WorldWideScience

Sample records for emission copper characterization

  1. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. FSW monitoring with emission, copper characterization and ultrasonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Engholm, Marcus; Olofsson, Tomas (Uppsala Univ., Signals and Systems, Dept. of Technical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2007. In the first part of the report we further develop the concept of monitoring of the friction stir welding (FSW) process by means of acoustic emission (AE) technique implemented using multiple sensors formed into a circular array. After a brief introduction into the field of arrays and beamforming we focus on the features of uniform circular arrays (UCA). Results obtained from the simulations of UCA beamformer based on phase mode concept are presented for the continuous wave as well as for the pulse, noise-free input signals. The influence of white noise corrupting the input pulse is also considered and a simple regularization technique proposed as a solution to this problem. The second part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We compare resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) with other methods used for characterization of the copper material. RUS is a non-destructive technique based on sensing mechanical resonances present in a tested sample in the ultrasonic frequency range. Resonance frequencies observed in a material sample (with given geometry) are directly related to the vibration modes occurring in the inspected volume defined by the material parameters (elastic constants). We solve the inverse problem that consists in using the information about resonance frequencies acquired in physical measurements for estimating material parameters. Our aim in this project is to investigate the feasibility of RUS for the grain size estimation in copper using copper specimens that were provided by SKB. In the final part we consider the design of input signals for ultrasonic arrays. The Bayesian linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) estimator discussed in our former reports is studied. We show that it

  2. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Copper characterization, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission and ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2009-08-01

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2008. The first part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We present results of attenuation measurement performed for a number of samples taken from a real canister; two from the lid and four from different parts of canister wall. Ultrasonic attenuation of the material originating from canister lid is relatively low (less that 50 dB/m) and essentially frequency independent in the frequency range up to 5 MHz. However, for the material originating from the extruded canister part considerable variations of the attenuation are observed, which can reach even 200 dB/m at 3.5 MHz. In the second part of the report we present further development of the concept of the friction stir welding process monitoring by means of multiple sensors formed into a uniform circular array (UCA). After a brief introduction into modeling Lamb waves and UCA we focus on array processing techniques that enable estimating direction of arrival of multimodal Lamb waves. We consider two new techniques, the Capon beamformer and the broadband multiple signal classification technique (MUSIC). We present simulation results illustrating their performance. In the final part we present the phase shift migration algorithm for ultrasonic imaging of layered media using synthetic aperture concept. We start from explaining theory of the phase migration concept, which is followed by the results of experiments performed on copper blocks with drilled holes. We show that the proposed algorithm performs well for immersion inspection of metal objects and yields both improved spatial resolution and suppressed grain noise

  3. Inspection of copper canister for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Copper characterization, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission and ultrasonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Engholm, Marcus; Olofsson, Tomas (Uppsala Univ., Signals and Systems, Dept. of Technical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in 2008. The first part of the report is concerned with aspects related to ultrasonic attenuation of copper material used for canisters. We present results of attenuation measurement performed for a number of samples taken from a real canister; two from the lid and four from different parts of canister wall. Ultrasonic attenuation of the material originating from canister lid is relatively low (less that 50 dB/m) and essentially frequency independent in the frequency range up to 5 MHz. However, for the material originating from the extruded canister part considerable variations of the attenuation are observed, which can reach even 200 dB/m at 3.5 MHz. In the second part of the report we present further development of the concept of the friction stir welding process monitoring by means of multiple sensors formed into a uniform circular array (UCA). After a brief introduction into modeling Lamb waves and UCA we focus on array processing techniques that enable estimating direction of arrival of multimodal Lamb waves. We consider two new techniques, the Capon beamformer and the broadband multiple signal classification technique (MUSIC). We present simulation results illustrating their performance. In the final part we present the phase shift migration algorithm for ultrasonic imaging of layered media using synthetic aperture concept. We start from explaining theory of the phase migration concept, which is followed by the results of experiments performed on copper blocks with drilled holes. We show that the proposed algorithm performs well for immersion inspection of metal objects and yields both improved spatial resolution and suppressed grain noise

  4. Kinetic formation of silver-copper nanoparticles and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkafi, Nurul Hikmah; Idrus, Nor Faeqah; Jai, Junaidah; Hadi, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    A study of the kinetic formation of silver-copper nanoparticles in aqueous medium on the basis of size distribution and its characterization has been carried out and reported in this paper. The Ag-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized through polyol method that using Ethylene Glycol (H2C6O12) as a reduction agent and solvent and Polyoxyethylene-(80)-Sorbitan Monooleate (Tween 80) as a stabilizer. The kinetic formation of Ag-Cu nanoparticles was observed using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The XRD analysis results confirmed that size distribution was strongly dependent on molarity of precursors of silver (AgNO3) and copper (Cu(NO3)2.3H2O). The FESEM and TEM analysis indicated the existence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in the core-shell shape. The silver-copper nanoparticles were spherical and uniform particles size with the average size of about 28 nm and 38 nm for silver and copper, respectively. DLS observation showed the growth of nanoparticles at the temperature of 140°C as the effect of reaction time at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Eichhornia-mediated copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we report the biosynthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles ... copper oxide nanoparticles by simple, cost-effective and ecofriendly method as an alternative to other available ... Currently, zinc oxide, gold, silver.

  6. solution growth and characterization of copper oxide thin films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of copper oxide (CuO) were grown on glass slides by using the solution growth technique. Copper cloride (CuCl ) and potassium telluride (K T O ) were used. Buffer 2 2e 3 solution was used as complexing agent. The solid state properties and optical properties were obtained from characterization done using PYE ...

  7. Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles using L -ascorbic ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2017) > ... In this study, simple, economical, convenient and environmentally-friendly chemical reduction ...

  8. Dimeric Self-assembling via Hydrogen Bonding and Emissive Behavior of a New Copper (I Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciely M. dos Reis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the synthesis, structural characterization and emissive behavior of a new copper (I complex based on 1-thiocarbamoyl-5-(4-methoxiphenyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole ligand. A dimeric self-assembling via hydrogen bonding was determined by analyzing the short contacts present in the solid-state structure by means of X-ray crystallography. The spectroscopic properties were determined using UV-Vis and fluorescence experiments and an interesting behavior as bluish luminescence was assigned mainly to the mixed (MLCT + IL electronic transitions of the Cu(Id10 ® (S=C–Nligand type. The complete characterization of the new copper (I complex also included elemental analyses and IR spectroscopy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i1.952

  9. Characterization of copper toxicity in letttuce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, S; Gupta, B D

    1972-01-01

    Information on the effects of toxic concentration of cupric sulphate on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings is provided. Root growth is completely inhibited at 5 x 10/sup -2/ M and germination stops altogether at 10/sup -1/ M. The relative inhibition of root growth is stronger than that of hypocotyl growth. Various metabolites and hormones are partially capable of relieving copper inhibition. Catalase, peroxidase and IAA-oxidase activity shows increments directly proportional to the concentration of copper. It is obvious that growth is inversely proportional to enzyme activity. The increased level of these enzymes is probably due to an accelerated protein synthesis.

  10. Preparation, characterization and catalytic effects of copper oxalate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Dubey, Reena; Srivastava, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Prepared copper oxalate nanocrystals were characterized by FE-SEM and bright field TEM micrographs. Its catalytic activity was evaluated on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate using TG and TG-DSC techniques. Highlights: ► Preparation of nanocrystals (∼9.0 nm) of copper oxalate using Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, oxalic acid and acetone under thermal conditions. ► Method is simple and novel. ► Characterization using XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and ED pattern. ► Catalytic activity of copper oxalate nanocrystals on AP thermal decomposition using thermal techniques (TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay). ► Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP + CONs using isoconversional and model fitting kinetic approaches. - Abstract: Recent work has described the preparation and characterization of copper oxalate nanocrystals (CONs). It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). The catalytic activity of CONs on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and composite solid propellants (CSPs) has been done by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ignition delay measurements. Burning rate of CSPs was also found to be enhanced in presence of copper oxalate nanocrystals. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP with and without CONs has also been investigated. The model free (isoconversional) and model-fitting kinetic approaches have been applied to data for isothermal TG decomposition.

  11. [Research on the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-xin; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Wang, Feng-ping; Huang, Shu-hua; Fang, Wu; Wang, Wei-qiang; Huang, Yong-feng

    2012-05-01

    A method of copper converting process determination based on PbO/PbS emission spectrum analysis was described. According to the known emission spectrum of gas molecules, the existence of PbO and PbS was confirmed in the measured spectrum. Through the field experiment it was determined that the main emission spectrum of the slag stage was from PbS, and the main emission spectrum of the copper stage was from PbO. The relative changes in PbO/PbS emission spectrum provide the method of copper converting process determination. Through using the relative intensity in PbO/PbS emission spectrum the copper smelting process can be divided into two different stages, i.e., the slag stage (S phase) and the copper stage (B phase). In a complete copper smelting cycle, a receiving telescope of appropriate view angle aiming at the converter flame, after noise filtering on the PbO/PbS emission spectrum, the process determination agrees with the actual production. Both the theory and experiment prove that the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis is feasible.

  12. Mechanical characterization of copper-diamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main goals of this project were to measure the tensile properties of a copper-diamond composite (CDC) material and to demonstrate that a grinding wheel could be manufactured using the CDC material as the abrasive. Tensile properties have been measured with limited success because of the high failure rate in manufacturing the dog bone test specimens. The basic conclusion of the tensile test is that this material has low ductility and, therefore, the failure mechanism, is not brittle. The second conclusion is that a grinding wheel made using the CDC material is possible. Finally, this project has led to the development of a new concept in making grinding wheels that is the subject of current research and possible technology transfer initiatives

  13. Synthesis and characterization of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles using polyol method for antimicrobial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Idrus, N. F.; Jai, J.; Hadi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles are well-known as the good antimicrobial agent. The nano-size of particles influences in enhancing the antimicrobial activity. This paper discusses the effect of molarity on the microstructure and morphology of silver-copper core-shell nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. In this study, silver-copper nanoparticles are synthesized through the green approach of polyol method using ethylene glycol (EG) as green solvent and reductant, and polyoxyethylene-(80)-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as a nontoxic stabilizer. The phase and morphology of silver-copper nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results XRD confirm the pure crystalline of silver and copper nanoparticles with face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. FESEM and TEM analysis confirm the existence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in core-shell shape.

  14. Field emission response from multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on electrochemically engineered copper foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Jain, Vaibhav [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Saini, Krishna [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Lahiri, Indranil, E-mail: indrafmt@iitr.ac.in [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2017-02-01

    Exciting properties of carbon nanotube has proven it to be a promising candidate for field emission applications, if its processing cost can be reduced effectively. In this research, a new electrochemical technique is proposed for growing carbon nanotubes in selective areas by thermal chemical vapour deposition. In this process, electrochemical processing is used to create localized pits and deposition of catalysts, which act as roots to support growth and alignment of the CNTs on copper substrate. CNTs grown thus were characterized and studied using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy, elucidating presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). These CNT emitters have comparatively lower turn-on field and higher field enhancement factor. - Highlights: • Electrochemical pitting for localized carbon nanotube growth is proposed. • Electrochemical pitting method shows patterning effect on the substrate. • Size and density of pits depend on voltage, pH and temperature. • CNTs thus grown shows good field emission response.

  15. Phosphorescent emissions of phosphine copper(I) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid analogue ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, Jan G., E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Łakomska, Iwona, E-mail: iwolak@chem.umk.pl [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Maroń, Anna [Department of Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Szala, Marcin [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Fandzloch, Marzena [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Nycz, Jacek E., E-mail: jacek.nycz@us.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2015-05-15

    The pseudotetrahedral complexes of [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)], where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (1), 8-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (2) or 5-chloro-8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid (3) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their properties have been examined through combinations of IR, NMR, electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes exhibit extraordinary photophysical properties. Complex (1) in solid state exhibits an emission quantum yield of 4.67% and an excited life time of 1.88 ms (frozen DCM solution up to 6.7 ms). When dissolved in a coordinating solvent (acetonitrile) the charge transfer emission was quenched on a microsecond scale. - Highlights: • Synthesis of copper(I) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline carboxylic acid ligands. • Very long lived phosphorescent copper(I) complexes. • [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)] where L=8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline-7-carboxylic acid luminesce in the solid state exhibits extremely long lifetime on millisecond scale (1.9 ms). • In frozen MeOH:EtOH solution lifetime increases to 7 ms. • Quantum efficiency equal to 4.7%.

  16. Synthesis and field emission characteristics of carbon nanocoils with a high aspect ratio supported by copper micro-tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Woo Yong; Ok, Jong Girl; Kim, Wal Jun; Lee, Seung Min; Yeon, Soon Chang; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanocoils (CNCs) were synthesized via thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with C 2 H 2 and NH 3 gases at 600 deg. C. A Ni catalyst was placed upon the copper micro-tip structures that were fabricated on a silicon substrate. Our CNCs had a long rope shape with a length not exceeding 100 μm and a nanoscale diameter. The copper micro-tips were formed through high current pulse electroplating, which played a significant role in characterizing our CNCs. The CNCs grown on the copper micro-tips showed outstanding field emission performance and long-term stability. Their turn-on field, defined as that at a current density of 10 μA cm -2 , was 1.30 V μm -1 and the maximum current density reached 11.17 mA cm -2 at an electric field of 2.39 V μm -1

  17. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies ...

  18. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznickova, A.; Orendac, M.; Kolska, Z.; Cizmar, E.; Dendisova, M.; Svorcik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Copper nanoparticles were coated on polyethylene via dithiol interlayer. • Prepared samples exhibit excellent structural and magnetic properties. • Studied properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of electronic devices. - Abstract: We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV–vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  19. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, A., E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Orendac, M., E-mail: martin.orendac@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Kolska, Z., E-mail: zdenka.kolska@seznam.cz [Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Cizmar, E., E-mail: erik.cizmar@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Dendisova, M., E-mail: vyskovsm@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Copper nanoparticles were coated on polyethylene via dithiol interlayer. • Prepared samples exhibit excellent structural and magnetic properties. • Studied properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of electronic devices. - Abstract: We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV–vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  20. Characterizing sources of emissions from wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Ana Isabel Miranda; David V. Sandberg

    2009-01-01

    Smoke emissions from wildland fire can be harmful to human health and welfare, impair visibility, and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. The generation of emissions and heat release need to be characterized to estimate the potential impacts of wildland fire smoke. This requires explicit knowledge of the source, including size of the area burned, burn period,...

  1. Electrochemical characterization of anode passivation mechanisms in copper electrorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Michael Scott

    Anode passivation can decrease productivity and quality while increasing costs in modern copper electrorefineries. This investigation utilized electrochemical techniques to characterize the passivation behavior of anode samples from ten different operating companies. It is believed that this collection of anodes is the most diverse set ever to be assembled to study the effect of anode composition on passivation. Chronopotentiometry was the main electrochemical technique, employing a current density of 3820 A m-2. From statistical analysis of the passivation characteristics, increasing selenium, tellurium, silver, lead and nickel were shown to accelerate passivation. Arsenic was the only anode impurity that inhibited passivation. Oxygen was shown to accelerate passivation when increased from 500 to 1500 ppm, but further increases did not adversely affect passivation. Nine electrolyte variables were also examined. Increasing the copper, sulfuric acid or sulfate concentration of the electrolyte accelerated passivation. Arsenic in the electrolyte had no effect on passivation. Chloride and optimal concentrations of thiourea and glue delayed passivation. Linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy provided complementary information. Analysis of the electrochemical results led to the development of a unified passivation mechanism. Anode passivation results from the formation of inhibiting films. Careful examination of the potential details, especially those found in the oscillations just prior to passivation, demonstrated the importance of slimes, copper sulfate and copper oxide. Slimes confine dissolution to their pores and inhibit diffusion. This can lead to copper sulfate precipitation, which blocks more of the surface area. Copper oxide forms because of the resulting increase in potential at the interface between the copper sulfate and anode. Ultimate passivation occurs when the anode potential is high enough to stabilize the oxide film in

  2. Preparation and characterization of polyaniline-copper composites by electrical explosion of wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aijie; Bac, Luong Huu; Kim, Jin-Chun; Liu, Lizhu

    2012-07-01

    Polyaniline-copper composites with a polyacrylic acid (PAA) were synthesized by electrical explosion of wire. Polyaniline (PANI) and PAA were put into the explosion medium, deionized water (DIW) and ethanol, stirred for 24 hrs and sonicated for 2 hrs. These solutions were used as base liquids for explosion process to fabricate Cu nanoparticle. Optical absorption in the UV-visible region of PANI and PANI/PAA-Cu composites was measured in a range of 200-900 nm. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the phase of the composites. XRD pattern showed the PANI was amorphous and copper was polycrystalline. Two phases of Cu and Cu2O were formed in aqueous solution while single Cu phase was obtained in ethanol solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microstructure of the composites. The synthesized composites were extensively characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrical measurements.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Pure Copper Nanostructures Using Wood Inherent Architecture as a Natural Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Youming; Wang, Kaili; Tan, Yi; Wang, Qingchun; Li, Jianzhang; Mark, Hughes; Zhang, Shifeng

    2018-04-01

    The inherent sophisticated structure of wood inspires researchers to use it as a natural template for synthesizing functional nanoparticles. In this study, pure copper nanoparticles were synthesized using poplar wood as a natural inexpensive and renewable template. The crystal structure and morphologies of the copper nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties, antibacterial properties, and stability of the hybrid wood materials were also tested. Due to the hierarchical and anisotropic structure and electron-rich components of wood, pure copper nanoparticles with high stability were synthesized with fcc structure and uniform sizes and then assembled into corncob-like copper deposits along the wood cell lumina. The products of nanoparticles depended strongly on the initial OH- concentration. With an increase in OH- concentration, Cu2O gradually decreased and Cu remained. Due to the restrictions inherent in wood structure, the derived Cu nanoparticles showed similar grain size in spite of increased Cu2+ concentration. This combination of Cu nanostructures and wood exhibited remarkable optical and antibacterial properties.

  4. Diffuse emission and control of copper in urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, M A; Steiner, M

    2002-01-01

    Copper washed off from roofs and roads is considered to be a major contribution to diffuse copper pollution of urban environments. In order to guarantee sustainable protection of soils and water, the long-term strategy is to avoid or replace copper containing materials on roofs and fagades. Until achievement of this goal, a special adsorber system is suggested to control the diffuse copper fluxes by retention of copper by a mixture of granulated iron-hydroxide (GEH) and calcium carbonate. Since future stormwater runoff concepts are based on decentralised runoff infiltration into the underground, solutions are proposed which provide for copper retention in infiltration sites using GEH adsorption layers. The example of a large copper façade of which the runoff is treated in an adsorption trench reveals the first full-scale data on façade runoff and adsorber performance. During the first year of investigation average façade runoff concentrations in the range of 1-10 mg Cu/l are reduced by 96-99% in the adsorption ditch.

  5. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Peruvian copper smelters detected by the ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carn, S.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Krotkov, N.A.; Yang, Kai; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first daily observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from copper smelters by a satellite-borne sensor - the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura spacecraft. Emissions from two Peruvian smelters (La Oroya and Ilo) were detected in up to 80% of OMI overpasses

  6. Emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity from aluminum and copper facilities. Report No. 6 (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, V.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes five surveys which were conducted at a Bauxite mining operation, an alumina reduction plant, an aluminum reduction plant, an underground copper mine and mill, and an open pit copper mine and concentrator. Process components and controlled source releases were sampled for naturally occurring radioactivity. Particular emphasis was given to radon-222, lead-210, and polonium-210 emissions from crushing and drying processes

  7. Improved field emission performance of carbon nanotube by introducing copper metallic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yiren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the field emission performance of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, a simple and low-cost method was adopted in this article. We introduced copper particles for decorating the CNTs so as to form copper particle-CNT composites. The composites were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition technique which produced copper metallic particles localized on the outer wall of CNTs and deposited them onto indium tin oxide (ITO electrode. The results showed that the conductivity increased from 10-5 to 4 × 10-5 S while the turn-on field was reduced from 3.4 to 2.2 V/μm. Moreover, the field emission current tended to be undiminished after continuous emission for 24 h. The reasons were summarized that introducing copper metallic particles to decorate CNTs could increase the surface roughness of the CNTs which was beneficial to field emission, restrain field emission current from saturating when the applied electric field was above the critical field. In addition, it could also improve the electrical contact by increasing the contact area between CNT and ITO electrode that was beneficial to the electron transport and avoided instable electron emission caused by thermal injury of CNTs.

  8. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  9. Synthesis, characterization and behaviour of trans-bis (argininate) copper (II) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis, the characterization and the behaviour to gamma radiation of trans-bis (argininate) copper (II) are presented. The synthesis is made from copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloride of L (+) arginine, in aqueous medium, and the characterization by infrared spectroscopy, visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy and elementary analysis. (C.G.C.)

  10. A dye center laser pumped by emission from copper vapor and dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loktyushin, A A; Chernyshev, A I; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B; Troitskiy, V O

    1983-01-01

    LiF:F2+ lasing is reported for the case of pumping by total emission with frequencies of 570.6 and 578.2 nanometers or by a single yellow copper vapor laser line and emission from an oxazene-17 dye laser excited by emission from a Cu laser. Lasing with a mean power level of 23 milliwatts with a maximum at 911 nanometers is obtained. The maximum efficiency was 3.4 percent with pumping of the dye centers by emission from the yellow Cu laser line. The lasing characteristics of the laser for all the types of pumping used are given.

  11. Amplification of light emission of chiral pyridine Eu(III) complex by copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisfeld, Renata; Levchenko, Viktoria [Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Piccinelli, Fabio; Bettinelli, Marco [Laboratorio Materiali Luminescenti, DB, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We outline the applications of lanthanides luminescence in a number of modern fields. The intensity of the luminescence of the expensive lanthanides can be increased by their interaction with nanoparticles of inexpensive copper. As a typical example the chiral pyridine-based Eu{sup 3+} complex was incorporated into amorphous films of polyvinyl alcohol with hydroxyethyl cellulose. The luminescence intensity of the complex is increased by three hundred percent by its interaction with copper nanoparticles. The synthesis and steady state spectroscopy of the materials are presented. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of copper were for the first time synthesized at 80 °C. • Copper NPs were incorporated with a luminescent Eu{sup 3+} complex in a polymeric matrix. • The films produced were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy. • The luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} complex with Cu NPs is 3 times higher than the original one.

  12. A novel aggregation induced emission active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex as a luminescent probe for detection of copper(II) ion in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei; Yan, Liqiang; Tian, Wenwen; Cui, Xia; Qi, Zhengjian, E-mail: qizhengjian@seu.edu.cn; Sun, Yueming, E-mail: sun@seu.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel aggregation induced emission (AIE) active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex, namely [Ir(dfppy){sub 2}(phen-DPA)]PF{sub 6}, where dfppy and phen-DPA represent 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine and 2-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)-N-(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-yl)acetamide, respectively. The complex showed remarkable selectivity for copper(II) in aqueous solution over other competitive ions. Furthermore, this sensor showed a rapid and reversible response to copper(II) in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 65 nM.

  13. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  14. Electrical Characterization of Spherical Copper Oxide Memristive Array Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    47 4.2 A 47 µm flake reaching between two spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 x Figure Page 4.3 The XRD pattern shows the copper spheres...image of the copper sphere surface and a zoomed view of emphasizing the flaking feature on the surface. These images depict just one sphere to...spheres. Placed next to one-another, a copper flake extending 47 µm such as that shown in Figure 4.1 can result in an electrical short, which may

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microstructural characterization of copper corrosion in aqueous and soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface films on pure copper after exposure to different aqueous and soil environments, containing chloride, sulfide and ammonium salts. The morphology of the films formed on copper surface in aqueous and soil environments was different for the same amount of pollutants. The surface films formed in soil environments were not homogenous in contrast to the films formed in aqueous environments. The damaging effect of chloride ions and the benign role of sulfide ions were revealed in both the environments. Local compositional analysis confirmed that the surface films formed on copper consisted predominantly of copper and oxygen

  17. Electrical characterization of copper related defect reactions in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, T. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 67 - Strasbourg (France). Lab. PHASE; Istratov, A.A.; Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Department of Material Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 577 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Defect reactions involving interstitial copper impurities (Cu{sub i}) in silicon are reviewed. The influence of the Coulomb interaction between positively charged copper and negatively charged defects, such as acceptor states of transition metals and lattice defects, on the complex formation rate is discussed in detail. The diffusivity of interstitial copper and the dissociation kinetics of copper-acceptor pairs are studied using the recently introduced transient ion drift (TID) method. TID results reveal that most interstitial copper impurities remain dissolved immediately after the quench and form pairs with shallow acceptors. It is shown that in moderately and heavily doped silicon the diffusivity of copper is trap limited, while in low B-doped silicon the interstitial copper-acceptor pairing is weak enough to allow the assessment of the copper intrinsic diffusion coefficient. The intrinsic diffusion barrier is estimated to be 0.18{+-}0.01 eV. It is concluded that the Coulomb potential used in previous publications underestimated considerably the acceptor-copper interaction. In light of these results, a general discussion on Cu related defect reactions is given. (orig.) 44 refs.

  18. Optical emission spectra of a copper plasma produced by a metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsombat, B.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Vilaithong, T.; Davydov, S.; Brown, I.G.

    2001-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy in the range 200-800 nm was applied for investigation of the copper plasma produced by a metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source. The experiments were conducted for the cases when the plasma was guided by straight and Ω-shaped curved solenoids as well as without solenoids, and also for different vacuum conditions. It was found that, besides singly- and doubly-charged ions, a relatively high concentration of excited neutral copper atoms was present in the plasma. The relative fraction of excited atoms was much higher in the region close to the cathode surface than in the plasma column inside the solenoid. The concentration of excited neutral, singly- and doubly-ionized atoms increased proportionally when the arc current was increased to 400 A. Some weak lines were attributed to more highly ionized copper species and impurities in the cathode material. (author)

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and DNA Cleavage of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shearing capability of copper(II) complex of dithiothreitol (DTT) and to fevaluate its potential application in cancer therapy. Methods: A parrot green complex was synthesized by grinding copper acetate monohydrate and DTT in 1:2 molar ratio in a mortar until no fumes of acetic ...

  20. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, G.; Ferron, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He + , Ne + and Ar + ) and Li + ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  1. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent toxicity testing. A representative crude oil (Bayou Sweet) was burned in ocean-salinity seawater and emissions were collected from the plume by means of a crane-suspended emission sampling platform. A comprehensive array of emissions was characterized, accounting for over 92% by mass of the combustion products even without accounting for H2O. The particulate matter emissions were 70 g/kg (±8.3) of oil consumed, composed of 81% (±8) elemental carbon, and 80% were 1 µm in diameter or less. The particulate matter emissions were strongly light absorbing and had a single scattering albedo of 0.4 (±0.01) at 532 nm. Emissions of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were approximately 1 g/kg of oil consumed. While the oil burn particles were highly PAH-enriched, less than 30% of the PAHs were particle-bound, the rest being in the gas phase. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/DF) was observed at 1.2 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg of oil consumed. Analysis of the particles showed the major elements to be Na, S, Cl and Si with no other elements, including metals, exceeding 5 mg/kg oil consumed. The unburned oil mass was 29% of the original crude oil mas

  2. Isolation and characterization of copper tolerant bacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.; Shoeb, E.; Badar, U.; Akhtar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Twelve bacterial strains were isolated from metal contaminated sites close to the chemical factory, Purification and characterization of these strains was done. Maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) of all the isolated strains was determined against heavy metals cadmium chloride (CdCl/sub 2/), copper sulphate (CuSO/sub 4/), and nickel chloride (NiCI/sub 2/) and antibiotics kanamycin (Km), streptomycin (Sm), and chloramphenicol (Cm). Most promising strain was found to be GESSF012 which showed MTC of 4.5 mM and 1.6 mM against CdCI/sub 2/ in enriched and minimal media respectively; whereas MTC of 750 micro g/ml was against Sm. GESSF012 demonstrated the occurrence of multiple stress tolerance as this strain showed considerable tolerance against other heavy metals including CuSO/sub 4/, (3.0 mM in enriched media and 1.8 mM in minimal media) and NiCl/sub 2/, (2.0 mM in enriched media and 1.8 mM in minimal media) as well as other antibiotics Cm and Km (150 and 125 micro g/ml respectively). Plasmids were detected in most of the strains including GESSF012. (author)

  3. Copper nanoparticles mediated by chitosan: synthesis and characterization via chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Sani; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-12-14

    Herein we report a synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) in chitosan (Cts) media via a chemical reaction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution in the presence of Cts as stabilizer and CuSO(4)·5H(2)O precursor. The synthesis proceeded with addition of NaOH as pH moderator, ascorbic acid as antioxidant and hydrazine( )as the reducing agent. The characterization of the prepared NPs was done using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed a 593 nm copper band. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images were also observed, and found to be in agreement with the UV-Vis result, confirming the formation of metallic Cu-NPs. The mean size of the Cu-NPs was estimated to be in the range of 35-75 nm using X-ray diffraction. XRD was also used in analysis of the crystal structure of the NPs. The interaction between the chitosan and the synthesized NPs was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, which showed the capping of the NPs by Cts.

  4. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: gdruano@ceride.gov.ar; Ferron, J. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and Ar{sup +}) and Li{sup +} ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  5. Characterization and recovery of copper values from discarded slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bisweswar; Mishra, Barada Kanta; Angadi, Shivakumar; Pradhan, Siddharth Kumar; Prakash, Sandur; Mohanty, Jayakrushna

    2010-06-01

    In any copper smelter large quantities of copper slag are discarded as waste material causing space and environmental problems. This discarded slag contains important amounts of metallic values such as copper and iron. The recovery of copper values from an Indian smelter slag that contains 1.53% Cu, 39.8% Fe and 34.65% SiO(2) was the focus of the present study. A complete investigation of the different phases present in the slag has been carried out by means of optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It is observed that iron and silica are mostly associated with the fayalite phase whereas copper is present in both oxide and sulfide phases. These oxide and sulfide phases of copper are mostly present within the slag phase and to some extent the slag is also embedded inside the oxide and sulfide phases. The recovery of copper values from the discarded slag has been explored by applying a flotation technique using conventional sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIX) as the collector. The effects of flotation parameters such as pH and collector concentration are investigated. Under optimum flotation conditions, it is possible to achieve 21% Cu with more than 80% recovery.

  6. Distributed feedback dye laser pumped with copper-vapor laser emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, S Yu; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B

    1983-10-01

    The power-spectrum characteristics of the emission of a distributed feedback dye laser pumped with a copper vapor laser have been studied. Laser action has been observed in five dyes over a tuning range of 530-723 nm with an efficiency of 12.4%. The specfic features of the distributed feedback dye laser operating at pulse repetition rates of 4 kHz are discussed.

  7. Characterization of copper resistant ciliates: Potential candidates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... algae (Rehman and Shakoori, 2001), yeast (Shakoori et al., 2005) ... organisms, this study was undertaken to determine the efficiency of ...... copper, mercury and zinc to ciliates from activated sludge plants. Bull. Environ.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and DNA Cleavage of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: DNA shearing, Copper(II) complex, Dithiothreitol, Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform .... confirm the fragmentation of DNA by the newly .... sperm. Biochem Biophys Acta 1986; 884: 124-134. 7. Cornell NW, Crivaro KE.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of copper (I oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarinović Sanja J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest and need for clean and economical energy sources have increased interest in the development of thin film cells technologies. Electrochemical deposition is an attractive method for synthesis of thin films. It offers the advantages of low synthesis temperature, low cost and high purity. Copper (I oxide or cuprous oxide is an oxide semiconductor which is used as the anodic material in the form of thin film in lithium batteries and solar cells. The cathodic process of synthesis of cuprous oxide thin film is carried out in a potentiostatic mode from the organic electrolyte. The process parameters are chosen in that way to accomplish maximum difference between the potentials at which Cu2O and CuO are obtained. The electrochemical characterization was carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodeposition techniques are particularly well suited for the deposition of single elements but it is also possible to carry out simultaneous depositions of several elements and syntheses of well-defined alternating layers of metals and oxides with thicknesses down to a few nm. Nanomaterials exhibit novel physical properties and play an important role in fundamental research. In addition, cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment, a fungicide, and an antifouling agent for marine paints. It is insoluble in water and organic solvents. This work presents the examinations of the influence of bath, temperature, pH and current density on the characteristics of electrochemically synthesized cuprous oxide. In the 'classic' process of synthesis, which is carried out under galvanostatic conditions on the anode, the grain size of the powder decreases with the increase in current density while the grain colour becomes lighter. The best commercial quality of the Cu2O (grain size, colour, content of choride was obtained at the temperature of 80°C, concentration of NaCl of 3 mol/dm3 and current density of 400 A/m2.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of copper oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillani, Saquf; Jelani, Mohsan; Hassan, Najam Ul; Ahmad, Shahbaz; Hafeez, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The development of synthetic methods has been broadly accepted as an area of fundamental importance to the understanding and application of nanoscale materials. It allows the individual to modulate basic parameters such as morphology, particle size, size distributions, and composition. Several methods have been developed to synthesize CuO nanostructures with diverse morphologies, sizes, and dimensions using different chemical and physical based approaches. In this work, CuO nanostructures have been synthesized by aqueous precipitation method and simple chemical deposition method. The characterization of these products has been carried out by the x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Biological activity such as antibacterial nature of synthesized CuO is also explored. XRD peaks analysis revealed the monoclinic crystalline phase of copper oxide nanostructures. While the rod-like and particle-like morphologies have been observed in SEM results. FTIR spectra have confirmed the formation of CuO nanoparticles by exhibiting its characteristic peaks corresponding to 494 cm‑1 and 604 cm‑1. The energy band gap of the as-prepared CuO nanostructures determined from UV–vis spectra is found to be 2.18 eV and 2.0 eV for precipitation and chemically deposited samples respectively. The antibacterial activity results described that the synthesized CuO nanoparticles showed better activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The investigated results suggested the synthesis of highly stable CuO nanoparticles with significant antibacterial activities.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, magnetic and electrochemical properties of a new 3D hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanzhou; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Yanting [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhao, Junwei, E-mail: zhaojunwei@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Basic Experiment Teaching Center, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Chen, Lijuan, E-mail: ljchen@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2013-09-15

    An inorganic–organic hybrid hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate Na{sub 2}[Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Cu(dap){sub 2}] ([Cu{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(dap){sub 2}][B-α-GeW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sub 2})·4H{sub 2}O (1) (dap=1,2-diaminopropane) has been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays the six-connected 3D network with the long topological (O′Keefe) vertex symbol is 4·4·6{sub 4}·4·4·4·4·6{sub 4}·4·4·4·6{sub 4}·4·4·4 and the short vertex (Schläfli) symbol of 4{sup 12}6{sup 3}. Magnetic measurements indicate that there are the overall ferromagnetic exchange interactions in the belt-like hexa-Cu{sup II} cluster in 1. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior and electrocatalysis of 1 modified carbon paste electrode (1-CPE) have been studied. The reductions of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide are principally mediated by the W{sup VI}-based wave. - Graphical abstract: A hexa-Cu{sup II} sandwiched germanotungstate has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The magnetic, solid-state electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties have been investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Transition-metal substituted polyoxometalates. • Hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate. • Six-connected 3D network. • Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, magnetic and electrochemical properties of a new 3D hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanzhou; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Yanting; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2013-01-01

    An inorganic–organic hybrid hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate Na 2 [Cu(dap) 2 ] 2 [Cu(dap) 2 ] ([Cu 6 (H 2 O) 2 (dap) 2 ][B-α-GeW 9 O 34 ] 2 )·4H 2 O (1) (dap=1,2-diaminopropane) has been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays the six-connected 3D network with the long topological (O′Keefe) vertex symbol is 4·4·6 4 ·4·4·4·4·6 4 ·4·4·4·6 4 ·4·4·4 and the short vertex (Schläfli) symbol of 4 12 6 3 . Magnetic measurements indicate that there are the overall ferromagnetic exchange interactions in the belt-like hexa-Cu II cluster in 1. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior and electrocatalysis of 1 modified carbon paste electrode (1-CPE) have been studied. The reductions of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide are principally mediated by the W VI -based wave. - Graphical abstract: A hexa-Cu II sandwiched germanotungstate has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The magnetic, solid-state electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties have been investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Transition-metal substituted polyoxometalates. • Hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate. • Six-connected 3D network. • Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide

  13. Ultrasonic-assisted chemical reduction synthesis and structural characterization of copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh-Nga, Nguyen T.; Tuan-Anh, Nguyen; Thanh-Quoc, Nguyen; Ha, Do Tuong

    2018-04-01

    Copper nanoparticles, due to their special properties, small dimensions and low-cost preparation, have many potential applications such as in optical, electronics, catalysis, sensors, antibacterial agents. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method with different conditions in order to investigate the optimum conditions which gave the smallest (particle diameter) dimensions. The synthesis step used copper (II) acetate salt as precursor, ascorbic acid as reducing agent, glycerin and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as protector and stabilizer. The assistance of ultrasonic was were considered as the significant factor affecting the size of the synthesized particles. The results showed that the copper nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the diameter as small as 20-40 nm and the conditions of ultrasonic waves were 48 kHz of frequency, 20 minutes of treated time and 65-70 °C of temperature. The synthesized copper nanoparticles were characterized by optical absorption spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry.

  14. The mineralogical characterization of tellurium in copper anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. T.; Dutrizac, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    A mineralogical study of a «normal» commercial copper anode and six tellurium-rich copper anodes from the CCR Refinery of the Noranda Copper Smelting and Refining Company was carried out to identify the tellurium carriers and their relative abundances. In all the anodes, the major tellurium carrier is the Cu2Se-Cu2Te phase which occurs as a constituent of complex inclusions at the copper grain boundaries. In tellurium-rich anodes, the molar tellurium content of the Cu2Se-Cu2Te phase can exceed that of selenium. Although >85 pct of the tellurium occurs as the Cu2Se-Cu2Te phase, minor amounts are present in Cu-Pb-As-Bi-Sb oxide, Cu-Bi-As oxide, and Cu-Te-As oxide phases which form part of the grain-boundary inclusions. About 1 pct of the tellurium content of silver-rich anodes occurs in various silver alloys, but gold tellurides were never detected. Surprising is the fact that 2 to 8 pct of the total tellurium content of the anodes occurs in solid solution in the copper-metal matrix, and presumably, this form of tellurium dissolves at the anode interface during electrorefining.

  15. Copper K-shell emission cross sections for laser–solid experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J. R.; Betti, R.; Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A. [Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Published measurements and models of the cross section for electrons causing K-shell emission from copper are reviewed to find a suitable expression to use when analyzing K{sub α}-emission measurements in laser–solid experiments at peak intensities above 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Few measurements exist in the 0.1- to 10-MeV electron energy range currently of interest, leaving a number of possible suitable models that are summarized here with a number of typing errors corrected. Two different limiting forms for the cross section at relativistic energies are used, and existing measurements do not give a clear indication as to which is correct. Comparison with the limiting form of electron stopping power indicates an alternative relativistic form and also that the density-effect correction will be important in copper above 10 MeV. For data analysis relying on relative K{sub α} emission caused by electrons with energy much greater than the K-shell binding energy, the existing uncertainty in cross sections is unimportant, but it will be a source of uncertainty when using absolute values and for electron energies up to ∼6× the binding energy. K-shell emission caused by photons and protons is also briefly reviewed.

  16. Characterization of Nanocarbon Copper Composites Manufactured in Metallurgical Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, Tadeusz; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Kiesiewicz, Grzegorz; Mamala, Andrzej; Kawecki, Artur; Smyrak, Beata

    2014-08-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide search for new forms of materials with properties that are significantly improved in comparison to materials currently in use. One promising research direction lies in the synthesis of metals containing modern carbon materials ( e.g., graphene, nanotubes). In this article, the research results of metallurgical synthesis of a mixture of copper and two different kinds of carbon (activated carbon and multiwall carbon nanotubes) are shown. Samples of copper-carbon nanocomposite were synthesized by simultaneously exposing molten copper to an electrical current while vigorously stirring and adding carbon while under an inert gas atmosphere. The article contains research results of density, hardness, electrical conductivity, structure (TEM), and carbon decomposition (SIMS method) for the obtained materials.

  17. Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumikura, Hisashi; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2014-05-23

    Dopants in silicon (Si) have attracted attention in the fields of photonics and quantum optics. However, the optical characteristics are limited by the small spontaneous emission rate of dopants in Si. This study demonstrates a large increase in the spontaneous emission rate of copper isoelectronic centres (Cu-IECs) doped into Si photonic crystal nanocavities. In a cavity with a quality factor (Q) of ~16,000, the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of the Cu-IECs is 1.1 ns, which is 30 times shorter than the lifetime of a sample without a cavity. The PL decay rate is increased in proportion to Q/Vc (Vc is the cavity mode volume), which indicates the Purcell effect. This is the first demonstration of a cavity-enhanced ultrafast spontaneous emission from dopants in Si, and it may lead to the development of fast and efficient Si light emitters and Si quantum optical devices based on dopants with efficient optical access.

  18. Study of the secondary negative ion emission of copper and several of its alloys by impact with Cs+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerand, P.; Baril, M.

    1977-01-01

    Secondary ion emission studies have been undertaken using Cs + as the primary ion beam. A good vacuum (ca. 10 -8 torr) is needed to eliminate contamination by residual gases. Negative ion emission of pure copper is compared with its alloys. The thermodynamic equilibrium model of Andersen is discussed. For low element concentrations, the experimental data show enhancement in negative emission of P, Al, Fe, Sn, Ni, and attenuation for Zn, Pb. The order of magnitude of ionic efficiency S - for copper is evaluated at 10 -4 . (Auth.)

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Atomically Precise Copper Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Ai Dang

    isolated from the reaction of Cu(OAc) with Ph2SiH2, in the presence of PPh3. As formulated, [Cu26H 17(PPh3)9(OAc)3] features a magic number N* = 6, which is unprecedented for a copper nanocluster. XANES supports an assignment of more Cu(0) character than [Cu25H 22(PPh3)12]Cl (N* = 2) for this complex. A critical reevaluation of the synthesis and characterization of Cu 8(MPP)4 is reported. This product was reportedly formed by reaction of Cu(NO3)2 with 2-mercapto-5-n-propylpyrimidine (HMPP) and NaBH4, in ethanol, in the presence of [N(C8H 17)4][Br]. However, upon reevaluation, no experimental evidence to support the existence of Cu8(MPP)4 was found. Instead, the material isolated from this reaction is a complex mixture containing [N(C8H17)4]+, Br -, NO3-, 2-mercapto-5-n-propyl-1,6-dihydropyrimidine (H2MPP*), along with the Cu(I) coordination polymer, [Cu(MPP)]n. H2MPP* and [Cu(MPP)]n, as well as the related Cu(I) coordination complexes, [Cu(HMPP*)]n and [Cu2(MPP*)]n are independently synthesized to support these conclusions.

  20. Cloning and molecular characterization of a copper chaperone gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cDNA encoding a copper chaperone, designated as HbCCH1, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. HbCC1 was 589 bp long containing a 261 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 86 amino acids, flanked by a 103 bp 5'UTR and a 225 bp 3'UTR. The predicted molecular mass of HbCCH1 was 9.2 kDa, ...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles by using the exploding wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rashmita; Das, Basanta Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    During the past few years, the synthesis of copper nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of their huge potential for replacing the expensive nano silver inks utilized in conductive printing. This opens a new possibility in printed electronics. Copper-based inkjet inks can be used to form various devices such as solar cells, RF identification tags and electroluminescence devices. This paper describes controlled synthesis of pure copper nanoparticles, mainly by using the exploding wire method. A wire of 0.26 mm in diameter was exploded in a nitrogen environment. The sample was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD revealed the presence of pure copper and AFM revealed the presence of nanoparticles with an average size of 55 nm.

  2. Copper Determination in Gunshot Residue by Cyclic Voltammetric and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Nurul’Afiqah Hashimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gunshot residue (GSR is a crucial evidences for a forensic analyst in the fastest way. GSR analysis insists a suitable method provides a relatively simple, rapid and precise information on the spot at the crime scene. Therefore, the analysis of Cu(II in GSR using cyclic voltammetry (CV on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE is a better choice compared to previous alternative methods such as Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES those required a long time for analysis. SPCE is specially designed to handle with microvolumes of sample such as GSR sample. It gives advantages for identification of copper in GSR on-site preliminary test to prevent the sample loss on the process to be analyzed in the laboratory. SPCE was swabbed directly on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and acetate buffer was dropped on SPCE before CV analysis. For ICP-OES analysis, cotton that had been soaked in 0.5 M nitric acid was swabbed on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and kept in a tightly closed sampling tube. Gold coated SPCE that had been through nanoparticles modification exhibits excellent performance on voltammograms. The calibration was linear from 1 to 50 ppm of copper, the limit of detection for copper was 0.3 ppm and a relative standard deviation was 6.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in GSR. The Cu determination on SPCE was compared and validated by ICP-OES method with 94 % accuracy.

  3. Normal spectral emissivity measurement of molten copper using an electromagnetic levitator superimposed with a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryo; Inoue, Takamitsu; Baba, Yuya; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined in the wavelength range of 780–920 nm and in the temperature range of 1288–1678 K, by directly measuring the radiance emitted by an electromagnetically levitated molten copper droplet under a static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The spectrometer for radiance measurement was calibrated using the relation between the theoretical blackbody radiance from Planck's law and the light intensity of a quasi-blackbody radiation source measured using a spectrometer at a given temperature. As a result, the normal spectral emissivity of molten copper was determined as 0.075 ± 0.011 at a wavelength of 807 nm, and it was found that its temperature dependence is negligible in the entire measurement temperature range tested. In addition, the results of the normal spectral emissivity and its wavelength dependence were discussed, in comparison with those obtained using the Drude free-electron model. (paper)

  4. Computation and measurement of a plasma temperature using the emission lines of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassi, M.; Pierre, L.; Benard, J.; Cahen, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of copper emission lines for temperature measurement in plasma environments is presented. The article features the problems encountered with such a measurement method when used in a stationary and a non-stationary plasma. In the first case, we were concerned with the temperature measurements in the jet of a 2 MW industrial plasma torche. The plasma was stationary and the measurement geometry allowed the use of the Abel inversion method to recover the temperature profiles in the plasma jet. The limitations of the measurement method on the jet boundaries as well as the cooling of the plasma by entrainement of cold air are discussed. In the second case, a non-stationary plasma in a 1.4 MW electric furnace was studied. This study allowed to feature the role of the detector dynamics as related to the dynamics of the observed medium. The obtained measurements show only a probable temperature in the immediate proximity of the arc. Finally, we conclude on the validity of copper as a tracer and the use of spontaneous emission spectroscopy, and easy method to implement, compared to other sophisticated temperature measurement methods. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Poston, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy at temperatures of 298 to 823 K. Analysis of copper oxides indicated that the satellite structure of the Cu22p region was absent in the Cu(I) state but was present in the Cu(II) state. Reduction of CuO at room temperature was observed when the ion gauge was placed close to the sample. The satellite structure was absent in all the copper oxides at 823 K in vacuum. Differentiation of the oxidation state of copper utilizing both Cu(L 3M 4,5M 4,5) X-ray-induced Auger lines and Cu2p satellite structure, indicated that the copper in zinc copper ferrite was in the + 1 oxidation state at 823 K. This + 1 state of copper was not significantly changed after exposure to H 2, CO, and H 2O. There was an increase in Cu/Zn ratio and a decrease in Fe/Zn ratio on the surface of zinc copper ferrite at 823 K compared to that at room temperature. These conditions of copper offered the best sulfidation equilibrium for the zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Analysis of iron oxides indicated that there was some reduction of both Fe 2O 3 and FeO at 823K. The iron in zinc copper ferrite was similar to that of Fe 2O 3 at room temperature but there was some reduction of this Fe(III) state to Fe(II) at 823 K. This reduction was more enhanced in the presence of H 2 and CO. Reduction to Fe(II) may not be desirable for the lifetime of the sorbent.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Copper System Compound Semiconductor Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper system compound semiconductor solar cells were produced by a spin-coating method, and their cell performance and structures were investigated. Copper indium disulfide- (CIS- based solar cells with titanium dioxide (TiO2 were produced on F-doped SnO2 (FTO. A device based on an FTO/CIS/TiO2 structure provided better cell performance compared to that based on FTO/TiO2/CIS structure. Cupric oxide- (CuO- and cuprous oxide- (Cu2O- based solar cells with fullerene (C60 were also fabricated on FTO and indium tin oxide (ITO. The microstructure and cell performance of the CuO/C60 heterojunction and the Cu2O:C60 bulk heterojunction structure were investigated. The photovoltaic devices based on FTO/CuO/C60 and ITO/Cu2O:C60 structures provided short-circuit current density of 0.015 mAcm−2 and 0.11 mAcm−2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.045 V and 0.17 V under an Air Mass 1.5 illumination, respectively. The microstructures of the active layers were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  7. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  8. Removal of Copper by Eichhornia crassipes and the Characterization of Associated Bacteria of the Rhizosphere System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Kabeer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess doses of trace element contamination make conventional water treatment methods less effective and more expensive, where in alternative biotechnological applications open up new opportunities with their reduced cost and lesser impacts to the environment. In the present investigation, effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes was tested for the removal of copper in laboratory conditions. Water samples were collected from macrophytes natural habitat and water tubs used for growing E. crassipes and analysed along with plant tissues for Cu content. The work also characterized the associated microbiota of the rhizosphere system of the E. crassipes as well as the wetland system of its occurrence. Copper concentration of the wetland water samples ranged from 0.009 to 0.03ppm. Six bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Kurthia, Listeria and Chromobacterium were represented in rhizosphere of E.crassipes and 4 bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Listeria and Chromobacterium were recorded in wetland water samples. Copper resistance studies of the bacterial isolates showed that out of 26 isolates from rhizosphere and 19 strains from water samples,12 of them showed low resistance (80% of copper during 15 days experiment. Copper accumulation was found to be high in the root followed by leaf and petiole. Results of the present study concluded that E. crassipes is an efficient plant for the removal of copper.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of copper-infiltrated carbonized wood monoliths for supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Shiang; Siegel, Gene; Prestgard, Megan C.; Wang, Wei; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper nanoparticles were embedded in the highly porous carbonized wood electrodes. • Copper nanoparticle serves as the pseudocapacitive specie to increase the energy density. • The porous copper-wood electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performances with high capacitance, excellent rate capability and stability. - Abstract: Copper nanoparticle-loaded carbonized wood electrodes were synthesized and characterized for the use as supercapacitor electrodes. The electrodes were fabricated by soaking beech wood samples in Cu(NO 3 ) 2 solution followed by carbonization at 800 °C under a N 2 atmosphere. The copper nanoparticle content in the electrodes was controlled by varying the concentration of the Cu(NO 3 ) 2 solution from 0.5 to 2 M. Subsequent X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements confirm that cubic copper was formed and the copper nanoparticles were anchored uniformly both on the surface as well as deep within the pores of the wood electrode. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that all of the electrodes had a typical pseudo-capacitive behavior, as indicated by the presence of redox reaction peaks. Charge–discharge testing also confirmed the pseudo-capacitive nature of the electrodes. The reversible oxidation of Cu into Cu 2 O and CuO was verified by performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at different stages of the charge–discharge cycle. The Cu-loaded wood electrodes exhibited excellent cyclability and retaining 95% of their specific capacitance even after 2000 cycles. A maximum specific capacitance of 888 F/g was observed while discharging the 7 wt% Cu electrode at 200 mA/g in a 2 M KOH electrolyte solution. These results demonstrated the potential of the copper nanoparticle-loaded wood electrodes as cheap and high performance supercapacitor electrodes

  10. Molecular Characterization of CTR-type Copper Transporters in an Oceanic Diatom, Thalassiosira oceanica 1005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L.; Price, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton growth because of its role as a redox cofactor in electron transfer proteins in photosynthesis and respiration, and a potentially limiting resource in parts of the open sea. Thalassiosira oceanica 1005 can grow at inorganic copper concentrations varying from 10 fmol/L to 10 nmol/L by regulating copper uptake across plasma membrane. Four putative CTR-type copper transporter genes (ToCTR1, ToCTR2, ToCTR3.1 and ToCTR3.2) were identified by BLASTP search against the T. oceanica genome. Predicted gene models were revised by assembled mRNA sequencing transcripts and updated gene models contained all conserved features of characterized CTR-type copper transporters. ToCTR3.1 and ToCTR3.2 may arise from one another by gene duplication as they shared a sequence similarity of 97.6% with a peptide insertion of 5 amino acids at N-terminus of ToCTR3.1. The expression of ToCTR1, ToCTR2 and ToCTR3.1/3.2 was upregulated in low copper concentrations, but only ToCTR3.1/3.2 showed a significant increase (2.5 fold) in copper-starved cells. Both ToCTR3.1 and ToCTR3.2 restored growth of a yeast double mutant, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ctr1Δctr3Δ, in copper deficient medium. GFP-fused ToCTR expression showed that some ToCTR3.1 localized to the plasma membrane but a large portion was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Inefficient targeting of ToCTR3.1 to the yeast outer membrane may explain poorer growth compared to the Saccharomyces native ScCTR1 transformant. Thus, diatom CTR genes encoding CTR-type copper transporters show high-affinity copper uptake and their regulation may enable diatoms to survive in ocean environments containing a wide range of copper concentrations.

