect played the dominant role in curbing carbon emissions. Energy structure effect and technical progress effect had different but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions during the five different development stages.

  16. Indicators of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency. Comparison of Finland with other countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The generic technology options recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to reduce fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions include efficiency improvements both in the supply and use of energy, switching to less carbon-intensive fuels, and switching to renewable energy resources. The present study considers, using indicators based on statistics, to which extent these options are already being utilized in various OECD countries. The efficiency of energy production is high in Finland, due to extensive utilization of cogeneration of electricity and heat both for industry and for the tertiary and residential sectors. The use of sustainable produced biomass for combined heat and power generation is the largest in the world. About 10 % of the total national electricity production is generated using wood-derived fuels and modern power plant technologies. Improvements in the energy efficiency of manufacturing industries during the last twenty years in Finland are similar to the average in OECD countries, and the relative decrease in CO{sub 2} intensity has been more rapid than that in the OECD as a whole. In the manufacturing of pulp and paper, and iron and steel, Finnish industries are among the most efficient; however, the differences in energy intensities among the countries considered are relatively small in these sectors. The energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions attributable to the Finnish residential sector are low, despite the cold climate, due to good insulation of houses and cogeneration of heat and power. If the dependency of heating energy demand on climatic conditions is accounted for using heating degree-day corrections, the values for Finland are among the lowest among the western industrialized nations. The energy demand in Finland for the transport sector is in general relatively low; in particular, the energy use in road freight transport per tonnekilometer is the lowest of the countries studied. (orig.) 50 refs.

  17. Energy resolution methods efficiency depending on beam source ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 69; Issue 3. Energy resolution methods efficiency depending on beam source position of potassium clusters in time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ş Şentürk F Demiray O Özsoy. Research Articles Volume 69 Issue 3 September 2007 pp 459-465 ...

  18. On solving energy-dependent partitioned eigenvalue problem by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An energy-dependent partitioning scheme is explored for extracting a small number of eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix with the help of genetic algorithm. The proposed method is tested with matrices of different sizes (30 × 30 to 1000 × 1000). Comparison is made with Löwdin's strategy for solving the problem.

  19. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 71; Issue 6. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A comparison between MgB2, NbSe2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductors. S D Kaushik V Braccini S Patnaik. Research Articles Volume 71 Issue 6 December 2008 pp 1335-1343 ...

  20. Energy Dependence of Near-relativistic Electron Spectrum at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... This may give us some insight into how we can safeguard geostationary satellites from functional anomalies of the deep dielectric charging type, which are caused by charge accumulation and subsequent discharge of relativistic electrons. In this study we examine whether there is any energy dependence ...

  1. On solving energy-dependent partitioned eigenvalue problem by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An energy-dependent partitioning scheme is explored for extracting a small number of eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix with the help of genetic algorithm. The proposed method is tested with matrices of different sizes (30 × 30 to 1000 × 1000). Com- parison is made with Löwdin's strategy for solving the ...

  2. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy- dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional. Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface exci- tations of the fusing nuclei are found to ...

  3. Impact of density-dependent symmetry energy and Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-07

    Mar 7, 2014 ... ter in the events of big bang, supernova explosions, and in the interior of neutron stars. Therefore, it becomes possible to understand the thermodynamical properties of strongly interacting matter. In addition to the reaction conditions, the symmetry energy, i.e. the isospin-dependent part of nuclear equation ...

  4. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface excitations of the fusing nuclei are found to be ...

  5. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  6. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO 2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO 2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO 2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO 2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO 2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO 2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO 2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO 2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  7. The influence of the waterjet propulsion system on the ships' energy consumption and emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Grados, Vanesa; Mejías, Javier; Musina, Liliya; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2018-03-09

    In this study we consider the problems associated with calculating ships' energy and emission inventories. Various related uncertainties are described in many similar studies published in the last decade, and applying to Europe, the USA and Canada. However, none of them have taken into account the performance of ships' propulsion systems. On the one hand, when a ship uses its propellers, there is no unanimous agreement on the equations used to calculate the main engines load factor and, on the other, the performance of waterjet propulsion systems (for which this variable depends on the speed of the ship) has not been taken into account in any previous studies. This paper proposes that the efficiency of the propulsion system should be included as a new parameter in the equation that defines the actual power delivered by a ship's main engines, as applied to calculate energy consumption and emissions in maritime transport. To highlight the influence of the propulsion system on calculated energy consumption and emissions, the bottom-up method has been applied using data from eight fast ferries operating across the Strait of Gibraltar over the course of one year. This study shows that the uncertainty about the efficiency of the propulsion system should be added as one more uncertainty in the energy and emission inventories for maritime transport as currently prepared. After comparing four methods for this calculation, the authors propose a new method for eight cases. For the calculation of the Main Engine's fuel oil consumption, differences up to 22% between some methods were obtained at low loads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emission of CO2 from energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhollow, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The production of cellulosic energy crops (e.g., short rotation woody crops and herbaceous crops) make a net contribution of CO 2 to the atmosphere to the extent that fossil-fuel based inputs are used in their production. The CO 2 released from the use of the biomass is merely CO 2 that has recently been removed from the atmosphere by the plant growth process. Fossil inputs used in the production of energy corps include energy invested in fertilizers and pesticides, and petroleum fuels used for machinery operation such as site preparation, weed control, harvesting, and hauling. Fossil inputs used come from petroleum, natural gas, and electricity derived from fossil sources. No fossil inputs for the capital used to produce fertilizers, pesticides, or machinery is calculated in this analysis. In this paper calculations are made for the short rotation woody crop hybrid poplar (Populus spp.), the annual herbaceous crop sorghum (Sorghum biocolor [L.] Moench), and the perennial herbaceous crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). For comparison purposes, emissions of CO 2 from corn (Zea mays L.) are calculated

  9. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S.N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Tang, Y.S.; Braban, C.F.; Vieno, M.; Dore, A.J.; Mitchell, R.F.; Wanless, S.; Daunt, F.; Fowler, D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Blackall, T.D. [Department of Geography, Strand Campus, Kings College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theobald, M.R. [Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Milford, C. [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38071 (Spain); Flechard, C.R. [INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR 1069 SAS, 65 rue de St. Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Loubet, B.; Massad, R.; Cellier, P.; Personne, E. [UMR INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Coheur, P.F.; Clarisse, L.; Van Damme, M.; Ngadi, Y. [Spectroscopie de l' atmosphere, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 avenue F. D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Clerbaux, C. [Universite Paris 06, Universite Versailles-St. Quentin, UMR8190, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris (France); Geels, C.; Hertel, O. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ambelas Skjoeth, C. [National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Henwick Grove, Worcester WR2 6AJ (United Kingdom); Wichink Kruit, R.J. [TNO, Climate, Air and Sustainability, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Pinder, R.W.; Bash, J.O.; Walker, J.T. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Durham, NC 27711 (United States); Simpson, D. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, EMEP MSC-W, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, 0313 Oslo (Norway); Horvath, L. [Plant Ecology Research Group of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany and Ecophysiology, Szent Istvan University, Pater K. utca 1, 2100 Goedoello (Hungary); Misselbrook, T.H. [Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, North Wyke, Okehampton EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dentener, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); De Vries, W. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5{sup o}C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28-67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45-85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89-179) Tg by 2100.

  10. Improved age-diffusion model for low-energy electron transport in solids. II. Application to secondary emission from aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubus, A.; Devooght, J.; Dehaes, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The ''improved age-diffusion'' model for secondary-electron transport is applied to aluminum. Electron cross sections for inelastic collisions with the free-electron gas using the Lindhard dielectric function and for elastic collisions with the randomly distributed ionic cores are used in the calculations. The most important characteristics of backward secondary-electron emission induced by low-energy electrons on polycrystalline Al targets are calculated and compared to experimental results and to Monte Carlo calculations. The model appears to predict the electronic yield, the energy spectra, and the spatial dependence of secondary emission with reasonable accuracy

  11. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    addition to prospective analysis for standards and certification, urban form modeling can also be useful in calculating or verifying ex post facto, bottom-up carbon emissions inventories. Emissions inventories provide a benchmark for evaluating future outcomes and scenarios as well as an empirical basis for valuing low-carbon technologies. By highlighting the embodied energy and emissions of building materials, the LCA approach can also be used to identify the most intensive aspects of industrial production and the supply chain. The agent based modeling aspect of the model can be useful for understanding how policy incentives can impact individual behavior and the aggregate effects thereof. The most useful elaboration of the urban form assessment model would be to further generalize it for comparative analysis. Scenario analysis could be used for benchmarking and identification of policy priorities. If the model is to be used for inventories, it is important to disaggregate the energy use data for more accurate emissions modeling. Depending on the policy integration of the model, it may be useful to incorporate occupancy data for per-capita results. On the question of density and efficiency, it may also be useful to integrate a more explicit spatial scaling mechanism for modeling neighborhood and city-level energy use and emissions, i.e. to account for scaling effects in public infrastructure and transportation.

  12. Energy-dominated local carbon emissions in Beijing 2007: inventory and input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J B; Shao, Ling; Li, J S; An, Y R

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO(2)-eq, of which energy-related CO(2) emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO(2) emissions 6.35%, CH(4) emissions 2.33%, and N(2)O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO(2) emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO(2)-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO(2)-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  13. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J. B.; Shao, Ling; Li, J. S.; An, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers. PMID:23193385

  14. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  15. The Effect of Wavelength-Dependent Emissivity on the Melting Temperatures of Iron From Shock Wave Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, D. L.; Mark, H.

    2012-12-01

    The high-pressure melting curve of iron at the conditions of the outer core is anchored by the shock wave measurements of Bass et. al. 1987. They used spectral radiometric techniques, looking at shocked iron films or foils through a transparent anvil. They assumed that the emissivity of the iron was independent of wavelength. The wavelength dependence of the emissivity of fcc and bcc iron was measured by Taylor, 1952. Both structures have a change in emissivity of 20% over 200nm in the visible, although the absolute magnitude of the emissivity is different. In the measurement of temperature using spectral radiometry, the absolute value of the emissivity does not effect the temperature measurement. In iron the 3d-bands straddle the Fermi Energy in any close packed structure (Boness and Brown, 1990). The electrons at the Fermi Energy can easily be promoted into the empty states of the conduction band, and thus are the basis of the electronic contribution to the heat capacity. It is these same electrons in the 3d-bands that also control the emissivity. With increasing wavelength, more electrons are promoted into the conduction band, which means the emissivity is higher at shorter wavelengths than at longer wavelengths. We reanalyzed the shock wave data of Bass et. al. using the wavelength dependent emissivity. The corrected melting temperature of iron at 243 GPa is 5900 +/-500 K compared to Bass et. al.'s determination of 6700 +/- 400 K. This is just slightly higher then the estimate (based upon the assumption of the heat capacity being equal to 5R) of Brown and McQueen, 1986 of 5000-5700 K, and in good agreement with theoretical calculations of Alfe, 2010. Alfe, D., 2010, Rev. Min. and Geochem., 71, 337-354. Bass, J. D., B. Svendsen, and T. J. Ahrens, 1987, M. H. Manghnani and Y. Syono, Terra Scientific Publishing Co. / American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C., 393-402. Boness, D. A., and J. M. Brown, 1990, JGR, 95, 21,721-30. Brown, J. M. and R. G. Mc

  16. Spectral and temperature-dependent infrared emissivity measurements of painted metals for improved temperature estimation during laser damage testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Sean M.; Keenan, Cameron; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2014-10-01

    A database of spectral and temperature-dependent emissivities was created for painted Al-alloy laser-damage-testing targets for the purpose of improving the uncertainty to which temperature on the front and back target surfaces may be estimated during laser-damage testing. Previous temperature estimates had been made by fitting an assumed gray-body radiance curve to the calibrated spectral radiance data collected from the back surface using a Telops Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS). In this work, temperature-dependent spectral emissivity measurements of the samples were made from room temperature to 500 °C using a Surface Optics Corp. SOC-100 Hemispherical Directional Reflectometer (HDR) with Nicolet FTS. Of particular interest was a high-temperature matte-black enamel paint used to coat the rear surfaces of the Al-alloy samples. The paint had been assumed to have a spectrally flat and temperatureinvariant emissivity. However, the data collected using the HDR showed both spectral variation and temperature dependence. The uncertainty in back-surface temperature estimation during laser-damage testing made using the measured emissivities was improved from greater than +10 °C to less than +5 °C for IFTS pixels away from the laser burn-through hole, where temperatures never exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR measurements. At beam center, where temperatures exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR, uncertainty in temperature estimates grew beyond those made assuming gray-body emissivity. Accurate temperature estimations during laser-damage testing are useful in informing a predictive model for future high-energy-laser weapon applications.

  17. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  18. CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.S.; Zhou, D.Q.; Zhou, P.; Wang, Q.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real economic output using panel cointegration and panel vector error correction modeling techniques based on the panel data for 28 provinces in China over the period 1995-2007. Our empirical results show that CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth have appeared to be cointegrated. Moreover, there exists bidirectional causality between CO 2 emissions and energy consumption, and also between energy consumption and economic growth. It has also been found that energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for energy consumption. The results indicate that China's CO 2 emissions will not decrease in a long period of time and reducing CO 2 emissions may handicap China's economic growth to some degree. Some policy implications of the empirical results have finally been proposed. - Highlights: → We conduct a panel data analysis of the energy-CO 2 -economy nexus in China. → CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic growth appear to be cointegrated. → There exists bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth. → Energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO 2 emissions.

  19. Coordination of the EU's emissions trading, energy taxation and subsidies for energy production. Interim Report by the Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Working Group was to make preparations for the coordination of emissions trading in the European Union, energy taxation and energy production subsidies. It was supposed to issue an interim report on the role of energy taxation by 15 December 2003. In its interim report, the Working Group examined the present energy taxation scheme and the needs for its development upon the start-up of EU-wide emissions trading in 2005. The aim has been to recognise the immediate needs for amending energy taxation and energy tax subsidies in the near future while taking account of the outlines set out in the Government Programme. From the climate policy perspective, emissions trading is an efficient means of steering, because the commitment set for the emissions trading sector can be met by means of it. At the first stage, the EU's emissions trading will concern carbon dioxide emissions only, and in the future probably also other greenhouse gas emissions mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol. Its steering effect does not extend to other emissions, such as acidifying emissions. Other measures will be required for curbing them. Emissions trading is not a sufficient instrument for energy policy, although it partly directs development in a direction that is favourable for energy policy targets. On top of that, the most important steering mechanism of emissions trading, the price of an emission allowance, is beyond the reach of Finnish energy policy. It is determined on the EU-wide emission allowances market. The current energy taxation and energy tax subsidies safeguard the position of renewable energy sources in the circumstances of emissions trading. The competitiveness of domestic fuels, too, can be partly secured with current taxes. In the energy production of communities and industry, energy wood often replaces peat. i.e. two domestic and local fuels are competing against one another. In condensing power production peat is clearly losing more of its competitive edge the higher the

  20. Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xianshuo; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Kang, Jidong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors impacting China’s emissions from a sectoral perspective. • Sector-specific policies and measures for emissions mitigation were evaluated. • Economic growth dominantly increased the emissions in the economic sectors. • Energy intensity decrease primarily reduced the emissions in the economic sectors. • Residential emissions growth was mainly driven by increase in per-capita energy use. - Abstract: In order to better understand sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, this study utilized a logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to study emission changes from a sectoral perspective. Based on the decomposition results, recently implemented policies and measures for emissions mitigation in China were evaluated. The results show that for the economic sectors, economic growth was the dominant factor in increasing emissions from 1996 to 2011, whereas the decline in energy intensity was primarily responsible for the emission decrease. As a result of the expansion of industrial development, economic structure change also contributed to growth in emissions. For the residential sector, increased emissions were primarily driven by an increase in per-capita energy use, which is partially confirmed by population migration. For all sectors, the shift in energy mix and variation in emission coefficient only contributed marginally to the emissions changes. The decomposition results imply that energy efficiency policy in China has been successful during the past decade, i.e., Top 1000 Priorities, Ten-Key Projects programs, the establishment of fuel consumption limits and vehicle emission standards, and encouragement of efficient appliances. Moreover, the results also indicate that readjusting economic structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is urgently required in order to further mitigate emissions in China

  1. Sustainable development relevant comparison of the greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chains of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Vate, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is emphasized that sustainable energy planning should account for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the whole energy chain, hence accounting not only carbon dioxide as the greenhouse gas and not only for the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions from the worldwide energy use can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy-chain (FENCH) emissions of all GHGs. Only energy sources with similar output can be compared. This study investigates electricity generating technologies, which are compared in terms their GHG emission factors to be expressed in CO 2 -equivalents per kW.h(e). Earlier IAEA expert meetings are reviewed. A general meeting made general recommendations about methods and input data bases for FENCH-GHG analysis. Two more recent meetings dealt with the energy chains of nuclear and hydropower. The site-specific character of the emission factors of these energy sources is discussed. Both electricity generators have emission factors in the range of 5-30 g CO 2 -equiv./kW.h(e), which is very low compared to the FENCH-GHG emission factors of fossil-fueled power generation and of most of the renewable power generators. (author)

  2. Energy use, emissions, economic growth and trade: A Granger non-causality evidence for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Mohd Adib; Mawar, Murni Yunus

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship among energy, emissions and economic growth in Malaysia with the presence of trade activities. We employ Johansen’s (1995) approach to investigate the relationship. Using annual data from 1971 to 2007, the empirical results shows that there are long-run causalities among energy, emission and economic growth, and among energy, emissions, export and capital, while the short-run Granger non-causality test shows that there are unidirectional causalities ru...

  3. Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2014-01-01

    This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation

  4. Computing more proper covariances of energy dependent nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhanen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper. • We provide methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances in ENDF-6 format. • We propose methods to find nearby more proper covariances. • The methods can be used as a part of a quality assurance program. - Abstract: We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper in the sense that the covariances are positive, i.e., its eigenvalues are non-negative, and consistent with respect to the sum rules of nuclear data. For the ENDF-6 format covariances we present methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances. These methods would be useful as a part of a quality assurance program. We also propose methods that can be used to find nearby more proper energy dependent covariances. These methods can be used to remove unphysical components, while preserving most of the physical components. We consider several different senses in which the nearness can be measured. These methods could be useful if a re-evaluation of improper covariances is not feasible. Two practical examples are processed and analyzed. These demonstrate some of the properties of the methods. We also demonstrate that the ENDF-6 format covariances of linearly dependent nuclear data should usually be encoded with the derivation rules.

