WorldWideScience

Sample records for emergent global oscillations

  1. Emergence of localized patterns in globally coupled networks of relaxation oscillators with heterogeneous connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Randolph J.; Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2017-08-01

    Oscillations in far-from-equilibrium systems (e.g., chemical, biochemical, biological) are generated by the nonlinear interplay of positive and negative feedback effects operating at different time scales. Relaxation oscillations emerge when the time scales between the activators and the inhibitors are well separated. In addition to the large-amplitude oscillations (LAOs) or relaxation type, these systems exhibit small-amplitude oscillations (SAOs) as well as abrupt transitions between them (canard phenomenon). Localized cluster patterns in networks of relaxation oscillators consist of one cluster oscillating in the LAO regime or exhibiting mixed-mode oscillations (LAOs interspersed with SAOs), while the other oscillates in the SAO regime. Because the individual oscillators are monostable, localized patterns are a network phenomenon that involves the interplay of the connectivity and the intrinsic dynamic properties of the individual nodes. Motivated by experimental and theoretical results on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the generation of localized patterns in globally coupled networks of piecewise-linear relaxation oscillators where the global feedback term affects the rate of change of the activator (fast variable) and depends on the weighted sum of the inhibitor (slow variable) at any given time. We also investigate whether these patterns are affected by the presence of a diffusive type of coupling whose synchronizing effects compete with the symmetry-breaking global feedback effects.

  2. Searching for Global oscillations of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N.; Smith, E. J.; Rogers, W.; Gillam, S.; Rosner, R.; Baliunas, S.

    2000-12-01

    The detection of global oscillations of Jupiter would lead to significant advances in our understanding of giant planet internal structure, analogous to the enormous increase in knowledge of the sun's interior facilitated by helioseismology. In particular, the frequencies of p-mode oscillations will be strongly affected by the presence of density discontinuities and the planet's core size and structure. While it is clear from previous observations that such oscillations probably only exist with very small amplitudes, current instrumentation may still be able to detect them. We will describe a proposed experiment to detect (or place a firm upper amplitude limit on) global p-mode oscillations of Jupiter, using a magneto-optical filter on the Mt Wilson 100" telescope. We will describe the operation of the instrument, present preliminary data and describe models of instrument response which show that with 7 nights of data we can expect to detect signals with amplitudes less than 20 cm/s.

  3. Global dynamics of a stochastic neuronal oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanobe, Takanobu

    2013-11-01

    Nonlinear oscillators have been used to model neurons that fire periodically in the absence of input. These oscillators, which are called neuronal oscillators, share some common response structures with other biological oscillations such as cardiac cells. In this study, we analyze the dependence of the global dynamics of an impulse-driven stochastic neuronal oscillator on the relaxation rate to the limit cycle, the strength of the intrinsic noise, and the impulsive input parameters. To do this, we use a Markov operator that both reflects the density evolution of the oscillator and is an extension of the phase transition curve, which describes the phase shift due to a single isolated impulse. Previously, we derived the Markov operator for the finite relaxation rate that describes the dynamics of the entire phase plane. Here, we construct a Markov operator for the infinite relaxation rate that describes the stochastic dynamics restricted to the limit cycle. In both cases, the response of the stochastic neuronal oscillator to time-varying impulses is described by a product of Markov operators. Furthermore, we calculate the number of spikes between two consecutive impulses to relate the dynamics of the oscillator to the number of spikes per unit time and the interspike interval density. Specifically, we analyze the dynamics of the number of spikes per unit time based on the properties of the Markov operators. Each Markov operator can be decomposed into stationary and transient components based on the properties of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. This allows us to evaluate the difference in the number of spikes per unit time between the stationary and transient responses of the oscillator, which we show to be based on the dependence of the oscillator on past activity. Our analysis shows how the duration of the past neuronal activity depends on the relaxation rate, the noise strength, and the impulsive input parameters.

  4. A global analysis of neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogli, G.L. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica “Michelangelo Merlin”, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lisi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Marrone, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica “Michelangelo Merlin”, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Montanino, D. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Palazzo, A. [Cluster of Excellence, Origin and Structure of the Universe, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rotunno, A.M. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica “Michelangelo Merlin”, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We present a global analysis of neutrino oscillation data, including high-precision measurements of the neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} at reactor experiments, which have confirmed previous indications in favor of θ{sub 13}>0. Recent data presented at this Conference are also included. We focus on the correlations between θ{sub 13} and the mixing angle θ{sub 23}, as well as between θ{sub 13} and the neutrino CP-violation phase δ. We find interesting indications for θ{sub 23}<π/4 and possible hints for δ∼π, with no significant difference between normal and inverted mass hierarchy.

  5. U.S. Hail Frequency and the Global Wind Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensini, Vittorio A.; Allen, John T.

    2018-02-01

    Changes in Earth relative atmospheric angular momentum can be described by an index known as the Global Wind Oscillation. This global index accounts for changes in Earth's atmospheric budget of relative angular momentum through interactions of tropical convection anomalies, extratropical dynamics, and engagement of surface torques (e.g., friction and mountain). It is shown herein that U.S. hail events are more (less) likely to occur in low (high) atmospheric angular momentum base states when excluding weak Global Wind Oscillation days, with the strongest relationships found in the boreal spring and fall. Severe, significant severe, and giant hail events are more likely to occur during Global Wind Oscillation phases 8, 1, 2, and 3 during the peak of U.S. severe weather season. Lower frequencies of hail events are generally found in Global Wind Oscillation phases 4-7 but vary based on Global Wind Oscillation amplitude and month. In addition, probabilistic anomalies of atmospheric ingredients supportive of hail producing supercell thunderstorms closely mimic locations of reported hail frequency, helping to corroborate report results.

  6. Emergence of amplitude death scenario in a network of oscillators under repulsive delay interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Bidesh K., E-mail: bideshbera18@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India); Hens, Chittaranjan, E-mail: chittaranjanhens@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Ghosh, Dibakar, E-mail: dibakar@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Amplitude death is observed using repulsive mean coupling. • Analytical conditions for amplitude death are derived. • Effect of asymmetry time delay coupling for death is discussed. - Abstract: We report the existence of amplitude death in a network of identical oscillators under repulsive mean coupling. Amplitude death appears in a globally coupled network of identical oscillators with instantaneous repulsive mean coupling only when the number of oscillators is more than two. We further investigate that, amplitude death may emerge even in two coupled oscillators as well as network of oscillators if we introduce delay time in the repulsive mean coupling. We have analytically derived the region of amplitude death island and find out how strength of delay controls the death regime in two coupled or a large network of coupled oscillators. We have verified our results on network of delayed Mackey–Glass systems where parameters are set in hyperchaotic regime. We have also tested our coupling approach in two paradigmatic limit cycle oscillators: Stuart–Landau and Van der Pol oscillators.

  7. Brainstem Influence on Thalamocortical Oscillations during Anesthesia Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Scheib

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of mechanisms that impair or prevent consciousness during anesthesia that are related to thalamocortical oscillations have been proposed. Many methods of EEG analysis have been proposed as measures of anesthetic effects but only a few have potential to provide measures of those anesthetic effects that are directly related to thalamocortical oscillations. Some of these methods will be explained and demonstrated with examples chosen to provide evidence for or against two of the proposed mechanisms. The first of the two mechanisms to be addressed is the “traveling peak” (Ching et al., 2010, which relates to anesthetic agents synchronizing neural oscillations that occur in subjects who are awake and reducing their frequency from the gamma (25–40 Hz to the beta range (13–24 Hz as a state of sedation develops. The mechanism continues to lower the frequency of this oscillation to the alpha (8–12 Hz range. In the alpha frequency range, responses to sounds and words stop. It has been proposed that the mechanism changes fundamentally at this point and the oscillations are not compatible with consciousness. The second mechanism that will be addressed is a modification of the generally accepted mechanism for the spindle oscillations that occur during natural sleep (Steriade et al., 1993a,b. These two different mechanisms imply two different patterns for changes in the frequency of the thalamocortical oscillations during emergence. The first mechanism implies that the frequency of the oscillations should increase from the alpha range to the beta range during emergence. The “spindle” mechanism implies that the frequency of the oscillation would not increase much beyond the alpha range. Examples of EEG recordings during anesthesia and emergence from anesthesia were found which were consistent with either mechanism alone or both mechanisms at the same time. Neither theory was able to explain all examples. It is possible that both

  8. Emergence of a negative resistance in noisy coupled linear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Juárez, M. A.; Aragón, J. L.; León-Montiel, R. de J.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Domínguez-Juárez, J. L.; Quintero-Torres, R.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the experimental observation of an emerging negative resistance in a system of coupled linear electronic RLC harmonic oscillators under the influence of multiplicative noise with long correlation time. When two oscillators are coupled by a noisy inductor, an analysis in the Fourier space of the electrical variables unveils the presence of an effective negative resistance, which acts as an energy transport facilitator. This might constitute a simple explanation of the now fashionable problem of energy transport assisted by noise in classical systems. The experimental setup is based on the working principle of an analog computer and by itself constitutes a versatile platform for studying energy transport in noisy systems by means of coupled electrical oscillator systems.

  9. Parity-Breaking Bifurcation and Global Oscillation in Patterns of Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Marc; Nuebler, Johannes; Homble, Fabrice

    2006-06-01

    Stationary spatiotemporal pattern formation emerging from the electric activity of biological membranes is widespread in cells and tissues. A known key instability comes from the self-aggregation of membrane channels. In a two-dimensional geometry, we show that the primary pattern undergoes four secondary instabilities: Eckhaus-like, period-halving, drift instabilities, and a global oscillation. The stability diagram is determined. The parity-breaking (drift) bifurcation of channel density is characterized analytically and numerically.

  10. Global quality imaging: emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Lawrence S; Pérez, Maria R; Applegate, Kimberly E; Rehani, Madan M; Ringertz, Hans G; George, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Quality imaging may be described as "a timely access to and delivery of integrated and appropriate procedures, in a safe and responsive practice, and a prompt delivery of an accurately interpreted report by capable personnel in an efficient, effective, and sustainable manner." For this article, radiation safety is considered as one of the key quality elements. The stakeholders are the drivers of quality imaging. These include those that directly provide or use imaging procedures and others indirectly supporting the system. Imaging is indispensable in health care, and its use has greatly expanded worldwide. Globalization, consumer sophistication, communication and technological advances, corporatization, rationalization, service outsourcing, teleradiology, workflow modularization, and commoditization are reshaping practice. This article defines the emerging issues; an earlier article in the May 2011 issue described possible improvement actions. The issues that could threaten the quality use of imaging for all countries include workforce shortage; increased utilization, population radiation exposure, and cost; practice changes; and efficiency drive and budget constraints. In response to these issues, a range of quality improvement measures, strategies, and actions are used to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks. The 3 measures are procedure justification, optimization of image quality and radiation protection, and error prevention. The development and successful implementation of such improvement actions require leadership, collaboration, and the active participation of all stakeholders to achieve the best outcomes that we all advocate. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of order parameters for globally coupled oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Monte, Silvia; D'ovidio, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    The equation of motion for the centroid of globally coupled oscillators with natural frequency mismatch is obtained through a series expansion in order parameters, valid for any population size. In the case of strong coupling and narrow-frequency distribution the first-order expansion (correspond......The equation of motion for the centroid of globally coupled oscillators with natural frequency mismatch is obtained through a series expansion in order parameters, valid for any population size. In the case of strong coupling and narrow-frequency distribution the first-order expansion...... (corresponding to a system where the centroid is coupled to a second macroscopic variable), predicts transient and asymptotic properties of the dynamics of the centroid. Phase transitions appear as macroscopic bifurcations. Collective properties arising in the transient, and particularly critical perturbations...

  12. Solar atmosphere wave dynamics generated by solar global oscillating eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. K.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.; Zheng, R.

    2018-01-01

    The solar atmosphere exhibits a diverse range of wave phenomena, where one of the earliest discovered was the five-minute global acoustic oscillation, also referred to as the p-mode. The analysis of wave propagation in the solar atmosphere may be used as a diagnostic tool to estimate accurately the physical characteristics of the Sun's atmospheric layers. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and upward propagation of waves which are generated by the solar global eigenmodes. We report on a series of hydrodynamic simulations of a realistically stratified model of the solar atmosphere representing its lower region from the photosphere to low corona. With the objective of modelling atmospheric perturbations, propagating from the photosphere into the chromosphere, transition region and low corona, generated by the photospheric global oscillations the simulations use photospheric drivers mimicking the solar p-modes. The drivers are spatially structured harmonics across the computational box parallel to the solar surface. The drivers perturb the atmosphere at 0.5 Mm above the bottom boundary of the model and are placed coincident with the location of the temperature minimum. A combination of the VALIIIC and McWhirter solar atmospheres are used as the background equilibrium model. We report how synthetic photospheric oscillations may manifest in a magnetic field free model of the quiet Sun. To carry out the simulations, we employed the magnetohydrodynamics code, SMAUG (Sheffield MHD Accelerated Using GPUs). Our results show that the amount of energy propagating into the solar atmosphere is consistent with a model of solar global oscillations described by Taroyan and Erdélyi (2008) using the Klein-Gordon equation. The computed results indicate a power law which is compared to observations reported by Ireland et al. (2015) using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly.

  13. Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Robert H; Duarte, Carlos M; Pitt, Kylie A; Robinson, Kelly L; Lucas, Cathy H; Sutherland, Kelly R; Mianzan, Hermes W; Bogeberg, Molly; Purcell, Jennifer E; Decker, Mary Beth; Uye, Shin-ichi; Madin, Laurence P; Brodeur, Richard D; Haddock, Steven H D; Malej, Alenka; Parry, Gregory D; Eriksen, Elena; Quiñones, Javier; Acha, Marcelo; Harvey, Michel; Arthur, James M; Graham, William M

    2013-01-15

    A perceived recent increase in global jellyfish abundance has been portrayed as a symptom of degraded oceans. This perception is based primarily on a few case studies and anecdotal evidence, but a formal analysis of global temporal trends in jellyfish populations has been missing. Here, we analyze all available long-term datasets on changes in jellyfish abundance across multiple coastal stations, using linear and logistic mixed models and effect-size analysis to show that there is no robust evidence for a global increase in jellyfish. Although there has been a small linear increase in jellyfish since the 1970s, this trend was unsubstantiated by effect-size analysis that showed no difference in the proportion of increasing vs. decreasing jellyfish populations over all time periods examined. Rather, the strongest nonrandom trend indicated jellyfish populations undergo larger, worldwide oscillations with an approximate 20-y periodicity, including a rising phase during the 1990s that contributed to the perception of a global increase in jellyfish abundance. Sustained monitoring is required over the next decade to elucidate with statistical confidence whether the weak increasing linear trend in jellyfish after 1970 is an actual shift in the baseline or part of an oscillation. Irrespective of the nature of increase, given the potential damage posed by jellyfish blooms to fisheries, tourism, and other human industries, our findings foretell recurrent phases of rise and fall in jellyfish populations that society should be prepared to face.

  14. Placing emergency care on the global agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Renee; Razzak, Junaid; Tsai, Alexander C; Hirshon, Jon Mark

    2010-08-01

    Emergency care serves a key function within health care systems by providing an entry point to health care and by decreasing morbidity and mortality. Although primarily focused on evaluation and treatment for acute conditions, emergency care also serves as an important locus of provision for preventive care with regard to injuries and disease progression. Despite its important and increasing role, however, emergency care has been frequently overlooked in the discussion of health systems and delivery platforms, particularly in developing countries. Little research has been done in lower- and middle-income countries on the burden of disease reduction attributable to emergency care, whether through injury treatment and prevention, urgent and emergency treatment of acute conditions, or emergency treatment of complications from chronic conditions. There is a critical need for research documenting the role of emergency care services in reducing the global burden of disease. In addition to applying existing methodologies toward this aim, new methodologies should be developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of these interventions and how to effectively cover the costs of and demands for emergency care needs. These analyses could be used to emphasize the public health and clinical importance of emergency care within health systems as policymakers determine health and budgeting priorities in resource-limited settings. 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Emergency Care Skills. Does it work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean O’Sullivan

    2012-09-01

    Discussion: Comparison of results in each country separately and cumulatively demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in participant’s knowledge after completing a Global Emergency Care Skills course. This improvement mirrors the qualitative improvement in psychomotor skills, knowledge and attitudes seen in candidates who participated in the course.

  16. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 4. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. M Khanna P Kumar ... Since 1918, influenza virus has been one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children. Though the commonly circulating strain of the virus is not ...

  17. Leptospirosis: an emerging global public health problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Introduction. Leptospirosis has been recognized as an important emerging global public health problem because of its epidemic proportions and increasing incidence in both developing and developed countries (Meites et .... and E jaundice, non-malarial febrile illnesses and non-dengue haemorrhagic fever in South East ...

  18. The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Scott B.; Kociuba, Greg [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) - a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east to Darwin in the west - is one of the world's most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes in both the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Nino, for example, the WC weakens and the SOI tends to be negative. Climatic variations linked to changes in the WC have a profound influence on climate, ecosystems, agriculture, and societies in many parts of the world. Previous research has shown that (1) the WC and the SOI weakened in recent decades and that (2) the WC in climate models tends to weaken in response to elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we examine changes in the SOI and air pressure across the Pacific in the observations and in numerous WCRP/CMIP3 climate model integrations for both the 20th and 21st centuries. The difference in mean-sea level air pressure (MSLP) between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific tends to weaken during the 21st century, consistent with previous research. Here we show that this primarily arises because of an increase in MSLP in the west Pacific and not a decline in the east. We also show, in stark contrast to expectations, that the SOI actually tends to increase during the 21st century, not decrease. Under global warming MSLP tends to increase at both Darwin and Tahiti, but tends to rise more at Tahiti than at Darwin. Tahiti lies in an extensive region where MSLP tends to rise in response to global warming. So while the SOI is an excellent indicator of interannual variability in both the equatorial MSLP gradient and the WC, it is a highly misleading indicator of long-term equatorial changes linked to global warming. Our results also indicate that the observed decline in the SOI in recent decades has been driven by natural, internally generated variability. The externally forced signal in the

  19. Experimental study of the robust global synchronization of Brockett oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hafiz; Ushirobira, Rosane; Efimov, Denis

    2017-12-01

    This article studies the experimental synchronization of a family of a recently proposed oscillator model, i.e. the Brockett oscillator [R. Brockett, Synchronization without periodicity, in Mathematical Systems Theory, A Volume in Honor of U. Helmke, edited by K. Huper, J. Trumpf (CreateSpace, Seattle, USA, 2013), pp. 65-74]. Due to its structural property, Brockett oscillator can be considered as a promising benchmark nonlinear model for investigating synchronization and the consensus phenomena. Our experimental setup consists of analog circuit realizations of a network of Brockett oscillators. Experimental results obtained in this work correspond to the prior theoretical findings.

  20. Fractional Dynamics of Globally Slow Transcription and Its Impact on Deterministic Genetic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Gao, Shilong; Zhong, Suchuan; Ma, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In dynamical systems theory, a system which can be described by differential equations is called a continuous dynamical system. In studies on genetic oscillation, most deterministic models at early stage are usually built on ordinary differential equations (ODE). Therefore, gene transcription which is a vital part in genetic oscillation is presupposed to be a continuous dynamical system by default. However, recent studies argued that discontinuous transcription might be more common than continuous transcription. In this paper, by appending the inserted silent interval lying between two neighboring transcriptional events to the end of the preceding event, we established that the running time for an intact transcriptional event increases and gene transcription thus shows slow dynamics. By globally replacing the original time increment for each state increment by a larger one, we introduced fractional differential equations (FDE) to describe such globally slow transcription. The impact of fractionization on genetic oscillation was then studied in two early stage models – the Goodwin oscillator and the Rössler oscillator. By constructing a “dual memory” oscillator – the fractional delay Goodwin oscillator, we suggested that four general requirements for generating genetic oscillation should be revised to be negative feedback, sufficient nonlinearity, sufficient memory and proper balancing of timescale. The numerical study of the fractional Rössler oscillator implied that the globally slow transcription tends to lower the chance of a coupled or more complex nonlinear genetic oscillatory system behaving chaotically. PMID:22679500

  1. Fractional dynamics of globally slow transcription and its impact on deterministic genetic oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wei

    Full Text Available In dynamical systems theory, a system which can be described by differential equations is called a continuous dynamical system. In studies on genetic oscillation, most deterministic models at early stage are usually built on ordinary differential equations (ODE. Therefore, gene transcription which is a vital part in genetic oscillation is presupposed to be a continuous dynamical system by default. However, recent studies argued that discontinuous transcription might be more common than continuous transcription. In this paper, by appending the inserted silent interval lying between two neighboring transcriptional events to the end of the preceding event, we established that the running time for an intact transcriptional event increases and gene transcription thus shows slow dynamics. By globally replacing the original time increment for each state increment by a larger one, we introduced fractional differential equations (FDE to describe such globally slow transcription. The impact of fractionization on genetic oscillation was then studied in two early stage models--the Goodwin oscillator and the Rössler oscillator. By constructing a "dual memory" oscillator--the fractional delay Goodwin oscillator, we suggested that four general requirements for generating genetic oscillation should be revised to be negative feedback, sufficient nonlinearity, sufficient memory and proper balancing of timescale. The numerical study of the fractional Rössler oscillator implied that the globally slow transcription tends to lower the chance of a coupled or more complex nonlinear genetic oscillatory system behaving chaotically.

  2. Fractional dynamics of globally slow transcription and its impact on deterministic genetic oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Gao, Shilong; Zhong, Suchuan; Ma, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In dynamical systems theory, a system which can be described by differential equations is called a continuous dynamical system. In studies on genetic oscillation, most deterministic models at early stage are usually built on ordinary differential equations (ODE). Therefore, gene transcription which is a vital part in genetic oscillation is presupposed to be a continuous dynamical system by default. However, recent studies argued that discontinuous transcription might be more common than continuous transcription. In this paper, by appending the inserted silent interval lying between two neighboring transcriptional events to the end of the preceding event, we established that the running time for an intact transcriptional event increases and gene transcription thus shows slow dynamics. By globally replacing the original time increment for each state increment by a larger one, we introduced fractional differential equations (FDE) to describe such globally slow transcription. The impact of fractionization on genetic oscillation was then studied in two early stage models--the Goodwin oscillator and the Rössler oscillator. By constructing a "dual memory" oscillator--the fractional delay Goodwin oscillator, we suggested that four general requirements for generating genetic oscillation should be revised to be negative feedback, sufficient nonlinearity, sufficient memory and proper balancing of timescale. The numerical study of the fractional Rössler oscillator implied that the globally slow transcription tends to lower the chance of a coupled or more complex nonlinear genetic oscillatory system behaving chaotically.

  3. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    CERN Document Server

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  4. Quantum theory of damped harmonic oscillator | Antia | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation for damped harmonic oscillator with pulsating mass and modified Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian are evaluated. We also investigated the case of under-damped for the two models constructed and the results obtained in both cases do not violate Heisenberg uncertainty principle ...

  5. Global Emergency Observation, Warning and Relief Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukley, A.P.; Mulqueen, J.A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The decade of the 1990`s has been proclaimed by the United Nations to be the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). There exists a documented need for improved communications and information distribution to provide adequate warning in the face of impending disasters and facilitate the response after a disaster has occurred. The Global Emergency Observation Warning and Relief Network (GEOWARN) is proposed as a system that can potentially fill the existing gaps in the disaster management capabilities by providing a mechanism for the timely processing of information both before and after an event has occurred. A system design is proposed that would utilize existing remote sensing resources augmented by additional satellites and airborne sensor platforms linked together via a computer network. This network would be configured around five control centers called Multi-National Centers which would host an extensive Geographical Information System to perform the task of providing global disaster warning and relief support. To support the potential development of GEOWARN, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center performed a study to assess concept feasibility. This study has resulted in several recommended modifications to the ISU system concept. It was concluded that a system design which optimizes the use of existing resources can result in significant improvements in disaster warning and management capabilities for most of the world. This paper presents the results of the feasibility study, including a general overview of the GEOWARN concept and the elements comprising the system.

  6. Emergence of noise-induced oscillations in the central circadian pacemaker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline H Ko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bmal1 is an essential transcriptional activator within the mammalian circadian clock. We report here that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of Bmal1-null mutant mice, unexpectedly, generates stochastic oscillations with periods that overlap the circadian range. Dissociated SCN neurons expressed fluctuating levels of PER2 detected by bioluminescence imaging but could not generate circadian oscillations intrinsically. Inhibition of intercellular communication or cyclic-AMP signaling in SCN slices, which provide a positive feed-forward signal to drive the intracellular negative feedback loop, abolished the stochastic oscillations. Propagation of this feed-forward signal between SCN neurons then promotes quasi-circadian oscillations that arise as an emergent property of the SCN network. Experimental analysis and mathematical modeling argue that both intercellular coupling and molecular noise are required for the stochastic rhythms, providing a novel biological example of noise-induced oscillations. The emergence of stochastic circadian oscillations from the SCN network in the absence of cell-autonomous circadian oscillatory function highlights a previously unrecognized level of circadian organization.

  7. Emergence and combinatorial accumulation of jittering regimes in spiking oscillators with delayed feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinshov, Vladimir; Lücken, Leonhard; Shchapin, Dmitry; Nekorkin, Vladimir; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2015-10-01

    Interaction via pulses is common in many natural systems, especially neuronal. In this article we study one of the simplest possible systems with pulse interaction: a phase oscillator with delayed pulsatile feedback. When the oscillator reaches a specific state, it emits a pulse, which returns after propagating through a delay line. The impact of an incoming pulse is described by the oscillator's phase reset curve (PRC). In such a system we discover an unexpected phenomenon: for a sufficiently steep slope of the PRC, a periodic regular spiking solution bifurcates with several multipliers crossing the unit circle at the same parameter value. The number of such critical multipliers increases linearly with the delay and thus may be arbitrary large. This bifurcation is accompanied by the emergence of numerous "jittering" regimes with nonequal interspike intervals (ISIs). Each of these regimes corresponds to a periodic solution of the system with a period roughly proportional to the delay. The number of different "jittering" solutions emerging at the bifurcation point increases exponentially with the delay. We describe the combinatorial mechanism that underlies the emergence of such a variety of solutions. In particular, we show how a periodic solution exhibiting several distinct ISIs can imply the existence of multiple other solutions obtained by rearranging of these ISIs. We show that the theoretical results for phase oscillators accurately predict the behavior of an experimentally implemented electronic oscillator with pulsatile feedback.

  8. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-04-08

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations.

  9. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Andrew E.; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations. PMID:25851364

  10. Abrupt millennial variability and interdecadal-interstadial oscillations in a global coupled model: sensitivity to the background climate state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzel, Olivier [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France); England, Matthew H. [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Verdiere, Alain Colin de; Huck, Thierry [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France)

    2012-07-15

    The origin and bifurcation structure of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions under steady external solar forcing and in the absence of atmospheric synoptic variability is studied by means of a global coupled model of intermediate complexity. We show that the origin of Dansgaard-Oeschger type oscillations in the model is caused by the weaker northward oceanic heat transport in the Atlantic basin. This is in agreement with previous studies realized with much simpler models, based on highly idealized geometries and simplified physics. The existence of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions during glacial times can therefore be interpreted as a consequence of the weakening of the negative temperature-advection feedback. This is confirmed through a series of numerical experiments designed to explore the sensitivity of the bifurcation structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels under glacial boundary conditions. Contrasting with the cold, stadial, phases of millennial oscillations, we also show the emergence of strong interdecadal variability in the North Atlantic sector during warm interstadials. The instability driving these interdecadal-interstadial oscillations is shown to be identical to that found in ocean-only models forced by fixed surface buoyancy fluxes, that is, a large-scale baroclinic instability developing in the vicinity of the western boundary current in the North Atlantic. Comparisons with modern observations further suggest a physical mechanism similar to that driving the 30-40 years time scale associated with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. (orig.)

  11. Noise-induced synchronization, desynchronization, and clustering in globally coupled nonidentical oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi Ming

    2013-07-09

    We study ensembles of globally coupled, nonidentical phase oscillators subject to correlated noise, and we identify several important factors that cause noise and coupling to synchronize or desynchronize a system. By introducing noise in various ways, we find an estimate for the onset of synchrony of a system in terms of the coupling strength, noise strength, and width of the frequency distribution of its natural oscillations. We also demonstrate that noise alone can be sufficient to synchronize nonidentical oscillators. However, this synchrony depends on the first Fourier mode of a phase-sensitivity function, through which we introduce common noise into the system. We show that higher Fourier modes can cause desynchronization due to clustering effects, and that this can reinforce clustering caused by different forms of coupling. Finally, we discuss the effects of noise on an ensemble in which antiferromagnetic coupling causes oscillators to form two clusters in the absence of noise. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  12. Aging transition in systems of oscillators with global distributed-delay coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, B.; Blyuss, K. B.; Kyrychko, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    We consider a globally coupled network of active (oscillatory) and inactive (nonoscillatory) oscillators with distributed-delay coupling. Conditions for aging transition, associated with suppression of oscillations, are derived for uniform and gamma delay distributions in terms of coupling parameters and the proportion of inactive oscillators. The results suggest that for the uniform distribution increasing the width of distribution for the same mean delay allows aging transition to happen for a smaller coupling strength and a smaller proportion of inactive elements. For gamma distribution with sufficiently large mean time delay, it may be possible to achieve aging transition for an arbitrary proportion of inactive oscillators, as long as the coupling strength lies in a certain range.

  13. Is There a 60-Year Oscillation in Global Mean Sea Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D. P.; Kwon, S.; Merrifield, M. A.; Nerem, R.

    2012-12-01

    We examine long tide gauge records in every ocean basin to determine if a quasi 60-year oscillation observed in global mean sea level (GMSL) reconstructions reflects a true global oscillation, or whether it represents an aliased signal from a small number of gauges. We find that there is a significant oscillation with a period around 60-years in the majority of the tide gauges examined during the 20th Century, and that it appears in every ocean basin. Averaging of tide gauges over regions shows that the phase and amplitude of the fluctuations are similar in the North Atlantic, Western North Pacific, and Indian Oceans, while the signal is shifted by 10 years in the Southwestern Pacific. The only region with no apparent 60-year fluctuation is the Central/Eastern North Pacific. The phase of the 60-year oscillation found in the tide gauge records is such that sea level in the North Atlantic, Western North Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Southwestern Pacific has been increasing since 1985-1990. Although the tide gauge data are still too limited, both in time and space, to determine conclusively that there is a 60-year oscillation in global mean sea level, the possibility should be considered when attempting to interpret the acceleration in the rate of GMSL rise.

  14. After Globalization: The Emerging Politics of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Globalization, referring to the formation of world systems, embraces finance and trade; communications and information technologies; migration and tourism; global societies; linguistic, cultural, and ideological convergence; and signs and images. Globalization does not negate the nation-state, but it changes its circumstances and makes education…

  15. Investigating the control of climatic oscillations over global terrestrial evaporation using a simple supervised learning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego; Waegeman, Willem; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko

    2017-04-01

    Intra-annual and multi-decadal variations in the Earth's climate are to a large extent driven by periodic oscillations in the coupled state of atmosphere and ocean. These oscillations alter not only the climate in nearby regions, but also have an important impact on the local climate in remote areas, a phenomenon that is often referred to as 'teleconnection'. Because changes in local climate immediately impact terrestrial ecosystems through a series of complex processes and feedbacks, ocean-atmospheric teleconnections are expected to influence land evaporation - i.e. the return flux of water from land to atmosphere. In this presentation, the effects of these intra-annual and multi-decadal climate oscillations on global terrestrial evaporation are analysed. To this end, we use satellite observations of different essential climate variables in combination with a simple supervised learning method, the lasso regression. A total of sixteen Climate Oscillation Indices (COIs) - which are routinely used to diagnose the major ocean-atmospheric oscillations - are selected. Multi-decadal data of terrestrial evaporation are retrieved from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM, www.gleam.eu). Using the lasso regression, it is shown that more than 30% of the inter-annual variations in terrestrial evaporation can be explained by ocean-atmospheric oscillations. In addition, the impact in different regions across the globe can typically be attributed to a small subset of the sixteen COIs. For instance, the dynamics in terrestrial evaporation over Australia are substantially impacted by both the El Niño Southern Oscillation (here diagnosed using the Southern Oscillation Index, SOI) and the Indian Ocean Dipole Oscillation (here diagnosed using the Indian Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Subsequently, using the same learning method but regressing terrestrial evaporation to its local climatic drivers (air temperature, precipitation, radiation), allows us to discern through which

  16. Emerging Economies and Firms in the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    n exploration into the impact of the global crisis on emerging economies and firms and their responses to it. The ways in which the leading emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) are dealing with the challenges of the global crisis are complemented by the approaches applied...... of BRIC economies in developed countries and the ways in which Russian, Indian, Chinese, and also Polish, Slovene and Estonian firms have coped with the challenges of the global crisis....