  11. Preparation, characterization and application of nanosized copper ferrite photocatalysts for dye degradation under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharieva, Katerina, E-mail: zaharieva@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Tsvetkov, Martin, E-mail: mptsvetkov@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara, E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kunev, Boris, E-mail: bkunev@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Trujillano, Raquel, E-mail: rakel@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Mitov, Ivan, E-mail: mitov@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Milanova, Maria, E-mail: nhmm@wmail.chem.uni-sofia.bg [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-06-15

    Nanosized copper ferrite-type materials (Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 3–x}O{sub 4}, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared by combination of co-precipitation and mechanochemical activation and/or thermal treatment. The crystalline structure and morphology of the obtained ferrite nanopowders have been characterized by different instrumental methods, such as Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, specific surface area and porosity measurements, thermal analyses (Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis) and Temperature-Programmed Reduction. The average crystallite size of copper ferrites ranged between 7.8 and 14.7 nm and show a superparamagnetic and collective magnetic excitations nature. The photocatalytic decolorization of Malachite green oxalate under different UV illumination intervals was examined using these copper ferrites as photocatalysts. The results indicate that the prepared nanostructured copper ferrites showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and amount adsorbed Malachite Green dye. The co-precipitated nanosized copper ferrite powder with a low content of copper metal ions in a magnetite host structure (Cu{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2.75}O{sub 4}) showed an apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant 15.4 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1} and an amount adsorbed Malachite Green as model organic dye pollutant per 1 g catalyst of 33.4 ppm/g after the dark period. The results confirm that the copper ferrites can be suitable for photocatalytic treatment of wastewaters containing organic dyes. The new aspect of presented investigations is to study the influence of different degree of incorporation of copper ions into the magnetite host structure and preparation methods on the photocatalytic properties of nanosized copper ferrite materials and obtaining of potential photocatalyst (Cu{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2.75}O{sub 4}) with higher photocatalytic activity (15.4 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}) than that of the standard referent Degussa P25 (12 × 10

  12. Preparation, characterization and application of nanosized copper ferrite photocatalysts for dye degradation under UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharieva, Katerina; Rives, Vicente; Tsvetkov, Martin; Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Kunev, Boris; Trujillano, Raquel; Mitov, Ivan; Milanova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized copper ferrite-type materials (Cu x Fe 3–x O 4 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared by combination of co-precipitation and mechanochemical activation and/or thermal treatment. The crystalline structure and morphology of the obtained ferrite nanopowders have been characterized by different instrumental methods, such as Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, specific surface area and porosity measurements, thermal analyses (Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis) and Temperature-Programmed Reduction. The average crystallite size of copper ferrites ranged between 7.8 and 14.7 nm and show a superparamagnetic and collective magnetic excitations nature. The photocatalytic decolorization of Malachite green oxalate under different UV illumination intervals was examined using these copper ferrites as photocatalysts. The results indicate that the prepared nanostructured copper ferrites showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and amount adsorbed Malachite Green dye. The co-precipitated nanosized copper ferrite powder with a low content of copper metal ions in a magnetite host structure (Cu 0.25 Fe 2.75 O 4 ) showed an apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant 15.4 × 10 −3 min −1 and an amount adsorbed Malachite Green as model organic dye pollutant per 1 g catalyst of 33.4 ppm/g after the dark period. The results confirm that the copper ferrites can be suitable for photocatalytic treatment of wastewaters containing organic dyes. The new aspect of presented investigations is to study the influence of different degree of incorporation of copper ions into the magnetite host structure and preparation methods on the photocatalytic properties of nanosized copper ferrite materials and obtaining of potential photocatalyst (Cu 0.25 Fe 2.75 O 4 ) with higher photocatalytic activity (15.4 × 10 −3 min −1 ) than that of the standard referent Degussa P25 (12 × 10 −3 min −1 ) for degradation of organic dye

  13. Synthesis, characterization and behaviour to gamma radiation of the bis-L-alaninato-copper (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B.F.T.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of coordinated compound obtained from the copper (II) and the L-(+)- alanine to gamma radiation was determined. A study of synthesis and characterization of this complex was made with elementary analysis, ultraviolet and visible electronic spectroscopy, infrared vibrational spectroscopy, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. (C.G.C.)

  14. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakupi, P. [Western University, Dept. of Chemistry, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Keech, P.G. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Ave. E., Toronto Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Barker, I. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R.L. [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W., E-mail: dwshoesm@uwo.ca [Western University, Surface Science Western, 999 Collip Circle, LL31 (Lower), London, Ontario, N6G OJ3 (Canada); Moser, D.E. [Western University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, London Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  15. Characterization of commercially cold sprayed copper coatings and determination of the effects of impacting copper powder velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupi, P.; Keech, P. G.; Barker, I.; Ramamurthy, S.; Jacklin, R. L.; Shoesmith, D. W.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    Copper coated steel containers are being developed for the disposal of high level nuclear waste using processes such as cold spray and electrodeposition. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction has been used to determine the microstructural properties and the quality of the steel-copper coating interface. The influence of the nature of the cold-spray carrier gas as well as its temperature and pressure (velocity) on the coating's plastic strain and recrystallization behaviour have been investigated, and one commercially-produced electrodeposited coating characterized. The quality of the coatings was assessed using the coincident site lattice model to analyse the properties of the grain boundaries. For cold spray coatings the grain size and number of coincident site lattice grain boundaries increased, and plastic strain decreased, with carrier gas velocity. In all cases annealing improved the quality of the coatings by increasing texture and coincidence site-lattices, but also increased the number of physical voids, especially when a low temperature cold spray carrier gas was used. Comparatively, the average grain size and number of coincident site-lattices was considerably larger for the strongly textured electrodeposited coating. Tensile testing showed the electrodeposited coating was much more strongly adherent to the steel substrate.

  16. Characterization of laser-cut copper foil X-pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G. W.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Wei, M. S.; Reed, C. T.; Forsman, A. C.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative data analyses of laser-cut Cu foil X-pinch experiments on the 150 ns quarter-period, ˜250 kA GenASIS driver are presented. Three different foil designs are tested to determine the effects of initial structure on pinch outcome. Foil X-pinch data are also presented alongside the results from wire X-pinches with comparable mass. The X-ray flux and temporal profile of the emission from foil X-pinches differed significantly from that of wire X-pinches, with all emission from the foil X-pinches confined to a ˜3 ns period as opposed to the delayed, long-lasting electron beam emission common in wire X-pinches. Spectroscopic data show K-shell as well as significant L-shell emission from both foil and wire X-pinches. Fits to synthetic spectra using the SCRAM code suggest that pinching foil X's produced a ˜1 keV, ne ≥ 1023 cm-3 plasma. The spectral data combined with the improved reliability of the source timing, flux, and location indicate that foil X-pinches generate a reproducible, K-shell point-projection radiography source that can be easily modified and tailored to suit backlighting needs across a variety of applications.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of schiff base-copper complexes immobilized in smectite clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Dias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the immobilization of some Schiff base-copper(II complexes in smectite clays is described as a strategy for the heterogenization of homogeneous catalysts. The obtained materials were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, mostly UV/Vis, EPR, XANES and luminescence spectroscopy. SWy-2 and synthetic Laponite clays were used for the immobilization of two different complexes that have previously shown catalytic activity in the dismutation of superoxide radicals, and disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide. The obtained results indicated the occurrence of an intriguing intramolecular redox process involving copper and the imine ligand at the surface of the clays. These studies are supported by computational calculations.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanofluid by a novel one-step method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S. Ananda; Meenakshi, K. Shree; Narashimhan, B.R.V.; Srikanth, S.; Arthanareeswaran, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel one-step method for the preparation of stable, non-agglomerated copper nanofluids by reducing copper sulphate pentahydrate with sodium hypophosphite as reducing agent in ethylene glycol as base fluid by means of conventional heating. This is an in situ, one-step method which gives high yield of product with less time consumption. The characterization of the nanofluid is done by particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction topography, UV-vis analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) followed by the study of thermal conductivity of nanofluid by the transient hot wire method

  19. Shock compression of monocrystalline copper: Experiments, characterization, and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Buyang; Lassila, David H.; Huang Chongxiang; Xu Yongbo; Meyers, Marc Andre

    2010-01-01

    Monocrystalline copper samples with [0 0 1] and [2 2 1] orientations were subjected to shock/recovery experiments at 30 and 57 GPa and 90 K. The slip system activity and the microstructural evolution were investigated. Different defect structures, including dislocations, stacking faults, twins, microbands, and recrystallized grains were observed in the specimens. The residual microstructures were dependent on crystalline orientation and pressure. The differences with crystalline orientations are most likely due to different resolved shear stresses on specific crystalline planes. The geometric relationships between the shock propagation direction and crystalline orientation are presented under uniaxial strain. It is shown that the [2 2 1] orientation, by virtue of having fewer highly activated slip systems, exhibits greater concentration of deformation with more intense shear on the primary system. This, in turn leads to greater local temperature rise and full recrystallization, in spite of the thermodynamic residual temperature of ∼500 K and rapid cooling (within 20 s) to ambient temperature. The profuse observation of microbands is interpreted in terms of the mechanism proposed by Huang and Gray [J.C. Huang, G.T. Gray III, Acta Metallurgica 37 (1989) 3335-3347].

  20. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  1. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu Jr

    2013-01-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu–Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu–Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint. (paper)

  2. Nanoscale surface characterization of aqueous copper corrosion: Effects of immersion interval and orthophosphate concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Stephanie L. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Water Supply and Water Resource Division (WSWRD), Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Sprunger, Phillip T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Synchrotron Radiation Facility of Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Kizilkaya, Orhan [Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Synchrotron Radiation Facility of Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Lytle, Darren A. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Water Supply and Water Resource Division (WSWRD), Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Garno, Jayne C., E-mail: jgarno@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Morphology changes for copper surfaces exposed to different water parameters were investigated at the nanoscale with atomic force microscopy (AFM), as influenced by changes in pH and the levels of orthophosphate ions. Synthetic water samples were designed to mimic physiological chemistries for drinking water, both with and without addition of orthophosphate over a pH range 6.5–9. Copper surfaces treated with orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor after 6 and 24 h were evaluated. Tapping mode AFM images revealed dosing of the water with 6 mg/L of orthophosphate was beneficial in retarding the growth of copper by-products. The chemical composition and oxidation state of the surface deposits were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  3. Copper removal by algal biomass: biosorbents characterization and equilibrium modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Pinheiro, José P S; Domingos, Rute F; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2009-04-30

    The general principles of Cu(II) binding to algal waste from agar extraction, composite material and algae Gelidium, and different modelling approaches, are discussed. FTIR analyses provided a detailed description of the possible binding groups present in the biosorbents, as carboxylic groups (D-glucuronic and pyruvic acids), hydroxyl groups (cellulose, agar and floridean starch) and sulfonate groups (sulphated galactans). Potentiometric acid-base titrations showed a heterogeneous distribution of two major binding groups, carboxyl and hydroxyl, following the quasi-Gaussian affinity constant distribution suggested by Sips, which permitted to estimate the maximum amount of acid functional groups (0.36, 0.25 and 0.1 mmol g(-1)) and proton binding parameters (pK(H)=5.0, 5.3 and 4.4; m(H)=0.43, 0.37, 0.33), respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. A non-ideal, semi-empirical, thermodynamically consistent (NICCA) isotherm fitted better the experimental ion binding data for different pH values and copper concentrations, considering only the acid functional groups, than the discrete model. Values of pK(M) (3.2; 3.6 and 3.3), n(M) (0.98, 0.91, 1.0) and p (0.67, 0.53 and 0.43) were obtained, respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. NICCA model reflects the complex macromolecular systems that take part in biosorption considering the heterogeneity of the biosorbent, the competition between protons and metals ions to the binding sites and the stoichiometry for different ions.

  4. Copper removal by algal biomass: Biosorbents characterization and equilibrium modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt; Botelho, Cidalia M.S. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: cbotelho@fe.up.pt; Pinheiro, Jose P.S.; Domingos, Rute F. [Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2009-04-30

    The general principles of Cu(II) binding to algal waste from agar extraction, composite material and algae Gelidium, and different modelling approaches, are discussed. FTIR analyses provided a detailed description of the possible binding groups present in the biosorbents, as carboxylic groups (D-glucuronic and pyruvic acids), hydroxyl groups (cellulose, agar and floridean starch) and sulfonate groups (sulphated galactans). Potentiometric acid-base titrations showed a heterogeneous distribution of two major binding groups, carboxyl and hydroxyl, following the quasi-Gaussian affinity constant distribution suggested by Sips, which permitted to estimate the maximum amount of acid functional groups (0.36, 0.25 and 0.1 mmol g{sup -1}) and proton binding parameters (pK{sup '}{sub H}=5.0,5.3and4.4;m{sub H} = 0.43, 0.37, 0.33), respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. A non-ideal, semi-empirical, thermodynamically consistent (NICCA) isotherm fitted better the experimental ion binding data for different pH values and copper concentrations, considering only the acid functional groups, than the discrete model. Values of pK{sup '}{sub M} (3.2; 3.6 and 3.3), n{sub M} (0.98, 0.91, 1.0) and p (0.67, 0.53 and 0.43) were obtained, respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. NICCA model reflects the complex macromolecular systems that take part in biosorption considering the heterogeneity of the biosorbent, the competition between protons and metals ions to the binding sites and the stoichiometry for different ions.

  5. Copper removal by algal biomass: Biosorbents characterization and equilibrium modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Botelho, Cidalia M.S.; Pinheiro, Jose P.S.; Domingos, Rute F.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The general principles of Cu(II) binding to algal waste from agar extraction, composite material and algae Gelidium, and different modelling approaches, are discussed. FTIR analyses provided a detailed description of the possible binding groups present in the biosorbents, as carboxylic groups (D-glucuronic and pyruvic acids), hydroxyl groups (cellulose, agar and floridean starch) and sulfonate groups (sulphated galactans). Potentiometric acid-base titrations showed a heterogeneous distribution of two major binding groups, carboxyl and hydroxyl, following the quasi-Gaussian affinity constant distribution suggested by Sips, which permitted to estimate the maximum amount of acid functional groups (0.36, 0.25 and 0.1 mmol g -1 ) and proton binding parameters (pK ' H =5.0,5.3and4.4;m H = 0.43, 0.37, 0.33), respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. A non-ideal, semi-empirical, thermodynamically consistent (NICCA) isotherm fitted better the experimental ion binding data for different pH values and copper concentrations, considering only the acid functional groups, than the discrete model. Values of pK ' M (3.2; 3.6 and 3.3), n M (0.98, 0.91, 1.0) and p (0.67, 0.53 and 0.43) were obtained, respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. NICCA model reflects the complex macromolecular systems that take part in biosorption considering the heterogeneity of the biosorbent, the competition between protons and metals ions to the binding sites and the stoichiometry for different ions

  6. Characterizing Emissions from the Combustion of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from two biofuels, a soy-based biodiesel and an animal-based biodiesel, were measured and compared to emissions from a distillate petroleum fuel oil. The three fuels were burned in a small fire tube boiler designed for use in institutional, commercial, and light industr...

  7. Characterization of the recombinant copper chaperone (CCS) from the plant Glycine (G.) max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasti, Sara; Yruela, Inmaculada; Bernal, Maria; Lujan, Maria A; Frago, Susana; Medina, Milagros; Picorel, Rafael

    2011-02-01

    The goal of the present work was to characterize the recombinant copper chaperone (CCS) from soybean. Very little is known about plant copper chaperones, which makes this study of current interest, and allows for a comparison with the better known homologues from yeast and humans. To obtain sizeable amounts of pure protein suitable for spectroscopic characterization, we cloned and overexpressed the G. max CCS chaperone in E. coli in the presence of 0.5 mM CuSO(4) and 0.5 mM ZnSO(4) in the broth. A pure protein preparation was obtained by using two IMAC steps and pH gradient chromatography. Most of the proteins were obtained as apo-form, devoid of copper atoms. The chaperone showed a high content (i.e., over 40%) of loops, turns and random coil as determined both by circular dichroism and homology modelling. The homology 3-D structural model suggests the protein might fold in three structural protein domains. The 3-D model along with the primary structure and spectroscopic data may suggest that copper atoms occupy the two metal binding sites, MKCEGC and CTC, within the N-terminal domain I and C-terminal domain III, respectively. But only one Zn-binding site was obtained spectroscopically.

  8. Quantitative characterization of microstructure of pure copper processed by ECAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedivý, O.; Beneš, V.; Ponížil, P.; Král, Petr; Sklenička, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2013), s. 65-75 ISSN 1580-3139 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : electron backscatter diffraction * ultrafine-grained metals * microstructure * microstructure characterization * grain boundaries Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2013

  9. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Aridane G., E-mail: aridaneglez@gmail.com [GET (Géosciences Environnement Toulouse) UMR 5563CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Beike, Anna K. [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart (Germany); Reski, Ralf [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); BIOSS—Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); FRIAS—Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Adamo, Paola [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Naples (Italy); Pokrovsky, Oleg S. [GET (Géosciences Environnement Toulouse) UMR 5563CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Science, Arkhangelsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+} was adsorbed on four mosses used in moss-bag pollution monitoring technique. • Thermodynamic approach was used to model Cu speciation based on XAS results. • All studied mosses have ∼4.5 O/N atoms at ∼1.95 Å around Cu likely in a pseudo-square geometry. • Cu(II)-carboxylates and Cu(II)-phosphoryls are the main moss surface binding groups. • Moss growing in batch reactor yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes. - Abstract: The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05–0.06 mmolg{sub dry}{sup −1} and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93–1.25 mmolg{sub dry}{sup −1} for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu{sup 2+} yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu{sup 2+}.

  10. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Aridane G.; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K.; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu 2+ was adsorbed on four mosses used in moss-bag pollution monitoring technique. • Thermodynamic approach was used to model Cu speciation based on XAS results. • All studied mosses have ∼4.5 O/N atoms at ∼1.95 Å around Cu likely in a pseudo-square geometry. • Cu(II)-carboxylates and Cu(II)-phosphoryls are the main moss surface binding groups. • Moss growing in batch reactor yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes. - Abstract: The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05–0.06 mmolg dry −1 and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93–1.25 mmolg dry −1 for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu 2+ yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu 2+ .

  11. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corregidor, V.; Oliveira, A.R.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Alves, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken’s workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist’s works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings

  12. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Jing; Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. → The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. → The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 o C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  13. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jing [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Jian-Feng, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. {yields} The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. {yields} The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 {sup o}C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  14. Physicochemical characterization of functionalized-nanostructured-titania as a carrier of copper complexes for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Tessy [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Laboratory, Metropolitan Autonomous University-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, Villa Quietud, Coyoacán, 04960 México D.F. (Mexico); Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans (United States); Ortiz, Emma, E-mail: emma170@hotmail.com [Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Guevara, Patricia [Neuroimmunology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Gómez, Esteban [Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Novaro, Octavio [Institute of Physics-UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper we report the preparation and characterization of functionalized-TiO{sub 2} (F-TiO{sub 2}) to obtain a biocompatible material to be used as carrier of alternative anticancer agents: copper acetate and copper acetylacetonate. The sol–gel procedure was used to prepare the fuctionalized titania material through hydrolysis and condensation of the titanium's butoxide. Sulfate, amine and phosphate ions served as functional groups which were anchored to the titania's surface. Mineral acids and gamma amine butyric acid were the precursors and they were added at the initial step of the synthesis. The copper complexes were loaded on titania and were also added to the reactor synthesis from the beginning. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies were the principal techniques used to the characterization of F-TiO{sub 2} and copper complexes loaded on titania materials. Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) was used to complement the characterization's studies. The biocompatibility of F-TiO{sub 2} was evaluated by treating different cancer cell lines with increased concentration of this compound. The amine, the sulfate and the phosphate on the titania's surface, as well as the integral structures of the metal complexes on titania were well identified by infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The TEM photographs of Cu(acac){sub 2}/F-TiO{sub 2} and Cu(Oac){sub 2}/F-TiO{sub 2} materials showed the formation of nanoparticles, which have sizes ranging from 4 to 10 nm, with no morphology alterations in comparison with F-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, suggesting that the presence of low quantities of copper do not affect the structure of the nanoparticles. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of copper on the titania's nanoparticles. The biological results indicate that there is more than 90% cell survival, thus suggesting that F-TiO{sub 2} does not cause damage to the cells. Therefore

  15. Physicochemical characterization of functionalized-nanostructured-titania as a carrier of copper complexes for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Tessy; Ortiz, Emma; Guevara, Patricia; Gómez, Esteban; Novaro, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we report the preparation and characterization of functionalized-TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) to obtain a biocompatible material to be used as carrier of alternative anticancer agents: copper acetate and copper acetylacetonate. The sol–gel procedure was used to prepare the fuctionalized titania material through hydrolysis and condensation of the titanium's butoxide. Sulfate, amine and phosphate ions served as functional groups which were anchored to the titania's surface. Mineral acids and gamma amine butyric acid were the precursors and they were added at the initial step of the synthesis. The copper complexes were loaded on titania and were also added to the reactor synthesis from the beginning. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies were the principal techniques used to the characterization of F-TiO 2 and copper complexes loaded on titania materials. Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) was used to complement the characterization's studies. The biocompatibility of F-TiO 2 was evaluated by treating different cancer cell lines with increased concentration of this compound. The amine, the sulfate and the phosphate on the titania's surface, as well as the integral structures of the metal complexes on titania were well identified by infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The TEM photographs of Cu(acac) 2 /F-TiO 2 and Cu(Oac) 2 /F-TiO 2 materials showed the formation of nanoparticles, which have sizes ranging from 4 to 10 nm, with no morphology alterations in comparison with F-TiO 2 nanoparticles, suggesting that the presence of low quantities of copper do not affect the structure of the nanoparticles. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of copper on the titania's nanoparticles. The biological results indicate that there is more than 90% cell survival, thus suggesting that F-TiO 2 does not cause damage to the cells. Therefore, highly biocompatible titania was obtained by

  16. Isolation and characterization of lost copper and molybdenum particles in the flotation tailings of Kennecott copper porphyry ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserendavga, Tsend-Ayush

    The importance of flotation separation has long been, and continues to be, an important technology for the mining industry, especially to metallurgical engineers. However, the flotation process is quite complex and expensive, in addition to being influenced by many variables. Understanding the variables affecting flotation efficiency and how valuable minerals are lost to the tailings gives metallurgists an advantage in their attempts to increase efficiency by designing operations to target the areas of greatest potential value. A successful, accurate evaluation of lost minerals in the tailings and appropriate solutions to improve flotation efficiency can save millions of dollars in the effective utilization of our mineral resources. In this dissertation research, an attempt has been made to understand the reasons for the loss of valuable mineral particles in the tailings from Kennecott Utah Copper ores. Possibilities include liberation, particle aggregation (slime coating) and surface chemistry issues associated with the flotation separation. This research generally consisted of three main aspects. The first part involved laboratory flotation experiments and factors, which affect the flotation efficiency. Results of flotation testing are reported that several factors such as mineral exposure/liberation and slime coating and surface oxidation strongly affect the flotation efficiency. The second part of this dissertation research was to develop a rapid scan dual energy (DE) methodology using 2D radiography to identify, isolate, and prepare lost sulfide mineral particles with the advantages of simple sample preparation, short analysis time, statistically reliable accuracy and confident identification. The third part of this dissertation research was concerned with detailed characterization of lost particles including such factors as liberation, slime coating, and surface chemistry characteristics using advanced analytical techniques and instruments. Based on the

  17. Characterizing Exoplanet Habitability with Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Results from NASA’s Kepler mission and other recent exoplanet surveys have demonstrated that potentially habitable exoplanets are relatively common, especially in the case of low-mass stellar hosts. The next key question that must be addressed for such planets is whether or not these worlds are actually habitable, implying they could sustain surface liquid water. Only through investigations of the potential habitability of exoplanets and through searches for biosignatures from these planets will we be able to understand if the emergence of life is a common phenomenon in our galaxy. Emission spectroscopy for transiting exoplanets (sometimes called secondary eclipse spectroscopy) is a powerful technique that future missions will use to study the atmospheres and surfaces of worlds orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby, low-mass stars. Emission observations that span the mid-infrared wavelength range for potentially habitable exoplanets provide opportunities to detect key habitability and life signatures, and also allow observers to probe atmospheric and surface temperatures. This presentation will outline the case for using emission spectroscopy to understand if an exoplanet can sustain surface liquid water, which is believed to be a critical precursor to the origin of life.

  18. A study of the lasing of dyes under the influence of emission from a copper vapor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilova, V I; Kopylova, T N; Maier, G V; Masarnovskii, L V; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B

    1980-01-01

    Intense pulsed sources of coherent emission with a continuously tunable wavelength and a high pulse repetition frequency are necessary for atmospheric optics. The use of rhodamine lasing during pumping by a copper dye laser is the most promising. The goals of this work include using the opportunities for improving the lasing properties of dyes pumped by a copper dye laser, choosing dye mixtures that are optimum with respect to their lasing relation, and studying the influence of the dye on their lasing characteristics in order to obtain the optimum energy parameters in the device that is built using a copper vapor laser and an optical attachment. On the basis of an analysis of the equations that describe multiatomic molecular lasing, it is possible to come to a conclusion on the intermolecular processes that determine the lasing effectiveness: singlet-singlet and triplettriplet overabsorption of lasing emission, intercombination (S-T) and internal conversion, and photoconversion in excited electron states. A large probability of emission from the lower singlet state (a large value of the constant of the velocity of radiative decay) is also necessary.

  19. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin-Conjugated Copper Sulfide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple biomolecule-assisted solution route was developed to synthesize Bovine Serum Albumin-conjugated copper sulfide (CuS/BSA nanocomposites, directly using copper salts and thioacetamide (TAA as the starting materials with a zwitterionic surfactant Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA as foaming and stabilizing agent. The CuS/BSA nanocomposites have been characterized by UV, TEM, Zeta, DLS, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicate that the as-prepared CuS/BSA nanocomposites are approximate sphere with a size distribution from 10 to 35 nm in diameter and good dispersibility, depending highly on concentration of BSA concentration. These protein-assisted synthesized nanocomposites have a great potential application in biomedical engineering and microelectronics.

  1. Study by acoustic emission and electrochemical methods of the corrosion and the protection of the copper-zinc alloy (60/40) in neutral and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assouli, B.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study and characterize, by electrochemical methods and acoustic emission, the corrosion and the protection of the copper-zinc alloy (60/40) having a metallographic structure αβ'. The electrochemical measurements, in neutral, chlorinated or alkaline medium have allowed, to study the corrosion resistance of the copper-zinc and to show that the corrosion of this alloy, in the used media, is determined by a diffusional mechanism. The observations to the optical and scanning electron microscopes and the EDX analyzes have confirmed that this corrosion phenomenon is mainly due to the selective dissolution of the β' phase. The acoustic emission has shown, during this corrosion, the presence of two emissive sources whose initiation has been attributed to the relaxation of the micro- and macro- residual stresses of the α phase. These stresses have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and the salvoes emitted during the relaxation of these stresses have been discriminated by the characteristic frequencies and by the barycenter of their spectral density. The protection of this alloy has been carried out by the 2-mercapto-benzimidazole (MBI). This last compound has been tested both as inhibitor added directly in the corrosive medium and/or as polymer film previously deposited by an electrochemical way (p-MBI). The MBI is very efficient for an inhibition in a chlorinated alkaline medium. It is an interphase inhibitor. The p-MBI is efficient too in a neutral chlorinated medium and is moreover non pollutant for the environment. (O.M.)

  2. Determination of HCl and VOC Emission from Thermal Degradation of PVC in the Absence and Presence of Copper, Copper(II Oxide and Copper(II Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad J. Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC has played a key role in the development of the plastic industry over the past 40 years. Thermal degradation of PVC leads to formation of many toxic pollutants such as HCl, aromatic and volatile organic carbon vapors. Thermal degradation of PVC and PVC in the present of copper, cupric oxide and copper(II chloride were investigated in this study using a laboratory scale electrical furnace. HCl and Cl- ion were analyzed by a Dionex ion chromatograph and VOCs compounds were analyzed using GC or GC-MS. The results showed that HCl plus Cl- ion and benzene formed about 99% and 80% respectively in the first step of thermal degradation under air atmosphere. The presence of cupric oxide increases the percentage of short chain hydrocarbons more than 184% and decreases the amount of the major aromatic hydrocarbon and HCl plus Cl- ion to 90% and 65% respectively. The total aromatic hydrocarbon emitted less than when atmosphere was air and difference was statistically significant (Pvalue<0.000

  3. Characterization of prealloyed copper powders treated in high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Viseslava; Bozic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Milan T.

    2006-01-01

    The inert gas atomised prealloyed copper powders containing 3.5 wt.% Al were milled up to 20 h in the planetary ball mill in order to oxidize aluminium in situ with oxygen from the air. In the next procedure compacts from milled powder were synthesized by hot-pressing in argon atmosphere. Compacts from as-received Cu-3.5 wt.% Al powder and electrolytic copper powder were also prepared under the same conditions. Microstructural and morphological changes of high energy milled powder as well as changes of thermal stability and electrical conductivity of compacts were studied as a function of milling time and high temperature exposure at 800 deg. C. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for microstructural characterization, whereas thermal stability and electrical conductivity were evaluated by microhardness measurements and conductometer Sigmatest, respectively. The prealloyed 5 h-milled and compacted powder showed a significant increase in microhardness reaching the value of 2600 MPa, about 4 times greater than that of compacts synthesized from as-received electrolytic copper powder (670 MPa). The electrical conductivity of compacts from 5 h-milled powder was 52% IACS. The results were discussed in terms of the effect of small grain size and finely distributed alumina dispersoids on hardening and thermal stability of compacts

  4. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz; Olofsson, Tomas; Wennerstroem, Erik

    2006-12-01

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in years 2005/2006. In the first part of the report we propose a concept of monitoring of the friction stir welding (FSW) process by means of acoustic emission (AE) technique. First, we introduce the AE technique and then we present the principle of the system for monitoring the FSW process in cylindrical symmetry specific for the SKB canisters. We propose an omnidirectional circular array of ultrasonic transducers for receiving the AE signals generated by the FSW tool and the releases of the residual stress at canister's circumference. Finally, we review the theory of uniform circular arrays. The second part of the report is concerned with synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) characterized by enhanced spatial resolution. We evaluate three different approaches to perform imaging with less computational cost than that of the extended SAFT (ESAFT) method proposed in our previous reports. First, a sparse version of ESAFT is presented, which solves the reconstruction problem only for a small set of the most probable scatterers in the image. A frequency domain the ω-k SAFT algorithm, which relies on the far-field approximation is presented in the second part. Finally, a detailed analysis of the most computationally intense step in the ESAFT and the sparse 2D deconvolution is presented. In the final part of the report we introduce basics of the 3D ultrasonic imaging that has a great potential in the inspection of the FSW welds. We discuss in some detail the three interrelated steps involved in the 3D ultrasonic imaging: data acquisition, 3D reconstruction, and 3D visualization

  5. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging, FSW monitoring with acoustic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Olofsson, Tomas; Wennerstroem, Erik [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Technical Sciences (Sweden). Signals and Systems

    2006-12-15

    This report contains the research results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in years 2005/2006. In the first part of the report we propose a concept of monitoring of the friction stir welding (FSW) process by means of acoustic emission (AE) technique. First, we introduce the AE technique and then we present the principle of the system for monitoring the FSW process in cylindrical symmetry specific for the SKB canisters. We propose an omnidirectional circular array of ultrasonic transducers for receiving the AE signals generated by the FSW tool and the releases of the residual stress at canister's circumference. Finally, we review the theory of uniform circular arrays. The second part of the report is concerned with synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) characterized by enhanced spatial resolution. We evaluate three different approaches to perform imaging with less computational cost than that of the extended SAFT (ESAFT) method proposed in our previous reports. First, a sparse version of ESAFT is presented, which solves the reconstruction problem only for a small set of the most probable scatterers in the image. A frequency domain the {omega}-k SAFT algorithm, which relies on the far-field approximation is presented in the second part. Finally, a detailed analysis of the most computationally intense step in the ESAFT and the sparse 2D deconvolution is presented. In the final part of the report we introduce basics of the 3D ultrasonic imaging that has a great potential in the inspection of the FSW welds. We discuss in some detail the three interrelated steps involved in the 3D ultrasonic imaging: data acquisition, 3D reconstruction, and 3D visualization.

  6. XPS and GDOES Characterization of Porous Coating Enriched with Copper and Calcium Obtained on Tantalum via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rokosz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available XPS and GDOES characterizations of porous coatings on tantalum after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO at 450 V for 3 minutes in electrolyte containing concentrated (85% phosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and copper (II nitrate are described. Based on the obtained data, it may be concluded that the PEO coating consists of tantalum (Ta5+, calcium (Ca2+, copper (Cu2+  and Cu+, and phosphates (PO43-. It has to be pointed out that copper and calcium are distributed throughout the volume. The authors also propose a new model of PEO, based on the derivative of GDOES signals with sputtering time.

  7. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, M.G. [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, Sao Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl{sub 2} (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V{sub max} for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10{sup 4} cells{sup −1} × 300 s{sup −1} respectively and K{sub m} values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K{sub m} for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that

  8. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, M.G.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl 2 (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V max for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10 4 cells −1 × 300 s −1 respectively and K m values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K m for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that could also drive Cu to the gill cell

  9. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of microstructural features in aluminum-lithium-copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Borja, M.; Larson, L. A.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of aluminum-lithium-copper alloys was conducted. The principal purpose is to characterize the nature, size, and distribution of stringer particles which result from the powder metallurgy (P/M) processing of these alloys. Microstructural features associated with the stringer particles are reported that help explain the stress corrosion susceptibility of the powder metallurgy-processed Al-Li-Cu alloys. In addition, matrix precipitaton events are documented for a variety of heat treatments and process variations. Hot rolling is observed to significantly alter the nature of matrix precipitation, and the observations are correlated with concomitant mechanical property variations.

  10. Effects of alloying element on weld characterization of laser-arc hybrid welding of pure copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kangda; Gong, Mengcheng; Xie, Yong; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Effects of alloying elements of Si and Sn on weld characterizations of laser-arc hybrid welded pure copper (Cu) with thickness of 2 mm was studied in detail by using different wires. The weld microstructure was analyzed, and the mechanical properties (micro-hardness and tensile property), conductivity and corrosion resistance were tested. The results showed that the alloying elements benefit the growth of column grains within weld fusion zone (FZ), increase the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the FZ and weld corrosion resistance, and decrease weld conductivity. The mechanisms were discussed according to the results.

  11. Phytofabrication and characterization of monodisperse copper oxide nanoparticles using Albizia lebbeck leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumarai, G.; Gokulpriya, C.; Sudhapriya, R.; Sharmila, G.; Muthukumaran, C.

    2015-12-01

    Simple effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) using of Albizia lebbeck leaf extract was investigated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized CONPs, viz. UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, EDS and XRD. The synthesized CONPs were found to be spherical in shape and size less than 100 nm. It could be concluded that A. lebbeck leaf extract can be used as a cheap and effective reducing agent for CONPs production in large scale.

  12. Characterization of martensitic transformations using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatro, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a highly sensitive technique which can reveal changes in materials not detectable by other means. The goal of this project was to obtain basic information on the AE response to martensitic transformation in steel. This information will enable the use of AE for improved quality assurance testing of rough-cut component blanks and semifinished parts. The AE response was measured as a function of temperature in four steels undergoing martensitic transformation, and the AE response was compared with martensitic start temperature M/sub s/ and finish temperature M/sub f/ obtained by other methods. As measured by AE activity, M/sub s/ occurred as much as 26 0 C higher than previously reported using less sensitive measurement techniques. It was also found that 10 to 30% of an alloy of Fe-0.2% C-27% Ni transformed to martensite during one AE burst. These results show that AE can be used to study transformations both inside and outside the classical M/sub s/-M/sub f/ ranges. The findings will help to achieve the goal of using AE for quality assurance testing, and will add to the knowledge of the basic materials science of martensitic transformations

  13. Systematic Introduction of Aromatic Rings to Diphosphine Ligands for Emission Color Tuning of Dinuclear Copper(I) Iodide Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Yuka; Ohara, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masaki; Kato, Masako

    2016-06-06

    We have newly synthesized two solution-stable luminescent dinuclear copper(I) complexes, [Cu2(μ-I)2(dpppy)2] (Cu-py) and [Cu2(μ-I)2(dpppyz)2] (Cu-pyz), where dpppy = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)pyridine and dpppyz = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)pyrazine, using chelating diphosphine ligands composed of N-heteroaromatic rings. X-ray analysis clearly indicates that the molecular structures of Cu-py and Cu-pyz are almost identical with that of the parent complex, [Cu2(μ-I)2(dppb)2] [Cu-bz; dppb = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene]. Complexes Cu-py and Cu-pyz exhibit luminescence [emission quantum yield (Φem) = 0.48 and 0.02, respectively] in the solid state at 298 K. A wide emission color tuning, from 497 to 638 nm (energy = 0.55 eV, with an emission color ranging from green to reddish-orange), was achieved in the solid state by the introduction of pyridinic N atoms into the bridging phenyl group between the two diphenylphosphine groups. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the emission could originate from the effective combination of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state with the halide-to-ligand charge-transfer excited state. Thus, the emission color change is due to stabilization of the π* levels of the central aryl group in the diphosphine ligand. Furthermore, these copper(I) complexes exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence at 298 K because of the small singlet-triplet energy difference (ΔE = 523 and 564 cm(-1) for Cu-py and Cu-pyz, respectively). The stability of these complexes in chloroform, due to the rigid bonds between the diphosphine ligands and the Cu(I) ions, enables the preparation of emissive poly(methyl methacrylate) films by the solution-doping technique.

  14. Study of the secondary negative ion emission of copper and several of its alloys by impact with Cs/sup +/ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallerand, P; Baril, M [Laval Univ., Quebec City (Canada). Dept. de Physique

    1977-07-01

    Secondary ion emission studies have been undertaken using Cs/sup +/ as the primary ion beam. A good vacuum (ca. 10/sup -8/ torr) is needed to eliminate contamination by residual gases. Negative ion emission of pure copper is compared with its alloys. The thermodynamic equilibrium model of Andersen is discussed. For low element concentrations, the experimental data show enhancement in negative emission of P, Al, Fe, Sn, Ni, and attenuation for Zn, Pb. The order of magnitude of ionic efficiency S/sup -/ for copper is evaluated at 10/sup -4/.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of copper slag and alternatives of friendly environmental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper slags are usually considered a waste and characterized only by the final copper content. Large and increasing quantities are being produced and disposed of by stockpiling near the metallurgical plants. This paper stresses the importance of physico-chemical characterization when considering uses for slags and the possibility of recovering the valuable metals still remaining in this phase. The purpose of this work is to support and encourage a change in the classical perception of slag from a ‘waste’ to a ‘resource’; promote the development of new technologies for treatment to recover residual values and encourage a search for new uses; with the ultimate objective of eliminating slag stockpiles thereby diminishing the environmental impact of smelting operations. Some of the results of experimental laboratory work done by the authors and examples of commercial applications will be shown. A promising future for valorization and utilization of slags is expected and will provide an example when considering the use of all the other large quantities of wastes generated by the mining industry.

  16. Validation data supporting the characterization of novel copper complexes as anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Acilan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three copper(II complexes, Cu(Sal-Gly(phen, Cu(Sal-Glypheamine, Cu(Sal-Glyphepoxy were synthesized and characterized for their anticancer properties and mechanism of action (Acilan et al., in press [1]. Here, we provide supporting data on colon cancer cell lines complementing our previous findings in cervix cells. This paper also contains a data table for the fold changes and p-values of all genes analyzed in this study via a custom RT-qPCR array. All compounds induced DNA damage (based on 8-oxo-guanidine, ɣH2AX staining in cells and apoptosis (based on elevated DNA condensation/fragmentation, Annexin V staining, caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The increase in oxidative stress was also further confirmed in these cells. Further interpretation of the data presented here can be found in the article entitled “Synthesis, biological characterization and evaluation of molecular mechanisms of novel copper complexes as anticancer agents” (Acilan et al., in press [1].

  17. Sources of uncertainty in characterizing health risks from flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudey, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of health risks associated with gas flaring was the focus of this paper. Health risk assessments for environmental decision-making includes the evaluation of scientific data to identify hazards and to determine dose-response assessments, exposure assessments and risk characterization. Gas flaring has been the cause for public health concerns in recent years, most notably since 1996 after a published report by the Alberta Research Council. Some of the major sources of uncertainty associated with identifying hazardous contaminants in flare emissions were discussed. Methods to predict human exposures to emitted contaminants were examined along with risk characterization of predicted exposures to several identified contaminants. One of the problems is that elemental uncertainties exist regarding flare emissions which places limitations of the degree of reassurance that risk assessment can provide, but risk assessment can nevertheless offer some guidance to those responsible for flare emissions

  18. Emission characterization of diesel engine run on coconut oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biodiesel in running diesel has been called for, with a view to mitigating the environmental pollution, depletion, cost and scarcity associated with the use diesel in running diesel engine. So the need to characterize the emissions from these biodiesel, cannot be overemphasized, hence this paper presents the ...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of strontium molybdate doped with copper, cobalt and zinc for purposes photocatalytic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, F.B.; Silva, M.M.S.; Moriyama, A.L.L.; Souza, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The broad concerns of contemporary society with environmental problems requires legislation and more effective techniques for wastewater treatment. In recent years, ceramic materials that have properties such as high melting points and high stability have been receiving great emphasis in several studies in particular heterogeneous photocatalysis, rapid and efficient method for the complete mineralization of contaminants. In this context, the present work deals with the synthesis and characterization of molybdate Strontium (SrMoO4) doped with copper, cobalt and zinc for the purpose of photocatalytic studies. The compounds were synthesized by complexation method EDTA / Citrate basic medium. The powders were characterized by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Particle size distribution by laser diffraction, Spectroscopy in the UV-Visible region, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), showing promising results as the crystalline phase of development and potential uses for the purpose of heterogeneous photocatalysis. (author)

  20. Material Characterization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welded Aluminium and Copper Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, K. O.; Akinlabi, E. T.

    2017-08-01

    In this research study, material characterization of dissimilar friction stir spot welded Aluminium and Copper was evaluated. Rotational speeds of 800 rpm and transverse speeds of 50 mm/min, 150 mm/min and 250 mm/min were used. The total numbers of samples evaluated were nine altogether. The spot welds were characterised by microstructure characterization using optical microscope (OEM) and scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM) by observing the evolution of the microstructure across the weld’s cross-section. lap-shear test of the of the spot weld specimens were also done. From the results, it shows that welding of metals and alloys using Friction stir spot welding is appropriate and can be use in industrial applications.

  1. Characterization of particulate emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: Toward improved emission estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire; Rutherford, Shannon; Agranovski, Igor

    2018-06-01

    Given the significance of mining as a source of particulates, accurate characterization of emissions is important for the development of appropriate emission estimation techniques for use in modeling predictions and to inform regulatory decisions. The currently available emission estimation methods for Australian open-cut coal mines relate primarily to total suspended particulates and PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter available relating to the PM 2.5 (currently available emission estimation techniques, this paper presents results of sampling completed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia. The monitoring data demonstrate that the particulate size fraction varies for different mining activities, and that the region in which the mine is located influences the characteristics of the particulates emitted to the atmosphere. The proportion of fine particulates in the sample increased with distance from the source, with the coarse fraction being a more significant proportion of total suspended particulates close to the source of emissions. In terms of particulate composition, the results demonstrate that the particulate emissions are predominantly sourced from naturally occurring geological material, and coal comprises less than 13% of the overall emissions. The size fractionation exhibited by the sampling data sets is similar to that adopted in current Australian emission estimation methods but differs from the size fractionation presented in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for use in modeling predictions. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for

  2. Photoluminescence light-up detection of zinc ion and imaging in living cells based on the aggregation induced emission enhancement of glutathione-capped copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liyun; Hu, Yuefang; Zhang, Liangliang; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we prepared glutathione (GSH)-capped copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) with red emission by simply adjusting the pH of GSH/Cu 2+ mixture at room temperature. A photoluminescence light-up method for detecting Zn 2+ was then developed based on the aggregation induced emission enhancement of GSH-capped Cu NCs. Zn 2+ could trigger the aggregation of Cu NCs, inducing the enhancement of luminescence and the increase of absolute quantum yield from 1.3% to 6.2%. GSH-capped Cu NCs and the formed aggregates were characterized, and the possible mechanism was also discussed. The prepared GSH-capped Cu NCs exhibited a fast response towards Zn 2+ and a wider detection range from 4.68 to 2240μM. The detection limit (1.17μM) is much lower than that of the World Health Organization permitted in drinking water. Furthermore, taking advantages of the low cytotoxicity, large Stokes shift, red emission and light-up detection mode, we explored the use of the prepared GSH-capped Cu NCs in the imaging of Zn 2+ in living cells. The developed luminescence light-up nanoprobe may hold the potentials for Zn 2+ -related drinking water safety and biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and characterization of composites of ultrasonic gel and copper sulphate for using as magnetic resonance body simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Gabriela P.; Soares, Sidney S.; Gontijo, Rodrigo M.G.; Batista, Adriana S.M.; Pereira, Esther Lorrayne M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MRI) body simulators has application in both equipment control and didactics, providing training to new professionals, regarding the manipulation of parameters related to image weights. For this, it is necessary to simulate longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times in order to control the extrinsic echo time (TE) and repetition time (TR) parameters in obtaining images with different contrasts. For this purpose, composites with different proportions of ultrasonic gel and copper sulphate were prepared for submission to MRI for the characterization of the times T1 and T2. The selection of copper sulphate, paramagnetic material, was conducted considering relaxation times similar to the different body tissues in order to reproduce images of suitable contrasts. Copper sulphate powder was characterized by the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique which showed characteristic peaks of copper and sulfate group. The composite was evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Visible Ultraviolet Spectrometry (UV-Vis) techniques, demonstrating composite stability for future imaging tests. In the UV-Vis analyzes the peak centered at 725 nm was monitored by the overlap of the peaks at wavelengths between 200 - 450 nm, gel and copper. FTIR of the copper sulphate powder was used for comparison with composite spectrum

  4. Changes of soft X-ray emission spectra of oxygen and copper in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Sei; Gohshi, Yohichi; Kohiki, Shigemi; Saitoh, Naoki

    1989-01-01

    X-ray induced soft X-ray emission spectroscopy is one of the bulk analysis methods used to characterize high-Tc superconductor. In this report, some observations on the changes in O Kα and Cu L spectra of thin layer LnBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Ln=Er,Gd) samples are presented. From the measurement of O Kα, no discernible difference was found between those of Gd compounds which were composed single phase or not. It may be said that the electronic structure of p state localized on the O is not sensitive to the change of Tc or zero-resistance temperature. From the measurement of Cu L spectra, it was found that Cu Lα of only Gd containing compounds has a low energy shoulder

  5. Analysis of the X-ray emission spectra of copper, germanium and rubidium plasmas produced at the Phelix laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comet, M.; Pain, J.-C.; Gilleron, F.; Piron, R.; Denis-Petit, D.; Méot, V.; Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.; Hannachi, F.; Gobet, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present the analysis of X-ray emission spectra of copper, germanium and rubidium plasmas measured at the Phelix laser facility. The laser intensity was around 6×1014 W.cm-2. The analysis is based on the hypothesis of an homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium using an effective temperature. This temperature is deduced from hydrodynamic simulations and collisional-radiative computations. Spectra are then calculated using the LTE opacity codes OPAMCDF and SCO-RCG and compared to experimental data.