  5. The effect of interligand energy transfer on the emission spectra of heteroleptic Ir complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang-Jin; Kim, So-Yoen; Son, Ho-Jin; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2017-03-29

    In order to understand the causes of the emission shape and colour changes of heteroleptic Ir 3+ complexes containing 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) as the main ligands, we introduced two types of ancillary ligands: (1) non-luminescent ancillary ligands, namely tetrakis(pyrazolyl)borate (bor) and picolinate (pic), which were employed for the preparation of Ir(dfppy) 2 (bor) and Ir(dfppy) 2 (pic), respectively, and (2) luminescent ancillary ligands, namely 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), bipyridine (bpy), and 2,3-dipyridylpyrazine (dpp), which were employed for the preparation of Ir(dfppy) 2 (phen), Ir(dfppy) 2 (bpy), and Ir(dfppy) 2 (dpp), respectively. In a glassy matrix at 77 K, the Ir complexes showed well-structured emission spectra, except Ir(dfppy) 2 (dpp). The vibronic structures in the emission spectra of Ir(dfppy) 2 (bor) and Ir(dfppy) 2 (pic) were maintained even at 300 K. However, Ir(dfppy) 2 (phen), Ir(dfppy) 2 (bpy), and Ir(dfppy) 2 (dpp) showed markedly red-shifted and broad emission spectra. The anomalous rigidochromism was attributed to an interligand energy transfer (ILET), and showed a strong temperature dependence. The excited states of dfppy are higher than those of phen, bpy, and dpp; thus, ILET occurs from dfppy to the other ligands lying in lower energy states. The ILET dynamics were probed directly using femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy after the excitation of dfppy. As the time delay increased, the intensity of the TA band of dfppy decreased, while those of the bands related to the phen, bpy, and dpp ancillary ligands increased. On the other hand, no changes in the TA spectra were observed for Ir(dfppy) 2 (bor) and Ir(dfppy) 2 (pic). The TA spectral behaviours can be explained in terms of the relative ordering of the emissive states for cyclometalating and ancillary ligands.

  6. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from hybrid poplar depend on CO2 concentration and genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, A. S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Hybrid poplar is a fast-growing tree species that is likely to be an important source of biomass for the production of cellulose-based biofuels and may influence regional atmospheric chemistry through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We used proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry to measure VOC emissions from the leaves of four different hybrid poplar genotypes grown under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (650 ppm) carbon dioxide concentration (CO2). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether VOC emissions are different among genotypes and whether these emissions are likely to change as atmospheric CO2 rises. Methanol and isoprene made up over 90% of the VOC emissions and were strongly dependent on leaf age, with young leaves producing primarily methanol and switching to isoprene production as they matured. Monoterpene emissions were small, but tended to be higher in young leaves. Plants grown under elevated CO2 emitted smaller quantities of both methanol and isoprene, but the magnitude of the effect was dependent on genotype. Isoprene emission rates from mature leaves dropped from ~35 to ~28 nmol m-2 s-1 when plants were grown under elevated CO2. Emissions from individuals grown under ambient CO2 varied more based on genotype than those grown under elevated CO2, which means that we might expect smaller differences between genotypes in the future. Genotype and CO2 also affected how much carbon (C) individuals allocated to the production of VOCs. The emission rate of C from VOCs was 0.5 - 2% of the rate at which C was assimilated via net photosynthesis. The % C emitted was strongly related to genotype; clones from crosses between Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa (T x D) allocated a greater % of their C to VOC emissions than clones from crosses of P. deltoids and P. nigra (D x N). Individuals from all four genotypes allocated a smaller % of their C to the emission of VOCs when they were grown under elevated CO2. These results

  7. Contribution of electric energy to the process of elimination of low emission sources in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, J.; Mejer, T.; Wybranski, A. [Power Distribution Plant, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    At present energy supply belongs to the most important global problems. A significant part of energy is consumed for residential heating purposes. Depending on climatic conditions, fuel distribution and the level of technological development, the contribution of these purposes ranges between ca. 50% (Poland) and ca. 12% (Spain). The power engineering structure in Poland is based almost exclusively upon solid fuels, i.e. hard and brown coal. Chemical compounds (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) produced in combustion process influence negatively the natural environment. The contribution of residential heating in this negative effect is rather significant. Because of the fact, that the resources of fossil fuels (the most important source of energy at present) are limited and their influence on natural environment is negative, efforts are made to find out more effective ways of energy consumption and to reduce the pollutant emission from heating sources. This problem is a topical issue in Cracow, especially during the heating season because the coal-fired stoves situated in the central part of the town remain the most important source of pollutant emission. These sources cause serious menace to the health of inhabitants; furthermore the pollutants destroy Cracow monuments entered in the UNESCO world list of human heritage.

  8. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 090217A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is advancing our knowledge of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through pioneering observations at high energies, covering more than seven decades in energy with the two on-board detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Here, we report on the observation of the long GRB 090217A which triggered the GBM and has been detected by the LAT with a significance greater than 9σ. We present the GBM and LAT observations and on-ground analyses, including the time-resolved spectra and the study of the temporal profile from 8 keV up to ∼1 GeV. All spectra are well reproduced by a Band model. We compare these observations to the first two LAT-detected, long bursts GRB 080825C and GRB 080916C. These bursts were found to have time-dependent spectra and exhibited a delayed onset of the high-energy emission, which are not observed in the case of GRB 090217A. We discuss some theoretical implications for the high-energy emission of GRBs.

  9. Energy and mass dependence of isotopic enrichment in sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Shutthanandan, V; Ray, P

    2003-01-01

    Silver, copper, and boron (from a boron nitride target) were sputtered with xenon ions. The isotopic composition of secondary ions of silver was measured at ion energies ranging from 300 eV to 3 keV and, for copper and boron, at 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 keV. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The secondary ions were detected at a small emission angle by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The secondary-ion flux of silver was found to be enriched in heavy isotopes at lower incident-ion energies. The heavy-isotope enrichment was observed to decrease with increasing primary-ion energy. Beyond 500 eV, light isotopes of silver were sputtered preferentially with the enrichment increasing to a constant value of 1.018. The sputtered flux of copper and boron also indicated constant enrichments (1.008 and 1.281 for copper and boron respectively) in light isotopes at high ion energies. (orig.)

  10. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  11. High-energy emission from star-forming galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Rephaeli, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the convection-diffusion model for energetic electron and proton propagation, and accounting for al lthe relevant hadronic and leptonic processes, the steady-state energy distributions of these particles in the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253 can be determined with a detailed numerical treatment. The electron distribution is directly normalized by the measured synchrotron radioemission from the central starburst region; a commonly expected theoretical relationis then used to normalize the proton spectrum in thisr egion, and a radial profile is assumed for the magnetic field. The resulting radiative yields of electrons and protons are calculated: thepredicted > 100MeV and > 100GeV fluxes are in agreement with the corresponding quantities measured with the orbiting Fermite lescope and the ground-based VERITAS and HESS Cherenkov telescopes. The cosmic-rayenergy densities in central regions of starburst galaxies, as inferred from the radioand γ-ray measurements of (respectively) non-thermal synchrotron and π 0 -decay emission, are U p = O(100)eVcm -3 , i.e. at least an order of magnitude larger than near the Galactic center and in other non-very-actively star-forming galaxies. These very different energy density levelsr eflect a similar disparity in the respective supernova rates in the two environments. A L γ proper to SFR 1.4 relationship is then predicted, in agreement with preliminary observational evidence.

  12. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under-utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fired power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide-equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base.

  13. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Brook, B.W. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart TAS (Australia); Meneley, D.A. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Misak, J. [UJV-Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Blees, T. [Science Council for Global Initiatives, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Van Erp, J.B. [Illinois Commission on Atomic Energy, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  14. Study of high energy emissions from stellar mass accreting holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadolle-Bel, Marion

    2006-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of various X-ray binary Systems harbouring accreting stellar mass black holes (or candidates) associated in X-ray binary Systems mainly through the spectral and timing properties of the high energy 3 keV -1 MeV emission, sometimes completed by observations performed in radio, near-infrared and optical. The first part is devoted to accretion physics phenomena and the challenges of understanding the X-ray/gamma emission produced with the modeling of such high energy processes. Then I will define in a second part the instruments on board INTEGRAL and the way coded masked aperture is employed. In a third part, I will develop the standard data reduction analysis and my own contribution in improving the usual software before detailing the specific informatics tools I have developed for my own analysis. In the fourth part I will turn towards the deep analysis and interpretations I have performed on several black hole X-ray binary Systems chosen properly: the persistent black hole source Cygnus X-1 which has been studied since several years and surprised us by a high-energy excess detected; two new transient sources which provide interesting information, XTE J1720-318 located in the galactic bulge and SWIFT J1753.5-0127, probably situated in the halo. I will also detail my work on H 1743-322, recently identified by INTEGRAL as the HEAO source discovered in 1977, and on three (almost) persistent micro-quasars with superluminal jets, 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GRS 1915+105. I will analyze for each source spectral parameter evolutions and their links with each other during state transitions. I will then discuss the presence of two different X/gamma-ray emitting media with a relatively changing geometry. While establishing a cyclic order for the different variability classes of GRS 1915+105 observed during ten years, I will propose an interpretation for such behaviour, compatible with the theoretical predictions of the Accretion

  15. Bridging greenhouse gas emissions and renewable energy deployment target: Comparative assessment of China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • India and China’s latest renewable energy targets toward 2030 are assessed. • Carbon emission cap is in line with 2-degree target and governmental commitment. • The impacts of renewable energy on emissions and mitigation costs are quantified. - Abstract: Renewable energy has a critical role in limiting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper assesses the implication of aligning renewable energy deployment target with national emission reduction target for mitigation cost. The assessment methodology uses Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/computable general equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model to determine the mitigation cost in terms of GDP and welfare loss under alternative renewable targets in different climate-constrained scenarios. A range of country-specific emission constraints is taken to address the uncertainties related to global emission pathway and emission entitlement scheme. Comparative results show that China needs to increase its share of non-fossil fuel significantly in the primary energy mix to achieve the stringent emission reduction target compared to India. The mitigation cost in terms of economic and welfare loss can be reduced by increasing the penetration of the renewable energy to achieve the same emission reduction target. The modeling results show that coordinated national climate and renewable energy policies help to achieve the GHG emission reduction target in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  16. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  17. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) γ-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE γ-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F X >2 μJy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z X-γ between the X-ray range at 1 keV and the VHE γ-ray regime at 200 GeV were calculated. The majority of objects show a spectral behaviour as expected from the source class of HBLs: The energy output in the VHE regime is in general lower than in X-rays. For the stacked blazar sample the broad-band spectral index was calculated to α X-γ =1.09, confirming the result found for the individual objects. Another evidence for the revelation of the baseline emission is the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) comprising archival as well as contemporaneous multi-wavelength data from the radio to the VHE band. The SEDs of known VHE γ-ray sources in low flux states matches well the SED of the stacked blazar sample. (orig.)

  18. THERMODYNAMICS OF LIGHT EMISSION AND FREE-ENERGY STORAGE INPHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Robert T.; Calvin, Melvin

    1967-04-01

    A Planck law relationship between absorption and emission spectra is used to compute the fluorescence spectra of some photosynthetic systems from their absorption spectra. Calculated luminescence spectra of purple bacteria agree well but not perfectly with published experimental spectra. Application of the Planck law relation to published activation spectra for Systems I and II of spinach chloroplast permits independent calculation of the luminescence spectra of the two systems; if the luminescence yield of System I is taken to be one-third the yield of System II, then the combined luminescence spectrum closely fits published experimental measurement. Consideration of the entropy associated with the excited state of the absorbing molecules is used to compute the oxidation-reduction potentials and maximum free-energy storage resulting from light absorption. Spinach chloroplasts under an illumination of 1 kilolux of white light can produce at most a potential difference of 1.32 eV for System I, and 1.36 eV for System II. In the absence of non-radiative losses, the maximum amount of free energy stored is 1.19 eV and 1.23 eV per photon absorbed for Systems I and II, respectively. The bacterium Chromatium under an illumination of 1 milliwatt/cm{sup 2} of Na D radiation can produce at most a potential difference of 0.90 eV; the maximum amount of free energy stored is 0.79 eV per photon absorbed. The combined effect of partial thermodynamic reversibility and a finite trapping rate on the amount of luminescence is considered briefly.

  19. Model dependence in the density content of nuclear symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B.K.; Singh, S.K.; Patra, S.K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.; Colò, G.; Roca-Maza, X.; Paar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from very few light nuclei, all nuclear systems in nature, starting from tiny finite nuclei to huge astrophysical objects like neutron stars, are asymmetric. Densities of these systems vary over a wide range. So, accurate knowledge of symmetry energy over a wide range of density is very essential to understand several phenomena in finite nuclei as well as in neutron stars. We have shown using a representative set of systematically varied mean models that the correlation of symmetry energy slope parameter with the neutron skin thickness in 208 Pb nucleus has a noticeable amount of model dependence. The investigations in order to unveil the source of the model dependence in such correlations are underway

  20. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg -1 ). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha -1 year -1 and N 2 O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha -1 year -1 under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO 2 eq. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km -1 driven, compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions

  1. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A comparison between MgB2, NbSe2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductors. S D KAUSHIK1, V BRACCINI2 and S PATNAIK1,∗. 1School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India. 2CNR-INFM LAMIA, C.so, Perrone 24, 16152, ...

  2. Structural Vulnerability of Energy Distribution Systems; Incorporating Infrastructural Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Arild; Holen, Arne T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a method for assessing the structural vulnerability of two coupled energy distribution systems is proposed. The co-existing of an electric power distribution system and a district heating system is described and modelled, under the assumption that the operation of the district heating system is directly dependent on electric power. The structural vulnerability of the two systems subject to single failures or a set of simultaneous failures in the power system is found. Thus, the ...

  3. THE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE EMISSION OF PERCHLORO- ETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emission of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from freshly dry cleaned fabrics using small environmental test chambers. The temperature dependence of the release of perchloroethylene was evaluated over a temperature range of 20 to 45°C....

  4. Automated Vehicle Regulation: An Energy and Emissions Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2016-05-18

    This presentation provides a summary of the current automated vehicles polices in the United States and how they related to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The presentation then looks at future automated vehicle trends that will increase and reduce GHG emissions and what current policies utilized in other areas of law could be adapted for automated vehicle GHG emissions.

  5. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  6. Carbon emission coefficient measurement of the coal-to-power energy chain in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shiwei; Wei, Yi-Ming; Guo, Haixiang; Ding, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CO 2 emissions coefficient of the coal-energy chain in China is currently at 875 g/kW h −1 . • The emission coefficient is a relatively low level compared with other countries. • CO 2 is the main type of GHG emission and the most direct emission in the chain. • A great decline of potential energy use exists in the coal mining process of China compared with other countries. - Abstract: Coal-fired electricity generation has become the largest source of carbon emission in China. This study utilizes life-cycle assessment to assess the effect of carbon emissions and to calculate the coefficient of carbon emissions in coal-to-energy chains. Results show that the carbon emission coefficient of the coal-to-energy chain in China is 875 g/kW h −1 , which is a relatively low level compared with that of other countries. CO 2 is the main type of greenhouse gas emission and is the most abundant type of direct emission. China has to reduce electrical consumption in the coal-mining process to reduce carbon emissions in coal-to-energy chains. Moreover, China has to facilitate railway-line construction to improve the proportion of railway transportation to coal transportation

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rana@unifg.it; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP{sub 100} associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58 g CO{sub 2eq} MJ{sub e}{sup −1} and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly

  8. Carbon emission coefficient measurement of the coal-to-power energy chain in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwei Yu; Yi-Ming Wei; Haixiang Guo; Liping Ding

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired electricity generation has become the largest source of carbon emission in China. This study utilizes life-cycle assessment to assess the effect of carbon emissions and to calculate the coefficient of carbon emissions in coal-to-energy chains. Results show that the carbon emission coefficient of the coal-to-energy chain in China is 875 g/kW h-1, which is a relatively low level compared with that of other countries. CO2 is the main type of greenhouse gas emission and the most abunda...

  9. Physical and morphological properties of z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies: dependence on Lyα line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Scarlata, C.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the physical and morphological properties of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift ~2.5 to ~3.5, to determine if and how they depend on the nature and strength of the Lyα emission. Methods: We selected U-dropout galaxies from the z-detected GOODS-MUSIC catalog by adapting the classical Lyman break criteria on the GOODS filter set. We kept only those galaxies with spectroscopic confirmation, mainly from VIMOS and FORS public observations. Using the full multi-wavelength 14-bands information (U to IRAC), we determined the physical properties of the galaxies through a standard spectral energy distribution fitting procedure with the updated Charlot & Bruzual (2009) templates. We also added other relevant observations of the GOODS field, i.e. the 24 μm observations from Spitzer/MIPS and the 2 MSec Chandra X-ray observations. Finally, using non parametric diagnostics (Gini, Concentration, Asymmetry, M20 and ellipticity), we characterized the rest-frame UV morphologies of the galaxies. We then analyzed how these physical and morphological properties correlate with the presence of the Lyα emission line in the optical spectra. Results: We find that unlike at higher redshift, the dependence of physical properties on the Lyα line is milder: galaxies without Lyα in emission tend to be more massive and dustier than the rest of the sample, but all other parameters, ages, star formation rates (SFR), X-ray emission and UV morphology do not depend strongly on the presence of the Lyα emission. A simple scenario where all LBGs have intrinsically high Lyα emission, but where the dust and neutral hydrogen content (which shapes the final appearance of the Lyα) depend on the mass of the galaxies, is able to reproduce the majority of the observed properties at z˜3. Some modification might be needed to account for the observed evolution of these properties with cosmic epoch, which is also discussed.

  10. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  11. Study of Thermal-Field Emission Properties and Investigation of Temperature dependent Noise in the Emission Current form vertical Carbon nanotube emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Kolekar, Sadhu

    2017-05-05

    We have investigated temperature dependent field electron emission characteristics of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The generalized expression for electron emission from well defined cathode surface is given by Millikan and Lauritsen [1] for the combination of temperature and electric field effect. The same expression has been used to explain the electron emission characteristics from vertical CNT emitters. Furthermore, this has been applied to explain the electron emission for different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1500 K. The real-time field electron emission images at room temperature and 1500 K are recorded by using Charge Coupled Device (CCD), in order to understand the effect of temperature on electron emission spots in image morphology (as indicated by ring like structures) and electron emission spot intensity of the emitters. Moreover, the field electron emission images can be used to calculate the total number of emitters per cm2 for electron emission. The calculated number of emitters per cm2 is 4.5x107 and, the actual number emitters per cm2 present for electron emission calculated from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data is 1.2x1012. The measured Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics obey the Folwer-Nordheim (F-N) type behavior. The fluctuations in the emission current are recorded at different temperatures and, temperature dependence of power spectral density obeys power law relation s(f)=I2/f2 with that of emission current and frequency.