  17. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife...

  18. Emergence and coherence of oscillations in star networks of stochastic excitable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Justus A.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Neiman, Alexander B.

    2016-04-01

    We study the emergence and coherence of stochastic oscillations in star networks of excitable elements in which peripheral nodes receive independent random inputs. A biophysical model of a distal branch of sensory neuron in which peripheral nodes of Ranvier are coupled to a central node by myelinated cable segments is used along with a generic model of networked stochastic active rotators. We show that coherent oscillations can emerge due to stochastic synchronization of peripheral nodes and that the degree of coherence can be maximized by tuning the coupling strength and the size of the network. Analytical results are obtained for the strong-coupling regime of the active rotator network. In particular, we show that in the strong-coupling regime, the network dynamics can be described by an effective single active rotator with rescaled parameters and noise.

  19. Emergence and coherence of oscillations in star networks of stochastic excitable elements

    CERN Document Server

    Kromer, Justus A; Neiman, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    We study the emergence and coherence of stochastic oscillations in star networks of excitable elements in which peripheral nodes receive independent random inputs. A biophysical model of a distal branch of sensory neuron in which peripheral nodes of Ranvier are coupled to a central node by myelinated cable segments is used along with a generic model of networked stochastic active rotators. We show that coherent oscillations can emerge due to stochastic synchronization of peripheral nodes and that the degree of coherence can be maximized by tuning the coupling strength and the size of the network. Analytical results are obtained for the strong coupling regime of the active rotator network. In particular, we show that in the strong coupling regime the network dynamics can be described by an effective single active rotator with rescaled parameters and noise.

  20. Prediction of global rainfall probabilities using phases of the Southern Oscillation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Roger C.; Hammer, Graeme L.; Marcussen, Torben

    1996-11-01

    THE El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a quasi-periodic interannual variation in global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, known to be correlated with variations in the global pattern of rainfall1-3. Good predictive models for ENSO, if they existed, would allow accurate prediction of global rainfall variations, thus leading to better management of world agricultural production4,5, as well as improving profits and reducing risks for farmers6,7. But our current ability to predict ENSO variation is limited. Here we describe a probabilistic rainfall 'forecasting' system that does not require ENSO predictive ability, but is instead based on the identification of lag-relationships between values of the Southern Oscillation Index, which provides a quantitative measure of the phase of the ENSO cycle, and future rainfall. The system provides rainfall probability distributions three to six months in advance for regions worldwide, and is simple enough to be incorporated into management systems now.

  1. Stochastic process of pragmatic information for 2D spiral wave turbulence in globally and locally coupled Alief-Panfilov oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Jun; Miyata, Hajime; Konno, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Recently, complex dynamics of globally coupled oscillators have been attracting many researcher's attentions. In spite of their numerous studies, their features of nonlinear oscillator systems with global and local couplings in two-dimension (2D) are not understood fully. The paper focuses on 2D states of coherent, clustered and chaotic oscillation especially under the effect of negative global coupling (NGC) in 2D Alief-Panfilov model. It is found that the tuning NGC can cause various new coupling-parameter dependency on the features of oscillations. Then quantitative characterization of various states of oscillations (so called spiral wave turbulence) is examined by using the pragmatic information (PI) which have been utilized in analyzing multimode laser, solar activity and neuronal systems. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the PI for various oscillations can be characterized successfully by the Hyper-Gamma stochastic process.

  2. Global Health and Emergency Care: Overcoming Clinical Research Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adam C; Barry, Meagan A; Agrawal, Pooja; Duber, Herbert C; Chang, Mary P; Mackey, Joy M; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2017-04-01

    There are many barriers impeding the conduct of high-quality emergency care research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Several of these barriers were originally outlined in 2013 as part of the Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference. This paper seeks to establish a broader consensus on the barriers to emergency care research globally and proposes a comprehensive array of new recommendations to overcome these barriers. An electronic survey was conducted of a purposive sample of global emergency medicine research experts from around the world to describe the major challenges and solutions to conducting emergency care research in low-resource settings and rank them by importance. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2016 Annual Meeting utilized a modified Delphi technique for consensus-based decision making to categorize and expand upon these barriers and develop a comprehensive array of proposed solutions. The working group identified four broad categories of barriers to conducting emergency care research globally, including 1) the limited availability of research personnel, particularly those with prior research training; 2) logistic barriers and lack of standardization of data collection; 3) ethical barriers to conducting research in resource-limited settings, particularly when no local institutional review board is available; and 4) the relative dearth of funding for global emergency care research. Proposed solutions included building a diverse and interdisciplinary research team structured to promote mentorship of junior researchers, utilizing local research assistants or technologic tools such as telemedicine for language translation, making use of new tools such as mobile health (mHealth) to standardize and streamline data collection, identifying alternatives to local institutional review board approval and the use of

  3. Managing Landscapes to Meet Emerging Global Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Badgley, Brian; Daniels, W. Lee; Day, Susan; Eick, Matt; Ervin, Erik; Steele, Meredith; Stewart, Ryan; Strahm, Brian; Xia, Kang; Zipper, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Our vision is to create a program dedicated to accelerating innovation that improves the quality, efficiency, and resilience of human dominated landscapes, including our cities, farms, and industrial lands. Humans dramatically alter and manipulate the global landscape for food and fiber production, mineral extraction, urban development, waste disposal and many other purposes. Impacts to essential ecosystem functions and values range from local (e.g. mining and land development) to global (e.g...

  4. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-07-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts.

  5. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.

  6. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    The major cause of health concern that claims a large number of lives worldwide every year are the infectious diseases (Ministry of Health Report 1920). The advent of antibiotics and vaccines has lessened the impact of a number of infectious diseases but they are still the number one cause of mortality. These emerging ...

  7. Global Innovation in Emerging Economies | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... In recent decades, there have been significant changes in the way corporate innovation is performed. They include changes in the innovation process, flexibility to outsource innovation activities, and most importantly, the location of innovation. There are mainly two new trends: the location of globally ...

  8. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  9. Global Health and Emergency Care: Defining Clinical Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansoti, Bhakti; Aluisio, Adam R; Barry, Meagan A; Davey, Kevin; Lentz, Brian A; Modi, Payal; Newberry, Jennifer A; Patel, Melissa H; Smith, Tricia A; Vinograd, Alexandra M; Levine, Adam C

    2017-06-01

    Despite recent strides in the development of global emergency medicine (EM), the field continues to lag in applying a scientific approach to identifying critical knowledge gaps and advancing evidence-based solutions to clinical and public health problems seen in emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. Here, progress on the global EM research agenda created at the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference is evaluated and critical areas for future development in emergency care research internationally are identified. A retrospective review of all studies compiled in the Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) database from 2013 through 2015 was conducted. Articles were categorized and analyzed using descriptive quantitative measures and structured data matrices. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2016 Annual Meeting then further conceptualized and defined global EM research priorities utilizing consensus-based decision making. Research trends in global EM research published between 2013 and 2015 show a predominance of observational studies relative to interventional or descriptive studies, with the majority of research conducted in the inpatient setting in comparison to the ED or prehospital setting. Studies on communicable diseases and injury were the most prevalent, with a relative dearth of research on chronic noncommunicable diseases. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group identified conceptual frameworks to define high-impact research priorities, including the traditional approach of using global burden of disease to define priorities and the impact of EM on individual clinical care and public health opportunities. EM research is also described through a population lens approach, including gender, pediatrics, and migrant and refugee health. Despite recent strides in global EM research and

  10. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  11. Global emergence of enterovirus D68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Hansen, Charlotte Carina; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2016-01-01

    on enterovirus D68 to estimate its global epidemiology and its ability to cause respiratory infections and neurological damage in children. We extracted data from 70 papers to report on prevalence, symptoms, hospitalisation and mortality, and complications of enterovirus D68, both before and during the large......Since its discovery in California in 1962, reports of enterovirus D68 have been infrequent. Before 2014, infections were confirmed in only 699 people worldwide. In August, 2014, two paediatric hospitals in the USA reported increases in the number of patients with severe respiratory illness......, with an over-representation in children with asthma. Shortly after, the authorities recognised a nationwide outbreak, which then spread to Canada, Europe, and Asia. In 2014, more than 2000 cases of enterovirus D68 were reported in 20 countries. Concurrently, clusters of children with acute flaccid paralysis...

  12. Impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the wheat market: A global dynamic analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luciano Gutierrez

    2017-01-01

    Although the widespread influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurrences on crop yields of the main agricultural commodities is well known, the global socio-economic consequences of ENSO still remain uncertain...

  13. Zika Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Nguyen, Desiree; Debs, Luca H.; Patel, Amit P.; Liu, George; Jhaveri, Vasanti M.; S. Kay, Sae-In; Mittal, Jeenu; Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Younis, Ramzi T.; Chapagain, Prem; Jayaweera, Dushyantha T.; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively. The gravity of the fetal anomalies linked to ZIKV vertical transmission from the mother has prompted a discussion on whether to include ZIKV as a formal member of the TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes] family of pathogens known to breach placental barriers and cause congenital disease in the fetus. The mechanisms of these complex phenotypes have yet to be fully described. As such, diagnostic tools are limited and no effective modalities are available to treat ZIKV. This article will review the recent advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection as well as diagnostic tests available to detect the infection. Due to the increase in incidence of ZIKV infections, there is an immediate need to develop new diagnostic tools and novel preventive as well as therapeutic modalities based on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:29276699

  14. Medical Geology: a globally emerging discipline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, J.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Medical Geology, the study of the impacts of geologic materials and processes on animal and human health, is a dynamic emerging discipline bringing together the geoscience, biomedical, and public health communities to solve a wide range of environmental health problems. Among the Medical Geology described in this review are examples of both deficiency and toxicity of trace element exposure. Goiter is a widespread and potentially serious health problem caused by deficiency of iodine. In many locations the deficiency is attributable to low concentrations of iodine in the bedrock. Similarly, deficiency of selenium in the soil has been cited as the principal cause of juvenile cardiomyopathy and muscular abnormalities. Overexposure to arsenic is one of the most widespread Medical Geology problems affecting more than one hundred million people in Bangladesh, India, China, Europe, Africa and North and South America. The arsenic exposure is primarily due to naturally high levels in groundwater but combustion of mineralized coal has also caused arsenic poisoning. Dental and skeletal fluorosis also impacts the health of millions of people around the world and, like arsenic, is due to naturally high concentrations in drinking water and, to a lesser extent, coal combustion. Other Medical Geology issues described include geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, exposure to radon, and ingestion of high concentrations of organic compounds in drinking water. Geoscience and biomedical/public health researchers are teaming to help mitigate these health problems as well as various non-traditional issues for geoscientists such as vector-borne diseases.

  15. Determining global parameters of the oscillations of solar-like stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Régulo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Helioseismology has enabled us to better understand the solar interior, while also allowing us to better constrain solar models. But now is a tremendous epoch for asteroseismology as space missions dedicated to studying stellar oscillations have been launched within the last years (MOST...... and CoRoT). CoRoT has already proved valuable results for many types of stars, while Kepler, which was launched in March 2009, will provide us with a huge number of seismic data very soon. This is an opportunity to better constrain stellar models and to finally understand stellar structure and evolution......), retrieve the surface rotation period of the star and use these results to estimate the global parameters of the star (radius and mass). Methods. To prepare for the arrival and the analysis of hundreds of solar-like oscillating stars, we have developed a robust and automatic pipeline, which was partially...

  16. The Global Oscillation Network Group site survey. 1: Data collection and analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frank; Fischer, George; Grier, Jennifer; Leibacher, John W.; Jones, Harrison B.; Jones, Patricia P.; Kupke, Renate; Stebbins, Robin T.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Project is planning to place a set of instruments around the world to observe solar oscillations as continuously as possible for at least three years. The Project has now chosen the sites that will comprise the network. This paper describes the methods of data collection and analysis that were used to make this decision. Solar irradiance data were collected with a one-minute cadence at fifteen sites around the world and analyzed to produce statistics of cloud cover, atmospheric extinction, and transparency power spectra at the individual sites. Nearly 200 reasonable six-site networks were assembled from the individual stations, and a set of statistical measures of the performance of the networks was analyzed using a principal component analysis. An accompanying paper presents the results of the survey.

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF OSCILLATIONS OF BEARING BODY FRAME OF EMERGENCY AND REPAIR RAILCARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina KHROMOVA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the importance of maintenance and effective use of available railcars in the railway transport is growing, and researchers and technical experts are working to address this issue with the use of various techniques. The authors address the use of analytical technique, which includes mathematical solutions for flexural and longitudinal fluctuations of the bearing framework of a railcar body frame. The calculation is performed in connection with the modernization of the body frame of emergency and repair rail service car, taking into account the variability in section, mass, longitudinal stiffness, and bending stiffness. It allows for extension of the useful life of their operation, with special focus on vehicles owned by Joint-Stock Company "Uzbekistan Railways". The simulation of equivalent bearing body frame of emergency and repair rail service car was carried out using an elastic rod with variable parameters including stiffness and mass. The difference between the proposed model and the existing ones is due to the variability in cross section, mass, and the longitudinal and bending stiffness along the length of equivalent beam, which corresponds to the actual conditions of operation and data of the experimental studies conducted by the authors on the bearing frames of electric locomotives’ variable sections. The frequency analysis that was carried out with the use of the Mathcad 14 programming showed that the frequencies of natural oscillations change on n harmonicas = 1, 2, 3 … 5. As regards longitudinal oscillations of system, in case of introduction of the damping subfloor, the frequency of natural oscillations of the upgraded rail car frame λ1mn increases on comparing with standard λ1n (for example, in case of n = 5 the frequency is 0.587 and 0.602 Hz/m, respectively.

  18. Implementation of dynamic dual input multiple output logic gate via resonance in globally coupled Duffing oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, P. R.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2017-08-01

    We have used a system of globally coupled double-well Duffing oscillators under an enhanced resonance condition to design and implement Dual Input Multiple Output (DIMO) logic gates. In order to enhance the resonance, the first oscillator in the globally coupled system alone is excited by two forces out of which one acts as a driving force and the other will be either sub-harmonic or super-harmonic in nature. We report that for an appropriate coupling strength, the second force coherently drives and enhances not only the amplitude of the weak first force to all the coupled systems but also drives and propagates the digital signals if any given to the first system. We then numerically confirm the propagation of any digital signal or square wave without any attenuation under an enhanced resonance condition for an amplitude greater than a threshold value. Further, we extend this idea for computing various logical operations and succeed in designing theoretically DIMO logic gates such as AND/NAND, OR/NOR gates with globally coupled systems.

  19. The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon H. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    ..., in contrast, hardly paused during 2008 sluggishness. Many emerging economies, in contrast, hardly paused during 2008 and 2009. Led by China and India, their robust growth is now fueling the recovery and 2009. Led by China and India, their robust growth is now fueling the recovery of the global economy. The shift in economic power is palpable. ...

  20. The emergence of the BRICS – implications for global governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Petropoulos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis of 2008, with its detrimental effects on the global economy, was the starting point of a transformation of the global governance landscape. This fluid political and economic global environment seems to be leading to the enhancement of the position of regional powers, especially within the developing world. Hence, the importance of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and, to some extent, South Africa, within the global governance structure has increased. This rise of importance is derived from the enhancement of the economic capabilities of these powers and the fact that economic interdependence has rendered the world more sensitive to the economic policies of these nations. What is even more significant is the fact that these emerging powers have initiated a process of conducting regular meetings for the purpose of discussing and coordinating their actions related to global issues. The BRIC(S meetings seem to be acting as a power multiplier, leading to enhanced pressure on developed countries to accept some proposals from the BRIC(S countries. This development enhances the effectiveness of global governance structures while also legitimizing the notion of a new global governance structure. It is yet to be shown, however, whether the new rising powers will eventually challenge existing global governance structures or be fully integrated into them.

  1. Tropical Waves and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in a 7-km Global Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Laura A.; Alexander, M. Joan; Coy, Lawrence; Molod, Andrea; Putman, William; Pawson, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates tropical waves and their role in driving a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)-like signal in stratospheric winds in a global 7-km-horizontal-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. The Nature Run (NR) is a 2-year global mesoscale simulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5). In the tropics, there is evidence that the NR supports a broad range of convectively generated waves. The NR precipitation spectrum resembles the observed spectrum in many aspects, including the preference for westward-propagating waves. However, even with very high horizontal resolution and a healthy population of resolved waves, the zonal force provided by the resolved waves is still too low in the QBO region and parameterized gravity wave drag is the main driver of the NR QBO-like oscillation (NRQBO). The authors suggest that causes include coarse vertical resolution and excessive dissipation. Nevertheless, the very-high-resolution NR provides an opportunity to analyze the resolved wave forcing of the NR-QBO. In agreement with previous studies, large-scale Kelvin and small-scale waves contribute to the NRQBO driving in eastward shear zones and small-scale waves dominate the NR-QBO driving in westward shear zones. Waves with zonal wavelength,1000 km account for up to half of the small-scale (,3300 km) resolved wave forcing in eastward shear zones and up to 70% of the small-scale resolved wave forcing in westward shear zones of the NR-QBO.

  2. An Optimal Frequency in Ca2+ Oscillations for Stomatal Closure Is an Emergent Property of Ion Transport in Guard Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet-Parramona, Carla; Wang, Yizhou; Hills, Adrian; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere; Griffiths, Howard; Rogers, Simon; Lawson, Tracy; Lew, Virgilio L; Blatt, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Oscillations in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) have been proposed to encode information that controls stomatal closure. [Ca(2+)]i oscillations with a period near 10 min were previously shown to be optimal for stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the studies offered no insight into their origins or mechanisms of encoding to validate a role in signaling. We have used a proven systems modeling platform to investigate these [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and analyze their origins in guard cell homeostasis and membrane transport. The model faithfully reproduced differences in stomatal closure as a function of oscillation frequency with an optimum period near 10 min under standard conditions. Analysis showed that this optimum was one of a range of frequencies that accelerated closure, each arising from a balance of transport and the prevailing ion gradients across the plasma membrane and tonoplast. These interactions emerge from the experimentally derived kinetics encoded in the model for each of the relevant transporters, without the need of any additional signaling component. The resulting frequencies are of sufficient duration to permit substantial changes in [Ca(2+)]i and, with the accompanying oscillations in voltage, drive the K(+) and anion efflux for stomatal closure. Thus, the frequency optima arise from emergent interactions of transport across the membrane system of the guard cell. Rather than encoding information for ion flux, these oscillations are a by-product of the transport activities that determine stomatal aperture. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. El Niño/Southern Oscillation response to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M.; Keenlyside, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, originating in the Tropical Pacific, is the strongest natural interannual climate signal and has widespread effects on the global climate system and the ecology of the Tropical Pacific. Any strong change in ENSO statistics will therefore have serious climatic and ecological consequences. Most global climate models do simulate ENSO, although large biases exist with respect to its characteristics. The ENSO response to global warming differs strongly from model to model and is thus highly uncertain. Some models simulate an increase in ENSO amplitude, others a decrease, and others virtually no change. Extremely strong changes constituting tipping point behavior are not simulated by any of the models. Nevertheless, some interesting changes in ENSO dynamics can be inferred from observations and model integrations. Although no tipping point behavior is envisaged in the physical climate system, smooth transitions in it may give rise to tipping point behavior in the biological, chemical, and even socioeconomic systems. For example, the simulated weakening of the Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient in the Hadley Centre model (with dynamic vegetation included) caused rapid Amazon forest die-back in the mid-twenty-first century, which in turn drove a nonlinear increase in atmospheric CO2, accelerating global warming. PMID:19060210

  4. Emerging and re-emerging Infectious diseases: a global health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukei, P M

    1996-05-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic can truly be described as an infectious disease that has recently emerged and judging from its rapid global spread, it leaves no doubt that it is one of the greatest health threats mankind has to contend with. This pandemic has alerted and stimulated the international scientific community to seriously reflect oa other recent episodes of emerging and re-emerging infections. The examples that have recently been observed and addressed include new emerging infectious diseases, unusual manifestations of previously known diseases and unusual eruption of known diseases in unusual geographic foci or unusual altitudes. The scientific community has considered the following as plausible explanations for the epidemics: 1. It is known that micro-organisms mutate and selection pressures for appearance of resistant strains are encouraged by the widespread misuse of drugs; 2. Human population pressures, particularly ih the developing world, is leading migration to urban slums. Other populations are venturing into virgin jungles to open up new agricultural land. In the same category are economic pursuits in the forest or alteration of the environment by economic activities such as new dams and roads. All these activities put new susceptible populations at risk of interacting with new disease ecological systems. It is also tempting to include in this category civil disruptions which have led to acute displacement of large populations within a country or across international borders as refugees; 3. The re-emergence of some of the old familiar diseases, hitherto considered well controlled, can be attributed directly to the deterioration of health services as a result of global economic depression which has affected some countries more severely than others; 4. There is sound and growing scientific evidence implicating global warming as contributing to some of the new disease manifestations. The threat to health by emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases is a

  5. Global disease burden of conditions requiring emergency surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B; Khanduri, P; McCord, C; Ohene-Yeboah, M; Uranues, S; Vega Rivera, F; Mock, C

    2014-01-01

    Surgical disease is inadequately addressed globally, and emergency conditions requiring surgery contribute substantially to the global disease burden. This was a review of studies that contributed to define the population-based health burden of emergency surgical conditions (excluding trauma and obstetrics) and the status of available capacity to address this burden. Further data were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 and the University of Washington's Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation online data. In the index year of 2010, there were 896,000 deaths, 20 million years of life lost and 25 million disability-adjusted life-years from 11 emergency general surgical conditions reported individually in the Global Burden of Disease Study. The most common cause of death was complicated peptic ulcer disease, followed by aortic aneurysm, bowel obstruction, biliary disease, mesenteric ischaemia, peripheral vascular disease, abscess and soft tissue infections, and appendicitis. The mortality rate was higher in high-income countries (HICs) than in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (24.3 versus 10.6 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants respectively), primarily owing to a higher rate of vascular disease in HICs. However, because of the much larger population, 70 per cent of deaths occurred in LMICs. Deaths from vascular disease rose from 15 to 25 per cent of surgical emergency-related deaths in LMICs (from 1990 to 2010). Surgical capacity to address this burden is suboptimal in LMICs, with fewer than one operating theatre per 100,000 inhabitants in many LMICs, whereas some HICs have more than 14 per 100,000 inhabitants. The global burden of surgical emergencies is described insufficiently. The bare estimates indicate a tremendous health burden. LMICs carry the majority of emergency conditions; in these countries the pattern of surgical disease is changing and capacity to deal with the problem is inadequate. The data presented in this study will be

  6. Van der Pol and the history of relaxation oscillations: toward the emergence of a concept

    CERN Document Server

    Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation oscillations are commonly associated with the name of Balthazar van der Pol via his eponymous paper (Philosophical Magazine, 1926) in which he apparently introduced this terminology to describe the nonlinear oscillations produced by self-sustained oscillating systems such as a triode circuit. Our aim is to investigate how relaxation oscillations were actually discovered. Browsing the literature from the late 19th century, we identified four self-oscillating systems in which relaxation oscillations have been observed: i) the series dynamo machine conducted by G\\'erard-Lescuyer (1880), ii) the musical arc discovered by Duddell (1901) and investigated by Blondel (1905), iii) the triode invented by de Forest (1907) and, iv) the multivibrator elaborated by Abraham and Bloch (1917). The differential equation describing such a self-oscillating system was proposed by Poincar\\'e for the musical arc (1908), by Janet for the series dynamo machine (1919), and by Blondel for the triode (1919). Once Janet (1919)...

  7. USA IN THE EMERGING SYSTEM OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Kulakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the globalizing world of fi nancial and economic interdependence, a polycentric, multi-level, and hierarchical system of global financial regulation is emerging. The article highlights two vectors of recent development in international fi nancial regulation: the rise of cooperation through the mechanisms of the Group of Twenty (G-20 on the one hand, and the efforts to maintain the US leading role in global fi nance, on the other hand. In the circumstances of the global fi nancial crisis of 2008, the G-20 countries initiated an international reform of fi nancial regulation. According to G-20 decisions, international standardsetting organizations developed transnational regulatory regimes in the fi elds of banking, derivatives and bankruptcy resolution, and the states now implement these regimes in their jurisdictions. The so-called “soft law system”, which is not legally binding, allows the states to sustain national sovereignty in their fi nancial policy. The United States play a leading role in the international fi nancial reform, as well as in the shaping of the global fi nancial regulation system. The American regulators push for extraterritorial application of the US norms and take other unilateral actions on the international arena. The article also touches upon legitimacy problems of the emerging system of global fi nancial regulation. The most important constrains are the excessive infl uence of the fi nancial industry (“regulatory capture”, the weakness of civil society participation, and also the fact that for the rest of the world the American norms lack legitimacy, as they are adopted by regulators assigned by offi cials elected by population of a foreign territory.

  8. Emergence and oscillation of cosmic space by joining M1-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Benha University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Pradhan, Anirudh [G L A University, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed by Padmanabhan that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region leads to the expansion of the universe. Now, a natural question arises; how could this model explain the oscillation of the universe between contraction and expansion branches? We try to address this issue in the framework of a BIonic system. In this model, M0-branes join to each other and give rise to a pair of M1-anti-M1-branes. The fields which live on these branes play the roles of massive gravitons that cause the emergence of a wormhole between them and formation of a BIon system. This wormhole dissolves into M1-branes and causes a divergence between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface of M1 and the bulk leading to an expansion of M1-branes. When M1-branes become close to each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states emerge. To remove these states, M1-branes become compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, causing anti-gravity to arise: in this case, branes get away from each other. By articulating M1-BIons, an M3-brane and an anti-M3-brane are created and connected by three wormholes forming an M3-BIon. This new system behaves like the initial system and by closing branes to each other, they become compact and, by getting away from each other, they open. Our universe is located on one of these M3-branes and, by compactifying the M3-brane, it contracts and, by opening it, it expands. (orig.)

  9. Emergent bimodal firing patterns implement different encoding strategies during gamma-band oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén eDe Sancristóbal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon sensory stimulation, primary cortical areas readily engage in narrow-band rhythmic activity between 30 to 90 Hz, the so-called gamma oscillations. Here we show that, when embedded in a balanced network, type-I excitable neurons entrained to the collective rhythm show a discontinuity in their firing rates between a slow and a fast spiking mode. This jump in the spiking frequencies is characteristic to type II neurons, but is not present in the frequency-current curve (f-I curve of isolated type I neurons. Therefore, this rate bimodality arises as an emerging network property in type I population models. We have studied the mechanisms underlying the generation of these two firing modes, in order to reproduce the spiking activity of in vivo cortical recordings, which is known to be highly irregular and sparse. We have also analyzed the relation between afferent inputs and the single unit activity, and between the latter and the LFP phase, in order to establish how the collective dynamics modulates the spiking activity of the individual neurons. Our results reveal that the inhibitory-excitatory balance allows two encoding mechanisms, phase and rate code, to coexist within the network.

  10. Emergent constraint on equilibrium climate sensitivity from global temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris; Williamson, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) remains one of the most important unknowns in climate change science. ECS is defined as the global mean warming that would occur if the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration were instantly doubled and the climate were then brought to equilibrium with that new level of CO2. Despite its rather idealized definition, ECS has continuing relevance for international climate change agreements, which are often framed in terms of stabilization of global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate. However, the ‘likely’ range of ECS as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has remained at 1.5–4.5 degrees Celsius for more than 25 years. The possibility of a value of ECS towards the upper end of this range reduces the feasibility of avoiding 2 degrees Celsius of global warming, as required by the Paris Agreement. Here we present a new emergent constraint on ECS that yields a central estimate of 2.8 degrees Celsius with 66 per cent confidence limits (equivalent to the IPCC ‘likely’ range) of 2.2–3.4 degrees Celsius. Our approach is to focus on the variability of temperature about long-term historical warming, rather than on the warming trend itself. We use an ensemble of climate models to define an emergent relationship between ECS and a theoretically informed metric of global temperature variability. This metric of variability can also be calculated from observational records of global warming, which enables tighter constraints to be placed on ECS, reducing the probability of ECS being less than 1.5 degrees Celsius to less than 3 per cent, and the probability of ECS exceeding 4.5 degrees Celsius to less than 1 per cent.

  11. Global trends in emerging viral diseases of wildlife origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Ip, Hon S.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, infectious diseases were rarely considered threats to wildlife populations, and the study of wildlife diseases was largely a neglected endeavor. Furthermore, public health leaders at that time had declared that “it is time to close the book on infectious diseases and the war against pestilence won,” a quote attributed to Dr. William H. Stewart in 1967. There is some debate whether he actually said these words; however, they reflect the widespread belief at that time (Spellberg, 2008). Leap forward to today, and the book on infectious diseases has been dusted off. There is general consensus that the global environment favors the emergence of infectious diseases, and in particular, diseases of wildlife origin (Taylor et al., 2001). Examples of drivers of these infectious diseases include climate and landscape changes, human demographic and behavior changes, global travel and trade, microbial adaptation, and lack of appropriate infrastructure for wildlife disease control and prevention (Daszak et al., 2001). The consequences of these emerging diseases are global and profound with increased burden on the public health system, negative impacts on the global economy and food security, declines and extinctions of wildlife species, and subsequent loss of ecosystem integrity. For example, 35 million people are currently living with HIV infection globally (http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en); 400 million poultry have been culled since 2003 as a result of efforts to control highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/index.html), and there are increasing biological and ecological consequences.

  12. Identification of an El Niño-Southern Oscillation signal in a multiyear global simulation of tropospheric ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Wouter; Krol, Maarten; Dentener, Frank; Lelieveld, Jos

    2001-01-01

    We present the first study of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) interannual variability in tropical tropospheric ozone in a multiyear simulation with a global three-dimensional chemistry-transport model. A 15-year period (1979-1993) was simulated using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather

  13. Allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase controls the emergence of glycolytic oscillations in isolated yeast cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustavsson, A.-K.; van Niekerk, D.D.; Adiels, C.B.; Kooi, B.W.; Goksor, M.; Snoep, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations are widely distributed in nature and synchronization of oscillators has been described at the cellular level (e.g. heart cells) and at the population level (e.g. fireflies). Yeast glycolysis is the best known oscillatory system, although it has been studied almost exclusively at the

  14. Global Alert: Zika Virus-an Emerging Arbovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkurt, Zulal; Tanriverdi, Esra Cinar

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever,...