  6. Characterization of hafnium oxide resistive memory layers deposited on copper by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, B.D.; Bishop, S.M. [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Leedy, K.D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Cady, N.C., E-mail: ncady@albany.edu [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Hafnium oxide-based resistive memory devices have been fabricated on copper bottom electrodes. The HfO{sub x} active layers in these devices were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 °C with tetrakis(dimethylamido)hafnium(IV) as the metal precursor and an O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. Depth profiles of the HfO{sub x} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a copper concentration on the order of five atomic percent throughout the HfO{sub x} film. In addition to the Cu doped HfO{sub x}, a thin layer (20 nm) of Cu{sub x}O is present at the surface. This surface layer is believed to have formed during the ALD process, and greatly complicates the analysis of the switching mechanism. The resistive memory structures fabricated from the ALD HfO{sub x} exhibited non-polar resistive switching, independent of the top metal electrode (Ni, Pt, Al, Au). Resistive switching current voltage (I–V) curves were analyzed using Schottky emission and ionic hopping models to gain insight into the physical mechanisms underpinning the device behavior. During the forming process it was determined that, at voltages in excess of 2.5 V, an ionic hopping model is in good agreement with the I–V data. The extracted ion hopping distance ∼ 4 Å was within the range of interatomic spacing of HfO{sub 2} during the forming process consistent with ionic motion of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Lastly the on state I–V data was dominated at larger voltages by Schottky emission with an estimated barrier height of ∼ 0.5 eV and a refractive index of 2.59. The consequence of the Schottky emission analysis indicates the on state resistance to be a product of a Pt/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu filament(s)/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu structure. - Highlights: • HfO{sub 2} was grown via atomic layer deposition at 250 and 100 °C on Cu substrates. • A Cu{sub 2}O surface layer and Cu doping were observed in post-deposition of HfO{sub 2}. • Resistive memory devices were fabricated and

  7. Surface-plasmon resonance-enhanced multiphoton emission of high-brightness electron beams from a nanostructured copper cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R K; To, H; Andonian, G; Feng, J; Polyakov, A; Scoby, C M; Thompson, K; Wan, W; Padmore, H A; Musumeci, P

    2013-02-15

    We experimentally investigate surface-plasmon assisted photoemission to enhance the efficiency of metallic photocathodes for high-brightness electron sources. A nanohole array-based copper surface was designed to exhibit a plasmonic response at 800 nm, fabricated using the focused ion beam milling technique, optically characterized and tested as a photocathode in a high power radio frequency photoinjector. Because of the larger absorption and localization of the optical field intensity, the charge yield observed under ultrashort laser pulse illumination is increased by more than 100 times compared to a flat surface. We also present the first beam characterization results (intrinsic emittance and bunch length) from a nanostructured photocathode.

  8. Mechanical alloying and sintering of nanostructured tungsten carbide-reinforced copper composite and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Mahani; Othman, Radzali; Hussain, Zuhailawati

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → W 2 C phase was formed at short milling time while WC only appears after longer milling time. → Cu crystallite size decreased but internal strain increased with increasing milling time. → Increasing milling time induced more WC formation, thus improving the hardness of the composite. → Electrical conductivity is reduced due to powder refinement and the presence of carbide phases. -- Abstract: Elemental powders of copper (Cu), tungsten (W) and graphite (C) were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill with different milling durations (0-60 h), compacted and sintered in order to precipitate hard tungsten carbide particles into a copper matrix. Both powder and sintered composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and assessed for hardness and electrical conductivity to investigate the effects of milling time on formation of nanostructured Cu-WC composite and its properties. No carbide peak was detected in the powder mixtures after milling. Carbide WC and W 2 C phases were precipitated only in the sintered composite. The formation of WC began with longer milling times, after W 2 C formation. Prolonged milling time decreased the crystallite size as well as the internal strain of Cu. Hardness of the composite was enhanced but electrical conductivity reduced with increasing milling time.

  9. Combustion synthesis by reaction and characterization of structural Ni-Zn ferrite doped with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, J.; Santos, J.R.D.; Cunha, R.B.L.; Feitosa, C.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present stud aims to evaluate the effect of doping with Cu 2+ ions concentrations of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mol in the synthesis and structure of Ni-Zn ferrite. Samples were synthesized by the method of the combustion reaction and characterized by measuring the temperature as a function of reaction time, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy in Fourier transform (FTIR). The combustion temperature and time were 646, 900, 989, 975 and 735°C and 210, 175, 220, 210 and 110 seconds for the sample doped with 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mol of copper, respectively. XRD results show that all concentrations of copper evaluated, there was only a training phase inverse spinel ferrite and Ni-Zn FTIR spectra show absorption bands below 1000cm -1 , which are characteristics of the spinel type AB 2 O 4- (author)

  10. Characterization of submonolayer film composed of soft-landed copper nanoclusters on HOPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Shyamal, E-mail: shyamal.mondal@saha.ac.in; Das, Pabitra; Chowdhury, Debasree; Bhattacharyya, S. R. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Preformed Copper nanoclusters are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at very low energy. For the study of chemical composition X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is performed for a wide range of binding energy without exposing the sample in the ambient. Morphological aspects of the supported clusters are characterized employing high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different types of morphology are observed depending on the nature of the substrate surface. Big fractal islands are formed on terraces while at the step edges small islands are found to form. Ex-situ cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement shows peak at 558 nm wavelength which corresponds to the band gap of 2.22 eV which is due to Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystals formed due to oxidation of the deposited film in ambient.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding and cleavage studies of mixed-ligand copper (II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sunita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available New two copper complexes of type [Cu(Bzimpy(LH2O]SO4 (where L = 2,2′ bipyridine (bpy, and ethylene diamine (en, Bzimpy = 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2ylpyridine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. Based on elemental and spectral studies six coordinated geometries were assigned to the two complexes. DNA-binding properties of these metal complexes were investigated using absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and thermal denaturation methods. Experimental studies suggest that the complexes bind to DNA through intercalation. These complexes also promote the cleavage of plasmid pBR322, in the presence of H2O2.

  12. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Y.N.; Blazquez, M.L.; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd ∼ Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCALIZED CORROSION OF COPPER PIPES USED IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Localized corrosion of copper, or "copper pitting" in water distribution tubing is a large problem at many utilities. Pitting can lead to pinhole leaks less than a year. Tubing affected by copper pitting will often fail in ultiple locations, resulting in a frustrating situation ...

  14. Characterizing copper flows in international trade of China, 1975-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Tianming; Yang, Jiameng; Cai, Zhijian; Sheng, Hu; Yuan, Zengwei; Wu, Huijun

    2017-12-01

    Since the economic reform, China has actively participated in the global market with rapid industrialization and gradually dominated the utilization and consumption of some critical materials, one of which is copper. China has reigned the global anthropogenic cycle of copper since 2004. We explore copper flows along with the international trade of China during 1975-2015, through life cycle lens, from ore to final products. Our main finding is that China has become more active in the copper-related trade, indicated by its great increase in trade volume and the number of trade partners. The physical volume of copper flows through trade increased over 119 times between 1975 and 2015, mainly because of more imported raw materials of copper and exported copper products. Generally, China is a net importer of copper, with increasing import dependence through the study period, whereas the degree of dependence slightly decreased from 2010 to 2015. The indicator of Export Support Rate took a decreasing percentage, which has fallen about 35% since 2010. It suggests China's changing position in the global resource and manufacturing market. In terms of trade price of different copper products, the price of imported copper concentrate was noticeably higher than that of exported one, revealing the poor copper resource endowment of China; while the different trend of copper semis in recent years signifies that China is in urgent need to improve its capability of producing high value-added semis. From international trade perspective, the copper resource of China presented stable supply as well as demand. The One Belt One Road strategy proposed by the state will further expand both the resource and market of copper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and polymerization of methacrylates of copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II). Generation of new materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Bolanos, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Coordination compounds of the species copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II) with methacrylic acid were synthesized and characterized. Besides, it realized reactions of bromine addition to the doubles links of the species obtained previously, also too like reactions with dry HCl. Finally, it got hybrids materials by polymerization of the first compounds in an acrylic matrix. Research concluded with the characterization of all the products. (author) [es

  16. Characterization of copper-zinc mixed oxide system in relation to different precursor structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, P; De Rossi, S; Ferraris, G [Centro del CNR su ' Struttura e Attivia Catalitica di Sistemi di Ossidi' (SACSO), Rome (Italy); Pompa, F [ENEA, TIB Scienza dei Materiali, Rome (Italy)

    1991-03-01

    Hydroxycarbonate and hydroxynitrate precursors of CuO-ZnO catalysts (Cu/Zn atomic ratio=67/33) have been prepared by two different methods; the precursor obtained by precipitation at 333 K and constant pH=8 from mixed nitrate solution with excess of sodium bicarbonate consisted of zincian malachite and aurichalcite, while that obtained by addition of sodium carbonate solution to Cu-Zn nitrate solution is essentially copper hydroxynitrate plus some amount of aurichalcite. By thermal decomposition at 623 K both types of precursor gave a mixture of CuO and ZnO. The mixed oxides were then treated at 873, 1073 and 1273 K in air. X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface area determination were used to characterize the mixed oxide systems. The precursor containing zincian malachite plus aurichalcite, after calcination at 623 K gave rise to well dispersed and much smaller particles of CuO and ZnO than the precursor containing copper hydroxynitrate plus aurichalcite. No Cu{sup 2+} in solid solution in the ZnO zincite structure Zn{sup 2+} in the CuO tenorite lattice were detected by reflectance spectroscopy up to 873 K; the presence of tetrahedral copper (Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O solid solution formation at least at the surface) was evident only in samples calcined at temperatures higher than 1073 K. X-ray diffraction analysis for lattice parameter determination showed that only for samples treated at 1273 K both Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O and Zn{sub y}Cu{sub 1-y}O solid solution formations are detectable. An unexpected volume decrease of Zn{sub y}Cu{sub 1-y}O with respect to pure CuO was revealed; the introduction of zinc in the tenorite structure probably changes the local metal symmetry from nearly square planar towards octahedral, producing an overall less distorted and more compact structure. (orig.).

  17. Characterization of boron carbide particulate reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiskumar, R., E-mail: sathiscit2011@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugan, N., E-mail: murugan@cit.edu.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, V V College of Engineering, Tisaiyanvilai, 627 657 Tamil Nadu (India); Vijay, S.J., E-mail: vijayjoseph@karunya.edu [Centre for Research in Metallurgy (CRM), School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641 114 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-10-15

    Friction stir processing has evolved as a novel solid state technique to fabricate surface composites. The objective of this work is to apply the friction stir processing technique to fabricate boron carbide particulate reinforced copper surface composites and investigate the effect of B{sub 4}C particles and its volume fraction on microstructure and sliding wear behavior of the same. A groove was prepared on 6 mm thick copper plates and packed with B{sub 4}C particles. The dimensions of the groove was varied to result in five different volume fractions of B{sub 4}C particles (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 vol.%). A single pass friction stir processing was done using a tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 40 mm/min and an axial force of 10 kN. Metallurgical characterization of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites was carried out using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The sliding wear behavior was evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Results indicated that the B{sub 4}C particles significantly influenced the area, dispersion, grain size, microhardness and sliding wear behavior of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites. When the volume fraction of B{sub 4}C was increased, the wear mode changed from microcutting to abrasive wear and wear debris was found to be finer. Highlights: • Fabrication of Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composite by friction stir processing • Analyzing the effect of B{sub 4}C particles on the properties of Cu/B4C surface composite • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles reduced the area of surface composite. • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles enhanced the microhardness and wear rate. • B{sub 4}C particles altered the wear mode from microcutting to abrasive.

  18. Plasma Deposition and Characterization of Copper-doped Cobalt Oxide Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TYCZKOWSKI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of pure and copper-doped cobalt oxide films was prepared by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD. The effect of Cu-doping on the chemical structure and morphology of the deposited films was investigated. Raman and FTIR spectroscopies were used to characterize the chemical structure and morphology of the produced films. The bulk composition and homogeneity of the samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was employed to assess the surface chemical composition of pure and doped materials. The obtained results permit to affirm that the PEMOCVD technique is a simple, versatile and efficient method for providing homogeneous layers of cobalt oxides with a different content of copper. It has been found that pure cobalt oxide films mainly contain Co3O4 in the form of nanoclusters whereas the films doped with Cu are much more complex, and CoOx (also Co3O4, mixed Co-Cu oxides and CuOx nanoclusters are detected in them. Preliminary catalytical tests show that Cu-doped cobalt oxide films allow to initiate catalytic combustion of n-hexane at a lower temperature compared to the pure cobalt oxide (Co3O4 films. From what has been stated above, the plasma-deposited thin films of Cu-doped cobalt oxides pave the way towards a new class of nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2320

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing of Copper, Indium, and Gallium Dithiocarbamates for Energy Conversion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, S. A.; Duffy, N. V.; Hepp, A. F.; Cowen, J. E.; Hoops, M. D.; Brothrs, S. M.; Baird, M. J.; Fanwick, P. E.; Harris, J. D.; Jin, M. H.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Ten dithiocarbamate complexes of indium(III) and gallium(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and melting point. Each complex was decomposed thermally and its decomposition products separated and identified with the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Their potential utility as photovoltaic materials precursors was assessed. Bis(dibenzyldithiocarbamato)- and bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)copper(II), Cu(S2CN(CH2C6H5)2)2 and Cu(S2CN(C2H5)2)2 respectively, have also been examined for their suitability as precursors for copper sulfides for the fabrication of photovoltaic materials. Each complex was decomposed thermally and the products analyzed by GC/MS, TGA and FTIR. The dibenzyl derivative complex decomposed at a lower temperature (225-320 C) to yield CuS as the product. The diethyl derivative complex decomposed at a higher temperature (260-325 C) to yield Cu2S. No Cu containing fragments were noted in the mass spectra. Unusual recombination fragments were observed in the mass spectra of the diethyl derivative. Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S'), commonly referred to as tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III), In(S2CNBz2)3, was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1(bar) with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In2S3. Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S2CNBz2)3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce

  20. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical investigations of mixed-ligand copper(II)-organic supramolecular frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep K.; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Srivastava, Krishna; Banerjee, Rahul; Prasad, Jagdish

    2017-11-01

    Two mixed-ligand copper(II)-organic coordination compounds with 5,5‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine (5,5‧-Me2bpy) as a primary ligand while aliphatic malonate (Hmal) and aromatic 2-hydroxynicotinate (2-OHNA) as secondary ligands, were synthesized. These complexes are formulated as: [Cu(Hmal)(5,5‧-Me2bpy)(H2O)](ClO4) 1 and [Cu2(2-OHNA)2(5,5‧-Me2bpy)2(NO3)](NO3) 2. These two complexes were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Characterization was further supported by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental analyses, FT-IR, FAB-MASS and TGA, DSC studies. Cyclic voltammetric and UV-visible spectral studies of these two complexes have also been done. The electrochemical studies of complex 1 in DMSO and DMF have shown that this complex undergoes quasi-reversible diffusion-controlled one-electron transfer reaction without any chemical complication while complex 2 in DMSO undergoes quasi-reversible diffusion-controlled one electron transfer reaction, following EC mechanism. The electrochemical behaviour of complex 2 in DMF is complicated probably due to presence of more than one species in solution phase.

  1. Extreme pollution of soils by emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex in the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of the total Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn contents was studied in the soil profiles of six catenas in the zone subjected to emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex, which is the largest source of SO2 and heavy metals in northern Europe. The results show that, at present, the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the upper organic soil horizons in the impact zone reach extreme levels of 9000 and 6000 mg/kg, respectively. Under conditions of the long-term intense multi-element industrial emissions, the modern levels of the accumulation of polluting substances in soils greatly depend on the indirect factors, such as the degree of the technogenic degradation of soils with the loss of a significant part of soil organic matter, the reaching of threshold saturation of the topsoil with polluting metals, and competitive relationships between chemical elements. The state of the ecosystems in the impact zone varied greatly and did not always agree with the contents of the main metals-pollutants in the soils. The moisture conditions determined by the landscape position affected significantly the resistance of the ecosystems to emissions.

  2. X-ray fluorescence spectrometric and optical emission spectographic analysis of thoria in thoriated copper metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods, one using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometric technique and another using optical emission spectrographic (OES) technique are described for the determination of thoria in the concentration range 0.5-10% in thoriated copper metal powder. The precision of XRF method is superior to OES method but when sample quantity is very small, the OES method is useful. For XRF method, 500 mg sample is mixed with boric acid binding material and converted to a tablet for analysis. For OES method, only 200 mg sample is needed which is glued to the flat ends of two graphite electrodes for excitation by AC arc. The precision obtained in XRF is better than +-1% and in OES it is +-23%. (author)

  3. Prospects of utilization of electron beam irradiation technology to augment control of SO2 and other emissions from Chilean copper smelting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, L.; Ahumada, L.; Ellison, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of potential utilization of applicable SO 2 -removal process for reduced-SO 2 -strength off-gases, including electron-beam irradiation, for incrementally improving overall abatement of SO 2 /SO 3 emissions from existing copper smelting facilities in Chile has been carried out. Off-gases are characterized by SO 2 content higher than 3,000 ppm, a complex chemical composition and highly oxidizing conditions, along with cyclical and fluctuating generation, reflecting relatively severe service. Laboratory tests with simulated high-SO 2 -strength process gas were performed at Polish Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Test work proved the technical feasibility of removing SO 2 from ultra-high SO 2 content smelter gases by E-beam irradiation with ammonia injection. A laboratory unit with flow rate of 20 Nm 3 /h equipped with electron accelerator of 800 keV beam energy was used. Influence of different parameters on SO 2 removal efficiency, like temperature, dose, ammonia stoichiometry and water vapor content, has been established. Tests covered a high SO 2 content range, 2,000 to 10,000 ppm. A generic design has been deviced to address system arrangement, performance and control requirements. It encompasses upgrading of in-plant ventilation to the extent required by health standards, together with gas cleaning system based on EB Process. The arrangement of the facilities provides for gathering and treating off-gas from selected fugitive emission sources on a continuous basis, at the same time in-drafting a minimum amount of tramp air. An introductory dry dedusting stage uses activated coke injection in conjunction with a fabric filter to efficiently treat raw gas to remove heavy metals, including arsenic, along with particulate matter. Main conclusion of the two major stages of this work, i.e. experimental tests and engineering oriented studies, is that the EB Process is a simple and appropriate, cost-effective, chemical process that would, on a site

  4. Prospects of utilization of EB irradiation technology to augment control of SO2 and other emissions from Chilean copper smelting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, L.; Ahumada, L.; Ellison, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A technical study including testing and cost analysis for commercial use of selected processes has been conducted. Analysis, affirmation and evaluation of potential utilization of applicable SO 2 -removal process for off-gases, including electron-beam irradiation, for incrementally improving abatement of SO 2 /SO 3 emissions from existing copper smelting facilities in Chile has been carried out. Off-gases are characterized by SO 2 content higher than 3,000 ppm, a complex chemical composition and highly oxidizing conditions, along with cyclical and fluctuating generation. Laboratory tests with simulated high-SO 2 -content process were performed at Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Test work proved the technical feasibility of removing SO 2 from (ultra-high SO 2 contents) gases by E-beam irradiation with ammonia injection. A laboratory unit with flow rate of 20 Nm 3 /h equiped with electron accelerator of 800 keV beam energy was used. Influence of different parameters on SO 2 removal efficiency, like temperature, irradiation dose, ammonia stoichiometry and water vapor content, has been established. Tests covered a high SO 2 content range, 2,000 to 10,000 ppm. A generic schematic design has been devised to system arrangement, performance and control requirements. It encompasses upgrading of in-plant ventilation to the extent required by health standards, together with gas cleaning system incorporating the EB Process. The arrangement of the facilities provides for gathering and treating off-gas from selected fugitive emission sources on a continuos basis, at the same time in-drafting a minimum amount of tramp air. An introductory dry dedusting stage, when required, uses condictioned activated carbon injection in conjunction with a fabric filter to efficiently treat raw gas and remove heavy metals, including arsenic, along with particulate matter. Main conclusion of stages of this work is that the EB Process is a simple and appropriate, cost

  5. [Reparative regeneration of rat skin under influence of hollow cathode lamp (HCL) with manganese and copper line spectrum emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, V I; Izvol'skaia, M S; Voronova, S N; Sharipova, M M; Rukin, E M; Zakharova, L A

    2010-01-01

    Influence of local light exposure by hollow cathode lamp with typical manganese and copper (HCL-Mn, Cu) line emission spectrum on posttraumatic regeneration rate of rat skin has been investigated. We performed the comparative analysis of the morphology and the differentiation ability of rat skin on the 15th and 24th days after full-thickness skin wound had been inflicted on rat dorsums. On the 15th day after injury, the experimental group (daily 30 s exposure for two weeks) showed scab loss, re-epithelialization, and hair regrowth, in contrast to the control rats, where scabs were still observed on the 24th day. Histological analysis revealed that in contrast to the control group the treatment with HCL-Mn, Cu resulted in the increased number of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, the decreased number of blood vessels and horizontal orientation of collagen fibers. The immunohistochemistry for OX-62 revealed that the number of dermal dendritic cells in the experimental groups was maximal on the 15th day, and then decreased to the 24th day after injury. The number of dermal dendritic cells was significantly lower in the control group. The immunohistochemistry for pan-keratins in the control animals revealed a high number of cells expressing different types of keratins, distributed in the main part of the epidermis on the 15th day after surgery, whereas in the experimental group the number of such cells was significantly lower and the cells were concentrated more close to the external part of the epidermis. The number of cells stained for keratin 19 was higher in the experimental group on the 15th day after surgery, whereas this number decreased in this group on the 24th day after surgery as compared to the control group. Thus, typical manganese and copper line spectrum emission emitted by hollow cathode lamp stimulates innate immunity, accelerates restoration of derma, skin epithelium and other skin derivates, and stimulates wound healing in general.

  6. Preparation and characterization of reduced graphene oxide/copper composites incorporated with nano-SiO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinjiang; Dong, Pengyu; Zhang, Benguo; Tang, Shengyang; Yang, Zirun; Chen, Yong; Yang, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/copper (rGO/Cu) composites incorporated with nano-SiO 2 particles were successfully fabricated using the raw materials of GO dispersion, hydrophilic nano-SiO 2 and electrolytic Cu powder. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Microstructural observation of the composite powders indicated that the graphene oxide (GO) was effectively reduced by N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O addition in the composite slurry, and the nano-SiO 2 particles and rGO sheets were randomly and completely mixed with Cu particles. The as-sintered composites exhibited the small rGO agglomerations in the Cu matrix, and the more nano-SiO 2 additions led to the agglomerations increase. The mechanical property testing revealed that rGO/Cu composites with nano-SiO 2 incorporation exhibited the higher hardness and strength, compared with the rGO/Cu composite and as-cast pure Cu. However, the strengthening in the composites with higher SiO 2 content accompanied with the expense of compressive ductility. Microstructural formation and strengthening mechanism of the composites are also discussed in details. - Highlights: • Nano-SiO 2 incorporated rGO/Cu composites were successfully fabricated. • The more nano-SiO 2 additions led to the agglomerations increase in the composites. • The nano-SiO 2 incorporated composites exhibited the better hardness and strength. • The formation and strengthening mechanism of the composite was discussed in detail.

  7. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  8. Prevention of PCDD/Fs emission from a municipal wastewater sludge incinerator through enhanced control of copper aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater sludge incineration (MWSI leads to products of incomplete combustion, including chlorinated species such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs. Other pollutants, such as heavy metals (HM, are released too as a consequence of feed traces, which depend on the specific activities of each area. The main aim of this work is to determine whether the early separation of the potential catalysts on the PCDD/Fs formation –HM as copper or zinc– offers a promising way to prevent the emission of these trace pollutants, considering that the current end-of-pipe measures don’t ensure their stable emission. Experimental results cover the size distributed target metal contents along the incineration line. These results show a high concentration of copper in the most penetrating aerosol size range of the electrostatic precipitator (0.6 μm - 1.0 μm, and how low emission values of both, total and metallic aerosol (mass basis, are compatible with irregular and unexplained outliers of PCDD/Fs emission.

    La incineración de lodos de aguas residuales urbanas acarrea la formación de compuestos derivados de combustiones incompletas, incluyendo especies cloradas como dioxinas y furanos (PCDD/Fs. Otros contaminantes, como metales pesados, se emiten como consecuencia de las trazas del lodo, las cuales dependen de las actividades del entorno. El objetivo principal es determinar si la separación de catalizadores potenciales en reacciones de formación de PCDD/Fs (cobre o zinc puede abrir vías para prevenir la emisión de contaminantes traza, considerando que ninguna de las técnicas de prevención actuales aseguran emisiones estables de metales pesados o PCDD/Fs. Se determinan concentraciones de metales pesados segregados por tamaño de partícula a lo largo de la línea de incineración. Los resultados muestran concentraciones elevadas de cobre en el aerosol de máxima penetración del electrofiltro (0,6 μm - 1,0 μm, y cómo concentraciones

  9. Preparation and characterization of copper-graphite composites by electrical explosion of wire in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, T N; Gul, W H; Bac, L H; Kim, J C

    2014-11-01

    Copper-graphite nanocomposites containing 5 vol.% graphite were prepared by a powder metallurgy route using an electrical wire explosion (EEW) in liquid method and spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Graphite rods with a 0.3 mm diameter and copper wire with a 0.2 mm diameter were used as raw materials for EEWin liquid. To compare, a pure copper and copper-graphite mixture was also prepared. The fabricated graphite was in the form of a nanosheet, onto which copper particles were coated. Sintering was performed at 900 degrees C at a heating rate of 30 degrees C/min for 10 min and under a pressure of 70 MPa. The density of the sintered composite samples was measured by the Archimedes method. A wear test was performed by a ball-on-disc tribometer under dry conditions at room temperature in air. The presence of graphite effectively reduced the wear of composites. The copper-graphite nanocomposites prepared by EEW had lower wear rates than pure copper material and simple mixed copper-graphite.

  10. Characterization of nanocrystalline products prepared by mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Godocikova, E.; Boldizarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical processing of the copper sulphide with iron in a high-energy mill was studied. The nanosized copper of 10 nm crystallite size and the hexagonal pyrrhotite 1C were identified among products of the reaction by methods of XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. In the surface layer...

  11. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature (HT° motor coils open new perspectives for extending the applications of electrical motors or generators to very harsh environments or for designing very high power density machines working with high internal temperature gradients. Over a temperature of 300°C, the classic enameled wire cannot work permanently, the turn-to-turn insulation must be inorganic and made with high temperature textiles or vitro-ceramic compounds. For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. The nickel protection layer of the HT° inorganic wire has a large influence on the high frequency behavior of coils and, consequently, on the magnitude of the voltage spikes. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. The paper presents a method able to characterize non-linear electromagnetic properties of this nickel layer up to 500°C.

  12. Synthesis, thermogravimetric, spectroscopic and theoretical characterization of copper(II) complex with 4-chloro-2-nitrobenzenosulfonamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camí, G.; Chacón Villalba, E.; Di Santi, Y.; Colinas, P.; Estiu, G.; Soria, D. B.

    2011-05-01

    4-Chloro-2-nitrobenzenesulfonamide (ClNbsa) was purified and characterized. A new copper(II) complex, [Cu(ClNbsa) 2(NH 3) 2], has been prepared using the sulfonamide as ligand. The thermal behavior of both, the ligand and the Cu(II) complex, was investigated by thermogravimetric analyses (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DT), and the electronic characteristics analyzed by UV-VIS, FTIR, Raman and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The experimental IR, Raman and UV-VIS spectra have been assigned on the basis of DFT calculations at the B3LYP level of theory using the standard (6-31 + G ∗∗) basis set. The geometries have been fully optimized in vacuum and in modeled dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, using for the latter a continuum solvation model that reproduced the experimental conditions of the UV-VIS spectroscopy. The theoretical results converged to stable conformations for the free sulfonamide and for the complex, suggesting for the latter a distorted square planar geometry in both environments.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a new composite based on copper (II) and octa (aminopropil)silsesquioxane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magossi, M.S. de; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new compound based silsesquioxane and nitroprusside of copper was prepared starting from octa (aminopropyl)silsesquioxane following a new route of synthesis. The composite prepared as described ACCuN was preliminarily characterized by spectroscopic techniques, such as Infrared Spectroscopy in the Region of the Fourier transform (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (VC). The FTIR spectra showed absorption bands at 1106 cm"-"1 due to stretching Si-O-Si_(_ν_S_i_-_O_-_S_i_) characteristic of the structure of octa(aminopropylsilsesquioxane and absorption bands at 2063 cm"-"1 ascribed to the stretching NO_(_ν_N_-_O) and 2192 cm"-"1 attributed to the stretching C≡N_(_ν_≡N_). SEM and EDX observed cluster of cubic particles with an average size of approximately 241 nm, containing Si, O, N, Cu and Fe. Cyclic voltammogram of the material (ACCuN) showed a redox couple with average potential Eθ '= 0.73 V. (author)

  14. Fabrication and characterization of Y2O3 dispersion strengthened copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.; Ballesteros, C.; Adeva, P.

    2014-01-01

    Three copper base materials were fabricated following different routes: cast Cu–1 wt.%Y (C-Cu1Y) produced by vacuum induction melting, and Cu–1 wt.%Y (PM-Cu1Y) and Cu–1 wt.%Y 2 O 3 (PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 ) both processed by a powder metallurgy route and sintering by hot isostatic pressing. PM-Cu1Y alloy was prepared by cryomilling and PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 by conventional milling at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. C-Cu1Y presents a characteristic eutectic microstructure while PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 exhibits a composite like microstructure. Electron microscopy analyses of as-HIP PM-Cu1Y revealed irregular decoration of yttrium-rich oxides at the grain boundaries and an inhomogeneous dispersion of polygonal shaped yttrium-rich oxides dispersed in the Cu matrix. Tensile tests performed on PM-Cu–1Y on the temperature range of 293–773 K have showed a decrease of the yield strength at temperatures higher than 473 K, and monotonically decrease of the ultimate tensile strength and maximum plastic strain on increasing temperature

  15. Fabrication and characterization of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion strengthened copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Monge, M.A., E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.; Ballesteros, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Adeva, P. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Three copper base materials were fabricated following different routes: cast Cu–1 wt.%Y (C-Cu1Y) produced by vacuum induction melting, and Cu–1 wt.%Y (PM-Cu1Y) and Cu–1 wt.%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both processed by a powder metallurgy route and sintering by hot isostatic pressing. PM-Cu1Y alloy was prepared by cryomilling and PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by conventional milling at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. C-Cu1Y presents a characteristic eutectic microstructure while PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits a composite like microstructure. Electron microscopy analyses of as-HIP PM-Cu1Y revealed irregular decoration of yttrium-rich oxides at the grain boundaries and an inhomogeneous dispersion of polygonal shaped yttrium-rich oxides dispersed in the Cu matrix. Tensile tests performed on PM-Cu–1Y on the temperature range of 293–773 K have showed a decrease of the yield strength at temperatures higher than 473 K, and monotonically decrease of the ultimate tensile strength and maximum plastic strain on increasing temperature.

  16. Size-resolved dust and aerosol contaminants associated with copper and lead smelting emissions: Implications for emission management and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csavina, Janae [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Taylor, Mark P. [Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Félix, Omar [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rine, Kyle P. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Eduardo Sáez, A., E-mail: esaez@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Betterton, Eric A., E-mail: betterton@atmo.arizona.edu [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Mining operations, including crushing, grinding, smelting, refining, and tailings management, are a significant source of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants such as As, Pb and other potentially toxic elements. In this work, we show that size-resolved concentrations of As and Pb generally follow a bimodal distribution with the majority of contaminants in the fine size fraction (< 1 μm) around mining activities that include smelting operations at various sites in Australia and Arizona. This evidence suggests that contaminated fine particles (< 1 μm) are the result of vapor condensation and coagulation from smelting operations while coarse particles are most likely the result of windblown dust from contaminated mine tailings and fugitive emissions from crushing and grinding activities. These results on the size distribution of contaminants around mining operations are reported to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of this phenomenon so that more effective emission management and practices that minimize health risks associated with metal extraction and processing can be developed. - Highlights: • Lead and copper smelting produce significant atmospheric concentrations of lead and arsenic. • Atmospheric lead and arsenic concentrations depend on particle size. • Lead isotopic analysis can be used to assess source of atmospheric contamination from smelters.

  17. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosol emissions from selected combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.G.; Espino, M.P.M.; Pabroa, P.C.B.; Bautista, A.T. VII

    2015-01-01

    Carbonaceous Particulates are carbon-containing solid or liquid matter which form a significant portion of the fine particulate mass (PM2.5) and these have known profound adverse effects on health, climate and visibility. This study aims to characterize carbonaceous aerosol emissions from different combustion sources to establish fingerprints for these for use in the refinement of improvement of the resolution of sources apportionment studies being done by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), i.e. to resolve vehicular emission sources. Fine air particulate sample were collected in pre-baked Quartz filters using an improvised collection set-up with a Gent sampler. Concentrations of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) in PM2.5 were measured for the different combustion sources—vehicular emissions, tire pyrolysis, and biomass burning, using a thermal-optical method of analysis following the IMPROVE_A protocol. Measured OC ad EC concentrations are shown as percentages with respect to the total carbon (TC) and are illustrated in a 100% stacked chart. Predominance of the EC2 fraction is exhibited in both the diesel fuelled vehicle and tire pyrolysis emissions with EC2/OC2 ratio distinguishing one from the other, EC2/OC2 is 1.63 and 8.41, respectively. Predominance of either OC2 or OC3 fraction is shown in the unleaded gasoline and LPG Fuelled vehicles and in biomass burning with the OC2/OC3 ratio distinguishing one from the others. OC2/OC3 ratios are 1.33 for unleaded gasoline fuelled vehicle, 1.89 for LPG-fuelled vehicle, 0.55 for biomass burning (leaves) and 0.82 biomass burning (wood). The study has shown probable use of the EC2/OC2 and OC2/OC3 ratios to distinguish fingerprints for combustion sources covered in this study. (author)

  18. Sputtering and emission intensity of copper alloys in a Grimm glow lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Kashima, J.; Naganuma, K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the metallurgical structure and the aluminium content of copper-aluminium alloy (1-12% Al) on the sputtering and intensities of spectral lines in the Grimm glow lamp are reported. The electrical current and sputtering yield decreased linearly with increasing aluminium content; the intensities of the Al I lines depended linearly on the amount of aluminium in the sputtering yield at a fixed voltage and argon pressure. The structure affected the intensities of the Al I and Cu I lines but not the intensity ratio (Al I/Cu I) for about 100 s after burn-off. Working curves for aluminium for samples of different structure were very similar. (Auth.)

  19. Characterization of aqueous interactions of copper-doped phosphate-based glasses by vapour sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, Christoph; Shah Mohammadi, Maziar; Waters, Kristian E; Nazhat, Showan N

    2014-07-01

    Owing to their adjustable dissolution properties, phosphate-based glasses (PGs) are promising materials for the controlled release of bioinorganics, such as copper ions. This study describes a vapour sorption method that allowed for the investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of aqueous interactions of PGs of the formulation 50P2O5-30CaO-(20-x)Na2O-xCuO (x=0, 1, 5 and 10mol.%). Initial characterization was performed using (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Increasing CuO content resulted in chemical shifts of the predominant Q(2) NMR peak and of the (POP)as and (PO(-)) Fourier transform infrared absorptions, owing to the higher strength of the POCu bond compared to PONa. Vapour sorption and desorption were gravimetrically measured in PG powders exposed to variable relative humidity (RH). Sorption was negligible below 70% RH and increased exponentially with RH from 70 to 90%, where it exhibited a negative correlation with CuO content. Vapour sorption in 0% and 1% CuO glasses resulted in phosphate chain hydration and hydrolysis, as evidenced by protonated Q(0)(1H) and Q(1)(1H) species. Dissolution rates in deionized water showed a linear correlation (R(2)>0.99) with vapour sorption. Furthermore, cation release rates could be predicted based on dissolution rates and PG composition. The release of orthophosphate and short polyphosphate species corroborates the action of hydrolysis and was correlated with pH changes. In conclusion, the agreement between vapour sorption and routine characterization techniques in water demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of PG aqueous reactions. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis Characterization and Decomposition Studies of tris[N-N-dibenzyidithocarbaso)Indium (III) Chemical Spray Deposition of Polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.; Lau, J. Eva; Harris, Jerry D.; Hoops, Michael D.; Duffy, Norman V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the synthesis characterization and decomposition studies of tris[N-N-dibenzyidithocarbaso)Indium (III) with chemical spray deposition of polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films.

  1. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  2. Functional characterization of the copper transcription factor AfMac1 from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2017-07-03

    Although copper functions as a cofactor in many physiological processes, copper overload leads to harmful effects in living cells. Thus, copper homeostasis is tightly regulated. However, detailed copper metabolic pathways have not yet been identified in filamentous fungi. In this report, we investigated the copper transcription factor AfMac1 ( A spergillus f umigatus Mac1 homolog) and identified its regulatory mechanism in A. fumigatus AfMac1 has domains homologous to the DNA-binding and copper-binding domains of Mac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and AfMac1 efficiently complemented Mac1 in S. cerevisiae Expression of Afmac1 resulted in CTR1 up-regulation, and mutation of the DNA-binding domain of Afmac1 failed to activate CTR1 expression in S. cerevisiae The Afmac1 deletion strain of A. fumigatus failed to grow in copper-limited media, and its growth was restored by introducing ctrC We found that AfMac1 specifically bound to the promoter region of ctrC based on EMSA. The AfMac1-binding motif 5'-TGTGCTCA-3' was identified from the promoter region of ctrC , and the addition of mutant ctrC lacking the AfMac1-binding motif failed to up-regulate ctrC in A. fumigatus Furthermore, deletion of Afmac1 significantly reduced strain virulence and activated conidial killing activity by neutrophils and macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that AfMac1 is a copper transcription factor that regulates cellular copper homeostasis in A. fumigatus . © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Quantitative microstructure characterization of self-annealed copper films with electron backscatter diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Gholinia, A.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was applied to analyze cross sections of self-annealed copper electrodeposits, for which earlier the kinetics of self-annealing had been investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The EBSD investigations on the grain size, grain boundary character...... and crystallographic texture of copper films with different thicknesses essentially supplement results from in-situ XRD. Twin relations between neighboring grains were identified from the orientation maps and the observed twin chains confirm multiple twinning in copper electrodeposits as the mechanism...

  4. Development of method to characterize emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation updates symposium participants re EPA progress towards development of SPF insulation emissions characterization methods. The presentation highlights evaluation of experiments investigating emissions after application of SPF to substrates in micro chambers and i...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of αzirconium (IV) hydrogenphosphate containing metallic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Alexilda Oliveira de; Rangel, Maria do Carmo; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2005-01-01

    The α-zirconium (IV) hydrogenphosphate (α-ZrP) has received great attention in the last years due to its properties like ion exchange, intercalation, ionic conductivity and catalytic activity. This work reports a method to produce metallic copper clusters on α-ZrP to be used as catalysts in petrochemical processes. It was found that the solids were non-crystalline regardless of the uptake of copper and the reduction. The specific surface area increased as a consequence of the increase of the interlayer distance to accept the copper ions between the layers. During the reduction, big clusters of copper (0,5-11μ) with different sizes and shapes were produced. (author)

  6. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  7. I.C. Engine emission reduction by copper oxide catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S. P.; Shubham Uday, Desai; Karan Hemant, Borana; Rajarshi Kushwanth Goud, Kagita; Lakshmana Kumar, G.; Pavan Kumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    The toxic gases emitted from diesel engines are more than petrol engines. Predicting the use of diesel engines, even more in future, this system is developed and can be used to minimize the harmful gases. Toxic gases include NOX, CO, HC and Smoke which are harmful to the atmosphere as well as to the human beings. The main aim of this work is to fabricate system, where the level of intensity of toxic gases is controlled through chemical reaction to more agreeable level. This system acts itself as an exhaust system; hence there is no needs to fit separate the silencer. The whole assembly is fitted in the exhaust pipe from engine. In this work, catalytic converter with copper oxide as a catalyst, by replacing noble catalysts such as platinum, palladium and rhodium is fabricated and fitted in the engine exhaust. With and without catalytic converter, the experimentations are carried out at different loads such as 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximum rated load. From the experimental results it is found that the maximum reduction is 32%, 61% and 21% for HC, NOx and CO respectively at 100% of maximum rated load when compared to that of without catalytic converter. This catalytic converter system is cash effective and more economical than the existing catalytic converter.

  8. Wavelet Based Characterization of Low Radio Frequency Solar Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, A.; Sharma, R.; Das, S. B.; Oberoi, D.; Pankratius, V.; Lonsdale, C.

    2016-12-01

    Low-frequency solar radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) have revealed the presence of numerous short-lived, narrow-band weak radio features, even during quiet solar conditions. In their appearance in in the frequency-time plane, they come closest to the solar type III bursts, but with much shorter spectral spans and flux densities, so much so that they are not detectable with the usual swept frequency radio spectrographs. These features occur at rates of many thousand features per hour in the 30.72 MHz MWA bandwidth, and hence necessarily require an automated approach to determine robust statistical estimates of their properties, e.g., distributions of spectral widths, temporal spans, flux densities, slopes in the time-frequency plane and distribution over frequency. To achieve this, a wavelet decomposition approach has been developed for feature recognition and subsequent parameter extraction from the MWA dynamic spectrum. This work builds on earlier work by the members of this team to achieve a reliable flux calibration in a computationally efficient manner. Preliminary results show that the distribution of spectral span of these features peaks around 3 MHz, most of them last for less than two seconds and are characterized by flux densities of about 60% of the background solar emission. In analogy with the solar type III bursts, this non-thermal emission is envisaged to arise via coherent emission processes. There is also an exciting possibility that these features might correspond to radio signatures of nanoflares, hypothesized (Gold, 1964; Parker, 1972) to explain coronal heating.

  9. Tuning of structural, light emission and wetting properties of nanostructured copper oxide-porous silicon matrix formed on electrochemically etched copper-coated silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.

    2017-01-01

    Matrices of copper oxide-porous silicon nanostructures have been formed by electrochemical etching of copper-coated silicon surfaces in HF-based solution at different etching times (5-15 min). Micro-Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the nature of copper oxide in the matrix changes from single-phase copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) to single-phase copper (II) oxide (CuO) on increasing the etching time. This is accompanied with important variation in the content of carbon, carbon hydrides, carbonyl compounds and silicon oxide in the matrix. The matrix formed at the low etching time (5 min) exhibits a single broad "blue" room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) band. On increasing the etching time, the intensity of this band decreases and a much stronger "red" PL band emerges in the PL spectra. The relative intensity of this band with respect to the "blue" band significantly increases on increasing the etching time. The "blue" and "red" PL bands are attributed to Cu2O and porous silicon of the matrix, respectively. In addition, the water contact angle measurements reveal that the hydrophobicity of the matrix surface can be tuned from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic state by controlling the etching time.

  10. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman characterization of copper (I) oxide microspheres composed of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenzhong; Tu Ya; Wang Lijuan; Liang Yujie; Shi Honglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Raman spectroscopy of copper (I) oxide microspheres were investigated. ► Infrared active mode is greatly activated in Raman scattering spectrum. ► Infrared active mode shows up in Raman spectrum of copper (I) oxide microspheres. ► The defects existed in spheres could be responsible for the observed Raman property. - Abstract: The high-resolution transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructures and Raman scattering property of copper (I) oxide microspheres composed of nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscope images indicate that the copper (I) oxide microspheres are composed of nanoparticles with random growth direction, indicating that there are many defects in microspheres. The Raman spectrum shows that infrared active mode, which must be odd parity and is Raman forbidden for bulk crystal due to its inversion symmetry, is activated and shows up in Raman scattering spectrum. On the basis of investigations of the microstructure features of copper (I) oxide microspheres, we attribute the appearance of IR active mode in Raman scattering spectrum to the breakdown of the symmetry of the lattice due to the presence of defects in the prepared copper (I) oxide microspheres as observed in HRTEM images.

  11. Preparation and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanoparticles using laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, K. S.; Jabir, M. S.; Abdulameer, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    Carbon nanoparticles CNPs ecorated by copper oxide nano-sized particles would be successfully equipped using technique named pulsed laser ablation in liquid. The XRD pattern proved the presence of phases assigned to carbon and different phases of copper oxide. The chemical structure of the as-prepared nanoparticles samples was decided by Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) measurement. EDS analysis results show the contents of Carbon, Oxygen and Copper in the final product. These nanoparticles were spherical shaped with a size distribution 10 to 80 nm or carbon nanoparticles and 5 to 50 nm for carbon decorated copper oxide nanoparticles, according to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and particle-size distribution histogram. It was found that after doping with copper oxide, nanoparticles become smaller and more regular in shape. Optical absorption spectra of prepared nanoparticles were measured using UV–VIS spectroscopy. The absorption spectrum of carbon nanoparticles without doping indicates absorption peak at about 228 nm. After doping with copper oxide, absorption shows appearance of new absorption peak at about (254-264) nm, which is referred to the movement of the charge between 2p and 4s band of Cu2+ ions.

  12. Characterization of selenium in ambient aerosols and primary emission sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Arlette; Longo, Amelia F; Ingall, Ellery D; Diaz, Julia M; King, Laura E; Lai, Barry; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G; Oakes, Michelle

    2014-08-19

    Atmospheric selenium (Se) in aerosols was investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the oxidation state and elemental associations of Se in common primary emission sources and ambient aerosols collected from the greater Atlanta area. In the majority of ambient aerosol and primary emission source samples, the spectroscopic patterns as well as the absence of elemental correlations suggest Se is in an elemental, organic, or oxide form. XRF microscopy revealed numerous Se-rich particles, or hotspots, accounting on average for ∼16% of the total Se in ambient aerosols. Hotspots contained primarily Se(0)/Se(-II). However, larger, bulk spectroscopic characterizations revealed Se(IV) as the dominant oxidation state in ambient aerosol, followed by Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(VI). Se(IV) was the only observed oxidation state in gasoline, diesel, and coal fly ash, while biomass burning contained a combination of Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(IV). Although the majority of Se in aerosols was in the most toxic form, the Se concentration is well below the California Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit (∼20000 ng/m(3)).

  13. Assessment of children environmental exposure to secondary emission of nickel, lead and copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Total rating impact of particulate matter in ground air layer recently takes on particular significance in evaluation of health risk. Indeed particulate matter is of interest to many research centres, however in so far PM related works the probability of adverse health impacts were not taken into account triggered with impact of additional presence of particulate matter from secondary dusting. The aim of the work: The work target was determination of secondary emission of Cu, Ni and Pb measured in streets with high traffic volume in many towns of Silesia Voivodeship. Materials and methods: Dust collected from the distance of about 200 m from busy roads in Upper Silesia cities was analyzed by the method of plasma spectrophotometry. The phenomenon of secondary dusting was defined by few coefficients of: secondary emission, enrichment, contamination and parameter of extra mass of a given metal in widespread air pollution. Results: It was concluded that absorbed dose of Cu and Pb changes depends on the area under study and decreases along with child’s age. Decrease of absorbed age depending doses is explained, so far, by significant increase of body mass in comparison to anatomically conditioned size of respiratory system.Also health risk estimated in relation to children residing in selected areas is diversified.. And it also decreases along with the children growing older. It appears, however, that health risk is determined by the volume of secondary PM emission and to children mostly threatened with Ni belong those who are particularly exposed to secondary emission of this metal. The secondary dusting is particularly dangerous for respiratory system and plays more important role than averaged content of this chemical in the environment.

  14. Characterization and control of the microbial community affiliated with copper or aluminum heat exchangers of HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael G; Attaway, Hubert H; Terzieva, Silva; Marshall, Anna; Steed, Lisa L; Salzberg, Deborah; Hamoodi, Hameed A; Khan, Jamil A; Feigley, Charles E; Michels, Harold T

    2012-08-01

    Microbial growth in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with the subsequent contamination of indoor air is of increasing concern. Microbes and the subsequent biofilms grow easily within heat exchangers. A comparative study where heat exchangers fabricated from antimicrobial copper were evaluated for their ability to limit microbial growth was conducted using a full-scale HVAC system under conditions of normal flow rates using single-pass outside air. Resident bacterial and fungal populations were quantitatively assessed by removing triplicate sets of coupons from each exchanger commencing the fourth week after their installation for the next 30 weeks. The intrinsic biofilm associated with each coupon was extracted and characterized using selective and differential media. The predominant organisms isolated from aluminum exchangers were species of Methylobacterium of which at least three colony morphologies and 11 distinct PFGE patterns we found; of the few bacteria isolated from the copper exchangers, the majority were species of Bacillus. The concentrations and type of bacteria recovered from the control, aluminum, exchangers were found to be dependent on the type of plating media used and were 11,411-47,257 CFU cm(-2) per coupon surface. The concentration of fungi was found to average 378 CFU cm(-2). Significantly lower concentrations of bacteria, 3 CFU cm(-2), and fungi, 1 CFU cm(-2), were recovered from copper exchangers regardless of the plating media used. Commonly used aluminum heat exchangers developed stable, mixed, bacterial/fungal biofilms in excess of 47,000 organisms per cm(2) within 4 weeks of operation, whereas the antimicrobial properties of metallic copper were able to limit the microbial load affiliated with the copper heat exchangers to levels 99.97 % lower during the same time period.

  15. Highly ionized copper contribution to the soft X-ray emission in a plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoita, V; Patran, A [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania); Larour, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    In order to discriminate between the contributions of the gas plasma and of the anode (solid or plasma) to the soft X-ray emission in a plasma focus device, a series of experiments was carried out using the following combinations of experimental conditions: various gases, different absorption filters and viewing different regions in front of the centre electrode. The experiments were performed on the IPF-2/20 plasma focus device using the following working gases: helium, neon and helium-argon mixtures. The diagnostics used: magnetic probe for current derivative, PIN diode for the minimum pinch radius detection, PIN diodes for the soft X-ray emission, scintillator-photomultiplier detector for the hard X-ray emission. From the analysis of the various diagnostics data recorded with very good time correlation, it followed that the soft K-ray signals had a strong contribution from optical transitions of the highly ionised Cu (Cu XX to XXII) emitting in the range 0.8-1.3 nm. (author). 7 figs., 9 refs.

  16. Preparation, characterization and toxicological investigation of copper loaded chitosan nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Divya [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Dhanwal, Vandna [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Nayak, Debasis [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Saneja, Ankit [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Amin, Hina [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Rasool, Reyaz ur [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Gupta, Prem Narayan [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Goswami, Anindya, E-mail: agoswami@iiim.ac.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India)

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles often attribute severe adverse effects to the various organs or tissues at the molecular level despite of their applications in medical, laboratory and industrial sectors. The present study highlights the preparation of copper adsorbed chitosan nanoparticles (CuCSNPs), its characterization and validation of cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. Particle size of the CuCSNPs was determined by using Zetasizer and the copper loading was quantified with the help of ICP/MS. Further characterization of CuCSNPs was carried out by FT-IR analysis to determine the formation of nanoparticles and SEM was conducted for the morphological analysis of the CuCSNPs. The CuCSNPs exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects towards HEK-293 cells as analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, the CuCSNPs inhibited the colony formation and induced nuclear damage at the dose of 100 μg/mL, much more effectively than the in built control copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}). At the molecular level, the CuCSNPs were found to be triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating effector caspases and subsequent PARP cleavage to induce cell death in HEK-293 cells. - Highlights: • Subtoxic levels of CuCSNPs induce apoptosis in HEK-293 cells. • CuCSNPs mediate toxicity via nuclear cleavage and ROS generation. • CuCSNPs favor caspase activation and PARP cleavage to induce cell death.