  12. Infrared emission properties and energy transfer in ZnO-SiO2:Yb3+ composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, F.; Chen, R.; Shen, Y.Q.; Liu, B.; Gurzadyan, G.G.; Dong, Z.L.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Sun, H.D.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → ZnO-SiO 2 :Yb 3+ composites have been prepared via a facile sol-gel method. Intense near-infrared emission at around 1 μm has been obtained upon broadband ultraviolet light excitation. → Efficient energy transfer from ZnO quantum dots to Yb 3+ ions has been clarified by the systematic measurements and analysis of static and time resolved photoluminescence spectra. → Codoping with Li + ions leads to about twice enhancement of the near-infrared luminescence intensity around 1 μm at room temperature. - Abstract: Intense near-infrared emission at 1 μm has been obtained in ZnO-SiO 2 :Yb 3+ composites via a facile sol-gel method upon broadband ultraviolet light excitation. Systematic optical measurements including static and time-resolved photoluminescence have been performed to elucidate the energy transfer from ZnO quantum dots to Yb 3+ ions. The dependence of energy transfer efficiency on Yb 3+ concentration has been investigated in detail. Codoping with Li + ions leads to about twice enhancement of the near-infrared luminescence intensity around 1 μm at room temperature. The enhancement in the luminescence intensity could be mostly attributed to the modification of the local symmetry around Yb 3+ ions by codoping with Li + ions.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of Regional Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Fan; Hu, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Ke-Xin; Fu, Pei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Facing serious energy-related constraints and environmental stress, the development of the green logistics industry is restricted by degrees of logistics energy utilization and carbon emissions. Considering different logistics spatial distributions, this paper uses the degree of regional logistics energy utilization and the spatial distribution of carbon emissions as two indicators of green logistics to investigate the regional differences and changes in spatiotemporal logistics energy effici...

  14. Temperature dependence of fluorescence decay time and emission spectrum of bismuth germanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.; Liberman, A.; Schweitzer, J.S.; Simonetti, J.

    1985-01-01

    Bismuth germanate has become an increasingly popular replacement for NaI(Tl) scintillators in recent years, mainly due to its higher detection efficiency. However, its scintillation efficiency and fluorescence decay time are strongly temperature dependent. Optimum performance of detector systems which employ BGO crystals depends on knowledge of the BGO pulse shape and intensity and its emission spectrum at the operating temperature of the detector. Measurements of these quantities are presented over the temperature range -47 0 C to +111 0 C. Although the emission spectrum shifts only slightly over this temperature range, the scintillation efficiency and fluorescence decay time are strongly temperature dependent. In addition to the usefulness of these data for optimizing detector design, the results imply that luminescence quenching in BGO cannot be characterized by a single thermal activation to a radiationless transition but that a more complex model is required to characterize the light output from BGO crystals

  15. Approach for Emissions Compliance in the Fossil-Fuel Based Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alain, Bill; Bitran, Guillaume; Basler, Benno; Hess, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    Most of today's air pollution legislation varies from country to country depending on factors such as the economy, fuel supply, fuel dependency and specific local pollution problems. At the same time, in a growing number of countries, the energy sector is going through privatisation, deregulation and globalisation process which is affecting energy demand and fuel selection, driving gradual integration of energy markets and requiring new solutions. Today it is also well recognized that pollution is often not a localized problem and that gaseous air pollutants can cross great distances. This has led to the cooperation between countries to control transboundary pollution, under bilateral or multilateral agreements. Similarly as for the energy sector, countries are not only becoming increasingly linked to each other in political, economic and social terms but also in environmental terms. Power generators and equipment manufacturers have been developing technologies and business agreements in countries with respective legislation constraints over many years and take this trend of interdependence into account. The equipment manufacturers and global solution providers such as Alstom have become the focal point driving the development of new environmental compliance products and solutions within the fossil fuel based energy sector. Technological progress achieved in many fields over recent years in different areas of the world according to the different legislations allows the power generators to meet these increasingly stringent emissions reduction requirements while extending the plant lifetime of existing power plants, and keeping them competitive. This paper gives an overview and outlook of environmental regulations, air pollution control technologies and some experience in pioneering environmental long-term service agreements. Obviously, the most immediately effective way to ensure emissions compliance of existing power plant is to professionally maintain and

  16. Forecasting energy demand and CO{sub 2}-emissions from energy production in the forest industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develops new energy forecasting methods for the forest industry energy use. The scenarios have been the most commonly used forecasts, but they require a lot of work. The recent scenarios, which are made for the forest industry, give a wide range of results; e.g. from 27,8 TWh to 38 TWh for electricity use in 2010. There is a need for more simple and accurate methods for forecasting. The time scale for the study is from 1975 to 2010, i.e. 36 years. The basic data for the study is collected from time period 1975 - 1995. It includes the wood use, production of main product categories and energy use in the forest industry. The factors affecting energy use at both industry level and at mill level are presented. The most probable technology trends, which can have an effect on energy production and use and CO{sub 2}-emissions are studied. Recent forecasts for the forest industry energy use till the year 2010 are referred and analysed. Three alternative forecasting methods are studied more closely. These methods are (a) Regression analysis, (b) Growth curves and (c) Delphi-method. Total electricity demand, share of purchased electricity, total fuel demand and share of process-based biofuels are estimated for the time period 1996 - 2010. The results from the different methods are compared to each other and to the recent scenarios. The comparison is made for the results concerning the energy use and the usefulness of the methods in practical work. The average energy consumption given by the forecasts for electricity was 31,6 TWh and for fuel 6,2 Mtoe in 2010. The share of purchased electricity totalled 73 % and process based fuels 77 %. The figures from 1995 are 22,8 TWh, 5,5 Mtoe, 64 % and 68 % respectively. All three methods were suitable for forecasting. All the methods required less working hours and were easier to use than scenarios. The methods gave results with a smaller deviation than scenarios, e.g. with electricity use in 2010 from

  17. Energy equipartition and unidirectional emission in a spaser nanolaser

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2016-03-18

    A spaser is a nanoplasmonic counterpart of a laser, with photons replaced by surface plasmon polaritons and a resonant cavity replaced by a metallic nanostructure supporting localized plasmonic modes. By combining analytical results and first-principle numerical simulations, we provide a comprehensive study of the ultrafast dynamics of a spaser. Due to its highly-nonlinear nature, the spaser is characterized by a large number of interacting degrees of freedom, which sustain a rich manifold of different phases we discover, describe and analyze here. In the regime of strong interaction, the system manifests an irreversible ergodic evolution towards the configuration where energy is equally shared among all the available degrees of freedom. Under this condition, the spaser generates ultrafast vortex-like lasing modes that are spinning on the femtosecond scale and whose direction of rotation is dictated by quantum noise. In this regime, the spaser acquires the character of a nanoparticle with an effective spin. This opens up a range of interesting possibilities for achieving unidirectional emission from a symmetric nanostructure, stimulating a broad range of applications for nanoplasmonic lasers as unidirectional couplers and random information sources.

  18. Energy, industry and nitrogen: strategies for decreasing reactive nitrogen emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, William R

    2002-03-01

    Nitrogen oxides are released during atmospheric combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, and during the production of certain chemicals and products. They can react with natural or man-made volatile organic compounds to produce smog, or else can be further oxidized to produce particulate haze, or acid rain that can eutrophy land and water. The reactive nitrogen that begins in the energy sector thus cascades through the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and soils before being eventually partially denitrifed to the global warming and stratospheric ozone-depleting gas nitrous oxide or molecular nitrogen. This paper will suggest how an economic analysis of the nitrogen cycle can identify the most cost-effective places to intervene. Nitrogen oxides released during fossil-fuel combustion in vehicles, power plants and heating boilers can either be controlled by add-on emission control technology, or can be eliminated by many of the same technical options that lead to carbon dioxide reduction. These integrated strategies also address sustainability, economic development and national security issues. Similarly in industrial production, it is more effective to focus on redesigning industrial processes rather than on nitrogen oxide pollution elimination from the current system. This paper will suggest which strategies might be utilized to address multiple benefits rather than focusing on single pollutants.

  19. Biomass Burning: Energy and Emissions Performance of Traditional and Improved Cookstoves Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pooja

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid biomass fuel burning in traditional cookstoves is a leading problem all the world which is responsible for health and climate related impacts. The immediate solution in order to combat this threat has been introduction of improved cookstoves among rural populations who doesn't have access clean energy. The extent of improvement in new cookstove designs, in terms of higher energy efficiency and lower emissions is in turn dependent on the customary behaviour of the users on field. The field based cookstove testing conducted in various studies show a disagreement between performance measures in the lab and real world conditions. Some of the important variables which reflect the actual user behaviour on field depending on geographical location include fuel characteristics and cooking cycle. In this thesis, the research approach focused on user-centred testing methodology for cookstoves. The variation in cookstove performance in terms of energy and emission parameters was assessed by isolating the impact of individual variables i.e. types of fuel and cooking cycles. The energy parameters which served as indicators of cookstove performance included SEC and power input, and EFs for CO and PM were used as emission parameters. PM emissions were further analysed with the help of physical and chemical characterization studies. The physical characterization focused on size distribution of the particulate using optical and electron microscopy techniques. While chemical characterization was conducted using quantification methods for organic and elemental carbon content of PM using TOR and CBMS techniques. The test variables were identified through field survey and literature review and were replicated under controlled laboratory conditions where emissions were sampled using hood method. The research resulted in six research papers addressing specific hypothesis related the problem identified through literature survey. The results showed that

  20. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  1. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamborra, I.; Ando, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays,

  2. High energy effects on D-brane and black hole emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Sarkar, T.

    1997-01-01

    We study the emission of scalar particles from a class of near-extremal five-dimensional black holes and the corresponding D-brane configuration at high energies. We show that the distribution functions and the black hole greybody factors are modified in the high energy tail of the Hawking spectrum in such a way that the emission rates exactly match. We extend the results to charged scalar emission and to four dimensions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Thermal emissions and climate change: Cooler options for future energy technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cowern, Nick E. B.; Ahn, Chihak

    2008-01-01

    Global warming arises from 'temperature forcing', a net imbalance between energy fluxes entering and leaving the climate system and arising within it. Humanity introduces temperature forcing through greenhouse gas emissions, agriculture, and thermal emissions from fuel burning. Up to now climate projections, neglecting thermal emissions, typically foresee maximum forcing around the year 2050, followed by a decline. In this paper we show that, if humanity's energy use grows at 1%/year, slower ...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  7. Quasar Formation and Energy Emission in Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Formation and energy emission of quasars are investigated in accord with the black hole universe, a new cosmological model recently developed by Zhang. According to this new cosmological model, the universe originated from a star-like black hole and grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe have been fully ex- plained in Paper I and II. This study as Paper III explains how a quasar forms, ignites and releases energy as an amount of that emitted by dozens of galaxies. A main sequence star, after its fuel supply runs out, will, in terms of its mass, form a dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. A normal galaxy, after its most stars have run out of their fuels and formed dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, will eventually shrink its size and collapse towards the center by gravity to form a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses. This collapse leads to that extremely hot stellar black holes merge each other and further into the massive black hole at the center and meantime release a huge amount of radiation energy that can be as great as that of a quasar. Therefore, when the stellar black holes of a galaxy collapse and merge into a supermassive black hole, the galaxy is activated and a quasar is born. In the black hole universe, the observed dis- tant quasars powered by supermassive black holes can be understood as donuts from the mother universe. They were actually formed in the mother universe and then swallowed into our universe. The nearby galaxies are still very young and thus quiet at the present time. They will be activated and further evolve into quasars after billions of years. At that time, they will enter the universe formed by the currently observed distant quasars as similar to the distant quasars entered our universe

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Roberto; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP100 associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58gCO2eqMJe(-1) and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly adopted for cultivation of energy

  9. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Tan Zhongfu; Wang Jianhui; Xu Jun; Cai Chengkai; Hou Yong

    2011-01-01

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  10. The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Middle East countries: A panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis assumes that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and income per capita. In other words, as a country grows, it is assumed that its environmental quality improves. In this study, we aim to test the EKC hypothesis for 12 Middle East countries during the period 1990–2008 by employing recently developed panel data methods. Our results provide evidence contrary to the EKC hypothesis. We found evidence favorable to the U-shaped EKC for 5 Middle East countries, whereas an inverted U-shaped curve was identified for only 3 Middle East countries. Furthermore, there appear to be no causal links between income and CO 2 emissions for the other 4 countries. Regarding the direction of causality, there appears to be a unidirectional causality from economic growth to energy consumption in the short-run; in the long-run, however, the unidirectional causality chain runs from energy consumption and economic growth to CO 2 emissions. We also suggest some crucial policy implications depending on these results. - Highlights: • The relationship between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and growth is examined. • Panel data estimation methods are used for 12 Middle East countries. • We obtain a U-shaped curve contrary to the EKC hypothesis. • The causality runs from economic growth to energy consumption in the short-run. • In the long-run, causality runs from energy consumption and growth to CO 2 emissions

  11. A modeling framework for estimating energy demand and CO2 emissions from energy intensive industries in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling framework for estimating energy demand and CO 2 emissions from process industries. The model has been used to project the same for four energy-intensive industries steel, cement, fertilizer, and aluminum in India, which account for nearly 50% of the energy consumed in the industrial sector. (author)

  12. Energy dissipation in plasma treated Nb and Secondary Electron Emission for modeling of multipactor discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolov, Ana; Popovic, Svetozar; Vuskovic, Leposava; Basovic, Milos; Cuckov, Filip; Raitses, Yevgeny; Kaganovich, Igor

    2013-09-01

    Electron-induced Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) is important in many gas discharge applications such as Hall thrusters, surface and multipactor discharges. Often they present the inhibiting phenomena in designing and operating of these systems, examples being the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities. The multipactor discharges depend on the resonant field configuration and on the SEE from the cavity surface. SEE is proportional to the energy dissipated by the primary electrons near the surface. Our analysis of energy spectra of secondary electrons indicates that the fraction of dissipated energy of primary electrons in solid reaches the maximum at the primary energies that produce the maximum yield. The better understanding of this mechanism is crucial for successful modeling of the multipactor discharge and design of vacuum electronic devices. We have developed an experimental set up to measure energy distribution of SEE from Nb coupons under different incident angles, since Nb is used for manufacturing of SRF accelerating cavities. Samples are placed in carousel target manifolds which are manipulated by robotic arm providing multiple degrees of freedom of a whole target system. Work supported by JSA/DOE contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  13. Waste wood as bioenergy feedstock. Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this, different grades of waste wood and energy application have been investigated using lifecycle assessment. Sensitivity analysis has then been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties for the main emission contributing categories: transport, processing, pelletizing, urea resin fraction and related N 2 O formation. The results show, depending on the waste wood grade, the conversion option, scale and the related reference case, that emission reductions of up to 91% are possible for non-treated wood waste. Compared to this, energy from treated wood waste with low contamination can achieve up to 83% emission savings, similar to untreated waste wood pellets, but in some cases emissions from waste wood based energy can exceed the ones of the fossil fuel reference - in the worst case by 126%. Emission reductions from highly contaminated feedstocks are largest when replacing electricity from large-scale coal and landfill. The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood's resin fraction and N 2 O formation during combustion and, pelletizing. Comparing wood processing with diesel and electricity powered equipment also generated high variations in the results, while emission variations related to transport are relatively small. Using treated waste wood as a bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from energy production but this is only realisable if coal and landfill gas are replaced. To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form N 2 O during the energy conversion. Copyright © 2017

  14. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO 2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO 2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO 2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO 2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO 2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  15. Energy dependence of strangeness production and event-byevent fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustamov Anar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the energy dependence of strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and contrast it with the experimental observations in pp and p-A collisions at LHC energies as a function of the charged particle multiplicities. For the high multiplicity final states the results from pp and p-Pb reactions systematically approach the values obtained from Pb-Pb collisions. In statistical models this implies an approach to the thermodynamic limit, where differences of mean multiplicities between various formalisms, such as Canonical and Grand Canonical Ensembles, vanish. Furthermore, we report on event-by-event net-proton fluctuations as measured by STAR at RHIC/BNL and by ALICE at LHC/CERN and discuss various non-dynamical contributions to these measurements, which should be properly subtracted before comparison to theoretical calculations on dynamical net-baryon fluctuations.

  16. Energy dependence of 1+ spin excitations in 28Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.; Morlet, M.; Marty, N.; Djalali, C.; Guillot, J.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Van de Wiele, J.; Mack, A.; Bonin, B.; Fergerson, R.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Lugol, J.C.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Sakaguchi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Forward-angle cross sections and analyzing powers for the main 1 + T=1 and 1 + T=0 states in 28 Si have been measured by proton inelastic scattering at 200, 400, and 600 MeV bombarding energy. The results are compared with microscopic distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) calculations. The sensitivity to the optical potentials is pointed out. Two DWIA methods give compatible results for the ΔT=1 transition at 200 and 400 MeV, but differ strongly for the ΔT=0 transition at 200 MeV. For both the ΔT=0 and the ΔT=1 transitions no clear dependence on the incident energy can be ascertained for the ratio of the experimental to the theoretical cross section

  17. Computation of pH-Dependent Binding Free Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. Olivia; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Protein-ligand binding accompanies changes in the surrounding electrostatic environments of the two binding partners and may lead to changes in protonation upon binding. In cases where the complex formation results in a net transfer of protons, the binding process is pH-dependent. However, conventional free energy computations or molecular docking protocols typically employ fixed protonation states for the titratable groups in both binding partners set a priori, which are identical for the free and bound states. In this review, we draw attention to these important yet largely ignored binding-induced protonation changes in protein-ligand association by outlining physical origins and prevalence of the protonation changes upon binding. Following a summary of various theoretical methods for pKa prediction, we discuss the theoretical framework to examine the pH dependence of protein-ligand binding processes. PMID:26202905

  18. Rapidity dependence of strangeness enhancement factor at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Kalyan; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2014-01-01

    Strange particles are produced only at the time of collisions and thus expected to carry important information of collision dynamics. Strangeness enhancement is considered to be one of the traditional signatures of formation of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Due to the limitation of the detector acceptance, the past and ongoing heavy ion experiments could measure the strangeness enhancement at midrapidity only. But the future heavy ion experiment CBM at FAIR will have the access to the entire forward rapidity hemisphere and thus the experimental determination of rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement is a possibility. In this work, an attempt has therefore been made to study the rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement at FAIR energies with the help of a string based hadronic model (UrQMD). A sum of 93 million minimum biased UrQMD events have been used for the present analysis

  19. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF DEPENDENCY EMISSIVITY IN FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baba Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a direct method of measurement of the total emissivity of opaque samples on a range of temperature around the ambient one. The method rests on the modulation of the temperature of the sample and the infra-red signal processing resulting from the surface of the sample we model the total emissivity obtained in experiments according to the temperature to establish linear correlations. This leads us to apply the method of optimal linearization associated the finite element method with the nonlinear problem of transfer of heat if thermal conductivity, the specific heat and the emissivity of studied material depend on the temperature. We obtain a good agreement between the resolution of the nonlinear equation of heat and the results obtained by the experimentation. .