  15. Modulation of Global Fire Probability by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chidong

    2014-05-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an atmospheric phenomenon that dominates the subseasonal (20 - 90 day) variability in the tropics. Its main feature includes an eastward moving large-scale center of deep convection from the Indian Ocean to the western and central Pacific Ocean. As its convection center moves eastward, the MJO exerts influences on many weather, climate and other phenomena in the Earth system, both in the tropics and extratropics. Satellite-based global fire data sets (MODIS, ATSR) have revealed that probability of fire in many regions of the world undergoes systematic changes through the life cycle of the MJO. For example, when MJO convection center is located over the Indian Ocean, fire probability is anomalous high in West Africa and northern Australia, but anomalously low in central Africa, the Amazonia, and Alaska. In the tropics, such changes are directly related to rainfall fluctuations of the MJO itself in the eastern hemisphere, and are consequences of atmospheric equatorial waves excited by MJO convection that propagate into the western hemisphere. In the extratropics, the changes are mainly due to teleconnection patterns in the atmosphere established by anomalous convection of the MJO. Simultaneous perturbations in rainfall, surface temperature and humidity suggest that no single meteorological variable can fully explain the modulation of fire probability by the MJO. Current efforts are being made to related wild fire to lightening frequencies, which are also modulated by the MJO.

  16. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2012-09-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K.; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.; Mattsson, Jens G.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2015-01-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

  18. Collective motions of globally coupled oscillators and some probability distributions on circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaćimović, Vladimir [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Cetinjski put, bb., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Crnkić, Aladin, E-mail: aladin.crnkic@hotmail.com [Faculty of Technical Engineering, University of Bihać, Ljubijankićeva, bb., 77000 Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    2017-06-28

    In 2010 Kato and Jones described a new family of probability distributions on circle, obtained as Möbius transformation of von Mises distribution. We present the model demonstrating that these distributions appear naturally in study of populations of coupled oscillators. We use this opportunity to point out certain relations between Directional Statistics and collective motion of coupled oscillators. - Highlights: • We specify probability distributions on circle that arise in Kuramoto model. • We study how the mean-field coupling affects the shape of distribution of phases. • We discuss potential applications in some experiments on cell cycle. • We apply Directional Statistics to study collective dynamics of coupled oscillators.

  19. Emergency care research funding in the global health context: trends, priorities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Alexander; Duber, Herbert C; Sasser, Scott M; Hansoti, Bhakti; Lynch, Catherine; Khan, Ayesha; Johnson, Tara; Modi, Payal; Clattenburg, Eben J; Hargarten, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a steady growth in funding for global health, yet generally little is known about funding for global health research. As part of the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, a session was convened to discuss emergency care research funding in the global health context. Overall, the authors found a lack of evidence available to determine funding priorities or quantify current funding for acute care research in global health. This article summarizes the initial preparatory research and reports on the results of the consensus conference focused on identifying challenges and strategies to improve funding for global emergency care research. The consensus conference meeting led to the creation of near- and long-term goals to strengthen global emergency care research funding and the development of important research questions. The research questions represent a consensus view of important outstanding questions that will assist emergency care researchers to better understand the current funding landscape and bring evidence to the debate on funding priorities of global health and emergency care. The four key areas of focus for researchers are: 1) quantifying funding for global health and emergency care research, 2) understanding current research funding priorities, 3) identifying barriers to emergency care research funding, and 4) using existing data to quantify the need for emergency services and acute care research. This research agenda will enable emergency health care scientists to use evidence when advocating for more funding for emergency care research. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. Emergence of slow collective oscillations in neural networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is studied. The introduction of STDP induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain...

  1. Global surveillance of emerging Influenza virus genotypes by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Sampath

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating viral species, and for vaccine strain selection. We have developed one such approach based on previously described broad-range reverse transcription PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS technology.Analysis of base compositions of RT-PCR amplicons from influenza core gene segments (PB1, PB2, PA, M, NS, NP are used to provide sub-species identification and infer influenza virus H and N subtypes. Using this approach, we detected and correctly identified 92 mammalian and avian influenza isolates, representing 30 different H and N types, including 29 avian H5N1 isolates. Further, direct analysis of 656 human clinical respiratory specimens collected over a seven-year period (1999-2006 showed correct identification of the viral species and subtypes with >97% sensitivity and specificity. Base composition derived clusters inferred from this analysis showed 100% concordance to previously established clades. Ongoing surveillance of samples from the recent influenza virus seasons (2005-2006 showed evidence for emergence and establishment of new genotypes of circulating H3N2 strains worldwide. Mixed viral quasispecies were found in approximately 1% of these recent samples providing a view into viral evolution.Thus, rapid RT-PCR/ESI-MS analysis can be used to simultaneously identify all species of influenza viruses with clade-level resolution, identify mixed viral populations and monitor global spread and emergence of novel viral genotypes. This high-throughput method promises to become an integral component of influenza surveillance.

  2. A comparison of the structure and dynamics of Global atmospheric oscillation in reality and in the CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, global fields of mean anomalies of the sea-level atmospheric pressure and the surface air temperature are constructed for positive and negative phases of a recently discovered by Russian scientists Global atmospheric oscillation (GAO) with El Niño and La Niña as its elements. This is done using observations and their re-analyses, as well as the results of experiments with climate models. A GAO index is proposed, and its spectra, as well as spectra of El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO), are calculated. It is shown that some of the modern models of ocean-atmosphere general circulation of the international Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) reproduce well the GAO spatial structure. The model temporal energy spectra, however, differ from the real ones in the general variation of the energy spectra of interannual-decadal oscillations, as well as in the periods of specific peaks in this range. A comparison of CMIP5 experiments called Historical and piControl shows that the climate models with the 11-year solar activity cycle forcing reproduce the GAO periodicity more accurately. It is concluded that the differences between the model spectra and the real ones cause major errors in the predictions of the El Niño onset for more than half a year.

  3. Dynamic Integration of Emerging Market Bond Yields into the Global Bond Market

    OpenAIRE

    Anmar Pretorius and Alain Kabundi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the integration of bond markets of emerging market economies into the global bond markets from 2003 to 2012. The paper employs factor analysis based on the Arbitrage Pricing Theory to extract global factors from a panel of 38 bond yields of advanced and emerging market economies.The results reveal that bond yields in advanced economies, which constitute the driving forces behind the global bond market, do not dominate in explaining the variation of emerging...

  4. Parameter study of global and cluster synchronization in arrays of dry friction oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, Michał, E-mail: michal.marszal@p.lodz.pl; Stefański, Andrzej

    2017-04-18

    Highlights: • Synchronization properties in arrays of coupled dry friction oscillators are investigated. • Master stability function in form of two-oscillator probe is used for predicting synchronization thresholds. • Two network topologies are checked: open and closed nearest neighbor coupling. • Regions of complete and cluster synchronization are found in parameter space. - Abstract: We investigate synchronization thresholds in arrays of identical classic stick-slip dry friction oscillators connected in a nearest neighbor fashion in closed and open ring network. Friction force is modeled by smoothened Stribeck model. Arrays of different length are checked in two parameter space (i.e., coupling coefficient vs. excitation frequency) for complete synchronization as well as cluster synchronization. Synchronization thresholds obtained by brute force numerical integration are compared with possible synchronization regions using the concept called master stability function in the form of two-oscillator reference probe. The results show existence of both complete synchronization and cluster synchronization regions in the investigated systems and confirm that two-oscillator probe can be applied for prediction of synchronization thresholds in systems with stick-slip phenomenon.

  5. Quasi-biennial oscillation in total ozone: Global behaviour derived from ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdev, Alexander N.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    1994-01-01

    The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in total ozone (TO) is studied on the basis of TO measurements at the world ground-ased ozone network during 1972-1988. The TO content is on the whole greater in the tropical belt and smaller in high latitudes during the westerly phase of the QBO of the equatorial stratospheric 50 mb wind than during the easterly phase in all seasons. The appropriate TO difference (westerly category minus easterly category) displays certain space structures changing during a year. There are regions with the peculiar annual evolution of this difference, particularly in the Arctic and Antarctic. Spectral analysis reveals bimodality of TO power spectra in the frequency range of QBO periods, with spectral maxima corresponding to 17-23 months and 28-35 months. The large period oscillations are predominant on the whole. The small period oscillations are likely the consequence of interaction between an annual cycle and QBO.

  6. Global health and emergency care: a postgraduate medical education consensus-based research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ian B K; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Levine, Adam C; Douglass, Kate; Pousson, Amelia; Dunlop, Stephen; Khanna, Kajal; Bentley, Suzanne; Tupesis, Janis P

    2013-12-01

    Global emergency medicine (EM) is a rapidly growing field within EM, as evidenced by the increasing number of trainees and clinicians pursuing additional experiences in global health and emergency care. In particular, many trainees now desire opportunities at the postgraduate level by way of global EM fellowship programs. Despite this growing popularity, little is known of the effects of postgraduate training in global health and emergency care on learners and patients in the United States and abroad. During the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on global health and emergency care, a group of leading educators at the postgraduate medical education level convened to generate a research agenda of pressing questions to be answered in this area. The consensus-based research agenda is presented in this article. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Company finds emerging niche for its global-rescue business

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Heather

    1996-01-01

    A Singapore-based company with a subsidiary office in Seattle offers emergency medical assistance to employees of North American companies operating in Asia and South America. The company offers routine medical service and emergency evacuation around the clock.

  8. Global Alert: Zika Virus-an Emerging Arbovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkurt, Zulal; Tanriverdi, Esra Cinar

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema. Neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute myelitis, and transverse myelitis have been reported during ZIKV infection. Intrauterine and congenital ZIKV infections have strong teratogenic effects on the fetus. Intrauterine or congenital ZIKV infection can lead to microcephaly, ocular anomalies (such as macular atrophy, pigment mottling, and optic nerve anomalies), and cardiac anomalies (such as atrial or ventricular septal defect). Calcification in the brain between the cortical and subcortical areas, ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum hypoplasia, cortical/subcortical atrophy, delayed myelination, enlarged cisterna magna, and craniofacial disproportion have been reported as brain development defects. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild disease, and it does not require specific therapy. However, complications of infection during the early period of life are serious. Thus, many drugs have been investigated, and vaccine development studies have been conducted to prevent ZIKV infection. Vector control and personal protection from mosquito-borne transmission are important for decreasing the prevalence of ZIKV infection. In particular, pregnant residents or travelers to endemic areas should be carefully protected against mosquito-borne transmission. PMID:28638259

  9. Global Alert: Zika Virus-an Emerging Arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkurt, Zulal; Tanriverdi, Esra Cinar

    2017-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema. Neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute myelitis, and transverse myelitis have been reported during ZIKV infection. Intrauterine and congenital ZIKV infections have strong teratogenic effects on the fetus. Intrauterine or congenital ZIKV infection can lead to microcephaly, ocular anomalies (such as macular atrophy, pigment mottling, and optic nerve anomalies), and cardiac anomalies (such as atrial or ventricular septal defect). Calcification in the brain between the cortical and subcortical areas, ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum hypoplasia, cortical/subcortical atrophy, delayed myelination, enlarged cisterna magna, and craniofacial disproportion have been reported as brain development defects. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild disease, and it does not require specific therapy. However, complications of infection during the early period of life are serious. Thus, many drugs have been investigated, and vaccine development studies have been conducted to prevent ZIKV infection. Vector control and personal protection from mosquito-borne transmission are important for decreasing the prevalence of ZIKV infection. In particular, pregnant residents or travelers to endemic areas should be carefully protected against mosquito-borne transmission.

  10. Financial Globalization in Emerging Countries : Diversification vs. Offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Ceballos; Tatiana Didier; Sergio L. Schmukler

    2012-01-01

    Financial globalization has gathered attention since the early 1990s because of its macro-financial implications and growing importance. But financial globalization has taken shape via different forms over time. This paper examines two important, concurrent dimensions of financial globalization: diversification and offshoring. The diversification dimension refers to the increase in foreign...

  11. Experience-dependent emergence of beta and gamma band oscillations in the primary visual cortex during the critical period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Rasch, Malte J; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2015-12-09

    Neural oscillatory activities have been shown to play important roles in neural information processing and the shaping of circuit connections during development. However, it remains unknown whether and how specific neural oscillations emerge during a postnatal critical period (CP), in which neuronal connections are most substantially modified by neural activity and experience. By recording local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity in developing primary visual cortex (V1) of head-fixed awake mice, we here demonstrate an emergence of characteristic oscillatory activities during the CP. From the pre-CP to CP, the peak frequency of spontaneous fast oscillatory activities shifts from the beta band (15-35 Hz) to the gamma band (40-70 Hz), accompanied by a decrease of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and broadband spike-field coherence (SFC). Moreover, visual stimulation induced a large increase of beta-band activity but a reduction of gamma-band activity specifically from the CP onwards. Dark rearing of animals from the birth delayed this emergence of oscillatory activities during the CP, suggesting its dependence on early visual experience. These findings suggest that the characteristic neuronal oscillatory activities emerged specifically during the CP may represent as neural activity trait markers for the experience-dependent maturation of developing visual cortical circuits.

  12. Quasi-biennial oscillations in the geomagnetic field: Their global characteristics and origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Finlay, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs), with periods in the range 1–3 years, have been persistently observed in the geomagnetic field. They provide unique information on the mechanisms by which magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems are modulated on interannual timescales and are also...... exhibits stronger amplitudes during LT 00:00–06:00, depending strongly on the geomagnetic activity level, while at low latitudes the main effect is in the afternoon sector. These results indicate that the QBOs at low-to-middle latitudes and at high latitudes are influenced by different magnetospheric...... and ionospheric current systems. The characteristics of the multiple peaks in the QBO range are found to display similar latitudinal and local time distributions, suggesting that these oscillations are derived from a common source. The features, including the strong amplitudes seen on disturbed days and during...

  13. Capital flows to emerging economies during and after the global financial crisis in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Vesna Georgieva Svrtinov; Dr.Sc. Riste Temjanovski

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses dynamics of various types of capital flows to emerging economies during and after the global financial crisis. The first part discusses dynamics of various types of international capital flows during the global financial crisis. The second part focuses on the regional distribution of capital inflows to emerging markets economies. The third part raises the issue of the changed pattern of foreign direct investment, observed during and after the global crisis. The fourth part...

  14. Relaxation time of the global order parameter on multiplex networks: The role of interlayer coupling in Kuramoto oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Perkins, Alfonso; de Assis, Thiago Albuquerque; Pastor, Juan Manuel; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2017-10-01

    This work considers the time scales associated with the global order parameter and the interlayer synchronization of coupled Kuramoto oscillators on multiplexes. For two-layer multiplexes with an initially high degree of synchronization in each layer, the difference between the average phases in each layer is analyzed from two different perspectives: the spectral analysis and the nonlinear Kuramoto model. Both viewpoints confirm that the prior time scales are inversely proportional to the interlayer coupling strength. Thus, increasing the interlayer coupling always shortens the transient regimes of both the global order parameter and the interlayer synchronization. Surprisingly, the analytical results show that the convergence of the global order parameter is faster than the interlayer synchronization, and the latter is generally faster than the global synchronization of the multiplex. The formalism also outlines the effects of frequencies on the difference between the average phases of each layer, and it identifies the conditions for an oscillatory behavior. Computer simulations are in fairly good agreement with the analytical findings, and they reveal that the time scale of the global order parameter is half the size of the time scale of the multiplex, if not smaller.

  15. Impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the wheat market: A global dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Although the widespread influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) occurrences on crop yields of the main agricultural commodities is well known, the global socio-economic consequences of ENSO still remain uncertain. Given the global importance of wheat for global consumption by providing 20% of global calories and nourishment, the monitoring and prediction of ENSO-induced variations in the worldwide wheat market are essential for allowing national governments to manage the associated risks and to ensure the supplies of wheat for consumers, including the underprivileged. To this end, we propose a global dynamic model for the analysis of ENSO impacts on wheat yield anomalies, export prices, exports and stock-to-use ratios. Our framework focuses on seven countries/regions: the six main wheat-exporting countries-the United States, Argentina, Australia, Canada, the EU, and the group of the main Black Sea export countries, i.e. Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan-plus the rest of the world. The study shows that La Niña exerts, on average, a stronger and negative impact on wheat yield anomalies, exports and stock-to-use ratios than El Niño. In contrast, wheat export prices are positively related to La Niña occurrences evidencing, once again, its steady impact in both the short and long run. Our findings emphasize the importance of the two ENSO extreme phases for the worldwide wheat market.

  16. Impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the wheat market: A global dynamic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Although the widespread influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO occurrences on crop yields of the main agricultural commodities is well known, the global socio-economic consequences of ENSO still remain uncertain. Given the global importance of wheat for global consumption by providing 20% of global calories and nourishment, the monitoring and prediction of ENSO-induced variations in the worldwide wheat market are essential for allowing national governments to manage the associated risks and to ensure the supplies of wheat for consumers, including the underprivileged. To this end, we propose a global dynamic model for the analysis of ENSO impacts on wheat yield anomalies, export prices, exports and stock-to-use ratios. Our framework focuses on seven countries/regions: the six main wheat-exporting countries-the United States, Argentina, Australia, Canada, the EU, and the group of the main Black Sea export countries, i.e. Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan-plus the rest of the world. The study shows that La Niña exerts, on average, a stronger and negative impact on wheat yield anomalies, exports and stock-to-use ratios than El Niño. In contrast, wheat export prices are positively related to La Niña occurrences evidencing, once again, its steady impact in both the short and long run. Our findings emphasize the importance of the two ENSO extreme phases for the worldwide wheat market.

  17. Global analysis of Solar neutrino oscillation evidence including SNO and implications for Borexino

    CERN Document Server

    Aliani, P; Picariello, M; Torrente-Lujan, E

    2002-01-01

    An updated analysis of all available neutrino oscillation evidence in Solar experiments including the latest $SNO$ data is presented. Predictions for total rates and day-night asymmetry in Borexino are calculated. Our analysis features the use of exhaustive computation of the neutrino oscillation probabilities and the use of an improved statistical $\\chi^2$ minimization. In the framework of two neutrino oscillations we conclude that the best fit to the data is obtained in the LMA region with parameters $(\\Delta m^2, \\tan^2\\theta) = (5.2 \\times 10^{-5} \\eV^2, 0.47)$, ($\\chi^2_{min}/n=0.82$, $n=38$ degrees of freedom). Although less favored, solutions in the LOW and VAC regions are still possible with a reasonable statistical significance. The best possible solution in the SMA region gets as maximum a statistical significance as low as $\\sim 3%$. We study the implications of these results for the prospects of Borexino and the possibility of discriminating between the different solutions. The expected normalized...

  18. Local and global bifurcations at infinity in models of glycolytic oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturis, Jeppe; Brøns, Morten

    1997-01-01

    We investigate two models of glycolytic oscillations. Each model consists of two coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Both models are found to have a saddle point at infinity and to exhibit a saddle-node bifurcation at infinity, giving rise to a second saddle and a stable node...... sink (not at infinity) or a stable limit cycle. This limit cycle may then disappear in a heteroclinic bifurcation at infinity in which the unstable manifold from one saddle at infinity joins the stable manifold of the other saddle at infinity. These results explain prior reports for one of the models...

  19. The UN global compact and firms from emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Çetindamar, Dilek; Cetindamar, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus on the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the environmental behavior of firms. The empirical study was conducted in 2004 among Turkish firms that included members of United Nations Global Compact network.

  20. The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine changes in international trade associated with the integration of low- and middle-income countries into the global economy. Led by China and India, the share of developing economies in global exports more than doubled between 1994 and 2008. One feature of new trade patterns is greater South-South trade. China and India have booming demand for imported raw materials, which they use to build cities and factories. Industrialization throughout the South has deepened globa...

  1. Research priorities for data collection and management within global acute and emergency care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Teri A; Bisanzo, Mark; Dworkis, Daniel; Hansoti, Bhakti; Obermeyer, Ziad; Seidenberg, Phil; Hauswald, Mark; Mowafi, Hani

    2013-12-01

    Barriers to global emergency care development include a critical lack of data in several areas, including limited documentation of the acute disease burden, lack of agreement on essential components of acute care systems, and a lack of consensus on key analytic elements, such as diagnostic classification schemes and regionally appropriate metrics for impact evaluation. These data gaps obscure the profound health effects of lack of emergency care access in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As part of the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Global Health and Emergency Care: A Research Agenda," a breakout group sought to develop a priority research agenda for data collection and management within global emergency care systems. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. The naturally oscillating flow emerging from a fluidic precessing jet nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chong Y.; Nathan, Graham J.; Kelso, Richard M.

    Phase-averaged and directionally triggered digital particle image velocimetry measurements were taken in longitudinal and transverse planes in the near field of the flow emerging from a fluidic precessing jet nozzle. Measurements were performed at nozzle inlet Reynolds and Strouhal numbers of 59000 and 0.0017, respectively. Results indicate that the jet emerging from the nozzle departs with an azimuthal component in a direction opposite to that of the jet precession. In addition, the structure of the region, reported in an earlier study, is better resolved here. At least three unique vortex-pair regions containing smaller vortical are identified for the first time. These include a vortex-pair region originating from the foci on the downstream face of the nozzle centrebody, a vortex-pair region shed from the edge of the centrebody and a vortex-pair region originating from the downstream surface of the nozzle exit lip.

  3. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - Global El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  4. CDC Support for Global Public Health Emergency Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, Daniel J; Pinto, Meredith; Gill, Adrienne; Kinzer, Michael H; Hernandez, Luis; Pasi, Omer G

    2017-12-01

    Recent pandemics and rapidly spreading outbreaks of infectious diseases have illustrated the interconnectedness of the world and the importance of improving the international community's ability to effectively respond. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), building on a strong foundation of lessons learned through previous emergencies, international recognition, and human and technical expertise, has aspired to support nations around the world to strengthen their public health emergency management (PHEM) capacity. PHEM principles streamline coordination and collaboration in responding to infectious disease outbreaks, which align with the core capacities outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. CDC supports PHEM by providing in-country technical assistance, aiding the development of plans and procedures, and providing fellowship opportunities for public health emergency managers. To this end, CDC partners with US agencies, international partners, and multilateral organizations to support nations around the world to reduce illness and death from outbreaks of infectious diseases.

  5. EXPLORING AN EMERGING FIELD: THE IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk KIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to advance the empirical understanding of global social entrepreneurship. Specifically, this paper aims to provide a new social entrepreneurship model, particularly on a global scale, introducing and examining two distinctive cases: Ashoka and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC. The ‘hybrid value chain’ suggested by Ashoka demonstrates that how business organizations and citizen-sector organizations can help each other in developing partnerships for various markets and communities in the world, addressing a variety of social needs. Presenting the ‘holistic approach to development,’ BRAC has been transferring its sustainable model, based on insights from Bangladesh but adapted to the local contexts of the countries, to several countries by creating prospects for the most disadvantaged people to overcome extreme poverty. This paper contributes to the current literature by highlighting how entrepreneurial efforts can create opportunities and launch ventures to satisfy social needs, balancing economic and social imperatives, on a global scale.

  6. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pcountries when compared to Brazil. Trials involving subjects with less than 15 years of age, those with targeted recruitment of at least 1,000 subjects, and seven sponsors were identified as significant predictors of trial placement in Brazil. No clear direct competition between Brazil and other emerging countries was detected. South Korea showed the higher proportion of sites and ranked third in total number of trials, appearing as a major player in attractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  7. Global Innovation in Emerging Economies | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 déc. 2010 ... In recent decades, there have been significant changes in the way corporate innovation is performed. They include changes in the innovation process, flexibility to outsource innovation activities, and most importantly, the location of innovation. There are mainly two new trends: the location of globally ...

  8. Emergence of Global Shape Processing Continues through Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Kimchi, Ruth; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of perceptual organization in humans is unclear. This study investigated perceptual grouping abilities across a wide age range (8-30 years) using a classic compound letter global/local (GL) task and a more fine-grained microgenetic prime paradigm (MPP) with both few- and many-element hierarchical displays. In the GL…

  9. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: challenges of a global emergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comolet, T

    2015-10-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis, in particular Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR-TB) is an increasing global concern and a major burden for some developing countries, especially the BRICS. It is assumed that every year roughly 350 000 new MDR-TB cases occur in the world, on average in 20.5% of TB patients that have been previously treated but also in 3.5% of persons that have never been on TB treatment before. The global distribution of cases is very heterogeneous and is now better understood thanks to a growing number of specific surveys and routine surveillance systems: incidence is much higher in southern Africa and in all countries formerly part of the USSR. Countries with weak health systems and previously inefficient TB control programs are highly vulnerable to MDR epidemics because program failures do help creating, maintaining and spreading resistances. Global response is slowly rolled out and diagnosis capacities are on the rise (mostly with genotypic methods) but adequate and successful treatment and care is still limited to a minority of global cases. From a public health perspective the MDR-TB growing epidemics will not be controlled merely by the introduction of few new antibiotics because it is also linked to patient's compliance and adequate case management supported by efficient TB program. In depth quality improvement will only be achieved after previous errors are thoroughly analyzed and boldly corrected.

  10. Modeling global franchising in emerging markets: An entry mode analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    Emerging markets are some of the fastest-growing economies in the world because of their substantial economic transformation. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing choices of foreign entry mode into those markets. In an attempt to expand knowledge of this topic, this article presents an empirical assessment of the relationship between a set of variables and the four possible entry modes franchisors can adopt: direct franchising, master franchising, joint venture, and dir...

  11. Emerging Issues in Global Management Consulting. The Roland Berger Case

    OpenAIRE

    Panetti, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Consulting underwent many significant changes which resulted in important and structural modification of the whole business. In the 1980's consulting was mere advisory for CEOs: the growth of potential users brought to the development of specific competences and approaches, thus creating new competitive positioning and a differentiated range of offers by industries and practices. Nowadays significant changes occurred to skills required for global markets. Today companies are required to maint...

  12. The Emerging Global Education Industry: Analysing Market-Making in Education through Market Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the rise and consequences of an emerging global education industry (GEI), which represents new forms of private, for profit involvement in education across the globe. The paper explores the emergence within the GEI of new and varied, largely transnational, markets in education by focusing on three examples of the GEI at work.…

  13. Education and Poverty in the Global Development Agenda: Emergence, Evolution and Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the role of education and poverty in the current global development agenda. It intends to analyse the emergence, evolution and consolidation of a global agenda, which attributes a key role to education in the fight against poverty. With this objective, the paper addresses four main issues: first, it…

  14. Globalization and Institutional Change : Are Emerging Market Economies in Europe and Asia Converging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that globalization leads to a smaller world by institutional convergence. Politico-economic orders become alike across the world. The article analyzes institutional change triggered by the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 and compares developments in emerging markets in Europe

  15. The Quasi-Biennial Vertical Oscillations at Global GPS Stations: Identification by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjin Pan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling nonlinear vertical components of a GPS time series is critical to separating sources contributing to mass displacements. Improved vertical precision in GPS positioning at stations for velocity fields is key to resolving the mechanism of certain geophysical phenomena. In this paper, we use ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD to analyze the daily GPS time series at 89 continuous GPS stations, spanning from 2002 to 2013. EEMD decomposes a GPS time series into different intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, which are used to identify different kinds of signals and secular terms. Our study suggests that the GPS records contain not only the well-known signals (such as semi-annual and annual signals but also the seldom-noted quasi-biennial oscillations (QBS. The quasi-biennial signals are explained by modeled loadings of atmosphere, non-tidal and hydrology that deform the surface around the GPS stations. In addition, the loadings derived from GRACE gravity changes are also consistent with the quasi-biennial deformations derived from the GPS observations. By removing the modeled components, the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS variation of the GPS time series is reduced by 7.1% to 42.3%, and especially, after removing the seasonal and QBO signals, the average improvement percentages for seasonal and QBO signals are 25.6% and 7.5%, respectively, suggesting that it is significant to consider the QBS signals in the GPS records to improve the observed vertical deformations.

  16. Emerging Governance Architectures in Global Health: Do Metagovernance Norms Explain Inter-Organisational Convergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Holzscheiter, Anna; Bahr, Thurid; Pantzerhielm, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical account of institutional transformation and the emergence of order in global inter-organisational relations, which is centred on the concept of “metagovernance”. It does so by theorising on the advent of governance architectures in global health governance—relationships between international organisations (IOs) in this field that are stable over time. Global health governance is routinely portrayed as an exceptionally fragmented field of international coopera...

  17. An Emerging Global Aerosol Climatology from the MODIS Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.; Levy, Robert C.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Mattoo, Shana; Martins, J. Vandelei; Ichoku, Charles; Koren, Ilan; Hongbin, Yu; hide

    2008-01-01

    The recently released Collection 5 MODIS aerosol products provide a consistent record of the Earth's aerosol system. Comparison with ground-based AERONET observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) we find that Collection 5 MODIS aerosol products estimate AOD to within expected accuracy more than 60% of the time over ocean and more than 72% of the time over land. This is similar to previous results for ocean, and better than the previous results for land. However, the new Collection introduces a 0.01 5 offset between the Terra and Aqua global mean AOD over ocean, where none existed previously. Aqua conforms to previous values and expectations while Terra is high. The cause of the offset is unknown, but changes to calibration are a possible explanation. We focus the climatological analysis on the better understood Aqua retrievals. We find that global mean AOD at 550 nm over oceans is 0.13 and over land 0.19. AOD in situations with 80% cloud fraction are twice the global mean values, although such situations occur only 2% of the time over ocean and less than 1% of the time over land. There is no drastic change in aerosol particle size associated with these very cloudy situations. Regionally, aerosol amounts vary from polluted areas such as East Asia and India, to the cleanest regions such as Australia and the northern continents. In almost all oceans fine mode aerosol dominates over dust, except in the tropical Atlantic downwind of the Sahara and in some months the Arabian Sea.

  18. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R; Panda, S; Singh, D V

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  19. The Emerging Amphibian Fungal Disease, Chytridiomycosis: A Key Example of the Global Phenomenon of Wildlife Emerging Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Daszak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The spread of amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is associated with the emerging infectious wildlife disease chytridiomycosis. This fungus poses an overwhelming threat to global amphibian biodiversity and is contributing toward population declines and extinctions worldwide. Extremely low host-species specificity potentially threatens thousands of the 7,000+ amphibian species with infection, and hosts in additional classes of organisms have now also been identified, including crayfish and nematode worms.Soon after the discovery of B. dendrobatidis in 1999, it became apparent that this pathogen was already pandemic; dozens of countries and hundreds of amphibian species had already been exposed. The timeline of B. dendrobatidis's global emergence still remains a mystery, as does its point of origin. The reason why B. dendrobatidis seems to have only recently increased in virulence to catalyze this global disease event remains unknown, and despite 15 years of investigation, this wildlife pandemic continues primarily uncontrolled. Some disease treatments are effective on animals held in captivity, but there is currently no proven method to eradicate B. dendrobatidis from an affected habitat, nor have we been able to protect new regions from exposure despite knowledge of an approaching "wave" of B. dendrobatidis and ensuing disease.International spread of B. dendrobatidis is largely facilitated by the commercial trade in live amphibians. Chytridiomycosis was recently listed as a globally notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health, but few countries, if any, have formally adopted recommended measures to control its spread. Wildlife diseases continue to emerge as a consequence of globalization, and greater effort is urgently needed to protect global health.

  20. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: A global problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Choudhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  1. Global Capacity for Emerging Infectious Disease Detection, 1996–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaru, Sumiko R.; McIver, David J.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Crawley, Adam W.; Smolinski, Mark S.; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The speed with which disease outbreaks are recognized is critical for establishing effective control efforts. We evaluate global improvements in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and communication during 2010–2014 as a follow-up to a 2010 report. For all outbreaks reported by the World Health Organization’s Disease Outbreak News, we estimate the number of days from first symptoms until outbreak discovery and until first public communication. We report median discovery and communication delays overall, by region, and by Human Development Index (HDI) quartile. We use Cox proportional hazards regression to assess changes in these 2 outcomes over time, along with Loess curves for visualization. Improvement since 1996 was greatest in the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific regions and in countries in the middle HDI quartiles. However, little progress has occurred since 2010. Further improvements in surveillance will likely require additional international collaboration with a focus on regions of low or unstable HDI. PMID:27649306

  2. Microsporidia – Emergent Pathogens in the Global Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Becnel, J.J.; Weiss, L.M.; Keeling, P.J.; Didier, E.S.; Williams, B.A.P.; Bjornson, S.; Kent, M.L.; Freeman, M.A.; Brown, M.J.F.; Troemel, E.R.; Roesel, K.; Sokolova, Y.; Snowden, K.F.; Solter, L.