  17. Determination of mercury and copper in water samples by activation analysis using preconcentration on emission spectroscopic carbon powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsuka, Sumiko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    A simple preconcentration procedure for mercury and copper was examined in the activation analysis of water samples. The preconcentration using pure activated carbon has been reported in several papers. The authors found that the carbon powder for emission spectroscopic analysis showed the high purity equivalent to pure activated carbon. The influence of various parameters in adsorption conditions was studied by radioactive tracers 197 Hg and 64 Cu. It was confirmed that 100% of these elements were adsorbed on carbon powders as pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate complexes at an acidity of pH 6 - 8, the temperature of 50 0 C and the stirring time of 30 minutes. This method was applied to the activation analysis of the river water samples taken from the upper stream area of the Arakawa river and the ground water samples taken from the wells of the environs of Tokyo Megalopolis. The carbon powders which adsorbed these elements were filtered, dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The Hg concentrations of 0.01 - 0.1 ppb in river water and 0.03 - 1.4 ppb in ground water were obtained as well as the Cu concentrations of 0.3 - 3.0 ppb in ground water. The limits of determination of this method are 0.01 ppb Hg and 0.2 ppb Cu in the case of 1.1 sample of fresh water. (auth.)

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of semicarbazones and their copper complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Taracad K; Bernhardt, Paul V; Noble, Chris J; Fletcher, Nicholas; Pierens, Gregory K; Thurecht, Kris J; Reutens, David C

    2016-09-01

    Substituted semicarbazones/thiosemicarbazones and their copper complexes have been prepared and several single crystal structures examined. The copper complexes of these semicarbazone/thiosemicarbazones were prepared and several crystal structures examined. The single crystal X-ray structure of the pyridyl-substituted semicarbazone showed two types of copper complexes, a monomer and a dimer. We also found that the p-nitrophenyl semicarbazone formed a conventional 'magic lantern' acetate-bridged dimer. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) of several of the copper complexes was consistent with the results of single crystal X-ray crystallography. The EPR spectra of the p-nitrophenyl semicarbazone copper complex in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) showed the presence of two species, confirming the structural information. Since thiosemicarbazones and semicarbazones have been reported to exhibit anticancer activity, we examined the anticancer activity of several of the derivatives reported in the present study and interestingly only the thiosemicarbazone showed activity while the semicarbazones were not active indicating that introduction of sulphur atom alters the biological profile of these thiosemicarbazones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Lactobacillus brevis L62 strain, highly tolerant to copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrvčić, Jasna; Butorac, Ana; Solić, Ema; Stanzer, Damir; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Cindrić, Mario; Stehlik-Tomas, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture in food industry must be suitable for large-scale industrial production and possess the ability to survive in unfavorable processes and storage conditions. Approaches taken to address these problems include the selection of stress-resistant strains. In food industry, LAB are often exposed to metal ions induced stress. The interactions between LAB and metal ions are very poorly investigated. Because of that, the influence of non-toxic, toxic and antioxidant metal ions (Zn, Cu, and Mn) on growth, acid production, metal ions binding capacity of wild and adapted species of Leuconostoc mesenteroides L3, Lactobacillus brevis L62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L73 were investigated. The proteomic approach was applied to clarify how the LAB cells, especially the adapted ones, protect themselves and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metal ions. Results have shown that Zn and Mn addition into MRS medium in the investigated concentrations did not have effect on the bacterial growth and acid production, while copper ions were highly toxic, especially in static conditions. Leuc. mesenteroides L3 was the most efficient in Zn binding processes among the chosen LAB species, while L. plantarum L73 accumulated the highest concentration of Mn. L. brevis L62 was the most copper resistant species. Adaptation had a positive effect on growth and acid production of all species in the presence of copper. However, the adapted species incorporated less metal ions than the wild species. The exception was adapted L. brevis L62 that accumulated high concentration of copper ions in static conditions. The obtained results showed that L. brevis L62 is highly tolerant to copper ions, which allows its use as starter culture in fermentative processes in media with high concentration of copper ions.

  20. Interactions between copper(II) and DOM in the urban stormwater runoff: modeling and characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Wang, Chong-Chen; Li, Jun-Qi; Wang, Peng; Ou, Jia-Qi; Cui, Jing-Rui

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can strongly interact with both organic and inorganic contaminants to influence their transportation, transformation, bioavailability, toxicity and even their ultimate fate. Within this work, DOM was extracted from urban stormwater runoff samples collected from a regular sampling site of a typical residential area in Beijing, China. Copper(II) ions were selected as model to investigate the interactions between DOM and typical heavy metals. Both ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and fluorescence titration methods were introduced to determine the complex capacities (C L ) and conditional stability constants (log K M ) of bonding between DOM and copper (II) ions, which revealed that the values of C L were 85.62 and 87.23 μmol mg -1 and the log K M values were 5.37 and 5.48, respectively. The results suggested the successful complexation between DOM and copper(II) ions. Furthermore, morphology of the DOM binding to copper(II) ions was confirmed by both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which can facilitate to clarify the corresponding mechanism. The Cu 2p 3/2 peak at 933.7 eV and the characteristic shake-up peaks of Cu-O were found in the XPS spectra, implying that copper(II) ions might coordinate with hydroxyl (aliphatic or phenolic) or carboxyl groups. With these profitable results, it can be concluded that DOM in urban stormwater runoff has a strong binding affinity with copper(II) ions, which may further lead to potentially significant influence on their migration and transformation.

  1. Noise Characterization and Performance of MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Chiang, Kwofu; Chen, Na; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a premier Earth-observing sensor of the early 21st century, flying onboard the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) spacecraft. Both instruments far exceeded their six-year design life and continue to operate satisfactorily for more than 15 and 13 years, respectively. The MODIS instrument is designed to make observations at nearly a 100% duty cycle covering the entire Earth in less than two days. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41micrometers to 14.4 micrometers, of which those wavelengths ranging from 3.7 micrometers to 14.4 micrometers cover the thermal infrared region which is interspaced in 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs). Each of the TEB contains ten detectors which record samples at a spatial resolution of 1 km. In order to ensure a high level of accuracy for the TEB-measured top-of-atmosphere radiances, an onboard blackbody (BB) is used as the calibration source. This paper reports the noise characterization and performance of the TEB on various counts. First, the stability of the onboard BB is evaluated to understand the effectiveness of the calibration source. Next, key noise metrics such as the noise equivalent temperature difference and the noise equivalent dn difference (NEdN) for the various TEBs are determined from multiple temperature sources. These sources include the nominally controlled BB temperature of 290 K for T-MODIS and 285 K for A-MODIS, as well as a BB warm up-cool down cycle that is performed over a temperature range from roughly 270 to 315 K. The space-view port that measures the background signal serves as a viable cold temperature source for measuring noise. In addition, a well characterized Earth-view target, the Dome Concordia site located in the Antarctic plateau, is used for characterizing the stability of the sensor, indirectly providing a measure of the NEdN. Based on this rigorous characterization, a list of the noisy and inoperable detectors for

  2. Characterization of chemical interactions during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mahn

    2003-10-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has received much attention as an unique technique to provide a wafer level planarization in semiconductor manufacturing. However, despite the extensive use of CMP, it still remains one of the least understood areas in semiconductor processing. The lack of the fundamental understanding is a significant barrier to further advancements in CMP technology. One critical aspect of metal CMP is the formation of a thin surface layer on the metal surface. The formation and removal of this layer controls all the aspects of the CMP process, including removal rate, surface finish, etc. In this dissertation, we focus on the characterization of the formation and removal of the thin surface layer on the copper surface. The formation dynamics was investigated using static and dynamic electrochemical techniques, including potentiodynamic scans and chronoamperometry. The results were validated using XPS measurements. The mechanical properties of the surface layer were investigated using nanoindentation measurements. The electrochemical investigation showed that the thickness of the surface layer is controlled by the chemicals such as an oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide), a corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole), a complexing agent (citric acid), and their concentrations. The dynamic electrochemical measurements indicated that the initial layer formation kinetics is unaffected by the corrosion inhibitors. The passivation due to the corrosion inhibitor becomes important only on large time scales (>200 millisecond). The porosity and the density of the chemically modified surface layer can be affected by additives of other chemicals such as citric acid. An optimum density of the surface layer is required for high polishing rate while at the same time maintaining a high degree of surface finish. Nanoindentation measurements indicated that the mechanical properties of the surface layer are strongly dependent on the chemical additives in the slurry. The CMP

  3. Application of cotton as a solid phase extraction sorbent for on-line preconcentration of copper in water samples prior to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mohammad; Yamini, Yadollah; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-07-30

    Copper, as a heavy metal, is toxic for many biological systems. Thus, the determination of trace amounts of copper in environmental samples is of great importance. In the present work, a new method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of copper in water samples. The method is based on the formation of ternary Cu(II)-CAS-CTAB ion-pair and adsorption of it into a mini-column packed with cotton prior applying inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The experimental parameters that affected the extraction efficiency of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution, concentration of chromazurol S (CAS) and cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as well as type and concentration of eluent were investigated and optimized. The ion-pair (Cu(II)-CAS-CTAB) was quantitatively retained on the cotton under the optimum conditions, then eluted completely using a solution of 25% (v/v) 1-propanol in 0.5 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and directly introduced into the nebulizer of the ICP-OES. The detection limit (DL) of the method for copper was 40 ng L(-1) (V(sample)=100mL) and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for the determination of copper at 10 microg L(-1) level was found to be 1.3%. The method was successfully applied to determine the trace amounts of copper in tap water, deep well water, seawater and two different mineral waters, and suitable recoveries were obtained (92-106%).

  4. Design and Characterization of a Gradient-Transparent RF Copper Shield for PET Detector Modules in Hybrid MR-PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneking, Arne; Trinchero, Riccardo; Ha, YongHyun; Finster, Felix; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Lerche, Christoph; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the design and the characterization of a frequency-selective shield for positron emission tomography (PET) detector modules of hybrid magnetic resonance-PET scanners, where the shielding of the PET cassettes is located close to the observed object. The proposed shielding configuration is designed and optimized to guarantee a high shielding effectiveness (SE) of up to 60 dB for B1-fields at the Larmor frequency of 64 MHz, thus preventing interactions between the radio-frequency (RF) coil and PET electronics. On the other hand, the shield is transparent to the gradient fields with the consequence that eddy-current artifacts in the acquired EPI images are significantly reduced with respect to the standard solid-shield configuration. The frequency-selective behavior of the shield is characterized and validated via simulation studies with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO in the megahertz and kilohertz range. Bench measurements with an RF coil built in-house demonstrated the high SE at the Larmor frequency. Moreover, measurements on a 4-T human scanner confirmed the abolishment of eddy current artifact and also provided an understanding of where the eddy currents occur with respect to the sequence parameters. Simulations and measurements for the proposed shielding concept were compared with a solid copper shielding configuration.

  5. Quantitative characterization of the orientation spread within individual grains in copper after tensile deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog-Pedersen, Stine; Bowen, Jacob R.; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    By means of electron backscatter diffraction, orientations are determined on a regular grid on a polished section of a copper specimen after tensile deformation to 25%. Individual grains separated by boundaries with disorientation angles above 7° are identified and the microtexture in the form...

  6. Physical characterization and recovery of corroded fingerprint impressions from postblast copper pipe bomb fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W; Brady, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Pipe bombs made from 1 mm thick copper pipe were detonated with a low explosive power powder. Analysis of the physical characteristics of fragments revealed that the copper had undergone work hardening with an increased Vickers Hardness of 107HV1 compared with 80HV1 for unexploded copper pipe. Mean plastic strain prior to fracture was calculated at 0.28 showing evidence of both plastic deformation and wall thinning. An examination of the external surface showed microfractures running parallel with the length of the pipe at approximately 100 μm intervals and 1-2 μm in width. Many larger fragments had folded "inside out" making the original outside surface inaccessible and difficult to fold back through work hardening. A visual examination for fingerprint corrosion revealed ridge details on several fragments that were enhanced by selective digital mapping of colors reflected from the surface of the copper. One of these fingerprints was identified partially to the original donor. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established.

  8. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  9. Acoustic Emission Technique Applied in Textiles Mechanical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios-Soberanis Carlos Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The common textile architecture/geometry are woven, braided, knitted, stitch boded, and Z-pinned. Fibres in textile form exhibit good out-of-plane properties and good fatigue and impact resistance, additionally, they have better dimensional stability and conformability. Besides the nature of the textile, the architecture has a great role in the mechanical behaviour and mechanisms of damage in textiles, therefore damage mechanisms and mechanical performance in structural applications textiles have been a major concern. Mechanical damage occurs to a large extent during the service lifetime consequently it is vital to understand the material mechanical behaviour by identifying its mechanisms of failure such as onset of damage, crack generation and propagation. In this work, textiles of different architecture were used to manufacture epoxy based composites in order to study failure events under tensile load by using acoustic emission technique which is a powerful characterization tool due to its link between AE data and fracture mechanics, which makes this relation a very useful from the engineering point of view.

  10. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  11. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D.; Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cristofaro, S.

    2015-01-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (< 0.4 °) together with a low source pressure (≤ 0.3 Pa) would permit to reduce the ion losses along the beamline, keeping the stripping particle losses below 30%. However, the attainment of such beam properties is not straightforward. At IPP, the negative ion source testbed BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the H α light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of H α spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region

  12. Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.S.; Wang, X.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry

    2005-09-15

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  13. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  14. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Cheng; Kong, Fang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-01-01

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 ·0.5H 2 O (2) and Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 V 5 O 12 (SeO 3 ) 2 (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 } 2 dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 } 2+ moieties connected by the {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4- cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 } n chain in which the {Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 } 4+ moieties are bridged by the {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {V IV V V 4 Se IV 2 O 18 } n 4− and {Cu(2,2-bipy)} 2+ complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties. - Graphical abstract: We got three new vanadium selenites with organically linked copper/nickel complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 ·0.5H 2 O (2) and Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 V 5 O 12 (SeO 3 ) 2 (3) by hydrothermally syntheses. They display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new compounds display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. • The Tetranuclear {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− cluster and the vanadate {V 5 O 17 } n 2D layer are observed firstly. • Optical Properties and Magnetic Properties of three compounds are reported.

  15. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Cheng [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Kong, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Mao, Jiang-Gao, E-mail: mjg@fjirsm.ac.cn [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}·0.5H{sub 2}O (2) and Cu{sub 2}(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 5}O{sub 12}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy)_2V_2O_4(SeO_3)_2}{sub 2} dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy)_2}{sup 2+} moieties connected by the {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4-} cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V_2O_4(SeO_3)_2}{sub n} chain in which the {Cu_2(2,2-bipy)_2}{sup 4+} moieties are bridged by the {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {V"I"VV"V_4Se"I"V_2O_1_8}{sub n}{sup 4−} and {Cu(2,2-bipy)}{sup 2+} complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties. - Graphical abstract: We got three new vanadium selenites with organically linked copper/nickel complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}·0.5H{sub 2}O (2) and Cu{sub 2}(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 5}O{sub 12}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (3) by hydrothermally syntheses. They display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new compounds display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. • The Tetranuclear {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} cluster and the vanadate {V

  16. Characterization of dispersion strengthened copper with 3wt%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Višeslava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper matrix has been dispersion strengthened with 3wt.%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying. Commercial alumina powder with an average particle size of 0.75mm was used for alloying. The mechanical alloying process was performed in a planetary ball mill up to 20h in air. After milling all powders were treated in H2 at 4000C for 1h, and finally hot pressing was used for compaction (800oC, 3h, Ar. Structure observations revealed a lamellar structure (Al2O3 particles largely restricted to interlamellar planes between adjacent copper lamellae accompanied also by structure refinement. These structural changes were mostly completed in the early stage of milling, and retained after compaction. Micro hardness was found to progressively increase with milling time. So, after 5h of milling the micro hardness of the Cu+3twt%Al2O3 compact was 1540MPa, i.e. 2.5 times greater than for the as-received electrolytic copper powder (638MPa compacted under identical conditions, while after 20h of milling it was 2370 MPa. However after exposing the tested compact at 800oC up to 5h, the achieved hardening effect vanished.

  17. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanostructures on copper substrate as selective solar absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick Kumar, S.; Murugesan, S.; Suresh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Selective solar absorber coatings of copper oxide (CuO) on copper substrates are prepared by room temperature oxidation of copper at different alkaline conditions. The surface morphology and structural analyses of the CuO coatings are carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD and Raman studies indicated the single phase nature and high crystallinity of the prepared CuO nanostructures. Different CuO nanostructures, viz., nanoneedles, nanofibers and nanoparticles are formed at different alkaline conditions. The influence of reaction time on morphology of the CuO nanostructures is also studied. The thermal emittance values of these nanostructured CuO samples are found to be in the range of 6–7% and their solar absorptances are ranged between 84 and 90%. The observed high solar selectivity values (>12.7) suggest that these coatings can be used as selective absorbers in solar thermal gadgets. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CuO thin films on Cu substrate have been prepared by a facile method. • Morphology of the CuO nanostructures varies with reaction pH. • The thin films show high absorptance in the visible region and low thermal emittance. • Multiple absorption in the porous structure leads to high solar absorptance. • Nanostructures posses solar selectivity values >12

  18. Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wilson disease (WD is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA (tx-j mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal to adulthood (28 weeks. Methods: Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results: Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion: Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation.

  19. Wildland fire emissions, carbon and climate: Characterizing wildland fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Clinton S. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Smoke from biomass fires makes up a substantial portion of global greenhouse gas, aerosol, and black carbon (GHG/A/BC) emissions. Understanding how fuel characteristics and conditions affect fire occurrence and extent, combustion dynamics, and fuel consumption is critical for making accurate, reliable estimates of emissions production at local, regional, national, and...

  20. Characterization of laser ablation of copper in the irradiance regime of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, J., E-mail: jessica.picard@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Sirven, J.-B.; Lacour, J.-L. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LANIE, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Musset, O. [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5209, F-21000 Dijon (France); Cardona, D.; Hubinois, J.-C. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Mauchien, P. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LANIE, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-11-01

    The LIBS signal depends both on the ablated mass and on the plasma excitation temperature. These fundamental parameters depend in a complex manner on laser ablation and on laser–plasma coupling. As several works in the literature suggest that laser ablation processes play a predominant role compared to plasma heating phenomena in the LIBS signal variations, this paper focuses on the study of laser ablation. The objective was to determine an interaction regime enabling to maximally control the laser ablation. Nanosecond laser ablation of copper at 266 nm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry analysis, in air at 1 bar and in the vacuum. The laser beam spatial profile at the sample surface was characterized in order to give realistic values of the irradiance. The effect of the number of accumulated laser shots on the crater volume was studied. Then, the ablation crater morphology, volume, depth and diameter were measured as a function of irradiance between 0.35 and 96 GW/cm². Results show that in the vacuum, a regular trend is observed over the whole irradiance range. In air at 1 bar, below a certain irradiance, laser ablation is very similar to the vacuum case, and the ablation efficiency of copper was estimated at 0.15 ± 0.03 atom/photon. Beyond this irradiance, the laser beam propagation is strongly disrupted by the expansion of the dense plasma, and plasma shielding appears. The fraction of laser energy used for laser ablation and for plasma heating is estimated in the different irradiance regimes. - Highlights: • The morphology of copper's craters was studied as a function of the pulse energy. • Correlation at low energy and two pressures between crater volume and pulse energy • The ablation efficiency of copper at 1 bar is equal to 0.15 atom/photon. • Ablation efficiency in the vacuum is not limited by laser–plasma interaction. • Physical mechanisms of laser ablation at both pressures are discussed.

  1. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  2. The Performance of Chrome-Coated Copper as Metallic Catalytic Converter to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warju; Harto, S. P.; Soenarto

    2018-01-01

    One of the automotive technologies to reduce exhaust gas emissions from the spark-ignition engine (SIE) is by using a catalytic converter. The aims of this research are firstly to conduct a metallic catalytic converter, secondly to find out to what extend chrome-coated copper plate (Cu+Cr) as a catalyst is efficient. To measure the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) on the frame there are two conditions required. First is when the standard condition, and second is when Cu+Cr metallic catalytic converter is applied using exhaust gas analyzer. Exhaust gas emissions from SIE are measured by using SNI 19-7118.1-2005. The testing of CO and HC emissions were conducted with variable speed to find the trend of exhaust gas emissions from idle speed to high speed. This experiment results in the fact that the use of Cu+Cr metallic catalytic converter can reduce the production of CO and HC of a four-stroke gasoline engine. The reduction of CO and HC emission are 95,35% and 79,28%. Using active metal catalyst in form of metallic catalytic converter, it is gained an optimum effective surface of a catalyst which finally is able to decrease the amount of CO and HC emission significantly in every spinning happened in the engine. Finally, this technology can be applied to the spark ignition engine both car and motorcycle to support blue sky program in Indonesia.

  3. Copper complexing ligands and organic matter characterization in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Marta; Gašparović, Blaženka; Strmečki, Slađana; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Tepić, Nataša

    2009-11-01

    The study on dissolved organic ligands capable to complex copper ions (L T), surface-active substances (SAS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Northern Adriatic Sea station (ST 101) under the influence of Po River was conducted in period from 2006-2008. The acidity of surface-active organic material (Ac r) was followed as well. The results are compared to temperature and salinity distributions. On that way, the contribution of the different pools of ligands capable to complex Cu ions could be determined as well as the influence of aging and transformation of the organic matter. The L T values in the investigated period were in the range of 40-300 nmol l -1. The range of DOC values for surface and bottom samples were 0.84-1.87 mg l -1 and 0.80-1.30 mg l -1, respectively. Total SAS concentrations in the bottom layer were 0.045-0.098 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100 while those in the surface layer were 0.050-0.143 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100. The majority of organic ligands responsible for Cu binding in surface water originate from new phytoplankton production promoted by river borne nutrients. Older, transformed organic matter, possessing higher relative acidity, is the main contributor to the pool of organic ligands that bind copper in the bottom samples. It was estimated that ˜9% of DOC in surface samples and ˜12% of DOC in the bottom samples are present as ligands capable to complex copper ions.

  4. Mechanical characterization of copper coated carbon nanotubes reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, M. Asif; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Bakhsh, Nabi; Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong Ho

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum composites were prepared by the molecular-level mixing process using copper coated CNTs. The mixing of CNTs was accomplished by ultrasonic mixing and ball milling. Electroless Cu-coated CNTs were used to enhance the interfacial bonding between CNTs and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the homogenous dispersion of Cu-coated CNTs in the composite samples compared with the uncoated CNTs. The samples were pressureless sintered under vacuum followed by hot rolling to promote the uniform microstructure and dispersion of CNTs. In 1.0 wt.% uncoated and Cu-coated CNT/Al composites, compared to pure Al, the microhardness increased by 44% and 103%, respectively. As compared to the pure Al, for 1.0 wt.% uncoated CNT/Al composite, increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength was estimated about 58% and 62%, respectively. However, in case of 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were increased significantly about 121% and 107%, respectively. - Graphical Abstract: Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. Optimizing the plating bath to (1:1) by wt CNTs with Cu, thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm. Cu-coated CNTs developed the stronger interfacial bonding with the Al matrix which resulted in the efficient transfer of load. Highlights: • Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. • Thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm by optimized plating bath. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, microhardness increased by 103%. • Cu-coated CNTs transfer load efficiently with stronger interfacial bonding. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, Y.S and UTS increased by 126% and 105%

  5. Preparation, characterization, and kinetics of thermolysis of nickel and copper nitrate complexes with 2,2 Prime -bipyridine ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kapoor, I.P.S. [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009 (India); Singh, Gurdip, E-mail: gsingh4us@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009 (India); Froehlich, Roland [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2012-10-10

    Graphical abstract: Nickel and copper nitrate complexes with 2,2 Prime -bipyridine, nitrate and water ligands have been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and CHN analyses. Thermolysis was performed by using TG, DTA and ignition delay measurements. The kinetics of thermolysis were also evaluated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation and characterization of Ni and Cu nitrate complexes have been reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermolysis has been carried out using TG-DTA and ignition delay measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their thermal decomposition pathways have been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxides residues as end product of thermolysis were revealed by XRD patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetics of their isothermal decomposition was evaluated. - Abstract: Nickel and copper nitrate complexes with 2,2 Prime -bipyridine (bipy) as a N donor and nitrate and water as oxygen donor ligands of the general formula [M(NO{sub 3})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}](NO{sub 3}), where M = Ni and Cu, have been obtained from the corresponding metal nitrate salts. These complexes were characterized by X-ray crystallography, FT-IR, and CHN analysis. Both the complexes have been found to be six coordinated. Their thermal decomposition behaviour was investigated by TG, DTA, and ignition delay measurements. TG-DTA examinations of these complexes revealed multistep thermal decomposition. The corresponding metal oxide residues obtained after thermolysis were identified from their X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD). Kinetics of isothermal decomposition of the complexes was established from both the model-fitting as well as isoconversional methods.

  6. Characterization of a gamma radiation dosimeter based of glass doped with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laameri, Mohamed Hadi; Ben Mansour, Issam

    2010-01-01

    Commercial sodo-calcic silicate glass was studied by thermo luminescence in order to evaluate its potential like material sensitive to the gamma radiation for dosimetric application. We have examined in particular the effect of doping glass copper ion exchange C U-N A for different concentrations technique and multiple conditions of doping on luminescent thermo sensitivity on a very wide range of doses ranging from 10 mGy up to 100 kGy. We have also tried to explain the origin of thermoluminescence observed by exploiting the doped and non-doped samples EPR spectra.

  7. Characterization of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds From Diesel Emissions: Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yost, Douglas M; Schulman, Matthew E; Frame, Edwin A

    2004-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine fitted with a common-rail fuel injection system was calibrated on several alternative type test fuels to achieve low engine-out oxides of nitrogen (NOx) exhaust emissions...

  8. Experimental and numerical optical characterization of plasmonic copper nanoparticles embedded in ZnO fabricated by ion implantation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Khai Q. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hoa Sen University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Nguyen, Hieu P.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ 07102 (United States); Ngo, Quang Minh [Institute of Material Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Canimoglu, Adil [Nigde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Nigde (Turkey); Can, Nurdogan, E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-05

    Here we describe the successfully fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting copper (Cu) ions into single zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals with ion energy of 400 keV at ion doses of 1 × 10{sup 16} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation and post-annealing treatment, the Cu implanted ZnO produces a broad range of luminescence emissions, ranging from green to yellow. A green luminescence peak at 550 nm could be ascribed to the isolated Cu ions. The changes in luminescence emission bands between the initial implant and annealed suggest that the implants give rise to clustering Cu nanoparticles in the host matrix but that the annealing process dissociates these. Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed to simulate their optical properties including the extinction cross section, electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence. We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances corresponding to the generation of multiple resonances, while the isolation of nanoparticles results in intensity amplification. - Highlights: • We present the fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting Cu into ZnO. • The luminescence properties were studied at different annealing temperature. • Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed. • We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances.

  9. Nanoscale characterization of martensite structures in copper based shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adiguzel, O, E-mail: oadiguzel@firat.edu.t [Firat University Department of Physics, 23169 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-11-01

    Martensitic transformations are first order displacive transitions and occur in the materials on cooling from high temperature. Shape memory effect is an unusual property exhibited by certain alloy systems, and leads to martensitic transition. Copper-based alloys exhibit this property in beta phase field which possess simple bcc- structures, austenite structure at high-temperatures. As temperature is lowered the austenite undergoes martensitic transition following two ordering reactions, and structural changes in nanoscale govern this transition. Atomic movements are also confined to interatomic lengths in sub-{mu}m or angstrom scale in martensitic transformation. The formation of the layered structures in copper based alloys consists of shears and shear mechanism. Martensitic transformations occur in a few steps with the cooperative movement of atoms less than interatomic distances by means of lattice invariant shears on a {l_brace}110{r_brace} - type plane of austenite matrix which is basal plane or stacking plane of martensite. The lattice invariant shears occurs, in two opposite directions, <110> -type directions on the {l_brace}110{r_brace}-type plane. These shears gives rise to the formation of layered structure.

  10. Structural and magnetic characterization of copper sulfonated phthalocyanine grafted onto treated polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, A., E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Orendac, M.; Cizmar, E. [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Monolayer of copper phthalocyanine was achieved. • ESR proved that CuPc coated PE surface exhibits magnetic properties. • The studied structures may have potential application in spintronics and data storage. - Abstract: This study focuses on high density polyethylene (HDPE) activated by Ar plasma treatment, subsequently grafted with copper sulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPc) especially pointing out to the surface and magnetic properties of those composites. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, zeta potential and by electron spin resonance (ESR). XPS analysis confirmed the successful grafting of phthalocyanine. The highest absorption was found for the sample grafted with {sup b}CuPc for 1 h. Electrokinetic analysis also confirmed the plasma treatment and also subsequent CuPc grafting influence significantly the surface chemistry and charge. These results correspond well with XPS determination. ESR studies confirmed the presence of CuPc grafted on HDPE. It was found, that grafting is mediated by magnetically inactive functional groups, rather than radicals. Magnetic properties of CuPc do not seem to change significantly after grafting CuPc on polyethylene surface.

  11. Synthesis And Characterization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanoparticles And Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ankur

    Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS) is emerging as an alternative material to the present thin film solar cell technologies such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe. All the elements in CZTS are abundant, environmentally benign, and inexpensive. In addition, CZTS has a band gap of ˜1.5 eV, the ideal value for converting the maximum amount of energy from the solar spectrum into electricity. CZTS has a high absorption coefficient (>104 cm-1 in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum) and only a few micron thick layer of CZTS can absorb all the photons with energies above its band gap. CZT(S,Se) solar cells have already reached power conversion efficiencies >10%. One of the ways to improve upon the CZTS power conversion efficiency is by using CZTS quantum dots as the photoactive material, which can potentially achieve efficiencies greater than the present thin film technologies at a fraction of the cost. However, two requirements for quantum-dot solar cells have yet to be demonstrated. First, no report has shown quantum confinement in CZTS nanocrystals. Second, the syntheses to date have not provided a range of nanocrystal sizes, which is necessary not only for fundamental studies but also for multijunction photovoltaic architectures. We resolved these two issues by demonstrating a simple synthesis of CZTS, Cu2SnS3, and alloyed (Cu2SnS3) x(ZnS)y nanocrystals with diameters ranging from 2 to 7 nm from diethyldithiocarbamate complexes. As-synthesized nanocrystals were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy to confirm their phase purity. Nanocrystals of diameter less than 5 nm were found to exhibit a shift in their optical absorption spectra towards higher energy consistent with quantum confinement and previous theoretical predictions. Thin films from CZTS nanocrystals deposited on Mo-coated quartz substrates using drop casting were found to be continuous

  12. The Development of Testing Methods for Characterizing Emissions and Sources of Exposures from Polyurethane Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures is not well understood. Currently, no comprehensive standard test methods exist for characterizing and quantifying product emissions. Exposures to diisocyanate compoun...

  13. Emissions characterization from a variety of coals on a pilot-scale facility_v1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The current study not only characterizes emissions from three coals (bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite), but also investigates the use of instrumentation for...

  14. Characterization of nuclear physics targets using Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubehn, T.; Wozniak, G.J.; Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Yu, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission have been utilized to precisely characterize targets used in nuclear fission experiments. The method allows for a fast and non-destructive determination of target thickness, homogeneity and element composition. (orig.)

  15. Characterization and In Vitro Toxicity of Copper Nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) in Murine Neuroblastoma (N2A) Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    polymers and dendrimers ), 2) inorganic nanoparticles (e.g. metallic nanoparticles), 3) organic/inorganic hybrids (e.g. nanocomposites), 4) carbon...use, transport , and excretion of copper from the body. Copper is an essential nutrient because it is incorporated as one of many metalloenzymes...discover cellular copper transporters in the last decade or so. For those individuals lacking the proper copper exporter pump, diseases such as Menkes

  16. Characterizing emissions from open burning of military food waste and ration packaging compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from open burning of Meals, Ready-To-Eat (MRE) and MRE packaging were characterized in response to inhalation concerns at military forward operating bases. Emissions from four compositions of MREs and four types of packaging were compared to assess contributions of ind...

  17. Copper(II) and palladium(II) complexes with tridentate NSO donor Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujit Baran; Solanki, Ankita; Kundu, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Mononuclear copper(II) complex [CuL2] and palladium(II) complexes [Pd(X)L] where X = benzoate(bz) or salicylate(sal) and HL = 2-(methylthio)phenylimino)methyl)phenol, a Schiff base ligand with NSO coordination sites have been synthesized and characterized by microanalyses, IR, UV-Visible spectra, conductivity measurement and magnetic studies. Crystal structures of all the complexes have been solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and showed that there are two molecules in a unit cell in the [CuL2] complex - one molecule has square planar geometry whereas second molecule has distorted square pyramidal geometry and palladium(II) complexes have distorted square planar geometry.

  18. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  19. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-07-14

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  20. Piper betle-mediated synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and rat splenocyte cytotoxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Jang, Jum-Suk; Muthusamy, Govarthanan; Arumugam, Sengottaiyan; Manoharan, Koildhasan; Cho, Kwang-Min; Min, Cho; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Byung-Taek, Oh

    2016-09-01

    The study reports a simple, inexpensive, and eco-friendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using Piper betle leaf extract. Formation of CuONPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy at 280 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the CuONPs were spherical, with an average size of 50-100 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) peak was observed approximately at 1 and 8 keV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that the particles were crystalline in nature. CuONPs effectively inhibited the growth of phytopathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodis. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesized CuONPs was analyzed using rat splenocytes. The cell viability was decreased to 94% at 300 μg/mL.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of hollow spherical copper phosphide (Cu 3P) nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuling; Qian, Yitai; Xu, Liqiang

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, hollow spherical Cu 3P nanopowders were synthesized by using copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4ṡ5H 2O) and yellow phosphorus in a mixed solvent of glycol, ethanol and water at 140-180 ∘C for 12 h. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction pattern (ED) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) studies show that the as-synthesized nanocrystal is pure hexagonal phase Cu 3P with a hollow spherical morphology. Based on the TEM observations, a possible aggregation growth mechanism was proposed for the formation of Cu 3P hollow structures. Meanwhile, the effects of some key factors such as solvents, reaction temperature and reaction time on the final formation of the Cu 3P hollow structure were also discussed.

  2. Microstructural evolution in adiabatic shear bands of copper at high strain rates: Electron backscatter diffraction characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lin; Chen Zhiyong; Zhan Congkun; Yang Xuyue; Liu Chuming; Cai Hongnian

    2012-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of adiabatic shear bands in annealed copper with different large strains at high strain rates has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The results show that mechanical twinning can occur with minimal contribution to shear localization under dynamic loading. Elongated ultrafine grains with widths of 100–300 nm are observed during the evolution of the adiabatic shear bands. A rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the elongated ultrafine grains. - Highlights: ► The microstructural evolution of ASB is studied by electron backscatter diffraction. ► Twinning can occur in ASB while the contribution to shear localization is slight. ► Elongated ultrafine grains are observed during the evolution process of ASB. ► A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the microstructure evolution of ASB.

  3. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad, E-mail: shahid@skku.edu [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Material Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Nafady, Ayman [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia); Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, College of Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Chemistry (Pakistan); Hussain, Rafaqat [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies (Malaysia); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Institute of Chemical Sciences (Pakistan)

    2013-08-15

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 Degree-Sign C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices.

  4. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad; Nafady, Ayman; Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor M.; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Hussain, Rafaqat; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  5. Near-UV sensitized 1.06 μm emission of Nd{sup 3+} ions via monovalent copper in phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, José A., E-mail: jose.jimenez@unf.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Sendova, Mariana [Optical Spectroscopy & Nano-Materials Lab, New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL 34243 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Monovalent copper ions effectively incorporated in Nd-containing phosphate glass by a single-step melt-quench method have been established as near-ultraviolet (UV) sensitizers of Nd{sup 3+} ions, resulting in a remarkable {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} emission at 1.06 μm. The spectroscopic data indicates an efficient energy conversion process. The Cu{sup +} ions first absorb photons broadly around 360 nm, and subsequently transfer the energy from the Stokes-shifted emitting states to resonant Nd{sup 3+} energy levels in the visible. Ultimately, the Nd{sup 3+} electronic excited states decay and the upper lasing state {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} is populated, leading to the enhanced emission at 1.06 μm. The characteristic features of the Cu{sup +} visible emission spectra and the reduced lifetime of the corresponding Cu{sup +} donor states indicate an efficient non-radiative transfer. The Cu{sup +}/Nd{sup 3+} co-doped phosphate glass appears suitable as solid-state laser material with enhanced pump range in the near-UV part of the spectrum and for solar spectral conversion in photovoltaic cells. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Monovalent copper ions effectively stabilized in Nd{sup 3+}-containing phosphate glass. • Enhanced Nd{sup 3+} near-infrared emission observed upon the Cu{sup +} ions incorporation. • Cu{sup +} → Nd{sup 3+} non-radiative energy transfer efficiencies and likely energy transfer pathways evaluated. • Potential for solid-state lasers and solar spectral conversion suggested.

  6. Methyl chavicol: characterization of its biogenic emission rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvier-Brown, N.C.; Goldstein, A.H.; Worton, D.R.; Matross, D.M.; Gilman, J.B.; Kuster, W.C.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J.A.; Cahill, M.J.; Holzinger, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of ambient atmospheric mixing ratios for methyl chavicol and determine its biogenic emission rate. Methyl chavicol, a biogenic oxygenated aromatic compound, is abundant within and above Blodgett Forest, a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  7. Biomass fuel characterization for NOx emissions in cofiring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nola, G.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact of various biomass fuels and combustion conditions on the NOx emissions during biomass co-firing. Fossil fuels dominated the energy scenario since the industrial revolution. However, in the last decades, increasing concerns about their availability and

  8. Synthesis, characterization and emission properties of quinolin-8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    chelated ruthenium organometallics. BIKASH KUMAR PANDA. Department of Inorganic ... Ruthenium organometallics; quinolin-8-olato chelation; emission properties; trivalent ruthenium. 1. Introduction. There is continuing ... chem.istry of orthometallated ruthenium compounds is of current interest in the context of synthesis ...

  9. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Diesel engine, diesel, coconut oil biodiesel, blends, emissions. Introduction ... Automobile exhaust ... power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in ... diesel fuel in terms of power and torque and none or ... gas analyzer (Motorscan 8050) made in Italy which .... different injection pressures.

  10. Characterizing and Quantifying Emissions and Transport of Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-19

    response to shear stress (τ, N m-2) induced by the PI-SWERL®, the viscosity of the fluid exerts a torque (N m-1) that eventually balances with τ. The...Engelbrecht et al. (2012) from CCSEM measurements, report that these silicate mineral particles are largely coated by a veneer of clay minerals and fine...content does not, by itself, contribute to the high emissions observed at YTC. The presence of high clay content can constrain the emissions by

  11. Acoustic emission characterization of the tetragonal-monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.R.; Arora, A.

    1983-01-01

    The processes accompanying the tetragonal-monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia (ZrO 2 ) have been studied using acoustic emission and electron microscopy in an attempt to characterize the different mechanisms by which the transformation can be accommodated in bulk materials. Experiments in which the acoustic emission is detected as specimens are cooled through the transformation, following densification by sintering, are described. For comparison, the acoustic emission from free, nominally unconstrained powders similarly cooled through the transformation is reported. The existence of distinct processes accompanying the phase transformation is established on the basis of postexperiment multiparametric correlation analysis of the acoustic emission

  12. Characterization of heat emission of light-curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, Mohammed A; Aalam, F A; Fatiny, F I; Radwan, S A; Eshan, I Y; Al-Samadani, K H

    2012-04-01

    This study was designed to analyze the heat emissions produced by light-curing units (LCUs) of different intensities during their operation. The null hypothesis was that the tested LCUs would show no differences in their temperature rises. FIVE COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE LCUS WERE TESTED: a "Flipo" plasma arc, "Cromalux 100" quartz-tungsten-halogen, "L.E. Demetron 1" second-generation light-emitting diode (LED), and "Blue Phase C5" and "UltraLume 5" third-generation LED LCUs. The intensity of each LCU was measured with two radiometers. The temperature rise due to illumination was registered with a type-K thermocouple, which was connected to a computer-based data acquisition system. Temperature changes were recorded in continues 10 and 20 s intervals up to 300 s. The Flipo (ARC) light source revealed the highest mean heat emission while the L.E. Demetron 1 LED showing the lowest mean value at 10 and 20 s exposure times. Moreover, Cromalux (QTH) recorded the second highest value for all intervals (12.71, 14.63, 14.60) of heat emission than Blue Phase C5 (LED) (12.25, 13.87, 13.69), interestingly at 20 s illumination for all intervals the highest results (18.15, 19.27, 20.31) were also recorded with Flipo (PAC) LCU, and the lowest (6.71, 5.97, 5.55) with L.E. Demetron 1 LED, while Blue Phase C5 (LED) recorded the second highest value at the 1st and 2nd 20 s intervals (14.12, 11.84, 10.18) of heat emission than Cromalux (QTH) (12.26, 11.43, 10.26). The speed of temperature or heat rise during the 10 and 20 s depends on light intensity of emitted light. However, the QTH LCU was investigated resulted in a higher temperature rise than LED curing units of the same power density. The PAC curing unit induced a significantly higher heat emission and temperature increase in all periods, and data were statistically different than the other tested groups (p < .05). LED (Blue Phase C5) was not statistically significant (p < .05) (at 10 s) than QTH units, also LED (Blue

  13. Final report on characterization of physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys before and after irradiation. (ITER R and D Task no. T213)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Taehtinen, S.

    2001-12-01

    The present report summarizes and highlights the main results of the work carried out during the last 5 - 6 years on effects of neutron irradiation on physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys. The work was an European contribution to ITER Research and Development programme and was carried out by the Associations Euratom - Risoe and Euratom - Tekes. Details of the investigations carried out within the framework of the present task and the main results have been reported in various reports and journal publication. On the basis of these results some conclusions are drawn regarding the suitability of a copper alloy for its use in the first wall and divertor components of ITER. It is pointed out that the present work has managed only to identify some of the critical problems and limitations of the copper alloys for their employment in the hostile environment of 14 MeV neutrons. A considerable amount of further effort is needed to find a realistic and optimum solution. (au)

  14. Characterization of X-ray emission from laser generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Antonino; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Ceccio, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Calcagno, Lucia; Sciuto, Antonella; Mazzillo, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    X-ray emission from laser generated plasma was studied at low (1010 W/cm2) and high (1018 W/cm2) intensity using ns and fs laser, respectively. Plasma characteristics were controlled trough the laser parameters, the irradiation conditions and the target properties. The X-ray spectra were acquired using fast detection technique based on SiC diodes with different active regions. The X-ray yield increases with the atomic number of the target, both at low and high intensity, and a similar empirical law has been obtained. The X-ray emission mechanisms from plasma are correlated to the plasma temperature and density and to the Coulomb charge particle acceleration, due to the charge separation effects produced in the non-equilibrium plasma. Functional dependences, theoretical approaches and interpretation of possible mechanism will be presented and discussed.

  15. Characterization of X-ray emission from laser generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannavò Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray emission from laser generated plasma was studied at low (1010 W/cm2 and high (1018 W/cm2 intensity using ns and fs laser, respectively. Plasma characteristics were controlled trough the laser parameters, the irradiation conditions and the target properties. The X-ray spectra were acquired using fast detection technique based on SiC diodes with different active regions. The X-ray yield increases with the atomic number of the target, both at low and high intensity, and a similar empirical law has been obtained. The X-ray emission mechanisms from plasma are correlated to the plasma temperature and density and to the Coulomb charge particle acceleration, due to the charge separation effects produced in the non-equilibrium plasma. Functional dependences, theoretical approaches and interpretation of possible mechanism will be presented and discussed.

  16. Objective Characterization of Snow Microstructure for Microwave Emission Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Michael; Kim, Edward J.; Molotch, Noah P.; Margulis, Steven A.; Courville, Zoe; Malzler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave (PM) measurements are sensitive to the presence and quantity of snow, a fact that has long been used to monitor snowcover from space. In order to estimate total snow water equivalent (SWE) within PM footprints (on the order of approx 100 sq km), it is prerequisite to understand snow microwave emission at the point scale and how microwave radiation integrates spatially; the former is the topic of this paper. Snow microstructure is one of the fundamental controls on the propagation of microwave radiation through snow. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the prospects for driving the Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks with objective measurements of snow specific surface area to reproduce measured brightness temperatures when forced with objective measurements of snow specific surface area (S). This eliminates the need to treat the grain size as a free-fit parameter.

  17. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  18. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  19. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Gang; Lang, Jianlei; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Sen

    2016-11-01

    Cooking fume is regarded as one of the main sources of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its chemical characteristics would be different among various cooking styles. In this study, VOCs emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were collected. VOCs concentrations and emission characteristics were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Barbecue gave the highest VOCs concentrations (3494 ± 1042 μg/m3), followed by Hunan cuisine (494.3 ± 288.8 μg/m3), Home cooking (487.2 ± 139.5 μg/m3), and Shandong cuisine (257.5 ± 98.0 μg/m3). The volume of air drawn through the collection hood over the stove would have a large impact on VOCs concentration in the exhaust. Therefore, VOCs emission rates (ER) and emission factors (EF) were also estimated. Home cooking had the highest ER levels (12.2 kg/a) and Barbecue had the highest EF levels (0.041 g/kg). The abundance of alkanes was higher in Home cooking, Shandong cuisine and Hunan cuisine with the value of 59.4%-63.8%, while Barbecue was mainly composed of alkanes (34.7%) and alkenes (39.9%). The sensitivity species of Home cooking and Hunan cuisine were alkanes, and that of Shandong cuisine and Barbecue were alkenes. The degree of stench pollution from cooking fume was lighter.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, crystallographic studies and antibacterial assays of new copper(II) complexes with sulfathiazole and nimesulide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Julia Helena Bormio; de Paiva, Raphael Enoque Ferraz; Cuin, Alexandre; da Costa Ferreira, Ana Maria; Lustri, Wilton Rogério; Corbi, Pedro Paulo

    2016-05-01

    New ternary copper(II) complexes of sulfathiazole (SFT, C9H8N3O2S2) or nimesulide (NMS, C13H11N2O5S) and 2,2‧-bipyridine (bipy) were synthesized, and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Elemental analyses indicated a 2:1:1 sulfonamide/copper/bipy composition for both complexes. Mass spectrometric measurements permitted identifying the molecular ions [Cu(SFT)2(bipy)+H]+ and [Cu(NMS)2(bipy)+H]+ at m/z 728 and 835, respectively, confirming the proposed compositions. Crystal structure of the [Cu(SFT)2(bipy)] complex was solved by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), attesting that the Cu(II) ion is hexacoordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry. Each SFT molecule coordinates to the metal ion by the nitrogen atoms of the SO2-N group and of the heterocyclic ring. The coordination sphere is completed by a bipyridine. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were carried out for the [Cu(NMS)2(bipy)] complex, indicating a tetragonal environment around the metal ion. It was suggested that NMS coordinates to Cu(II) by the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the SO2-N group, which was confirmed by infrared spectroscopic studies. Biological studies showed the antibacterial activity of both Cu-SFT and Cu-NMS complexes, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.10 to 0.84 mmol L-1 against Gram-negative bacteria for [Cu(SFT)2(bipy)], and from 1.50 to 3.00 mmol L-1 against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria for [Cu(NMS)2(bipy)].

  1. Characterization and Validation of the LT-SYS Copper Assay on a Roche Cobas 8000 c502 Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, F Bernhard; Mischereit, Marlies; Eller, Christoph; Ludwig-Kraus, Beatrice

    2017-02-01

    Validation of the LT-SYS quantitative in vitro copper assay on a Roche Cobas 8000 c502 analyzer and comparison with a BIOMED assay on a Roche Cobas Mira analyzer. Imprecision and bias were quantified at different concentration levels (serum and plasma) over a 20-day period. Linearity was assessed covering a range from 4.08 µmol/L to 33.8 µmol/L. Limit of blank (LoB) and limit of detection (LoD) were established based on a total of 120 blank and low-level samples. The method comparison was based on 58 plasma samples. Within-run imprecision ranged from 0.7% to 1.2% and within-laboratory imprecision from 1.4% to 3.3%. Relative bias for the 2 serum pools with known target values was less than 2.5%. The assay did not deviate from linearity over the tested measuring range. LoB and LoD were 0.12 µmol/L and 0.23 µmol/L, respectively. The method comparison revealed an average deviation of 11.5% (2.016 µmol/L), and the linear regression fit was y = 1.464 + 0.795x. The LT-SYS copper assay characterized in this study showed a fully acceptable performance with good degrees of imprecision and bias, no deviation from linearity in the relevant measuring rangem, and very low LoB and LoD. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Photovoltaic characterization of Copper-Indium-Gallium Sulfide (CIGS2) solar cells for lower absorber thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasekar, Parag S., E-mail: psvasekar@yahoo.co [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa FL, 32922 (United States); Jahagirdar, Anant H.; Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa FL, 32922 (United States)

    2010-01-31

    Chalcopyrites are important contenders among thin-film solar cells due to their direct band gap and higher absorption coefficient. Copper-Indium-Gallium Sulfide (CIGS2) is a chalcopyrite material with a near-optimum band gap of {approx} 1.5 eV. Record efficiency of 11.99% has been achieved on a 2.7 {mu}m CIGS2 film prepared by sulfurization at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) PV Materials Lab. In this work, photovoltaic performance analysis has been carried out for a 1.5 {mu}m absorber prepared under similar conditions as that of a 2.7 {mu}m thick absorber sample. It was observed that there is an increase in diode factor and reverse saturation current density when the absorber thickness was decreased. The diode factor increased from 1.69 to 2.18 and reverse saturation current density increased from 1.04 x 10{sup -10} mA/cm{sup 2} to 1.78 x 10{sup -8} mA/cm{sup 2}. This can be attributed to a decrease in the grain size when the absorber thickness is decreased. It was also observed that there is an improvement in the shunt resistance. Improvement in shunt resistance can be attributed to optimized value of i:ZnO for lower absorber thickness and less shunting paths due to a smoother absorber.