  20. Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Kok

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution of mineral dust aerosols partially determines their interactions with clouds, radiation, ecosystems, and other components of the Earth system. Several theoretical models predict that the dust size distribution depends on the wind speed at emission, with larger wind speeds predicted to produce smaller aerosols. The present study investigates this prediction using a compilation of published measurements of the size-resolved vertical dust flux emitted by eroding soils. Surprisingly, these measurements indicate that the size distribution of naturally emitted dust aerosols is independent of the wind speed. The recently formulated brittle fragmentation theory of dust emission is consistent with this finding, whereas other theoretical models are not. The independence of the emitted dust size distribution with wind speed simplifies both the interpretation of geological records of dust deposition and the parameterization of dust emission in atmospheric circulation models.

  1. Angle-dependent light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes under CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Gong, T; Liu, W J; Wei, J Q; Zhang, X F; Wang, K L; Zhong, M L; Wu, D H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the light emission from aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under continuous wave CO 2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm) irradiation. Results indicate that the light emission is dependent on the angle θ between the laser incident direction and the nanotube axis. The relative intensity of the light emission at certain wavelengths shows a Lorentzian feature when θ varies from 0 0 to 90 0 . The Lorentzian fitting curve displays a distinct tendency between shorter (λ 700 nm). A minimum intensity was observed at θ m close to 67 0 under shorter wavelength, whereas a maximum intensity was shown at θ m of about 60 0 at longer wavelength. These results show the anisotropic property of aligned MWNTs

  2. Energy consumption and related CO2 emissions in five Latin American countries: Changes from 1990 to 2006 and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Ruiz, Belizza J.; Ozawa, Leticia

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the primary energy consumption and energy-related CO 2 emissions in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela during the period 1990-2006. It also reviews important reforms in the energy sector of these countries as well as the promotion of energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES). Using a decomposition analysis, results indicate that even though significant reductions in energy intensity have been achieved in Colombia, Mexico and in a lesser extent in Brazil and Argentina, the reduction of CO 2 emissions in these countries has not been significant due to an increased dependence on fossil fuels in their energy mix. Although the Latin American region has an important experience in the promotion of EE programs and renewable sources, the energy agenda of the examined countries focused mostly on the energy reforms during the analyzed period. The policy review suggests that further governmental support and strong public policies towards a more sustainable energy path are required to encourage a low carbon future in the region.

  3. Energy-dependent applications of the transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztunali, O.I.; Aronson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is applied to energy-dependent neutron transport problems for multiplying and nonmultiplying media in one-dimensional plane geometry. Experimental cross sections are used for total, elastic, and inelastic scattering and fission. Numerical solutions are presented for the problem of a unit point isotropic source in an infinite medium of water and for the problem of the critical 235 U slab with finite water reflectors. No iterations were necessary in this method. Numerical results obtained are consistent with physical considerations and compare favorably with the moments method results for the problem of the unit point isotropic source in an infinite water medium. (U.S.)

  4. Energy Dependence of Inclusive Spectra in $e^{+} e^{-}$ Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, P S; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K

    1999-01-01

    Inclusive charged hadron distributions as obtaind from the DELPHI measurements at 130, 136, 161, 172 and 183 GeV are presented as a function of the variables rapidity, $\\xi_p$, $p$ and transversal momenta. Data are compared with event generators and with MLLA calculations, in order to examine the hypothesis of local parton hadron duality. The differential momentum spectra show an indication for coherence effects in the production of soft particles. The relation between the energy dependence of the charged multiplicity and the rapidity distribution is examined.

  5. Weather dependency of energy demands for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    During the past two years we have developed and tested a computer model that calculates the requirements of energy for space heating by a community in its dependence on daily weather parameters, such as temperature, wind and radiation. The input requirements for the model consist of a building census that permits one to arrange the heated (or air-conditioned) structures of a community into various types according to building characteristics and occupant habit patterns. Test runs of the model in Greeley, Colorado, and Cheyenne, Wyoming, during the winter 1976/77 yielded very satisfactory results.

  6. High-resolution atmospheric emission inventory of the argentine energy sector. Comparison with edgar global emission database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafito, S Enrique; Allende, David G; Castesana, Paula S; Ruggeri, Maria F

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a 2014 high-resolution spatially disaggregated emission inventory (0.025° × 0.025° horizontal resolution), of the main activities in the energy sector in Argentina. The sub-sectors considered are public generation of electricity, oil refineries, cement production, transport (maritime, air, rail and road), residential and commercial. The following pollutants were included: greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O), ozone precursors (CO, NOx, VOC) and other specific air quality indicators such as SO 2 , PM10, and PM2.5. This work could contribute to a better geographical allocation of the pollutant sources through census based population maps. Considering the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the total amount is 144 Tg CO2eq, from which the transportation sector emits 57.8 Tg (40%); followed by electricity generation, with 40.9 Tg (28%); residential + commercial, with 31.24 Tg (22%); and cement and refinery production, with 14.3 Tg (10%). This inventory shows that 49% of the total emissions occur in rural areas: 31% in rural areas of medium population density, 13% in intermediate urban areas and 7% in densely populated urban areas. However, if emissions are analyzed by extension (per square km), the largest impact is observed in medium and densely populated urban areas, reaching more than 20.3 Gg per square km of greenhouse gases, 297 Mg/km 2 of ozone precursors gases and 11.5 Mg/km 2 of other air quality emissions. A comparison with the EDGAR global emission database shows that, although the total country emissions are similar for several sub sectors and pollutants, its spatial distribution is not applicable to Argentina. The road and residential transport emissions represented by EDGAR result in an overestimation of emissions in rural areas and an underestimation in urban areas, especially in more densely populated areas. EDGAR underestimates 60 Gg of methane emissions from road transport sector and fugitive emissions from refining activities.

  7. Effects of symmetry energy and momentum dependent interaction on low-energy reaction mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dipole response associated with the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR and the Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR, in connection with specific properties of the nuclear effective interaction (symmetry energy and momentum dependence, in the neutron-rich systems 68Ni, 132Sn and 208Pb. We perform our investigation within a microscopic transport model based on the Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation.We observe that the peak energies of PDR and IVGDR are shifted to higher values when employing momentum dependent interactions, with respect to the results obtained neglecting momentum dependence. The calculated energies are close to the experimental values and similar to the results obtained in Hartree-Fock (HF with Random Phase Approximation (RPA calculations.

  8. Energy and complex industrial systems environmental emissions data reporting and acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1987-07-01

    The Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNEP and WHO Project on Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental risks from Energy and Other Complex Technologies intends to complile emissions data for mportant energy systems and other complex technologies from a wide variety of countries. To facilitate data generation and compilation, this report: outlines data reporting protocols; identifies potential information sources; demonstrates how to estimate coefficients; presents some compiled US emission coefficients or criteria air pollutants for some energy process; and, compares national air emission standards for electricity generating plants in OECD member countries. 27 refs., 2 fis., 1 tabs

  9. Excitation light source dependence of emission in Sn2+-Ce3+ codoped ZnO-P2O5 glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Hino, Yusuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Correlation between excitation light source and the emission property of Sn^{2+}-Ce^{3+} co-doped zinc phosphate glasses is examined. Although photoluminescence (PL) peaks of both Sn^{2+}and Ce^{3+} shifted with increasing amount of Ce^{3+}, there was little energy resonance between Sn^{2+} and Ce^{3+} emission centers. On the other hand, radioluminescence (RL) spectra excited by X-ray was independent of the Ce concentration, indicating that emission was mainly observed from Sn^{2+} emission ...

  10. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  11. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  12. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  13. Impact of International Oil Price on Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of “new normal” economy and frequent “haze”, the strategy of energy conservation and emission reduction aiming to lower costs and reduce pollution is currently still a major strategic direction in China and the world, and will remain so for some time in the future. This paper uses the annual data of West Texas Intermediate (WTI crude oil price in 1987–2014 as samples. We firstly present the direction and mechanism of the influence of oil price change on total consumption of every kind of energy by path analysis, and then consider establishing a Structural Vector Autoregression model of energy conservation and emission reduction in three statuses. Research shows that if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.092% and 0.053% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of high energy consumption and high emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.043% and 0.065% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of low energy consumption and low emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP per unit increases by 0.067% and carbon dioxide emission decreases by 0.085% in the corresponding period.

  14. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  15. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

    2008-07-04

    There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

  16. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Saudi Arabia: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhathlan, Khalid; Javid, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship among economic growth, carbon emissions and energy consumption at the aggregate and disaggregate levels. For the aggregate energy consumption model, we use total energy consumption per capita and CO 2 emissions per capita based on the total energy consumption. For the disaggregate analysis, we used oil, gas and electricity consumption models along with their respective CO 2 emissions. The long-term income elasticities of carbon emissions in three of the four models are positive and higher than their estimated short-term income elasticities. These results suggest that carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income which supports the belief that there is a monotonically increasing relationship between per capita carbon emissions and per capita income for the aggregate model and for the oil and electricity consumption models. The long- and short-term income elasticities of carbon emissions are negative for the gas consumption model. This result indicates that if the Saudi Arabian economy switched from oil to gas consumption, then an increase in per capita income would reduce carbon emissions. The results also suggest that electricity is less polluting than other sources of energy. - Highlights: • Carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income in Saudi Arabia. • The income elasticity of CO 2 is negative for the gas consumption model. • The income elasticity of CO 2 is positive for the oil consumption model. • The results suggest that electricity is less polluting than oil and gas

  17. U.S. oil dependence 2014: Is energy independence in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Liu, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reducing U.S. oil dependence may have changed in light of developments in the world oil market over the past two decades. Since 2005, increased domestic production and decreased oil use have cut U.S. import dependence in half. The direct costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy are estimated under four U.S. Energy Information Administration Scenarios to 2040. The key premises of the analysis are that the primary oil market failure is the use of market power by OPEC and that U.S. economic vulnerability is a result of the quantity of oil consumed, the lack of readily available, economical substitutes and the quantity of oil imported. Monte Carlo simulations of future oil market conditions indicate that the costs of U.S. oil dependence are likely to increase in constant dollars but decrease relative to U.S. gross domestic product unless oil resources are larger than estimated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Reducing oil dependence therefore remains a valuable goal for U.S. energy policy and an important co-benefit of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: •Increased oil production and decreased use caused U.S. oil imports to fall from 60% in 2005 to 27% in 2014. •OPEC's market power appears to have increased due to lower oil price elasticities. •Future costs of oil dependence to the U.S. are likely to increase but decrease relative to GDP. •If U.S. oil resources are far larger than EIA estimates, the U.S. could be oil independent by 2040

  18. Emission-dependent supply chain and environment-policy-making in the ‘cap-and-trade’ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Shaofu; Zhu, Lili; Liang, Liang; Ma, Fang

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on a so-called emission-dependent supply chain consisting of one single emission-dependent manufacturer and one single emission permit supplier in the ‘cap-and-trade’ system, where emission permit becomes requisite for production. We consider the emission cap of emission-dependent manufacturer allocated by the government as a kind of environmental policy and formally investigate its influence on decision-makings within the concerned emission-dependent supply chain as well as distribution fairness in social welfare. It is proved that the system-wide and the manufacturer's profits increase with the emission cap while the permit supplier's decreases. There is room for manufacturer and permit supplier to coordinate the supply chain to get more profit in a certain condition. - Highlights: ► We model an emission-dependent supply chain with a permit supplier and a firm. ► We game-theoretically analyze their optimal decisions in a ‘cap-and-trade' system. ► It is possible to coordinate the supply chain in a certain condition. ► The effect of emission cap as an environment policy is considered. ► Bernoulli–Nash Social Welfare Function is employed to analyze the optimal cap

  19. Key Questions for Achieving EU Emission Reductions without Abandoning Other Energy Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, G.

    2014-01-01

    What considerations must be addressed to ensure that efforts to achieve the EU's new 2030 emissions and renewables targets are compatible with the other energy goals of the EU and its member states: energy security, and energy affordability? How should these other energy goals be addressed when pursuing energy efficiency improvements, upgrading electricity systems to handle different renewable energy sources, and developing policies to reduce overall CO2 emissions? Markets have been defined as being central to achieving all of Europe's energy goals - both the creation of an EU internal energy market and the use of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) to allow a market for managing a portion of the continent's greenhouse gas emissions. But once these markets are in place and operational, there will still be great variances among the goals, instruments, and level of market integration available for the different countries and regions of Europe. Choosing the most cost effective mechanisms for pursuing the new goals will require effective use of the flexibility that is available - an improved ETS, tradable national targets for non-ETS emissions, and a rapidly widening array of cost-effective renewable energy options. Sufficient use of this flexibility should facilitate the flow of energy investments toward energy system improvements where there is low-hanging fruit - anywhere in the continent - without requiring that local or continental energy security goals be sacrificed. (author).

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    HARSONO, Soni; SUBRONTO, Bronto

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the energy balance of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land use change, transport and milling and biodiesel processing, and to estimate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from different production systems, including large and small holder plantations either dependent or independent, located in Kalimantan and in Sumatra. Results show that the accompanied implications of palm oil biodiesel produced in Kalimantan a...

  3. Cost-Sharing Contracts for Energy Saving and Emissions Reduction of a Supply Chain under the Conditions of Government Subsidies and a Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yuyin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level, and wholesale price successively. In the end, the retailer determines the retail price. As a regulation, the government provides subsidies for energy-saving products, while imposing a carbon tax on the carbon emitted. The results show that (1 both the energy-saving cost-sharing (ECS and the carbon emissions reduction cost-sharing (CCS contracts are not the dominant strategy of the two parties by which they can facilitate energy savings and emissions reductions; (2 compared with single cost-sharing contracts, the bivariate cost-sharing (BCS contract for energy saving and emissions reduction is superior, although it still cannot realise prefect coordination of the supply chain; (3 government subsidy and carbon tax policies can promote the cooperation of both the upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain—a subsidy policy can always drive energy saving and emissions reductions, while a carbon tax policy does not always exert positive effects, as it depends on the initial level of pollution and the level of carbon tax; and (4 the subsidy policy reduces the coordination efficiency of the supply chain, while the influences of carbon tax policy upon the coordination efficiency relies on the initial carbon-emission level.

  4. Characterization of a Hormone Dependent Module Regulating Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Moya, Noel; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Mihaylova, Maria M.; Shaw, Reuben J.; Yates, John R.; Fischer, Wolfgang H.; Thomas, John B.; Montminy, Marc

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Under fasting conditions, metazoans maintain energy balance by shifting from glucose to fat burning. In the fasted state, SIRT1 promotes catabolic gene expression by deacetylating the forkhead factor FOXO in response to stress and nutrient deprivation. The mechanisms by which hormonal signals regulate FOXO deacetylation remain unclear, however. We identified a hormone-dependent module, consisting of the Ser/Thr kinase SIK3 and the class IIa deacetylase HDAC4, which regulates FOXO activity in Drosophila. During feeding, HDAC4 is phosphorylated and sequestered in the cytoplasm by SIK3, whose activity is upregulated in response to insulin. SIK3 is inactivated during fasting, leading to the de-phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of HDAC4, and to FOXO deacetylation. SIK3 mutant flies are starvation-sensitive, reflecting FOXO-dependent increases in lipolysis that deplete triglyceride stores; reducing HDAC4 expression restored lipid accumulation. Our results reveal a hormone-regulated pathway that functions in parallel with the nutrient-sensing SIRT1 pathway to maintain energy balance. PMID:21565616

  5. A hormone-dependent module regulating energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Moya, Noel; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Mihaylova, Maria M; Shaw, Reuben J; Yates, John R; Fischer, Wolfgang H; Thomas, John B; Montminy, Marc

    2011-05-13

    Under fasting conditions, metazoans maintain energy balance by shifting from glucose to fat burning. In the fasted state, SIRT1 promotes catabolic gene expression by deacetylating the forkhead factor FOXO in response to stress and nutrient deprivation. The mechanisms by which hormonal signals regulate FOXO deacetylation remain unclear, however. We identified a hormone-dependent module, consisting of the Ser/Thr kinase SIK3 and the class IIa deacetylase HDAC4, which regulates FOXO activity in Drosophila. During feeding, HDAC4 is phosphorylated and sequestered in the cytoplasm by SIK3, whose activity is upregulated in response to insulin. SIK3 is inactivated during fasting, leading to the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of HDAC4 and to FOXO deacetylation. SIK3 mutant flies are starvation sensitive, reflecting FOXO-dependent increases in lipolysis that deplete triglyceride stores; reducing HDAC4 expression restored lipid accumulation. Our results reveal a hormone-regulated pathway that functions in parallel with the nutrient-sensing SIRT1 pathway to maintain energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine energy consumption, national economic activity, and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The causal relationships among marine energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and economic growth for Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries for the period of 1990 to 2006 are discussed. The real gross domestic product is used as a proxy for economic activity. The United States is also discussed because it was the main global polluter before 2006. The co-integration methodology and an error-correction model are used to examine the causal relationships. The empirical results show that marine energy consumption and GDP are the main factors of increased GHG emissions in the short-run, and that economic activity significantly increased emissions in the long-run. Emissions from shipping are more closely related to marine energy consumption than to economic activity. Hence, policies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from marine shipping need to focus on greater energy efficiency in the design of ship engines and hulls. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption and GDP are the main causes to increased GHG emissions in the shipping industry. ► Emissions from shipping are more closely related to energy consumption than to GDP. ► Policies to mitigate GHG emissions from shipping industry should focus on the engine and hull design.

  7. Decomposition and Decoupling Analysis of Energy-Related Carbon Emissions from China Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy-related carbon emissions of China’s manufacturing increased rapidly, from 36988.97 × 104 tC in 1996 to 74923.45 × 104 tC in 2012. To explore the factors to the change of the energy-related carbon emissions from manufacturing sector and the decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emissions and economic growth, the empirical research was carried out based on the LMDI method and Tapio decoupling model. We found that the production scale contributed the most to the increase of the total carbon emissions, while the energy intensity was the most inhibiting factor. And the effects of the intrastructure and fuel mix on the change of carbon emissions were relatively weak. At a disaggregative level within manufacturing sector, EI subsector had a greater impact on the change of the total carbon emissions, with much more potentiality of energy conservation and emission reduction. Weak decoupling of manufacturing sector carbon emissions from GDP could be observed in the manufacturing sector and EI subsector, while strong decoupling state appeared in NEI subsector. Several advices were put forward, such as adjusting the fuel structure and optimizing the intrastructure and continuing to improve the energy intensity to realize the manufacturing sustainable development in low carbon pattern.