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of food production has the potential to drive increased disease prevalence in food plants and animals. Microsporidia are diversely distributed, opportunistic, and density-dependent parasites infecting hosts from almost all known animal taxa. They are frequent in highly managed aquatic and terrestrial hosts, many of which are vulnerable to epizootics, and all of which are crucial for the stability of the animal–human food chain. Mass rearing and changes in global climate may exacerbate disease and more efficient transmission of parasites in stressed or immune-deficient hosts. Further, human microsporidiosis appears to be adventitious and primarily associated with an increasing community of immune-deficient individuals. Taken together, strong evidence exists for an increasing prevalence of microsporidiosis in animals and humans, and for sharing of pathogens across hosts and biomes. PMID:26796229

  3. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nyenzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted by the international scientific community that human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG and aerosols since the pre-industrial era. This increase has contributed to most of the warming (0.6±0.2°C observed over the 20th century, land areas warming more than the oceans, with the 1990s very likely to be the warmest decade of the 20th century (IPCC, 2001. How this warming influences the occurrence, severity and frequency of ENSO episodes remains highly uncertain. The IPCC (2001 assessment of the scientific literature found insufficient evidence to suggest any direct attribution between increase in ENSO events that occurred in the last 20 to 30 years of the 20th century and global warming (IPCC, 2001. However, assessments carried out since then (e.g. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4, in preparations suggest El Niño events have become more frequent, persistent and intense during the last 20 to 30 years compared to the previous 100 years. Attribution to global warming, however, remains highly uncertain. Efforts to simulate and model past, present and future behaviour of ENSO under a warming world due to enhanced GHG concentrations produce conflicting results. Since substantial internally-generated variability of ENSO behaviour on multi-decadal to century timescales occurs in long, unforced atmospheric-oceanic general circulation model (AOGCM simulations, the attribution of past and future changes in ENSO amplitude and frequency to external forcing like GHG concentrations cannot be made with certainty. Such attribution would require extensive use of ensemble climate experiments or long experiments with stabilised GHG forcing. Although there are now better ENSO simulations in AOGCM, further model improvements are needed to simulate a more realistic Pacific climatology and seasonal cycle of the key modes influencing the climate of the region, as well as more realistic ENSO variability

  4. Global oscillations in the Optional Public Goods Game under spatial diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Pablo A.; da Silva, Roberto; Stock, Eduardo V.

    2017-05-01

    Social dilemmas lead to natural conflict between cooperation and self interests among individuals in large populations. The emergence of cooperation and its maintenance is the key for the understanding of fundamental concepts about the evolution of species. In order to comprehend the mechanisms involved in this framework, here we study the Optional Public Good Games with focus on the effects of diffusive aspects in the emergent patterns of cyclic dominance between the strategies. Differently from other works, we showed that rock-paper-scissors (RPS) patterns occur by introducing a simple kind of random mobility in a lattice sparsely occupied. Such pattern has been revealed to be very important in the conservation of the species in ecological and social environments. The goal of this paper is to show that we do not need more elaborated schemes for construction of the neighbourhood in the game to observe RPS patterns as suggested in the literature. As an interesting additional result, in this contribution we also propose an alternative method to quantify the RPS density in a quantitative context of the game theory which becomes possible to perform a finite size scaling study. Such approach can be very interesting to be applied in other games generically.

  5. Ebola virus - from neglected threat to global emergency state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Daniela Alexandra de Meneses Rocha Aguiar; Rodrigues, Acácio Agostinho Gonçalves; Silva, Carmen Maria Lisboa da

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to update knowledge about Ebola virus disease (EVD) and recent advances in its diagnosis, treatment and prevention. A literature review was performed using the following databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, IRIS, Scopus and the websites of the CDC and the WHO. Additionally, we have included articles and reports referenced in the basic literature search, and news that were considered relevant. The Ebola virus, endemic in some parts of Africa, is responsible for a severe form of hemorrhagic fever in humans; bats are probably its natural reservoir. It is an extremely virulent virus and easily transmitted by bodily fluids. EVD's complex pathophysiology, characterized by immunosuppression as well as stimulation of an intense inflammatory response, results in a syndrome similar to septic shock. The diagnosis is difficult due to the initial symptoms that mimic other diseases. Despite the high mortality rates that can amount to 90%, a prophylaxis (chemical or vaccine) or effective treatment does not exist. Two vaccines and experimental therapies are being developed for the prevention and treatment of EVD. Although the virus is known for about 40 years, the lack of knowledge obtained and the disinterest of government authorities in the countries involved justify the state of emergency currently exists regarding this infectious agent. Only the coordination of multiple entities and the effective commitment of the international community will facilitate the control and effective prevention of EVD.

  6. The global nephrology workforce: emerging threats and potential solutions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Muhammad U.; Elsayed, Mohamed E.; Stack, Austin G.

    2016-01-01

    Amidst the rising tide of chronic kidney disease (CKD) burden, the global nephrology workforce has failed to expand in order to meet the growing healthcare needs of this vulnerable patient population. In truth, this shortage of nephrologists is seen in many parts of the world, including North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Asia and the African continent. Moreover, expert groups on workforce planning as well as national and international professional organizations predict further reductions in the nephrology workforce over the next decade, with potentially serious implications. Although the full impact of this has not been clearly articulated, what is clear is that the delivery of care to patients with CKD may be threatened in many parts of the world unless effective country-specific workforce strategies are put in place and implemented. Multiple factors are responsible for this apparent shortage in the nephrology workforce and the underpinning reasons may vary across health systems and countries. Potential contributors include the increasing burden of CKD, aging workforce, declining interest in nephrology among trainees, lack of exposure to nephrology among students and residents, rising cost of medical education and specialist training, increasing cultural and ethnic disparities between patients and care providers, increasing reliance on foreign medical graduates, inflexible work schedules, erosion of nephrology practice scope by other specialists, inadequate training, reduced focus on scholarship and research funds, increased demand to meet quality of care standards and the development of new care delivery models. It is apparent from this list that the solution is not simple and that a comprehensive evaluation is required. Consequently, there is an urgent need for all countries to develop a policy framework for the provision of kidney disease services within their health systems, a framework that is based on accurate projections of disease burden, a

  7. Global Classical and Weak Solutions to the Three-Dimensional Full Compressible Navier-Stokes System with Vacuum and Large Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangdi; Li, Jing

    2018-03-01

    For the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes system describing the motion of a viscous, compressible, heat-conductive, and Newtonian polytropic fluid, we establish the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions with smooth initial data which are of small energy but possibly large oscillations where the initial density is allowed to vanish. Moreover, for the initial data, which may be discontinuous and contain vacuum states, we also obtain the global existence of weak solutions. These results generalize previous ones on classical and weak solutions for initial density being strictly away from a vacuum, and are the first for global classical and weak solutions which may have large oscillations and can contain vacuum states.

  8. Global Classical and Weak Solutions to the Three-Dimensional Full Compressible Navier-Stokes System with Vacuum and Large Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangdi; Li, Jing

    2017-11-01

    For the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes system describing the motion of a viscous, compressible, heat-conductive, and Newtonian polytropic fluid, we establish the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions with smooth initial data which are of small energy but possibly large oscillations where the initial density is allowed to vanish. Moreover, for the initial data, which may be discontinuous and contain vacuum states, we also obtain the global existence of weak solutions. These results generalize previous ones on classical and weak solutions for initial density being strictly away from a vacuum, and are the first for global classical and weak solutions which may have large oscillations and can contain vacuum states.

  9. Public Health Emergencies of International Concern: Global, Regional, and Local Responses to Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Belinda; Carney, Terry

    2017-05-01

    The declaration in 2009 that the H1N1 pandemic constituted a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) was the first such declaration under the revised International Health Regulations that were adopted in 2005. In the period since then PHEIC have been declared in relation to polio, Ebola, and Zika. This article evaluates initiatives that have been introduced globally, within the Asia-Pacific region, and within Australia, to strengthen preparedness for public health emergencies. Through analysis of evolving conceptualisations of risk, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and development of public health capacities, the article argues that to date the global community has failed to make the necessary investments in health system strengthening, and that without these investments, global public health emergencies will continue to be an ongoing challenge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Emergence of the Lean Global Startup as a New Type of Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Stavnsager Rasmussen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks, and early internationalization research by emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm: the lean global startup. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean startup and born-global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean startups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (i.e., lean-to-global startups. The second path refers to startups that have started operating on global scale since their inception and adopted the lean startup approach by seamlessly synergizing their global and lean product development activities. The article emphasizes several aspects that could be used as part of the theoretical foundation for conceptualizing lean global startups as a special new type of firm: i the emergent nature of their business models, including the challenges of partnership development on a global scale; ii the inherently relational nature of the global resource allocation processes; iii the integration of the entrepreneurial, effectuation, and global marketing perspectives; iv the need to deal with a high degree of uncertainty, including the uncertainty associated with cross-border business operations; and v linking the ex-ante characteristics of lean startups with the ex-post characteristics of born-global firms in order to develop a technology adoption marketing perspective that considers the “crossing the chasm” process as a successful entry into a global market niche.

  11. Clinical and translational research in global health and emergency care: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Michael S; Sawe, Hendry R; Levine, Adam C; Pousson, Amelia; House, Darlene R; Agrawal, Pooja; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Weiner, Scott G; Douglass, Katherine

    2013-12-01

    As policy-makers increasingly recognize emergency care to be a global health priority, the need for high-quality clinical and translational research in this area continues to grow. As part of the proceedings of the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, this article discusses the importance of: 1) including clinical and translational research in the initial emergency care development plan, 2) defining the burden of acute disease and the barriers to conducting research in resource-limited settings, 3) assessing the appropriateness and effectiveness of local and global acute care guidelines within the local context, 4) studying the local research infrastructure needs to understand the best methods to build a sustainable research infrastructure, and 5) studying the long-term effects of clinical research programs on health care systems. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  13. The Global Financial Crisis and Its Impact on Trade: The World and the European Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Shelburne

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how the global financial crisis of 2007-2010 impacted trade both globally and more specifically for the European emerging economies, which in terms of GDP decline, were the most negatively impacted economies in the world. Just as with GDP, the trade of the European emerging economies was more severely impacted by the crisis than the trade for other regions of the world; exports for over one half of these economies declined by more than 50 per cent between the third quarte...

  14. Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao; Miyajima, Fabio; Roberts, Paul; Ellison, Louise; Pickard, Derek J.; Martin, Melissa J.; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Fairley, Derek; Bamford, Kathleen B.; D?Arc, Stephanie; Brazier, Jon; Brown, Derek; Coia, John E.; Douce, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic C. difficile (027/BI/NAP1) has rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key events in evolutionary history leading to its emergence and the subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here, we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We show that two distinct epidemic lineages, FQR1 and FQR2, not one as previously thought...

  15. The impact of the global financial crisis on business cycles in Asian emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Fidrmuc, Jarko; Korhonen, Iikka

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the transmission of global financial crisis to business cycles in China and India. The pattern of business cycles in emerging Asian economies generally displays a low degree of synchronization with the OECD countries, which is consistent with the decoupling hypothesis. By contrast, however, the current financial crisis has had a significant effect on economic developments in emerging Asian economies. Applying dynamic correlations, we find wide differences for different frequencies ...

  16. Standardization versus adaptation of global marketing strategies in emerging market cross-border acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao-Nicholson, R.; Khan, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The recent increase in the presence of emerging-market firms (EMFs) in global\\ud markets requires a closer examination of their international marketing strategies (including\\ud branding). This paper examines the factors behind the standardization or adaptation of global\\ud marketing strategies adopted by EMFs for their cross-border acquisitions.\\ud Methodology/Approach: This paper examines the determinants of the marketing strategies\\ud adopted by Indian and Chinese firms for their c...

  17. Emerging Internationalisation Models in an Uneven Global Terrain: Findings from a Global Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, F.; Foskett, N.; Woodfield, S.

    2013-01-01

    We know little about how internationalisation processes are understood, rationalised and prioritised in different parts of the world. A global survey of internationalisation in universities was undertaken at the University of Southampton to fill this gap. Its purpose was to discover how strategic leaders in universities in different parts of the…

  18. Emerging global partnership: Brazil and China Parceria global emergente: Brasil e China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Haibin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lula era has witnessed a changing bilateral strategic partnership between China and Brazil, having the interlocutions between both countries became more substantial, comprehensive and influential. To enlarge the global impacts of the partnership, both countries should inject more regional and global components into their bilateral agenda. In doing so, both sides need to enhance the ties not only in terms of economic cooperation but also of social interactionA era Lula testemunhou que a parceria estratégica entre China e Brasil tornou-se substantiva, ampla e influente. Para aumentar o impacto dessa parceria, os dois países devem inserir mais componentes regionais e globais na agenda bilateral. Fazendo isso, os dois lados fortalecem os laços não só em termos de cooperação econômica, mas também em termos de interação social

  19. Cultural globalization as the emergence of a transnational cultural field: transnational television and national media landscapes in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes cultural globalization as the emergence of a transnational cultural field, integrating Bourdieusian field theory with globalization theory. Drawing on interview materials and secondary data analysis, it compares the "opening up" of national television fields in France, Italy,

  20. Interpreting the green economy: emerging discourses and their considerations for the Global South

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Faccer, K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available is still being debated and the emerging discourse has yet to be fully interpreted within the industrial, institutional and socio-economic realities of many countries, including particularly those in the global South. This paper traces the origins...

  1. Evaluating the performance of global emerging markets equity exchange-traded funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David); J.J. Huij (Joop)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the performance of passively managed exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that provide exposure to global emerging markets equities. We find that the tracking errors of these funds are substantially higher than previously reported levels for developed markets ETFs. ETFs that use

  2. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner II, B.L.; Lambin, E.F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

      Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research.  This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land-cover and land-use as a coupled human-environment system in order to address theory, concepts, models...

  3. Dynamical evolution of quantum oscillators toward equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha Devi, A R; Rajagopal, A K

    2009-07-01

    A pure quantum state of large number N of oscillators, interacting via harmonic coupling, evolves such that any small subsystem nglobal state approaches equilibrium. This provides a different example where stability emerges as natural phenomena under quantum dynamics alone, with no necessity to bring in any additional statistical postulates. Mixing of equilibrated subsystems consisting of 1,2,...,noscillator is found to relax in a mixed density matrix of the Boltzmann canonical form. In two oscillator stationary subsystems, intraentanglement within the "system" oscillators is found to exist when the magnitude of the squeezing parameter of the bath is comparable in magnitude with that of the coupling strength.

  4. A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Barnard, Phoebe; Broad, Steven; Clout, Mick; Connor, Ben; Côté, Isabelle M; Dicks, Lynn V; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Fox, Marie; Gaston, Kevin J; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Wintle, Bonnie C; Ockendon, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. WHO-REMPAN for global health security and strengthening preparedness and response to radiation emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Zhanat

    2010-06-01

    In response to the changing global environment and emerging new issues related to health security, the World Health Organization (WHO) is putting in place new tools for collective defense, such as the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The new framework puts additional responsibilities on both Member States and WHO itself in order to effectively implement the IHR (2005) and react effectively in case of public health emergency events of any nature. Since its establishment in 1987, the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network of WHO (WHO-REMPAN) has become an important asset for the organization's capacity to respond to radiation emergencies and to assist its Member States to strengthen their own response capacities. The paper describes in detail the framework for the WHO's role in preparedness and response to radiation emergencies, including Emergency Conventions and IHR (2005), and how the WHO-REMPAN, through its activities (i.e., technical guidelines development, training, education, research, and information sharing), provides a significant contribution to the organization's program of work towards achievement of the global health security goal.

  6. The Potentials of New Public Sphere For Emerging Global Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Sattar Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New public sphere is characterized by the digital gadgets, global village, international citizenship and new global society. However, the common thread cutting through all these new concepts is the virtual soul of ‘connectivity’ that is riding on the ‘networking-tools’ which have now grown into an unprecedented giant ‘network-of-networks’ or simply put the ‘Internet’ with ‘social-networking’ and ‘social-software’ as the latest communication tools. International citizens travel on the information superhighways 24/7 and the communications across the planet never stops. It is however argued that NPS offers both challenges and prospects for the users depending on the availability of digital gadgets and digital literacy of the global citizens. This paper explores the pluses and minuses of this emerging environment for the members of global civil society by postulating a grounded model of the issue.

  7. Emergence of biopharmaceutical innovators in China, India, Brazil, and South Africa as global competitors and collaborators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Rahim; McGahan, Anita M; Frew, Sarah E; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2012-06-06

    Biopharmaceutical innovation has had a profound health and economic impact globally. Developed countries have traditionally been the source of most innovations as well as the destination for the resulting economic and health benefits. As a result, most prior research on this sector has focused on developed countries. This paper seeks to fill the gap in research on emerging markets by analyzing factors that influence innovative activity in the indigenous biopharmaceutical sectors of China, India, Brazil, and South Africa. Using qualitative research methodologies, this paper a) shows how biopharmaceutical innovation is taking place within the entrepreneurial sectors of these emerging markets, b) identifies common challenges that indigenous entrepreneurs face, c) highlights the key role played by the state, and d) reveals that the transition to innovation by companies in the emerging markets is characterized by increased global integration. It suggests that biopharmaceutical innovators in emerging markets are capitalizing on opportunities to participate in the drug development value chain and thus developing capabilities and relationships for competing globally both with and against established companies headquartered in developed countries.

  8. Emergence of biopharmaceutical innovators in China, India, Brazil, and South Africa as global competitors and collaborators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaie Rahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biopharmaceutical innovation has had a profound health and economic impact globally. Developed countries have traditionally been the source of most innovations as well as the destination for the resulting economic and health benefits. As a result, most prior research on this sector has focused on developed countries. This paper seeks to fill the gap in research on emerging markets by analyzing factors that influence innovative activity in the indigenous biopharmaceutical sectors of China, India, Brazil, and South Africa. Using qualitative research methodologies, this paper a shows how biopharmaceutical innovation is taking place within the entrepreneurial sectors of these emerging markets, b identifies common challenges that indigenous entrepreneurs face, c highlights the key role played by the state, and d reveals that the transition to innovation by companies in the emerging markets is characterized by increased global integration. It suggests that biopharmaceutical innovators in emerging markets are capitalizing on opportunities to participate in the drug development value chain and thus developing capabilities and relationships for competing globally both with and against established companies headquartered in developed countries.

  9. Keeping global warming within 1.5 °C constrains emergence of aridification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Eui; Jeong, Su-Jong; Joshi, Manoj; Osborn, Timothy J.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Deliang; Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Park, Hoonyoung; Kim, Baek-Min; Feng, Song

    2018-01-01

    Aridity—the ratio of atmospheric water supply (precipitation; P) to demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET)—is projected to decrease (that is, areas will become drier) as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change, exacerbating land degradation and desertification1-6. However, the timing of significant aridification relative to natural variability—defined here as the time of emergence for aridification (ToEA)—is unknown, despite its importance in designing and implementing mitigation policies7-10. Here we estimate ToEA from projections of 27 global climate models (GCMs) under representative concentration pathways (RCPs) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, and in doing so, identify where emergence occurs before global mean warming reaches 1.5 °C and 2 °C above the pre-industrial level. On the basis of the ensemble median ToEA for each grid cell, aridification emerges over 32% (RCP4.5) and 24% (RCP8.5) of the total land surface before the ensemble median of global mean temperature change reaches 2 °C in each scenario. Moreover, ToEA is avoided in about two-thirds of the above regions if the maximum global warming level is limited to 1.5 °C. Early action for accomplishing the 1.5 °C temperature goal can therefore markedly reduce the likelihood that large regions will face substantial aridification and related impacts.

  10. Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Miyajima, Fabio; Roberts, Paul; Ellison, Louise; Pickard, Derek J; Martin, Melissa J; Connor, Thomas R; Harris, Simon R; Fairley, Derek; Bamford, Kathleen B; D'Arc, Stephanie; Brazier, Jon; Brown, Derek; Coia, John E; Douce, Gill; Gerding, Dale; Kim, Hee Jung; Koh, Tse Hsien; Kato, Haru; Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Louie, Tom; Michell, Stephen; Butt, Emma; Peacock, Sharon J; Brown, Nick M; Riley, Tom; Songer, Glen; Wilcox, Mark; Pirmohamed, Munir; Kuijper, Ed; Hawkey, Peter; Wren, Brendan W; Dougan, Gordon; Parkhill, Julian; Lawley, Trevor D

    2013-01-01

    Epidemic C. difficile (027/BI/NAP1) has rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key events in evolutionary history leading to its emergence and the subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here, we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 using whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We show that two distinct epidemic lineages, FQR1 and FQR2, not one as previously thought, emerged in North America within a relatively short period after acquiring the same fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation and a highly related conjugative transposon. The two epidemic lineages showed distinct patterns of global spread, and the FQR2 lineage spread more widely, leading to healthcare-associated outbreaks in the UK, continental Europe and Australia. Our analysis identifies key genetic changes linked to the rapid transcontinental dissemination of epidemic C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 and highlights the routes by which it spreads through the global healthcare system.

  11. Emerging Governance Architectures in Global Health: Do Metagovernance Norms Explain Inter-Organisational Convergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Holzscheiter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical account of institutional transformation and the emergence of order in global inter-organisational relations, which is centred on the concept of “metagovernance”. It does so by theorising on the advent of governance architectures in global health governance—relationships between international organisations (IOs in this field that are stable over time. Global health governance is routinely portrayed as an exceptionally fragmented field of international cooperation with a perceived lack of synergy and choreography between international and transnational organisations. However, our paper starts from the observation that there are also movements of convergence between international organisations. We seek to explain these by looking at the effects of international norms that define good global governance as orderly and harmonised global governance. We conceptualize such norms as “metagovernance norms” that are enacted in reflexive practices which govern and order the relationships between international organisations. Empirically, this paper traces changing interactions and institutional arrangements between IOs (World Health Organization; World Bank; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in global health governance since the late 1940s and shows how patterns therein reflect and (reproduce broader discursive perceptions of what “health” is about and how the governance thereof ought to be organised.

  12. FirstAED emergency dispatch, global positioning of community first responders with distinct roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Finn Lund; Schorling, Per; Hansen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    FirstAED is a supplement to the existing emergency response systems. The aim is to shorten the community first responder response times at emergency calls to below five minutes in a bridge connected island area. FirstAED defines a way to dispatch the nearby three first responders and organise...... their roles in a team structure to reduce response times, ensure citizens' safety and offer equal possibility of early defibrillation. First aid is provided by community first responders who use their smartphone. FirstAED global positioning system (GPS)-tracks the nine nearby first responders and enables...

  13. Eye disease, the fertility decline, and the emergence of global income differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas B.; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This research advances and empirically establishes the hypothesis that regional variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. By reducing work life expectancy, high historical eye disease incidence has served to diminish...... the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. As a consequence of a differential timing of the take-off to growth, prompted by differences in the inherent return to skill formation, global income disparities have emerged....

  14. Stem cell science in India: emerging economies and the politics of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Cooper, Melinda; Dickins, Amanda; Cardo, Valentina

    2007-01-01

    The globalization of stem cell science is increasingly being shaped by the emerging economies of the Asia/Pacific region. Undaunted and unhampered by the more established views of the commercialization of science, countries such as India are constructing models of innovation, policies and patterns of investment that challenge such orthodoxies. This report examines the position of India within the globalization of stem cell science, its adjustments to the developing knowledge market in this field and its particular contribution to the likely future of this promising bioeconomy.

  15. Making recording and analysis of chief complaint a priority for global emergency care research in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Dworkis, Daniel; Bisanzo, Mark; Hansoti, Bhakti; Seidenberg, Phil; Obermeyer, Ziad; Hauswald, Mark; Reynolds, Teri A

    2013-12-01

    The chief complaint is a patient's self-reported primary reason for presenting for medical care. The clinical utility and analytical importance of recording chief complaints have been widely accepted in highly developed emergency care systems, but this practice is far from universal in global emergency care, especially in limited-resource areas. It is precisely in these settings, however, that the use of chief complaints may have particular benefit. Chief complaints may be used to quantify, analyze, and plan for emergency care and provide valuable information on acute care needs where there are crucial data gaps. Globally, much work has been done to establish local practices around chief complaint collection and use, but no standards have been established and little work has been done to identify minimum effective sets of chief complaints that may be used in limited-resource settings. As part of the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Global Health and Emergency Care: A Research Agenda," the breakout group on data management identified the lack of research on emergency chief complaints globally-especially in low-income countries where the highest proportion of the world's population resides-as a major gap in global emergency care research. This article reviews global research on emergency chief complaints in high-income countries with developed emergency care systems and sets forth an agenda for future research on chief complaints in limited-resource settings. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. 'BRICS without straw'? A systematic literature review of newly emerging economies' influence in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Andrew; Xiao, Yina; Missoni, Eduardo; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2013-04-15

    Since 2010, five newly emerging economies collectively known as 'BRICS' (Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa) have caught the imagination, and scholarly attention, of political scientists, economists and development specialists. The prospect of a unified geopolitical bloc, consciously seeking to re-frame international (and global) health development with a new set of ideas and values, has also, if belatedly, begun to attract the attention of the global health community. But what influence, if any, do the BRICS wield in global health, and, if they do wield influence, how has that influence been conceptualized and recorded in the literature? We conducted a systematic literature review in (March-December 2012) of documents retrieved from the databases EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organisations, research institutions and philanthropic organisations. The results were synthesised using a framework of influence developed for the review from the political science literature. Our initial search of databases and websites yielded 887 documents. Exclusion criteria narrowed the number of documents to 71 journal articles and 23 reports. Two researchers using an agreed set of inclusion criteria independently screened the 94 documents, leaving just 7 documents. We found just one document that provided sustained analysis of the BRICS' collective influence; the overwhelming tendency was to describe individual BRICS countries influence. Although influence was predominantly framed by BRICS countries' material capability, there were examples of institutional and ideational influence - particularly from Brazil. Individual BRICS countries were primarily 'opportunity seekers' and region mobilisers but with potential to become 'issue leaders' and region organisers. Though small in number, the written output on BRICS influence in global health has increased significantly since a similar review conducted in

  17. Coherence lost? Not-so-fast escapes from the in-phase attractor of a set of globally coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Nichols, S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Physics

    1993-09-01

    The sensitivity to noise of the coherent (or in-phase) attractor for a set of N globally coupled maps is studied; these discrete-time maps are associated with the continuous-time equations of motion for a series array of Josephson junction oscillators. We investigate both geometrical properties of the basin of attraction in the large N limit, and the implications of this geometry on the average time for the system to ``escape`` from the coherently oscillating mode. Our main results are that the attractor basin maintains a box-shaped ``core`` of finite radius even as N {yields} {infinity}, and that the in-phase attractor of a large N array is much less vulnerable to noise than are the out-of-phase attractors.

  18. Education and Training of Emergency Medical Teams: Recommendations for a Global Operational Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat Camacho, Nieves; Hughes, Amy; Burkle, Frederick M.; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Redmond, Anthony; Norton, Ian; von Schreeb, Johan

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of international emergency medical teams are deployed to assist disaster-affected populations worldwide. Since Haiti earthquake those teams have been criticised for ill adapted care, lack of preparedness in addition to not coordinating with the affected country healthcare system. The Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) initiative, as part of the Word Health Organization’s Global Health Emergency Workforce program, aims to address these shortcomings by improved EMT coordination, and mechanisms to ensure quality and accountability of national and international EMTs. An essential component to reach this goal is appropriate education and training. Multiple disaster education and training programs are available. However, most are centred on individuals’ professional development rather than on the EMTs operational performance. Moreover, no common overarching or standardised training frameworks exist. In this report, an expert panel review and discuss the current approaches to disaster education and training and propose a three-step operational learning framework that could be used for EMTs globally. The proposed framework includes the following steps: 1) ensure professional competence and license to practice, 2) support adaptation of technical and non-technical professional capacities into the low-resource and emergency context and 3) prepare for an effective team performance in the field. A combination of training methodologies is also recommended, including individual theory based education, immersive simulations and team training. Agreed curriculum and open access training materials for EMTs need to be further developed, ideally through collaborative efforts between WHO, operational EMT organizations, universities, professional bodies and training agencies.  Keywords: disasters; education; emergencies; global health; learning PMID:27917306

  19. Economic growth, urbanization, globalization, and the risks of emerging infectious diseases in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P; Minteer, Ben A; Daszak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization-the closer integration of the world economy-has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a "cradle" of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.

  20. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  1. Correlations of the first and second derivatives of atmospheric CO2 with global surface temperature and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation respectively

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, L M W

    2014-01-01

    Understanding current global climate requires an understanding of trends both in Earth's atmospheric temperature and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a characteristic large-scale distribution of warm water in the tropical Pacific Ocean and the dominant mode of year-to-year climate variability (Holbrook et al. 2009. However, despite much effort, the average projection of current climate models has become statistically significantly different from the observed 21st century global surface temperature trend (Fyfe 2013)and has failed to reflect the statistically significant evidence that annual-mean global temperature has not risen in the 21st century (Fyfe 2013, Kosaka 2013). Modelling also provides a wide range of predictions for future ENSO variability, some showing an increase, others a decrease and some no change (Guilyardi, et al. 2012; Bellenger, 2013). Here we present correlations which include the current era and do not have these drawbacks. The correlations arise as follows. First it has been sho...

  2. The FIFA medical emergency bag and FIFA 11 steps to prevent sudden cardiac death: setting a global standard and promoting consistent football field emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jiri; Kramer, Efraim B; Schmied, Christian M; Drezner, Jonathan A; Zideman, David; Patricios, Jon; Correia, Luis; Pedrinelli, André; Mandelbaum, Bert

    2013-12-01

    Life-threatening medical emergencies are an infrequent but regular occurrence on the football field. Proper prevention strategies, emergency medical planning and timely access to emergency equipment are required to prevent catastrophic outcomes. In a continuing commitment to player safety during football, this paper presents the FIFA Medical Emergency Bag and FIFA 11 Steps to prevent sudden cardiac death. These recommendations are intended to create a global standard for emergency preparedness and the medical response to serious or catastrophic on-field injuries in football.

  3. The World Health Organization Global Health Emergency Workforce: What Role Will the United States Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-08-01

    During the May 2016 World Health Assembly of 194 member states, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the process of developing and launching emergency medical teams as a critical component of the global health workforce concept. Over 64 countries have either launched or are in the development stages of vetting accredited teams, both international and national, to provide surge support to national health systems through WHO Regional Organizations and the delivery of emergency clinical care to sudden-onset disasters and outbreak-affected populations. To date, the United States has not yet committed to adopting the emergency medical team concept in funding and registering an international field hospital level team. This article discusses future options available for health-related nongovernmental organizations and the required educational and training requirements for health care provider accreditation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:531-535).

  4. Effects of Global Incidents on Dynamic Correlations of Emerging European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogus Emin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the international integration of stock markets of emerging European countries with the world market and to analyse the evolution of the integration levels in the case of four global/regional incidents; the 1998 Russian crisis, the 2001 Dotcom crisis and 9/11 shocks, the 2004 EU enlargement, and the 2007-2009 global financial crisis. The findings show that volatilities of the stock markets and correlation structures of those markets with the world market significantly change due to the impacts of global/regional incidents. Although, it is obvious that each incident has differential impact on each country depending on the internal dynamics of those countries at the times of incidents, the findings still clearly reveal the general common impacts of the investigated incidents on the return volatilities and the correlation structures of the sample countries with the world market.