  3. Photovoltaic characterization of Copper-Indium-Gallium Sulfide (CIGS2) solar cells for lower absorber thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasekar, Parag S.; Jahagirdar, Anant H.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2010-01-01

    Chalcopyrites are important contenders among thin-film solar cells due to their direct band gap and higher absorption coefficient. Copper-Indium-Gallium Sulfide (CIGS2) is a chalcopyrite material with a near-optimum band gap of ∼ 1.5 eV. Record efficiency of 11.99% has been achieved on a 2.7 μm CIGS2 film prepared by sulfurization at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) PV Materials Lab. In this work, photovoltaic performance analysis has been carried out for a 1.5 μm absorber prepared under similar conditions as that of a 2.7 μm thick absorber sample. It was observed that there is an increase in diode factor and reverse saturation current density when the absorber thickness was decreased. The diode factor increased from 1.69 to 2.18 and reverse saturation current density increased from 1.04 x 10 -10 mA/cm 2 to 1.78 x 10 -8 mA/cm 2 . This can be attributed to a decrease in the grain size when the absorber thickness is decreased. It was also observed that there is an improvement in the shunt resistance. Improvement in shunt resistance can be attributed to optimized value of i:ZnO for lower absorber thickness and less shunting paths due to a smoother absorber.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, N., E-mail: nisar.ali@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate Jehanzeb College Saidu Sharif, Swat, 19200 (Pakistan); Hussain, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Ahmed, R., E-mail: rashidahmed@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Wan Shamsuri, W.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Fu, Y.Q., E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Environment, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new and novel material for solar cell applications is demonstrated as a replacement for toxic and expansive compounds. • The materials used in this compound are abundant and low cost. • Compound exhibit unusual optical and electrical properties. • The band gap was found to be comparable with that of GaAs. - Abstract: Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs – one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and behavior to gamma radiation of copper (II) complex and l-asparagine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Synthesis and caracterization of coordination compound formed by interation between l-asparagina (HL) and copper (II) ion are discussed. Elemental analysis, Visible and Ultraviolet electronic Spectroscopy, Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopy, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and melting and/or decomposition point are made; it is also possible to: a) Synthesize the complex with high degree of purity; b)determine the #betta# sub(max) for absorption in the Visible and Ultraviolet, as well as the molar absorption coefficient; c) determine the probable structure of the complex; d) calculate the kinetic parameters and the break factor by means of radiolysis in ammoniacal aqueous solution of sample submitted by a 60 Co source of #betta#-radiation (Gamma Cell); e) separate the complex from the ionic fractions formed by radiolysis, by means of cromatography in their layers; f) determine the porcentage of Cu in this complex by neutron activation; g) justify the complex resistence in solid phase, to gamma radiation. (A.R.H.) [pt

  6. Preliminary characterization of the toxicity of a beryllium-copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Hoover, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Beryllium (Be) is a low-molecular-weight metal with unique strength and nuclear properties. Because of these properties, Be has been used in the production of nuclear weapons and in nuclear reactors. Consequently, thousands of individuals in nuclear weapons facilities may have been exposed to Be. While the need for Be in the nuclear weapons industry has diminished in recent years, industrial applications of Be-containing alloys are increasing. Be-copper (Be-Cu) alloys are used in the electronics industry and are especially useful in spacecraft and aircraft guidance systems. Be-aluminum alloys are lightweight, have structural strength similar to that of pure Be, and are available at lower cost. Potential for human exposure to Be continues with the increasing production and use of Be-containing alloys. The cytotoxicity of metal particles to alveolar macrophages (AMs) provides information regarding their potential to produce a pulmonary inflammatory response when inhaled. The purpose of this study was to begin evaluation of the cytotoxicity of a Be-Cu alloy (2% Be, 98% Cu) to AMs and to attempt to relate cytotoxicity to the specific surface area of the material

  7. Molecular characterization of copper in soils using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawn, Daniel G.; Baker, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    Bioavailability of Cu in the soil is a function of its speciation. In this paper we investigated Cu speciation in six soils using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). The XANES and EXAFS spectra in all of the soils were the same. μ-XRF results indicated that the majority of the Cu particles in the soils were not associated with calcium carbonates, Fe oxides, or Cu sulfates. Principal component analysis and target transform of the XANES and EXAFS spectra suggested that Cu adsorbed on humic acid (HA) was an acceptable match. Thus it appears that Cu in all of the soils is primarily associated with soil organic matter (SOM). Theoretical fitting of the molecular structure in the soil EXAFS spectra revealed that the Cu in the soils existed as Cu atoms bound in a bidentate complex to O or N functional groups. - Copper speciation in six soils was investigated using XANES, EXAFS, and μ-XRF.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of mononuclear copper(II complex of tetradentate N2S2 donor set and the study of DNA and bovine serum albumin binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Sarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One mononuclear copper(II complex, containing neutral tetradentate NSSN-type ligands, of formulation [Cu II(L 1Cl]ClO 4 (1, was synthesized and isolated in pure form [where L 1˭ 1,3-bis(3-pyridylmethylthiopropane]. Green-colored copper(II complex was characterized by physicochemical, spectroscopic methods and conductivity measurement. These experimental data matched well with the proposed structure of the complex. Biological activity of the complex (1 toward calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin has been examined systematically and groove-binding behavior of the Copper(II complex 1 with calf thymus DNA has been observed from the spectral study.

  9. Copper(II) complexes of methimazole, an anti Grave's disease drug. Synthesis, characterization and its potential biological behavior as alkaline phosphatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Nora M; Manca, Silvia G; Moyano, María A; Dellmans, Raquel Arrieta; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Naso, Luciana G; Williams, Patricia A M; Ferrer, Evelina G

    2010-04-01

    Methimazole (MeimzH) is an anti-thyroid drug and the first choice for patients with Grave's disease. Two new copper(II) complexes of this drug: [Cu(MeimzH)(2)(NO(3))(2)]*0.5H(2)O and [Cu(MeimzH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(2)*H(2)O were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, dissolution behavior, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis, diffuse reflectance, FTIR and EPR spectroscopies. As it is known that copper(II) cation can act as an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the inhibitory effect of methimazole and its copper(II) complexes on ALP activity has also been investigated.

  10. Characterization of wildfire NOx emissions using MODIS fire radiative power and OMI tropospheric NO2 columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We use observations of fire radiative power (FRP from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer~(MODIS and tropospheric NO2 column measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI to derive NO2 wildfire emission coefficients (g MJ−1 for three land types over California and Nevada. Retrieved emission coefficients were 0.279±0.077, 0.342±0.053, and 0.696±0.088 g MJ−1 NO2 for forest, grass and shrub fuels, respectively. These emission coefficients reproduce ratios of emissions with fuel type reported previously using independent methods. However, the magnitude of these coefficients is lower than prior estimates. While it is possible that a negative bias in the OMI NO2 retrieval over regions of active fire emissions is partly responsible, comparison with several other studies of fire emissions using satellite platforms indicates that current emission factors may overestimate the contributions of flaming combustion and underestimate the contributions of smoldering combustion to total fire emissions. Our results indicate that satellite data can provide an extensive characterization of the variability in fire NOx emissions; 67 % of the variability in emissions in this region can be accounted for using an FRP-based parameterization.

  11. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert; Mezei, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents measurement data that describe radiofrequency emission levels and patterns from smart meters (rated nominally at 1 W) currently deployed in Pacific Gas and Electric Company's service territory in northern California. The smart meters in our investigation could not be set to operate continuously and required a Field Service Unit to induce short periods of emitted fields. To obtain peak field data under both laboratory and ambient conditions, a spectrum analyzer scanned across the 83 transmitting channels between 902 and 928 MHz used by the smart meter on a random frequency-hopping basis. To obtain data describing temporal emission patterns, the analyzer operated in scope mode. Duty cycle was estimated using transmit data acquired by the system operator from over 88,000 m. Instantaneous peak fields at 0.3 m in front of the meters were no more than 15% of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limit for the general public, and 99.9% of the meters operated with a duty cycle of 1.12% or less during the sampling period. In a sample of measurements in six single-detached residences equipped with individual smart meters, no interior measurement of peak field exceeded 1% of the FCC's general public exposure limit.

  12. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Rostami-Vartooni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Cu nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of natural bentonite using Thymus vulgaris extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs/bentonite were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET analysis. Afterward, the catalytic performance of the prepared catalyst was investigated for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP in water. It was found that the Cu NPs/bentonite is a highly active and recyclable catalyst for related reactions.

  13. Characterization, antibacterial, total antioxidant, scavenging, reducing power and ion chelating activities of green synthesized silver, copper and titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser

    2017-12-12

    Recently, major problem related to pathogenic bacteria is augmentation of antibiotic resistance which has been changed treatment and recovery of millions of infectious patients. The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf aqueous extract with antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria species. Three different concentrations (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M) of AgNO 3 , CuSO 4 and TiO (OH) 2 were investigated for obtaining optimum NPs green synthesis. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content of leaf extract and total antioxidant activity (DPPH) assay were determined as radical scavenging methods. UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used due to NPs characterization. The size average of the Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs obtained were respectively 10.69 ± 5.55, 35.36 ± 44.4 and 92.58 ± 56.98 nm. In the case of antibacterial assay, disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, bacterial growth and morphology of four MDR species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12258, Serratia marcescens ATTC13880 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that A. haussknechtii leaf extract with various groups of phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids had suitable ability in green synthesis of Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs. Also, Ag and Cu NPs had more antibacterial activities compared to TiO 2 NPs.

  14. Characterization of wake region by using and emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Ho

    1993-02-01

    An emissive probe was designed and manufactured to measure the floating and the space potentials of plasma in the wake region. The floating potential method' among various schemes was used for the measurement and analysis. To generate the wake, a plane artificial satellite with circular shape was introduced in a simply discharged argon plasma without the magnetic field. Potentials along the radial direction in and out of the wake regions of artificial satellite were measured, and plasma parameters were compared in the both regions. In the wake region, the floating potential was higher than that out of the wake, the space potential was approximately equal to that out of the wake, when the positive voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating and the space potentials were lower than that out of the wake and when the negative voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating potential was higher, the space potential was lower than that out of the wake

  15. Long-term dynamics of heavy metals in the upper horizons of soils in the region of a copper smelter impacts during the period of reduced emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeichik, E. L.; Kaigorodova, S. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    The 23-year-long dynamics of actual acidity (pHwater) and acid-soluble heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in the forest litter and humus horizon of soils in spruce-fir forests were studied in the area subjected to the long-term (since 1940) pollution with atmospheric emissions from the Middle Ural Copper Smelter (Revda, Sverdlovsk oblast). For this purpose, 25 permanent sample plots were established on lower slopes at different distances from the enterprise (30, 7, 4, 2, and 1 km; 5 plots at each distance) in 1989. The emissions from the smelter have decreased since the early 1990s. In 2012, the emissions of sulfur dioxide and dust decreased by 100 and 40 times, respectively, as compared with the emissions in 1980. Samples of litter and humus horizons were collected on permanent plots in 1989, 1999, and 2012. The results indicate that the pH of the litter and humus horizons restored to the background level 10 and 23 years after the beginning of the reduction in emissions, respectively. However, these characteristics in the impact zone still somewhat differ from those in the background area. In 2012, the content of Cu in the litter decreased compared to 1989 on all the plots; the content of Cu in the humus horizon decreased only in the close vicinity of the smelter. The contents of other metals in the litter and humus horizons remain constant or increased (probably because of the pH-dependent decrease in migration capacity). The absence of pronounced removal of metals from soils results in the retention of high contamination risk and the conservation of the suppressed state of biota within the impact zone.

  16. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Characterization and influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Hao; Luo, Ye; Deng, Xia; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    Extensive use of biochar to mitigate N 2 O emission is limited by the lack of understanding on the exact mechanisms altering N 2 O emissions from biochar-amended soils. Biochars produced from giant reed were characterized and used to investigate their influence on N 2 O emission. Responses of N 2 O emission varied with pyrolysis temperature, and the reduction order of N 2 O emission by biochar (BC) was: BC200 ≈ BC600 > BC500 ≈ BC300 ≈ BC350 > BC400. The reduced emission was attributed to enhanced N immobilization and decreased denitrification in the biochar-amended soils. The remaining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in low-temperature biochars (300–400 °C) played a major role in reducing N 2 O emission, but not for high-temperature biochars (500–600 °C). Removal of phenolic compounds from low-temperature (200–400 °C) biochars resulted in a surprising reduction of N 2 O emission, but the mechanism is still unknown. Overall, adding giant reed biochars could reduce N 2 O evolution from agricultural soil, thus possibly mitigating global warming. -- Highlights: ► C content of biochar increased with temperature but O and H content decreased. ► Biochars produced at 200–600 °C reduced N 2 O emissions from agricultural soil. ► PAHs in biochars (300–400 °C) seem a dominant factor for the reduced N 2 O emission. ► Phenolic compounds in biochars ( 2 O emission. -- Biochars (200–600 °C) produced from giant reed reduced N 2 O emissions from a soil due to enhanced N immobilization and decreased denitrification

  18. Characterization of the volcanic eruption emissions using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Rita R.; Tafuri, Victoria V.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of the volcanic particulate material has been performed by analyzing aerosols and ashes with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated using the elemental concentration and clustering techniques, and multivariate analysis were done. The analytical and data treatment methodologies allowed the sample differentiation from their geographical origin viewpoint, based on their chemical composition patterns, which are related to the deposit formation processes, which consist of direct deposition from the volcanic cloud, and removal by wind action after the end of the eruption, and and finally the deposition. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  19. Characterization of a Copper mineral from Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil) by Moessbauer spectroscopy and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, T.H.; Frank, E.; Bristoti, A.

    1980-01-01

    A sample from a copper-based mineral is analysed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results are compared with those form X-ray diffraction and microscopic analyses. A graphic correlation between the areas in the chalcopyrite spectra and the copper contents determined by chemical analysis is also made. (C.L.B.) [pt

  20. Characterization of a copper mineral from Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil) by Moessbauer spectroscopy and chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, T H [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Frank, E [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Bristoti, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais

    1980-01-01

    A sample from a copper-based mineral is analysed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results are compared with those from X-ray diffraction and microscopic analyses. A graphic correlation between the areas in the chalcopyrite spectra and the copper contents determined by chemical analysis is also made.

  1. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  2. Discharges of copper, zinc and lead to water and soil. Analysis of the emission pathways and possible emission reduction measures; Eintraege von Kuper, Zink und Blei in Gewaesser und Boeden. Analyse der Emissionspfade und moeglicher Emissionsminderungsmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenbrand, Thomas; Toussaint, Dominik; Boehm, Eberhard [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, Stephan; Scherer, Ulrike [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Rudolphi, Alexander; Hoffmann, Martin [Gesellschaft fuer Oekologische Bautechnik Berlin mbH (GFOeB) (Germany)

    2005-08-15

    Because of the pollution situation for copper, zinc and lead and due to the significance of non-point sources, there is a basic need for action to reduce the environmental burden due to non-point emissions of these heavy metals. Therefore the aim of the project was first to quantify the application-related discharges of these heavy metals into water and soil. Based on this, specific strategies to reduce the emissions to water were developed. Additionally a guideline for architects and builders for the outdoor use of the substances in the building sector was drawn up with the objective of supplying information and aids on the environmentally-compatible use of these substances. Furthermore, existing life cycle assessment methods were examined for the use of various roofing materials as well as the possibilities to further develop these methods. The results of the emission calculations show the great significancy of the application areas vehicles, building sector, water supply and other specific sources (i.e. galvanized products). The examination of different measures to reduce the emissions gives a review and an assessment of the possibilities, taking into account the relevant boundary conditions. This information can also serve as the basis for elaborating a programme of measures within the scope of a future river basin management. (orig.)

  3. Copper(II) Complexes of Phenanthroline and Histidine Containing Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of their DNA Cleavage and Cytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Sílvia M G; Lima, Luís M P; Gama, Sofia; Mendes, Filipa; Orio, Maylis; Bento, Isabel; Paulo, António; Delgado, Rita; Iranzo, Olga

    2016-11-21

    Copper(II) complexes have been intensely investigated in a variety of diseases and pathological conditions due to their therapeutic potential. The development of these complexes requires a good knowledge of metal coordination chemistry and ligand design to control species distribution in solution and tailor the copper(II) centers in the right environment for the desired biological activity. Herein we present the synthesis and characterization of two ligands HL1 and H 2 L2 containing a phenanthroline unit (phen) attached to the amino group of histidine (His). Their copper(II) coordination properties were studied using potentiometry, spectroscopy techniques (UV-vis and EPR), mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and DFT calculations. The data showed the formation of single copper complexes, [CuL1] + and [CuL2], with high stability within a large pH range (from 3.0 to 9.0 for [CuL1] + and from 4.5 to 10.0 for [CuL2]). In both complexes the Cu 2+ ion is bound to the phen unit, the imidazole ring and the deprotonated amide group, and displays a distorted square pyramidal geometry as confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Interestingly, despite having similar structures, these copper complexes show different redox potentials, DNA cleavage properties and cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines (human ovarian (A2780), its cisplatin-resistant variant (A2780cisR) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines). The [CuL2] complex has lower reduction potential (E pc = -0.722 V vs -0.452 V for [CuL1] + ) but higher biological activity. These results highlight the effect of different pendant functional groups (carboxylate vs amide), placed out of the coordination sphere, in the properties of these copper complexes.

  4. Characterization of time resolved photodetector systems for Positron Emission Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Powolny, François

    The main topic of this work is the study of detector systems composed of a scintillator, a photodetector and readout electronics, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In particular, the timing properties of such detector systems are studied. The first idea is to take advantage of the good timing properties of the NINO chip, which is a fast preamplifier-discriminator developed for the ALICE Time of flight detector at CERN. This chip uses a time over threshold technique that is to be applied for the first time in medical imaging applications. A unique feature of this technique is that it delivers both timing and energy information with a single digital pulse, the time stamp with the rising edge and the energy from the pulse width. This entails substantial simplification of the entire readout architecture of a tomograph. The scintillator chosen in the detector system is LSO. Crystals of 2x2x10mm3 were used. For the photodetector, APDs were first used, and were then replaced by SiPMs to make use of their highe...

  5. Magnetic Barkhausen emission for characterizing AISI 1045 steel plastically deformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaysi Moreno-Vega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to correlate parameters of the metallurgical structure such as size and reorganizing the grains, as well as the hardening capacity and the samples distortion of AISI 1045 steel plastically deformed by roll and then fractioned, with average values root means square RMS of a Barkhausen Emission. The analyzed samples were deformed by using forces of 500, 1500 and 2500 N, angular speed of 27, 54, and 110 r.p.m and tool advance of 0,075; 0,125 and 0,25 mm / rev. Then, they underwent a traction process using a CRITM DNS 200 machine, with a load of 200 kN. It was observed that the EMB signal presented an increasing performance in correspondence with the deformation decline and the increasing in tension and the hardness degree. The study of commercial steel AISI 1045 plastically deformed with roller and then pulled with EMB technique, allowed corroborating the potential of this technique as a non-destructive testing.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of the new copper indium phosphate Cu_8In_8P_4O_3_0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzelmann, Christian; Weimann, Iren; Feller, Joerg; Zak, Zdirad

    2014-01-01

    The system CuO/In_2O_3/P_2O_5 has been investigated using solid state reaction between CuO, In_2O_3 and (NH_4)_2HPO_4 in silica glass crucibles at 900 C. The powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Orange single crystals of the new quaternary phase were achieved by the process of crystallization with mineralizers in sealed silica glass ampoules. They were then analyzed with EDX and single-crystal X-ray analysis in which the composition Cu_8In_8P_4O_3_0 with the triclinic space group P anti 1 (No 2) with a = 7,2429(14) Aa, b = 8,8002(18) Aa, c = 10,069(2) Aa, α = 103,62(3) , β = 106,31(3) , γ = 101,55(3) and Z = 1 was found. The three-dimensional framework consists of [InO_6] octahedra and distorted [CuO_6] octahedra, overcaped [InO_7] prisms and [PO_4] tetrahedra, also trigonal [(CuIn)O_5] bipyramids and distorted [(CuIn)O_6] octahedra, where copper and indium are partly exchanged against each other. Cu_8In_8P_4O_3_0 exhibits an incongruent melting point at 1023 C. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Preparation and characterization of Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode with copper nanorods for AR 73 removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Li; Li, Ming; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Novel Ti/Cu-NRs/SnO 2 -Sb electrode modified by copper (Cu) nanorods was fabricated through anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template assisted electrochemical deposition (ECD) for wastewater treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the surface morphology, crystal structure and electrochemical performance of the electrodes. Acid dye AR 73 was selected as target pollutants to investigate the electro-catalyst behavior, and UV/vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the concentration changes with time. The results indicated that the presence of Cu nanorods on the Ti substrate promoted the electrodes' property obviously. Ti/Cu-NRs/SnO 2 -Sb anode possessed smaller charge transfer resistance and longer service life than Ti/SnO 2 -Sb anode. The oxygen evolution potential (OEP) of Ti/Cu-NRs/SnO 2 -Sb electrodes reach 2.17 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Removal of pollutants and reaction rate were all promoted due to the introduction of Cu nanorods in the process of AR 73 decomposing with Ti/Cu-NRs/SnO 2 -Sb electrodes. And specific energy consumption also reduced remarkably. Our study has shown that the fabricated Ti/Cu-NRs/SnO 2 -Sb electrodes are very promising for the electrochemical treatment of wastewater

  8. A series of copper complexes with carbazole and oxadiazole moieties: Synthesis, characterization and luminescence performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Weiyang, E-mail: baiwy02@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Sun Li [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, various moieties of ethyl, carbazole and oxadiazole are attached to 2-thiazol-4-yl-1H-benzoimidazole to form a series of diamine ligands. Their corresponding Cu(I) complexes are also synthesized using bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether as the auxiliary ligand. Crystal structures, thermal property, electronic nature and luminescence property of these Cu(I) complexes are discussed in detail. These Cu(I) complexes are found to be efficient green-emitting ones in solutions and the emissive parameters are improved largely by the incorporation of substituent moieties. Detailed analysis suggests that the effective suppression of solvent-induced exciplex quenching is responsible for this phenomenon. On the other hand, the introduction of substituent moieties exerts no obvious influence on molecular structure, thermal stability and emitting-energy of the Cu(I) complexes, owing to their absence from inner coordination sphere. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamine ligands with various moieties and Cu(I) complexes are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures and photophysical property are discussed in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of substituent moieties improves luminescence performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-induced exciplex quenching is suppressed by substituent moieties.

  9. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Diana; Franchi, Nicola; Mangano, Valentina; Bakiu, Rigers; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò; Santovito, Gianfranco; Ballarin, Loriano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  10. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Diana [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster (Germany); Franchi, Nicola [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Mangano, Valentina [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Bakiu, Rigers [Department of Crop Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Santovito, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.santovito@unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ballarin, Loriano [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  11. First approach to exhaust emissions characterization of light vehicles in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Mauro; González, Alice Elizabeth; Rezzano Tizze, Nicolás

    2018-03-15

    According to Act No. 17283 of November 28th, 2000, air quality protection is a general concern in Uruguay. Road transport is the main emitter of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), as the National Inventory of Air Emissions 2006 stated. Actually, it is responsible for the emissions of 59.8% of NO x and 28% of carbon monoxide (CO). The number of households owning a car in Uruguay increased from 29% in 2005 to 39% in 2013, enhancing the importance of characterizing the vehicular emissions of the national fleet. In this paper, a first approach for this characterization is presented. It was carried out on a sample of 11 light vehicles currently in use in Montevideo city, Uruguay. On-road emissions measurements of nitrogen monoxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were carried out for calculating the emission factors. The fitness of the set of calculated emission factors values to different probability distributions was tested. When possible, the 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the mean emission factors (CO: 2.0g/km±0.3g/km; NO: 0.05g/km±0.01g/km). This procedure was useful to obtaining accurate confidence intervals from a relatively small sample size. Finally, the link between atmospheric emissions and some other parameters of the tested vehicles was studied using a multivariate statistical tool, highlighting the strong increase in carbon monoxide emissions observed for low vehicles speeds and fuel efficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and magnetic characterization of Y-type hexaferrites containing zinc, cobalt and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yang; Zhou Ji; Gui Zhilun; Yue Zhensing; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Y-type hexaferrites series with Ba 2 Me 2 Fe 12 O 22 (Me=Zn, Co, Cu) has been prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Y-type polycrystalline hexaferrite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and the magnetic characteristics were investigated by vibrating samples magnetometer. Experimental results show that the substitution of Co for Zn leads to a decrease of saturation magnetization and an increase of magnetic anisotropy. At room temperature, saturation magnetization does not increase linearly as Zn content increases due to the effect of the thermal agitation. Saturation magnetization of the Zn-Cu Y-type ferrite exhibits the similar variational rule at room temperature. As Cu substitute for Co, the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy all decrease. Cu modification can lower the single-phase formed temperature distinctly as the magnetic properties slightly debase

  13. Characterization of granular collapse onto hard substrates by acoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Toussaint, Renaud; De Rosny, Julien

    2013-04-01

    Brittle deformation in granular porous media can generate gravitational instabilities such as debris flows and rock avalanches. These phenomena constitute a major natural hazard for the population in mountainous, volcanic and coastal areas but their direct observation on the field is very dangerous. Recent studies showed that gravitational instabilities can be detected and characterized (volume, duration,...) thanks to the seismic signal they generate. In an avalanche, individual block bouncing and rolling on the ground are expected to generated signals of higher frequencies than the main flow spreading. The identification of the time/frequency signature of individual blocks in the recorded signal remains however difficult. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the acoustic signature of diverse simple sources corresponding to grains falling over thin plates of plexiglas and rock blocks. The elastic energy emitted by a single bouncing steel bead into the support was first quantitatively estimated and compared to the potential energy of fall and to the potential energy change during the shock. Next, we consider the collapse of granular columns made of steel spherical beads onto hard substrates. Initially, these columns were held by a magnetic field allowing to suppress suddenly the cohesion between the beads, and thus to minimize friction effects that would arise from side walls. We varied systematically the column volume, the column aspect ratio (height over length) and the grain size. This is shown to affect the signal envelope and frequency content. In the experiments, two types of acoustic sensors were used to record the signals in a wide frequency range: accelerometers (1 Hz to 56 kHz) and piezoelectric sensors (100 kHz to 1 MHz). The experiments were also monitored optically using fast cameras. We developed a technique to use quantitatively both types of sensors to evaluate the elastic energy emitted by the sources. Eventually, we looked at what

  14. Characterization of positron emission tomography hypoxia tracer uptake and tissue oxygenation via electrochemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowen, S.R.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Nordsmark, M.; Bentzen, S.M.; Jeraj, R.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Unique uptake and retention mechanisms of positron emission tomography (PET) hypoxia tracers make in vivo comparison between them challenging. Differences in imaged uptake of two common hypoxia radiotracers, [(61)Cu]Cu-ATSM and [(18)F]FMISO, were characterized via computational modeling to

  15. Characterization of Emissions from Open Burning of Meals Ready-to-Eat and their Paperboard Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning current and candidate Meals Ready-to-Eat (MRE) packaging and shipping containers were characterized in an effort to assuage concerns that combustive disposal of waste at forward operating bases could pose an environmental or inhalation threat. Four types of...

  16. Characterization of hepatic tumors using [11C]metomidate through positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roivainen, Anne; Naum, Alexandru; Nuutinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Using positron emission tomography (PET), we compared two tracers, [11C]metomidate ([11C]MTO) and [11C]acetate ([11C]ACE), for the characterization of hepatic tumors. METHODS: Thirty-three patients underwent PET with [11C]MTO and [11C]ACE and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  17. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  19. Spectrographic determination of impurities in copper and copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-11-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the determination of Al, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn and Zn in copper and copper oxide is described. Two mixtures (Graphite and ZnO: graphite and GeO sub(2)) were used as buffers. The standard deviation lies around 10%. (author)

  20. Positron Emission Tomography Based Elucidation of the Enhanced Permeability and Retention Effect in Dogs with Cancer Using Copper-64 Liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, the research in nanocarrier based antitumor drugs has been intense. The field has been devoted to treatment of cancer by exploiting EPR-based accumulation of nanocarriers in solid tumors, which for many years...... was considered to be a ubiquitous phenomenon. However, the understanding of differences in the EPR-effect between tumor types, heterogeneities within each patient group, and dependency on tumor development stage in humans is sparse. It is therefore important to enhance our understanding of the EPR......-effect in large animals and humans with spontaneously developed cancer. In the present paper, we describe a novel loading method of copper-64 into PEGylated liposomes and use these liposomes to evaluate the EPR-effect in 11 canine cancer patients with spontaneous solid tumors by PET/CT imaging. We thereby provide...

  1. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite between poly(aniline-co-m-chloroaniline)–copper sulfide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Saeed J.; Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in

    2014-06-15

    One dimensional nanostructures of poly(aniline-co-m-chloroaniline) nanocomposite (NC) with CuS nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared by template free method. CuS NPs are prepared by chemical method by using trisodium nitilotriacetate acid as a complexing agent. The materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV-Vis), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hexagonal structure of CuS NPs is confirmed from XRD results with lattice parameters, a=3.78 Å and c=16.288 Å. The diameter of CuS NPs is found to be 16 nm from TEM measurements. Different shapes such as NPs, nanorods and nanotubes structures are observed for poly(aniline-co-m-chloroaniline) whereas its NC with CuS NPs have nanorod and nanotube shapes. Significant shift in the absorption edge of CuS NC is observed in comparison with copolymer and CuS NPs. Also the thermal stability of CuS NC is improved as compared with a copolymer and CuS NPs.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Copper and Cadmium Resistance Determinants in the Biomining Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Orell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfolobus metallicus is a thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon used in high-temperature bioleaching processes that is able to grow under stressing conditions such as high concentrations of heavy metals. Nevertheless, the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for heavy metal resistance in S. metallicus remain uncharacterized. Proteomic analysis of S. metallicus cells exposed to 100 mM Cu revealed that 18 out of 30 upregulated proteins are related to the production and conversion of energy, amino acids biosynthesis, and stress responses. Ten of these last proteins were also up-regulated in S. metallicus treated in the presence of 1 mM Cd suggesting that at least in part, a common general response to these two heavy metals. The S. metallicus genome contained two complete cop gene clusters, each encoding a metallochaperone (CopM, a Cu-exporting ATPase (CopA, and a transcriptional regulator (CopT. Transcriptional expression analysis revealed that copM and copA from each cop gene cluster were cotranscribed and their transcript levels increased when S. metallicus was grown either in the presence of Cu or using chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 as oxidizable substrate. This study shows for the first time the presence of a duplicated version of the cop gene cluster in Archaea and characterizes some of the Cu and Cd resistance determinants in a thermophilic archaeon employed for industrial biomining.

  3. New copper(II) complexes with dopamine hydrochloride and vanillymandelic acid: Spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; El-Nahas, R. G.

    2011-10-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. The Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of dopamine hydrochloride (DO.HCl) and vanillymandelic acid (VMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical techniques namely IR, magnetic and UV-vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Cu(II) forms 1:1 (Cu:DO) and 1:2 (Cu:VMA) chelates. DO behave as a uninegative tridentate ligand in binding to the Cu(II) ion while VMA behaves as a uninegative bidentate ligand. IR spectra show that the DO is coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in a tridentate manner with ONO donor sites of the phenolic- OH, -NH and carbonyl- O, while VMA is coordinated with OO donor sites of the phenolic- OH and -NH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Cu(II) chelates in octahedral and square planar geometries with DO and VMA, respectively. The thermal decomposition of Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  4. Structural characterization of copper (II) tetradecanoate with 2,2′-bipyridine and 4,4′-bipyridine to study magnetic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Said Bedowr; Rosiyah Binti Yahya; Nesrain Farhan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents synthesis, structural characterization and spintronic applications of copper (II) tetradecanoate derived magnetic complexes. The complexes were prepared by a chemical reaction between [Cu2(CH3(CH2)12COO)4](EtOH)2 and 2,2′-bipyridine-4,4′-bipyridine ligands respectively. The complexes were further reacted between the product of the first reaction and 4,4′-bipyridine-2,2′-bipyridine respectively. The structural characterization techniques included elemental analysis, Fourier...

  5. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Kong, Fang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-06-01

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy)2V2O4(SeO3)2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V2O4(SeO3)2·0.5H2O (2) and Cu2(2,2-bipy)2V5O12(SeO3)2 (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy)2V2O4(SeO3)2}2 dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy)2}2+ moieties connected by the {V4O8(SeO3)4}4- cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V2O4(SeO3)2}n chain in which the {Cu2(2,2-bipy)2}4+ moieties are bridged by the {V4O8(SeO3)4}4- clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {VIVVV4SeIV2O18}n4- and {Cu(2,2-bipy)}2+ complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V4O8(SeO3)4}4- cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties.

  6. Characterization of cotton gin PM10 emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies and particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  7. Structural and magnetic characterization of a tetranuclear copper(II) cubane stabilized by intramolecular metal cation-π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Rivière, Eric; Giorgi, Michel; Jamet, Hélène; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Réglier, Marius; Simaan, A Jalila; Tron, Thierry

    2013-05-20

    A novel tetranuclear copper(II) complex (1) was synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the ligand N-benzyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(1)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that complex 1 consists of a Cu4(OH)4 cubane core, where the four copper(II) centers are linked by μ3-hydroxo bridges. Each copper(II) ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. X-ray analysis also evidenced an unusual metal cation-π interaction between the copper ions and phenyl substituents of the ligand. Calculations based on the density functional theory method were used to quantify the strength of this metal-π interaction, which appears as an important stabilizing parameter of the cubane core, possibly acting as a driving parameter in the self-aggregation process. In contrast, using the ligand N-phenethyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(2)), which only differs from L(1) by one methylene group, the same synthetic procedure led to a binuclear bis(μ-hydroxo)copper(II) complex (2) displaying intermolecular π-π interactions or, by a slight variation of the experimental conditions, to a mononuclear complex (3). These complexes were studied by X-ray diffraction techniques. The magnetic properties of complexes 1 and 2 are reported and discussed.

  8. Synthesis, spectral characterization and structural studies of a novel O, N, O donor semicarbazone and its binuclear copper complex with hydrogen bond stabilized lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layana, S. R.; Saritha, S. R.; Anitha, L.; Sithambaresan, M.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.

    2018-04-01

    A novel O,N,O donor salicylaldehyde-N4-phenylsemicarbazone, (H2L) has been synthesized and physicochemically characterized. Detailed structural studies of H2L using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique reveals the existence of intra and inter molecular hydrogen bonding interactions, which provide extra stability to the molecule. We have successfully synthesized a binuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu2(HL)2(NO3)(H2O)2]NO3 with phenoxy bridging between the two copper centers. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements, FT-IR, UV-Visible, mass and EPR spectral methods. The grown crystals of the copper complex were employed for the single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The complex possesses geometrically different metal centers, in which the ligand coordinates through ketoamide oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and deprotonated phenoxy oxygen. The extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions of the coordinated and the lattice nitrate groups interconnect the complex units to form a 2D supramolecular assembly. The ESI mass spectrum substantiates the existence of 1:1 complex. The g values obtained from the EPR spectrum in frozen DMF suggest dx2 -y2 ground state for the unpaired electron.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1444 - What emissions limitations and work practice standards must I meet for my copper concentrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than 5 percent of the total operating time in any semiannual reporting period. (g) Venturi wet scrubbers. For each venturi wet scrubber applied to meet any total particulate matter emission limit in... test. (h) Other control devices. For each control device other than a baghouse or venturi wet scrubber...

  10. The development and characterization of a novel aluminum-copper-magnesium P/M alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Christopher Daniel

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) is a metal fabrication process that is characterized by high yield and ability to be automated, as well as the resultant part complexity and reproducibility. This press and sinter process is favoured by the automotive industry. Aluminum alloy P/M parts are particularly attractive because they have a high strength to weight ratio and they can be made to have high corrosion and wear resistance. There are few commercial Al P/M alloys currently in use and they occupy a small portion of the market. To expand the use of aluminum in the industry a new alloy was created, modeled after the wrought AC2024 family of alloys. P/M 2324, with a nominal composition of Al-4.4Cu-1.5Mg, was assessed using physical, chemical and mechanical methods to help maximize alloy properties through processing. The objective of this work was to develop a viable industrial alloy. The investigation of 2324 included the evaluation of starting powders, starting composition, processing methods, secondary treatments, and industrial response. All blending and compacting was completed at Dalhousie University, while sintering was undertaken at Dalhousie and GKN Sinter Metals. The green alloy was assessed for best compaction pressure using green density and strength. The sintered alloy was assessed to determine the best press and sinter variables, using dimensional change, sintered density, apparent hardness, tensile properties and microscopy. These same sintered properties were tested to determine if sintering done on a laboratory scale could be replicated industrially. The viability of heat treatment was tested using differential scanning calorimetry, hardness and tensile properties. The alloy was also subject to modifications of Cu and Mg amounts, as well as to the addition of tin to the base composition. It was determined that compaction at 400MPa and sintering at 600°C for 20min produced the best properties for the sintered bodies. The resultant mechanical properties were

  11. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a multifunctional inorganic-organic hybrid mixed-valence copper(I/II) coordination polymer: {[CuCN][Cu(isonic)2]}n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Tong; Ye, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Jing; Sui, Yan

    2017-12-01

    A new multifunctional mixed-valence copper(I/II) coordination polymer, {[CuCN][Cu(isonic)2]}n(1) (Hisonic = isonicotinic acid), was synthesized by treating isonicotinic acid and 5-amino-tetrazolate (Hatz = 5-amino-tetrazolate) with copper(II) salts under hydrothermal conditions, and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound exhibit noncentrosymmetric polar packing arrangement. It is three-dimensional (3D) framework with (3,5)-connected 'seh-3' topological network constructed from metal organic framework {[Cu(isonic)2]}n and the inorganic linear chain{Cu(CN)}n subunits. A remarkable feature of 1 is the rhombic open channels that are occupied by a linear chain of {Cu(CN)}n. Impressively compound 1 displays not only a second harmonic generation (SHG) response, but also a ferroelectric behavior and magnetic properties.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with a covalently attached copper(II) salen complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bazarganipour, Mehdi

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxyl functionalized copper(II) Schiff-base, N,N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)-ethylene-1,2-diaminecopper(II), [Cu((OH) 2-salen)], has been covalently anchored on modified MWCNTs. The new modified MWCNTs ([Cu((OH) 2-salen)]-MWCNTs) have been characterized by TEM, thermal analysis, XRD, XPS, UV-vis, DRS, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The modified copper(II) MWCNTs solid was used to affect the catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with tert-butylhydroperoxide as the oxidant at 333 K. The system is truly heterogeneous (no leaching observed) and reusable (no decrease in activity) in three consecutive runs. Acetophenone was the major product though small amounts of o- and p-hydroxyacetophenones were also formed revealing that C-H bond activation takes place both at benzylic and aromatic ring carbon atoms. Ring hydroxylation was more over the "neat" complexes than over the encapsulated complexes.

  14. Characterization of atmospheric emissions of a radiopharmaceutical' s production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Gessilane M.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Maletta, Paulo G.M.; Alves, Thaís A.N., E-mail: gessilane.siqueira@cdtn.br, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: pgmm@cdtn.br, E-mail: aryadnenasc@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Cyclotrons are radiative facilities capable of synthesizing radioisotopes that will be used for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. The increasing use of these substances in diagnostic therapies and procedures in nuclear medicine implies the need to increase the production of radiopharmaceuticals. In this context, it is fundamental, from the point of view of environmental radioprotection, to characterize atmospheric emissions from this type of production, in order to make feasible studies of radiological impacts, especially with a view to human health and environmental preservation. It is premise that facilities must ensure the radiological safety of exposed individuals through the control of discharges into the environment. This work aims to characterize the atmospheric emissions behavior of a Radiopharmaceutical Research and Production Unit (RRPU). The emission data for the radionuclides C-11, F-18, and N-13, associated to the production of radiopharmaceuticals ({sup 18}F-FES, {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 18}FCOL, {sup 18}F-FLT, Na{sup 18}F) during the year 2016 were analyzed. Emissions data are collected every 10 seconds from a sensor installed in the unit's exhaust system. The pre-processing of these data was done by spreadsheets (Excel®) and exported to a statistical package (Minitab16®) to characterize the behavior of these emissions. The results of this study aim to contribute: to the study of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the region of interest; to evaluate the operational control measures of the investigated facility; and to evaluate the radiological impacts in the region neighboring the facility. This methodology has been used in atmospheric dispersion modeling studies in the RRPU and the results showed that the annual doses from the emissions are within the limits established by the radioprotection norms of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Additionally, it is believed that the information generated in this study

  15. Human copper transporter 2 is localized in late endosomes and lysosomes and facilitates cellular copper uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghe, van den P.V.E; Folmer, D.E.; Malingré, H.E.M.; Beurden, van E.; Klomp, A.E.M.; Sluis, van de B.; Merkx, M.; Berger, R.J.; Klomp, L.W.J.

    2007-01-01

    High-affinity cellular copper uptake is mediated by the CTR (copper transporter) 1 family of proteins. The highly homologous hCTR (human CTR) 2 protein has been identified, but its function in copper uptake is currently unknown. To characterize the role of hCTR2 in copper homoeostasis,

  16. Emission characterization and evaluation of natural gas-fueled cogeneration microturbines and internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Aldo; Chicco, Gianfranco; Genon, Giuseppe; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The increasing diffusion of small-scale energy systems within the distributed generation (DG) paradigm is raising the need for studying the environmental impact due to the different DG solutions in order to assess their sustainability. Addressing the environmental impact calls for building specific models for studying both local and global emissions. In this framework, the adoption of natural gas-fueled DG cogeneration technologies may provide, as a consequence of cogeneration enhanced overall energy efficiency and of natural gas relatively low carbon content, a significant reduction of global impact in terms of CO 2 emissions with respect to the separate production of electricity and heat. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the DG alternatives should take into account as well the impact due to the presence of plants spread over the territory that could increase the local pollution, in particular due to CO and NO x , and thus could worsen the local air quality. This paper provides an overview on the characterization of the emissions from small-scale natural gas-fueled cogeneration systems, with specific reference to the DG technologies nowadays most available in the market, namely, microturbines and internal combustion engines. The corresponding local and global environmental impacts are evaluated by using the emission balance approach. A numerical case study with two representative machines highlights their different emission characteristics, also considering the partial-load emission performance

  17. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel Cut family cDNA that encodes human copper transporter protein CutC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jixi; Ji Chaoneng; Chen Jinzhong; Yang Zhenxing; Wang Yijing; Fei, Xiangwei; Zheng Mei; Gu Xing; Wen Ge; Xie Yi; Mao Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an essential heavy metal trace element that plays important roles in cell physiology. The Cut family was associated with the copper homeostasis and involved in several important metabolisms, such as uptake, storage, delivery, and efflux of copper. In this study, a novel Cut family cDNA was isolated from the human fetal brain library, which encodes a 273 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of about 29.3 kDa and a calculated pI of 8.17. It was named hCutC (human copper transporter protein CutC). The ORF of hCutC gene was cloned into pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli M15. The secreted hCutC protein was purified to a homogenicity of 95% by using the Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. RT-PCR analysis showed that the hCutC gene expressed extensively in human tissues. Subcellular location analysis of hCutC-EGFP fusion protein revealed that hCutC was distributed to cytoplasm of COS-7 cells, and both cytoplasm and nucleus of AD293 cells. The results suggest that hCutC may be one shuttle protein and play important roles in intracellular copper trafficking

  19. Application of factorial designs and Doehlert matrix in optimization of experimental variables associated with the preconcentration and determination of vanadium and copper in seawater by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Sergio L.C.; Queiroz, Adriana S.; Fernandes, Marcelo S.; Santos, Hilda C. dos

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper a procedure for preconcentration and determination of vanadium and copper in seawater using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) is proposed, which is based on solid-phase extraction of vanadium (IV), vanadium (V) and copper (II) ions as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complexes by active carbon. The optimization process was carried out using two-level full factorials and Doehlert matrix designs. Four variables (PAN mass, pH, active carbon mass and shaking time) were regarded as factors in the optimization. Results of the two-level full factorial design 2 4 with 16 runs for vanadium extraction, based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that the factors pH and active carbon mass, besides the interaction (pHxactive carbon mass), are statistically significant. For copper, the ANOVA revealed that the factors PAN mass, pH and active carbon mass and the interactions (PAN massxpH) and (pHxactive carbon mass) are statistically significant. Doehlert designs were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The procedure proposed allowed the determination of vanadium and copper with detection limits (3σ/S) of 73 and 94 ng l -1 , respectively. The precision, calculated as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was 1.22 and 1.37% for 12.50 μg l -1 of vanadium and copper, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 80. The recovery achieved for determination of vanadium and copper in the presence of several cations demonstrated that this procedure improved the selectivity required for seawater analysis. The procedure was applied to the determination of vanadium and copper in seawater samples collected in Salvador City, Brazil. Results showed good agreement with other data reported in the literature

  20. Acoustic emission characterization of fracture toughness for fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Hui; Sun, Yuyao; Zhang, Lidong; Wang, Hongqin; Cheng, Laifei

    2013-01-01

    The fracture toughness of a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite was investigated relating to classical critical stress intensity factor K IC , work of fracture, and acoustic emission energy. The K IC was obtained by the single edge notch beam method and the work of fracture was calculated using the featured area under the load–displacement curves. The K IC , work of fracture, and acoustic emission energy were compared for the composites before and after heat treatment and then analyzed associated with toughening microstructures of fiber pullout. It indicates that the work of fracture and acoustic emission energy can be more suitable to reflect the toughness rather than the traditional K IC , which has certain limitation for the fracture toughness characterization of the crack tolerant fiber ceramic composites.

  1. Layered copper hydroxide n-alkylsulfonate salts: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic behaviors in relation to the basal spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hun; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2005-01-27

    A series of hybrid inorganic-organic copper(II) hydroxy n-alkylsulfonate with a triangular lattice, Cu(2)(OH)(3)(C(n)H(2)(n)(+1)SO(3)) (n = 6, 8, 10), are prepared by anion exchange, starting from copper hydroxy nitrate Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3). These compounds show a layered structure as determined by X-ray diffraction, with interlayer distances of 14.3-34.8 A in alternation with interdigitated bilayer packing. Magnetic properties have been investigated by means of dc and ac measurements. All the compounds show similar metamagnet behaviors, with a Neel temperature of about 11 K. A subtle difference in the ac magnetic susceptibility among the compounds is understood by the existence of hydrogen bonding between the sulfonate headgroup and the hydroxide anion. A detailed molecular structure of the alkyl chains incorporated to the inorganic copper hydroxide layer is also discussed from the FTIR data.

  2. The structure of spruce-fir tree stands mortality under impact of the Middle Ural copper smelter emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Bergman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of industrial pollution on mortality values (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees and its distribution by degrees of decomposition were investigated in spruce-fir forest stands in the vicinity of the Middle Ural copper smelter (the city of Revda, Sverdlovsk region. The total mortality and mortality in each size category did not depend on the distance to the source of pollution. At the same time, the amount of dead fallen wood was significantly greater (1.9 times in the polluted area (2 and 4 km from the smelter as compared with the background territory (30 km from the smelter. Mortality proportion out of the total number of the trees (both live and dead did not differ significantly between the sites, although this parameter tended to increase nearer the smelter. The distribution of mortality by size categories revealed significant differences between background territory and site with average level of contamination, as well as background territory and highly contaminated site. Observed differences are associated with an increased proportion of lesser mortality near the smelter (by 15 % and 12 % as compared with areas of background and middle levels of contamination, respectively, as well as because of double-declining of medium- and large-sized mortality near the smelter. The distribution of the living tree stands by size categories also has a connection with level of contamination. The average diameters of the living tree stand and the elements of coarse woody debris (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees do not differ significantly between sites with different levels of contamination. For the small-sized dead fallen wood, the proportion of weakly decomposed stems increased with the level of pollution, while proportion of strongly decomposed stems decreased. The distribution of medium- and large-sized dead fallen wood on the stages of decomposition does not vary between sites with different levels of pollution.

  3. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K.; Sithambaresan, M.; Aiswarya, N.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2015-03-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ = 0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)sbnd I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the dx2-y2 ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined.

  4. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N⁴-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Sithambaresan, M; Aiswarya, N; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra

    2015-03-15

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ=0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g||>g⊥>2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the d(x2-y2) ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  6. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian, E-mail: shivashangari@gmail.com [Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu (India); Ravikumar, Vilwanathan, E-mail: ravikumarbdu@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  7. Characterization of fresh and aged organic aerosol emissions from meat charbroiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kaltsonoudis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking emissions can be a significant source of fine particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the aerosol- and gas-phase emissions from meat charbroiling were characterized. Greek souvlakia with pork were cooked using a commercial charbroiler and a fraction of the emissions were introduced into a smog chamber where after a characterization phase they were exposed to UV illumination and oxidants. The particulate and gas phases were characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS correspondingly. More than 99 % of the aerosol emitted was composed of organic compounds, while black carbon (BC contributed 0.3 % and the inorganic species less than 0.5 % of the total aerosol mass. The initial O  :  C ratio was approximately 0.09 and increased up to 0.30 after a few hours of chemical aging (exposures of 1010 molecules cm−3 s for OH and 100 ppb h for ozone. The initial and aged AMS spectra differed considerably (θ =  27°. Ambient measurements were also conducted during Fat Thursday in Patras, Greece, when traditionally meat is charbroiled everywhere in the city. Positive matrix factorization (PMF revealed that cooking organic aerosol (COA reached up to 85 % of the total OA from 10:00 to 12:00 LST that day. The ambient COA factor in two major Greek cities had a mass spectrum during spring and summer similar to the aged meat charbroiling emissions. In contrast, the ambient COA factor during winter resembled strongly the fresh laboratory meat charbroiling emissions.

  8. Metal toxicity characterization factors for marine ecosystems: considering the importance of the estuary for freshwater emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    The study develops site-dependent characterization factors (CFs) for marine ecotoxicity of metals emitted to freshwater, taking their passage of the estuary into account. To serve life cycle assessment (LCA) studies where emission location is often unknown, site-generic marine CFs were developed...... with an estuary removal process to calculate FF. BF and EF were taken from Dong et al. Environ Sci Technol 50:269–278 (2016). Site-generic marine CFs were derived from site-dependent marine CFs. Different averaging principles were tested, and the approach representing estuary discharge rate was identified...... between both methods. Accounting for estuary removal particularly influences marine ecotoxicity CFs for emission to freshwater of metals that have a strong tendency to complex-bind to particles. It indicates the importance of including estuary in the characterization modelling when dealing with those...

  9. Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from tin-droplets irradiated with Nd:YAG laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aota, T; Nakai, Y; Fujioka, S; Shimomura, M; Nishimura, H; Nishihara, N; Miyanaga, N; Izawa, Y; Mima, K; Fujiwara, E

    2008-01-01

    EUV emission from spherical and planer targets were precisely characterized as an experimental database for use in EUV source generation at high repetition rates. In the single-shot base experiments, conversion efficiency as high as those for the plasma geometry has been demonstrated. The integrated experiment was made with 10 Hz plasma generation, obtained conversion efficiency is low mainly due to unstable positioning of the droplets

  10. Characterization by acoustic emission and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the cathodic disbonding of Zn coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amami, Souhail; Lemaitre, Christian; Laksimi, Abdelouahed; Benmedakhene, Salim

    2010-01-01

    Galvanized steel has been tested in a synthetic sea water solution under different cathodic overprotection conditions. The generated hydrogen flux caused the damage of the metal-zinc interface and led to a progressive coating detachment. Scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and acoustic emission technique were used to characterize the damage chronology under different cathodic potentials. A damage mechanism was proposed and the acoustic signature related to the coating degradation was statistically identified using clustering techniques.