  8. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  9. Baselining Fugitive and Vented Emissions Across Canadian Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, L.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Atherton, E.; Baillie, J.; Marshall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly half of Alberta's oil and gas related methane emissions are due to fugitives and leaks, which pose significant potential for mitigation. Accurate and spatially-extensive emissions data can help operators and regulators meet reduction targets, and highlight which infrastructure requires immediate attention. This study used a vehicle-based gas monitoring system to detect and quantify methane emissions across large geographic areas in real-time. Our objectives were to quantify methane mixing ratios, determine the drivers of emission variation across several developments, and to evaluate emissions frequency and severity from several thousand wells and facilities. We measured fugitive, un-combusted flaring, and vented emissions within Lloydminster (heavy oil), Peace River (heavy oil), and Medicine Hat (conventional gas), Alberta during fall 2016. During this time, CO2, CH4, H2S, C2H6, and δ13CH4 (Picarro 2210 and Teledyne T101) were recorded from public roads at 1 Hz intervals, collecting over 6.7 million unique measurements in total. Methane anomalies were generally mild (0.2-0.5 ppm) in Peace River and Medicine Hat, but in Lloydminster, CH4 mixing ratios were elevated, and at their worst exceeded 6 ppm over 60 km of driving. We classified oil and gas related plumes based on geochemical emission signatures, and attributed the plumes based on wind direction and proximity to one of the >3200 infrastructural sources we surveyed during the triplicated campaign routes. The relative gas ratios (C1:C2, CO2:CH4) and isotopic signatures of plumes were within expected ranges for each development. Emission frequencies differed amongst developments, but were highest in Lloydminster, where 56% of wells were emitting methane-rich gas above our minimum detection limits. In Medicine Hat and Peace River, 28% and 29% of active wells were tagged as potential emission sources, respectively. Although active wells were the predominant source of emissions, other classes of

  10. The causal link among militarization, economic growth, CO2 emission, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike E

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship among CO 2 emissions, militarization, economic growth, and energy consumption for USA for the period 1960-2013. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between CO 2 emissions and militarization was found. To determine the causal link, MWALD and Rao's F tests were applied. According to Rao's F tests, the evidence of a unidirectional causality running from militarization to CO 2 emissions, from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions, and from militarization to energy consumption all without a feedback was found. Further, the results determined that 26% of the forecast-error variance of CO 2 emissions was explained by the forecast error variance of militarization and 60% by energy consumption.

  11. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  12. Energy-consumption and carbon-emission analysis of vehicle and component manufacturing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-12

    A model is presented for calculating the environmental burdens of the part manufacturing and vehicle assembly (VMA) stage of the vehicle life cycle. The approach is bottom-up, with a special focus on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. The model is applied to both conventional and advanced vehicles, the latter of which include aluminum-intensive, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles. An important component of the model, a weight-based distribution function of materials and associated transformation processes (casting, stamping, etc.), is developed from the United States Council for Automotive Research Generic Vehicle Life Cycle Inventory Study. As the approach is bottom-up, numerous transformation process data and plant operational data were extracted from the literature for use in representing the many operations included in the model. When the model was applied to conventional vehicles, reliable estimates of cumulative energy consumption (34 GJ/vehicle) and CO{sub 2} emission (2 tonnes/vehicle) were computed for the VMA life-cycle stage. The numerous data sets taken from the literature permitted the development of some statistics on model results. Because the model explicitly includes a greater coverage of relevant manufacturing processes than many earlier studies, our energy estimates are on the higher end of previously published values. Limitations of the model are also discussed. Because the material compositions of conventional vehicles within specific classes (cars, light duty trucks, etc.) are sensibly constant on a percent-by-weight basis, the model can be reduced to a simple linear form for each class dependent only on vehicle weight. For advanced vehicles, the material/transformation process distribution developed above needs to be adjusted for different materials and components. This is particularly so for aluminum-intensive and electric-drive vehicles. In fact, because of their comparatively high manufacturing

  13. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  14. CO2 emission related to energy combustion in the world in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    After a brief comment of the evolution of CO 2 emissions due to transports, housing and office buildings, industry and agriculture, electrical plants, and other energetic activities in France in 2007 in comparison with previous years, this article comments the global increase of CO 2 emissions related to energy in the world (figures and graphs are given for some countries of all continents, notably for China, the United States, France, the European Union, the United Kingdom and Germany). These emissions are then assessed in terms of ratio between emission intensity and GDPs or population. Emissions per inhabitant display a 1 to 20 ratio between the USA and Africa

  15. Energy dependence of radiation interaction parameters of some organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohinder; Tondon, Akash; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2018-04-01

    Gamma rays interact with a material through photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering and Pair production in the intermediate energy range. The probability of occurrence of a particular type of process depends on the energy of incident gamma rays, atomic number of the material, scattering angle and geometrical conditions. Various radiological parameters for organic compounds, namely ethylene glycol (C2H6O2), propylene glycol (C3H8O2), glycerin (C3H8O3), isoamyl alcohol (C5H12O), butanone (C4H8O), acetophenone (C8H8O2), cyclohexanone (C6H10O), furfural (C5H4O2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O), cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O), glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2), aniline (C6H7N), benzyl amine (C6H7N), nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2), ethyl benzene (C8H10), ethyl formate (C3H6O2) and water (H2O) are presented at 81, 122, 356 and 511 keV energies employing NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in narrow-beam transmission geometry. The radiation interaction parameters such as mass attenuation, molar extinction and mass energy absorption coefficients, half value layer, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and CT number have been evaluated for these organic compounds. The general trend of values of mass attenuation coefficients, half value layer, molar extinction coefficients, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and mass energy absorption coefficients shows a decrease with increase in incident gamma photon energy. The values of CT number are found to increases linearly with increase of effective atomic number (Zeff). The variation in CT number around Zeff ≈ 3.3 shows the peak like structure with respect to water and the correlation between CT number and linear attenuation coefficient is about 0.99. Appropriate equations are fitted to these experimentally determined parameters for the organic compounds at incident photon energy ranging from 81 keV to 511 keV used in the present study. Experimental values are compared with the theoretical data obtained using Win

  16. Energy and zenith angle dependence of atmospheric muons

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K

    1973-01-01

    The recently proposed new process for energetic-muon production in the atmosphere should be tested at Mt. Chacaltaya. Rigorous calculations of zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric muons have been made for the altitude of 5200 m above sea level with energy range from 100 GeV to 100 TeV and for zenith angles from 0 degrees to 92.3 degrees . Calculations are based on the extension of the Chapman function to the case of a non-isothermal atmosphere, taking into account (i) energy- dependent nuclear-interaction mean free path of cosmic-ray hadrons in air, (ii) different magnitudes of photonuclear cross-section in the energy-loss process of muons in the atmosphere, (iii) contributions of atmospheric muons arriving below the horizontal directions, and (iv) atmospheric structure and geomagnetic deflection. Results are compared with those corresponding to sea level. Range straggling, particularly its effect on horizontally incident muons, is investigated by Monte Carlo calculation, indicating that its effects and t...

  17. Energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions during the production of a passenger car in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Rapidly-rising oil demand and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road vehicles in China, passenger cars in particular, have attracted worldwide attention. As most studies to date were focused on the vehicle operation stage, the present study attempts to evaluate the energy demand and GHG emissions during the vehicle production process, which usually consists of two major stages-material production and vehicle assembly. Energy demand and GHG emissions in the material production stage are estimated using the following data: the mass of the vehicle, the distribution of material used by mass, and energy demand and GHG emissions associated with the production of each material. Energy demand in the vehicle assembly stage is estimated as a linear function of the vehicle mass, while the associated GHG emission is estimated according to the primary energy sources. It is concluded that the primary energy demand, petroleum demand and GHG emissions during the production of a medium-sized passenger car in China are 69,108 MJ, 14,545 MJ and 6575 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq). Primary energy demand, petroleum demand and GHG emissions in China's passenger car fleets in 2005 would be increased by 22%, 5% and 30%, respectively, if the vehicle production stage were included.

  18. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  19. CO2 emissions, energy consumption, income and foreign trade: A South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The effect of trade liberalisation on environmental conditions has yielded significant debate in the energy economics literature. Although research on the relationship between energy consumption, emissions and economic growth is not new in South Africa, no study specifically addresses the role that South Africa's foreign trade plays in this context. A surprising fact given trade is one of the most important factors that can explain the environmental Kuznets curve. This study employs recent South African trade and energy data and modern econometric techniques to investigate this. The main finding of interest in this paper is the existence of a long run relationship between environmental quality, levels of per capita energy use and foreign trade in South Africa. As anticipated per capita energy use has a significant long run effect in raising the country's CO 2 emission levels, yet surprisingly higher levels of trade for the country act to reduce these emissions. Granger causality tests confirm the existence of a positive bidirectional relationship between per capita energy use and CO 2 emissions. Whilst the study also finds positive bidirectional causality between trade and income per capita and between trade and per capita energy use, it appears however that trade liberalisation in South Africa has not contributed to a long run growth in pollution-intensive activities nor higher emission levels. - Highlights: • A long run relationship between CO 2 emissions, levels of energy use and trade in SA. • Per capita energy has a significant long run effect in raising SA's CO 2 levels. • Trade reduces CO 2 emissions through stimulating technological innovations. • Positive bidirectional causality between per capita energy use and CO 2 emissions. • Bidirectional causality between trade and income and trade and energy use

  20. Coordination of emissions trading in the EU, energy taxation and energy production aid. A working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The working group was to evaluate and give its proposal for the use of energy taxation, energy production aid and other financial steering instruments in the circumstances of emissions trading. The working group presented an interim report on energy taxation on 15 December 2003 (MTI Ad-hoc Committee Reports 1/2004). Emissions trading is a new Community measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It will start at the beginning of 2005. During the first emissions trading period, i.e. 2005-2007, emissions trading will concern the carbon dioxide emissions of energy production and other central industries. If the emission allowance market functions efficiently and the system functions well also otherwise, no other means of steering will be necessary to cut carbon dioxide emissions in the emissions trading sector, when the emissions trading begins. In fact, the need for the conventional steering instruments in an emissions trading situation should be evaluated in terms of other targets of energy and environmental policy, as well as State finances. Due to energy policy targets and for reasons related to State finances, the present type of energy taxation scheme, which consists of the excise duty of heat production fuels and the two-scale excise duty paid on electricity consumption, will still be needed. The problems caused by emissions trading to the competitiveness of industry can to some extent be alleviated with taxation. Therefore reducing the electricity tax of industry or developing tax subsidies as necessary should be considered. It is recommended that the tax subsidies for electricity production be changed so that the tax subsidies would be removed from electricity produced by means of black liquors of the forest industry and the wood material created as side-product, as well as by the process gases of industry and reaction heat. In the circumstances of emissions trading, the energy policy impact of these subsidies is fairly insignificant. To ensure the raw

  1. Optimal household refrigerator replacement policy for life cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Horie, Yuhta A.

    2006-01-01

    Although the last decade witnessed dramatic progress in refrigerator efficiencies, inefficient, outdated refrigerators are still in operation, sometimes consuming more than twice as much electricity per year compared with modern, efficient models. Replacing old refrigerators before their designed lifetime could be a useful policy to conserve electric energy and greenhouse gas emissions. However, from a life cycle perspective, product replacement decisions also induce additional economic and environmental burdens associated with disposal of old models and production of new models. This paper discusses optimal lifetimes of mid-sized refrigerator models in the US, using a life cycle optimization model based on dynamic programming. Model runs were conducted to find optimal lifetimes that minimize energy, global warming potential (GWP), and cost objectives over a time horizon between 1985 and 2020. The baseline results show that depending on model years, optimal lifetimes range 2-7 years for the energy objective, and 2-11 years for the GWP objective. On the other hand, an 18-year of lifetime minimizes the economic cost incurred during the time horizon. Model runs with a time horizon between 2004 and 2020 show that current owners should replace refrigerators that consume more than 1000 kWh/year of electricity (typical mid-sized 1994 models and older) as an efficient strategy from both cost and energy perspectives

  2. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  3. Valuation of Water and Emissions in Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price incentives and economic penalties (monetization) are common approaches to control water usage and total direct greenhouse gas emissions (externalities) of industrial systems. We argue that homogenous pricing of externalities provides limited flexibility for mitigating envir...

  4. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.

  5. The Increase of Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasana, Hadi; Putri, Annisa Eka

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, the increase of energy consumption that has multiplied carbondioxide emissions becomes world problems, especially in the developing countries undergoing industrialization to be developed ones like Indonesia. This aim of this study was to analyze the effect of fossil energy consumption, population growth, and consumption of renewable energy on carbon dioxide emission. The method used was multiple linear regression analysis with Ordinary Least Square approach using time series in the period of 1990 - 2014. The result showed that fossil energy consumption and population growth have a positive influence on carbon dioxide emission in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the consumption variable of renewable energy has a negative effect on the level of carbon dioxide emissions produced.

  6. The Increase of Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide (CO2 Emission in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasana Hadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the increase of energy consumption that has multiplied carbondioxide emissions becomes world problems, especially in the developing countries undergoing industrialization to be developed ones like Indonesia. This aim of this study was to analyze the effect of fossil energy consumption, population growth, and consumption of renewable energy on carbon dioxide emission. The method used was multiple linear regression analysis with Ordinary Least Square approach using time series in the period of 1990 - 2014. The result showed that fossil energy consumption and population growth have a positive influence on carbon dioxide emission in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the consumption variable of renewable energy has a negative effect on the level of carbon dioxide emissions produced.

  7. Time-Dependent Cryospheric Longwave Surface Emissivity Feedback in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chaincy; Feldman, Daniel R.; Huang, Xianglei; Flanner, Mark; Yang, Ping; Chen, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Frozen and unfrozen surfaces exhibit different longwave surface emissivities with different spectral characteristics, and outgoing longwave radiation and cooling rates are reduced for unfrozen scenes relative to frozen ones. Here physically realistic modeling of spectrally resolved surface emissivity throughout the coupled model components of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is advanced, and implications for model high-latitude biases and feedbacks are evaluated. It is shown that despite a surface emissivity feedback amplitude that is, at most, a few percent of the surface albedo feedback amplitude, the inclusion of realistic, harmonized longwave, spectrally resolved emissivity information in CESM1.2.2 reduces wintertime Arctic surface temperature biases from -7.2 ± 0.9 K to -1.1 ± 1.2 K, relative to observations. The bias reduction is most pronounced in the Arctic Ocean, a region for which Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5) models exhibit the largest mean wintertime cold bias, suggesting that persistent polar temperature biases can be lessened by including this physically based process across model components. The ice emissivity feedback of CESM1.2.2 is evaluated under a warming scenario with a kernel-based approach, and it is found that emissivity radiative kernels exhibit water vapor and cloud cover dependence, thereby varying spatially and decreasing in magnitude over the course of the scenario from secular changes in atmospheric thermodynamics and cloud patterns. Accounting for the temporally varying radiative responses can yield diagnosed feedbacks that differ in sign from those obtained from conventional climatological feedback analysis methods.

  8. Relationship between urbanization and CO2 emissions depends on income level and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, Diego; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate empirically how national-level CO2 emissions are affected by urbanization and environmental policy. We use statistical modeling to explore panel data on annual CO2 emissions from 80 countries for the period 1983-2005. Random- and fixed-effects models indicate that, on the global average, the urbanization-emission elasticity value is 0.95 (i.e., a 1% increase in urbanization correlates with a 0.95% increase in emissions). Several regions display a statistically significant, positive elasticity for fixed- and random-effects models: lower-income Europe, India and the Sub-Continent, Latin America, and Africa. Using two proxies for environmental policy/outcomes (ratification status for the Kyoto Protocol; the Yale Environmental Performance Index), we find that in countries with stronger environmental policy/outcomes, urbanization has a more beneficial (or, a less negative) impact on emissions. Specifically, elasticity values are -1.1 (0.21) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with strong environmental policy, versus 0.65 (1.3) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with weak environmental policies. Our finding that the urbanization-emissions elasticity may depend on the strength of a country's environmental policy, not just marginal increases in income, is in contrast to the idea of universal urban scaling laws that can ignore local context. Most global population growth in the coming decades is expected to occur in urban areas of lower-income countries, which underscores the importance of these findings.

  9. Air pollution emissions and damages from energy production in the U.S.: 2002–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Muller, Nicholas Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses air pollution emissions data for the years 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 to estimate monetary damages due to air pollution exposure for PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 , and VOC from electric power generation, oil and gas extraction, coal mining, and oil refineries. In 2011, damages associated with emissions from these sectors totaled 131 billion dollars (in 2000$), with SO 2 emissions from power generation being the largest contributors to social damages. Further, damages have decreased significantly since 2002, even as energy production increased, suggesting that, among other factors, policies that have driven reductions in emissions have reduced damages. The results of this analysis highlight the spatial heterogeneity of the impacts associated with the emissions of a given pollutant. In the past, environmental regulations have assumed that the benefits of air emissions reductions are homogenous across source location. This analysis suggests that policy designs that account for spatial differences in the impacts of air emissions could result in more effective environmental regulation. Accounting for such spatial heterogeneity in the benefits of policies would be akin to accounting for differences in compliances costs across states, which the EPA did when establishing the state emissions standards for the Clean Power Plan rule. - Highlights: • Social costs of emissions from energy sector decreased between 2002 and 2011. • Emissions from power generation are the major contributors to social costs. • Policies to control SO 2 emissions may produce the largest social costs reductions.