  5. A framework on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Quissell, Kathryn; Schmitz, Hans Peter; Pelletier, David L; Smith, Stephanie L; Berlan, David; Gneiting, Uwe; Van Slyke, David; Mergel, Ines; Rodriguez, Mariela; Walt, Gill

    2016-04-01

    Since 1990 mortality and morbidity decline has been more extensive for some conditions prevalent in low- and middle-income countries than for others. One reason may be differences in the effectiveness of global health networks, which have proliferated in recent years. Some may be more capable than others in attracting attention to a condition, in generating funding, in developing interventions and in convincing national governments to adopt policies. This article introduces a supplement on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks. The supplement examines networks concerned with six global health problems: tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia, tobacco use, alcohol harm, maternal mortality and newborn deaths. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating factors that may shape why networks crystallize more easily surrounding some issues than others, and once formed, why some are better able than others to shape policy and public health outcomes. All supplement papers draw on this framework. The framework consists of 10 factors in three categories: (1) features of the networks and actors that comprise them, including leadership, governance arrangements, network composition and framing strategies; (2) conditions in the global policy environment, including potential allies and opponents, funding availability and global expectations concerning which issues should be prioritized; (3) and characteristics of the issue, including severity, tractability and affected groups. The article also explains the design of the project, which is grounded in comparison of networks surrounding three matched issues: TB and pneumonia, tobacco use and alcohol harm, and maternal and newborn survival. Despite similar burden and issue characteristics, there has been considerably greater policy traction for the first in each pair. The supplement articles aim to explain the role of networks in shaping these differences, and collectively represent the first comparative effort

  6. The emergence of a global right to health norm--the unresolved case of universal access to quality emergency obstetric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik

    2014-02-27

    The global response to HIV suggests the potential of an emergent global right to health norm, embracing shared global responsibility for health, to assist policy communities in framing the obligations of the domestic state and the international community. Our research explores the extent to which this global right to health norm has influenced the global policy process around maternal health rights, with a focus on universal access to emergency obstetric care. In examining the extent to which arguments stemming from a global right to health norm have been successful in advancing international policy on universal access to emergency obstetric care, we looked at the period from 1985 to 2013 period. We adopted a qualitative case study approach applying a process-tracing methodology using multiple data sources, including an extensive literature review and limited key informant interviews to analyse the international policy agenda setting process surrounding maternal health rights, focusing on emergency obstetric care. We applied John Kingdon's public policy agenda setting streams model to analyse our data. Kingdon's model suggests that to succeed as a mobilising norm, the right to health could work if it can help bring the problem, policy and political streams together, as it did with access to AIDS treatment. Our analysis suggests that despite a normative grounding in the right to health, prioritisation of the specific maternal health entitlements remains fragmented. Despite United Nations recognition of maternal mortality as a human rights issue, the relevant policy communities have not yet managed to shift the policy agenda to prioritise the global right to health norm of shared responsibility for realising access to emergency obstetric care. The experience of HIV advocates in pushing for global solutions based on right to health principles, including participation, solidarity and accountability; suggest potential avenues for utilising right to health based

  7. Role of the Insect Supervectors Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis in the Emergence and Global Spread of Plant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Robert L; Batuman, Ozgur; Webster, Craig G; Adkins, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Emergence of insect-transmitted plant viruses over the past 10-20 years has been disproportionately driven by two so-called supervectors: the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. High rates of reproduction and dispersal, extreme polyphagy, and development of insecticide resistance, together with human activities, have made these insects global pests. These supervectors transmit a diversity of plant viruses by different mechanisms and mediate virus emergence through local evolution, host shifts, mixed infections, and global spread. Associated virus evolution involves reassortment, recombination, and component capture. Emergence of B. tabaci-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses), ipomoviruses, and torradoviruses has led to global disease outbreaks as well as multiple paradigm shifts. Similarly, F. occidentalis has mediated tospovirus host shifts and global dissemination and the emergence of pollen-transmitted ilarviruses. The plant virus-supervector interaction offers exciting opportunities for basic research and global implementation of generalized disease management strategies to reduce economic and environmental impacts.

  8. Chimera states in a population of identical oscillators under planar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... We report the existence of chimera states in an assembly of identical nonlinear oscillators that are globally linked to each other in a simple planar cross-coupled form. The rotational symmetry breaking of the coupling term appears to be responsible for the emergence of these collective states that display a ...

  9. "Global Imbalances, the U.S. Dollar, and How the Crisis at the Core of Global Finance Spread to "Self-insuring" Emerging Market Economies"

    OpenAIRE

    Bibow, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the spread of what started as a crisis at the core of the global financial system to emerging economies. While emerging economies had exhibited some resilience through the early stages of the financial turmoil that began in the summer of 2007, they have been hit hard since mid-2008. Their deteriorating fortunes are only partly attributable to the collapse in world trade and sharp drop in commodity prices. Things were made worse by emerging markets' exposure to the turm...

  10. Mapping the Global Emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnenberg, Kathryn L.; Powell, Christopher I.; Walker, Susan F.; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Weaver, George

    2013-01-01

    The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide Bd presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1) spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2) relationships between Bd occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among Bd occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3) patterns of environmental correlates with Bd, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae) separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A.) scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42%) amphibian species. We show that detected Bd infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of Bd. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of Bd detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into Bd-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of Bd, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation efforts. We

  11. Mapping the global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the amphibian chytrid fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna H Olson

    Full Text Available The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide Bd presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1 spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2 relationships between Bd occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among Bd occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3 patterns of environmental correlates with Bd, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A. scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42% amphibian species. We show that detected Bd infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of Bd. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of Bd detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into Bd-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of Bd, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation

  12. The Emergence of Land Use as a Global Force in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human societies have emerged as a global force capable of transforming the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and climate. As a result, the long-term dynamics of the Earth system can no longer be understood or predicted without understanding their coupling with human societal dynamics. Here, a general causal theory is presented to explain why behaviorally modern humans, unlike any prior multicellular species, gained this unprecedented capacity to reshape the Earth system and how this societal capacity has changed from the Pleistocene to the present and future. Sociocultural niche construction theory, building on existing theories of ecosystem engineering, niche construction, the extended evolutionary synthesis, cultural evolution, ultrasociality and social change, can explain both the long-term upscaling of human societies and their unprecedented capacity to transform the Earth system. Regime shifts in human sociocultural niche construction, from the clearing of land using fire, to shifting cultivation, to intensive agriculture, to global food systems dependent on fossil fuel combustion, have enabled human societies to scale up while gaining the capacity to reshape the global patterns and processes of biogeography, ecosystems, landscapes, biomes, the biosphere, and ultimately the functioning of the Earth system. Just as Earth's geophysical climate system shapes the long-term dynamics of energy and material flow across the "spheres" of the Earth system, human societies, interacting at global scale to form "human systems", are increasingly shaping the global dynamics of energy, material, biotic and information flow across the spheres of the Earth system, including a newly emerged anthroposphere comprised of human societies and their material cultures. Human systems and the anthroposphere are strongly coupled with climate and other Earth systems and are dynamic in response to evolutionary changes in human social organization, cooperative ecosystem

  13. The emergence and effectiveness of global health networks: findings and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Schmitz, Hans Peter; Berlan, David; Smith, Stephanie L; Quissell, Kathryn; Gneiting, Uwe; Pelletier, David

    2016-04-01

    Global health issues vary in the amount of attention and resources they receive. One reason is that the networks of individuals and organizations that address these issues differ in their effectiveness. This article presents key findings from a research project on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks addressing tobacco use, alcohol harm, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Although networks are only one of many factors influencing priority, they do matter, particularly for shaping the way the problem and solutions are understood, and convincing governments, international organizations and other global actors to address the issue. Their national-level effects vary by issue and are more difficult to ascertain. Networks are most likely to produce effects when (1) their members construct a compelling framing of the issue, one that includes a shared understanding of the problem, a consensus on solutions and convincing reasons to act and (2) they build a political coalition that includes individuals and organizations beyond their traditional base in the health sector, a task that demands engagement in the politics of the issue, not just its technical aspects. Maintaining a focused frame and sustaining a broad coalition are often in tension: effective networks find ways to balance the two challenges. The emergence and effectiveness of a network are shaped both by its members' decisions and by contextual factors, including historical influences (e.g. prior failed attempts to address the problem), features of the policy environment (e.g. global development goals) and characteristics of the issue the network addresses (e.g. its mortality burden). Their proliferation raises the issue of their legitimacy. Reasons to consider them legitimate include their members' expertise and the attention they bring to neglected issues. Reasons to question their legitimacy include their largely elite composition and the fragmentation they

  14. Global Knowledge Futures: Articulating the Emergence of a New Meta-level Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gidley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I articulate a new meta-level field of studies that I call global knowledge futures—a field through which other emerging transdisciplinary fields can be integrated to cohere knowledge at a higher level. I contrast this with the current dominant knowledge paradigm of the global knowledge economy with its fragmentation, commodification and instrumentalism based on neoliberal knowledge capitalism. I take a big-picture, macrohistorical lens to the new thinking and new knowledge patterns that are emerging within the evolution of consciousness discourse. I explore three discourses: postformal studies, integral studies and planetary studies—using a fourth discourse, futures studies, to provide a macro-temporal framing. By extending the meta-fields of postformal, integral and planetary studies into a prospective future dimension, I locate areas of development where these leading-edge discourses can be brought into closer dialogue with each other. In this meeting point of four boundary-spanning discourses I identify the new meta-level field of global knowledge futures, grounded in human thinking capacities, such as creativity, imagination, dialogue and collaboration.

  15. Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B J Harfoot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities are causing widespread degradation of ecosystems worldwide, threatening the ecosystem services upon which all human life depends. Improved understanding of this degradation is urgently needed to improve avoidance and mitigation measures. One tool to assist these efforts is predictive models of ecosystem structure and function that are mechanistic: based on fundamental ecological principles. Here we present the first mechanistic General Ecosystem Model (GEM of ecosystem structure and function that is both global and applies in all terrestrial and marine environments. Functional forms and parameter values were derived from the theoretical and empirical literature where possible. Simulations of the fate of all organisms with body masses between 10 µg and 150,000 kg (a range of 14 orders of magnitude across the globe led to emergent properties at individual (e.g., growth rate, community (e.g., biomass turnover rates, ecosystem (e.g., trophic pyramids, and macroecological scales (e.g., global patterns of trophic structure that are in general agreement with current data and theory. These properties emerged from our encoding of the biology of, and interactions among, individual organisms without any direct constraints on the properties themselves. Our results indicate that ecologists have gathered sufficient information to begin to build realistic, global, and mechanistic models of ecosystems, capable of predicting a diverse range of ecosystem properties and their response to human pressures.

  16. Amplitude death and resurgence of oscillation in networks of mobile oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Soumen; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-05-01

    The phenomenon of amplitude death has been explored using a variety of different coupling strategies in the last two decades. In most of the works, the basic coupling arrangement is considered to be static over time, although many realistic systems exhibit significant changes in the interaction pattern as time varies. In this article, we study the emergence of amplitude death in a dynamical network composed of time-varying interaction amidst a collection of random walkers in a finite region of three-dimensional space. We consider an oscillator for each walker and demonstrate that depending upon the network parameters and hence the interaction between them, the global oscillation in the network gets suppressed. In this framework, the vision range of each oscillator decides the number of oscillators with which it interacts. In addition, with the use of an appropriate feedback parameter in the coupling strategy, we articulate how the suppressed oscillation can be resurrected in the systems' parameter space. The phenomenon of amplitude death and the resurgence of oscillation is investigated taking limit cycle and chaotic oscillators for broad ranges of the parameters, like the interaction strength k between the entities, the vision range r and the speed of movement v.

  17. Maize global transcriptomics reveals pervasive leaf diurnal rhythms but rhythms in developing ears are largely limited to the core oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant diurnal rhythms are vital environmental adaptations to coordinate internal physiological responses to alternating day-night cycles. A comprehensive view of diurnal biology has been lacking for maize (Zea mays, a major world crop. METHODOLOGY: A photosynthetic tissue, the leaf, and a non-photosynthetic tissue, the developing ear, were sampled under natural field conditions. Genome-wide transcript profiling was conducted on a high-density 105 K Agilent microarray to investigate diurnal rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: In both leaves and ears, the core oscillators were intact and diurnally cycling. Maize core oscillator genes are found to be largely conserved with their Arabidopsis counterparts. Diurnal gene regulation occurs in leaves, with some 23% of expressed transcripts exhibiting a diurnal cycling pattern. These transcripts can be assigned to over 1700 gene ontology functional terms, underscoring the pervasive impact of diurnal rhythms on plant biology. Considering the peak expression time for each diurnally regulated gene, and its corresponding functional assignment, most gene functions display temporal enrichment in the day, often with distinct patterns, such as dawn or midday preferred, indicating that there is a staged procession of biological events undulating with the diurnal cycle. Notably, many gene functions display a bimodal enrichment flanking the midday photosynthetic maximum, with an initial peak in mid-morning followed by another peak during the afternoon/evening. In contrast to leaves, in developing ears as few as 47 gene transcripts are diurnally regulated, and this set of transcripts includes primarily the core oscillators. In developing ears, which are largely shielded from light, the core oscillator therefore is intact with little outward effect on transcription.

  18. Nonlinear Force-Free Extrapolation of Emerging Flux with a Global Twist and Serpentine Fine Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, G.; Green, L. M.; Démoulin, P.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Wallace, A.; Baker, D.; Fuhrmann, M.

    2012-05-01

    We study the flux emergence process in NOAA active region 11024, between 29 June and 7 July 2009, by means of multi-wavelength observations and nonlinear force-free extrapolation. The main aim is to extend previous investigations by combining, as much as possible, high spatial resolution observations to test our present understanding of small-scale (undulatory) flux emergence, whilst putting these small-scale events in the context of the global evolution of the active region. The combination of these techniques allows us to follow the whole process, from the first appearance of the bipolar axial field on the east limb, until the buoyancy instability could set in and raise the main body of the twisted flux tube through the photosphere, forming magnetic tongues and signatures of serpentine field, until the simplification of the magnetic structure into a main bipole by the time the active region reaches the west limb. At the crucial time of the main emergence phase high spatial resolution spectropolarimetric measurements of the photospheric field are employed to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the nonlinear force-free coronal field, which is then used to test the current understanding of flux emergence processes. In particular, knowledge of the coronal connectivity confirms the identity of the magnetic tongues as seen in their photospheric signatures, and it exemplifies how the twisted flux, which is emerging on small scales in the form of a sea-serpent, is subsequently rearranged by reconnection into the large-scale field of the active region. In this way, the multi-wavelength observations combined with a nonlinear force-free extrapolation provide a coherent picture of the emergence process of small-scale magnetic bipoles, which subsequently reconnect to form a large-scale structure in the corona.

  19. The Global Financial Crisis and the Integration of Emerging Stock Markets in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of volatility spillovers among five Asian stock markets (China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and examines how the global financial crisis of 2008 has influenced volatility transmission among Asian stock markets. The results from a VAR(1-bivariate GARCH model indicate strong volatility linkages between the Chinese stock market and the four emerging stock markets since the global financial crisis, suggesting the intensification of stock market integration in Asia since the crisis increases the integration of Chinese stock market in Asia. This strong integration of the markets is important in that the intensified linkages can reduce potential gains from the diversification of international equity portfolios.

  20. Asymmetric impacts of global risk appetite on the risk premium for an emerging market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlı, İbrahim Burak

    2008-05-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of global risk appetite on the risk premium utilizing high-frequency data. Taking the Turkish economy as our laboratory, we find that the risk premium volatility responds only to a worsening in the risk appetite for the Turkish economy, which is a result that we do not observe for the other emerging markets. Then, we investigate the role of current account dynamics on this asymmetric effect, by focusing also on an economy with similar current account performance. The empirical results find supporting evidence for the role of current account dynamics on the estimated asymmetry.

  1. China and the global stem cell bioeconomy: an emerging political strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Cooper, Melinda; Dickins, Amanda

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing consensus, amongst policy analysts and scientists alike, that China is likely to play a key role in the scientific, clinical and commercial development of stem cell research. However, to date, there exist few detailed analyses of China's current investment in the field. After introducing the UK's recent political strategy on stem cell science, this article develops an in-depth discussion of the formal organization of China's research and development in the area, as well as its rapidly evolving commercial, regulatory and ethical environment. From here, we go on to assess the probability of China's emergence as a global player in the increasingly internationalized business of stem cell biomedicine.

  2. Entrepreneurship Development in India: Emergence from Local to Global Business Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    TABE, Noboru; GIRIAPPA, Somu

    2013-01-01

    Promoting the readership for the book, a final draft manuscript is reproduced,as it will appear in a book form; Entrepreneurship Development in India:emergence from local to global business leadershipIt is by no means, a preprint of the forthcoming book and/or E-book by KalpazPublications, Gyan Books Pvt. Ltd. Delhi, India.This new book, written jointly by two senior professors from Japan and India,is a welcome addition to entrepreneurship study in contemporary academicscenario.It is also a u...

  3. Evolutionary History of the Global Emergence of the Escherichia coli Epidemic Clone ST131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Pankhurst, Louise; De Maio, Nicola; Moore, Catrin E; Sebra, Robert; Turner, Paul; Anson, Luke W; Kasarskis, Andrew; Batty, Elizabeth M; Kos, Veronica; Wilson, Daniel J; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Wyllie, David; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Manges, Amee R; Johnson, Timothy J; Price, Lance B; Peto, Timothy E A; Johnson, James R; Didelot, Xavier; Walker, A Sarah; Crook, Derrick W

    2016-03-22

    Escherichia colisequence type 131 (ST131) has emerged globally as the most predominant extraintestinal pathogenic lineage within this clinically important species, and its association with fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance impacts significantly on treatment. The evolutionary histories of this lineage, and of important antimicrobial resistance elements within it, remain unclearly defined. This study of the largest worldwide collection (n= 215) of sequenced ST131E. coliisolates to date demonstrates that the clonal expansion of two previously recognized antimicrobial-resistant clades, C1/H30R and C2/H30Rx, started around 25 years ago, consistent with the widespread introduction of fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in clinical medicine. These two clades appear to have emerged in the United States, with the expansion of the C2/H30Rx clade driven by the acquisition of ablaCTX-M-15-containing IncFII-like plasmid that has subsequently undergone extensive rearrangement. Several other evolutionary processes influencing the trajectory of this drug-resistant lineage are described, including sporadic acquisitions of CTX-M resistance plasmids and chromosomal integration ofblaCTX-Mwithin subclusters followed by vertical evolution. These processes are also occurring for another family of CTX-M gene variants more recently observed among ST131, theblaCTX-M-14/14-likegroup. The complexity of the evolutionary history of ST131 has important implications for antimicrobial resistance surveillance, epidemiological analysis, and control of emerging clinical lineages ofE. coli These data also highlight the global imperative to reduce specific antibiotic selection pressures and demonstrate the important and varied roles played by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements in the perpetuation of antimicrobial resistance within lineages. Escherichia coli, perennially a major bacterial pathogen, is becoming increasingly difficult to manage due to

  4. [Capoeira circle or sports academy? The emergence of modern styles of capoeira and their global context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Matthias Röhrig

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the modern styles of capoeira should be considered in the global context of the modernization of martial arts currently in progress in Europe and Asia on the one hand, and the new phase of Afro-descendant modernity on the other. The confrontation between the capoeira, jiu-jitsu and other martial arts circles led mestre Bimba to develop his regional Bahian fighting style. The revival of traditional capoeira as Angolan capoeira led by mestre Pastinha is part of the broader movement of affirmation of Afro-Bahian culture in Salvador and the growing visibility of the Afro-descendant body in the Atlantic world.

  5. Global Public Goods and The Role of Emerging Power: Considering the Concept of Impure Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rieshøj Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing analysis of global public goods over-emphasizes the significance of public. Great power as a main provider has played an active role in these strategic initiatives, which may be ignored. In fact, main power has thought about the possible free-riders when providing public goods and making its foreign strategic plan. China’s announcement to “welcome the neighbouring countries to be a free-rider and benefit from China’s rise” is a good example. It is necessary to think about the theory of public goods and take another look at the free-riding phenomenon. The concept of impure public goods may be useful and effective when we understand the reason why global public goods are being provided and are relatively efficient. As an emerging power, China should have a clear strategy on global public goods with a possible “marketing” viewpoint, including more initiatives and specific measures, so that the global public goods provision may be more diverse and well-planned.

  6. A new method for assessing the impact of emerging infections on global trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, A M; Taneda, K

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a new method for assessing the impact of emerging infections on global trade flows. When one compares notifications to the World Trade Organization (WTO) of the emergency measures taken to control certain animal and plant diseases with the trade values of certain products from the United Nation's Commodity Trade Statistics Database (Comtrade) (identified through the World Customs Organization's harmonised system of tariff product codes [HS]), it is possible to estimate the extent to which trade has been diverted from the affected economies. The authors study in detail the example of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). When member countries of the WTO change their import policies towards the goods of a trading partner, as the result of an emerging disease such as BSE, they must file notifications of such changes through the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee of the WTO. To quantify the impact of BSE on trade, the authors compared these notifications against Comtrade statistics, using the HS 1996 tariff code variable. (The HS 1996 tariff codes allow the tracking and recording of the volumes of exports and imports, in quantity and value, between any two member countries between 1998 and 2000 in the database.) The authors then used this linked dataset to describe the dollar impact of the BSE-related notifications filed in 2000 on the trade flow of imports. The results of this study suggest that economies affected by BSE notifications saw a decline of US$5.6 billion from hypothetical projections in designated products. At the same time, unaffected economies saw an increase of US$1.5 billion from hypothetical projections in the same products. Thus, it may be concluded that import restrictions to control the spread of emergent spongiform encephalopathy infection had a significant effect on trade flows. These results also emphasise the interconnectedness of global trade: trade restrictions for some economies may enhance trade

  7. Co-emergence of multi-scale cortical activities of irregular firing, oscillations and avalanches achieves cost-efficient information capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance. Their co-emergence achieves minimal energy cost as well as maximal energy efficiency on information capacity, when neuronal firing are coordinated and shaped by moderate synchrony to reduce otherwise redundant spikes, and the dynamical clusterings are maintained in the form of neuronal avalanches. Such cost-efficient neural dynamics can be employed as a foundation for further efficient information processing under energy constraint.

  8. How Thailand's greater convergence created sustainable funding for emerging health priorities caused by globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenca, Naowarut; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Mock, Jeremiah; Hamann, Stephen; Vathesatogkit, Prakit

    2015-01-01

    Global health is shifting gradually from a limited focus on individual communicable disease goals to the formulation of broader sustainable health development goals. A major impediment to this shift is that most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not established adequate sustainable funding for health promotion and health infrastructure. In this article, we analyze how Thailand, a middle-income country, created a mechanism for sustainable funding for health. We analyzed the progression of tobacco control and health promotion policies over the past three decades within the wider political-economic and sociocultural context. We constructed a parallel longitudinal analysis of statistical data on one emerging priority - road accidents - to determine whether policy shifts resulted in reduced injuries, hospitalizations and deaths. In Thailand, the convergence of priorities among national interest groups for sustainable health development created an opportunity to use domestic tax policy and to create a semi-autonomous foundation (ThaiHealth) to address a range of pressing health priorities, including programs that substantially reduced road accidents. Thailand's strategic process to develop a domestic mechanism for sustainable funding for health may provide LMICs with a roadmap to address emerging health priorities, especially those caused by modernization and globalization.

  9. Emerging infectious diseases and pandemic potential: status quo and reducing risk of global spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Brian; Dar, Osman; Zumla, Alimuddin; Heymann, David L

    2014-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an important public health threat and infections with pandemic potential are a major global risk. Although much has been learned from previous events the evidence for mitigating actions is not definitive and pandemic preparedness remains a political and scientific challenge. A need exists to develop trust and effective meaningful collaboration between countries to help with rapid detection of potential pandemic infections and initiate public health actions. This collaboration should be within the framework of the International Health Regulations. Collaboration between countries should be encouraged in a way that acknowledges the benefits that derive from sharing biological material and establishing equitable collaborative research partnerships. The focus of pandemic preparedness should include upstream prevention through better collaboration between human and animal health sciences to enhance capacity to identify potential pathogens before they become serious human threats, and to prevent their emergence where possible. The one-health approach provides a means to develop this and could potentially enhance alignment of global health and trade priorities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emergence of Global Adaptive Governance for Stewardship of Regional Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has historically caused widespread stock collapses in the Southern Ocean. Until recently, illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing threatened to result in the collapse of some of the few remaining valuable fish stocks in the region and vulnerable seabird populations. Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis. For this purpose, we investigated the interplay between actors, social networks, organizations, and institutions in relation to environmental outcomes. We drew on a diversity of methods, including qualitative interviews, quantitative social network and survey data, and literature reviews. We found that the crisis triggered action of an informal group of actors over time, which led to a new organization (ISOFISH that connected two independent networks (nongovermental organizations and the fishing industry, and later (COLTO linked to an international body and convention (CCAMLR. The emergence of the global adaptive governance systems for stewardship of a regional marine resource took place over a 15-year period. We describe in detail the emergence process and illustrate the usefulness of analyzing four features of governance and understanding social-ecological processes, thereby describing structures and functions, and their link to tangible environmental outcomes.

  11. A review of existing and emerging digital technologies to combat the global trade in fake medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2017-05-01

    The globalization of the pharmaceutical supply chain has introduced new challenges, chief among them, fighting the international criminal trade in fake medicines. As the manufacture, supply, and distribution of drugs becomes more complex, so does the need for innovative technology-based solutions to protect patients globally. Areas covered: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the science/health, information technology, computer science, and general academic literature with the aim of identifying cutting-edge existing and emerging 'digital' solutions to combat fake medicines. Our review identified five distinct categories of technology including mobile, radio frequency identification, advanced computational methods, online verification, and blockchain technology. Expert opinion: Digital fake medicine solutions are unifying platforms that integrate different types of anti-counterfeiting technologies as complementary solutions, improve information sharing and data collection, and are designed to overcome existing barriers of adoption and implementation. Investment in this next generation technology is essential to ensure the future security and integrity of the global drug supply chain.

  12. Global assessment of arsenic pollution using sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) as an emerging aquatic model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savery, Laura C; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Falank, Carolyne; Gianios, Christy; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-06-01

    Arsenic is an oceanic pollutant of global concern due to its toxicity, ability to bioaccumulate and continued input into the environment by anthropogenic activities. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is an emerging aquatic model for both human disease and ocean health having global distribution and high trophic level. The aim of this study was to establish global and regional baselines of total arsenic concentrations using free-ranging sperm whales. Skin biopsies (n=342) were collected during the voyage of the Odyssey (2000-2005) from 17 regions considering gender and age in males. Arsenic was detectable in 99% of samples with a global mean of 1.9μg/g ww ranging from 0.1 to 15.6μg/g ww. Previous work in toothed whale skin found mean concentrations 3 fold lower with 0.6μg/g ww. A significant gender-related effect was found with males having higher mean arsenic concentrations than females. There was no significant age-related effect between adult and subadult males. Arsenic concentrations in sloughed skin samples were similar to levels in skin biopsies indicating that arsenic excretion can occur by skin sloughing. Regional mean concentrations were highest in the Maldives, Seychelles and Sri Lanka with 3.5, 2.5, and 2.4μg/g ww, respectively, raising concern for arsenic pollution in the Indian Ocean. Literature suggests that arsenic exposure is emitted from natural sources and the heavy use of arsenic-containing pesticides and herbicides in this region. These data suggest that research is needed in determining the extent and source of arsenic pollution in the Indian Ocean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergence of β-Band Oscillations in the Aged Rat Amygdala during Discrimination Learning and Decision Making Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Rachel D; Lester, Adam W; Duarte, Leroy; Venkatesh, Anu; Barnes, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Older adults tend to use strategies that differ from those used by young adults to solve decision-making tasks. MRI experiments suggest that altered strategy use during aging can be accompanied by a change in extent of activation of a given brain region, inter-hemispheric bilateralization or added brain structures. It has been suggested that these changes reflect compensation for less effective networks to enable optimal performance. One way that communication can be influenced within and between brain networks is through oscillatory events that help structure and synchronize incoming and outgoing information. It is unknown how aging impacts local oscillatory activity within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). The present study recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and single units in old and young rats during the performance of tasks that involve discrimination learning and probabilistic decision making. We found task- and age-specific increases in power selectively within the β range (15-30 Hz). The increased β power occurred after lever presses, as old animals reached the goal location. Periods of high-power β developed over training days in the aged rats, and was greatest in early trials of a session. β Power was also greater after pressing for the large reward option. These data suggest that aging of BLA networks results in strengthened synchrony of β oscillations when older animals are learning or deciding between rewards of different size. Whether this increased synchrony reflects the neural basis of a compensatory strategy change of old animals in reward-based decision-making tasks, remains to be verified.

  14. Ringue ou academia? A emergência dos estilos modernos da capoeira e seu contexto global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Röhrig Assunção

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A emergência dos estilos modernos de capoeira deve ser considerada no contexto global da modernização de artes marciais em curso na Europa e na Ásia, por um lado, e, por outro, da nova fase da modernidade negra. O confronto, no ringue, da capoeira com o jiu-jítsu e outras lutas levou mestre Bimba a desenvolver sua luta regional baiana. A revitalização da capoeira tradicional como capoeira de Angola, liderada por mestre Pastinha, insere-se no movimento mais amplo de afirmação da cultura afro-baiana em Salvador e da crescente visibilidade do corpo negro no mundo atlântico.

  15. The global and domestic politics of health policy in emerging nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several emerging nations with burgeoning economies and in transition to democracy have pursued health policy innovations. As these nations have integrated into the world economy through bilateral trade and diplomacy, they have also become increasingly exposed to international pressures and norms and focused on more effective, equitable health care systems. There are several lessons learned from the case studies of Brazil, Ghana, India, China, Vietnam, and Thailand in this special issue on the global and domestic politics of health policy in emerging nations. For the countries examined, although sensitive to international preferences, domestic governments preferred to implement policy on their own and at their own pace. During the policy-making and implementation process, international and domestic actors played different roles in health policy making vis-à-vis other reform actors -- at times the state played an intermediary role. In several countries, civil society also played a central role in designing and implementing policy at all levels of government. International institutions also have a number of mechanisms and strategies in their tool box to influence a country's domestic health governance, and they use them, particularly in the context of an uncertain state or internal discordance within the state. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  16. A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.

  17. Entrepreneur-related constructs explaining the emergence of born global firms: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pawęta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper is aimed at structuring entrepreneur-related constructs and building a conceptual framework that can serve as a foundation for future international entrepreneurship research and theory building. Research Design & Methods: The author conducted the systematic literature review of 94 empirical studies and conceptual papers on the entrepreneur-related determinants of early internationalization in the international management journals in the years 1966 – 2015. Findings: This article discusses and groups the existing knowledge on entrepreneur-related determinants of born globals successful international performance. The major theoretical contribution of the study is the conceptual framework of the main entrepreneur-level determinants of rapid internationalization. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the study are exploratory and there is a need in validating the theoretical framework through an advanced quantitative study. Future research might try to integrate the reviewed entrepreneur-related constructs with organizational characteristics and external characteristics which determine born globals emergence. Contribution & Value added: This paper provides the conceptual framework that groups entrepreneur-related constructs into 6 main constructs which can enrich future international entrepreneurship research.

  18. Global trends of research on emerging contaminants in the environment and humans: a literature assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Wei, Yan-Li; Yao, Yao; Ruan, Qin-Qin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-02-01

    Available literature data on five typical groups of emerging contaminants (EMCs), i.e., chlorinated paraffins (CPs), dechlorane plus and related compounds (DPs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), phthalate esters, and pyrethroids, accumulated between 2003 and 2013 were assimilated. Research efforts were categorized by environmental compartments and countries, so that global trends of research on EMCs and data gaps can be identified. The number of articles on the target EMCs ranged from 126 to 1,379 between 2003 and 2013. The numbers of articles on CPs, DPs, HBCDs, and pyrethroids largely followed the sequence of biota > sediment ≥ air > water ≥ soil > human tissue, whereas the sequence for phthalate esters was water > sediment > soil > human tissue ≥ biota ≥ air. Comprehensive studies on the target EMCs in biological samples and human tissues have been conducted worldwide. However, investigations into the occurrence of the target EMCs in soil of background areas and water are still scarce. Finally, developed and moderately developed countries, such as the USA, China, Canada, Japan, and Germany, were the main contributors to the global research efforts on EMCs, suggesting that economic prosperity may be one of the main factors propelling scientific research on EMCs.