  11. Characterization by acoustic emission and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the cathodic disbonding of Zn coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amami, Souhail [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 6066 du CNRS, B.P. 20529, 60206 Compiegne Cedex (France)], E-mail: souhail.amami@utc.fr; Lemaitre, Christian; Laksimi, Abdelouahed; Benmedakhene, Salim [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 6066 du CNRS, B.P. 20529, 60206 Compiegne Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    Galvanized steel has been tested in a synthetic sea water solution under different cathodic overprotection conditions. The generated hydrogen flux caused the damage of the metal-zinc interface and led to a progressive coating detachment. Scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and acoustic emission technique were used to characterize the damage chronology under different cathodic potentials. A damage mechanism was proposed and the acoustic signature related to the coating degradation was statistically identified using clustering techniques.

  12. Copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, total scattering, and powder diffraction--a benchmark structure-property study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Nina; Jensen, Ellen M L; Mi, Jianli; Mamakhel, Aref; Norén, Katarina; Qingbo, Meng; Iversen, Bo B

    2013-07-14

    Metal functionalized nanoparticles potentially have improved properties e.g. in catalytic applications, but their precise structures are often very challenging to determine. Here we report a structural benchmark study based on tetragonal anatase TiO2 nanoparticles containing 0-2 wt% copper. The particles were synthesized by continuous flow synthesis under supercritical water-isopropanol conditions. Size determination using synchrotron PXRD, TEM, and X-ray total scattering reveals 5-7 nm monodisperse particles. The precise dopant structure and thermal stability of the highly crystalline powders were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and multi-temperature synchrotron PXRD (300-1000 K). The combined evidence reveals that copper is present as a dopant on the particle surfaces, most likely in an amorphous oxide or hydroxide shell. UV-VIS spectroscopy shows that copper presence at concentrations higher than 0.3 wt% lowers the band gap energy. The particles are unaffected by heating to 600 K, while growth and partial transformation to rutile TiO2 occur at higher temperatures. Anisotropic unit cell behavior of anatase is observed as a consequence of the particle growth (a decreases and c increases).

  13. Synthesis, characterization and fabrication of copper nanoparticles in N-isopropylacrylamide based co-polymer microgels for degradation of p-nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqi Zahoor H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid [P(NIPAM-co-AAc] microgels were synthesized by precipitation polymerization. Copper nanoparticles were successfully fabricated inside the microgels by in-situ reduction of copper ions in an aqueous medium. The microgels were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Hydrodynamic radius of P(NIPAM-co-AAc microgel particles increased with an increase in pH in aqueous medium at 25 °C. Copper-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid [Cu-P(NIPAM-co-AAc] hybrid microgels were used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP. Effect of temperature, concentration of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 and catalyst dosage on the value of apparent rate constant (kapp for catalytic reduction of 4-NP in the presence of Cu-P(NIPAM-co-AAc hybrid microgels were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the value of kapp for catalytic reduction of 4-NP in the presence of Cu-P(NIPAM-co-AAc hybrid microgel catalyst increased with an increase in catalyst dosage, temperature and concentration of NaBH4 in aqueous medium. The results were discussed in terms of diffusion of reactants towards catalyst surface and swelling-deswelling of hybrid microgels.

  14. Structural characterization of natural nickel and copper binding ligands along the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene M Boiteau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic ligands form strong complexes with many trace elements in seawater. Various metals can compete for the same ligand chelation sites, and the final speciation of bound metals is determined by relative binding affinities, concentrations of binding sites, uncomplexed metal concentrations, and association/dissociation kinetics. Different ligands have a wide range of metal affinities and specificities. However, the chemical composition of these ligands in the marine environment remains poorly constrained, which has hindered progress in modeling marine metal speciation. In this study, we detected and characterized natural ligands that bind copper (Cu and nickel (Ni in the eastern South Pacific Ocean with liquid chromatography tandem inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS, and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS. Dissolved Cu, Ni, and ligand concentrations were highest near the coast. Chromatographically unresolved polar compounds dominated ligands isolated near the coast by solid phase extraction. Offshore, metal and ligand concentrations decreased, but several new ligands appeared. One major ligand was detected that bound both Cu2+ and Ni2+. Based on accurate mass and fragmentation measurements, this compound has a molecular formula of C20H21N4O8S2 + M+ (M = metal isotope and contains several azole-like metal binding groups. Additional lipophilic Ni complexes were also present only in oligotrophic waters, with masses of 649, 698, and 712 m/z (corresponding to the 58Ni metal complex. Molecular formulae of C32H54N3O6S2Ni+ and C33H56N3O6S2Ni+ were determined for two of these compounds. Addition of Cu and Ni to the samples also revealed the presence of additional compounds that can bind both Ni and Cu. Although these specific compounds represent a small fraction of the total dissolved Cu and Ni pool, they highlight the compositional diversity and spatial heterogeneity of marine Ni and Cu ligands, as

  15. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fugitive emission source characterization using a gradient-based optimization scheme and scalar transport adjoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Carol A.; Joynes, Ian M.; Campbell, Lucy J.; Johnson, Matthew R.

    2018-05-01

    Fugitive emissions are important sources of greenhouse gases and lost product in the energy sector that can be difficult to detect, but are often easily mitigated once they are known, located, and quantified. In this paper, a scalar transport adjoint-based optimization method is presented to locate and quantify unknown emission sources from downstream measurements. This emission characterization approach correctly predicted locations to within 5 m and magnitudes to within 13% of experimental release data from Project Prairie Grass. The method was further demonstrated on simulated simultaneous releases in a complex 3-D geometry based on an Alberta gas plant. Reconstructions were performed using both the complex 3-D transient wind field used to generate the simulated release data and using a sequential series of steady-state RANS wind simulations (SSWS) representing 30 s intervals of physical time. Both the detailed transient and the simplified wind field series could be used to correctly locate major sources and predict their emission rates within 10%, while predicting total emission rates from all sources within 24%. This SSWS case would be much easier to implement in a real-world application, and gives rise to the possibility of developing pre-computed databases of both wind and scalar transport adjoints to reduce computational time.

  17. Characterization of VOCs Emissions from Industrial Facilities and Natural Gas Production Sites: A Mobile Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Gu, J.; Trask, B.; Lyon, D. R.; Albertson, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent expansion of U.S. oil and gas (O&G) production, many studies have focused on the quantification of fugitive methane emissions. However, only a few studies have explored the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from O&G production sites that affect human health in adjacent communities, both directly through exposure to toxic chemical compounds and indirectly via formation of ground-level ozone. In this study, we seek to quantify emissions of VOCs from O&G production sites and petrochemical facilities using a mobile sensing approach, with both high-end analyzers and relatively low-cost sensors. A probabilistic source characterization approach is used to estimate emission rates of VOCs, directly taking into account quantitative measure of sensor accuracy. This work will provide data with proper spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, so as to improve the understanding of VOCs emission from O&G production sites, VOCs-exposure of local communities, and explore the feasibility of low-cost sensors for VOCs monitoring. The project will provide an important foundational step to enable large scale studies.

  18. Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silane coupling agent of KH550 was used to connect the ITO and polyurethanes. ► Infrared emissivity values of the hybrids were compared and analyzed. ► Interfacial synergistic action and orderly secondary structure were the key factors. -- Abstract: Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide and racemic polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposites (LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO) were prepared by grafting the organics onto the surfaces of modified ITO nanoparticles. LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO composites based on the chiral and racemic tyrosine were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the infrared emissivity values (8–14 μm) were investigated in addition. The results indicated that the polyurethanes had been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of ITO without destroying the crystalline structure. Both composites possessed the lower infrared emissivity values than the bare ITO nanoparticles, which indicated that the interfacial interaction had great effect on the infrared emissivity. Furthermore, LPU@ITO based on the optically active polyurethane had the virtue of regular secondary structure and more interfacial synergistic actions between organics and inorganics, thus it exhibited lower infrared emissivity value than RPU@ITO based on the racemic polyurethane.

  19. Structural characterization of copper (II tetradecanoate with 2,2′-bipyridine and 4,4′-bipyridine to study magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Said Bedowr

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents synthesis, structural characterization and spintronic applications of copper (II tetradecanoate derived magnetic complexes. The complexes were prepared by a chemical reaction between [Cu2(CH3(CH212COO4](EtOH2 and 2,2′-bipyridine-4,4′-bipyridine ligands respectively. The complexes were further reacted between the product of the first reaction and 4,4′-bipyridine-2,2′-bipyridine respectively. The structural characterization techniques included elemental analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Ultra-violet–Visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy, polarized optical microscopy, magnetic moment and thermogravimetric analysis. The structural and characterization results suggested that the synthesized complexes were binuclear and mononuclear covalent complexes of copper(II with structural formulas [Cu2(η2-(OOCR4](4,4′-bpy2H2O] and [Cu(η1-(OOCR2(2,2′-bpy (4,4′-bpy] respectively.

  20. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  1. Copper(II) acetates with aliphatic/heterocyclic amines - Coupled TG-DTA-EGA study, IR characterization and structure correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňák, V.; Vargová, Z.; Györyová, K.; Večerníková, Eva; Balek, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2005), s. 747-754 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : copper acetate * 1,3-diaminopropane * DTA Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2005

  2. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baloun, J.; Nevrtalová, E.; Kováčová, V.; Hudzieczek, V.; Čegan, R.; Vyskot, B.; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 13 (2014), s. 1188-1196 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Copper * Genes coding ROS-eliminating and Cu-transporting proteins * RNA-Seq database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  3. Zinc, lead and copper in human teeth measured by induced coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, L.T.; Bradley, D.A. E-mail: D.A.Bradley@exeter.ac.uk; Mohd, Y.; Jamil, M

    2000-11-15

    Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) has been used to determine Pb, Zn and Cu levels in 47 exfoliated human teeth (all of which required extraction for orthodontic reasons). Lead concentrations for the group were 1.7 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} to 40.5 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}, with a median of 9.8 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}. A median lead level in excess of the group value was found for the teeth of six lorry drivers who were included in the study. A more significant enhancement was found for the seven subjects whose age was in excess of 60 years. The median values for Zn and Cu were 123.0 and 0.6 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} respectively. Present values for tooth-Zn are lower than published data for other ethnic groups.

  4. Characterization and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from different heating systems in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).

  5. Emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass fuels - extensive quantification and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Christoffer; Nordin, Anders; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry; Westerholm, Roger [Stockholm Univ., Arrhenius Laboratory (Sweden). Analytical Chemistry

    2005-02-01

    This work was a part of the Swedish national research program concerning emissions and air quality with the sub-programme concerning biomass, health and environment - BHM. The main objective of the work was to systematically determine the quantities and characteristics of gaseous and particulate emissions from combustion in residential wood log and biomass fuel pellet appliances and report emission factors for the most important emission components. The specific focus was on present commercial wood and pellet stoves as well as to illustrate the potentials for future technology development. The work was divided in different subprojects; 1) a literature review of health effects of ambient wood smoke, 2) design and evaluation of an emission dilution sampling set-up, 3) a study of the effects of combustion conditions on the emission formation and characteristics and illustrate the potential for emission minimization during pellets combustion, 4) a study of the inorganic characteristics of particulate matter during combustion of different pelletized woody raw materials and finally 5) an extensive experimental characterization and quantification of gaseous and particulate emissions from residential wood log and pellet stoves. From the initial literature search, nine relevant health studies were identified, all focused on effects of short-term exposure. Substantial quantitative information was only found for acute asthma in relation to PM10. In comparison with the general estimations for ambient PM and adverse health effects, the relative risks were even stronger in the studies where residential wood combustion was considered as a major PM source. However, the importance of other particle properties than mass concentration, like chemical composition, particle size and number concentration remain to be elucidated. A whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass fired appliances was designed, constructed and evaluated concerning the effects of sampling

  6. Emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass fuels - extensive quantification and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Christoffer; Nordin, Anders; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry; Westerholm, Roger [Stockholm Univ., Arrhenius Laboratory (Sweden). Analytical Chemistry

    2005-02-01

    This work was a part of the Swedish national research program concerning emissions and air quality with the sub-programme concerning biomass, health and environment - BHM. The main objective of the work was to systematically determine the quantities and characteristics of gaseous and particulate emissions from combustion in residential wood log and biomass fuel pellet appliances and report emission factors for the most important emission components. The specific focus was on present commercial wood and pellet stoves as well as to illustrate the potentials for future technology development. The work was divided in different subprojects; 1) a literature review of health effects of ambient wood smoke, 2) design and evaluation of an emission dilution sampling set-up, 3) a study of the effects of combustion conditions on the emission formation and characteristics and illustrate the potential for emission minimization during pellets combustion, 4) a study of the inorganic characteristics of particulate matter during combustion of different pelletized woody raw materials and finally 5) an extensive experimental characterization and quantification of gaseous and particulate emissions from residential wood log and pellet stoves. From the initial literature search, nine relevant health studies were identified, all focused on effects of short-term exposure. Substantial quantitative information was only found for acute asthma in relation to PM10. In comparison with the general estimations for ambient PM and adverse health effects, the relative risks were even stronger in the studies where residential wood combustion was considered as a major PM source. However, the importance of other particle properties than mass concentration, like chemical composition, particle size and number concentration remain to be elucidated. A whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass fired appliances was designed, constructed and evaluated concerning the effects of sampling

  7. Chemical and biological characterization of residential oil burner emission. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.; Peterson, A.

    1994-02-01

    This literature study covers the time period 1980 to 1993 and is concerned with oil burners used for residential heating with a nominal heating power of less than 20 kW, which are normally used in one-family houses. Emission samples from domestic heaters using organic fuels consists of a very complex matrix of pollutants ranging from aggregate states solid to gaseous. Biological effects elicited by exhaust emissions have been detected and determined. It has been shown for diesel vehicles that selection of fuel properties has an impact on combustion reaction paths which results in different exhaust chemical compositions. It was also determined that diesel fuel properties have an impact on the biological activity of diesel exhaust emissions, which is to be expected from their chemical characterization. As a result of this, Sweden has an environmental classification of diesel fuels which has been in force since 1991. Analogously, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has asked whether detrimental environmental and health effects from residential heating can be reduced by selection of fuel properties, and if so by how much? In addition, which properties are most important to control in a future environmental classification of heating oils? As a first step in this process, a literature survey was performed. Major topics were: Sampling technology, chemical composition, biological activity, and risk assessment of emissions. 33 refs, 11 tabs

  8. Operationally defined species characterization and bioaccessibility evaluation of cobalt, copper and selenium in Cape gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) by SEC-ICP MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-03-01

    Physalis peruviana could attract great interest because of its nutritional and industrial properties. It is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and carotenoids. Physalis Peruviana is also known to have a positive impact on human health. Unfortunately, still little is known about trace elements present in Physalis Peruviana and their forms available for the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility and characterization of species of cobalt, copper and selenium in Physalis Peruviana fruits. Total and extractable contents of elements were determined by mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS). In order to separate the different types of metal complexes Physalis peruviana fruits were treated with the following solvents: Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (pH 7.4) and ammonium acetate (pH 5.5). The best efficiency of extraction of: cobalt was obtained for ammonium acetate (56%) and Tris-HCl (60%); for copper was obtained for SDS (66%), for selenium the best extraction efficiency was obtained after extraction with SDS (48%). To obtain information about bioaccessibility of investigated elements, enzymatic extraction based on in vitro simulation of gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (pancreatin) digestion was performed. For copper and selenium the simulation of gastric digestion leads to the extraction yield above 90%, while both steps of digestion method were necessary to obtain satisfactory extraction yield in the case of cobalt. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to on-line ICP MS detection was used to investigate collected metal species. The main fraction of metal compounds was found in the 17 kDa region. Cobalt and copper create complexes mostly with compounds extracted by means of ammonium acetate and SDS, respectively. Cobalt, copper and selenium were found to be highly bioaccessible from Physalis Peruviana. Investigation of available standards of cobalt and selenium

  9. Solvothermal syntheses and characterization of three new silver(I)/copper(I)-thioarsenates based on As{sup 2+}/As{sup 3+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Hua-Gang, E-mail: hgyao@gdpu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Zhongshan 528458 (China); Guangdong Cosmetics Engineering & Technology Research Center, Zhongshan 528458 (China); Tang, Cheng-Fei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Zhongshan 528458 (China); An, Yong-Lin [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Ou, Zi-Jian; Wu, Guo-Hao; Lan, Pei; Zheng, Yi-Long [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Zhongshan 528458 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Three new silver(I)/copper(I)-thioarsenates KAgAs{sup II}S{sub 2} (1), RbCu{sub 2}As{sup III}S{sub 3} (2) and RbCu{sub 4}As{sup III}S{sub 4} (3) have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 exhibits a two-dimensional anionic network built up by As−As bond connecting the left- and right-handed helical [AgS{sub 2}]{sup 4−} chains, and represents the first examples of thioarsenates(II). The structure of 2 consists of two kinds of helical [Cu{sub 2}S{sub 3}]{sup 4–} chains linked by the arsenic atoms to form double layers with rubidium ions between the layers. Compound 3 is built up of infinite [Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2}]{sup 2–} chain and layered [Cu{sub 6}As{sub 2}S{sub 6}] linked to form a three-dimensional anionic framework, [Cu{sub 4}AsS{sub 4}]{sup –}, and containing channels in which the rubidium cations reside. The optical properties of 1–3 have been investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: Three new silver(I)/copper(I)-thioarsenates have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 represents the first examples of thioarsenates(II) while compounds 2 and 3 possess noncondensed pyramidal AsS{sub 3}{sup 3–} unit.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic/carbon nanotubes composite adsorptive membrane for copper ion removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    We prepared a novel adsorptive membrane by implanting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in pore channels of ceramic (α-alumina) support via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. Optimization of CNTs growth conditions resulted in uniform distribution of the CNTs in the pore channels of the support. The optimized CNTs-ceramic membrane was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid, and chitosan was employed for filling intertube-CNT gaps. The modified CNTs-ceramic membrane was used for copper ion removal from water, and the effects of the modification steps (oxidation and filling intertube-CNT gaps with chitosan) and pH on permeation flux and rejection of the prepared adsorptive membrane were investigated. Moreover, static adsorption was also investigated and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetics models were used to describe adsorption behavior of copper ions by the prepared adsorptive membrane.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  12. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baloun, Jiří; Nevrtalová, Eva; Kováčová, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtěch; Čegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 13 (2014), s. 1188-1196 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Copper * Genes coding ROS-eliminating and Cu-transporting proteins * RNA-Seq database Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  13. Microstructure and sliding wear characterization of Cu/TiB2 copper matrix composites fabricated via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dinaharan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The poor wear performance of copper is improved by reinforcing hard ceramic particles. The present work reports the fabrication of Cu/TiB2 (0, 6, 12, 18 vol.% copper matrix composites (CMCs using friction stir processing (FSP. TiB2 particles were initially packed together into a machined groove and were subjected to FSP under a constant set of process parameters. The microstructure was observed using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wear behavior was examined using a pin-on-disc apparatus. The micrographs showed a homogeneous distribution of TiB2 particles without aggregation and segregation. The distribution of TiB2 particles was closely persistent across the stir zone. TiB2 particles were well bonded with the copper matrix without any interfacial reaction. Many TiB2 particles fractured during FSP. The grains in the composite were extensively refined because of dynamic recrystallization and pinning effect of TiB2 particles. The wear behavior under dry sliding condition was presented in detail.

  14. Fate and transport with material response characterization of green sorption media for copper removal via adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Houmann, Cameron; Lin, Kuen-Song; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Green adsorption media with the inclusion of renewable and recycled materials can be applied as a stormwater best management practice for copper removal. A green adsorption media mixture composed of recycled tire chunk, expanded clay aggregate, and coconut coir was physicochemically evaluated for its potential use in an upflow media filter. A suite of tests were conducted on the media mixture and the individual media components including studies of particle size distribution, isotherms, column adsorption and reaction kinetics. Isotherm test results revealed that the coconut coir had the highest affinity for copper (q(max) = 71.1 mg g(-1)), and that adsorption was maximized at a pH of 7.0. The coconut coir also performed the best under dynamic conditions, having an equilibrium uptake of 1.63 mg g(-1). FE-SEM imaging found a strong correlation between the porosity of the micro pore structure and the adsorptive capacity. The use of the green adsorption media mixture in isolation or the coconut coir with an expanded clay filtration chamber could be an effective and reliable stormwater best management practice for copper removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbin, Payam; Ning, Zhi; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    A chassis dynamometer study was carried out by the University of Southern California in collaboration with the Air Resources Board (CARB) to investigate the physical, chemical, and toxicological characteristics of diesel emissions of particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles. These heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) were equipped with advanced emission control technologies, designed to meet CARB retrofit regulations. A HDDV without any emission control devices was used as the baseline vehicle. Three advanced emission control technologies; continuously regenerating technology (CRT), zeolite- and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction technologies (Z-SCRT and V-SCRT), were tested under transient (UDDS) (1) and cruise (80 kmph) driving cycles to simulate real-world driving conditions. This paper focuses on the characterization of the particle bound organic species from the vehicle exhaust. Physical and chemical properties of PM emissions have been reported by Biswas et al. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 5622-5634) and Hu et al. (Atmos. Environ. 2008, submitted) Significant reductions in the emission factors (microg/mile) of particle bound organic compounds were observed in HDDV equipped with advanced emission control technologies. V-SCRT and Z-SCRT effectively reduced PAHs, hopanes and steranes, n-alkanes and acids by more than 99%, and often to levels below detection limits for both cruise and UDDS cycles. The CRT technology also showed similar reductions with SCRT for medium and high molecular weight PAHs, acids, but with slightly lower removal efficiencies for other organic compounds. Ratios of particle bound organics-to-OC mass (microg/g) from the baseline exhaust were compared with their respective ratios in diesel fuel and lubricating oil, which revealed that hopanes and steranes originate from lubricating oil, whereas PAHs can either form during the combustion process or originate from diesel fuel itself. With the introduction of emission control

  16. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of 10-phenyl-isoalloxazine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirdel, J.; Penzkofer, A.; Prochazka, R.; Daub, J.; Hochmuth, E.; Deutzmann, R.

    2006-01-01

    The flavoquinone dyes 10-phenyl-isoalloxazine-3-acetic acid ethyl ester (1) and 10-(4-bromo-phenyl)-3-methyl-isoalloxazine (2) in dichloromethane, acetonitrile, and methanol are characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Absorption cross-section spectra, stimulated emission cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, quantum yields, lifetimes, and degrees of fluorescence polarization are determined. The blue-light photo-degradation of the dyes is studied. Mass spectroscopic measurements reveal the formation of phenyl-benzo-pteridine (isoalloxazine) derivatives, tetraaza-benzo-aceanthrylene derivatives, dihydro-quinooxaline derivatives, and pyrazino-carbazole derivatives. An enhancement of photo-degradation is observed by the formed photo-fragments

  17. Characterization modelling of aquatic ecotoxicity from metal emission to be applied in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan

    water, Al(III) and Cu(II) have the highest CF of all the investigated metals, while Cd has the highest CF in other water types. The emission weighted freshwater CF was recommended to be applied as site-generic CF in the LCA studies where emission location and water chemistry of the receiving freshwater......Following the Apeldoorn Declaration (Aboussouan et al. 2004) and Clearwater Consensus (Diamond et al. 2010), Gandhi et al. (2010) developed a new method to calculate metals Characterization Factor (CF) in freshwater and applied it on six metals, considering metals speciation and its impacts...... is either lacking (e.g. USEtox, IMPACT 2002+), or derived by applying freshwater ecotoxicity data and ignoring metal speciation (e.g. USES-LCA). Moreover, the connection between freshwater and seawater, the estuary, which may act as a metal filter, is missing in the framework. To solve the problems...

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of 64Copper Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Primary Lymph Node Staging of Intermediate- to High-risk Prostate Cancer: Our Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Francesco; Gangemi, Vincenzo; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Moschini, Marco; Ferro, Matteo; Musi, Gennaro; Butticè, Salvatore; Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Damiano, Rocco

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 64 Copper prostate-specific membrane antigen ( 64 Cu-PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the primary lymph node (LN) staging of a selected cohort of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. An observational prospective study was performed in 23 patients with intermediate- to high-risk PCa, who underwent 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT for local and lymph nodal staging before laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with an extended pelvic LN dissection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for LN status of 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT were calculated using the final pathological findings as reference. Furthermore, we evaluated the correlation of intraprostatic tumor extent and grading with 64 Cu-PSMA intraprostatic distribution. Pathological analysis of LN involvement in 413 LNs harvested from our study cohort identified a total of 22 LN metastases in 8 (5%) of the 23 (35%) PCa patients. Imaging-based LN staging in a per-patient analysis showed that 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT was positive in 7 of 8 LN-positive patients (22%) with a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, and NPV of 93.7%, considering the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) at 4 hours as our reference. Receiver operating characteristic curve was characterized by an area under the curve of 0.938. A significant positive association was observed between SUV max at 4 hours with Gleason score, index, and cumulative tumor volume. In our intermediate- to high-risk PCa patients study cohort, we showed the high diagnostic accuracy of 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT for primary LN staging before radical prostatectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bidimensional characterization of the emission spectra in a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orejas, Jaime; Pisonero, Jorge; Bordel, Nerea; Nelis, Thomas; Guillot, Philippe; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    An in-house atmospheric pressure glow discharge source, designed to be used as ionization/desorption source for ambient mass spectrometry, has been electrically characterized, and its optical emission spectra evaluated in detail. Electrical characterization showed that the plasma regime can vary from glow discharge to arc discharge depending on operating conditions (i.e. He flow rate and inter electrode distance). Furthermore, bidimensional images of the optical emission of some plasma species using filters as wavelength selectors, were registered from inside and outside the discharge chamber (inner region and afterglow region respectively), showing the spatial distribution of excited species (i.e. He*, N 2 + and O*). These distribution patterns are useful to study the chemistry of the discharge plasma, since different production pathways and different excitation energies affect the presence of these species in the plasma regions. - Highlights: ► An in-house APGD is characterized through electrical and OES measurements. ► Interelectrode distance had more effect on electric regime than He flow rate. ► Internal plume images showed differences on the production pathways for each species. ► Higher interelectrode distances and He flow rates showed better afterglow conditions.

  20. Bidimensional characterization of the emission spectra in a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orejas, Jaime [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Pisonero, Jorge, E-mail: pisonerojorge@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Bordel, Nerea [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Nelis, Thomas [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Quellgasse 21, 2501 Bienne (Switzerland); Guillot, Philippe [DPHE, CUFR J. F. Champollion, Universite de Toulouse, Place de Verdun, Albi (France); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, C/ Julian Claveria 8, Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    An in-house atmospheric pressure glow discharge source, designed to be used as ionization/desorption source for ambient mass spectrometry, has been electrically characterized, and its optical emission spectra evaluated in detail. Electrical characterization showed that the plasma regime can vary from glow discharge to arc discharge depending on operating conditions (i.e. He flow rate and inter electrode distance). Furthermore, bidimensional images of the optical emission of some plasma species using filters as wavelength selectors, were registered from inside and outside the discharge chamber (inner region and afterglow region respectively), showing the spatial distribution of excited species (i.e. He*, N{sub 2}{sup +} and O*). These distribution patterns are useful to study the chemistry of the discharge plasma, since different production pathways and different excitation energies affect the presence of these species in the plasma regions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An in-house APGD is characterized through electrical and OES measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interelectrode distance had more effect on electric regime than He flow rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internal plume images showed differences on the production pathways for each species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher interelectrode distances and He flow rates showed better afterglow conditions.

  1. Imaging Tumor Vasculature Noninvasively with Positron Emission Tomography and RGD Peptides Labeled with Copper 64 Using the Bifunctonal Chelates DOTA, Oxo-DO3A. and PCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald T.T. Yapp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two novel bifunctional chelates, 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15,11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid (PCTA and 1-oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-4,7,10-triacetic acid (Oxo-DO3A, were found to radiolabel antibodies with copper 64 (64Cu well for positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, the same chelators were used to radiolabel peptides with 64Cu for PET imaging of angiogenesis. PCTA, Oxo-DO3A, and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N‘,N“,N”’-tetraacetic acid (DOTA were conjugated to cyclic-(RGDyK, and their binding affinities were confirmed. Conditions for 64Cu radiolabeling were optimized for maximum yield and specific activity. The in vitro stability of the radiolabeled compounds was challenged with serum incubation. PET studies were carried out in a non-αvβ3-expressing tumor model to evaluate the compounds' specificity for proliferating tumor vasculature and their in vivo pharmacokinetics. The PCTA and Oxo-DO3A bioconjugates were labeled with 64Cu at higher effective specific activity and radiochemical yield than the DOTA bioconjugate. In the imaging studies, all the 64Cu bioconjugates could be used to visualize the tumor and the radiotracer uptake was blocked with cyclic-(RGDyK. Target uptake of each bioconjugate was similar, but differences in other tissues were observed. 64Cu-PCTA-RGD showed the best clearance from nontarget tissue and the highest tumor to nontarget ratios. PCTA was the most promising bifunctional chelate for 64Cu peptide imaging and warrants further investigation.

  2. Methods for Characterization of the Diesel Combustion and Emission Formation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Mikael

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis various aspects of the diesel engine fuel injection, combustion and emission formation processes have been evaluated. Several types of evaluation tools and methods have been applied. Fuel spray momentum was used to characterize injection rate and hole-to-hole variations in fuel injectors. Using both instantaneous fuel impulse rates and instantaneous mass flow measurements, spray velocity and nozzle flow parameters were evaluated. Several other hole-to-hole resolved injector characterization methods were used to characterize a set of fuel injectors subjected to long term testing. Fuel injector nozzle hole-to-hole variations were found to have a large influence on engine efficiency and emissions. The degree of hole-to-hole variations for an injector has been shown to correlate well with the performance deterioration of that injector. The formation and atomization of fuel sprays, ignition onset and the development of diffusion flames were studied using an optical engine. Flame temperature evaluations have been made using two different methods. NO-formation depends strongly on flame temperature. By applying a NO-formation evaluation method based on both heat release rate and flame and gas temperature it was possible to achieve a reasonable degree of correlation with measured exhaust emissions for very varying operating conditions. The prediction capability of the NO-formation evaluation method was utilized to evaluate spatially and temporally resolved NO-formation from flame temperature distributions. This made it possible to pinpoint areas with a high degree of NO-formation. It was found that small hot zones in the flames can be responsible for a large part of the total amount of NO that is produced, especially in combustion cases where no EGR is used to lower the flame temperature. By applying optical diagnostics methods the combustion and emission formation phenomena encountered during production engine transients were evaluated. The transient

  3. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  4. Preparation and characterization of zinc and copper co-doped WO3 nanoparticles: Application in photocatalysis and photobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Sanaz; Sohrabi, Maryam; Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Fakhri, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this study, pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles samples were prepared by precipitation and co-precipitation methods. These nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The synthesized pure, Zn, Cu, Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 nanoparticles have smart optical properties and average sizes with 3.2, 3.12, 3.08 and 2.97eV of band-gap, 18.1, 23.2, 25.7 and 30.2nm, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of four nanoparticles was studying towards degradation of gentamicin antibiotic under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The result showed that Zn,Cu co-doped WO3 possessed high photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles could be remarkably increased by doping the Zn and Cu impurity. This can be attributed to the fact that the red shift of absorption edge and the trapping effect of the mono and co-doped WO3 nanoparticles. The research result presents a general and effective way to prepare different photocatalysts with enhanced visible and UV light-driven photocatalytic performance. Antibacterial activity of four different WO3 nanoparticles against Escherichia coli bacterium has been assessed by the agar disc method under light irradiation and dark medium. It is concluded from the present findings that WO3 nanoparticles can be used as an efficient antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper oxide thin films anchored on glass substrate by sol gel spin coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Venu, M. Parvathy; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the excellent optical, thermal, electrical and photocatalytic properties, copper oxide nanoparticles/films have found applications in optoelectronic devices like solar/photovoltaic cells, lithium ion batteries, gas sensors, catalysts, magnetic storage media etc. Copper oxide is a p-type semiconductor material having a band gap energy varying from 1.2 eV-2.1 eV. Syzygium Samarangense fruit extract was used as reducing agent to synthesize copper oxide nanostructures at room temperature from 10 mM copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. The synthesized nanostructures are deposited onto glass substrate by spin coating followed by annealing the film at 200 °C. Both the copper oxide colloid and films are characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Presence of 2 peaks at 500 nm and a broad peak centered around 800 nm in the UV-Vis absorbance spectra of copper oxide colloid/films is indicative of the formation of anisotropic copper oxide nanostructures is confirmed by the FESEM images which showed the presence of triangular shaped and rod shaped particles. The rod shaped particles inside island like structures were found in unannealed films whereas the annealed films contained different shaped particles with reduced sizes. The elemental analysis using EDS spectra of copper oxide nanoparticles/films showed the presence of both copper and oxygen. Electrical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles are affected due to quantum size effect. The electrical studies carried out on both unannealed and annealed copper oxide films revealed an increase in resistivity with annealing of the films.

  6. Quantitative Acoustic Emission Fatigue Crack Characterization in Structural Steel and Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adutwum Marfo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue crack growth characteristics of structural steel and weld connections are analyzed using quantitative acoustic emission (AE technique. This was experimentally investigated by three-point bending testing of specimens under low cycle constant amplitude loading using the wavelet packet analysis. The crack growth sequence, that is, initiation, crack propagation, and fracture, is extracted from their corresponding frequency feature bands, respectively. The results obtained proved to be superior to qualitative AE analysis and the traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics for fatigue crack characterization in structural steel and welds.

  7. Applications of Ground-based Mobile Atmospheric Monitoring: Real-time Characterization of Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. Douglas

    Gas and particle phase atmospheric pollution are known to impact human and environmental health as well as contribute to climate forcing. While many atmospheric pollutants are regulated or controlled in the developed world uncertainty still remains regarding the impacts from under characterized emission sources, the interaction of anthropogenic and naturally occurring pollution, and the chemical and physical evolution of emissions in the atmosphere, among many other uncertainties. Because of the complexity of atmospheric pollution many types of monitoring have been implemented in the past, but none are capable of perfectly characterizing the atmosphere and each monitoring type has known benefits and disadvantages. Ground-based mobile monitoring with fast-response in-situ instrumentation has been used in the past for a number of applications that fill data gaps not possible with other types of atmospheric monitoring. In this work, ground-based mobile monitoring was implemented to quantify emissions from under characterized emission sources using both moving and portable applications, and used in a novel way for the characterization of ambient concentrations. In the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania two mobile platforms were used to estimate emission rates from infrastructure associated with the production and transmission of natural gas using two unique methods. One campaign investigated emissions of aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from natural gas wells, well development practices, and compressor stations using tracer release ratio methods and a developed fenceline tracer release correction factor. Another campaign investigated emissions of methane from Marcellus Shale gas wells and infrastructure associated with two large national transmission pipelines using the "Point Source Gaussian" method described in the EPA OTM-33a. During both campaigns ambient concentrations

  8. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of Ultrasonic Array System. Electron beam evaluation, modeling and materials characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Wu; Lingvall, F.; Stepinski, T. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Material Science

    1999-12-01

    Research conducted in the fifth phase of the SKB's study aimed at developing ultrasonic techniques for assessing EB welds copper canisters is reported here. This report covers three main tasks: evaluation of electron beam (EB) welds, modeling of ultrasonic fields and characterization of copper material. A systematic analysis of ultrasonic interaction and imaging of an EB weld has been performed. From the analysis of histograms of the weld ultrasonic image, it appeared that the porosity tended to be concentrated towards the upper side of a HV weld, and a guideline on how to select the gates for creating C-scans has been proposed. The spatial diversity method (SDM) has shown a limited ability to suppress grain noise both in the parent material (copper) and in the weld so that the ultrasonic image of the weld could be improved. The suppression was achieved at the price of reduced spatial resolution. The ability of wavelet filters to enhance flaw responses has been studied. An FIR (finite impulse response) filter, based on Sombrero mother wavelet, has yield encouraging results concerning clutter suppression. However, the physical explanation for the results is still missing and needs further research. For modeling of ultrasonic fields of the ALLIN array, an approach to computing the SIR (spatial impulse response) of a cylindrically curved, rectangular aperture has been developed. The aperture is split into very narrow strips in the cylindrically curved direction and SIR of the whole aperture by superposing the individual impulse responses of those strips. Using this approach, the SIR of the ALLIN array with a cylindrically curved surface has been calculated. The pulse excitation of normal velocity on the surface of the array, that is required for simulating actual ultrasonic fields, has been determined by measurement in combination with a deconvolution technique. Using the SIR and the pulse excitation obtained, the pulsed-echo fields from the array have been

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of silver(I) and copper(II) complexes of phosphate derivatives of pyridine and benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska-Lis, Urszula; Szewczyk, Eligia M; Chęcińska, Lilianna; Wojciechowski, Jakub M; Wolf, Wojciech M; Ochocki, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    Two silver(I) complexes--[Ag(4-pmOpe)]NO₃}(n) and [Ag(2-bimOpe)₂]NO₃--and three copper(II) complexes--[Cu₄Cl₆O(2-bimOpe)₄], [CuCl₂(4-pmOpe)₂], and [CuCl₂(2-bis(pm)Ope]--were synthesized by reaction of silver(I) nitrate or copper(II) chloride with phosphate derivatives of pyridine and benzimidazole, namely diethyl (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)phosphate (4-pmOpe), 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl diethyl phosphate (2-bimOpe), and ethyl bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)phosphate (2-bis(pm)Ope). These compounds were characterized by ¹H, ¹³C, and ³¹P NMR as well as IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and ESIMS spectrometry. Additionally, molecular and crystal structures of {[Ag(4-pmOpe)]NO₃}n and [Cu₄Cl₆O(2-bimOpe)₄] were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The antimicrobial profiles of synthesized complexes and free ligands against test organisms from the ATCC and clinical sources were determined. Silver(I) complexes showed good antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans strains (MIC values of ∼19 μM). [Ag(2-bimOpe)₂]NO₃ was particularly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, with MIC values of ∼5 and ∼10 μM, respectively. Neither copper(II) complexes nor the free ligands inhibited the growth of test organisms at concentrations below 500 μg mL⁻¹. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  12. Mechanical characterization of hybrid and functionally-graded aluminum open-cell foams with nanocrystalline-copper coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi

    Cellular/foam materials found in nature such as bone, wood, and bamboo are usually functionally graded by having a non-uniform density distribution and inhomogenous composition that optimizes their global mechanical performance. Inspired by such naturally engineered products, the current study was conducted towards the development of functionally graded hybrid metal foams (FGHMF) with electrodeposited (ED) nanocrystalline coatings. First, the deformation and failure mechanisms of aluminum/copper (Al/Cu) hybrid foams were investigated using finite element analyses at different scales. The micro-scale behavior was studied based on single ligament models discretized using continuum elements and the macro-scale behavior was investigated using beam-element based finite element models of representative unit volumes consisting of multiple foam cells. With a detailed constitutive material behavior and material failure considered for both the aluminum ligament and the nano-copper coating, the numerical models were able to capture the unique behavior of Al/Cu hybrid foams, such as the typically observed sudden load drop after yielding. The numerical models indicate that such load drop is caused by the fracture of foam ligaments initiated from the rupture of the ED nano-copper coating due to its low ductility. This failure mode jeopardizes the global energy absorption capacity of hybrid foams, especially when a thick coating is applied. With the purpose of enhancing the performance of Al/Cu hybrid foams, an annealing process, which increased the ductility of the nanocrystalline copper coating by causing recovery, recrystallination and grain growth, was introduced in the manufacturing of Al/Cu hybrid foams. Quasi-static experimental results indicate that when a proper amount of annealing is applied, the ductility of the ED copper can be effectively improved and the compressive and tensile behavior of Al/Cu hybrid foams can be significantly enhanced, including better energy

  13. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper, nickel and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles for potential use in dental materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Argueta-Figueroa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect is a desirable property in dental materials. Development of simple methods for the preparation of nanosized metal particles has attracted significant attention because of their future applications due to unusual size-dependent antibacterial properties. Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical method and their antibacterial activity was tested against the widely used standard human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (gram-negative and Escherichia coli (gram-positive. Additionally, these nanoparticles were tested against the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Our results are promising for potential use in dental materials science.

  15. Ultrasonic-bath-assisted preparation of mononuclear copper(I) thiosemicarbazone complex particles: crystal structure, characterization and antimicrobial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalaji, A.D.; Shahsavani, E.; Feizi, N.; Kučeráková, Monika; Dušek, Michal; Mazandarani, R.; Amiri, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2017), s. 125-131 ISSN 1631-0748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thiosemicarbazone * copper(I) complex * spectroscopy * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  16. Synthesis and characterization of copper, polyimide and TIPS-pentacene layers for the development of a solution processed fibrous transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Van Genabet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed for the development of a flexible organic field effect transistor starting from a polyester fibre as substrate material. Focus of subsequent layer deposition was on low temperature soluble processes to allow upscaling. Gate layer consists out of a pyrrole polymerization and copper coating step. Polyimide dielectric layer was deposited using dipcoating. Gold electrodes were vacuum evaporated and patterned via mask fibre shadowing. The active layer consisted of a soluble p-type TIPS-pentacene organic semiconductor. Different deposition techniques have been examined. Considerable progress in development of a transistor has been made.

  17. Fabricated super-hydrophobic film with potentiostatic electrolysis method on copper for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Qiu Ri; Zhang Dun; Lin Zhifeng; Hou Baorong

    2010-01-01

    A novel one-step potentiostatic electrolysis method was proposed to fabricate super-hydrophobic film on copper surface. The resulted film was characterized by contact angle tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical measurements. It could be inferred that the super-hydrophobic property resulted from the flower-like structure of copper tetradecanoate film. In the presence of super-hydrophobic film, the anodic and cathodic polarization current densities are reduced for more than five and four orders of magnitude, respectively. The air trapped in the film is the essential contributor of the anticorrosion property of film for its insulation, the copper tetradecanoate film itself acts as a 'frame' to trap air as well as a coating with inhibition effect. The super-hydrophobic film presents excellent inhibition effect to the copper corrosion and stability in water containing Cl - .

  18. ZnSe Light Emitting Diode Quantum Efficiency and Emission Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbudin U.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe has demonstrated as a potential candidate in realizing advance LED in some appications for current and future works that utilize a cheaper preparation technique. Blue and white LEDs have been shown to spread across compound semiconductors. This II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct and wide band gap is used in the study which focused on a preparation and its characterization. The device is developed using a circular chip of ZnSe but only part of the active region is designed to allow shorter computation time. Analyses of the proposed LED are performed in an environment that allows optical transition and nonradiative recombination mechanisms. Voltage variation from 0 V to 1.5 V is maintained throughout the observation. The curent-voltage plot shows the p-n junction or diode behavior with central emissive layer. The two dimensions surface emission rate obtained indicates that voltage increment causes the emission concentration to become higher near the central pcontact. The LED efficiency is assessed in terms of internal quantum efficiency and emitting rate.

  19. Time-resolved characterization of primary emissions from residential wood combustion appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, M F; DeCarlo, P F; Chirico, R; Lauber, A; Doberer, A; Good, J; Nussbaumer, T; Keller, A; Burtscher, H; Richard, A; Miljevic, B; Prevot, A S H; Baltensperger, U

    2012-10-16

    Primary emissions from a log wood burner and a pellet boiler were characterized by online measurements of the organic aerosol (OA) using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and of black carbon (BC). The OA and BC concentrations measured during the burning cycle of the log wood burner, batch wise fueled with wood logs, were highly variable and generally dominated by BC. The emissions of the pellet burner had, besides inorganic material, a high fraction of OA and a minor contribution of BC. However, during artificially induced poor burning BC was the dominating species with ∼80% of the measured mass. The elemental O:C ratio of the OA was generally found in the range of 0.2-0.5 during the startup phase or after reloading of the log wood burner. During the burnout or smoldering phase, O:C ratios increased up to 1.6-1.7, which is similar to the ratios found for the pellet boiler during stable burning conditions and higher than the O:C ratios observed for highly aged ambient OA. The organic emissions of both burners have a very similar H:C ratio at a given O:C ratio and therefore fall on the same line in the Van Krevelen diagram.

  20. The Development and Application of Spatiotemporal Metrics for the Characterization of Point Source FFCO2 Emissions and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, D.; Hogue, S.; Spell, P.; Marland, E.; Marland, G.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing role for high resolution, CO2 emissions inventories across multiple arenas. The breadth of the applicability of high-resolution data is apparent from their use in atmospheric CO2 modeling, their potential for validation of space-based atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing, and the development of climate change policy. This work focuses on increasing our understanding of the uncertainty in these inventories and the implications on their downstream use. The industrial point sources of emissions (power generating stations, cement manufacturing plants, paper mills, etc.) used in the creation of these inventories often have robust emissions characteristics, beyond just their geographic location. Physical parameters of the emission sources such as number of exhaust stacks, stack heights, stack diameters, exhaust temperatures, and exhaust velocities, as well as temporal variability and climatic influences can be important in characterizing emissions. Emissions from large point sources can behave much differently than emissions from areal sources such as automobiles. For many applications geographic location is not an adequate characterization of emissions. This work demonstrates the sensitivities of atmospheric models to the physical parameters of large point sources and provides a methodology for quantifying parameter impacts at multiple locations across the United States. The sensitivities highlight the importance of location and timing and help to highlight potential aspects that can guide efforts to reduce uncertainty in emissions inventories and increase the utility of the models.

  1. Characterizing the Soldering Alloy Type In–Ag–Ti and the Study of Direct Soldering of SiC Ceramics and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koleňák

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to characterize the soldering alloy In–Ag–Ti type, and to study the direct soldering of SiC ceramics and copper. The In10Ag4Ti solder has a broad melting interval, which mainly depends on its silver content. The liquid point of the solder is 256.5 °C. The solder microstructure is composed of a matrix with solid solution (In, in which the phases of titanium (Ti3In4 and silver (AgIn2 are mainly segregated. The tensile strength of the solder is approximately 13 MPa. The strength of the solder increased with the addition of Ag and Ti. The solder bonds with SiC ceramics, owing to the interaction between active In metal and silicon infiltrated in the ceramics. XRD analysis has proven the interaction of titanium with ceramic material during the formation of the new minority phases of titanium silicide—SiTi and titanium carbide—C5Ti8. In and Ag also affect bond formation with the copper substrate. Two new phases were also observed in the bond interphase—(CuAg6In5 and (AgCuIn2. The average shear strength of a combined joint of SiC–Cu, fabricated with In10Ag4Ti solder, was 14.5 MPa. The In–Ag–Ti solder type studied possesses excellent solderability with several metallic and ceramic materials.

  2. SBA-15 mesoporous silica free-standing thin films containing copper ions bounded via propyl phosphonate units - preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskowski, Lukasz, E-mail: lukasz.laskowski@kik.pcz.pl [Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Computational Intelligence, Unit of Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Al. Armii Krajowej 36, 42–201 Czestochowa (Poland); Laskowska, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.laskowska@onet.pl [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, ul. Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Jelonkiewicz, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.jelonkiewicz@kik.pcz.pl [Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Computational Intelligence, Unit of Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Al. Armii Krajowej 36, 42–201 Czestochowa (Poland); Dulski, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.dulski@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, Institute of Materials Science, Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, ul. 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41–500 Chorzów (Poland); Wojtyniak, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.wojtyniak@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, ul. 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41–500 Chorzów (Poland); Fitta, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.fitta@ifj.edu.pl [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31–342 Krakow, ul. Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Balanda, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Balanda@ifj.edu.pl [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31–342 Krakow, ul. Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    The SBA-15 silica thin films containing copper ions anchored inside channels via propyl phosphonate groups are investigated. Such materials were prepared in the form of thin films, with hexagonally arranged pores, laying rectilinear to the substrate surface. However, in the case of our thin films, their free standing form allowed for additional research possibilities, that are not obtainable for typical thin films on a substrate. The structural properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular structure was examined by Raman spectroscopy supported by numerical simulations. Magnetic measurements (SQUID magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy) showed weak antiferromagnetic interactions between active units inside silica channels. Consequently, the pores arrangement was determined and the process of copper ions anchoring by propyl phosphonate groups was verified in unambiguous way. Moreover, the type of interactions between magnetic atoms was determined. - Highlights: • Functionalized free-standing SBA-15 thin films were synthesized for a first time. • Thin films synthesis procedure was described in details. • Structural properties of the films were thoroughly investigated and presented. • Magnetic properties of the novel material was investigated and presented.

  3. Template synthesis of poly aza macrocyclic copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes: Spectral characterization and antimicrobial studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurumoorthy, P.; Ravichandran, J.; Kaliur Rahiman, A. [The New College, Chennai (India); Karthikeyan, N.; Palani, P. [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-15

    The template synthesis of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes derived from 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with diethylenetriamine or 1,2-bis(3-amino propylamino)ethane produce the 12-membered N{sub 3}O and 17-membered N{sub 4}O macrocyclic complexes, respectively. The geometry of the complexes has been determined with the help of electronic and EPR spectroscopic values and found to be five coordinated square pyramidal and, six coordinated distorted tetragonal for 12-membered and 17-membered macrocyclic complexes, respectively. Electrochemical studies of the mononuclear N{sub 3}O and N{sub 4}O copper(II) complexes show one irreversible one electron reduction wave at E{sup pc} = .1.35 and .1.15 V respectively, and the corresponding nickel(II) complexes show irreversible one-electron reduction wave at E{sup pc} = .1.25 and .1.22 V, respectively. The nickel(II) complexes show irreversible one-electron oxidation wave at Epa = +0.84 and +0.82 V, respectively. All the complexes were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  4. Fate and transport with material response characterization of green sorption media for copper removal via desorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Houmann, Cameron; Lin, Kuen-Song; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Multiple adsorption and desorption cycles are required to achieve the reliable operation of copper removal and recovery. A green sorption media mixture composed of recycled tire chunk, expanded clay aggregate, and coconut coir was evaluated in this study for its desorptive characteristics as a companion study of the corresponding adsorption process in an earlier publication. We conducted a screening of potential desorbing agents, batch desorption equilibrium and kinetic studies, and batch tests through 3 adsorption/desorption cycles. The desorbing agent screening revealed that hydrochloric acid has good potential for copper desorption. Equilibrium data fit the Freundlich isotherm, whereas kinetic data had high correlation with the Lagergren pseudo second-order model and revealed a rapid desorption reaction. Batch equilibrium data over 3 adsorption/desorption cycles showed that the coconut coir and media mixture were the most resilient, demonstrating they could be used through 3 or more adsorption/desorption cycles. FE-SEM imaging, XRD, and EDS analyses supported the batch adsorption and desorption results showing significant surface sorption of CuO species in the media mixture and coconut coir, followed by partial desorption using 0.1 M HCl as a desorbing agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation and Characterization of Acoustic Emissions of Tornadoes Using Arrays of Infrasound Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, W. G.; Talmadge, C. L.; Waxler, R.; Knupp, K. R.; Goudeau, B.; Hetzer, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Working in co-ordination with the NOAA Vortex Southeast (Vortex SE) research program, 9 infrasound sensor arrays were deployed at fixed sites across North Alabama, South-central Tennessee, and Northwest Georgia during March and April of 2017, to investigate the emission and characterization of infrasonic acoustic energy from tornadoes and related phenomena. Each array consisted of seven broadband acoustic sensors with calibrated frequency response from 0.02 Hz to 200 Hz. The arrays were configured in a pattern such that accurate bearings to acoustic sources could be obtained over a broad range of frequencies (nominally from 1 Hz to 100 Hz). Data were collected synchronously at a rate of 1000 samples per second. On 22 April 2017 a line of strong storms passed directly through the area being monitored producing at least three verified tornadoes. Two of these were rated at EF0 and the other an EF1. Subsequent processing of the data from several of the arrays revealed acoustic emissions from the tornadic storms ranging in frequencies below 1 Hz to frequencies greater than 10 Hz. Accurate bearings to the storms have been calculated from distances greater than 60 km. Preliminary analysis has revealed that continuous emissions occurred prior to the estimated touchdown times, while the storms were on the ground, and for short periods after the tornadoes lifted; however, the strongest emissions appeared to occur while the storms were on the ground. One of the storms passed near two arrays simultaneously, and therefore accurate an accurate track of the storm as it moved has been obtained only using the infrasound measurements. Initial results from the analysis of the infrasound data will be presented. Under Vortex SE meteorological data was collected on a large suite of sensors. Correlations between the infrasound data and the meteorological data will be investigated and discussed.