  10. A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses multivariate co-integration Granger causality tests to investigate the correlations between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Some researchers have argued that the adoption of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption as a long term policy goal will result in a closed-form relationship, to the detriment of the economy. Therefore, a perspective that can make allowances for the fact that the exclusive pursuit of economic growth will increase energy consumption and CO 2 emissions is required; to the extent that such growth will have adverse effects with regard to global climate change. (author)

  11. Meterwavelength Single-pulse Polarimetric Emission Survey. IV. The Period Dependence of Component Widths of Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Anna; Basu, Rahul; Mitra, Dipanjan; Melikidze, George I.; Maciesiak, Krzysztof; Koralewska, Olga; Filothodoros, Alexandros

    2018-02-01

    The core component width in normal pulsars, with periods (P) > 0.1 s, measured at the half-power point at 1 GHz, has a lower boundary line (LBL) that closely follows the P ‑0.5 scaling relation. This result is of fundamental importance for understanding the emission process and requires extended studies over a wider frequency range. In this paper we have carried out a detailed study of the profile component widths of 123 normal pulsars observed in the Meterwavelength Single-pulse Polarimetric Emission Survey at 333 and 618 MHz. The components in the pulse profile were separated into core and conal classes. We found that at both frequencies, the core, as well as the conal component widths versus period, had a LBL that followed the P ‑0.5 relation with a similar lower boundary. The radio emission in normal pulsars has been observationally shown to arise from a narrow range of heights around a few hundred kilometers above the stellar surface. In the past the P ‑0.5 relation has been considered as evidence for emission arising from last open dipolar magnetic field lines. We show that the P ‑0.5 dependence only holds if the trailing and leading half-power points of the component are associated with the last open field line. In such a scenario we do not find any physical motivation that can explain the P ‑0.5 dependence for both core and conal components as evidence for dipolar geometry in normal pulsars. We believe the period dependence is a result of a currently unexplained physical phenomenon.

  12. Estimating future energy use and CO2 emissions of the world's cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shweta; Kennedy, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a tool for estimating energy-related CO 2 emissions from the world's cities based on regression models. The models are developed considering climatic (heating-degree-days) and urban design (land area per person) independent variables. The tool is applied on 3646 urban areas for estimating impacts on urban emissions of a) global transitioning to Electric Vehicles, b) urban density change and c) IPCC climate change scenarios. Results show that urban density decline can lead to significant increase in energy emissions (upto 346% in electricity & 428% in transportation at 2% density decline by 2050). Among the IPCC climate scenarios tested, A1B is the most effective in reducing growth of emissions (upto 12% in electricity & 35% in heating). The tool can further be improved by including more data in the regression models along with inclusion of other relevant emissions and climatic variables. - Highlights: • A tool for estimation of energy related emissions for urban areas is developed. • Heating degree days and urbanized area per capita are driving variables for urban energy consumption. • Global transition to EVs can only mitigate transportation emissions if GHG intensity of electricity grid is reduced. • Density decline of urban areas can lead to exponential increase of energy related emissions. • Climate change scenarios can slightly reduce the growth of energy related emissions increase by 2050. - A tool for estimation of global impact of urban systems on energy related emissions was developed that can simulate the impact of future scenarios (climate change, urban design etc)

  13. Energy-related CO2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The research focuses on agricultural sectors of the eighteen European countries. • The main drivers of energy-related CO 2 emission are quantified by means of IDA. • The slack-based DEA model is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency. • Shadow prices of carbon emission are analysed. • Energy efficiency remains the primary means for increasing environmental efficiency. - Abstract: Climate change mitigation is a key issue in formulating global environmental policies. Energy production and consumption are the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Energy consumption and energy-related GHG emissions from agriculture are an important concern for policymakers, as the agricultural activities should meet food security goals along with proper economic, environmental, and social impacts. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission is the most significant among energy-related GHG emissions. This paper analyses the main drivers behind energy-related CO 2 emission across agricultural sectors of European countries. The analysis is based on aggregate data from the World Input-Output Database. The research explores two main directions. Firstly, Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), facilitated by the Shapley index, is used to identify the main drivers of CO 2 emission. Secondly, the Slack-based Model (SBM) is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency of European agricultural sectors. By applying frontier techniques, we also derive the measures of environmental efficiency and shadow prices, thereby contributing to a discussion on CO 2 emission mitigation in agriculture. Therefore, the paper devises an integrated approach towards analysis of CO 2 emission based upon advanced decomposition and efficiency analysis models. The research covers eighteen European countries and the applied methodology decomposes contributions to CO 2 emission across of regions and factors. Results of IDA suggest that decreasing energy intensity is the main factor

  14. Energy efficiency, carbon emissions, and measures towards their improvement in the food and beverage sector for six European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Steven; Schmitt, Bastian; Chester-Jones, Mae; Sturm, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Basic and detailed audits of small and medium sized food and beverage enterprises were conducted in six European Union countries to determine product specific energy consumption and measures to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. Collected results showed that the companies’ products had similar specific energy consumption as prior studies, but due to no standard metrics, the range was rather large. Auditors primarily recommended energy savings measures (process optimization and heat recovery), due to their low payback periods. Lower carbon energy sources were also recommended (solar thermal and combined heat/power), but often at higher costs, supported through government incentive programs. Through these measures, energy savings of up to 45% and carbon to 30% (∼30,000 t CO 2 equivalent in the audited companies) were possible, dependent on the type, size of company, and fuel choice. Typically, very small companies and those using coal showed the greatest margin for improvement, though it varied greatly depending on the type of product produced and the installed heating and cooling equipment. Auditors noted significant barriers toward the implementation of measures, e.g. companies found the costs too high, did not know of efficient technologies and their performance, or did not have managerial support to implement efficiency measures. - Highlights: • The Food and Beverage sector in Europe was assessed for carbon reduction potential. • Significant emission reductions can be achieved by energy efficiency and renewables. • The Bakery and Meat branches can reduce energy consumption by 30–40%. • Small and coal burning companies have the greatest potential for emission reduction. • Financial barriers remain the hardest obstacle to realize reduction potential.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not include farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. Thus, the actual net greenhouse gas reduction......Agro‐biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel‐derived CO2...... or incorporation of crop residues. In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass...

  16. Analysis of rural residential energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunsheng; Chen Chongying; Li Ming

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of rural residential energy consumption in China from 2001 to 2008 and corresponding impacts on climate change is presented in the paper. It is found that rural residential energy consumption has shown obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. The percentage of biomass energy consumption dropped from 81.5% in 2001 to 70.9% in 2008, while the percentage of commercial energy increased from 17.1% to 25.1%. Besides, other renewable energy increased very fast with annual growth rate of 19.8%. Correspondingly, total CO 2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption had significant increase from 152.2 Million tons in 2001 to 283.6 Million tons in 2008. The annual growth rate of per capita CO 2 emissions was nearly 2 times faster than that of urban area. The major driving force for the consumption of commercial energy was the income of rural farmers, while strong rural energy policies supported the development of renewable energy. To satisfy the goals of energy supply and CO 2 emissions reduction in rural areas, it is advised to change the energy structure and improve the energy efficiency, such as to generate electricity using renewable technologies and to replace coal with modern biomass energy for cooking and heating. - Highlights: ► This study analyzed rural residential energy consumption in China 2001–2008. ► It shows obvious transition from non-commercial energy to commercial energy. ► CO 2 emissions from rural residential energy consumption have significant increases. ► Major driving forces are income of rural farmers and rural energy policies. ► Generate electricity using renewable technology and replace coal with modern biomass.

  17. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  18. An energy dependent spatial approximation for transport deflection calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovski, Z.; Sanchez, R.; Roy, R.

    1989-01-01

    A model for transport depletion calculations based on an energy-dependent spatial representation of the fluxes has been developed. In the case of thermal absorbers, this model allows for regions in the fast range to be less discretized than in the thermal range. When depletion calculations are done to obtain the variation of the isotopic concentration vs. the burnup, the media where several spatial flux representations are used become heterogeneous. In the fast range, prehomogenization of the physical properties is done prior to each transport step. Even when taking into account this prehomogenization step, the computational cost of transport depleted calculations has been cut down significantly, while preserving the overall accuracy. Numerical results are given for a slab core and for a PWR poisoned assembly

  19. Polymorph-Dependent Green, Yellow, and Red Emissions of Organic Crystals for Laser Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jin, Xue; Liao, Qing; Fu, Hongbing

    2017-12-05

    Color tuning of organic solid-state luminescent materials remains difficult and time-consuming through conventional chemical synthesis. Herein, we reported highly efficient polymorph-dependent green (P1), yellow (P2), and red (P3) emissions of organic crystals made by the same molecular building blocks of 4-(2-{4-[2-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-vinyl)-benzonitrile (DOPVB). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic data reveal that all three polymorphs follow the herringbone packing motif in H-type aggregations. On the one hand, from P1, P2 to P3, the reduced pitch translation along π stacks increases the intermolecular interactions between adjacent molecules, therefore leading to gradually red-shifted emissions from 540, 570 to 614 nm. On the other hand, the edge-to-face arrangement and large roll translations avoid strong π-π overlap, making P1, P2 and P3 highly emissive with record-high solid-state fluorescence quantum yields of 0.60, 0.98, and 0.68, respectively. Furthermore, the optically allowed 0-1 transitions of herringbone H-aggregates of P1, P2 and P3 naturally provide a four-level scheme, enabling green and yellow amplified spontaneous emissions (ASE) with very low thresholds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  1. Forest biomass diversion in the Sierra Nevada: Energy, economics and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Springsteen; Thomas Christofk; Robert A. York; Tad Mason; Stephen Baker; Emily Lincoln; Bruce Hartsough; Takuyuki Yoshioka

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to open pile burning, use of forest wastes from fuel hazard reduction projects at Blodgett Forest Research Station for electricity production was shown to produce energy and emission benefits: energy (diesel fuel) expended for processing and transport was 2.5% of the biomass fuel (energy equivalent); based on measurements from a large pile...

  2. RE Data Explorer: Informing Variable Renewable Energy Grid Integration for Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The RE Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based analysis tool that utilizes geospatial and spatiotemporal renewable energy data to visualize, execute, and support analysis of renewable energy potential under various user-defined scenarios. This analysis can inform high-level prospecting, integrated planning, and policy making to enable low emission development.

  3. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  4. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions of China’s Model Environmental Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lo

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies three types of model environmental cities in China and examines their levels of energy-related carbon emissions using a bottom-up accounting system. Model environmental cities are identified as those that have been recently awarded official recognition from the central government for their efforts in environmental protection. The findings show that, on average, the Low-Carbon Cities have lower annual carbon emissions, carbon intensities, and per capita emissions than the...

  5. Reference projection energy and emissions. 2012 Update. Energy and emissions for the years 2012, 2020 and 2030; Referentieraming energie en emissies. Actualisatie 2012. Energie en emissies in de jaren 2012, 2020 en 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    This report contains estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants and the use of renewable energy for the year 2020. An outlook is presented for the year 2030. This estimate is an update of the Reference Projection Energy and Emissions 2010-2020, published in 2010. The goal of the update is to provide insight into the progress in realizing the targets for Dutch policies with regard to climate, air and energy. [Dutch] Dit rapport bevat de ramingen van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen en van het gebruik van hernieuwbare energie voor het jaar 2020. Voor het jaar 2030 wordt een doorkijk gegeven. Deze raming is een actualisatie van de Referentieraming energie en emissies 2010-2020 uit 2010. Het doel van de actualisatie is om inzicht te geven in de voortgang bij het realiseren van de Nederlandse doelstellingen voor klimaat, lucht en energie.

  6. Fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil carbon effects, of producing agriculture and forestry feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Canter; Zhangcai Qin; Hao Cai; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Wang; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    The GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with producing potential biomass sup­ply in the select BT16 scenarios include emissions and energy consumption from biomass production, harvest/collection, transport, and pre-processing activities to the reactor throat. Emissions associated with energy, fertilizers, and...

  7. The dependence of modeled OI 1,356 and N2 Lyman Birge Hopfield auroral emissions on the neutral atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany, G.A.; Torr, M.R.; Richards, P.G.; Torr, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Images of the entire auroral oval at carefully selected wavelengths contain information on the global energy influx due to energetic particles and some information on the characteristic energy of the precipitating particles. In this paper the authors investigate the sensitivity of selected auroral emissions to changes in the neutral atmosphere. In particular, they examine the behavior of OI 1,356 angstrom and two Lyman Birge Hopfield (LBH) bands and their ratios to each other with changing atmospheric composition. The two LBH bands are selected so that one lies in the region of strong O 2 absorption (1,464 angstrom) and one lies at a wavelength where O 2 absorption is effectively negligible (1,838 angstrom). They find that for anticipated average uncertainties in the neutral atmosphere (factor of 2 at auroral altitudes). The resultant change in the modeled intensities is comparable to or less than the uncertainty in the neutral atmosphere. The smallest variations, for example, are for I 1,838 (approximately 10 to 20%) while the largest variation is seen in the OI 1,356 angstrom emission which is linear with [O] to within 20%. They have also investigated the dependence of these intensities, and their ratios, to much larger changes in the composition such as might be encountered in large magnetic storms, or over seasonal or solar cycle extremes. They find that the variation in the I 1,356/I 1,838 ratio over the equivalent of a solar cycle is less than 50%. The summer-to-winter changes are approximately a factor of 2. The I 1,356/I 1,838 ratio is a very sensitive indicator of the characteristic energy, showing a change of 13 over the energy range 200 eV to 10 keV. The corresponding change in the LBH long-to-short wavelength ratio is much less (about a factor of 3). However, the latter is insensitive to changes in the neutral atmosphere ( 2 )

  8. Energy dependence of ulrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons and high energy X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, T.

    1977-02-01

    The energy dependence of ultrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons (5-40 MeV) and high energy X-radiation (6 MV, 42 MV) is experimentally determined. The experimental values are compared to values calculted earlier by other authors. The influence of the thickness of the dosemeters have been considered by comparison of experimental values for 0.03 mm thick dosemeters and theoretical values for 0.13 mm and 0.38 mm thick ones. Also different commersially available dosemeters have been compared by experiments. It is difficult to draw any other conclutions about the energy dependence than that the variation of the relative responce is within +- 3 percent (2S). However the results seems to be sulficient for clinical applications

  9. Energy and emissions benefits of renewable energy derived from municipal solid waste: Analysis of a low carbon scenario in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew Tin; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility study on the energy and GHG emission reduction for WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) in Malaysia. • Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from WtE strategies analysed using IPCC guideline. • Scenario analysis by comparison of different WtE strategies. • Impact of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Ineffective waste management that involves dumping of waste in landfills may degrade valuable land resources and emit methane gas (CH 4 ), a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The incineration of waste also emits polluted chemicals such as dioxin and particle. Therefore, from a solid waste management perspective, both landfilling and incineration practices pose challenges to the development of a green and sustainable future. Waste-to-energy (WtE) has become a promising strategy catering to these issues because the utilisation of waste reduces the amount of landfilled waste (overcoming land resource issues) while increasing renewable energy production. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the energy and carbon reduction potential in Malaysia for various WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW). The material properties of the MSW, its energy conversion potential and subsequent greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are analysed based on the chemical compositions and biogenic carbon fractions of the waste. The GHG emission reduction potential is also calculated by considering fossil fuel displacement and CH 4 avoidance from landfilling. In this paper, five different scenarios are analysed with results indicating a integration of landfill gas (LFG) recovery systems and waste incinerator as the major and minor WtE strategies shows the highest economical benefit with optimal GHG mitigation and energy potential. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emissions are performed. These evaluations of Wt

  10. Factors Influencing Energy Use and Carbon Emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, Karen [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Jefferson, Gary [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    This research project was designed to fill a critical void in our understanding of the state of energy research and innovation in China. It seeks to provide a comprehensive review and accounting of the various elements of the Chinese government and non-governmental sectors (commercial, university, research institutes) that are engaged in energy-related R&D and various aspects of energy innovation, including specific programs and projects designed to promote renewable energy innovation and energy conservation. The project provides an interrelated descriptive, statistical, and econometric account of China's overall energy innovation activities and capabilities, spanning the full economy with a particular focus on the dynamic industrial sector.

  11. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  12. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-09-15

    The conference focused on: 1) Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues. 2) Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 - 2020 and subsequent decline. 3) Renewable energy supply technologies such as bioenergy, wind and solar. 4) Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies. 5) Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies. 6) Providing renewable energy for the transport sector. 7) Systems aspects for the various regions throughout the world. 8) End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use. 9) Energy savings. (au)

  13. High-energy electron emission from metallic nano-tips driven by intense single-cycle terahertz pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Jones, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Electrons ejected from atoms and subsequently driven to high energies in strong laser fields enable techniques from attosecond pulse generation to imaging with rescattered electrons. Analogous processes govern strong-field electron emission from nanostructures, where long wavelength radiation and large local field enhancements hold the promise for producing electrons with substantially higher energies, allowing for higher resolution time-resolved imaging. Here we report on the use of single-cycle terahertz pulses to drive electron emission from unbiased nano-tips. Energies exceeding 5 keV are observed, substantially greater than previously attained at higher drive frequencies. Despite large differences in the magnitude of the respective local fields, we find that the maximum electron energies are only weakly dependent on the tip radius, for 10 nmenergy electron emission is predicted to be confined to a single burst, potentially enabling a variety of applications. PMID:27830701

  14. Primary energy demand in Japan: an empirical analysis of long-term trends and future CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, L.C.; Ninomiya, Yasushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run relationship between energy demand, GNP and the real energy price in Japan using data covering 1887-2001. It is found that, if an Underlying Energy Demand Trend is appropriately incorporated, the resulting econometric model produces a long-run income elasticity of about unity and a long-run price elasticity of about-0.2. The estimated model is utilised to forecast energy consumption and CO 2 emissions up to 2012. It is shown that given current economic conditions and policies there is considerable uncertainty about whether Japan will be able to meet its Kyoto target by reducing CO 2 emissions in 2008-2012 to the 1990 level. It is shown that this uncertainty depends on the strength of the economy and leaves the Japanese government with a difficult policy dilemma. If there is a resurgence in growth to something near the annual average growth rate since the early 1980s a considerable effort will be required in order to meet its Kyoto target; requiring not only using the Kyoto Mechanisms, but also additional tougher domestic policies and measures such as emissions capping, R and D incentives, and education for energy conservation in addition to a pricing and tax policy

  15. A feasibility study of microgrids for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in an industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment is conducted on the microgrids for an industry application. • The effect of renewable energy on the LCA performances of microgrids is illustrated. • The minimal life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of microgrids are evaluated. • The LCA of different pathways for electricity, heat and hydrogen are presented. - Abstract: Microgrids provide a new energy paradigm with the benefits of higher energy supply reliability, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a higher penetration of renewable sources, higher energy efficiencies through the use of local waste heat and the avoidance of losses in transmission and distribution. This study reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microgrids for an industry application of an ammonia plant in central Inner Mongolia, China. The life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the microgrids are evaluated and compared to the existing fossil fuel-based energy system. The electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel loads of the ammonia plant are all modelled in the study. An optimization model is developed to estimate the minimum life cycle energy use and GHG emissions with the microgrids under three scenarios (natural gas (NG)-based, optimized, and maximum renewable energy microgrids). The results indicate that the use of wind and solar in the NG-based microgrid can only slightly reduce the energy use and GHG emissions. If there are no land area limitations on the deployment of solar and wind power, the maximum renewable energy microgrid offers significant reductions of fossil fuel energy of up to 56.9% and GHG emissions reductions of up to 66.3% compared to the existing energy system.