  19. Global research trends of World Health Organization's top eight emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M

    2017-02-08

    On December 8th, 2015, World Health Organization published a priority list of eight pathogens expected to cause severe outbreaks in the near future. To better understand global research trends and characteristics of publications on these emerging pathogens, we carried out this bibliometric study hoping to contribute to global awareness and preparedness toward this topic. Scopus database was searched for the following pathogens/infectious diseases: Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Rift valley, Crimean-Congo, Nipah, Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Respiratory Acute Syndrome (SARS). Retrieved articles were analyzed to obtain standard bibliometric indicators. A total of 8619 journal articles were retrieved. Authors from 154 different countries contributed to publishing these articles. Two peaks of publications, an early one for SARS and a late one for Ebola, were observed. Retrieved articles received a total of 221,606 citations with a mean ± standard deviation of 25.7 ± 65.4 citations per article and an h-index of 173. International collaboration was as high as 86.9%. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the highest share (344; 5.0%) followed by the University of Hong Kong with 305 (4.5%). The top leading journal was Journal of Virology with 572 (6.6%) articles while Feldmann, Heinz R. was the most productive researcher with 197 (2.3%) articles. China ranked first on SARS, Turkey ranked first on Crimean-Congo fever, while the United States of America ranked first on the remaining six diseases. Of retrieved articles, 472 (5.5%) were on vaccine - related research with Ebola vaccine being most studied. Number of publications on studied pathogens showed sudden dramatic rise in the past two decades representing severe global outbreaks. Contribution of a large number of different countries and the relatively high h-index are indicative of how international collaboration can create common health agenda among distant different countries.

  20. Is the World in a State of Committed Global Climate Change Planetary Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2013-12-01

    The evidence for a planetary climate change emergency (as defined by the WHO) is examined and presented in this paper. The main parameters considered are multiple adverse impacts on world food security as well as multiple positive amplifying Arctic feedbacks. The overriding reason for considering a planetary emergency is global climate change commitment - at today's warming of 0.8C we are committed (locked in) to about double today's warming in the future from the ocean heat lag alone (NRC 2010). Total unavoidable warming commitment is far more than double today's warming. Using a novel policy-relevant yet simple summation approach of all unavoidable sources of warming, it is estimated that, without a drastic emergency response, committed unavoidable warming due to climate system inertias is more than 3C by 2100, which could occur by 2050. Risk is much higher and can be accommodated by taking plausible worst-case results. 2012 was a record year for Arctic albedo loss, which amplifies Arctic warming and drives Arctic methane feedback emissions. All sources of Arctic albedo are on a rapid trend of decline. Since 2007, atmospheric methane is on a renewed, sustained increase - due to planetary feedback source emissions. All potentially large, positive (amplifying), Arctic feedbacks are operant. These include albedo loss from disappearing snow and summer sea ice, more methane released from peat rich wetlands, thawing permafrost and sub seafloor methane pools, and also carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from thawing permafrost. Recent research finds permafrost is found to hold far more carbon and to be far more sensitive to warming than previously estimated. According to Russian researchers, subsea methane hydrate presents a planetary catastrophic risk. Increasing episodic extreme weather events have caused regional crop productivity losses on many continents (notably in the Northern Hemisphere since 2000), which have been linked to global warming. Crop models and drought

  1. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.

  2. Response of the North Pacific Oscillation to global warming in the models of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin

    2017-09-01

    Based on 22 of the climate models from phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we investigate the ability of the models to reproduce the spatiotemporal features of the wintertime North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), which is the second most important factor determining the wintertime sea level pressure field in simulations of the pre-industrial control climate, and evaluate the NPO response to the future most reasonable global warming scenario (the A1B scenario). We reveal that while most models simulate the geographic distribution and amplitude of the NPO pattern satisfactorily, only 13 models capture both features well. However, the temporal variability of the simulated NPO could not be significantly correlated with the observations. Further analysis indicates the weakened NPO intensity for a scenario of strong global warming is attributable to the reduced lower-tropospheric baroclinicity at mid-latitudes, which is anticipated to disrupt large-scale and low-frequency atmospheric variability, resulting in the diminished transfer of energy to the NPO, together with its northward shift.

  3. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  4. Global Emergence and Dissemination of Enterococci as Nosocomial Pathogens: Attack of the Clones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Prieto, Ana M.; van Schaik, Willem; Rogers, Malbert R. C.; Coque, Teresa M.; Baquero, Fernando; Corander, Jukka; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are found in plants, soil and as commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, mammals, and insects. Despite their commensal nature, they have also become globally important nosocomial pathogens. Within the genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are clinically most relevant. In this review, we will discuss how E. faecium and E. faecalis have evolved to become a globally disseminated nosocomial pathogen. E. faecium has a defined sub-population that is associated with hospitalized patients and is rarely encountered in community settings. These hospital-associated clones are characterized by the acquisition of adaptive genetic elements, including genes involved in metabolism, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. In contrast to E. faecium, clones of E. faecalis isolated from hospitalized patients, including strains causing clinical infections, are not exclusively found in hospitals but are also present in healthy individuals and animals. This observation suggests that the division between commensals and hospital-adapted lineages is less clear for E. faecalis than for E. faecium. In addition, genes that are reported to be associated with virulence of E. faecalis are often not unique to clinical isolates, but are also found in strains that originate from commensal niches. As a reflection of more ancient association of E. faecalis with different hosts, these determinants Thus, they may not represent genuine virulence genes but may act as host-adaptive functions that are useful in a variety of intestinal environments. The scope of the review is to summarize recent trends in the emergence of antibiotic resistance and explore recent developments in the molecular epidemiology, population structure and mechanisms of adaptation of E. faecium and E. faecalis. PMID:27303380

  5. Neurodynamic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz

    1995-01-01

    Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.

  6. Time resolved DNA occupancy dynamics during the respiratory oscillation uncover a global reset point in the yeast growth program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Amariei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural dynamics of chromatin have been implicated in the regulation of fundamental eukaryotic processes, such as DNA transcription, replication and repair. Although previous studies have revealed that the chromatin landscape, nucleosome remodeling and histone modification events are intimately tied into cellular energetics and redox state, few studies undertake defined time-resolved measurements of these state variables. Here, we use metabolically synchronous, continuously-grown yeast cultures to measure DNA occupancy and track global patterns with respect to the metabolic state of the culture. Combined with transcriptome analyses and ChIP-qPCR experiments, these paint an intriguing picture where genome-wide nucleosome focusing occurs during the recovery of energy charge, followed by clearance of the promoter regions and global transcriptional slow-down, thus indicating a nucleosome-mediated “reset point” for the cycle. The reset begins at the end of the catabolic and stress-response transcriptional programs and ends prior to the start of the anabolic and cell-growth transcriptional program, and the histones on genes from both the catabolic and anabolic superclusters are deacetylated.

  7. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushulak, Bd; Weekers, J; Macpherson, Dw

    2009-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  8. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushulak, BD; Weekers, J; MacPherson, DW

    2010-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  9. Beyond the Practical Dilemmas and Conceptual Reductions: the Emergence of an ‘Accommodative Consciousness’ in the Alternative Globalization Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdolhamed Hosseini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to show the emergence of a new ideological trend within the global field of resistance against the corporate-led globalization. This ideological trend, coined here the alter-globalization trend, is ideal-typically constructed in terms of its associated mode of social thought. The newly developed perspectives and cognitive transformations inside the global field of resistance convey a new mode of in-praxis thought, named here accommodative cognition. This heralds the formation of alternative principles for creating emancipatory knowledges and flexible solidarities. The paper draws on certain discursive evidence from the alter-globalization trend to show that the complexity of globalizing society and contemporary collective action is realized through the open spaces of dialogue and dispute introduced by the movement. This has resulted in the emergence of intellectual demands for transcending contradictions that are rooted in the post-1970s disputes between modernist and post-modernist, and materialist and post-materialist thoughts. Two other features of this new mode of cognition are: (1 a growing inclination to cut across incompatible conceptions of social polarities (i.e. around issues like class, gender, race, cultural identity, ethnicity, nationality and sexual orientation in establishing a flexible solidarity based on accommodating the Other’s interest and identity into the process of affirming the Self; and (2 understanding the complexities of globalization in terms of its structural unevenness, contradictions and multidimensionality.

  10. The IAEAs incident and emergency centre: the global focal point for nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.

    2016-08-01

    The continuous use of nuclear power to generate electricity and the continued threat of radioactive materials being used for nefarious reasons reminds us of the importance to stay prepared to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Stringent nuclear safety and nuclear security requirements, the training of personnel, operational checks and legal frameworks cannot always prevent radiation-related emergencies. Though these events can range in severity, each has the potential to cause harm to the public, employees, patients, property and the environment. Until the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, there was no international information exchange system. Immediately following that accident, the international community negotiated the so-called Emergency Conventions to ensure that the country suffering an accident with an international transboundary release of radioactive material would issue timely, authenticated information, while the States that could field technical support, would do so in a coordinated fashion. The Conventions also place specific legal obligations on the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) with regard to emergency preparedness and response. (Author)

  11. Quantum Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Blaise, Paul

    2011-01-01

    An invaluable reference for an overall but simple approach to the complexity of quantum mechanics viewed through quantum oscillators Quantum oscillators play a fundamental role in many areas of physics; for instance, in chemical physics with molecular normal modes, in solid state physics with phonons, and in quantum theory of light with photons. Quantum Oscillators is a timely and visionary book which presents these intricate topics, broadly covering the properties of quantum oscillators which are usually dispersed in the literature at varying levels of detail and often combined with other p

  12. Energy Conservative Limit Cycle Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; van Dijk, Michel

    This paper shows how globally attractive limit cycle oscillations can be induced in a system with a nonlinear feedback element. Based on the same principle as the Van der Pol oscillator, the feedback behaves as a negative damping for low velocities but as an ordinary damper for high velocities. This

  13. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    processes at the cellular level like the glycolytic pathway, peroxi- dase-catalysed reaction or the biosynthesis of certain proteins. A systematic study of oscillating chemical reactions is of consider- able interest, since these oscillating reactions can be used as prototype examples of the behaviours possible in reactions gov-.

  14. First hospital outbreak of the globally emerging Candida auris in a European hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Schelenz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. Methods Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively. Speciation of C. auris was performed by MALDI-TOF and typing of outbreak isolates performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Results This report describes an ongoing outbreak of 50 C. auris cases over the first 16 month (April 2015 to July 2016 within a single Hospital Trust in London. A total of 44 % (n = 22/50 patients developed possible or proven C. auris infection with a candidaemia rate of 18 % (n = 9/50. Environmental sampling showed persistent presence of the yeast around bed space areas. Implementation of strict infection and prevention control measures included: isolation of cases and their contacts, wearing of personal protective clothing by health care workers, screening of patients on affected wards, skin decontamination with chlorhexidine, environmental cleaning with chorine based reagents and hydrogen peroxide vapour. Genotyping with AFLP demonstrated that C. auris isolates from the same geographic region clustered. Conclusion This ongoing outbreak with genotypically closely related C. auris highlights the importance of appropriate species identification and rapid detection of cases in order to contain hospital acquired transmission.

  15. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  16. First hospital outbreak of the globally emerging Candida auris in a European hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, Silke; Hagen, Ferry; Rhodes, Johanna L; Abdolrasouli, Alireza; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Hall, Anne; Ryan, Lisa; Shackleton, Joanne; Trimlett, Richard; Meis, Jacques F; Armstrong-James, Darius; Fisher, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively. Speciation of C. auris was performed by MALDI-TOF and typing of outbreak isolates performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This report describes an ongoing outbreak of 50 C. auris cases over the first 16 month (April 2015 to July 2016) within a single Hospital Trust in London. A total of 44 % (n = 22/50) patients developed possible or proven C. auris infection with a candidaemia rate of 18 % (n = 9/50). Environmental sampling showed persistent presence of the yeast around bed space areas. Implementation of strict infection and prevention control measures included: isolation of cases and their contacts, wearing of personal protective clothing by health care workers, screening of patients on affected wards, skin decontamination with chlorhexidine, environmental cleaning with chorine based reagents and hydrogen peroxide vapour. Genotyping with AFLP demonstrated that C. auris isolates from the same geographic region clustered. This ongoing outbreak with genotypically closely related C. auris highlights the importance of appropriate species identification and rapid detection of cases in order to contain hospital acquired transmission.

  17. Variability in fusarium head blight epidemics in relation to global climate fluctuations as represented by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and other atmospheric patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, A B; Paul, P A; Madden, L V

    2012-01-01

    Cross-spectral analysis was used to characterize the relationship between climate variability, represented by atmospheric patterns, and annual fluctuations of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease intensity in wheat. Time series investigated were the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), which is a measure of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which are known to have strong influences on the Northern Hemisphere climate, and FHB disease intensity observations in Ohio from 1965 to 2010 and in Indiana from 1973 to 2008. For each climate variable, mean climate index values for the boreal winter (December to February) and spring (March to May) were utilized. The spectral density of each time series and the (squared) coherency of each pair of FHB-climate-index series were estimated. Significance for coherency was determined by a nonparametric permutation procedure. Results showed that winter and spring ONI were significantly coherent with FHB in Ohio, with a period of about 5.1 years (as well as for some adjacent periods). The estimated phase-shift distribution indicated that there was a generally negative relation between the two series, with high values of FHB (an indication of a major epidemic) estimated to occur about 1 year following low values of ONI (indication of a La Niña); equivalently, low values of FHB were estimated to occur about 1 year after high values of ONI (El Niño). There was also limited evidence that winter ONI had significant coherency with FHB in Indiana. At periods between 2 and 7 years, the PNA and NAO indices were coherent with FHB in both Ohio and Indiana, although results for phase shift and period depended on the specific location, climate index, and time span used in calculating the climate index. Differences in results for Ohio and Indiana were expected because the FHB disease series for the two states were not similar. Results suggest that global climate indices

  18. Career paths and practice patterns of global emergency medicine physicians: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Hansoti, Bhakti; Levine, Adam C; Martin, Ian B K

    2014-09-01

    Increasing numbers of emergency medicine (EM) residents and fellows are completing additional training with the intention of pursuing careers in global emergency medicine (GEM). At the same time, many academic emergency departments (EDs) are investing in the development of GEM divisions and global/international EM fellowship programs. However, the path for a successful career in this subspecialty has still not been defined. Our aim was to survey emergency physicians engaged in GEM in order to characterize their practice patterns and career paths, and to identify barriers to a successful career. An online survey assessing demographics, timing and content of work, financing and barriers, and academic productivity was deployed to emergency physicians. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using STATA software. A total of 116 attending emergency physicians responded. Female respondents tended to be younger (51% vs. 27%; p = 0.012). Younger respondents were more likely to have completed advanced GEM training (20% vs. 7%; p = 0.037). Most (73%) respondents spent fewer than 3 months annually abroad. Self funding was the most common (47%) source of funding, while only 16% reported receiving grant support. Lack of time and funding were the most commonly encountered barriers to a career in GEM (64% and 55%, respectively). Our survey provides an understanding of the amount of time that emergency physicians in GEM spend abroad and the types of activities in which they are currently engaged, as well as the barriers that need to be overcome in order to achieve fulfilling careers in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ‘BRICS without straw’? A systematic literature review of newly emerging economies’ influence in global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2010, five newly emerging economies collectively known as ‘BRICS’ (Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa) have caught the imagination, and scholarly attention, of political scientists, economists and development specialists. The prospect of a unified geopolitical bloc, consciously seeking to re-frame international (and global) health development with a new set of ideas and values, has also, if belatedly, begun to attract the attention of the global health community. But what influence, if any, do the BRICS wield in global health, and, if they do wield influence, how has that influence been conceptualized and recorded in the literature? Methods We conducted a systematic literature review in (March-December 2012) of documents retrieved from the databases EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organisations, research institutions and philanthropic organisations. The results were synthesised using a framework of influence developed for the review from the political science literature. Results Our initial search of databases and websites yielded 887 documents. Exclusion criteria narrowed the number of documents to 71 journal articles and 23 reports. Two researchers using an agreed set of inclusion criteria independently screened the 94 documents, leaving just 7 documents. We found just one document that provided sustained analysis of the BRICS’ collective influence; the overwhelming tendency was to describe individual BRICS countries influence. Although influence was predominantly framed by BRICS countries’ material capability, there were examples of institutional and ideational influence - particularly from Brazil. Individual BRICS countries were primarily ‘opportunity seekers’ and region mobilisers but with potential to become ‘issue leaders’ and region organisers. Conclusion Though small in number, the written output on BRICS influence in global health has

  20. Syndromes of the global water crisis - exploring the emergent dynamics through socio-hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuil, Linda; Levy, Morgan; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Penny, Gopal; Scott, Christopher; Srinivasan, Veena; Thompson, Sally; Troy, Tara

    2014-05-01

    agency components of the model are central to the model structure, thereby accounting for the co-evolutionary nature of human-water systems. Second, the model is designed to be general and integrative aimed at the simulation of emergent qualitative dynamics of the human-water system. The explicit inclusion of feedbacks and the aim of the model to capture the general dynamics as opposed to case-specific trajectories will allow us to deepen our fundamental understanding of the causal pathways leading to water crises across multiple locations. All authors contributed equally to this work. Srinivasan, V., Lambin, E.F., Gorelick, S.M., Thompson, B.H., Rozelle, S., 2012. The nature and causes of the global water crisis: Syndromes from a meta-analysis of coupled human-water studies. Water Resources Research 48(10), doi:10.1029/2011WR011087

  1. Global molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Fusarium, a significant emerging group of human opportunists from 1958 to 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hatmi, A.M.; Hagen, F.; Menken, S. B.; Meis, J. F. G. M.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium is a rapidly emerging, multidrug-resistant genus of fungal opportunists that was first identified in 1958 and is presently recognized in numerous cases of fusariosis each year. The authors examined trends in global Fusarium distribution, clinical presentation and prevalence since 1958 with the assumption that their distributions in each region had remained unaltered. The phylogeny and epidemiology of 127 geographically diverse isolates, representing 26 Fusarium species, were evaluate...

  2. Insertion sequence-driven diversification creates a globally dispersed emerging multiresistant subspecies of E. faecium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Leavis

    2007-01-01

    -specific isolates. Interestingly, the previously described multi locus sequence typing-based clonal complex 17 largely overlapped with this clade. The present data imply that the global emergence of E. faecium, as observed since 1990, represents the evolution of a subspecies with a presumably better adaptation than other E. faecium isolates to the constraints of a hospital environment.

  3. Fibonacci oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arik, M. (Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mathematics Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Physics); Demircan, E.; Turgut, T. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics); Ekinci, L.; Mungan, M. (Bogazici Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-07-01

    We discuss the properties of oscillators whose spectrum is given by a generalized Fibonacci sequence. The properties include: Invariance under the unitary quantum group, generalized angular momentum, coherent states and difference calculus, relativistic interpretation. (orig.).

  4. Developing a curriculum framework for global health in family medicine: emerging principles, competencies, and educational approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. Methods A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes) for Canadian Family Medicine training. Results The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. Conclusions The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the framework. The process used to

  5. New players, new game? The impact of emerging economics on global goverance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, S. de; Korteweg, R.; Polchar, J.; Usanov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing economic and financial momentum of many larger emerging economies, including China, raises serious questions for Western decision makers. Of central strategic concern is whether (several of) the emerging economies are likely to coalesce into an economic or political bloc (be it formal or

  6. Banking sector globalization and bank performance: A comparative analysis of low income countries with emerging markets and advanced economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of financial services liberalization is the increasing presence of foreign banks in a nation. This study examines the impact of banking sector globalization on bank profits and cost efficiency by using a panel of 169 nations spanning 1998–2013. Employing both fixed-effects and GMM estimations, and including banking-industry and macroeconomic controls, I find greater banking-sector globalization to reduce both profits and cost inefficiency, thereby reflecting increased competitiveness and informational asymmetries in host markets, as well as assimilation of better technology, managerial practices by domestic banks. The results are further examined for nations across different levels of economic development and with different degrees of foreign bank presence. Only in emerging markets and in nations with more than 50% foreign banks, greater banking sector globalization positively affects profits. From a policy perspective, the findings call for banking regulatory authorities to implement polices to reduce informational asymmetries in host markets.

  7. Globalization and the Changing Face of Educational Leadership: Current Trends and Emerging Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper has used a deconstructivist conceptual framework in order to explore and analyze the multifaceted and complex impacts of globalization on educational leadership in the early 21st century. It will be argued that globalization has had far-reaching positive and negative effects on all of the various nation-states, cultures, economies, and…

  8. The emergence of the lean global start-up as a new type of firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2015-01-01

    of their business models including the challenges of partnership development on a global scale; the inherently relational nature of the global resource allocation processes; the integration of the entrepreneurial, effectuation and global marketing perspectives; (v) the need to deal with the high degree......The present paper contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks and early internationalization research emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm – the Lean Global Start-up. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean...... of uncertainties including the uncertainty associ-ated with cross-border business operations; and (vi) linking the ex ante characteristics of leans tart-ups with the ex post characteristics of born global firms in order to develop a technology adoption marketing perspective consider-ing the “crossing the chasm...

  9. Global Status of Neutrino Oscillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monojit

    2014-11-08

    Apart from INO, MINOS, T2K, NOνA, PINGU/Icecube, JUNO, Hyper-K, LBNE all will/are probing mass hierarchy. Each is an amazing experiment. Most have to disentangle effects of CP phase from the hierarchy measurement; can accomplish this only for a fraction of possible δ from −π to π. Nov 8, 2014, IASc Annual Meeting ...

  10. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Emergence of Global Adaptive Governance for Stewardship of Regional Marine Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henrik Österblom; Carl Folke

    2013-01-01

    .... Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis...

  12. Exchange rate pass-through in the global economy – the role of emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bussière, Matthieu; Peltonen, Tuomas A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates export and import price equations for 41 countries –including 28 emerging market economies. Further, it relates the estimated elasticities to structural factors and tests for statistical breaks in the relation between trade prices and exchange rates. Results indicate that (i) the elasticity of trade prices in emerging markets is sizeable, but not significantly higher than in advanced economies; (ii) such elasticity is primarily influenced by macroeconomic factors such as ...

  13. Information Technology in the Global Strategy of a Multinational Bank from an Emerging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswat, Satya Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey and extended interviews with 78 domestic and international managers of a leading bank in India, this paper identifies some problems encountered with the utilization of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) by this enterprise in its global marketing strategy. A comparative analysis of the survey responses reveal recognizable differences among managers within and outside India concerning the problems and prospectsof ICT as an instrument of global business strategy. T...

  14. Brave New Web: Emerging Design Principles and Technologies as Enablers of a Global SOA

    OpenAIRE

    Schroth, Christoph; Christ, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Web Services have experienced great interest during the last years as they were expected to play a key role as enablers of seamless application-to-application integration both within company boundaries and on a global, cross-organizational scale. As a technical foundation for the realization of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs), Web Services encapsulate complexity inherent to individual applications and allow for their loose coupling. However, a truly global mesh of such services has not ...

  15. The Emergence of `Power with': The Case of a Born Global Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Panteli, Niki

    Thanks to the advancement of Information and Communications Technologies, the past decade has seen the rise of Born Global organizations (Rennie, 1993; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994; Karra and Philips, 2004; Zahra, 2005). Broadly defined as ‘business organizations that, right from inception, seek to derive significant competitive advantages from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries’ (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49), Born Global organizations are small, young, and internationally dispersed. While sharing the characteristics of ‘smallness’ and ‘newness’ of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Born Global organizations also bear ‘foreignness’, similar to that of Multinational Corporations (Zahra, 2005). Born Globals therefore need to strike a balance between ‘global reach’ and ‘local touch’ as in Multinational Corporations (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989); yet they have to do so with scare resources and organizational uncertainty similar to SMEs, and with ‘lean’ and ‘mean’ communications afforded by ICT (e.g. Sproull and Kiesler, 1986). This study is an initial attempt to untangle the combined challenges in Born Globals’ innovative way of management. Through a longitudinal case study, we aim to explore the issue of power in a Born Global’s endeavour to manage its global knowledge via technology mediation.

  16. Prominence Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Arregui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Prominences are intriguing, but poorly understood, magnetic structures of the solar corona. The dynamics of solar prominences has been the subject of a large number of studies, and of particular interest is the study of prominence oscillations. Ground- and space-based observations have confirmed the presence of oscillatory motions in prominences and they have been interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD waves. This interpretation opens the door to perform prominence seismology, whose main aim is to determine physical parameters in magnetic and plasma structures (prominences that are difficult to measure by direct means. Here, we review the observational information gathered about prominence oscillations as well as the theoretical models developed to interpret small amplitude oscillations and their temporal and spatial attenuation. Finally, several prominence seismology applications are presented.

  17. Urban partnerships in low-carbon development: Opportunities and challenges of an emerging trend in global climate politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Beermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the linkages between two recent trends in global climate governance. The first trend is the growing focus on cities in the multi-level governance of climate change. Whereas international climate change negotiations often end in deadlock, many urban centers across the world are taking the lead. Industrialized cities from the Global North and increasingly cities from the emerging Southern economies are experimenting with innovative and ambitious programs to reduce their local carbon footprints. A second trend is the expan¬ding urban North-South cooperation in the area of low-carbon development. This cooperation takes various forms, such as city twinning, transnational municipal networks and trans-local development cooperation. A key target of these initiatives is to develop joint projects and exchange knowledge to foster low-carbon development pathways. This study analyzes the conditions of success and failure in selected Indo-German urban low-carbon partnerships with a particular focus on institutional arrangements. The paper presents evidence from three initiatives and argues that successful trans-local cooperation depends largely on the interplay between institutional forms and the development of social capital. Building on these findings, the paper discusses what lessons may be drawn from the emergence of urban North-South cooperation for the future development of global climate governance.

  18. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce A; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-12-05

    Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems. These studies document the speed with which pathogens evolve to overcome crop resistance genes and pesticides. They also show that crop pathogens can be disseminated very quickly across and among continents through human activities. In this review, we discuss how the peculiar architecture of agro-ecosystems facilitates pathogen emergence, evolution and dispersal. We present four example pathosystems that illustrate both pathogen specialization and pathogen speciation, including different time frames for emergence and different mechanisms underlying the emergence process. Lastly, we argue for a re-design of agro-ecosystems that embraces the concept of dynamic diversity to improve their resilience to pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. The emergence of pan-resistant Gram-negative pathogens merits a rapid global political response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Timothy R; Toleman, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Recent media coverage of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) put antibiotic resistance back on the political map if only for the wrong reasons, mainly the reaction to the naming of NDM-1 and the incorrect assumption that medical tourism was being deliberately targeted. However, work on NDM-1 has most certainly highlighted the rapid dissemination of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms via economic globalization. The example of NDM-1 has also magnified the desperate need for a publicly funded global antibiotic surveillance system rather than just national or regional systems. Furthermore, there is a pressing need to establish a global task force to enforce international transparency and accountability on antibiotic stewardship and the implementation of measures to curb antibiotic resistance. An international antibiotic stewardship index should be established that is related to each country's gross domestic product (GDP) and assesses how much of their GDP is committed to publically funded health initiatives aimed at controlling antibiotic resistance.

  20. How transfer of R&D to emerging markets nurtures global innovation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2009-01-01

    In the context of global R&D, we connect literature on knowledge management to a network-based theoretical framework helpful to explain the impact of R&D globalisation on innovation performance. This framework is applied to two case companies, both global leaders within their respective industries......, in order to analyse the extent to which their strategic globalisation of R&D activities, from Scandinavia to China, has contributed to increased innovation performance. Our findings suggests that close interaction and cross-fertilisation with local knowledge networks are of eminent importance for newly...

  1. Global Food Prices and Business Cycle Dynamics in an Emerging Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Holtemöller, Oliver; Mallick, Sushanta

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a perception in the political debates as to what extent poor countries are affected by price movements in the global commodity markets. To test this perception, we use the case of India to establish in a standard SVAR model that global food prices influence aggregate prices and food prices in India. To further analyze these empirical results, we specify a small open economy New-Keynesian model including oil and food prices and estimate it using observed data over the p...

  2. A genomic portrait of the emergence, evolution, and global spread of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pandemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Matthew T G; Hsu, Li-Yang; Kurt, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in association with high-density clinical care has driven the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria that are adapted to thrive in hospitalized patients. Of particular concern are globally disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones...... to analyze the genome sequences for 193 S. aureus isolates, we were able to show that the current pandemic population of EMRSA-15 descends from a health-care-associated MRSA epidemic that spread throughout England in the 1980s, which had itself previously emerged from a primarily community...... of pathogen genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool. We document the genetic changes associated with adaptation to the hospital environment and with increasing drug resistance over time, and how MRSA evolution likely has been influenced by country-specific drug use regimens....

  3. Problems of an Emergent Written Language of the Global System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines a looming warfare on effective writing by the GSM technology in Nigeria. In what seems like a 'method in madness', the paper identifies an emerging 'written language of the GSM' via the lexemes, morphemes, syntax, and mechanics of punctuation, capitalization and spacing and use of symbols in ...

  4. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Saude Publica (Reports in Public Health), Rio de Janeiro. 16: 109-118, 2000. Anyamba A, Linthicum KJ, Mahoney R,Tucker CJ, Kelley PW. “Mapping spatial... Salud . Instutio Nacionale de Salud . Lima, Peru. 12 June 2000. Kelley PW. DoD-GEIS Initiatives in Syndromic and Other Surveillance Methods for Emerging

  5. The Emergence of Bilingual Education Discourse in Brazil: Bilingualisms, Language Policies, and Globalizing Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the social and political implications of the emergence of Portuguese-English bilingual education discourse in Brazil, which has been widely disseminated since the 1990s. Initially, a discursive analysis of prestige bilingualism concepts will be presented. Second, the issue of language policies will be addressed through the…

  6. The global burden of diabetes and its complications: an emerging pandemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieren, Susan; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Neal, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The number of patients with type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly in both developed and developing countries around the world. The emerging pandemic is driven by the combined effects of population ageing, rising levels of obesity and inactivity, and greater longevity among patients with diabetes

  7. Chromosperic oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    This review concentrates on the quiet-Sun chromosphere. Its internetwork areas are dynamically dominated by the so-called chromospheric three-minute oscillation. They are interpretationally dominated by the so-called Ca II K 2V and H 2V grains. The main points of this review are that the one

  8. Globalization and Developing Countries: Emerging Strategies of Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization process and the internal policy reforms that the developing countries have implemented during the past decade have changed the relative prices of practically all their inputs and outputs. Agricultural producers have therefore been forced to change the structure and methods of their

  9. Emergence of a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-08-22

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

  10. Emergence of a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well. PMID:28784792

  11. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  12. The Global Arena of Food Law: Emerging Contours of a Meta-Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Meulen (Bernd)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFood is one of the most regulated social and economic sectors. At the global level several organisations such as the UN, FAO, WHO, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the WTO play a role in food governance through formulating and enforcing rules regarding production, manufacturing,

  13. The OECD as Pivot of the Emerging Global Educational Accountability Regime: How Accountable Are the Accountants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: PISA has catapulted the OECD- an organization whose mission is the global growth of market economies-to a central role in international education policy making, rivaling and sometimes outdoing the various national governments in influence. While claiming scientific evidence as the basis for the accountability regime it…

  14. Global adaptation in networks of selfish components: emergent associative memory at the system scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L

    2011-01-01

    In some circumstances complex adaptive systems composed of numerous self-interested agents can self-organize into structures that enhance global adaptation, efficiency, or function. However, the general conditions for such an outcome are poorly understood and present a fundamental open question for domains as varied as ecology, sociology, economics, organismic biology, and technological infrastructure design. In contrast, sufficient conditions for artificial neural networks to form structures that perform collective computational processes such as associative memory/recall, classification, generalization, and optimization are well understood. Such global functions within a single agent or organism are not wholly surprising, since the mechanisms (e.g., Hebbian learning) that create these neural organizations may be selected for this purpose; but agents in a multi-agent system have no obvious reason to adhere to such a structuring protocol or produce such global behaviors when acting from individual self-interest. However, Hebbian learning is actually a very simple and fully distributed habituation or positive feedback principle. Here we show that when self-interested agents can modify how they are affected by other agents (e.g., when they can influence which other agents they interact with), then, in adapting these inter-agent relationships to maximize their own utility, they will necessarily alter them in a manner homologous with Hebbian learning. Multi-agent systems with adaptable relationships will thereby exhibit the same system-level behaviors as neural networks under Hebbian learning. For example, improved global efficiency in multi-agent systems can be explained by the inherent ability of associative memory to generalize by idealizing stored patterns and/or creating new combinations of subpatterns. Thus distributed multi-agent systems can spontaneously exhibit adaptive global behaviors in the same sense, and by the same mechanism, as with the organizational

  15. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here...... for ~66% of total cyanide removal. Simulations of our updated computational model show that intracellular cyanide reactions increase the amplitude of oscillations and that cyanide addition lowers [ACA] instantaneously. We conclude that cyanide provides the following means of inducing global oscillations......: a) by reducing [ACAx] relative to oscillation amplitude, b) by targeting multiple intracellular carbonyl compounds during fermentation, and c) by acting as a phase resetting stimulus....