  6. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important

  7. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in fogwater by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, J.E.; Valsaraj, K.T.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in fogwater samples collected in southeastern Louisiana and central-eastern China has been characterized using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to illustrate the utility of fluorescence for obtaining information on the large fraction of organic carbon in fogwaters (typically >40% by weight) that defies characterization in terms of specific chemical compounds without the difficulty inherent in obtaining sufficient fogwater volume to isolate DOM for assessment using other spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Based on the findings of previous studies using other characterization methods, it was anticipated that the unidentified organic carbon fraction would have characteristic peaks associated with humic substances and fluorescent amino acids. Both humic- and protein-like fluorophores were observed in the fogwater spectra and fluorescence-derived indices for the fogwater had similar values to those of soil and sediment porewater. Greater biological character was observed in samples with higher organic carbon concentrations. Fogwaters are shown to contain a mixture of terrestrially- and microbially-derived fluorescent organic material, which is expected to be derived from an array of different sources, such as suspended soil and dust particles, biogenic emissions and organic substances generated by atmospheric processes. The fluorescence results indicate that much of the unidentified organic carbon present in fogwater can be represented by humic-like and biologically-derived substances similar to those present in other aquatic systems, though it should be noted that fluorescent signatures representative of DOM produced by atmospheric processing of organic aerosols may be contributing to or masked by humic-like fluorophores. ?? 2010.

  8. Characterization and process development for the selective removal of Sn, Sb, and As from anode slime obtained from electrolytic copper refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinlechner S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a process for the removal of Sn, Sb and As from anode slime out of copper refinery to disburden a subsequent pyrometallurgical processing for precious metals refinement. For this reason, a detailed literature survey was conducted, followed by a characterization to find the present compounds/alloys and their morphology. A newly developed process concept for the separate extraction of the afore mentioned three target metals was developed and verified by leaching experiments, combined with thermodynamic calculations on their behavior under varying conditions. In this context, the influence of leaching temperature, alkalinity of leaching solution, and solid-liquid ration were evaluated on the extraction yields of Sn, As, and Sb, as well as how to exploit these findings to obtain separate streams enriched in the respective metals.

  9. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of copper(ii and nickel(ii complexes with l-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorides of copper(II and nickel(ll react with 1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole to give complexes of the type [M(LnCln(H20∙Cln (M = Cu or Ni; L = (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole; n=O, 1 or 2. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. These studies suggest that all the complexes possess an octahedral stereochemistry. The antibacterial activity of (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole and their complexes was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp.

  10. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation characterization of essential and heavy metals contents in R. acetosa, S. oleracea and U. dioica from copper polluted and referent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Bačeva, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of metals occurring in soil is the basic source of its accumulation in vegetables and herbs. The impact of soil pollution (due to urban and mining areas) on the food chain presents a challenge for many investigations. Availability of metals in a potentially polluted soil and their possible transfer and bioaccumulation in sorrel (Rumex acetosa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and common nettle (Urtica dioica), were examined. Microwave digestion was applied for total digestion of the plant tissues, while on the soil samples open wet digestion with a mixture of acids was applied. Three extraction methods were implemented for the bioavailable metals in the soil. Atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma was used for determination of the total contents of 21 elements. Significant enrichments in agricultural soil for As, Pb and Zn (in urban area), Cd, Cu and Ni (in a copper mine area), compared with the respective values from European standards were detected. On the basis of three different extraction methods, higher availability was assumed for both lithogenic and anthropogenic elements. Translocation values >1 were obtained for As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Higher bioconcentrating value was obtained only for Cd, while the bioaccumulation values vary from 0.17 for Cd to 0.82 for Zn. The potential availability of hazardous metals in urban and mining soils is examined using DTPA-TEA-CaCl2 (urban) and HCl (Cu-mines areas). Our results suggested that S. oleracea and R. acetosa have a phytostabilization potential for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, while U. dioica only for Cu. R. acetosa has a potential for phytoextraction of Cd in urban and copper polluted areas.

  11. Flower-Like CuO/ZnO Hybrid Hierarchical Nanostructures Grown on Copper Substrate: Glycothermal Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrophobic and Anticorrosion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Beshkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac2 in 20 mL EG for 8 h, ZnO flower-like microstructures composed of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D aggregated nanoparticles and spherical architectures were spontaneously formed at 100 °C. The as-synthesized thin films and 3D microstructures were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 as surfactants and stabilizers on the morphology of the CuO and ZnO structures were discussed. Possible growth mechanisms for the controlled organization of primary building units into CuO nanostructures and 3D flower-like ZnO architectures were proposed. The hydrophobic property of the products was characterized by means of water contact angle measurement. After simple surface modification with stearic acid and PDMS, the resulting films showed hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic characteristics due to their special surface energy and nano-microstructure morphology. Importantly, stable superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 153.5° was successfully observed for CuO-ZnO microflowers after modification with PDMS. The electrochemical impedance measurements proved that the anticorrosion efficiency for the CuO/ZnO/PDMS sample was about 99%.

  12. Flower-Like CuO/ZnO Hybrid Hierarchical Nanostructures Grown on Copper Substrate: Glycothermal Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrophobic and Anticorrosion Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Farshad; Khojasteh, Hossein; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2017-06-25

    In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG) at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac)₂ in 20 mL EG for 8 h, ZnO flower-like microstructures composed of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) aggregated nanoparticles and spherical architectures were spontaneously formed at 100 °C. The as-synthesized thin films and 3D microstructures were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 as surfactants and stabilizers on the morphology of the CuO and ZnO structures were discussed. Possible growth mechanisms for the controlled organization of primary building units into CuO nanostructures and 3D flower-like ZnO architectures were proposed. The hydrophobic property of the products was characterized by means of water contact angle measurement. After simple surface modification with stearic acid and PDMS, the resulting films showed hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic characteristics due to their special surface energy and nano-microstructure morphology. Importantly, stable superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 153.5° was successfully observed for CuO-ZnO microflowers after modification with PDMS. The electrochemical impedance measurements proved that the anticorrosion efficiency for the CuO/ZnO/PDMS sample was about 99%.

  13. Proton beam characterization by proton-induced acoustic emission: simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K C; Witztum, A; Avery, S; Sehgal, C M

    2014-01-01

    Due to their Bragg peak, proton beams are capable of delivering a targeted dose of radiation to a narrow volume, but range uncertainties currently limit their accuracy. One promising beam characterization technique, protoacoustic range verification, measures the acoustic emission generated by the proton beam. We simulated the pressure waves generated by proton radiation passing through water. We observed that the proton-induced acoustic signal consists of two peaks, labeled α and γ, with two originating sources. The α acoustic peak is generated by the pre-Bragg peak heated region whereas the source of the γ acoustic peak is the proton Bragg peak. The arrival time of the α and γ peaks at a transducer reveals the distance from the beam propagation axis and Bragg peak center, respectively. The maximum pressure is not observed directly above the Bragg peak due to interference of the acoustic signals. Range verification based on the arrival times is shown to be more effective than determining the Bragg peak position based on pressure amplitudes. The temporal width of the α and γ peaks are linearly proportional to the beam diameter and Bragg peak width, respectively. The temporal separation between compression and rarefaction peaks is proportional to the spill time width. The pressure wave expected from a spread out Bragg peak dose is characterized. The simulations also show that acoustic monitoring can verify the proton beam dose distribution and range by characterizing the Bragg peak position to within ∼1 mm. (paper)

  14. Novel techniques for characterization of hydrocarbon emission sources in the Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Brian Joseph

    Changes in ambient atmospheric hydrocarbon concentrations can have both short-term and long-term effects on the atmosphere and on human health. Thus, accurate characterization of emissions sources is critically important. The recent boom in shale gas production has led to an increase in hydrocarbon emissions from associated processes, though the exact extent is uncertain. As an original quantification technique, a model airplane equipped with a specially-designed, open-path methane sensor was flown multiple times over a natural gas compressor station in the Barnett Shale in October 2013. A linear optimization was introduced to a standard Gaussian plume model in an effort to determine the most probable emission rate coming from the station. This is shown to be a suitable approach given an ideal source with a single, central plume. Separately, an analysis was performed to characterize the nonmethane hydrocarbons in the Barnett during the same period. Starting with ambient hourly concentration measurements of forty-six hydrocarbon species, Lagrangian air parcel trajectories were implemented in a meteorological model to extend the resolution of these measurements and achieve domain-fillings of the region for the period of interest. A self-organizing map (a type of unsupervised classification) was then utilized to reduce the dimensionality of the total multivariate set of grids into characteristic one-dimensional signatures. By also introducing a self-organizing map classification of the contemporary wind measurements, the spatial hydrocarbon characterizations are analyzed for periods with similar wind conditions. The accuracy of the classification is verified through assessment of observed spatial mixing ratio enhancements of key species, through site-comparisons with a related long-term study, and through a random forest analysis (an ensemble learning method of supervised classification) to determine the most important species for defining key classes. The hydrocarbon

  15. Characterization of phase changes during fabrication of copper alloys, crystalline and non-crystalline, prepared by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rojas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of alloys in solid state has many differences with the conventional melting (casting process. In the case of high energy milling or mechanical alloying, phase transformations of the raw materials are promoted by a large amount of energy that is introduced by impact with the grinding medium; there is no melting, but the microstructural changes go from microstructural refinement to amorphization in solid state. This work studies the behavior of pure metals (Cu and Ni, and different binary alloys (Cu-Ni and Cu-Zr, under the same milling/mechanical alloying conditions. After high-energy milling, X ray diffraction (XRD patterns were analyzed to determine changes in the lattice parameter and find both microstrain and crystallite sizes, which were first calculated using the Williamson-Hall (W-H method and then compared with the transmission electron microscope (TEM images. Calculations showed a relatively appropriate approach to observations with TEM; however, in general, TEM observations detect heterogeneities, which are not considered for the W-H method. As for results, in the set of pure metals, we show that pure nickel undergoes more microstrain deformations, and is more abrasive than copper (and copper alloys. In binary systems, there was a complete solid solution in the Cu-Ni system and a glass-forming ability for the Cu-Zr, as a function of the Zr content. Mathematical methods cannot be applied when the systems have amorphization because there are no equations representing this process during milling. A general conclusion suggests that, under the same milling conditions, results are very different due to the significant impact of the composition: nickel easily forms a solid solution, while with a higher zirconium content there is a higher degree of glassforming ability.

  16. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample is collected. Sometimes a health practitioner performs a liver ... disease , a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other ...

  17. Characterization of the emissions impacts of hybrid excavators with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tanfeng; Russell, Robert L; Durbin, Thomas D; Cocker, David R; Burnette, Andrew; Calavita, Joseph; Maldonado, Hector; Johnson, Kent C

    2018-04-13

    Hybrid engine technology is a potentially important strategy for reduction of tailpipe greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other pollutants that is now being implemented for off-road construction equipment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the emissions and fuel consumption impacts of electric-hybrid excavators using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS)-based methodology. In this study, three hybrid and four conventional excavators were studied for both real world activity patterns and tailpipe emissions. Activity data was obtained using engine control module (ECM) and global positioning system (GPS) logged data, coupled with interviews, historical records, and video. This activity data was used to develop a test cycle with seven modes representing different types of excavator work. Emissions data were collected over this test cycle using a PEMS. The results indicated the HB215 hybrid excavator provided a significant reduction in tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions (from -13 to -26%), but increased diesel particulate matter (PM) (+26 to +27%) when compared to a similar model conventional excavator over the same duty cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sub-core permeability and relative permeability characterization with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahasky, C.; Benson, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    This study utilizes preclinical micro-Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to image and quantify the transport behavior of pulses of a conservative aqueous radiotracer injected during single and multiphase flow experiments in a Berea sandstone core with axial parallel bedding heterogeneity. The core is discretized into streamtubes, and using the micro-PET data, expressions are derived from spatial moment analysis for calculating sub-core scale tracer flux and pore water velocity. Using the flux and velocity data, it is then possible to calculate porosity and saturation from volumetric flux balance, and calculate permeability and water relative permeability from Darcy's law. Full 3D simulations are then constructed based on this core characterization. Simulation results are compared with experimental results in order to test the assumptions of the simple streamtube model. Errors and limitations of this analysis will be discussed. These new methods of imaging and sub-core permeability and relative permeability measurements enable experimental quantification of transport behavior across scales.

  19. Characterization of low-energy nuclear reactions involving emission of few non-relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Heimann, D.; Pacheco, A.J.; Capurro, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a general procedure and the associated computational tool for the kinematical description and characterization of nuclear reactions with several fragments in the exit channel. For such processes the emphasis is placed on the purely experimental extraction of the most physically relevant magnitudes and their distributions, which can eventually be compared with the results of generic model calculations. The general capabilities of the approach are illustrated through the results of the application to selected examples, for which various aspects related to inclusive and exclusive measurements are discussed. For the particular case of sequential emission or non-capture breakup we analyze the general problem involved in the determination of intrinsic angular distributions in the rest frame of the decaying nucleus and the design of a specific experiment for a full and uniform coverage of the whole solid angle.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of small size fluorescent LEEH caped blue emission ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Sumanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the synthesis of LEEH caped very small size (2 nm ZnTe quantum dots at low temperature (less than 100 °C using a simple chemical route. The effects of aging and stirring time on the absorption spectra of the quantum dots were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystal (NC was characterized by PL, TEM, XRD and the formation of very small size quantum dots having FCC structure was confirmed. Further, blue emission from the prepared sample was observed during exposure to monochromatic UV radiation. ZnTe NCs obtained in this study were found to be more stable compared to those presented in literature reports. ZnTe NCs may be considered as a new material in place of CdTe for optoelectronics devices.

  1. Towards factor analysis exploration applied to positron emission tomography functional imaging for breast cancer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekik, W.; Ketata, I.; Sellami, L.; Ben slima, M.; Ben Hamida, A.; Chtourou, K.; Ruan, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the factor analysis when applied to a dynamic sequence of medical images obtained using nuclear imaging modality, Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This latter modality allows obtaining information on physiological phenomena, through the examination of radiotracer evolution during time. Factor analysis of dynamic medical images sequence (FADMIS) estimates the underlying fundamental spatial distributions by factor images and the associated so-called fundamental functions (describing the signal variations) by factors. This method is based on an orthogonal analysis followed by an oblique analysis. The results of the FADMIS are physiological curves showing the evolution during time of radiotracer within homogeneous tissues distributions. This functional analysis of dynamic nuclear medical images is considered to be very efficient for cancer diagnostics. In fact, it could be applied for cancer characterization, vascularization as well as possible evaluation of response to therapy.

  2. Large-scale aligned silicon carbonitride nanotube arrays: Synthesis, characterization, and field emission property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.; Xu, Z.; Liu, K. H.; Wang, W. L.; Liu, S.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.; Li, J. C.; Liu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale aligned silicon carbonitride (SiCN) nanotube arrays have been synthesized by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using SiH 4 , CH 4 , and N 2 as precursors. The three elements of Si, C, and N are chemically bonded with each other and the nanotube composition can be adjusted by varying the SiH 4 concentration, as revealed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The evolution of microstructure of the SiCN nanotubes with different Si concentrations was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of field emission characteristics of the SiCN nanotubes on the composition has been investigated. With the increasing Si concentration, the SiCN nanotube exhibits more favorable oxidation resistance, which suggests that SiCN nanotube is a promising candidate as stable field emitter

  3. Characterizing the X-ray Emission in Small Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Nicole; Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud is a close, metal-poor galaxy with active star formation, and it has a diverse population of 24 supernova remnants (SNRs) that have been identified at several wavelengths. Past work has characterized the X-ray emission in these sources separately and aimed to constrain their explosive origins from observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Three SNRs have possible evidence for Type Ia explosions based on strong Fe-L emission in their X-ray spectra, although the environments and intermediate-mass element abundances are more consistent with those of core-collapse SNe. In this poster, we analyze the archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the SMC SNR sample, and we model the sources' X-ray spectra in a systematic way to derive the plasma properties and to constrain the nature of the explosions. In one SNR, we note the presence of an X-ray binary near the source's geometric center, suggesting the compact object was produced in the SN explosion. As one of only three SNRs known in the Local Group to host a binary system, this source is worthy of follow-up investigations to probe explosions of massive stars in binary systems.

  4. Characterizing pollutant emissions from mosquito repellents incenses and implications in risk assessment of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Zheng, Xinran; Stevanovic, Svetlana; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jing; Shi, Huiwen; Liu, Jing; Yu, Mingzhou; Zhu, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Mosquito-repellent incense is one of the most popular products used for dispelling mosquitos during summer in China. It releases large amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants which constitute a potential hazard to human health. We conducted chamber experiment to characterize major pollutants from three types of mosquito-repellent incenses, further assessed the size-fractionated deposition in human respiratory system, and evaluated the indoor removing efficiency by fresh air. Results showed that the released pollutant concentrations were greater than permissible levels in regulations in GB3095-2012, as well as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). Formaldehyde accounted for 10-20% of the total amount of pollutants. Fine particles dominated in the total particulate concentrations. Geometric standard deviation (GSD) of particle number size distributions was in the range of 1.45-1.93. Count median diameter (CMD) ranged from 100 to 500 nm. Emission rates, burning rates and emission factors of both particulate and gaseous pollutants were compared and discussed. The deposition fractions in pulmonary airway from the disc solid types reached up to 52.7% of the total deposition, and the largest deposition appeared on juvenile group. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modellings indicated air-conditioner on and windows closed was the worst case. The highest concentration was 180-200 times over the standard limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emissions characterization in the contained underground demilitarization laboratory at Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, C A; Watkins, B E; Pruneda, C O; Lipkin, J

    1999-01-01

    The US Departments of Defense and Energy (DOD and DOE) have established a Joint Demilitarization Technology (JDT) Program to demonstrate and validate technologies for resource recovery and recycling, as well as alternative destruction or treatment technologies as appropriate to specific conventional stockpile segments. X-Tunnel at the DOE Nevada Test Site is a facility for emissions characterization from detonation of conventional munitions and burning of rocket motors. We conducted seven detonations of M107, high explosive 155-mm projectiles, four from December 1996 through March 1997 and three during July and August 1999. We also completed three burns of rocket motors from May through June 1997.Standard (DOD) procedures for open detonation (DOD) of ordinance and open burn (OB) of rocket motors were followed in order to establish baseline emissions. Measurements inside the chamber included pressures, temperatures, relative humidity and gas concentrations. Grab samples were collected f or gas, organic, metal and particulate analyses. Results and implications for developing alternative destruction techniques will be presented

  6. Characterization of wood dust emission from hand-held woodworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F-X; Chata, F

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the prevention of exposure to wood dust when operating electrical hand-held sawing and sanding machines. A laboratory methodology was developed to measure the dust concentration around machines during operating processes. The main objective was to characterize circular saws and sanders, with the aim of classifying the different power tools tested in terms of dust emission (high dust emitter vs. low dust emitter). A test set-up was developed and is described and a measurement methodology was determined for each of the two operations studied. The robustness of the experimental results is discussed and shows good tendencies. The impact of air-flow extraction rate was assessed and the pressure loss of the system for each machine established. For the circular saws, three machines over the nine tested could be classified in the low dust emitter group. Their mean concentration values measured are between 0.64 and 0.98 mg/m 3 for the low dust emitter group and from 2.55 and 4.37 mg/m 3 for the high dust emitter group. From concentration measurements, a machine classification is possible-one for sanding machines and one for sawing machines-and a ratio from 1-7 is obtained when comparing the results. This classification will be helpful when a choice of high performance power tools, in terms of dust emission, must be made by professionals.

  7. Damage characterization on human femur bone by means of ultrasonics and acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strantza, M; Boulpaep, F; Van Hemelrijck, D; Aggelis, D G; Polyzos, D; Louis, O

    2015-01-01

    Human bone tissue is characterized as a material with high brittleness. Due to this nature, visible signs of cracking are not easy to be detected before final failure. The main objective of this work is to investigate if the acoustic emission (AE) technique can offer valuable insight to the fracture process of human femur specimens as in other engineering materials characterization. This study describes the AE activity during fracture of whole femur bones under flexural load. Before fracture, broadband AE sensors were used in order to measure parameters like wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, were also examined relatively to the propagation distance as a preparation for the AE monitoring during fracture. After the ultrasonic study, the samples were partly cast in concrete and fixed as cantilevers. A point load was applied on the femur head, which due to the test geometry resulted in a combination of two different patterns of fracture, bending and torsion. Two AE broadband sensors were placed in different points of the sample, one near the fixing end and the other near the femur head. Preliminary analysis shows that parameters like the number of acquired AE signals and their amplitude are well correlated with the load history. Furthermore, the parameters of rise time and frequency can differentiate the two fracture patterns. Additionally, AE allows the detection of the load at the onset of fracture from the micro-cracking events that occur at the early loading stages, allowing monitoring of the whole fracture process. Parameters that have been used extensively for monitoring and characterization of fracture modes of engineering materials seem to poses characterization power in the case of bone tissue monitoring as well. (paper)

  8. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  9. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  10. Development of a method for the study of H{sub 2} gas emission in sealed compartments containing canister copper immersed in O{sub 2}-free water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, Andreas; Chukharkina, Alexandra; Eriksson, Lena; Hallbeck, Bjoern; Hallbeck, Lotta; Johansson, Jessica; Johansson, Linda; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    Current models of copper corrosion indicate that copper is not subject to corrosion by water in itself, but that additional components, such as O{sub 2}, chloride or sulphide are needed to initiate a corrosive process. Of late however, a number of reports have suggested that copper may be susceptible to water-induced corrosion in the absence of external constituents affecting the process. The process has been proposed to rely the auto-ionization driven presence of the hydroxide ions in pure water, and to result in the development of atomic hydrogen (H), with subsequent release of H{sub 2} gas. A suggested equilibrium is reached at a partial pressure of H{sub 2} of about 1 mbar (0.1 kPa) in 73 deg C, and the corrosion reaction is proposed to be rate-limited by the supply of hydroxide ions from the water, a process being slower than proposed formation of water from a H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} reaction. In consequence, the presence of O{sub 2} in the system would result in no detectable release of H{sub 2} until all O{sub 2} was consumed, while the absence of O{sub 2} would lead to water-driven corrosion of copper proceeding until the H{sub 2} equilibrium is reached, at a partial H{sub 2} pressure of about 1 mbar. The proposed mechanism presents a novel aspect on copper corrosion processes. By extension, the suggested corrosion process may have implications for proposed strategies for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel waste (SNF), which in part rely on the long-term (>105 years) integrity of copper canisters stored in anoxic water inundated environments (SKB 2010)

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance characterization of traditional homeopathically manufactured copper (Cuprum metallicum) and plant (Gelsemium sempervirens) medicines and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel; Goyens, Martine; Henry, Marc; Capieaux, Etienne; Devos, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    NMR proton relaxation is sensitive to the dynamics of the water molecule H 2 O, through the interaction of the spin of the proton ( 1 H) with external magnetic and electromagnetic fields. We measured dilution and potentization processes through measurements of 1 H spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times. In order to interpret the recorded fluctuations in T 1 - or T 2 -values, experimental data were linearized by investigating how the area under a fluctuating time = f(dilution) curve (dilution integral or DI) changes with dilution. Two kinds of fitting procedures were considered: chi-square fitting with a goodness-of-fit probability, and least absolute deviations criterion with Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. We showed that fluctuations are not attributable to random noise and/or experimental errors, evidencing a memory effect quantifiable by the slope of the DI = f(dilution) straight line. For all experiments, correlation coefficients were found to lie above 0.9999, against 0.999 for random noise. The discrimination between experimental slopes and slopes associated with random noise data was very good at a five-sigma level of confidence (i.e. probability 3 × 10 -7 ). Discrimination between experimental slopes at a five-sigma level was possible in most cases, with three exceptions: gelsemium aqua pura v gelsemium dilution (four-sigma); copper aqua pura v gelsemium aqua pura (four-sigma) and copper simple dilution v gelsemium simple dilution (three-sigma). All potentized samples show very good discrimination (at least nine-sigma level) against aqua pura, lactose or simple dilution. It was possible to transform the associated relaxation times into a molecular rotational correlation time τ c and an average spin-spin distance d. Our experiments thus point to a considerable slowing down of molecular movements (τ c  > 1300 ps or T = 224-225 K) around water molecules up to a distance of 3.7 Å, values. It was also possible to rule out

  12. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Electron beam evaluation, harmonic imaging, materials characterization, and ultrasonic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Lingvall, Fredrik; Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the research in the sixth phase that is concerned with ultrasonic techniques for assessing electron beam (EB) welds in copper canisters. The research has been carried out in three main aspects: (1) comparative inspections of EB welds, (2) EB weld evaluation, and (3) quantitative evaluation of attenuation in copper. Comparative inspections of EB welds in two copper canister blocks have been made by means of ultrasound and radiography. Comparison of the inspected results demonstrate that both techniques complement each other very well. The radiographic technique on the whole gives relatively better spatial resolution but low contrast in radiographs. It can reliably detect voids in EB, but cannot provide information about material structure in the EB weld. Ultrasonic technique provides information about flaw locations and shapes similar to the radiographs. Moreover, it can easily distinguish welded and non-welded zones and be used to study weld's macro- and microstructure. The defects in ultrasonic images often show higher contrast, and some flaw indications may be seen in ultrasonic inspection but not in radiographs. But small flaws are hard to distinguish from grain noise. For EB weld evaluation, first, scattering from EB weld has been investigated using three broadband transducers with different center frequencies. The investigation has shown that more information on scattering and attenuation can be exploited in this case so that the EB welds can be better characterized, and that the best frequency range for characterizing welds is 2 - 5 MHz. Secondly, harmonic imaging (HI) of EB welds have been studied using two different sources of harmonics: (i) transducer harmonics, originating from the high-order resonant modes of transmitters excited by a broadband pulse, and (ii) material harmonics, stemming from the nonlinear distortion of waves propagating in materials. The transducer HI exploits additional information due to transducer harmonics, and

  13. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Electron beam evaluation, harmonic imaging, materials characterization, and ultrasonic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Ping; Lingvall, Fredrik; Stepinski, Tadeusz [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the research in the sixth phase that is concerned with ultrasonic techniques for assessing electron beam (EB) welds in copper canisters. The research has been carried out in three main aspects: (1) comparative inspections of EB welds, (2) EB weld evaluation, and (3) quantitative evaluation of attenuation in copper. Comparative inspections of EB welds in two copper canister blocks have been made by means of ultrasound and radiography. Comparison of the inspected results demonstrate that both techniques complement each other very well. The radiographic technique on the whole gives relatively better spatial resolution but low contrast in radiographs. It can reliably detect voids in EB, but cannot provide information about material structure in the EB weld. Ultrasonic technique provides information about flaw locations and shapes similar to the radiographs. Moreover, it can easily distinguish welded and non-welded zones and be used to study weld's macro- and microstructure. The defects in ultrasonic images often show higher contrast, and some flaw indications may be seen in ultrasonic inspection but not in radiographs. But small flaws are hard to distinguish from grain noise. For EB weld evaluation, first, scattering from EB weld has been investigated using three broadband transducers with different center frequencies. The investigation has shown that more information on scattering and attenuation can be exploited in this case so that the EB welds can be better characterized, and that the best frequency range for characterizing welds is 2 - 5 MHz. Secondly, harmonic imaging (HI) of EB welds have been studied using two different sources of harmonics: (i) transducer harmonics, originating from the high-order resonant modes of transmitters excited by a broadband pulse, and (ii) material harmonics, stemming from the nonlinear distortion of waves propagating in materials. The transducer HI exploits additional information due to transducer harmonics

  14. Characterization of a Highly Thermostable and Organic Solvent-Tolerant Copper-Containing Polyphenol Oxidase with Dye-Decolorizing Ability from Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Guo

    Full Text Available Laccases are green biocatalysts that possess attractive advantages for the treatment of resistant environmental pollutants and dye effluents. A putative laccase-like gene, laclK, encoding a protein of 29.3 kDa and belonging to the Cu-oxidase_4 superfamily, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein LaclK (LaclK was able to oxidize typical laccase substrates such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and l-dopamine. The characteristic adsorption maximums of typical laccases at 330 nm and 610 nm were not detected for LaclK. Cu2+ was essential for substrate oxidation, but the ratio of copper atoms/molecule of LaclK was determined to only be 1:1. Notably, the optimal temperature of LaclK was 85°C with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as substrates, and the half-life approximately 3 days at 80°C. Furthermore, 10% (v/v organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, Triton x-100 or dimethyl sulfoxide could promote enzymatic activity. LaclK exhibited wide-spectrum decolorization ability towards triphenylmethane dyes, azo dyes and aromatic dyes, decolorizing 92% and 94% of Victoria Blue B (25 μM and Ethyl Violet (25 μM, respectively, at a concentration of 60 U/L after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Overall, we characterized a novel thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant copper-containing polyphenol oxidase possessing dye-decolorizing ability. These unusual properties make LaclK an alternative for industrial applications, particularly processes that require high-temperature conditions.

  15. Characterization of laser doped silicon and overcoming adhesion challenges of solar cells with nickel-copper plated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The combination of localized laser patterning and metal plating allows to replace conventional silver screen printing with nickel-copper plating to form inexpensive front contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this work, a focus is put on effects that could cause inhomogeneous metal deposition and low metal contact adhesion. A descriptive model of the silicon nitride ablation mechanism is derived from SEM imaging and a precise recombination analysis using QSSPC measurements. Surface sensitive XPS measurements are conducted to prove the existence of a parasitic surface layer, identified as SiO{sub x}N{sub y}. The dense SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer is an effective diffusion barrier, hindering the formation of a nickel silicide interlayer. After removal of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer, cells show severe degradation caused by metal-induced shunting. These shunts are imaged using reverse biased electroluminescence imaging. A shunting mechanism is proposed and experimentally verified. New laser process sequences are devised and proven to produce cells with adhering Ni-Cu contacts. Conclusively the developed processes are assessed based on their industrial feasibility as well as on their efficiency potential.

  16. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a unique mutation in CCS, the human copper chaperone to superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppke, Peter; Brendel, Cornelia; Korenke, Georg Christoph; Marquardt, Iris; Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Hicks, Julia D; Steinbach, Peter J; Wilson, Callum; Elpeleg, Orly; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Christodoulou, John; Kaler, Stephen G; Gärtner, Jutta

    2012-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is a trace metal that readily gains and donates electrons, a property that renders it desirable as an enzyme cofactor but dangerous as a source of free radicals. To regulate cellular Cu metabolism, an elaborate system of chaperones and transporters has evolved, although no human Cu chaperone mutations have been described to date. We describe a child from a consanguineous family who inherited homozygous mutations in the SLC33A1, encoding an acetyl CoA transporter, and in CCS, encoding the Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase. The CCS mutation, p.Arg163Trp, predicts substitution of a highly conserved arginine residue at position 163, with tryptophan in domain II of CCS, which interacts directly with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Biochemical analyses of the patient's fibroblasts, mammalian cell transfections, immunoprecipitation assays, and Lys7Δ (CCS homolog) yeast complementation support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Expression of CCS was reduced and binding of CCS to SOD1 impaired. As a result, this mutation causes reduced SOD1 activity and may impair other mechanisms important for normal Cu homeostasis. CCS-Arg163Trp represents the primary example of a human mutation in a gene coding for a Cu chaperone. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of nanostructured CuO-porous silicon matrixformed on copper coated silicon substrate via electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Mrad, O.; Al-Zier, A.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed anodic etching method has been utilized for nanostructuring of a copper-coated p-type (100) silicon substrate, using HF-based solution as electrolyte. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the formation of a nanostructured matrix that consists of island-like textures with nanosize grains grown onto fiber-like columnar structures separated with etch pits of grooved porous structures. Spatial micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates that the island-like texture is composed of single-phase cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystals, while the grooved porous structure is barely related to formation of porous silicon (PS). X-ray diffraction shows that both the grown CuO nanostructures and the etched silicon layer have the same preferred (220) orientation. Chemical composition obtained by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirms the presence of the single-phase CuO on the surface of the patterned CuO-PS matrix. As compared to PS formed on the bare silicon substrate, the room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) from the CuO-PS matrix exhibits an additional weak (blue) PL band as well as a blue shift in the PL band of PS (S-band). This has been revealed from XPS analysis to be associated with the enhancement in the SiO2 content as well as formation of the carbonyl group on the surface in the case of the CuO-PS matrix.(author)

  18. Characterization of nanostructured CuO-porous silicon matrix formed on copper-coated silicon substrate via electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Mrad, O.; Al-zier, A.

    2014-06-01

    A pulsed anodic etching method has been utilized for nanostructuring of a copper-coated p-type (100) silicon substrate, using HF-based solution as electrolyte. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the formation of a nanostructured matrix that consists of island-like textures with nanosize grains grown onto fiber-like columnar structures separated with etch pits of grooved porous structures. Spatial micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates that the island-like texture is composed of single-phase cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystals, while the grooved porous structure is barely related to formation of porous silicon (PS). X-ray diffraction shows that both the grown CuO nanostructures and the etched silicon layer have the same preferred (220) orientation. Chemical composition obtained by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirms the presence of the single-phase CuO on the surface of the patterned CuO-PS matrix. As compared to PS formed on the bare silicon substrate, the room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) from the CuO-PS matrix exhibits an additional weak `blue' PL band as well as a blue shift in the PL band of PS (S-band). This has been revealed from XPS analysis to be associated with the enhancement in the SiO2 content as well as formation of the carbonyl group on the surface in the case of the CuO-PS matrix.

  19. Structural characterization of copper(II) binding to α-synuclein: Insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia, Rodolfo M.; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Marsh, Derek; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Cherny, Dmitry; Zweckstetter, Markus; Griesinger, Christian; Jovin, Thomas M.; Fernández, Claudio O.

    2005-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein (AS) is characteristic of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. We demonstrate here that Cu(II) ions are effective in accelerating AS aggregation at physiologically relevant concentrations without altering the resultant fibrillar structures. By using numerous spectroscopic techniques (absorption, CD, EPR, and NMR), we have located the primary binding for Cu(II) to a specific site in the N terminus, involving His-50 as the anchoring residue and other nitrogen/oxygen donor atoms in a square planar or distorted tetragonal geometry. The carboxylate-rich C terminus, originally thought to drive copper binding, is able to coordinate a second Cu(II) equivalent, albeit with a 300-fold reduced affinity. The NMR analysis of AS–Cu(II) complexes reveals the existence of conformational restrictions in the native state of the protein. The metallobiology of Cu(II) in Parkinson's disease is discussed by a comparative analysis with other Cu(II)-binding proteins involved in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:15767574

  20. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) complexes with some mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Samiran; Kundu, Parimal; Singh, Rajkumar Bhubon

    1998-01-01

    Dichloro-(DCA) and trichloroacetate(TCA) -cyclic ligand morpholine (Morph)/thiomorpholine (Tmorph)/methylmorpholine (Mmorph)/dimethyl-piperazine (DMP) complexes of nickel (II), copper (II), zinc (II) and cadmium (II) with the compositions [Ni(tmorph) 2 (DCA) 2 ], [Ni(tmorph) 2 (TCA) 2 ].2H 2 O, [Cu(DMP) 2 (TCA) 2 ],[ML 2 X 2 ].nH 2 O where M=Zn II or Cd II , L=Morph, DMP or tmorph and X=DCA or TCA and n=O except in case of [Cd (Morph) 2 (TCA) 2 ] where n=1 have been synthesised. Some intermediate complexes have been isolated by temperature arrest technique (pyrolysis) and characterised. Configurational and conformational changes have been studied by elemental analyses, IR and electronic spectra, magnetic moment data (in the case of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes) and thermal analysis. E a * , ΔH, and ΔS for the decomposition reaction of these complexes are evaluated and the stability of the complexes with respect to activation energy has also been compared. The linear correlation has been found between E a * and ΔS for the decomposition of the complexes. (author)

  1. Wavelet-based Characterization of Small-scale Solar Emission Features at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, A. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune-411008 (India); Sharma, R.; Oberoi, D. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Das, S. B. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata-741249 (India); Pankratius, V.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Kratzenberg, E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Timar, B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Briggs, F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Deshpande, A. A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Emrich, D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Goeke, R. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Greenhill, L. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, B. J. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Kasper, J. C., E-mail: akshay@students.iiserpune.ac.in [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); and others

    2017-07-01

    Low radio frequency solar observations using the Murchison Widefield Array have recently revealed the presence of numerous weak short-lived narrowband emission features, even during moderately quiet solar conditions. These nonthermal features occur at rates of many thousands per hour in the 30.72 MHz observing bandwidth, and hence necessarily require an automated approach for their detection and characterization. Here, we employ continuous wavelet transform using a mother Ricker wavelet for feature detection from the dynamic spectrum. We establish the efficacy of this approach and present the first statistically robust characterization of the properties of these features. In particular, we examine distributions of their peak flux densities, spectral spans, temporal spans, and peak frequencies. We can reliably detect features weaker than 1 SFU, making them, to the best of our knowledge, the weakest bursts reported in literature. The distribution of their peak flux densities follows a power law with an index of −2.23 in the 12–155 SFU range, implying that they can provide an energetically significant contribution to coronal and chromospheric heating. These features typically last for 1–2 s and possess bandwidths of about 4–5 MHz. Their occurrence rate remains fairly flat in the 140–210 MHz frequency range. At the time resolution of the data, they appear as stationary bursts, exhibiting no perceptible frequency drift. These features also appear to ride on a broadband background continuum, hinting at the likelihood of them being weak type-I bursts.

  2. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  3. A novel nanostructured composite formed by interaction of copper octa(3-aminopropyl)octasilsesquioxane with azide ligands: Preparation, characterization and a voltammetric application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro do Carmo, Devaney; Paim, Leonardo Lataro; Metzker, Gustavo; Dias Filho, Newton Luiz; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the preparation, characterization and application of copper octa(3-aminopropyl)octasilsesquioxane following its subsequent reaction with azide ions (ASCA). The precursor (AC) and the novel compound (ASCA) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analyses and voltammetric technique. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified graphite paste electrode with ASCA (GPE-ASCA), showed one redox couple with formal potential (E 1/2 ox ) = 0.30 V and an irreversible process at 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl; NaCl 1.0 M; v=20mVs -1 ). The material is very sensitive to nitrite concentrations. The modified graphite paste electrode (GPE-ASCA) gives a linear range from 1.0 x 10 -4 to 4.0 x 10 -3 mol L -1 for the determination of nitrite, with a detection limit of 2.1 x 10 -4 mol L -1 and the amperometric sensitivity of 8.04 mA/mol L -1 .

  4. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  5. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  6. Sn-doped polyhedral In2O3 particles: Synthesis, characterization, and origins of luminous emission in wide visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yunqing; Chen Yiqing

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped octahedronal and tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particles were successfully synthesized by simple thermal evaporation of indium grains using SnO as dopant. Structural characterization results demonstrated that the Sn-doped tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particle had additional six {001} crystal surfaces compared with the octahedronal one. The luminous properties of both samples were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. A broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm was observed. Studies revealed that the emission consisted of three peaks of 511 nm, 564 nm, and 622 nm, which were attributed to radioactive recombination centers such as single ionized oxygen vacancy, indium interstitial, and antisite oxygen, respectively. We believe that the Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible luminous emission. - Graphical abstract: With more oxygen vacancies and tin doping. ITO particles can exhibit a better CL performance. Sn donor level near the conduction band edge plays an important role in luminous emission in wide visible range. Highlights: ► Polyhedral ITO particles synthesized by thermal evaporation using SnO as dopant. ► Broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm. ► Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible emission. ► ITO particles with more oxygen vacancies have better CL performance in visible range.

  7. Characterization of Exoelectrogenic Bacteria Enterobacter Strains Isolated from a Microbial Fuel Cell Exposed to Copper Shock Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cuijie; Li, Jiangwei; Qin, Dan; Chen, Lixiang; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Hongbo; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu) shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III) oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load) and B4B2 (after Cu shock load) were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L−1 of Cu(II) while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m−2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density. PMID:25412475

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Phase-pure Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Bradley Michael

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have been an important area of research in many different disciplines. A substantial amount of this work has been put toward advancing the field of photovoltaics. However, current p-type photovoltaic materials can not sustain the large scale production needed for future energy demands due to their low elemental abundance. Therefore, Earth abundant semiconductor materials have become of great interest to the photovoltaic community especially, the material copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS), also known by its mineral name kesterite. CZTS exhibits desirable properties for photovoltaics, such as elemental abundance, high absorption coefficient (~104 cm-1 ), high carrier concentration, and optimum direct band gap (1.5 eV). To date, solution based approaches for making CZTS have yielded the most promising conversion efficiencies in solar cells. To that end, the motivation of nanoparticle based inks that can be used in high throughput production are an attractive route for large scale deployment. This has driven the need to make high quality CZTS nanoparticles that possess the properties of the pure kesterite phase with high monodispersity that can be deposited into dense thin films. The inherent challenge of making a quaternary compound of a single phase has made this a difficult task; however, some of those fundamental problems are addressed in this thesis. This had resulted in the synthesis of phase-pure k-CZTS confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, ultra-fast laser spectroscopy was done on CZTS thin films made from phase-pure kesterite nanoparticles synthesized in this work. This thesis provides new data that directly probes the lifetime of photogenerated free carriers in kesterite CZTS (k-CZTS) thin films.

  9. Copper substitutions in synthetic miargyrite α-AgSbS{sub 2} mineral: Synthesis, characterization and dielectrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdámez, A., E-mail: agaldamez@uchile.cl [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); López-Vergara, F.; Veloso Cid, N.; Manríquez, V. [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Ávila, R.E. [Departamento de Producción y Servicios, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-14

    The nominal compositions Ag{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}SbS{sub 2} and Ag{sub 0.7}Cu{sub 0.3}SbS{sub 2} have been synthesized by conventional ceramic solid-state reaction at high temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy chemical analysis (SEM-EDAX) revealed single phases, isostructural to the natural miargyrite α-AgSbS{sub 2} mineral. Examination of the lattice parameters shows a decrease in the cell volume with increasing copper substitutions. The Raman analysis displays absorptions which may be assigned to the Sb–S stretching vibrations of the SbS{sub 3} pyramids. The impedance-frequency analysis showed grain boundary and electrode interface contributions in non-Debye type relaxation, following Jonscher's universal power law. The giant permittivity response is attributed to extrinsic effects without evidence of a ferroelectric transition. Summerfield scaling, leading to the superposition of impedance analysis, implies that the relaxation is thermally activated, without introducing more than one underlying transport mechanism. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}SbS{sub 2} and Ag{sub 0.7}Cu{sub 0.3}SbS{sub 2} are isostructural with the natural miargyrite α-AgSbS{sub 2} mineral. • The overall resistance correspond to grain boundary and electrode/sample interface responses. • In these solid solutions no ferroelectric-like transition is noticed. • The overall frequency dependence follows the Jonscher's universal power law. • σ{sub ac} vs. frequency can be normalized by Summerfield scaling procedure.

  10. Characterization of exoelectrogenic bacteria enterobacter strains isolated from a microbial fuel cell exposed to copper shock load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijie Feng

    Full Text Available Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load and B4B2 (after Cu shock load were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L-1 of Cu(II while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m-2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of the Most Active Copper ATRP Catalyst Based on Tris[(4-dimethylaminopyridyl)methyl]amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribelli, Thomas G; Fantin, Marco; Daran, Jean-Claude; Augustine, Kyle F; Poli, Rinaldo; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2018-01-31

    The tris[(4-dimethylaminopyridyl)methyl]amine (TPMA NMe2 ) as a ligand for copper-catalyzed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is reported. In solution, the [Cu I (TPMA NMe2 )Br] complex shows fluxionality by variable-temperature NMR, indicating rapid ligand exchange. In the solid state, the [Cu II (TPMA NMe2 )Br][Br] complex exhibits a slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry (τ = 0.89). The UV-vis spectrum of [Cu II (TPMA NMe2 )Br] + salts is similar to those of other pyridine-based ATRP catalysts. Electrochemical studies of [Cu(TPMA NMe2 )] 2+ and [Cu(TPMA NMe2 )Br] + showed highly negative redox potentials (E 1/2 = -302 and -554 mV vs SCE, respectively), suggesting unprecedented ATRP catalytic activity. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the presence of methyl 2-bromopropionate (MBrP; acrylate mimic) was used to determine activation rate constant k a = 1.1 × 10 6 M -1 s -1 , confirming the extremely high catalyst reactivity. In the presence of the more active ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB; methacrylate mimic), total catalysis was observed and an activation rate constant k a = 7.2 × 10 6 M -1 s -1 was calculated with values of K ATRP ≈ 1. ATRP of methyl acrylate showed a well-controlled polymerization using as little as 10 ppm of catalyst relative to monomer, while side reactions such as Cu I -catalyzed radical termination (CRT) could be suppressed due to the low concentration of L/Cu I at a steady state.

  12. The polymeric nanofilm of triazinedithiolsilane fabricated by self-assembled technique on copper surface. Part 2: Characterization of composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yabin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Yudong; Qi, Yutai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The chemical reactions between copper and triazinedithiolsilane were revealed. • The structure of triazinedithiolsilane's polymeric nanofilm was demonstrated. • The morphology and microstructure of the polymeric nanofilm was observed. - Abstract: In the first part, a novel design route for metal protection against corrosion was proposed, and a class of triazinedithiolsilane compounds was conceived as protector for copper. The protective capability of the polymeric nanofilm, fabricated by self-assembling one representative (abbreviated as TESPA) of triazinedithiolsilane compounds onto copper surface, has been investigated and evaluated by electrochemical tests. The results show that the polymeric nanofilm significantly inhibits copper corrosion. This study, on the one hand, concentrates on the chemical composition of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results reveal that the chemical bonds between copper and TESPA monomers, three dimensional disulfide units and siloxane networks are responsible for the satisfactory protection of TESPA polymeric nanofilm against copper corrosion. On the other hand, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are utilized to reveal the morphology and the uniformity of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm. The SEM-EDS results demonstrate that the copper surfaces are uniformly covered with TESPA self-assembled monolayer and the polymeric nanofilm. The TESPA-covered copper surfaces turn out to be smoother than that of the bare copper surface.

  13. Detection of Copper (II) and Cadmium (II) binding to dissolved organic matter from macrophyte decomposition by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra combined with parallel factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Dong-hai; Guo, Xu-jing; Wen, Li; He, Lian-sheng; Wang, Jing-gang; Li, Jun-qi

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from macrophyte decomposition, and to study its complexation with Cu (II) and Cd (II). Both the protein-like and the humic-like components showed a marked quenching effect by Cu (II). Negligible quenching effects were found for Cd (II) by components 1, 5 and 6. The stability constants and the fraction of the binding fluorophores for humic-like components and Cu (II) can be influenced by macrophyte decomposition of various weight gradients in aquatic plants. Macrophyte decomposition within the scope of the appropriate aquatic phytomass can maximize the stability constant of DOM-metal complexes. A large amount of organic matter was introduced into the aquatic environment by macrophyte decomposition, suggesting that the potential risk of DOM as a carrier of heavy metal contamination in macrophytic lakes should not be ignored. - Highlights: • Macrophyte decomposition increases fluorescent DOM components in the upper sediment. • Protein-like components are quenched or enhanced by adding Cu (II) and Cd (II). • Macrophyte decomposition DOM can impact the affinity of Cu (II) and Cd (II). • The log K M and f values showed a marked change due to macrophyte decomposition. • Macrophyte decomposition can maximize the stability constant of DOM-Cu (II) complexes. - Macrophyte decomposition DOM can influence on the binding affinity of metal ions in macrophytic lakes

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  15. Characterizing agricultural soil nitrous acid (HONO) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions with their nitrogen isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, J.; Miller, D. J.; Guo, F.; Dell, C. J.; Karsten, H.; Hastings, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a major source of atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH), which greatly impacts air quality and climate. Fertilized soils may be important sources of HONO in addition to nitric oxide (NO). However, soil HONO emissions are especially challenging to quantify due to huge spatial and temporal variation as well as unknown HONO chemistry. With no in-situ measurements available, soil HONO emissions are highly uncertain. Isotopic analysis of HONO may provide a tool for tracking these sources. We characterize in situ soil HONO and NO fluxes and their nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) across manure management and meteorological conditions during a sustainable dairy cropping study in State College, Pennsylvania. HONO and NO were simultaneously collected at hourly resolution from a custom-coated dynamic soil flux chamber ( 3 LPM) using annular denuder system (ADS) coupled with an alkaline-permanganate NOx collection system for offline isotopic analysis of δ15N with ±0.6 ‰ (HONO) and ±1.5 ‰ (NO) precision. The ADS method was tested using laboratory generated HONO flowing through the chamber to verify near 100% collection (with no isotopic fractionation) and suitability for soil HONO collection. Corn-soybean rotation plots (rain-fed) were sampled following dairy manure application with no-till shallow-disk injection (112 kg N ha-1) and broadcast with tillage incorporation (129 kg N ha-1) during spring 2017. Soil HONO fluxes (n=10) ranged from 0.1-0.6 ng N-HONO m-2 s-1, 4-28% of total HONO+NO mass fluxes. HONO and NO fluxes were correlated, with both declining during the measurement period. The soil δ15N-HONO flux weighted mean ±1σ of -15 ± 6‰ was less negative than δ15N of simultaneously collected NO (-29 ± 8‰). This can potentially be explained by fractionations associated with microbial conversion of nitrite, abiotic production of HONO from soil nitrite, and uptake and release with changing soil moisture. Our results have implications for

  16. Crystal structure and characterization of a novel layered copper-lithium phosphonate with antiferromagnetic intrachain Cu(II)···Cu(II) interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M. [Departments of Physical and Analytical Chemistry and Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Amghouz, Zakariae [Scientific and Technical Services, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Blanco, David Martínez [Scientific and Technical Services, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R. [Departments of Physical and Analytical Chemistry and Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Novel metal phosphonate [CuLi(PPA)] [H{sub 3}PPA=3-phosphonopropionic acid] was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. It crystallizes in the space group C2/c, with cell parameters a=21.617(2) Å, b=4.9269(2) Å, c=14.342(1) Å, β=132.3(2)°, and Z=8. Its framework is built up from a main trimer, acting as a secondary building unit (SBU), which is formed by vertex-shared between two (LiO{sub 4}) and one (Cu(1)O{sub 4}) polyhedra. These units repeat along b-axis forming infinite inorganic chains, these chains are in turn cross-linked by corner sharing with (Cu(2)O{sub 4}) polyhedra to produce inorganic layers lying in the bc-plane. The neighboring layers are connected through the PPA ligand, leading to a 3D pillared-layered structure. The topological analysis reveals that the compound exhibits 3,4,10-c net. Finally, magnetic susceptibility measurement of this compound over the temperature range of 2–300 K reveals the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic intrachain interactions. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a novel lithium-copper phosphonate, formulated as [CuLi(PPA)] (H{sub 3}PPA=3-phosphonopropionic acid), have been reported. This compound has a 3D pillared-layered structure with 3,4,10-c net topology. The magnetic susceptibility data over the temperature range of 2–300 K reveals the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions. - Highlights: • Novel metal phosphonate, [CuLi(PPA)] (1), has been synthesized and characterized. • Compound 1 has a 3D pillared-layered structure with 3,4,10-c net topology. • Magnetic susceptibility data reveals the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions.