  16. CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy and roles of nuclear energy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Osamu; Shimoda, Makoto; Takematsu, Kenji; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    An analysis was made on the potential and cost of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from Japan`s long-term energy systems by using the MARKAL model, developed in the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) of International Energy Agency (IEA). Assuming future growths of GDP, the demand for energy services was estimated for the analytical time horizon 1990-2050. Assumptions were made also on prices and availability of fossil fuels, and on availability of nuclear and renewable energy. CO{sub 2} emissions and system costs were compared between energy demand and supply scenarios defined with different assumptions on nuclear energy, a CO{sub 2} disposal option, and natural gas imports. Main results were as follows. Without nuclear energy, the CO{sub 2} emissions will hardly be reduced because of the increases of coal utilization. CO{sub 2} disposal will be effective in reducing the emissions, however at much higher costs than the case with nuclear energy. The expansion of natural gas imports alone will not reduce the emissions at enough low levels. (author)

  17. Energy development and CO2 emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaolin [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO2 emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO2 emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO2 emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined.

  18. Consumer lifestyle approach to US energy use and the related CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, Shui; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2005-01-01

    Historically, a sectoral approach (based on the industrial, transportation, commercial, and residential sectors) has shaped the way we frame and analyze issues of energy conservation and CO 2 mitigation. This sectoral categorization, however, is limited in its capacity to reveal the total impacts of consumer activities on energy use and its related environmental impacts. In this paper, we propose an alternative paradigm, called the Consumer Lifestyle Approach (CLA), to explore the relationship between consumer activities and environmental impacts in the US. Estimates based on our methodology reveal that more than 80% of the energy used and the CO 2 emitted in the US are a consequence of consumer demands and the economic activities to support these demands. Direct influences due to consumer activities (home energy use and personal travel) are 4% of the US GDP, but account for 28% and 41% of US energy use and CO 2 emissions, respectively. Indirect influences (such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, and apparel) involve more than twice the direct energy use and CO 2 emissions. Characterization of both direct and indirect energy use and emissions is critical to the design of more effective energy and CO 2 emission policies. It may also help erode the false dichotomy of 'them versus us' (industrial polluters versus consumers) references to the locus of responsibility for control of energy use and CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  19. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Rajbhandari, Salony

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO 2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO 2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO 2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  20. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  1. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnoczi, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  2. Revisiting the emissions-energy-trade nexus: evidence from the newly industrializing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2016-04-01

    This paper applies Pedroni's panel cointegration approach to explore the causal relationship between trade openness, carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth for the panel of newly industrialized economies (i.e., Brazil, India, China, and South Africa) over the period of 1970-2013. Our panel cointegration estimation results found majority of the variables cointegrated and confirm the long-run association among the variables. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. A unidirectional causality is found running from trade openness to carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption and economic growth to carbon dioxide emissions. The results of causality analysis suggest that the trade liberalization in newly industrialized economies induces higher energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, the causality results are checked using an innovative accounting approach which includes forecast-error variance decomposition test and impulse response function. The long-run coefficients are estimated using fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) method, and results conclude that the trade openness and economic growth reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. The results of FMOLS test sound the existence of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. It means that trade liberalization induces carbon dioxide emission with increased national output, but it offsets that impact in the long run with reduced level of carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. Optical spectroscopy, energy upconversion, and white-light emission characteristics of erbium-doped calcium fluoride crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Mical; Edwards, Vernessa M.; Reddy, Bommareddi Rami

    2017-04-01

    Absorption spectrum of Er3+-doped CaF2 revealed absorption peaks at 255, 365, 379, 407, 441, 449, 487, 522, 539, 652, and 798 nm. When the sample was excited with an 802-nm near-infrared laser, it revealed emissions at 390, 415, 462, 555, 665, and 790 nm due to stepwise excitation and energy transfer upconversion processes. The absorption and emission peaks are identified with Er3+ spectral transitions. The sample color appears to be either white or green under near-infrared laser excitation. Emission color was found to be dependent on the pump laser wavelength used and laser power. Excitation spectral recordings were made by tuning the pump laser wavelength. Excited state lifetimes are measured to analyze the data. Color coordinates and color temperatures are measured for 802- and 405-nm laser excitations. Our studies indicate that this sample is useful for solid-state lighting applications.

  4. Density dependence of the nuclear energy-density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Park, Tae-Sun; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background: The explicit density dependence in the coupling coefficients entering the nonrelativistic nuclear energy-density functional (EDF) is understood to encode effects of three-nucleon forces and dynamical correlations. The necessity for the density-dependent coupling coefficients to assume the form of a preferably small fractional power of the density ρ is empirical and the power is often chosen arbitrarily. Consequently, precision-oriented parametrizations risk overfitting in the regime of saturation and extrapolations in dilute or dense matter may lose predictive power. Purpose: Beginning with the observation that the Fermi momentum kF, i.e., the cubic root of the density, is a key variable in the description of Fermi systems, we first wish to examine if a power hierarchy in a kF expansion can be inferred from the properties of homogeneous matter in a domain of densities, which is relevant for nuclear structure and neutron stars. For subsequent applications we want to determine a functional that is of good quality but not overtrained. Method: For the EDF, we fit systematically polynomial and other functions of ρ1 /3 to existing microscopic, variational calculations of the energy of symmetric and pure neutron matter (pseudodata) and analyze the behavior of the fits. We select a form and a set of parameters, which we found robust, and examine the parameters' naturalness and the quality of resulting extrapolations. Results: A statistical analysis confirms that low-order terms such as ρ1 /3 and ρ2 /3 are the most relevant ones in the nuclear EDF beyond lowest order. It also hints at a different power hierarchy for symmetric vs. pure neutron matter, supporting the need for more than one density-dependent term in nonrelativistic EDFs. The functional we propose easily accommodates known or adopted properties of nuclear matter near saturation. More importantly, upon extrapolation to dilute or asymmetric matter, it reproduces a range of existing microscopic

  5. Spectral properties of americium(III) in silicate matrices. Concentration-dependent up-conversion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, R.G.; Stump, N.

    2002-01-01

    We have been pursuing the spectroscopic properties of actinide ions in silicate matrices. One facet of these studies involves the behavior of Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions exhibited by Am 3+ in these hosts. Several attributes have been found to influence the spectral profile, which include excitation wavelength, laser power, and dopant-concentration. Excitation with the 514.5 nm (19435 cm -1 ) line of argon laser provides anti-Stokes emissions at 21100 and ∼19920 cm -1 in the borosilicate matrices. This up-conversion was found to proceed through a multi-photon scheme, and the efficiency increases with increased dopant concentration. Based on our concentration-dependent studies, the up-conversion is suggested to involve a cross-relaxation process [( 5 D 1' , 7 F 0' ) ( 7 F 6' , 7 F 2' )] between neighboring americium ions. (author)

  6. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenau, Melanie; Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus; Sommer, Holger; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2016-08-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume plastic scintillator BC400. Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a (60)Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks' formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks' formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV(-1) cm(-2). The energy response was quantified relative to the response to (60)Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The observed energy dependence could be well explained with the assumption of ionization quenching as described

  7. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.

    2002-01-01

    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO 2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. Industrial country CO 2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO 2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO 2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO 2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO 2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  8. Integrated energy & emission management for hybrid electric truck with SCR aftertreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Schoot, W.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Energy management in hybrid vehicles typically relates to the vehicle powertrain, whereas emission management is associated with the combustion engine and aftertreatment system. To achieve maximum performance in fuel economy and regulated pollutants, the concept of (model-based) Integrated

  9. Exploring residential energy consumers' willingness to accept and pay to offset their CO2-emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Voluntary carbon offsets have the potential to contribute to reduce carbon emission and thereby meet the national and international target of carbon emission. The public support for such scheme in the energy sector is unclear. We invested whether and why residential energy consumers...... to pay for carbon offset. Finally, the ordered logit model is used in modelling willing to pay for carbon offset. Findings The results show that there is significant support from residential energy consumer to offset their CO2 emission from electricity consumption. The WTP is motivated by consumers......’ perceptions towards carbon offset, moral obligation and individual’s social-demographic backgrounds. Originality/value This paper contributes a new insight on whether and why residential energy consumers would be willing to pay to offset carbon emission from electricity consumption....

  10. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate

    2014-01-01

    Nordic countries have committed to improve the energy efficiency and decrease the CO2 emissions of freight transport. The aim of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the road industry for the Nordic countries in 2010, in order to identify the key factors and their i......Nordic countries have committed to improve the energy efficiency and decrease the CO2 emissions of freight transport. The aim of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the road industry for the Nordic countries in 2010, in order to identify the key factors...... and their impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road...... haulier surveys, national account data and fuel consumption data. The CO2 emissions of road freight transport in the Nordic countries vary from 1.14 Mt in Denmark to 2.27 Mt in Sweden. While the size of the economy, measured in gross value added (GVA), is a major determinant for the emissions...

  11. Fundamental research on sintering technology with super deep bed achieving energy saving and reduction of emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongliang Han; Shengli Wu; Gensheng Feng; Luowen Ma; Weizhong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In the general frame of energy saving, environment protection and the concept of circular economy, the fundamental research on the sintering technology with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and emission reduction, was carried out. At first, the characteristics of the process and exhaust emission in the sintering with super deep bed was mastered through the study of the influence of different bed depths on the sintering process. Then, considering the bed permeability and the fuel combustion, their influence on the sinter yield and quality, their potential for energy saving and emission reduction was studied. The results show that the improvement of the bed permeability and of the fuel combustibility respectively and simultaneously, leads to an improvement of the sintering technical indices, to energy saving and emission reduction in the condition of super deep bed. At 1000 mm bed depth, and taking the appropriate countermeasure, it is possible to decrease the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 10.08%, 11.20%, 22.62% and 25.86% respectively; and at 700 mm bed depth, it is possible to reduce the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 20.71%, 22.01%, 58.86% and 13.13% respectively. This research provides the theoretical and technical basis for the new technology of sintering with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and reduction of emission. (authors)

  12. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs.

    The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.

  13. Emission of Lyman α radiation in H2 + H*(2s) collisions at thermal energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, B.

    1991-01-01

    A previously-published study of the thermal-energy collision between H 2 and metastable H*(2s), which could lead to the emission of Lyman α radiation, is reconsidered to take into account possible polarization effects. The total was function of the system is expanded in terms of the molecular states of the intermediate complex H 2 * , which constitute the minimal basis of the four adiabatic states dissociating into H 2 + H*(n=2) where they are normally degenerate in energy. The results of the calculation show the existence, between three of those states, of average values of the separation distance R (R ≅ 10 atomic units) of long range (ΔR ≅ 2 au) electronic interactions which depend on the geometric form of the H 2 * molecule. From the molecular data the hypothesis of no longer considering H 2 with H*(2s) as a rigid rotator is postulated and justified, after a purely quantum mechanical treatment of the radial equations. The mean ratio of the (oscillating) polarization angular differential cross sections tot he elastic ones is found important (> ∼ 1/10). The inelastic phenomena are anticipated to be more marked in the ortho than in the para hydrogen at a low collision energy (75 meV). (15 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.)

  14. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries.......The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  15. Quantifying uncertainties influencing the long-term impacts of oil prices on energy markets and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, David L.; Jewell, Jessica; Krey, Volker; Bazilian, Morgan; Fay, Marianne; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-07-01

    Oil prices have fluctuated remarkably in recent years. Previous studies have analysed the impacts of future oil prices on the energy system and greenhouse gas emissions, but none have quantitatively assessed how the broader, energy-system-wide impacts of diverging oil price futures depend on a suite of critical uncertainties. Here we use the MESSAGE integrated assessment model to study several factors potentially influencing this interaction, thereby shedding light on which future unknowns hold the most importance. We find that sustained low or high oil prices could have a major impact on the global energy system over the next several decades; and depending on how the fuel substitution dynamics play out, the carbon dioxide consequences could be significant (for example, between 5 and 20% of the budget for staying below the internationally agreed 2 ∘C target). Whether or not oil and gas prices decouple going forward is found to be the biggest uncertainty.

  16. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  17. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Brouwer, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Kuramochi, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838683; van den Broek, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate

  18. Grey relation performance correlations among economics, energy use and carbon dioxide emission in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the inter-relationships among economy, energy and CO 2 emissions of 37 industrial sectors in Taiwan in order to provide insight regarding sustainable development policy making. Grey relation analysis was used to analyse the productivity, aggregate energy consumption, and the use of fuel mix (electricity, coal, oil and gas) in relation to CO 2 emission changes. An innovative evaluative index system was devised to explore grey relation grades among economics, energy and environmental quality. Results indicate that a rapid increase in electricity generation during the past 10 years is the main reason for CO 2 emission increase in Taiwan. The largest CO 2 emitting sectors include iron and steel, transportation, petrochemical materials, commerce and other services. Therefore, it is important to reduce the energy intensity of these sectors by energy conservation, efficiency improvement and adjustment of industrial structure towards high value-added products and services. Economic growth for all industries has a more significant influence, than does total energy consumption, on CO 2 emission increase in Taiwan. It is also important to decouple the energy consumption and production to reduce the impacts of CO 2 on economic growth. Furthermore, most of the sectors examined had increased CO 2 emissions, except for machinery and road transportation. For high energy intensive and CO 2 intensive industries, governmental policies for CO 2 mitigation should be directed towards low carbon fuels as well as towards enhancement of the demand side management mechanism, without loss of the nation's competitiveness

  19. Radio emission of air showers with extremely high energy measured by the Yakutsk Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurenko, S. P.; Petrov, Z. E.; Petrov, I. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Yakutsk Array is designed to study cosmic rays at energy 1015 -1020 eV. It consists several independent arrays that register charged particles, muons with energy E ≥ 1 GeV, Cherenkov light and radio emission. The paper presents a technical description of the Yakutsk Radio Array and some preliminary results obtained from measurements of radio emission at 30-35 MHz frequency induced by air shower particles with energy ε ≥ 1 ṡ1017 eV. The data obtained at the Yakutsk array in 1986-1989 (first set of measurements) and 2009-2014 (new set of measurements). Based on the obtained results we determined: Lateral distribution function (LDF) of air showers radio emission with energy ≥1017 eV. Radio emission amplitude empirical connection with air shower energy. Determination of depth of maximum by ratio of amplitude at different distances from the shower axis. For the first time, at the Yakutsk array radio emission from the air shower with energy >1019 eV was registered including the shower with the highest energy ever registered at the Yakutsk array with energy ∼ 2 ṡ1020 eV.

  20. Introducing renewable energy and industrial restructuring to reduce GHG emission: Application of a dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy development is expanded and introduced into socioeconomic activities. • A dynamic optimization simulation model is developed based on input–output approach. • Regional economic, energy and environmental impacts are assessed dynamically. • Industrial and energy structure is adjusted optimally for GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Specifying the renewable energy development as new energy industries to be newly introduced into current socioeconomic activities, this study develops a dynamic simulation model with input–output approach to make comprehensive assessment of the impacts on economic development, energy consumption and GHG emission under distinct levels of GHG emission constraints involving targeted GHG emission reduction policies (ERPs) and industrial restructuring. The model is applied to Jilin City to conduct 16 terms of dynamic simulation work with GRP as objective function subject to mass, value and energy balances aided by the extended input–output table with renewable energy industries introduced. Simulation results indicate that achievement of GHG emission reduction target is contributed by renewable energy industries, ERPs and industrial restructuring collectively, which reshape the terminal energy consumption structure with a larger proportion of renewable energy. Wind power, hydropower and biomass combustion power industries account for more in the power generation structure implying better industrial prospects. Mining, chemical, petroleum processing, non-metal, metal and thermal power industries are major targets for industrial restructuring. This method is crucial for understanding the role of renewable energy development in GHG mitigation efforts and other energy-related planning settings, allowing to explore the optimal level for relationships among all socioeconomic activities and facilitate to simultaneous pursuit of economic development, energy utilization and environmental preservation

  1. Modeling and optimization of a network of energy hubs to improve economic and emission considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroufmashat, Azadeh; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael; Sattari, Sourena; Roshandel, Ramin; Hajimiragha, Amir; Walker, Sean; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2015-01-01

    Energy hubs that incorporate a variety of energy generation and energy transformation technologies can be used to provide the energy storage needed to enable the efficient operation of a ‘smart energy network’. When these hubs are combined as a network and allowed to exchange energy, they create efficiency advantages in both financial and environmental performance. Further, the interconnectedness of the energy network design provides an added layer of reliability. In this paper, a complex network of energy hubs is modeled and optimized under different scenarios to examine both the financial viability and potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Two case studies consisting of two and three energy hubs within a network are considered. The modeling Scenarios vary according to the consideration of distributed energy systems and energy interaction between energy hubs. In the case of a network of two energy hubs, there is no significant economic or emissions benefit with only a 0.5% reduction in total cost and 3% reduction in CO 2 emission. In the case of a network of three energy hubs, there is a significant economic benefit ranging from 11% to 29%, and 11% emission reduction benefit, as well as a 13% reduction in natural gas consumption. - Highlights: • The generic form of the modified energy hub concept with network model is presented. • Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the benefits of energy hub network. • Distributed energy is shown to provide economic and environmental advantages. • Multi criteria optimization of the economic and environmental performance is done.

  2. Does Non-Fossil Energy Usage Lower CO2 Emissions? Empirical Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL to examine the dynamic impact of non-fossil energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China for a given level of economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage between 1965 and 2014. The results suggest that the variables are in a long-run equilibrium. ARDL estimation indicates that consumption of non-fossil energy plays a crucial role in curbing CO2 emissions in the long run but not in the short term. The results also suggest that, in both the long and short term, energy consumption and trade openness have a negative impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, while gross domestic product (GDP per capita increases CO2 emissions only in the short term. Finally, the Granger causality test indicates a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption. In addition, this study suggests that non-fossil energy is an effective solution to mitigate CO2 emissions, providing useful information for policy-makers wishing to reduce atmospheric CO2.