  16. Papuan Bird's Head Seascape: emerging threats and challenges in the global center of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Erdmann, Mark V; Wilson, Joanne R; Huffard, Christine L; Ballamu, Ferdiel; Hidayat, Nur Ismu; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Lazuardi, Muhammad E; Muhajir; Pada, Defy; Purba, Gandi; Rotinsulu, Christovel; Rumetna, Lukas; Sumolang, Kartika; Wen, Wen

    2012-11-01

    The Bird's Head Seascape located in eastern Indonesia is the global epicenter of tropical shallow water marine biodiversity with over 600 species of corals and 1,638 species of coral reef fishes. The Seascape also includes critical habitats for globally threatened marine species, including sea turtles and cetaceans. Since 2001, the region has undergone rapid development in fisheries, oil and gas extraction, mining and logging. The expansion of these sectors, combined with illegal activities and poorly planned coastal development, is accelerating deterioration of coastal and marine environments. At the same time, regency governments have expanded their marine protected area networks to cover 3,594,702 ha of islands and coastal waters. Low population numbers, relatively healthy natural resources and a strong tenure system in eastern Indonesia provide an opportunity for government and local communities to collaboratively manage their resources sustainably to ensure long-term food security, while meeting their development aspirations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hotel industry: An answer to the emerging trends on the global demand side of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Duarte Maria Amaral Nogueira e

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation studies essentially how Millennials are changing the hotel industry, in the sense that new trends are emerging with this generation and hotels need to respond accordingly, in order to survive within their competitive industry. Emphasis is also given to Asian travellers, as the enlargement of these countries’ middle class populations is predicted, therefore making Asian travellers a valuable target for the hotel industry. To successfully target this segment, ho...

  18. Empirical dynamics of emerging financial markets during the global mortgage crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Erdem Aktuğ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on five major emerging markets, I investigate the interactions between credit default swap premiums, foreign exchange rates, local currency government bond spreads, and national stock market returns over the period 4/2/2007 to 8/27/2009. Empirical analysis indicates that bond markets, along with foreign exchange markets, were very dominant in the price discovery process during a common distressed period.

  19. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Meanwhile, resistance to macrolide antibi- otics, erythromycin, and azithromycin, was detected in 6% of Thai isolates but in none of the isolates...meeting on surveillance for emerging diseases. Another co-spon- sored conference and workshop was on pediatric bacterial meningitis. NAMRU-3 staff supported...rehabilitated a portion of the pediatric ward. In attendance at the opening ceremony were the Deputy Director of KEMRI, the acting Malindi District Medical

  20. Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Y Lewin; Silvia Massini; Carine Peeters

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically studies determinants of decision by companies to offshore innovation activities. It uses survey data from the international Offshoring Research Network project to estimate the impact of managerial intentionality, past experience, and environmental factors on the probability of offshoring innovation projects. The results show that the emerging shortage of highly skilled science and engineering talent in the US and, more generally, the need to access qualified personnel a...

  1. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    lance, prevention, and response is inadequate to protect the health of United States citizens from emerging infectious diseases.” “The mission of...Cairo) added specimens from Egypt and Syria. The Air Force has also developed the ability to correlate the immu- nization status of Air Force personnel...2 years had rotavirus infections. Among these children, 11.4% had Campylobacter spp, 11.4% had Shigella spp, and 1% had Salmonella. Overall 9.9% of

  2. Emerging ‘Donor’, Geopolitical Actor: South Africa in the Global Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sidiropoulos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanAn active participant in the various global debates and motivated by a desire to address global inequalities and power imbalances in rule-making, South Africa seeks to balance its domestic imperatives with an enlightened developmentally-minded foreign policy where Africa is the priority. Since 1994 South Africa has initiated many activities that may be described as development cooperation. However, with the exception of the African Renaissance Fund (ARF, it has lacked an overarching architecture for its assistance, which has been fragmented among various departments and agencies with very little coherence, bar their focus on Africa. The establishment of the South African Development Partnership Agency (SADPA within the Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO by the first half of 2012 is poised to address many of these shortcomings, ensuring greater intragovernmental coordination and evaluation. In embarking on this path, South Africa will engage more in the future structure of international development, arguing for a broader definition of development cooperation and a framework that has evolved with input from the South. The fluidity in global development provides an opportunity for South Africa to help bridge the divide between North and South, and encourage policy innovation in the aid debate.

  3. A coupled-oscillator model of olfactory bulb gamma oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshi Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system. To understand this transformation and its integration with interareal coordination mechanisms requires that we understand its fundamental dynamical principles. Using a biophysically explicit, multiscale model of olfactory bulb circuitry, we here demonstrate that an inhibition-coupled intrinsic oscillator framework, pyramidal resonance interneuron network gamma (PRING, best captures the diversity of physiological properties exhibited by the olfactory bulb. Most importantly, these properties include global zero-phase synchronization in the gamma band, the phase-restriction of informative spikes in principal neurons with respect to this common clock, and the robustness of this synchronous oscillatory regime to multiple challenging conditions observed in the biological system. These conditions include substantial heterogeneities in afferent activation levels and excitatory synaptic weights, high levels of uncorrelated background activity among principal neurons, and spike frequencies in both principal neurons and interneurons that are irregular in time and much lower than the gamma frequency. This coupled cellular oscillator architecture permits stable and replicable ensemble responses to diverse sensory stimuli under various external conditions as well as to changes in network parameters arising from learning-dependent synaptic plasticity.

  4. A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frigola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  5. FEL Oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2003-05-12

    FEL Oscillators have been around since 1977 providing not only a test bed for the physics of Free Electron Lasers and electron/photon interactions but as a workhorse of scientific research. More than 30 FEL oscillators are presently operating around the world spanning a wavelength range from the mm region to the ultraviolet using DC and rf linear accelerators and storage rings as electron sources. The characteristics that have driven the development of these sources are the desire for high peak and average power, high micropulse energies, wavelength tunability, timing flexibility, and wavelengths that are unavailable from more conventional laser sources. Substantial user programs have been performed using such sources encompassing medicine, biology, solid state research, atomic and molecular physics, effects of non-linear fields, surface science, polymer science, pulsed laser vapor deposition, to name just a few.

  6. Projecting the Global Distribution of the Emerging Amphibian Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Based on IPCC Climate Futures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselle Yang Xie

    Full Text Available Projected changes in climate conditions are emerging as significant risk factors to numerous species, affecting habitat conditions and community interactions. Projections suggest species range shifts in response to climate change modifying environmental suitability and is supported by observational evidence. Both pathogens and their hosts can shift ranges with climate change. We consider how climate change may influence the distribution of the emerging infectious amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, a pathogen associated with worldwide amphibian population losses. Using an expanded global Bd database and a novel modeling approach, we examined a broad set of climate metrics to model the Bd-climate niche globally and regionally, then project how climate change may influence Bd distributions. Previous research showed that Bd distribution is dependent on climatic variables, in particular temperature. We trained a machine-learning model (random forest with the most comprehensive global compilation of Bd sampling records (~5,000 site-level records, mid-2014 summary, including 13 climatic variables. We projected future Bd environmental suitability under IPCC scenarios. The learning model was trained with combined worldwide data (non-region specific and also separately per region (region-specific. One goal of our study was to estimate of how Bd spatial risks may change under climate change based on the best available data. Our models supported differences in Bd-climate relationships among geographic regions. We projected that Bd ranges will shift into higher latitudes and altitudes due to increased environmental suitability in those regions under predicted climate change. Specifically, our model showed a broad expansion of areas environmentally suitable for establishment of Bd on amphibian hosts in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Our projections are useful for the development of monitoring designs in these areas

  7. Projecting the Global Distribution of the Emerging Amphibian Fungal Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Based on IPCC Climate Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gisselle Yang; Olson, Deanna H; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in climate conditions are emerging as significant risk factors to numerous species, affecting habitat conditions and community interactions. Projections suggest species range shifts in response to climate change modifying environmental suitability and is supported by observational evidence. Both pathogens and their hosts can shift ranges with climate change. We consider how climate change may influence the distribution of the emerging infectious amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen associated with worldwide amphibian population losses. Using an expanded global Bd database and a novel modeling approach, we examined a broad set of climate metrics to model the Bd-climate niche globally and regionally, then project how climate change may influence Bd distributions. Previous research showed that Bd distribution is dependent on climatic variables, in particular temperature. We trained a machine-learning model (random forest) with the most comprehensive global compilation of Bd sampling records (~5,000 site-level records, mid-2014 summary), including 13 climatic variables. We projected future Bd environmental suitability under IPCC scenarios. The learning model was trained with combined worldwide data (non-region specific) and also separately per region (region-specific). One goal of our study was to estimate of how Bd spatial risks may change under climate change based on the best available data. Our models supported differences in Bd-climate relationships among geographic regions. We projected that Bd ranges will shift into higher latitudes and altitudes due to increased environmental suitability in those regions under predicted climate change. Specifically, our model showed a broad expansion of areas environmentally suitable for establishment of Bd on amphibian hosts in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Our projections are useful for the development of monitoring designs in these areas, especially for

  8. Travelling Frictions: Global Disease Self-Management, Local Comparisons and Emergent patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Annegrete; Bruun Jensen, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary disease self-management programs aim to renegotiate the terms on which patients participate in their own health care. Though the notion of ‘patient 2.0’ has mainly been used to speak to patient empowerment through IT, we therefore propose to view self-management as eliciting “the...... patient” in a diff erent shape. In this paper, we explore the embedded assumptions, imagined potentials and concrete practices of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), in order to understand how this program reconfigures a particular form of global patient....

  9. India and China in Comparative Perspective- Emerging Asian and Global Powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    in climate change policy, world trade and to a certain extent in security and energy matters. However disagreement persists on unresolved problems in terms of attracting FDI and other economic issues such as resources and energy. When it comes to the regional Asia settings, the global alignment and foreign......The aim of this paper is to entangle the comparative political economic relations between India and China by first exploring some theoretical ideas and then attempting to outline the bilateral and strategic foreign policy ties where unresolved (border) issues still haunt the relationship...

  10. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day.

  11. Nutritional psychiatry research: an emerging discipline and its intersection with global urbanization, environmental challenges and the evolutionary mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan C; Jacka, Felice N

    2014-07-24

    In 21st-century public health, rapid urbanization and mental health disorders are a growing global concern. The relationship between diet, brain function and the risk of mental disorders has been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this review, we examine some of the potential socioeconomic and environmental challenges detracting from the traditional dietary patterns that might otherwise support positive mental health. In the context of urban expansion, climate change, cultural and technological changes and the global industrialization and ultraprocessing of food, findings related to nutrition and mental health are connected to some of the most pressing issues of our time. The research is also of relevance to matters of biophysiological anthropology. We explore some aspects of a potential evolutionary mismatch between our ancestral past (Paleolithic, Neolithic) and the contemporary nutritional environment. Changes related to dietary acid load, advanced glycation end products and microbiota (via dietary choices and cooking practices) may be of relevance to depression, anxiety and other mental disorders. In particular, the results of emerging studies demonstrate the importance of prenatal and early childhood dietary practices within the developmental origins of health and disease concept. There is still much work to be done before these population studies and their mirrored advances in bench research can provide translation to clinical medicine and public health policy. However, the clear message is that in the midst of a looming global epidemic, we ignore nutrition at our peril.

  12. Power from space for use on earth - An emerging global option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The concept of the earth as a closed ecological system is addressed from the point of view of the availability and use of energy from space and its potential influence on the economies of both developed and developing countries. The results of past studies of the solar power satellite (SPS) are reviewed, and the current international activities exploring various aspects of an SPS are mentioned. The functions of an SPS, including collection of solar energy in orbit, conversion to an intermediate form of energy, transmission of energy from orbit to earth, and conversion to useful energy in the most appropriate form are discussed. Directions for future developments are addressed including a suggested planning framework. Salient aspects of SPS technologies are presented, and the potential benefits of the uses of lunar materials for the SPS construction are outlined. Scenarios within the context of international participation in a global SPS system are presented. The conclusion is drawn that an SPS system is one of the few promising, globally applicable power generation options that has the potential to meet energy demands in the 21st Century and to achieve the inevitable transition to inexhaustible and renewable energy sources.

  13. Power from space for use on earth: An emerging global option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Earth as a closed ecological system is addressed from the point of view of the availability and use of energy from space and its potential influence on the economies of both developed and developing countries. The results of past studies of the solar power satellite (SPS) are reviewed, and the current international activities exploring various aspects of an SPS are mentioned. The functions of an SPS, including collection of solar energy in orbit, conversion to an intermediate form of energy, transmission of energy from orbit to Earth, and conversion to useful energy in the most appropriate form are discussed. Directions for future developments are addressed including a suggested planning framework. Salient aspects of SPS technologies are presented, and the potential benefits of the uses of lunar materials for the SPS construction are outlined. Scenarios within the context of international participation in a global SPS system are presented. The conclusion is drawn that an SPS system is one of the few promising, globally applicable power generation options that has the potential to meet energy demands in the 21st Century and to achieve the inevitable transition to inexhaustible and renewable energy sources.

  14. Emerging from the tragedies in Bangladesh: a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Björn Skorpen

    2015-02-01

    Under the regime of private company or multi-stakeholder voluntary codes of conduct and industry social auditing, workers have absorbed low wages and unsafe and abusive conditions; labor leaders and union members have become the targets of both government and factory harassment and violence; and trade union power has waned. Nowhere have these private systems of codes and audits so clearly failed to protect workers as in Bangladesh's apparel industry. However, international labor groups and Bangladeshi unions have succeeded in mounting a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy, persuading more than 180 companies to make a binding and enforceable commitment to workers' safety in an agreement with 12 unions. The extent to which this Bangladesh Accord will be able to influence the entrenched global regime of voluntary codes and weak trade unions remains an open question. But if the Accord can make progress in Bangladesh, it can help to inspire similar efforts in other countries and in other industries. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  15. Global situation of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever, and its emergence in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, F P; Corber, S J

    1997-01-01

    About two-thirds of the world's population live in areas infested with dengue vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. All four dengue viruses are circulating, sometimes simultaneously, in most of these areas. It is estimated that up to 80 million persons become infected annually although marked underreporting results in the notification of much smaller figures. Currently dengue is endemic in all continents except Europe and epidemic dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurs in Asia, the Americas and some Pacific islands. The incidence of DHF is much greater in the Asian countries than in other regions. In Asian countries the disease continues to affect children predominantly although a marked increase in the number of DHF cases in people over 15 years old has been observed in the Philippines and Malaysia during recent years. In the 1990's DHF has continued to show a higher incidence in South-East Asia, particularly in Viet Nam and Thailand which together account for more than two-thirds of the DHF cases reported in Asia. However, an increase in the number of reported cases has been noted in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Myanmar, Malaysia, India, Singapore and Sri Lanka during the period 1991-1995 as compared to the preceding 5-year period. In the Americas, the emergence of epidemic DHF occurred in 1981 almost 30 years after its appearance in Asia, and its incidence is showing a marked upward trend. In 1981 Cuba reported the first major outbreak of DHF in the Americas, during which a total of 344,203 cases of dengue were notified, including 10,312 severe cases and 158 deaths. The DHF Cuban epidemic was associated with a strain of dengue-2 virus and it occurred four years after dengue-1 had been introduced in the island causing epidemics of dengue fever. Prior to this event suspected cases of DHF or fatal dengue cases had been reported by five countries but only a few of them fulfilled the WHO criteria for diagnosis of DHF. The outbreak in Cuba is

  16. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.

  17. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Buta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.

  18. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal......The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  19. From Neural and Social Cooperation to the Global Emergence of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eGrigolini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent article cite{hebbian} discusses the emergence of intelligencevia criticality as a consequence of locality breakdown. Herein, we use criticality for the foundation of a novel generation of game theory making the local interaction between players yield long-range effects.We first establish that criticality is not confined to the Ising-like structure of the sociological model of cite{hebbian}, called the decision making model (DMM, through the study of the emergence of altruism using the altruism-selfishness model (ASM. Bothmodels generate criticality, one by imitation of opinion (DMM the other byimitation of behavior (ASM.The dynamics of a sociological network $mathcal{S}$ influences thebehavioral network $mathcal{F}$ through two game theoretic paradigms:(i emph{the value of altruism} ; (ii emph{the benefit of rapid consensus}.In (i the network $mathcal{S}$ debates the moral issue ofaltruism by means of the DMM, while at the level $mathcal{F}$ the individuals operate according to the ASM. The individuals of the level $mathcal{S}$, through a weak influence on the individuals of the level $mathcal{F}$,exert a societal control on $mathcal{F}$, fitting the principle of complexity management and complexity matching. In (ii the benefit to society is the rapid attainment of consensus in the $mathcal{S}$ level.The agents of the level $mathcal{F}$ operate according to the prisoner'sdilemma prescription, with the defectors acting as DMMcontrarians at the level $mathcal{S}$. The contrarians, acting as the inhibitory links of neural networks, exert on society the same beneficial effect of maintaining the criticality-induced resilience that they generate in neural networks. The conflict between personal and social benefit makes the networks evolve toward criticality.Finally, we show that the theory of this article is compatible with recent discoveries in the burgeoning field of social neuroscience.

  20. Oscillators and Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1997-01-01

    In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos.......In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear...

  1. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  2. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  3. Genomic analysis of globally diverse Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains provides insights into emergence and spread of multidrug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Abigail L.; Cohen, Keira A.; Abeel, Thomas; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Derek T.; Barry, Clifton E.; Brand, Jeannette; Chapman, Sinéad B.; Cho, Sang-Nae; Gabrielian, Andrei; Gomez, James; Jodals, Andreea M.; Joloba, Moses; Jureen, Pontus; Lee, Jong Seok; Malinga, Lesibana; Maiga, Mamoudou; Nordenberg, Dale; Noroc, Ecaterina; Romancenco, Elena; Salazar, Alex; Ssengooba, Willy; Velayati, A. A.; Winglee, Kathryn; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Via, Laura E.; Cassell, Gail H.; Dorman, Susan E.; Ellner, Jerrold; Farnia, Parissa; Galagan, James E.; Rosenthal, Alex; Crudu, Valeriu; Homorodean, Daniela; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Narayanan, Sujatha; Pym, Alexander S.; Skrahina, Alena; Swaminathan, Soumya; Van der Walt, Martie; Alland, David; Bishai, William R.; Cohen, Ted; Hoffner, Sven; Birren, Bruce W.; Earl, Ashlee M.

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), caused by drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an increasingly serious problem worldwide. In this study, we examined a dataset of 5,310 M. tuberculosis whole genome sequences from five continents. Despite great diversity with respect to geographic point of isolation, genetic background and drug resistance, patterns of drug resistance emergence were conserved globally. We have identified harbinger mutations that often precede MDR. In particular, the katG S315T mutation, conferring resistance to isoniazid, overwhelmingly arose before rifampicin resistance across all lineages, geographic regions, and time periods. Molecular diagnostics that include markers for rifampicin resistance alone will be insufficient to identify pre-MDR strains. Incorporating knowledge of pre-MDR polymorphisms, particularly katG S315, into molecular diagnostics will enable targeted treatment of patients with pre-MDR-TB to prevent further development of MDR-TB. PMID:28092681

  4. Potential strategies for control of bluetongue, a globally emerging, Culicoides-transmitted viral disease of ruminant livestock and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, N James; Mayo, Christie E

    2013-08-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a non-zoonotic arboviral disease of certain wild and domestic species of cloven-hoofed ungulates. The causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV), is spread through temperate and tropical regions of the world by biting Culicoides midges. Control of BTV infection is complicated by the plurality of virus serotypes and the ubiquity and opportunistic feeding behavior of its midge vector. The global distribution of BTV infection has recently altered, perhaps driven in part by climatic influences on midge species resident in different regions. The goal of this review is to evaluate realistic strategies that might be utilized to control or prevent future outbreaks of BT and other Culicoides-transmitted diseases. Importantly, optimal control of emerging, rapidly evolving arbovirus diseases such as BT will require integrated countermeasures that mitigate all aspects of the virus's transmission cycle. This will best be accomplished using preventative, rather than purely reactive strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Global end-diastolic volume an emerging preload marker vis-a-vis other markers - Have we reached our goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable estimation of cardiac preload is helpful in the management of severe circulatory dysfunction. The estimation of cardiac preload has evolved from nuclear angiography, pulmonary artery catheterization to echocardiography, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD. Global end-diastolic volume (GEDV is the combined end-diastolic volumes of all the four cardiac chambers. GEDV has been demonstrated to be a reliable preload marker in comparison with traditionally used pulmonary artery catheter-derived pressure preload parameters. Recently, a new TPTD system called EV1000™ has been developed and introduced into the expanding field of advanced hemodynamic monitoring. GEDV has emerged as a better preload marker than its previous conventional counterparts. The advantage of it being measured by minimum invasive methods such as PiCCO™ and newly developed EV1000™ system makes it a promising bedside advanced hemodynamic parameter.

  6. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  7. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...... signal in response to the oscillation indicating signal, by processing the oscillation damping control signal in a signal processing chain. The signal processing chain includes a filter configured for passing only signals within a predetermined frequency range....

  8. The MUTENAGE Project (MUsical Tools for ENhancing the Awareness of Global Emergencies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Antonio; Pontani, Stefano; Sapia, Vincenzo; Lanza, Tiziana

    2017-04-01

    Music can be a powerful device for raising awareness about environmental issues. Following the trend, we are organizing a project to specifically address climatic and environmental emergencies. To this aim, we use the transformation of geophysical data into musical notes, according to the procedure (EMusic) defined by Menghini and Pontani (2016). We claim that it is possible to compose musical tracks describing faithfully the geological and environmental setting of various sites, which we choose by considering five main topics: 1) Pollution of aquifers; 2) Seawater intrusion along the coastlines; 3) Seismic risk; 4) Drought; 5) Permafrost melting; The TDEM method (Time Domain Electromagnetics) shows an excellent diagnostic feature for each of these environmental emergencies. It is not surprising that the technical-scientific community widely acquire TDEM data since many years as the variations of the recorded signal (voltage) duly reflect the modifications induced on the Earth system. Through the sonification process, we can associate well-defined musical "footprints" to these geophysical variations. Then, we have an extraordinary didactic-popular tool that we can use to communicate and sensitize people and students of every age and grade about the impact of climatic-environmental changes. In this occasion, we present, among others, the example of the musical effect of seawater intrusion that is well marked by the progressive increase of the pitches when approaching the coastline. In many cases, the relationship between geophysical response and high environmental risk is straight: for instance, pollutants, like leachate or polluted groundwater, can produce high voltage responses and/or similar high voltage signals can be produced by soils affected by permafrost melting. Nevertheless, there are situations in which the diagnostic feature of TDEM is fair, however, even if the data interpretation is less immediate, so that it requires an accurate processing and

  9. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Brook, Jeff; Qonitan, Fatimah D.; Dong, Jinlu; Griffith, Derek; He, Kebin; Holben, Brent N.; Kahn, Ralph; Lagrosas, Nofel; Lestari, Puji; Ma, Zongwei; Misra, Amit; Norford, Leslie K.; Quel, Eduardo J.; Salam, Abdus; Schichtel, Bret; Segev, Lior; Tripathi, Sachchida; Wang, Chien; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark D.; Liu, Yang; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall V.

    2016-08-01

    The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD).We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD) are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %), crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %), equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %), ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %), sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %), trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %), water (7.2 % ± 3.3 %) at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %).Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m-3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) to 17 µg m-3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer) to 6.8 µg m-3 (Kanpur, dry season). Equivalent black carbon ranged from 0.7 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave) to over 8 µg m-3 (Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kanpur

  10. The Impact of Global Environmental Changes on Infectious Disease Emergence with a Focus on Risks for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Alessandra; Shimabukuro, Juliana Suieko; Chmura, Aleksei A; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2017-12-15

    Environmental changes have a huge impact on the emergence and reemergence of certain infectious diseases, mostly in countries with high biodiversity and serious unresolved environmental, social, and economic issues. This article summarizes the most important findings with special attention to Brazil and diseases of present public health importance in the country such as Chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, leptospirosis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. An extensive literature review revealed a relationship between infectious diseases outbreaks and climate change events (El Niño, La Niña, heatwaves, droughts, floods, increased temperature, higher rainfall, and others) or environmental changes (habitat fragmentation, deforestation, urbanization, bushmeat consumption, and others). To avoid or control outbreaks, integrated surveillance systems and effective outreach programs are essential. Due to strong global and local influence on emergence of infectious diseases, a more holistic approach is necessary to mitigate or control them in low-income nations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The global forum on bioethics in research meeting, "ethics of research in pregnancy": emerging consensus themes and outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Adrienne; Banner, Natalie; Littler, Katherine

    2017-12-14

    Research during pregnancy is affected by multiple ethical challenges which have not received sufficient international attention and consideration from the bioethics, clinical, and policymaking communities working together. Unresolved ethical questions about research in pregnancy have significant detrimental impacts on maternal and newborn health, in part because they inhibit an evidence base being developed on the efficacy and safety of medicines and health interventions for pregnant women. These problems are compounded in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings due to variability in regulatory provisions, the burden of maternal morbidity and mortality, and many social and cultural conventions that impact on pregnant women's ability to participate in research. Research in pregnancy was chosen as a topic for the 2016 Global Forum on Bioethics in Research (GFBR) meeting, and its timeliness was all the more apparent given the 2016 Zika outbreak, which has deeply affected the Latin American region. The meeting's emerging consensus themes and outputs epitomized the core aims of the GFBR-to give voice to LMIC perspectives as a priority in dialogue about global health research ethics and to promote collaboration. In this instance, the GFBR meeting catalyzed a strong, unified drive to push researchers and policymakers to include pregnant women in research by default: given the complex nature of the topic, this is a significant achievement in addressing an important question of social justice.

  12. Genomic Analysis of the Emergence and Rapid Global Dissemination of the Clonal Group 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jolene R; Kitchel, Brandon; Driebe, Elizabeth M; MacCannell, Duncan R; Roe, Chandler; Lemmer, Darrin; de Man, Tom; Rasheed, J Kamile; Engelthaler, David M; Keim, Paul; Limbago, Brandi M

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing the KPC carbapenemase have rapidly spread throughout the world, causing severe healthcare-associated infections with limited antimicrobial treatment options. Dissemination of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is largely attributed to expansion of a single dominant strain, ST258. In this study, we explore phylogenetic relationships and evolution within ST258 and its clonal group, CG258, using whole genome sequence analysis of 167 isolates from 20 countries collected over 17 years. Our results show a common ST258 ancestor emerged from its diverse parental clonal group around 1995 and likely acquired blaKPC prior to dissemination. Over the past two decades, ST258 has remained highly clonal despite diversity in accessory elements and divergence in the capsule polysaccharide synthesis locus. Apart from the large recombination event that gave rise to ST258, few mutations set it apart from its clonal group. However, one mutation occurs in a global transcription regulator. Characterization of outer membrane protein sequences revealed a profile in ST258 that includes a truncated OmpK35 and modified OmpK37. Our work illuminates potential genomic contributors to the pathogenic success of ST258, helps us better understand the global dissemination of this strain, and identifies genetic markers unique to ST258.

  13. Global molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Fusarium, a significant emerging group of human opportunists from 1958 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah MS; Hagen, Ferry; Menken, Steph BJ; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium is a rapidly emerging, multidrug-resistant genus of fungal opportunists that was first identified in 1958 and is presently recognized in numerous cases of fusariosis each year. The authors examined trends in global Fusarium distribution, clinical presentation and prevalence since 1958 with the assumption that their distributions in each region had remained unaltered. The phylogeny and epidemiology of 127 geographically diverse isolates, representing 26 Fusarium species, were evaluated using partial sequences of the RPB2 and TEF1 genes, and compared with AFLP fingerprinting data. The molecular data of the Fusarium species were compared with archived data, which enabled the interpretation of hundreds of cases published in the literature. Our findings indicate that fusariosis is globally distributed with a focus in (sub)tropical areas. Considerable species diversity has been observed; genotypic features did not reveal any clustering with either the clinical data or environmental origins. This study suggests that infections with Fusarium species might be truly opportunistic. The three most common species are F. falciforme and F. keratoplasticum (members of F. solani species complex), followed by F. oxysporum (F. oxysporum species complex). PMID:27924809

  14. Emerging Trends in the Globalization of Knowledge: The Role of the Technical Report in Aerospace Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    Economists, management theorists, business strategists, and governments alike recognize knowledge as the single most important resource in today's global economy. Because of its relationship to technological progress and economic growth, many governments have taken a keen interest in knowledge, specifically its production, transfer, and use. This paper focuses on the technical report as a product for disseminating the results of aerospace research and development (R&D) and its use and importance to aerospace engineers and scientists. The emergence of knowledge as an intellectual asset, its relationship to innovation, and its importance in a global economy provides the context for the paper. The relationships between government and knowledge and between government and innovation are used to placed knowledge within the context of publicly-funded R&D. Data, including the reader preferences of NASA technical reports, are derived from the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, a ten-year study of knowledge diffusion in the U.S. aerospace industry.

  15. Global molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Fusarium, a significant emerging group of human opportunists from 1958 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah Ms; Hagen, Ferry; Menken, Steph Bj; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-12-07

    Fusarium is a rapidly emerging, multidrug-resistant genus of fungal opportunists that was first identified in 1958 and is presently recognized in numerous cases of fusariosis each year. The authors examined trends in global Fusarium distribution, clinical presentation and prevalence since 1958 with the assumption that their distributions in each region had remained unaltered. The phylogeny and epidemiology of 127 geographically diverse isolates, representing 26 Fusarium species, were evaluated using partial sequences of the RPB2 and TEF1 genes, and compared with AFLP fingerprinting data. The molecular data of the Fusarium species were compared with archived data, which enabled the interpretation of hundreds of cases published in the literature. Our findings indicate that fusariosis is globally distributed with a focus in (sub)tropical areas. Considerable species diversity has been observed; genotypic features did not reveal any clustering with either the clinical data or environmental origins. This study suggests that infections with Fusarium species might be truly opportunistic. The three most common species are F. falciforme and F. keratoplasticum (members of F. solani species complex), followed by F. oxysporum (F. oxysporum species complex).

  16. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Hydrological Dynamics of Central America: Time-of-Emergence of the Global Warming Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, P. A.; Georgiou, S.; Calderer, L.; Coto, A.; Nakaegawa, T.; Chou, S. C.; Lyra, A. A.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Ciais, P.