  17. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  18. Characterization of methane emissions from five cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Knighton, W Berk; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Johnson, Matthew R; Tyner, David R

    2018-03-07

    Cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) is a common oil extraction method in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan that can result in significant methane emissions due to annular venting. Little is known about the magnitude of these emissions, nor their contributions to the regional methane budget. Here the authors present the results of field measurements of methane emissions from CHOPS wells and compare them with self-reported venting rates. The tracer ratio method was used not only to analyze total site emissions but at one site it was also used to locate primary emission sources and quantify their contributions to the facility-wide emission rate, revealing the annular vent to be a dominant source. Emissions measured from five different CHOPS sites in Alberta showed large discrepancies between the measured and reported rates, with emissions being mainly underreported. These methane emission rates are placed in the context of current reporting procedures and the role that gas-oil ratio (GOR) measurements play in vented volume estimates. In addition to methane, emissions of higher hydrocarbons were also measured; a chemical "fingerprint" associated with CHOPS wells in this region reveals very low emission ratios of ethane, propane, and aromatics versus methane. The results of this study may inform future studies of CHOPS sites and aid in developing policy to mitigate regional methane emissions. Methane measurements from cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) sites identify annular venting to be a potentially major source of emissions at these facilities. The measured emission rates are generally larger than reported by operators, with uncertainty in the gas-oil ratio (GOR) possibly playing a large role in this discrepancy. These results have potential policy implications for reducing methane emissions in Alberta in order to achieve the Canadian government's goal of reducing methane emissions by 40-45% below 2012 levels within 8 yr.

  19. Least-squares dual characterization for ROI assessment in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Bouallègue, F; Mariano-Goulart, D; Crouzet, J F; Dubois, A; Buvat, I

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to describe an original method for estimating the statistical properties of regions of interest (ROIs) in emission tomography. Drawn upon the works of Louis on the approximate inverse, we propose a dual formulation of the ROI estimation problem to derive the ROI activity and variance directly from the measured data without any image reconstruction. The method requires the definition of an ROI characteristic function that can be extracted from a co-registered morphological image. This characteristic function can be smoothed to optimize the resolution-variance tradeoff. An iterative procedure is detailed for the solution of the dual problem in the least-squares sense (least-squares dual (LSD) characterization), and a linear extrapolation scheme is described to compensate for sampling partial volume effect and reduce the estimation bias (LSD-ex). LSD and LSD-ex are compared with classical ROI estimation using pixel summation after image reconstruction and with Huesman's method. For this comparison, we used Monte Carlo simulations (GATE simulation tool) of 2D PET data of a Hoffman brain phantom containing three small uniform high-contrast ROIs and a large non-uniform low-contrast ROI. Our results show that the performances of LSD characterization are at least as good as those of the classical methods in terms of root mean square (RMS) error. For the three small tumor regions, LSD-ex allows a reduction in the estimation bias by up to 14%, resulting in a reduction in the RMS error of up to 8.5%, compared with the optimal classical estimation. For the large non-specific region, LSD using appropriate smoothing could intuitively and efficiently handle the resolution-variance tradeoff. (paper)

  20. Least-squares dual characterization for ROI assessment in emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bouallègue, F.; Crouzet, J. F.; Dubois, A.; Buvat, I.; Mariano-Goulart, D.

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to describe an original method for estimating the statistical properties of regions of interest (ROIs) in emission tomography. Drawn upon the works of Louis on the approximate inverse, we propose a dual formulation of the ROI estimation problem to derive the ROI activity and variance directly from the measured data without any image reconstruction. The method requires the definition of an ROI characteristic function that can be extracted from a co-registered morphological image. This characteristic function can be smoothed to optimize the resolution-variance tradeoff. An iterative procedure is detailed for the solution of the dual problem in the least-squares sense (least-squares dual (LSD) characterization), and a linear extrapolation scheme is described to compensate for sampling partial volume effect and reduce the estimation bias (LSD-ex). LSD and LSD-ex are compared with classical ROI estimation using pixel summation after image reconstruction and with Huesman's method. For this comparison, we used Monte Carlo simulations (GATE simulation tool) of 2D PET data of a Hoffman brain phantom containing three small uniform high-contrast ROIs and a large non-uniform low-contrast ROI. Our results show that the performances of LSD characterization are at least as good as those of the classical methods in terms of root mean square (RMS) error. For the three small tumor regions, LSD-ex allows a reduction in the estimation bias by up to 14%, resulting in a reduction in the RMS error of up to 8.5%, compared with the optimal classical estimation. For the large non-specific region, LSD using appropriate smoothing could intuitively and efficiently handle the resolution-variance tradeoff.

  1. Characterization of donor-acceptor-pair emission in fluorescent 6H-SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Linnarsson, Margareta

    shifts with increasing emission angle in sample #d, and the FWHM starts to decrese and becomes more dramatic when the emission angle is larger than 45 degrees. Our results revealed that the optimized way to achieve intense DAP emission in B-N-doped 6H-SiC is to use low-level n-type doping with both B...

  2. Unraveling the chemical complexity of biomass burning VOC emissions via H3O+ ToF-CIMS (PTR-ToF): emissions characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; Gilman, J.; Selimovic, V.; Coggon, M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Yuan, B.; Lerner, B. M.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Krechmer, J. E.; Warneke, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-phase biomass burning emissions can include hundreds, if not thousands, of unique volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds. It is crucial to know the composition of these emissions to understand secondary organic aerosol formation, ozone formation, and human health effects resulting from fires. However, the composition can vary greatly with fuel type and fire combustion process. During the FIREX 2016 laboratory intensive at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana, high-resolution H3O+-CIMS (PTR-ToF) was deployed to characterize VOC emissions. More than 500 ion masses were consistently enhanced in each of 58 fires, which included a wide variety of fuel types representative of the western United States. Using a combination of extensive literature review, H3O+ and NO+ CIMS with GC preseparation, comparison to other instruments, and mass spectral context, we were able to identify the VOC contributors to 90% of the instrument signal. This provides unprecedented chemical detail in high time resolution. We present chemical characteristics of emissions, including OH reactivity and volatility, and highlight areas where better identification is needed.

  3. Unsymmetrical Mesoporphyrinic Complexes of Copper (II and Zinc (II. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rica Boscencu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available New unsymmetrical mesoporphyrinic complexes, namely 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20–tris-(4-carboxymethylphenyl–21,23-Zn(II-porphine and 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20–tris-(4-carboxymethylphenyl–21,23-Cu(II-porphine, were synthesized using a microwave irradiation method. The structures of the porphyrinic complexes were confirmed using FT-IR, UV–Vis, EPR and NMR spectral data. The spectral absorption and emission properties of the porphyrinic complexes were studied in organic solvents of different polarities and the influence of solvent polarity on the wavelengths of the absorbance and fluorescence band maxima is described. The cytotoxicity evaluation of the porphyrinic complexes was performed on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 for different doses and incubation times. The obtained result indicates a lack of or low toxicity for both compounds, thus recommending them for further testing in light activation protocols.

  4. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Soracaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Trasferetti, B. Claudio [Present address: Superintendencia Regional da Policia Federal em Sao Paulo, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Rua Hugo d' Antola 95/10o Andar, Lapa de Baixo, 05038-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Davanzo, C.U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V{sub S}) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X{sub T}) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V{sub S} and X{sub T} are presented.

  5. Initial characterization of a BGO-photodiode detector for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1983-11-01

    Spatial resolution in positron emission tomography is currently limited by the resolution of the detectors. This work presents the initial characterization of a detector design using small bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals individually coupled to silicon photodiodes (SPDs) for crystal identification, and coupled in groups to phototubes (PMTs) for coincidence timing. A 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm BGO crystal coupled only to an SPD can achieve a 511 keV photopeak resolution of 8.7% FWHM at -150 0 C, using a pulse peaking time of 10 μs. When two 3 mm x 3 mm x 15 mm BGO crystals are coupled individually to SPDs and also coupled to a common 14 mm diam PMT, the SPDs detect the 511 keV photopeak with a resolution of 30% FWHM at -76 0 C. In coincidence with an opposing 3 mm wide BGO crystal, the SPDs are able to identify the crystal of interaction with good signal-to-noise ratio, and the detector pair resolution is 2 mm FWHM. 32 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  6. Fluorescence Intrinsic Characterization of Excitation-Emission Matrix Using Multi-Dimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chien Hsiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Excitation-emission matrix (EEM fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive method for tissue diagnosis and has become important in clinical use. However, the intrinsic characterization of EEM fluorescence remains unclear. Photobleaching and the complexity of the chemical compounds make it difficult to distinguish individual compounds due to overlapping features. Conventional studies use principal component analysis (PCA for EEM fluorescence analysis, and the relationship between the EEM features extracted by PCA and diseases has been examined. The spectral features of different tissue constituents are not fully separable or clearly defined. Recently, a non-stationary method called multi-dimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD was introduced; this method can extract the intrinsic oscillations on multiple spatial scales without loss of information. The aim of this study was to propose a fluorescence spectroscopy system for EEM measurements and to describe a method for extracting the intrinsic characteristics of EEM by MEEMD. The results indicate that, although PCA provides the principal factor for the spectral features associated with chemical compounds, MEEMD can provide additional intrinsic features with more reliable mapping of the chemical compounds. MEEMD has the potential to extract intrinsic fluorescence features and improve the detection of biochemical changes.

  7. Method to characterize inorganic particulates in lung tissue biopsies using field emission scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Breit, George N.; Strand, Matthew; Pillers, Renee M.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Todorov, Todor I.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Robinson, Maura; Parr, Jane; Miller, Robert J.; Groshong, Steve; Green, Francis; Rose, Cecile

    2018-01-01

    Humans accumulate large numbers of inorganic particles in their lungs over a lifetime. Whether this causes or contributes to debilitating disease over a normal lifespan depends on the type and concentration of the particles. We developed and tested a protocol for in situ characterization of the types and distribution of inorganic particles in biopsied lung tissue from three human groups using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Many distinct particle types were recognized among the 13 000 particles analyzed. Silica, feldspars, clays, titanium dioxides, iron oxides and phosphates were the most common constituents in all samples. Particles were classified into three general groups: endogenous, which form naturally in the body; exogenic particles, natural earth materials; and anthropogenic particles, attributed to industrial sources. These in situ results were compared with those using conventional sodium hypochlorite tissue digestion and particle filtration. With the exception of clays and phosphates, the relative abundances of most common particle types were similar in both approaches. Nonetheless, the digestion/filtration method was determined to alter the texture and relative abundances of some particle types. SEM/EDS analysis of digestion filters could be automated in contrast to the more time intensive in situ analyses.

  8. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Steven F.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Trasferetti, B. Claudio; Davanzo, C.U.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V S ) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X T ) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V S and X T are presented

  9. The polymeric nanofilm of triazinedithiolsilane fabricated by self-assembled technique on copper surface. Part 2: Characterization of composition and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yabin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Yudong; Qi, Yutai

    2015-11-01

    In the first part, a novel design route for metal protection against corrosion was proposed, and a class of triazinedithiolsilane compounds was conceived as protector for copper. The protective capability of the polymeric nanofilm, fabricated by self-assembling one representative (abbreviated as TESPA) of triazinedithiolsilane compounds onto copper surface, has been investigated and evaluated by electrochemical tests. The results show that the polymeric nanofilm significantly inhibits copper corrosion. This study, on the one hand, concentrates on the chemical composition of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results reveal that the chemical bonds between copper and TESPA monomers, three dimensional disulfide units and siloxane networks are responsible for the satisfactory protection of TESPA polymeric nanofilm against copper corrosion. On the other hand, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are utilized to reveal the morphology and the uniformity of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm. The SEM-EDS results demonstrate that the copper surfaces are uniformly covered with TESPA self-assembled monolayer and the polymeric nanofilm. The TESPA-covered copper surfaces turn out to be smoother than that of the bare copper surface.

  10. Characterization of microwave plasma in a multicusp using 2D emission based tomography: Bessel modes and wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Munshi, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    A tomographic method based on the Fourier transform is used for characterizing a microwave plasma in a multicusp (MC), in order to obtain 2D distribution of plasma emissions, plasma (electron) density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The microwave plasma in the MC is characterized as a function of microwave power, gas pressure, and axial distance. The experimentally obtained 2D emission profiles show that the plasma emissions are generated in a circular ring shape. There are usually two bright rings, one at the plasma core and another near the boundary. The experimental results are validated using a numerical code that solves Maxwell's equations inside a waveguide filled with a plasma in a magnetic field, with collisions included. It is inferred that the dark and bright circular ring patterns are a result of superposition of Bessel modes (TE11 and TE21) of the wave electric field inside the plasma filled MC, which are in reasonable agreement with the plasma emission profiles. The tomographically obtained Ne and Te profiles indicate higher densities in the plasma core (˜1010 cm-3) and enhanced electron temperature in the ECR region (˜13 eV), which are in agreement with earlier results using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics.

  11. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  12. Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of new zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes based on imine ligand containing 2-aminothiophenol moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Mousavi, S. Sedighe; Afshari, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    New dimer complexes of zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) were synthesized using the Schiff base ligand which was formed by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde. This tridentate Schiff base ligand was coordinated to the metal ions through the NSO donor atoms. In order to prevent the oxidation of the thiole group during the formation of Schiff base and its complexes, all of the reactions were carried out under an inert atmosphere of argon. The X-ray structure of the Schiff base ligand showed that in the crystalline form the SH groups were oxidized to produce a disulfide Schiff base as a new double Schiff base ligand. The molar conductivity values of the complexes in dichloromethane implied the presence of non-electrolyte species. The fluorescence properties of the Schiff base ligand and its complexes were also studied in dichloromethane. The products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis, and conductometry. The crystal structure of the double Schiff base was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory for the determination of the optimized structures of Schiff base complexes.

  13. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of N,N-dialkyl-N‧-3-chlorobenzoylthiourea: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, Hirshfeld surfaces and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzet, Gun; Gumus, Ilkay; Dogen, Aylin; Flörke, Ulrich; Kulcu, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    We synthesized four new N,N-dialkyl-N‧-3-chlorobenzoylthiourea ligands (Alkyl: Dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-propyl and di-n-butyl) and their metal complexes with copper and nickel atoms. The structure of all synthesized compounds was fully characterized by physicochemical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis techniques. The physical, spectral and analytical data of the newly synthesized metal complexes have shown the formation of 1:2 (metal:ligand) ratio. The benzoylthiourea ligands coordinate with metal atoms through oxygen and sulphur atoms. The metal atoms are in slightly distorted square-planar coordination geometry in Ni(II) or Cu(II) complex. Two oxygen and two sulphur atoms are mutually cis to each other in Ni(II) or Cu(II) complex. The intermolecular contacts in the compounds, which are HL1 and HL3, were examined by Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots using the data obtained from X-ray single crystal diffraction measurement. Besides these, their antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and anti-yeast activity (Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans) were investigated. This exhibited some promising results towards testing organism. Among all the compounds, Ni(L1)2 complex showed high activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC values at 7.81 μg/mL.

  14. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles supported copper(II) and nickel(II) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activity and enzyme immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Leila; Sedaghat, Tahereh; Motamedi, Hossein; Kooti, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared by sol-gel method and functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Schiff base grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticle was synthesized by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde and amine-functionalized MSNs. The latter material was then treated with Cu(II) and Ni(II) salts separately to obtain copper and nickel complexes anchored mesoporous composites. The newly prepared hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites have been characterized by several techniques such as FT-IR, LA-XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, EDS, BET and TGA. The results showed all samples have MCM-41 type ordered mesoporous structure and functionalization occurs mainly inside the mesopore channel. The presence of all elements in synthesized nanocomposites and the coordination of Schiff base via imine nitrogen and phenolate oxygen were confirmed. MSNs and all functionalized MSNs have uniform spherical nanoparticles with a mean diameter less than 100 nm. The as-synthesized mesoporous nanocomposites were investigated for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) bacteria, as carrier for gentamicin and also for immobilization of DNase, coagulase and amylase enzymes. MSN-SB-Ni indicated bacteriocidal effect against S.aureus and all compounds were found to be good carrier for gentamicin. Results of enzyme immobilization for DNase and coagulase and α-amylase revealed that supported metal complexes efficiently immobilized enzymes.

  15. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Santos Roldan, Paulo dos; Gine, Maria Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L -1 , 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 deg. C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n = 9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 μg L -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples.

  16. Ultra-trace monitoring of copper in environmental and biological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after separation and preconcentration by using octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by a new schiff's base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Ganjali

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-trace amounts of Cu(II were separated and preconcentrated by solid phase extraction on octadecyl-bonded silica membrane disks modified with a new Schiff,s base (Bis- (2-Hydroxyacetophenone -2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediimine (SBTD followed by elution and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection. The method was applied as a separation and detection method for copper(II in environmental and biological samples. Extraction efficiency and the influence of sample matrix, flow rate, pH, and type and minimum amount of stripping acid were investigated. The concentration factor and detection limit of the proposed method are 500 and 12.5 pg mL-1, respectively.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of novel μ-oxamido heterodinuclear copper(II) - lanthanide(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.T.; Miao, M.M.; Liao, D.Z.; Jiang, Z.H.; Wang, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Six novel μ-oxamido heterobinuclear complexes have been prepared and identified as Cu(oxpn)Ln(L) 2 (ClO 4 ) 3 , where oxpn denotes the N, N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)oxamido dianion, L, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and Ln stands for La, Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er. The complexes Cu(oxpn)Gd(oxpn)Gd(phen) 2 (ClO 4 ) 3 were characterized with variable temperature magnetic susceptibility (4-300 K). The exchange integral J (Cu-Gd) was found to be 2.03 cm -1 . The result is commensurate with ferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent metal ions. One plausible mechanism that can cause a ferromagnetic coupling between Gd(III) and Cu(II) is also discussed in terms of spin polarized. (author). 32 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Reactive trace gas emissions from stressed plants: a poorly characterized major source of atmospheric volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near

  19. Surface characteristics, copper release, and toxicity of nano- and micrometer-sized copper and copper(II) oxide particles: a cross-disciplinary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Midander, Klara; Cronholm, Pontus; Karlsson, Hanna L.; Elihn, Karine; Moller, Lennart; Leygraf, Christofer; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and multianalytical research effort is undertaken to assess the toxic aspects of thoroughly characterized nano- and micrometer-sized particles of oxidized metallic copper and copper(II) oxide in contact with cultivated lung cells, as well as copper release in relevant media. All particles, except micrometer-sized Cu, release more copper in serum-containing cell medium (supplemented Dulbecco's minimal essential medium) compared to identical exposures in phosphate-buffered ...

  20. A Characterization of the Diffuse Galactic Emissions at Large Angular Scales Using the Tenerife Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Macías-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    diffuse emission in the range from 20 to 60 GHz. To discriminate between different models of AME, low frequency microwave data from 10 to 20 GHz are needed. We present here a reanalysis of published and unpublished Tenerife data from 10 to 33 GHz at large angular scales (from 5 to 15 degrees. We cross-correlate the Tenerife data to templates of the main galactic diffuse emissions: synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust. We find evidence of dust-correlated emission in the Tenerife data that could be explained as spinning dust grain emission.

  1. Using copper substrate to enhance the thermal conductivity of top-emission organic light-emitting diodes for improving the luminance efficiency and lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Hsi; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Cheng, Chien-Lung; Liao, Teh-Chao

    2009-12-01

    The influence of heat dissipation on the performances of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is investigated by measuring junction temperature and by calculating the rate of heat flow. The calculated rate of heat flow reveals that the key factors include the thermal conductivity, the substrate thickness, and the UV glue. Moreover, the use of copper substrate can effectively dissipate the joule heat, which then reduces the temperature gradient. Finally, it is shown that the use of a high thermal conductivity thinner substrate can enhance the thermal conductivity of OLED and the luminance efficiency as well.

  2. Characterizing the structure of diffuse emission in Hi-GAL maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pestalozzi, M.; Liu, S. J. [INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Strafella, F.; Maruccia, Y. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica E. De Giorgi, Università del Salento, CP 193, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Schneider, N. [Univ. Bordeaux, LAB, CNRS, UMR 5804, 33270, Floirac (France); Paladini, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vavrek, R. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villafranca del Castillo, Apartado de Correos 78, E-28080 Madrid (Spain); Noriega-Crespo, A.; Pezzuto, S.; Schisano, E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Traficante, A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Calzoletti, L.; Natoli, P. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center, c/o ESRIN, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Huang, M. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Martin, P. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Fukui, Y., E-mail: davide.elia@iaps.inaf.it [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); and others

    2014-06-10

    We present a study of the structure of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) through the Δ-variance technique, related to the power spectrum and the fractal properties of infrared/submillimeter maps. Through this method, it is possible to provide quantitative parameters, which are useful for characterizing different morphological and physical conditions, and better constraining the theoretical models. In this respect, the Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey, carried out at five photometric bands from 70 to 500 μm, constitutes a unique database for applying statistical tools to a variety of regions across the Milky Way. In this paper, we derive a robust estimate of the power-law portion of the power spectrum of four contiguous 2° × 2° Hi-GAL tiles located in the third Galactic quadrant (217° ≲ ℓ ≲ 225°, –2° ≲ b ≲ 0°). The low level of confusion along the line of sight, testified by CO observations, makes this region an ideal case. We find very different values for the power spectrum slope from tile to tile but also from wavelength to wavelength (2 ≲ β ≲ 3), with similarities between fields attributable to components located at the same distance. Thanks to comparisons with models of turbulence, an explanation of the determined slopes in terms of the fractal geometry is also provided, and possible relations with the underlying physics are investigated. In particular, an anti-correlation between ISM fractal dimension and star formation efficiency is found for the two main distance components observed in these fields. A possible link between the fractal properties of the diffuse emission and the resulting clump mass function is discussed.

  3. Preparation and characterization of radionuclide 64Cu for positron emission tomographic diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.

    2013-01-01

    We occupy ourselves with preparation of 64 Cu using cyclotron IBA 18/9. 64 Cu is a starting product for production of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomographic diagnostics and therapy and metrological characterization as well. The use of non-traditional PET radionuclides has been spread in the world recently. Due to the physical properties (T 1/2 =12.7 h, β- 37.1 %, β + 17.9 %), 64 Cu is suitable for therapy (β - ) and diagnosing as well (β+). 64 Cu is suitable radionuclide for labeling of radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of bis-thiosemicarbazone for study of hypoxic tumors. The number and orientation of articles and papers at conferences show a great demand for 64 Cu in the world. It is caused by specific physical properties and possibility of preparation in small biomedical cyclotrons as well. An electrolytic preparation of a target lies in a galvanostatic plating of 64 Ni on a gold target. The target is irradiated by a cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9. COSTIS station (Compact Solid Target Irradiation System) is installed at the end of external proton beam. 64 Cu is separated from the target material by ionex Bio-Rad AG1-X8 as [ 64 Cu]CuCl 2 . The target material is recycled by a simple method. A process of 64 Cu preparation is completely automated and runs in a separation module with Plc Simatin S-1200 developed by Biont a.s. The product was measured by an ionization chamber (Curiementor), HPGe detector and LSC method (TDCR). (author)

  4. Preparation and characterization of radionuclide 64Cu for positron emission tomographic diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ometakova, J.

    2013-01-01

    We occupy ourselves with preparation of 64 Cu using cyclotron IBA 18/9. 64 Cu is a starting product for production of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomographic diagnostics and therapy and metrological characterization as well. The use of non-traditional PET radionuclides has been spread in the world recently. Due to the physical properties (T 1/2 =12.7 h, β- 37.1 %, β + 17.9 %), 64 Cu is suitable for therapy (β - ) and diagnosing as well (β+). 64 Cu is suitable radionuclide for labeling of radiopharmaceuticals on the basis of bis-thiosemicarbazone for study of hypoxic tumors. The number and orientation of articles and papers at conferences show a great demand for 64 Cu in the world. It is caused by specific physical properties and possibility of preparation in small biomedical cyclotrons as well. An electrolytic preparation of a target lies in a galvanostatic plating of 64 Ni on a gold target. The target is irradiated by a cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9. COSTIS station (Compact Solid Target Irradiation System) is installed at the end of external proton beam. 64 Cu is separated from the target material by ionex Bio-Rad AG1-X8 as [ 64 Cu]CuCl 2 . The target material is recycled by a simple method. A process of 64 Cu preparation is completely automated and runs in a separation module with PLC SIMATIC S7-1200 developed by Biont a.s. The product was measured by an ionization chamber (Curiementor), HPGe detector and LSC method (TDCR). (author)

  5. Space-resolved characterization of high frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma in nitrogen, applying optical emission spectroscopy and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Ruhrmann, Cornelia; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined by characterization of high frequency (2.4 GHz) nitrogen plasma using both experimental methods, namely optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and microphotography, and numerical simulation. Both direct and step-wise electron-impact excitation of nitrogen emissions are considered. The determination of space-resolved electron distribution function, electron density, rate constant for electron-impact dissociation of nitrogen molecule and the production of nitrogen atoms, applying the same methods, is discussed. Spatial distribution of intensities of neutral nitrogen molecule and nitrogen molecular ion from the microplasma is imaged by a CCD camera. The CCD images are calibrated using the corresponding emissions measured by absolutely calibrated OES, and are then subjected to inverse Abel transformation to determine space-resolved intensities and other parameters. The space-resolved parameters are compared, respectively, with the averaged parameters, and an agreement between them is established. (paper)

  6. Development & Characterization of a Whole Plant Chamber for the Investigation of Environmental Perturbations on Biogenic VOC Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J.; Riches, M.; Abeleira, A.; Farmer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate prediction of both climate and air quality under a changing earth system requires a full understanding of the sources, feedbacks, and ultimate fate of all atmospherically relevant chemical species, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Biogenic VOCs (BVOC) from plant emissions are the main source of VOCs to the atmosphere. However, the impact of global change on BVOC emissions is poorly understood. For example, while short-term increases in temperature are typically associated with increased BVOC emissions, the impact of long-term temperature increases are less clear. Our study aims to investigate the effects of long-term, singular and combined environmental perturbations on plant BVOC emissions through the use of whole plant chambers in order to better understand the effects of global change on BVOC-climate-air quality feedbacks. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a fundamental understanding of how BVOC emissions respond to environmental perturbations, specifically elevated temperature, CO2, and drought, whole citrus trees were placed in home-built chambers and monitored for monoterpene and other BVOC emissions utilizing thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Designing and building a robust whole plant chamber to study atmospherically relevant chemical species while accommodating the needs of live plants over timescales of days to weeks is not a trivial task. The environmental conditions within the chamber must be carefully controlled and monitored. The inter-plant and chamber variability must be characterized. Finally, target BVOCs need to be sampled and detected from the chamber. Thus, the chamber design, control and characterization considerations along with preliminary BVOC results will be presented and discussed.

  7. Conformational isomers of dichloro bis(1,3-diaminopropane copper(II: Synthesis, characterization and DFT modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Yadav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three isomers of [Cu(pn2Cl2] in solid state have been synthesized, isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, FTIR, TGA, EPR, electronic spectra and DFT calculation. The molar conductance of 1 mM solution of the complexes measured in DMSO falls in 40–44 Scm2 mol−1. All the isomers in aqueous medium show similar absorption pattern in the UV–visible region of the spectra. They are nearly identical in solution although in the solid state they exist in three distinct colors. The change in the color of complexes is due to change in conformations of the propanediamine molecule. Cu(II in [Cu(pn2Cl2] lies on an inversion center. It is octahedrally coordinated to four nitrogen of 1,3-diaminopropane (pn and two chloride ions displaying three different spatial conformations namely chair–chair, chair–boat and boat–boat. The TGA of the complexes suggest that Cu is left as final residue at 600 °C. The entire data have been supported by DFT calculation.

  8. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  9. Characterization of Air Emissions from Open Burning and Open Detonation of Gun Propellants and Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of military ordnance and static fires (SF) of rocket motors were sampled in fall, 2013 at the Dundurn Depot (Saskatchewan, Canada). Emission sampling was conducted with an aerostat-lofted instrument package termed the “Fl...

  10. Building and characterizing regional and global emission inventories of toxic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Sala, Serenella; Laurent, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    To define consistent strategies for managing the environmental sustainability of chemicals, it is important to quantify the magnitude of their emissions and their associated impacts. Not all countries monitor and report emissions related to their activities. This is particularly the case for chem......To define consistent strategies for managing the environmental sustainability of chemicals, it is important to quantify the magnitude of their emissions and their associated impacts. Not all countries monitor and report emissions related to their activities. This is particularly the case...... for chemical emissions, whose toxic impacts on human health and ecosystems cannot be readily determined due to gaps in the available data. Emission data that can be retrieved from publicly available databases are typically restricted to a limited number of toxic substances, for a few countries......, or for aggregated regions. Extrapolation strategies are thus needed to fill in those data gaps and to move from the consideration of single countries or regions to the world scale. Little is known about how effective these strategies are in extrapolating emissions. Using emission data available in public databases...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT. OVERALL STUDY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a detailed emissions measurement campaign that was conducted over a 9-day period within a mercury (Hg) cell chlor-alkali plant in the southeastern United States (U.S.). The principal focus of this study was to measure fugitive (non-ducted) airborne Hg emission...

  12. Thermoluminescence in some copper-doped compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.R.; Moharil, S.V.; Dhopte, S.M.; Muthal, P.L.; Kondawar, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) in various Cu + -doped materials is studied. A good correlation between the presence of copper in the Cu + form and TL sensitivity is observed. Correlation between TL emission spectra and photoluminescence suggests that Cu + acts as the emission center in the TL process. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  14. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  15. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BATES, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This NOC application is provided to update the description of amounts of material handled, and to update the calculation of potential for emissions and resultant calculation of offsite TEDE. This NOC also includes an updated description of the various emission units at WSCF, including use of portable tanks to receive and remove liquid waste contaminated with low levels of radioactive contamination. The resultant, adjusted estimate for TEDE to the hypothetical MEI due to all combined unabated emissions from WSCF is 1.4 E-02 millirem per year. The total adjusted estimate for all combined abated emissions is 2.8 E-03 millirem per year. No single emission unit at the WSCF Complex exceeds a potential (unabated) offsite dose of 2.7 E-03 millirem per year

  16. Synthesis and characterization of the new copper indium phosphate Cu{sub 8}In{sub 8}P{sub 4}O{sub 30}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzelmann, Christian; Weimann, Iren; Feller, Joerg [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden, Friedrich-List-Platz 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Zak, Zdirad [Masaryk University, Kotlarska 267/2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15

    The system CuO/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been investigated using solid state reaction between CuO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} in silica glass crucibles at 900 C. The powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Orange single crystals of the new quaternary phase were achieved by the process of crystallization with mineralizers in sealed silica glass ampoules. They were then analyzed with EDX and single-crystal X-ray analysis in which the composition Cu{sub 8}In{sub 8}P{sub 4}O{sub 30} with the triclinic space group P anti 1 (No 2) with a = 7,2429(14) Aa, b = 8,8002(18) Aa, c = 10,069(2) Aa, α = 103,62(3) , β = 106,31(3) , γ = 101,55(3) and Z = 1 was found. The three-dimensional framework consists of [InO{sub 6}] octahedra and distorted [CuO{sub 6}] octahedra, overcaped [InO{sub 7}] prisms and [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra, also trigonal [(CuIn)O{sub 5}] bipyramids and distorted [(CuIn)O{sub 6}] octahedra, where copper and indium are partly exchanged against each other. Cu{sub 8}In{sub 8}P{sub 4}O{sub 30} exhibits an incongruent melting point at 1023 C. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Bioinspired green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles from Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp: characterization and evaluation of its synergistic antimicrobial and anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Vasavi, Thirumalanadhuni; Uma Maheswari Devi, Palempalli; Savithramma, Nataru

    2017-10-01

    In recent times, nanoparticles are attributed to green nanotechnology methods to know the synergistic biological activities. To accomplish this phenomenon, present study was aimed to synthesize copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) by using Syzygium alternifolium stem bark, characterized those NPs using expository tools and to elucidate high prioritized antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Synthesized particles exhibited a color change pattern upon synthesis and affirmed its respective broad peak at 285 nm which was analyzed through UV-vis spectroscopy. FT-IR study confirmed that phenols and primary amines were mainly involved in capping and stabilization of nanoparticles. DLS and Zeta potential studies revealed narrow size of particles with greater stability. XRD studies revealed the crystallographic nature of particles with 17.2 nm average size. Microscopic analysis by using TEM revealed that particle size range from 5-13 nm and most of them were spherical in shape, non-agglomerated and poly-dispersed in condition. Antimicrobial studies of particles showed highest inhibitory activity against E. coli and T. harzianum among bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. The scope of this study is extended by examining anticancer activity of CuO NPs. This study exhibited potential anticancer activity towards MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer lines. Overall, these examinations relate that the S. alternifolium is described as efficient well-being plant and probabilistically for the design and synthesis of nanoparticles for human health. This study paves a way to better understand antimicrobial and anticancer therapeutic drug potentials of nanoparticles to design and analysis of pharmaceuticals by in vivo and in vitro approaches.

  18. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  19. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  20. Characterizing the role of built environment stocks in human development and emission growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chen; Liu, Gang; Müller, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    throughout their construction, operation, and end-of-life management phases. These stocks usually exist in societies for relatively long time, from years to over a century, therefore their dynamics have long term impacts on human development and emission growth. Several recent studies, including the Fifth...... Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), have discussed the lock-in effects of infrastructure stocks on emission pathways. However, there is still a lack of quantitative analysis and evidence to support this claim. Here, based on an empirical regression model and a new...... underline the role of built environment stocks in human development, future emission pathways, and relevant climate policy....

  1. Atmospheric pollution with copper around the copper mine and flotation, 'Buchim', Republic of Macedonia, using biomonitoring moss and lichen technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Bacheva, Katerina; Shajn, Robert; Stafilov, Trajche

    2009-01-01

    This paper has studied the atmospheric pollution with copper due to copper mining and flotation 'Buchim' near Radovish, Republic of Macedonia. The copper ore and ore tailings continually are exposed to open air, which occur winds carry out the fine particles in to atmosphere. Moss (Hyloconium splendens and Pleurozium schrebery) and lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata) samples were used for biomonitoring the possible atmospheric pollution with copper in the mine vicinity. Moss and lichen samples were digested by using of microwave digestion system and copper was analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICPAES). The obtained values for the content of copper in moss and lichen samples were statistically processed using the nonparametric and parametric analysis. Maps of areal deposition of copper show an increase content of copper in the vicinity of mine, but long distance distribution of this element is not established yet.

  2. Characterization of positron emission tomography hypoxia tracer uptake and tissue oxygenation via electrochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Stephen R., E-mail: srbowen@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [University Medical Centre St. Radboud, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nordsmark, Marianne [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus (Denmark); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Clinical Sciences Center, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Jeraj, Robert [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Clinical Sciences Center, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Unique uptake and retention mechanisms of positron emission tomography (PET) hypoxia tracers make in vivo comparison between them challenging. Differences in imaged uptake of two common hypoxia radiotracers, [{sup 61}Cu]Cu-ATSM and [{sup 18}F]FMISO, were characterized via computational modeling to address these challenges. Materials and Methods: An electrochemical formalism describing bioreductive retention mechanisms of these tracers under steady-state conditions was adopted to relate time-averaged activity concentration to tissue partial oxygen tension (PO{sub 2}), a common metric of hypoxia. Chemical equilibrium constants of product concentration to reactant concentration ratios were determined from free energy changes and reduction potentials of pertinent reactions reported in the literature. Resulting transformation functions between tracer uptake and PO{sub 2} were compared against measured values in preclinical models. Additionally, calculated PO{sub 2} distributions from imaged Cu-ATSM tracer activity concentrations of 12 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients were validated against microelectrode PO{sub 2} measurements in 69 HNSCC patients. Results: Both Cu-ASTM- and FMISO-modeled PO{sub 2} transformation functions were in agreement with preclinical measured values within single-deviation confidence intervals. High correlation (r{sup 2}=0.94, P<.05) was achieved between modeled PO{sub 2} distributions and measured distributions in the patient populations. On average, microelectrode hypoxia thresholds (2.5 and 5.0 mmHg) corresponded to higher Cu-ATSM uptake [2.5 and 2.0 standardized uptake value (SUV)] and lower FMISO uptake (2.0 and 1.4 SUV). Uncertainties in the models were dominated by variations in the estimated specific activity and intracellular acidity. Conclusions: Results indicated that the high dynamic range of Cu-ATSM uptake was representative of a narrow range of low oxygen tension whose values were dependent on

  3. Non-covalent interactions in 2-methylimidazolium copper(II) complex (MeImH)2[Cu(pfbz)4]: Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray structure and packing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Saini, Anju; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Jitendra; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan; Venugopalan, Paloth

    2017-01-01

    A new anionic copper(II) complex, (MeImH)2 [Cu(pfbz)4] (1) where, MeImH = 2-methylimidazolium and pfbz = pentafluorobenzoate has been isolated by reacting copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, pentafluorobenzoic acid and 2-methylimidazole in ethanol: water mixture in 1:2:2 molar ratio. This complex 1 has been characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, FT-IR) and conductance measurements. The complex salt crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c. Single crystal X-ray structure determination revealed the presence of discrete ions: [Cu(pfbz)4]2- anion and two 2-methylimidazolium cation (C4H7N2)+. The crystal lattice is stabilized by strong hydrogen bonding and F⋯F interactions between cationic-anionic and the anionic-anionic moieties respectively, besides π-π interactions.

  4. Development and characterization of copper base composite materials strengthened with TiB{sub 2} particles; Desarrollo y caracterizacion del material compuesto de base cobre reforzado con ceramicas intermetalicas de TiB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.; Camurri, C.; Corredor, D.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2005-07-01

    In this work, mechanical and electrical properties of copper base composites alloys strengthened by dispersed TiB{sub 2} particles are characterized. Powders of copper and TiB{sub 2} were mechanically ball milled in a planetary mill during 12 and 36 h under a protective atmosphere of argon. Resulting powders were compacted uniaxially at 923 K under 90 MPa during 2 h. Part of these compacts were hot rolled at temperatures ranging between 1073 and 1023 K with 20% reduction. Comparing the properties of materials after this thermomechanical process with that of as-consolidated, it was observed an electrical conductivity increase, and a decrease on hardness and ductility. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Characterizing and Quantifying Local and Regional Particulate Matter Emissions from Department of Defense Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillies, J. A; Arnott, W. P; Etyemezian, V; Kuhns, H; Moosmueller, H; Schwemmer, Geary; Gillette, D. A; Nickling, W. G; Wilkerson, T; Varma, R

    2005-01-01

    ...) Develop a dust emission factor database for military vehicles traveling on unpaved surfaces that reflects the influence of the surface over which the travel takes place and the speed of the vehicles; 3...

  6. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical studies and X-ray structures of mixed-ligand polypyridyl copper(II complexes with the acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Oluwafunmilayo F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [Cu(phen2(CH3COO](ClO4.2H2O (1 and [Cu(bipy2(CH3COO]-(ClO4.H2O (2 {phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bipy = 2,2’-bipyridine}were synthesized and characterized. The complexes were characterized by employying elemental analyses, infrared and UV-Visible spectroscopy, room temperature magnetic measurements and the crystal structures elucidated using X-ray diffraction experiment. The redox properties of the complexes were also investigated. Both structures have a square pyramidal CuN4O chromophore which exhibit significant distortions due to long Cu-O [2.217(3 Å for (1 and 2.179 (1 for (2] and Cu-N [2.631(2 Å for (1 and 2.714(1 Å for (2] bonds. This distortion if further shown by the O-Cu-N bond angles [147.71(8 o for (1 and 153.40(5 o for (2]. The elemental analyses further support the structural details unveiled by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The infrared spectra shows the acetate vibrational frequencies at 1587 cm-1,1428 cm-1, 1314 cm-1 for (1 and 1571 cm-1, 1441 cm-1, 1319c m-1 for (2 and the perchlo-rate bands at 1059 cm-1, 720 cm-1 (1 and 1080 cm-1,768 cm-1 (2. The broad d-d bands for the copper ion at 14,514 cm-1(1 and 14,535 cm-1(2 support the adoption of square pyramid geometries. The magnetic moments for the two complexes are 1.83 B.M for (1 and 1.72 B.M for (2. The peak to peak values of the two complexes show that the electrode reactions are quasi-reversibile with ΔEp = 0.023V (1 and 0.025V for (2. In both structures, there are π-π intermolecular interactions in addition to hydrogen bonding between the units.

  7. Engineering kinetic barriers in copper metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hanchen; Wei, H.L.; Woo, C.H.; Zhang, X.X.

    2002-01-01

    In metallization processes of integrated circuits, it is desirable to deposit the metal lines (aluminum or copper) fast and at low temperatures. However, the lines (films) usually consist of undesirable columns and voids, because of the absence of sufficient diffusion--a direct result of large kinetic barriers. Following the proposal and realization of the three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel (3D ES) barrier, we present here a method to engineer this kinetic barrier so as to improve quality of deposited copper films. We deposit copper films by magnetron sputtering, characterize the film structure and texture by using the scanning electron microscope and the x-ray diffraction, respectively. Taking indium as surfactant during copper deposition, we have achieved much better density and bottom coverage of copper filled trenches. The characterizations show that the improvement is the result of the 3D ES barrier reduction caused by indium addition. Engineering the 3D ES barrier therefore leads to improved film quality

  8. Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission characterization of sewage treatment facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung-Hee; Dong, Jong-In

    2010-04-01

    Until recently, nearly all sewage treatment-related regulations and researches have focused on the removal of the conventional and toxic pollutants from liquid effluents. The discharge of toxic compounds to the atmosphere has been implicitly regarded as a way of removal or destruction. During sewage treatment, the fate mechanism of volatilization/stripping, sorption and biotransformation primarily determines the fate of volatile HAPs. The objectives of this study are to investigate the emission characteristics of HAPs, which are generated from the liquid surface of sewage treatment facilities, by using an emission isolation flux chamber. HAP emissions increased at the inlet of the aerobic chamber during summer due to the relatively high atmospheric temperature. The percent ratio of flux for toluene reached its peak in winter, accounting for 33.6-34.2% of the total, but decreased to 25.1-28.6% in summer. In autumn, trichloroethene (TCE) was the highest, recording 17.6-18.1%, with chloroform and toluene showing similar levels. It seems that the ratio of chlorinated hydrocarbons increases in both summer and autumn because the chamber temperature during that time is higher than winter. This study is the initial study to investigate the emission characteristics of volatile HAPs emitted from domestic sewage treatment facilities to the air in Korea. Therefore, the isolation flux chamber will be used as an emission estimations tool to measure HAPs from sewage treatment facilities and may be applied to develop the emission factor and national source inventory of HAPs.

  9. Laboratory characterization of PM emissions from combustion of wildland biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Urbanski, Shawn; Dixit, P.; Qi, L.; Burling, Ian R.; Yokelson, Robert; Johnson, Timothy J.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Jung, H.; Weise, David; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.

    2013-09-09

    Particle emissions from open burning of southwestern (SW) and southeastern (SE) U.S. 17 fuel types during 77 controlled laboratory burns are presented. The fuels include SW 18 vegetation types: ceanothus, chamise/scrub oak, coastal sage scrub, California sagebrush, 19 manzanita, maritime chaparral, masticated mesquite, oak savanna, and oak woodland as 20 well as SE vegetation types: 1-year, 2-year rough, pocosin, chipped understory, 21 understory hardwood, and pine litter. The SW fuels burned at a higher Modified 22 Combustion Efficiency (MCE) than the SE fuels resulting in lower particulate matter 23 (PM) mass emission factor (EF). Particle size distributions for six fuels and particle 24 number emission or all fuels are reported. Excellent mass closure (slope = 1.00, r2=0.94) 25 between ions, metals, and carbon with total weight was obtained. Organic carbon 26 emission factors inversely correlated (= 0.72) with MCE, while elemental carbon (EC) 27 had little correlation with MCE (=0.10). The EC/total carbon (TC) ratio sharply 28 increased with MCE for MCEs exceeding 0.94. The average levoglucosan and total Poly 29 Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions factors ranged from 25-1272 mg/kg fuel and 30 1790-11300 μg/kg fuel, respectively. No correlation between MCE and emissions of 31 PAHs/levoglucosan was found. Additionally, PAH diagnostic ratios were observed to be 32 poor indicators of biomass burning. Large fuel-type and regional dependency was 33 observed in the emission rates of ammonium, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, sodium, and

  10. Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley: Characterizing Large Point Source Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Holland, L.; Hook, S. J.; Hulley, G. C.; Johnson, W. R.; Kuai, L.; Kuwayama, T.; Lin, J. C.; Thorpe, A. K.; Worden, J. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric pollutant that contributes to global warming and tropospheric ozone production. Methane mitigation could reduce near term climate change and improve air quality, but is hindered by a lack of knowledge of anthropogenic methane sources. Recent work has shown that methane emissions are not evenly distributed in space, or across emission sources, suggesting that a large fraction of anthropogenic methane comes from a few "super-emitters." We studied the distribution of super-emitters in California's southern San Joaquin Valley, where elevated levels of atmospheric CH4 have also been observed from space. Here, we define super-emitters as methane plumes that could be reliably detected (i.e., plume observed more than once in the same location) under varying wind conditions by airborne thermal infrared remote sensing. The detection limit for this technique was determined to be 4.5 kg CH4 h-1 by a controlled release experiment, corresponding to column methane enhancement at the point of emissions greater than 20% above local background levels. We surveyed a major oil production field, and an area with a high concentration of large dairies using a variety of airborne and ground-based measurements. Repeated airborne surveys (n=4) with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer revealed 28 persistent methane plumes emanating from oil field infrastructure, including tanks, wells, and processing facilities. The likelihood that a given source type was a super-emitter varied from roughly 1/3 for processing facilities to 1/3000 for oil wells. 11 persistent plumes were detected in the dairy area, and all were associated with wet manure management. The majority (11/14) of manure lagoons in the study area were super-emitters. Comparing to a California methane emissions inventory for the surveyed areas, we estimate that super-emitters comprise a minimum of 9% of inventoried dairy emissions, and 13% of inventoried oil emissions in this region.

  11. Energy and environmental implications of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvardo, Sergio [Chile Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago (Chile); Maldonado, Pedro; Jaques, Ivan [Chile Univ., Energy Research Program, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-04-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector. It is highly energy-intensive, ranking third in specific energy consumption (SEC) among the five major basic metals (aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and poses important environmental hazards. We examine the large discrepancy between theoretical (from thermodynamics) and actual (from empirical data) SECs and then describe relevant environmental issues, focusing on the most significant energy-related environmental impacts of primary copper production with emphasis on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. An example of GHG energy-related abatement that concurrently improves energy use is presented. (Author)

  12. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

  13. Characterization of emission factors related to source activity for trichloroethylene degreasing and chrome plating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Hawkins, J L; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E

    1991-09-01

    A study at an automotive parts fabrication plant evaluated four metal surface treatment processes during production conditions. The evaluation provides examples of how to estimate process emission factors from activity and air concentration data. The processes were open tank and enclosed tank degreasing with trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium conversion coating, and chromium electroplating. Area concentrations of TCE and chromium (Cr) were monitored for 1-hr periods at three distances from each process. Source activities at each process were recorded during each sampling interval. Emission rates were determined by applying appropriate mass balance models to the concentration patterns around each source. The emission factors obtained from regression analysis of the emission rate and activity data were 16.9 g TCE/basket of parts for the open-top degreaser; 1.0 g TCE/1000 parts for the enclosed degreaser; 1.48-1.64 mg Cr/1000 parts processed in the hot CrO3/HNO3 tank for the chrome conversion coating; and 5.35-9.17 mg Cr/rack of parts for chrome electroplating. The factors were also used to determine the efficiency of collection for the local exhaust systems serving each process. Although the number of observations were limited, these factors may be useful for providing initial estimates of emissions from similar processes in other settings.

  14. Characterization and Catalytic Activity for the Oxidation of Ethane and Propane on Platinum and Copper Supported on CeO2/Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataluña R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethane and propane oxidation on platinum and copper supported on Al2O3 and CeO2/Al2O3 catalysts were studied comparatively by examining reaction rates as a function of temperature. Results show that the addition of cerium oxide shifts the catalytic activity to higher temperatures. This negative influence is less pronounced in the case of supported copper samples, which on the basis of EPR and FTIR of adsorbed CO results is attributed to the low relative amount of this metal is in contact with ceria. The decrease in activity the presence of ceria might be due to changes in metal particle size or to the stabilization of the oxidized states of the metals, induced by their interactions with cerium oxide. The higher activity of platinum, in comparison with copper, is attributed to its higher reducibility along with an easier hydrocarbon activation on that metal.

  15. Tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniukov, E; Yakimchuk, D; Kozlovsky, A; Shlimas, D; Zdorovets, M; Kadyrzhanov, K

    2016-01-01

    Simple method of tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes based on template synthesis was developed. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of the obtained nanostructures was carried out. Characterization of structural features was made by methods of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Evaluation of wall thickness is made by methods of gas permeability. Electrical conductivity of nanotubes was define in the study of their current-voltage characteristics. The possibility to control of copper nanotubes physical properties by variation of the deposition parameters was shown. (paper)

  16. Energy and emissions characterization of an eco-efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bayer, Juan F.; Graciano-Bustamante, Diana S.; Gómez-Betancur, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Around 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level) on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBT) and Controlled Cooking (CCT) Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24 % with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3 % due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3 % and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the 'Plancha' wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is necessary to redesign wood stoves according to their geographical location in order to optimize the cooking process. (author)

  17. Characterization of Emissions from Building Products: Selection Criteria, Storage and Handling of Indoor Materials for Experiments