  3. Assessment of GHG emissions of biomethane from energy cereal crops in Umbria, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions of biomethane from energy crops cultivated in a central Italian farm were investigated. • Electricity consumption of the biogas plant was monitored. • Current scenario does not allow to achieve a GHG saving according to Renewable Energy Directive. • GHG emissions could be reduced by covering the storage tanks of digestate and installing a CHP plant. - Abstract: Biomethane from energy crops is a renewable energy carrier and therefore it potentially contributes to climate change mitigation. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from cultivation and processing must be considered. Among those, the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the resulting nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, the methane emissions from digestate storage and the energy consumption of the biogas plant are crucial factors. In the present paper an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions from biomethane production is carried out, taking into account own measurements and experience data from a modern biogas plant located in Umbria, Italy. The study is also focused on the electricity consumption of the biogas plant, assessing the specific absorption power of each machinery. The analysis is based on the methodology defined by the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). The main result is that the biomethane chain exceeds the minimum value of GHG saving (35%) mainly due to the open storage of digestate. However by varying the system, using heat and electricity from a biogas CHP plant and covering digestate storage tank, a reduction of 68.9% could be obtained

  4. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  5. High-resolution atmospheric emission inventory of the argentine energy sector. Comparison with edgar global emission database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Enrique Puliafito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2014 high-resolution spatially disaggregated emission inventory (0.025° × 0.025° horizontal resolution, of the main activities in the energy sector in Argentina. The sub-sectors considered are public generation of electricity, oil refineries, cement production, transport (maritime, air, rail and road, residential and commercial. The following pollutants were included: greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, VOC and other specific air quality indicators such as SO2, PM10, and PM2.5. This work could contribute to a better geographical allocation of the pollutant sources through census based population maps. Considering the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the total amount is 144 Tg CO2eq, from which the transportation sector emits 57.8 Tg (40%; followed by electricity generation, with 40.9 Tg (28%; residential + commercial, with 31.24 Tg (22%; and cement and refinery production, with 14.3 Tg (10%. This inventory shows that 49% of the total emissions occur in rural areas: 31% in rural areas of medium population density, 13% in intermediate urban areas and 7% in densely populated urban areas. However, if emissions are analyzed by extension (per square km, the largest impact is observed in medium and densely populated urban areas, reaching more than 20.3 Gg per square km of greenhouse gases, 297 Mg/km2 of ozone precursors gases and 11.5 Mg/km2 of other air quality emissions. A comparison with the EDGAR global emission database shows that, although the total country emissions are similar for several sub sectors and pollutants, its spatial distribution is not applicable to Argentina. The road and residential transport emissions represented by EDGAR result in an overestimation of emissions in rural areas and an underestimation in urban areas, especially in more densely populated areas. EDGAR underestimates 60 Gg of methane emissions from road transport sector and fugitive emissions from refining

  6. Estimation of main greenhouse gases emission from household energy consumption in the West Bank, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Madi, Maher; Rayyan, Ma'moun Abu

    2013-01-01

    The main GHGs (CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 ) have been quantified based on national energy and population statistics. The results show that the contribution of households' energy consumption in the West Bank to global CO 2 emission is about 0.016%, while contribution of total energy consumption by all sectors is about 0.041%. The results show that wood is the most polluting energy source in terms of CO 2 and NO x emission, while electricity is the most polluting source in terms of SO 2 . Other sources like diesel, kerosene, and LPG that contribute to the GHGs emission are also quantified. The total amounts of CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 by households in the West Bank are 4.7 million tonne per year, 3.02 thousand tonne per year, and 2.23 thousand tonne per year respectively. This study presents a set of measures that might help in reducing the level of GHGs emission and protect the environment. -- Highlights: •We quantified the CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 based on national statistics. •Wood is the most polluting in terms of CO 2 and NO x emission. •Electricity is the most polluting in terms of SO 2 emission. •Households' energy consumption contributes with 0.016% to global CO 2 emission. •We present key measures to reduce GHGs emission and protect the environment. -- The most polluting energy sources that produce most of the CO 2 and SO 2 emissions in the West Bank are wood and electricity

  7. Industrial energy efficiency with CO2 emissions in China: A nonparametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, F.; Fan, L.W.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Global awareness on energy security and climate change has created much interest in assessing economy-wide energy efficiency performance. A number of previous studies have contributed to evaluate energy efficiency performance using different analytical techniques among which data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently received increasing attention. Most of DEA-related energy efficiency studies do not consider undesirable outputs such as CO 2 emissions in their modeling framework, which may lead to biased energy efficiency values. Within a joint production framework of desirable and undesirable outputs, in this paper we construct both static and dynamic energy efficiency performance indexes for measuring industrial energy efficiency performance by using several environmental DEA models with CO 2 emissions. The dynamic energy efficiency performance indexes have further been decomposed into two contributing components. We finally apply the indexes proposed to assess the industrial energy efficiency performance of different provinces in China over time. Our empirical study shows that the energy efficiency improvement in China's industrial sector was mainly driven by technological improvement. - Highlights: ► China's industrial energy efficiency is evaluated by DEA models with CO 2 emissions. ► China's industrial energy efficiency improved by 5.6% annually since 1997. ► Industrial energy efficiency improvement in China was mainly driven by technological improvement.

  8. Modeling GHG emission and energy consumption in selected greenhouses in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M.; Omid, M.; Rafiee, SH.; Khoshnevisan, B. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    It is crucial to determine energy efficiency and environmental effects of greenhouse productions. Such study can be a viable solution in probing challenges and existing defects. The aims of this study were to analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for pepper production using biological method inside greenhouses which used natural gas (NG) heating system in Esfahan province. Data were collected from 22 greenhouse holders using a face to face questionnaire method, in 2010-2011. Also, functional area was selected 1000 m2. Total energy input, total energy output, energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and total GHG emissions were calculated as 297799.9 MJ area-1, 3851.84 MJ area-1, 0.013, 0.016 kg MJ-1, 61.85 MJ kg-1, -293948 MJ area-1 and 14390.85 kg CO2 equivalent area-1, respectively. Result revealed that replacing diesel fuel with NG will not be an effective way of reducing energy consumption for greenhouse production. However, it is crucial to focus on energy management in order to enhance the energy and environmental indices. One way to supply adequate input energy and a reduction in GHG emissions is the utilization of renewable and clean energy sources instead of NG and diesel fuel. Also, it is suggested to adopt solar greenhouses in the region and to supply electricity from non-fossil sources seriously.

  9. Prospects of India's energy and emissions for a long time frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Ullash K.

    2011-01-01

    For any nation, sector-wise forecasts of energy demand and emissions are becoming valuable elements in devising its national and international policies relating to energy security, local environment, and global climate change. It is in this context that this work attempts to forecast India's possible energy demands and emissions adopting a key indicator approach on least cost generation expansion optimization methodology for a long time frame. This study developed key indicators for useful-energy demand for end-use sectors such as industry, commerce, and residence. Key indicators for transport sector and non-energy use sectors were developed on transport mobility demand and end-use fuel demand. The main drivers of these key indicators are socio-economic parameters. This work was conducted in a linear programmed (LP) TIMES G5 model on TIMES modeling framework for model horizon of 1990-2100. By the end of the 21st-century, India's energy demands are projected to be about 1825 Mtoe of primary energy, 1263 Mtoe of final energy consumption, 4840 TWh of electricity generations, 723 Mtoe of energy import, and 4414 Mt of CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: → This work is carried out for India. → It is a long horizon study. → Sectoral energy demand and emissions are projected in this work.

  10. Gasification-based methanol production from biomass in industrial clusters: Characterisation of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Andersson, Eva; Berntsson, Thore; Rydberg, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for reducing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biomass gasification-based methanol production systems based on energy balances. Configurations which are process integrated with a chemical cluster have been compared to stand-alone units, i.e. units with no connection to any other industry but with the possibility to district heating connection. Two different uses of methanol are considered: the use as a vehicle fuel and the use for production of olefins via the methanol-to-olefins process. An added value of the integration can be the availability of excess hydrogen. For the studied case, the methanol production could be increased by 10% by using excess hydrogen from the cluster. The results show that the integrated systems have greater potential to reduce GHG emissions than the stand-alone systems. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the references for electricity production and district heating production technology have important impacts on the outcomes. Using excess heat for district heating was found to have positive or negative impacts on GHG emissions depending on what heat production technologies it replaces. The investigated olefins production systems resulted in GHG emissions reductions that were similar in magnitude to those of the investigated biofuel production systems. - Highlights: • Gasification-based bio-methanol/olefin production integrated with chemical cluster. • GHG emission comparison with stand-alone, based on energy analysis. • Results show lower GHG emissions in the cluster-integrated cases. • Identified improvement of methanol conversion efficiency by use of excess hydrogen. • Similar GHG emission levels for bio-methanol as biofuel as for olefins production

  11. Do Renewable Energy Policies Reduce Carbon Emissions? On Caps and Intra-Jurisdictional Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Perino, Grischa; Jarke, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Climate policies overlapping a cap-and-trade scheme are generally considered not to change domestic emissions. In a two-sector general equilibrium model where only one sector is covered by a cap, we find that such policies do have a net impact on carbon emissions through inter-sectoral leakage. Promotion of renewable energy reduces emissions if tax-funded, but can increase emissions if funded by a levy on electricity. Replacing fossil fuels by electricity in uncapped sectors (e.g. power-to-he...

  12. CO2 emissions due to energy combustion in the World in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Florine

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents and comments data, graphs and tables which illustrate the evolution of CO 2 emissions in the world (data are given for different countries and regions of the World), and more particularly those due to energy combustion. These emissions increased in 2011. It also discusses the evolution of CO 2 emission intensity with respect to GDP (1 pc decrease in 2011). When studying emission data with respect to the number of inhabitants, it appears that USA are emitting 20 times more CO 2 per inhabitant than Africa

  13. The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Faik; Öztürk, İlhan; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Pamuk, Yalçın; Muğaloğlu, Erhan; Bağlıtaş, Hayriye H

    2016-10-01

    In terms of today, one may argue, throughout observations from energy literature papers, that (i) one of the main contributors of the global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, (ii) the fossil fuel energy usage greatly contributes to the carbon dioxide emissions, and (iii) the simulations from energy models attract the attention of policy makers to renewable energy as alternative energy source to mitigate the carbon dioxide emissions. Although there appears to be intensive renewable energy works in the related literature regarding renewables' efficiency/impact on environmental quality, a researcher might still need to follow further studies to review the significance of renewables in the environment since (i) the existing seminal papers employ time series models and/or panel data models or some other statistical observation to detect the role of renewables in the environment and (ii) existing papers consider mostly aggregated renewable energy source rather than examining the major component(s) of aggregated renewables. This paper attempted to examine clearly the impact of biomass on carbon dioxide emissions in detail through time series and frequency analyses. Hence, the paper follows wavelet coherence analyses. The data covers the US monthly observations ranging from 1984:1 to 2015 for the variables of total energy carbon dioxide emissions, biomass energy consumption, coal consumption, petroleum consumption, and natural gas consumption. The paper thus, throughout wavelet coherence and wavelet partial coherence analyses, observes frequency properties as well as time series properties of relevant variables to reveal the possible significant influence of biomass usage on the emissions in the USA in both the short-term and the long-term cycles. The paper also reveals, finally, that the biomass consumption mitigates CO2 emissions in the long run cycles after the year 2005 in the USA.

  14. Energy conservation and CO2-emission abatement potential in the Greek residential services sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy for CO 2 -emission abatement will have to allow for the sectoral energy-conservation potential. The present paper outlines the energy-analysis method applied to the Greek residential and services sectors. The trends in energy requirements for 1990-2000 are forecast and energy-conservation and CO 2 -abatement measures are proposed. A Maximum Action Scenario (MAS) and a Realistic Scenario (RS) are compared with a No-Action Scenario (NAS). (Author)

  15. Dynamic linkages among transport energy consumption, income and CO2 emission in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azlina, A.A.; Law, Siong Hook; Nik Mustapha, Nik Hashim

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between income, energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in Malaysia using time-series data during 1975 to 2011. This study also attempts to validate the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis. Applying a multivariate model of income, energy consumption in the transportation sector, carbon emissions, structural change in the economy and renewable energy use, the empirical evidence confirmed that there is a long-run relationship between the variables as shown by the result of co-integration analysis. The results indicate that the inverted U-shape EKC hypothesis does not fully agree with the theory. The coefficient of squared GDP is not statistically different from zero. The time duration and the annual data used for the present study do not seem to strongly validate the existence of EKC hypothesis in the case of Malaysia. Causality test shows that the relationship between GDP and CO 2 is unidirectional. The Granger causality test results reveal that emissions Granger-cause income, energy consumption and renewable energy use. Moreover, we find that income Granger-causes energy consumption and renewable energy use, and both structural change and renewable energy use Granger-cause energy consumption in road transportation. - Highlights: • We examine the dynamic relationship among energy consumption in transportation sector, income and CO 2 and also attempts to validate the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis. • We used a multivariate approach based on VECM. • The inverted U-shape EKC hypothesis is not valid in the case of Malaysia. • Uni-directional causality exists from emission to income, energy consumption and renewable energy use. • Income Granger-causes energy consumption and renewable energy use, and both structural change and renewable energy use Granger-cause energy consumption in road transportation

  16. Estimating future energy use and CO₂ emissions of the world's cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Kennedy, Chris

    2015-08-01

    This paper develops a tool for estimating energy-related CO2 emissions from the world's cities based on regression models. The models are developed considering climatic (heating-degree-days) and urban design (land area per person) independent variables. The tool is applied on 3646 urban areas for estimating impacts on urban emissions of a) global transitioning to Electric Vehicles, b) urban density change and c) IPCC climate change scenarios. Results show that urban density decline can lead to significant increase in energy emissions (upto 346% in electricity & 428% in transportation at 2% density decline by 2050). Among the IPCC climate scenarios tested, A1B is the most effective in reducing growth of emissions (upto 12% in electricity & 35% in heating). The tool can further be improved by including more data in the regression models along with inclusion of other relevant emissions and climatic variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition-Dependent Energy Splitting between Bright and Dark Excitons in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

    2018-02-23

    Perovskite semiconductor nanocrystals with different compositions have shown promise for applications in light-emitting devices. Dark excitonic states may suppress light emission from such nanocrystals by providing an additional nonradiative recombination channel. Here, we study the composition dependence of dark exciton dynamics in nanocrystals of lead halides by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. The presence of a spin-related dark state is revealed by magneto-optical spectroscopy. The energy splitting between bright and dark states is found to be highly sensitive to both halide elements and organic cations, which is explained by considering the effects of size confinement and charge screening, respectively, on the exchange interaction. These findings suggest the possibility of manipulating dark exciton dynamics in perovskite semiconductor nanocrystals by composition engineering, which will be instrumental in the design of highly efficient light-emitting devices.

  18. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop

  19. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop.

  20. Benchmarking energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Singapore's hotel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuchao; Priyadarsini, Rajagopalan; Eang, Lee Siew

    2010-01-01

    Hotel buildings are reported in many countries as one of the most energy intensive building sectors. Besides the pressure posed on energy supply, they also have adverse impact on the environment through greenhouse gas emissions, wastewater discharge and so on. This study was intended to shed some light on the energy and environment related issues in hotel industry. Energy consumption data and relevant information collected from hotels were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. A regression-based benchmarking model was established, which takes into account, the difference in functional and operational features when hotels are compared with regard to their energy performance. In addition, CO 2 emissions from the surveyed hotels were estimated based on a standard procedure for corporate GHG emission accounting. It was found that a hotel's carbon intensity ranking is rather sensitive to the normalizing denominator chosen. Therefore, carbon intensity estimated for the hotels must not be interpreted arbitrarily, and industry specific normalizing denominator should be sought in future studies.

  1. Short term economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy systems using improved water cycle algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.S.; Malik, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing environmental concerns, the demand of clean and green energy and concern of atmospheric pollution is increasing. Hence, the power utilities are forced to limit their emissions within the prescribed limits. Therefore, the minimization of fuel cost as well as exhaust gas emissions is becoming an important and challenging task in the short-term scheduling of hydro-thermal energy systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm known as WCA-ER (Water Cycle Algorithm with Evaporation Rate) to inspect the short term EEPSHES (Economic Emission Power Scheduling of Hydrothermal Energy Systems). WCA has its ancestries from the natural hydrologic cycle i.e. the raining process forms streams and these streams start flowing towards the rivers which finally flow towards the sea. The worth of WCA-ER has been tested on the standard economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy test system consisting of four hydropower and three thermal plants. The problem has been investigated for the three case studies (i) ECS (Economic Cost Scheduling), (ii) ES (Economic Emission Scheduling) and (iii) ECES (Economic Cost and Emission Scheduling). The results obtained show that WCA-ER is superior to many other methods in the literature in bringing lower fuel cost and emissions. (author)

  2. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in γ-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Wren, J. A.; Wozniak, P. R.; Aptekar, R.; Golentskii, S.; Pal'Shin, V.; Sakamoto, T.; White, R. R.; Evans, S.; Casperson, D.; Fenimore, E.

    2006-07-01

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a γ-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt γ-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the γ-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  3. Hadron fragment emission in cluster excitation processes at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zs.

    1985-12-01

    An extended version of the cluster excitation model is proposed to describe the emission of various particle types in nuclear reactions in a consistent way. At first pion, proton deuteron and triton spectra from neutron-carbon interactions at 545 MeV in the angular region from deg 73 to deg 165 were tried to interpret by the model. The results are compared with model calculations. (author)

  4. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  5. High-energy gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    derived from molecular-line and FIR surveys. The gamma-ray emission spectrum is peculiar and different from the spectrum of the large-scale galactic diffuse emission. A diffuse emission scenario requires an enhanced and peculiar Cosmic Ray (CR) spectrum as suggested for the electrons in the 'Radio Arc......The EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has observed the Galactic Center (GC) region with good coverage at a number of epochs. A strong excess of emission is observed, peaking at energies > 500 MeV in an error circle of 0.2 degree radius including the position l = 0 degrees and b...... = 0 degrees. The close coincidence of this excess with the GC direction and the fact that it is the strongest emission maximum within 15 degrees from the GC is taken as compelling evidence for the source's location in the GC region. The history of the emission intensity, observed over 5 years, leaves...

  6. CO2 emissions due to energy combustion in the World in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This brief document presents and comments tables and figures of statistics about CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion in the World, as these emissions represent more than 95% of the whole CO 2 emissions. Data and statistics are given for different countries, notably the main Western and Asian countries. These emissions are considered globally, but they are also related to the GDP or to the population. If a slight increase (1,5%) of the global emissions has been noticed in 2008, they have decreased when they are related to the GDP (-2%). When emissions are related to the number of inhabitants, it appears that an African emits 20 times less than an inhabitant of the United States of America

  7. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  8. Search for microwave emission from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho jr., W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, L.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 5 (2012), "051104-1"-"051104-5" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : air showers * ultrahigh energy cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.691, year: 2012

  9. Stepwise multiple regression method of greenhouse gas emission modeling in the energy sector in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa-Wiecek, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The energy sector in Poland is the source of 81% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Poland, among other European Union countries, occupies a leading position with regard to coal consumption. Polish energy sector actively participates in efforts to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere, through a gradual decrease of the share of coal in the fuel mix