    2016-12-01

    Central America is among the world's most vulnerable regions to climate variability and change. Country economies are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and over 40 million people's rural livelihoods directly depend on the use of natural resources. Future climate scenarios show a drier outlook (higher temperatures and lower precipitation) over a region where rural livelihoods are already compromised by water availability and climate variability. Previous efforts to validate modelling of the regional hydrology have been based on high resolution (1 km2) equilibrium models (Imbach et al., 2010) or using dynamic models (Variable Infiltration Capacity) with coarse climate forcing (0.5°) (Hidalgo et al., 2013; Maurer et al., 2009). We present here: (i) validation of the hydrological outputs from high-resolution simulations (10 km2) of a dynamic vegetation model (Orchidee), using 7 different sets of model input forcing data, with monthly runoff observations from 182 catchments across Central America; (ii) the first assessments of the region's hydrological variability using the historical simulations (iii) an estimation of the time of emergence of the climate change signal (under the SRES emission scenarios) on the water balance. We found model performance to be comparable with that from studies in other world regions (Yang et al. 2016) when forced with high resolution precipitation data (monthly values at 5 km2, Funk et al. (2015)) and the Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.2, Harris et al. (2014)) dataset of meteorological parameters. Validation results showed a Pearson correlation coefficient ≈ 0.6, general underestimation of runoff of ≈ 60% and variability close to observed values (ratio of standard deviations of ≈ 0.7). Maps of historical runoff are presented to show areas where high runoff variability follows high mean annual runoff, with opposite trends over the Caribbean. Future scenarios show large areas where future maximum water availability will

  18. Turkey's role as a regional and global player and its power capacity: Turkey's engagement with other emerging states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Gürzel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey's role as a regional power has increased since Justice and Development Party (AKP came to power. AKP leadership not only aspired to become a regional power but also a global player. Turkey has, therefore, assumed different roles: the "natural leader" of the region; a historical "big brother;" and the "protector" of the Muslim minorities. Turkey has also assumed a "mediator" and a "facilitator" role by trying to negotiate a deal with an emerging power such as Brazil in order to attempt to resolve the controversial Iranian nuclear issue. By making use of recent developments, Turkey tried to solidify its long desired role as a "rising power" by increasing its influence in its neighborhood and engaging with other emerging powers. The concept "regional power" is a context-based notion. In other words, the location and geography are contesting and disputed approaches. Notwithstanding the fact that concepts such as "region" and "power" are social constructed reality, this paper analyzes the notion of 'regional power' as a subcategory of 'power'. In this context, this paper will make use of Stefan Schim's criteria while analyzing Turkey's power capacity in the region. Schim posits that the "regional power" needs to have a "role definition," and it should possess material power (hard power. It should also have economic as well as diplomatic and organizational capacity. Its power whether it is 'soft power' (attraction of ones idea's and or the ability to set the political agenda in a way that shapes the preferences of other actors or 'hard power' (material power that can be measured-economic and military power needs to be acknowledged by other actors in the region. It should also be accepted by great powers and emerging powers that are determinant in the international system. dditionally, the regional power (and/ or global power needs to have leverage, thus its power projection needs to yield results. Kalevi Holsti's role theory will be used as

  19. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Snider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5. Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD.We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2–26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %, crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %, equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %, ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %, sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %, trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %, water (7.2 % ± 3.3 % at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %.Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m−3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina to 17 µg m−3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season. Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m−3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer to 6.8  µg m−3 (Kanpur, dry season. Equivalent

  20. Variation in Global Chemical Composition of PM2.5: Emerging Results from SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM (sub 2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM (sub 2.5) in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM (sub 2.5), with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM (sub 2.5) and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). We have examined the chemical composition of PM (sub 2.5) at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM (sub 2.5) constituents across all sites (relative contribution plus or minus Standard Deviation) are ammoniated sulfate (20 percent plus or minus 11 percent), crustal material (13.4 percent plus or minus 9.9 percent), equivalent black carbon (11.9 percent plus or minus 8.4 percent), ammonium nitrate (4.7 percent plus or minus 3.0 percent), sea salt (2.3 percent plus or minus 1.6 percent), trace element oxides (1.0 percent plus or minus 1.1 percent), water (7.2 percent plus or minus 3.3 percent) at 35 percent relative humidity, and residual matter (40 percent plus or minus 24 percent). Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM (sub 2.5) chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 microns per

  1. Decay of oscillating universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Audrey Todhunter

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested by Ellis et al that the universe could be eternal in the past, without beginning. In their model, the "emergent universe'' exists forever in the past, in an "eternal'' phase before inflation begins. We will show that in general, such an "eternal'' phase is not possible, because of an instability due to quantum tunneling. One candidate model, the "simple harmonic universe'' has been shown by Graham et al to be perturbatively stable; we find that it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling. We also investigate the stability of a distinct oscillating model in loop quantum cosmology with respect to small perturbations and to quantum collapse. We find that the model has perturbatively stable and unstable solutions, with both types of solutions occupying significant regions of the parameter space. All solutions are unstable with respect to collapse by quantum tunneling to zero size. In addition, we investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and the Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. Finally, we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe. Although the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence in canonical quantum cosmology, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. Here, we apply this approach to the simple harmonic universe, by extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field φ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock''.

  2. World Health Assembly Resolution 60.22 and its importance as a health care policy tool for improving emergency care access and availability globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip D; Suter, Robert E; Mulligan, Terrence; Bodiwala, Gautam; Razzak, Junaid A; Mock, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The recent adoption of World Health Assembly Resolution 60.22, titled "Health Systems: Emergency Care Systems," has established an important health care policy tool for improving emergency care access and availability globally. The resolution highlights the role that strengthened emergency care systems can play in reducing the increasing burden of disease from acute illness and injury in populations across the socioeconomic spectrum and calls on governments and the World Health Organization to take specific and concrete actions to make this happen. This resolution constitutes recognition by the World Health Assembly of the growing public health role of emergency care systems and is the highest level of international attention ever devoted to emergency care systems worldwide. Emergency care systems for secondary prevention of acute illnesses and injury remain inadequately developed in many low- and middle-income countries, despite evidence that basic strategies for improving emergency care systems can reduce preventable mortality and morbidity and can in many cases also be cost-effective. Emergency care providers and their professional organizations have used their comprehensive expertise to strengthen emergency care systems worldwide through the development of tools for emergency medicine education, systems assessment, quality improvement, and evidence-based clinical practice. World Health Assembly 60.22 represents a unique opportunity for emergency care providers and other advocates for improved emergency care to engage with national and local health care officials and policymakers, as well as with the World Health Organization, and leverage the expertise within the international emergency medicine community to make substantial improvements in emergency care delivery in places where it is most needed. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When does globalization lead to local adaptation? The emergence of hybrid Islamic schools in Turkey, 1985-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çakmaklı, Anıl Divarcı; Boone, Christophe; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Institutional perspectives of globalization envision thehomogenization of the world through global cultural, economic, and political dynamics, while glocalization theory highlights how local cultures may adapt or resist global forces. On the basis of these theories, the authors analyze when, where,

  4. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public

  5. The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From ′lessons learned′ to coordinated multilateral containment efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola

  6. Nonlinear Analysis of Ring Oscillator and Cross-Coupled Oscillator Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-12-01

    Hassan Khalil’s research results and beautifully written textbook on nonlinear systems have influenced generations of researchers, including the authors of this paper. Using nonlinear systems techniques, this paper analyzes ring oscillator and cross-coupled oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. The paper first investigates local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator by making use of its cyclic structure. It next studies global stability properties of a class of cross-coupled oscillators which admit the representation of a dynamic system in feedback with a static nonlinearity, and presents su cient conditions for almost global convergence of the solutions to a limit cycle when the feedback gain is in the vicinity of a bifurcation point. The result are also extended to the synchronization of interconnected identical oscillator circuits.

  7. Emerging Concept of Internationalisation in South African Higher Education: Conversations on Local and Global Exposure at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Michael; Mhlanga, Ehpraim; Ojo, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Rather than paying attention to the specific approaches emerging from different contexts, current debates tend to privilege Western-universalizing concepts of internationalisation, unproblematically accepted as globally established truths. In South Africa, where the legacy of isolation and the dominance of Eurocentricism in academia have inspired…

  8. When does globalization lead to local adaptation? : The emergence of hybrid Islamic schools in Turkey, 1985-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divarci, A.; Boone, C.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    Institutional perspectives of globalization envision the homogenization of the world through global cultural, economic, and political dynamics, while globalization theory highlights how local cultures may adapt or resist global forces. On the basis of these theories, the authors analyze when, where,

  9. Phase patterns of coupled oscillators with application to wireless communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.

    2008-01-02

    Here we study the plausibility of a phase oscillators dynamical model for TDMA in wireless communication networks. We show that emerging patterns of phase locking states between oscillators can eventually oscillate in a round-robin schedule, in a similar way to models of pulse coupled oscillators designed to this end. The results open the door for new communication protocols in a continuous interacting networks of wireless communication devices.

  10. The Emergence of Undergraduate Majors in Global Health: Systematic Review of Programs and Recommendations for Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Mock, Charles; Toole, David; Rosenwald, Anne; Jehn, Megan; Csordas, Thomas; Ferguson, Laura; Waggett, Caryl; Obidoa, Chinekwu; Wasserheit, Judith N

    2017-01-11

    Global health education has been expanding rapidly and several universities have created an undergraduate major degree (bachelor's degree) in global heath or global health studies. Because there are currently no national guidelines for undergraduate degrees in global health, each of these programs was developed along individual lines. To guide the development of future global health majors, we conducted a systematic review of undergraduate majors in global health. We identified eight programs and invited program directors or representatives to a symposium at the Consortium of Universities for Global Health 2016 conference to review their existing undergraduate major in global health and to discuss lessons learned and recommendations for other colleges and universities seeking to develop undergraduate degrees in global health. We noted significant diversity among the existing programs in terms of required courses, international field experiences, and thesis research projects. In this review, we describe these global health programs, their student characteristics, as well as the key educational competencies, program requirements, and core global health courses. Based on program reviews and discussions, we identify seven recommendations for the development and expansion of an undergraduate major in global health and discuss issues that have arisen in the curricular development of these programs that warrant further exploration. As the field of global health education continues to expand, following these students after graduation will be essential to ensure that the degree programs in global health both meet student needs and launch students on viable career pathways. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Differential responses of emergent intertidal coral reef fauna to a large-scale El-Niño southern oscillation event: sponge and coral resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kelmo

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of information on the impacts of the 1997-8 El Niño event and subsequent climatic episodes on emergent intertidal coral reef assemblages. Given the environmental variability intertidal reefs experience, such reefs may potentially be more resilient to climatic events and provide important insights into the adaptation of reef fauna to future ocean warming. Here we report the results of a 17-year (1995-2011 biodiversity survey of four emergent coral reef ecosystems in Bahia, Brazil, to assess the impact of a major El Niño event on the reef fauna, and determine any subsequent recovery. The densities of two species of coral, Favia gravida and Siderastrea stellata, did not vary significantly across the survey period, indicating a high degree of tolerance to the El Niño associated stress. However, there were marked decreases in the diversity of other taxa. Molluscs, bryozoans and ascidians suffered severe declines in diversity and abundance and had not recovered to pre-El Niño levels by the end of the study. Echinoderms were reduced to a single species in 1999, Echinometra lucunter, although diversity levels had recovered by 2002. Sponge assemblages were not impacted by the 1997-8 event and their densities had increased by the study end. Multivariate analysis indicated that a stable invertebrate community had re-established on the reefs after the El Niño event, but it has a different overall composition to the pre-El Niño community. It is unclear if community recovery will continue given more time, but our study highlights that any increase in the frequency of large-scale climatic events to more than one a decade is likely to result in a persistent lower-diversity state. Our results also suggest some coral and sponge species are particularly resilient to the El Niño-associated stress and therefore represent suitable models to investigate temperature adaptation in reef organisms.

  12. Evaluating Progress in the Global Surgical Crisis: Contrasting Access to Emergency and Essential Surgery and Safe Anesthesia Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Amina; Hendel, Simon; Shockley, Ross; Schlesinger, Joseph; Vansell, Hilary; McQueen, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Since 2007, observations reveal that low- and middle-income countries (LICs and LMICs) experience similar surgical access and safety issues, though the etiology of these challenges varies by country. The collective voice of surveys completed to date has pushed the agenda for the inclusion of safe surgery and anesthesia within global health discussions. Comparison of four countries across the world shows similar basic progress as well as ongoing surgical and anesthesia needs in resource-challenged countries. By studying these common needs, a comprehensive plan to provide infrastructure and personnel support can work in multiple austere settings. A standardized survey tool published, designed, and developed initially by the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative and modified at Vanderbilt University was completed in Guatemala, Guyana, Laos, and Mozambique. The survey assessed eight key areas of essential surgical care: access to and availability of surgical services, access to human resources, essential infrastructure (including access to water, electricity, sanitation, blood products, and essential medicines including supplemental oxygen), surgical outcomes, operating room information and procedures, equipment, International Organization, and Non-Government Organization provision of surgical care. These results were compared and contrasted to evaluate resource challenges and assets in each country. A total of 49 hospitals were surveyed in this comparison cohort. The results reveal common needs for emergency and essential surgery in each country, but some differences in human and capital resources exist. While minimal resources exist, all surgical sites provided running water, electricity, and oxygen-assets not seen in previous surveys as recent as 2011. The most basic needs to provide essential surgery are now present in LICs and LMICs. Many more resources are needed to ensure access to safe surgery and anesthesia. The next steps to provide essential surgery must include

  13. Correlations between interannual variations of simulated global and regional CO{sub 2} fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems and El Nino Southern Oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Takao (Disaster Prevention Research Inst., Kyoto Univ., Gokasho (Japan)), e-mail: iguchi@dpac.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2011-04-15

    Using a terrestrial ecosystem model (Sim-CYCLE), CO{sub 2} exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere was simulated for the period of 1980-2000. As a result, the biosphere was totally a sink of CO{sub 2}, and the phase of the interannual variation of the global annual CO{sub 2} flux from the biosphere was similar to that of the annual increase of the global atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The interannual variation of the global annual CO{sub 2} flux showed high correlation with that of the annual mean ENSO index (NINO.3 monitoring index) for a time lag of 1 yr. As for the regional annual carbon fluxes, some showed high correlation with the annual mean ENSO index for a time lag of 1 yr and some without time lag. Among the regional carbon fluxes those showed high correlations with ENSO index without time lag, some showed positive correlations and some showed negative correlations, and they canceled out each other in total. These negative correlations were found in tropical regions. All the regional carbon fluxes those showed high correlations with ENSO index for a time lag of 1 yr showed positive correlations

  14. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcová, Katarína

    2017-06-01

    The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene) were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys). Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence) or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains).

  15. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holcová Katarína

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys. Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains.

  16. Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club: A Social Media Discussion About the Lack of Association Between Press Ganey Scores and Emergency Department Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westafer, Lauren; Hensley, Justin; Shaikh, Sameed; Lin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with an educational Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host a public discussion featuring the 2014 Annals article on the association between Press Ganey scores and emergency department (ED) analgesia by Schwartz et al. The objective was to curate a 14-day (December 1 through 14, 2014) worldwide academic dialogue among clinicians in regard to preselected questions about the article. Five online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and Google Hangout. Comments across the social media platforms were curated for this report, as framed by the 4 preselected questions. Engagement was tracked through Web analytic tools and analysis of tweets. Blog comments, tweets, and video expert commentary involving the featured article are summarized and reported. The dialogue resulted in 978 page views from 342 cities in 33 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 464,345 Twitter impressions, and 83 views of the video interview with experts. Of the unique 169 identified tweets, discussion (53.3%) and learning points (32.5%) were the most common category of tweets identified. Common themes that arose in the open-access multimedia discussions included Press Ganey data validity and the utility of patient satisfaction in determining pain treatment efficacy. This educational approach using social media technologies demonstrates a free, asynchronous means to engage a worldwide scholarly discourse. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oscillations in critical shearing, application to fractures in glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pralong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many evidences of oscillations accompanying the acceleration of critical systems have been reported. These oscillations are usually related to discrete scale invariance properties of the systems and exhibit a logarithmic periodicity. In this paper we propose another explanation for these oscillations in the case of shearing fracture. Using a continuum damage model, we show that oscillations emerge from the anisotropic properties of the cracks in the shearing fracture zone. These oscillations no longer exhibit a logarithmic but rather a power-law periodicity. The power-periodic oscillation is a more general formulation. Its reduces to a log-periodic oscillation when the exponent of the power-law equals one. We apply this model to fit the measured displacements of unstable ice masses of hanging glaciers for which data are available. Results show that power-periodic oscillations adequately fit the observations.

  18. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of ...

  19. Microelectronic oscillator, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Microelectronic oscillator uses a bipolar transistor to circumvent the problem of developing suitable inductors for lower frequencies. The oscillator is fabricated by hybrid thin film techniques or by monolithic construction. Discrete microminiature components may also be employed.

  20. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  1. Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The phenomenology of solar, atmospheric, supernova and laboratory neutrino oscillations is described. Analytical formulae for matter effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay.

  2. Computing with Biologically Inspired Neural Oscillators: Application to Colour Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Belatreche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the computing capabilities and potential applications of neural oscillators, a biologically inspired neural model, to grey scale and colour image segmentation, an important task in image understanding and object recognition. A proposed neural system that exploits the synergy between neural oscillators and Kohonen self-organising maps (SOMs is presented. It consists of a two-dimensional grid of neural oscillators which are locally connected through excitatory connections and globally connected to a common inhibitor. Each neuron is mapped to a pixel of the input image and existing objects, represented by homogenous areas, are temporally segmented through synchronisation of the activity of neural oscillators that are mapped to pixels of the same object. Self-organising maps form the basis of a colour reduction system whose output is fed to a 2D grid of neural oscillators for temporal correlation-based object segmentation. Both chromatic and local spatial features are used. The system is simulated in Matlab and its demonstration on real world colour images shows promising results and the emergence of a new bioinspired approach for colour image segmentation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the performance of the proposed system and its comparison with traditional image segmentation approaches.

  3. Spatiotemporal Patterns of an Evoked Network Oscillation in Neocortical Slices: Coupled Local Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Huang, Xiaoying; Yang, Qian; Wu, Jian-young

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered an evoked network oscillation in rat neocortical slices and have examined its spatiotemporal patterns with voltage sensitive dye imaging. The slices (visual and auditory cortices) were prepared in a medium of low calcium, high magnesium and with sodium replaced by choline in order to reduce the excito-toxicity and sodium loading. After slicing, the choline was washed out while normal calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations were restored. The oscillation was evoked by a single electrical shock to slices bathed in normal artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF). The oscillation was organized as an all-or-none epoch containing 4 to 13 cycles at a central frequency around 25 Hz. The activity can be reversibly blocked by CNQX, APV and atropine, but not by bicuculline, indicating poly-synaptic excitatory mechanisms. Voltage sensitive dye imaging showed high amplitude oscillation signals in superficial and middle cortical layers. Spatiotemporally, the oscillations were organized as waves, propagating horizontally along cortical laminar. Each oscillation cycle was associated with one wave propagating in space. The waveforms were often different at different locations (e.g., extra cycles), suggesting the co-existence of multiple local oscillators. For different cycles, the waves often initiated at different locations, suggesting that local oscillators are competing to initiate each oscillation cycle. Overall our results suggest that this cortical network oscillation is organized at two levels: locally, oscillating neurons are tightly coupled to form local oscillators, and globally the coupling between local oscillators is weak, allowing abrupt spatial phase lags and propagating waves with multiple initiation sites. PMID:16870836

  4. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  5. The colpitts oscillator family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...

  6. Theory and evidence of global Rossby waves in upper main-sequence stars: r-mode oscillations in many Kepler stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saio, Hideyuki; Kurtz, Donald W.; Murphy, Simon J.; Antoci, Victoria L.; Lee, Umin

    2018-02-01

    Asteroseismic inference from pressure modes (p modes) and buoyancy, or gravity, modes (g modes) is ubiquitous for stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Until now, however, discussion of r modes (global Rossby waves) has been rare. Here we derive the expected frequency ranges of r modes in the observational frame by considering the visibility of these modes. We find that the frequencies of r modes of azimuthal order m appear as groups at slightly lower frequency than m times the rotation frequency. Comparing the visibility curves for r modes with Fourier amplitude spectra of Kepler light curves of upper main-sequence B, A, and F stars, we find that r modes are present in many γ Dor stars (as first discovered by Van Reeth et al.), spotted stars, and so-called heartbeat stars, which are highly eccentric binary stars. We also find a signature of r modes in a frequently bursting Be star observed by Kepler. In the amplitude spectra of moderately to rapidly rotating γ Dor stars, r-mode frequency groups appear at lower frequency than prograde g-mode frequency groups, while in the amplitude spectra of spotted early A to B stars, groups of symmetric (with respect to the equator) r-mode frequencies appear just below the frequency of a structured peak that we suggest represents an approximate stellar rotation rate. In many heartbeat stars, a group of frequencies can be fitted with symmetric m = 1 r modes, which can be used to obtain rotation frequencies of these stars.

  7. Pattern recognition with simple oscillating circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, R. W.; Krischer, K.

    2011-07-01

    Neural network devices that inherently possess parallel computing capabilities are generally difficult to construct because of the large number of neuron-neuron connections. However, there exists a theoretical approach (Hoppensteadt and Izhikevich 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 2983) that forgoes the individual connections and uses only a global coupling: systems of weakly coupled oscillators with a time-dependent global coupling are capable of performing pattern recognition in an associative manner similar to Hopfield networks. The information is stored in the phase shifts of the individual oscillators. However, to date, even the feasibility of controlling phase shifts with this kind of coupling has not yet been established experimentally. We present an experimental realization of this neural network device. It consists of eight sinusoidal electrical van der Pol oscillators that are globally coupled through a variable resistor with the electric potential as the coupling variable. We estimate an effective value of the phase coupling strength in our experiment. For that, we derive a general approach that allows one to compare different experimental realizations with each other as well as with phase equation models. We demonstrate that individual phase shifts of oscillators can be experimentally controlled by a weak global coupling. Furthermore, supplied with a distorted input image, the oscillating network can indeed recognize the correct image out of a set of predefined patterns. It can therefore be used as the processing unit of an associative memory device.

  8. Global non-communicable disease prevention: Building on success by addressing an emerging health need in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Mokdad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are beginning to dominate the global health landscape. Despite numerous calls to action for chronic disease preventive and control, the response to the urgency is insufficient, especially in terms of their prevention efforts. Worldwide, the total number of people dying from NCDs is twice that of the combined total of all infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world and accounts for about 30% of all deaths. Increased interventions in global NCDs prevention and control programs are needed as a global strategy to improve the current scenario. Specifically, we present this case for the United States to provide leadership in global NCD prevention and control.

  9. Introducing Undergraduates to Global Health Epidemiology, Emerging Infectious Diseases, and Parasitology: A Small Book with a Big Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara L. Wegman-Geedey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and their Impact on Global Health and Development, 2nd Edition; Peter J. Hotez; (2013. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 255 pages.

  10. Expanding Global Production Networks: The emergence, evolution and the developmental impact of the offshore service sector in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibert, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary globalisation is characterised by an expansion of global production networks in services. Developments in information and communications technology have enabled the relocation of services across national borders, or, the offshoring of services. This has had profound implications for

  11. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  12. Typical patterns of oscillations in three-phase circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, Takashi; Ukai, Shota

    Symmetrical three-phase circuits are fundamental models of power systems. Although the circuits have structural symmetry, asymmetric patterns of oscillations have been observed in real power systems. This paper describes an approach to understanding typical patterns of oscillations in the three-phase circuits using symmetry. In order to figure out oscillation patterns, we introduce a three LC ladder circuit which has a higher symmetry than the three-phase circuit. Using only the symmetries of the three LC ladder circuit, we classify periodic oscillations and construct a lattice of those modes. Further, extending the method to almost periodic oscillations, we decompose and characterize typical almost periodic oscillations by their symmetry. Finally, by observing a global phase space in the three LC ladder circuit, we confirm typical oscillations in the three-phase circuit.

  13. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, A.; Radwan, A. G.; Salama, K. N.

    2011-09-01

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  14. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-10-06

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  15. Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club: A Social Media Discussion About the Outpatient Management of Patients With Spontaneous Pneumothorax by Using Pigtail Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueger, N Seth; Murray, Heather; Kobner, Scott; Lin, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with an educational Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) to host a public discussion featuring the 2014 Annals article on the outpatient management of patients with a spontaneous pneumothorax by using pigtail catheters. The objective was to curate a 14-day (November 10 to 23, 2014) worldwide academic dialogue among clinicians about the article. Four online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and Google Hangout. Comments across the social media platforms were curated for this report, as framed by 4 preselected questions. Engagement was tracked through Web analytic tools. Blog comments, tweets, and video expert commentary involving the featured article are summarized and reported. The dialogue resulted in 1,023 page views from 347 cities in 49 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 279,027 Twitter impressions, and 88 views of the video interview with experts. This Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club created a virtual community of practice from around the world and identified common themes around the management of spontaneous pneumothorax, which included substantial practice variation in regard to inpatient versus outpatient management, location of chest tube, the use of aspiration, and chest radiography after placement. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of multi-layer safety in countries affected by recent tsunamis : Emergence of a global tsunami culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, M.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Mikami, T.; Yun, N.Y.; Suppasri, A.; Shibayama, T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, there is a growing awareness of the risks that tsunamis pose to coastal communities globally. Despite the fact that these events were already an intrinsic part of the culture of some countries such as Chile and Japan, many other places had virtually not heard about such phenomenon before

  17. Partnerships intervening in global food chains: the emergence of co-creation in standard-setting and certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Wijk, van J.

    2015-01-01

    In the agri-food sector, global partnerships between lead firms and international NGOs design standards that aim to enhance environmental sustainability and to some extent realise social justice. However, the effectiveness of such standards is limited when their content and governance provokes

  18. Information Communication Technology, State building, and Globalization in the 21st Century: Regional Frameworks for Emerging State Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    University, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), 4. 28 Luiz Demetrio Valentini, “An Economy that Avoids Exclusion,” in Robert Papini, Antonio Pavan ...Economy that Avoids Exclusion,” in Papini, Robert, Pavan , Antonio, and Zamagni, Stefano, eds., Living in the Global Society. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate

  19. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  20. On Languaging and Communities: Latino/a Emergent Bilinguals' Expansive Learning and Critical Inquiries into Global Childhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia; Ghiso, María Paula

    2017-01-01

    Young children in diverse urban contexts bring to school transnational knowledges, complex multilingual literacies, and cultural practices which reflect global mobility and the blended nature of their social worlds. For children such as the Latino first graders we have been working with for the past three years, their lived experiences do not…

  1. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  2. Non Radial Oscillations in an Axisymmetric MHD Incompressible Fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. It is well known from Helioseismology that the Sun exhibits oscillations on a global scale, most of which are non radial in nature. These oscillations help us to get a clear picture of the internal structure of the Sun as has been demonstrated by the theoretical and observational. (such as GONG) studies. In this study ...

  3. Making space for harmonic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    If we restrict the number of harmonic oscillator energy eigenstates to some finite value, N, then the discrete spectrum of the corresponding position operator comprise the roots of the Hermite polynomial H{sub N+1}. Its range is just large enough to accommodate classical motion at high energy. A negative energy term must be added to the Hamiltonian which affects only the last eigenstate, |N>, suggesting it is concentrated at the extrema of this finite ''space''. Calculations support a conjecture that, in the limit of large N, the global distribution of points approaches the differential form for classical action.

  4. The Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index in Relation to Sunspot Number, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Index, the Mauna Loa Atmospheric Concentration of CO2, and Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming/climate change has been a subject of scientific interest since the early 19th century. In particular, increases in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) have long been thought to account for Earth's increased warming, although the lack of a dependable set of observational data was apparent as late as the mid 1950s. However, beginning in the late 1950s, being associated with the International Geophysical Year, the opportunity arose to begin accurate continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric concentration of CO2. Consequently, it is now well established that the atmospheric concentration of CO2, while varying seasonally within any particular year, has steadily increased over time. Associated with this rising trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is a rising trend in the surface-air and sea-surface temperatures (SSTs). This Technical Publication (TP) examines the statistical relationships between 10-year moving averages (10-yma) of the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI), sunspot number (SSN), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, and the Mauna Loa CO2 (MLCO2) index for the common interval 1964-2006, where the 10-yma values are used to indicate trends in the data. Scatter plots using the 10-yma values between GLOTI and each of the other parameters are determined, both as single-variate and multivariate fits. Scatter plots are also determined for MLCO2 using single-variate and bivariate (BV) fits, based on the GLOTI alone and the GLOTI in combination with the AMO index. On the basis of the inferred preferential fits for MLCO2, estimates for MLCO2 are determined for the interval 1885-1964, thereby yielding an estimate of the preindustrial level of atmospheric concentration of CO2. Lastly, 10-yma values of MLCO2 are compared against 10-yma estimates of the total carbon emissions (TCE) to determine the likelihood that manmade sources of carbon emissions are indeed responsible for the recent warming now

  5. The Oscillator Principle of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...

  6. Stabilization of a linear nanomechanical oscillator to its thermodynamic limit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavartin, Emanuel; Verlot, Pierre; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of micro- and nanomechanical oscillators in the past decade has led to the emergence of novel devices and sensors that are opening new frontiers in both applied and fundamental science...

  7. Development of structural correlations and synchronization from adaptive rewiring in networks of Kuramoto oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Lia; Kim, Jason Z.; Kurths, Jürgen; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2017-07-01

    Synchronization of non-identical oscillators coupled through complex networks is an important example of collective behavior, and it is interesting to ask how the structural organization of network interactions influences this process. Several studies have explored and uncovered optimal topologies for synchronization by making purposeful alterations to a network. On the other hand, the connectivity patterns of many natural systems are often not static, but are rather modulated over time according to their dynamics. However, this co-evolution and the extent to which the dynamics of the individual units can shape the organization of the network itself are less well understood. Here, we study initially randomly connected but locally adaptive networks of Kuramoto oscillators. In particular, the system employs a co-evolutionary rewiring strategy that depends only on the instantaneous, pairwise phase differences of neighboring oscillators, and that conserves the total number of edges, allowing the effects of local reorganization to be isolated. We find that a simple rule—which preserves connections between more out-of-phase oscillators while rewiring connections between more in-phase oscillators—can cause initially disordered networks to organize into more structured topologies that support enhanced synchronization dynamics. We examine how this process unfolds over time, finding a dependence on the intrinsic frequencies of the oscillators, the global coupling, and the network density, in terms of how the adaptive mechanism reorganizes the network and influences the dynamics. Importantly, for large enough coupling and after sufficient adaptation, the resulting networks exhibit interesting characteristics, including degree-frequency and frequency-neighbor frequency correlations. These properties have previously been associated with optimal synchronization or explosive transitions in which the networks were constructed using global information. On the contrary, by

  8. A Conspiracy of Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss nonlinear mechanical systems containing several oscillators whose frequecies are all much higher than frequencies associated with the remaining degrees of freedom. In this situation a near constant of the motion, an adiabatic invariant, exists which is the sum of all the oscillator...

  9. Hyperchaotic Oscillator with Gyrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, A; Cenys, A; Mykolaitis, G.

    1997-01-01

    A fourth-order hyperchaotic oscillator is described. It contains a negative impedance converter, two gyratots, two capacitors and a diode. The dynamics of the oscillator is shown to be characterised by two positive Lyapunov exponents. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means...

  10. Grazing Impact Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weger, J.G.; Water, van de W.; Molenaar, J.

    2000-01-01

    An impact oscillator is a periodically driven system that hits a wall when its amplitude exceeds a critical value. We study impact oscillations where collisions with the wall are with near-zero velocity (grazing impacts). A characteristic feature of grazing impact dynamics is a geometrically

  11. Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....

  12. Prediction of resonant oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    oscillations and compare the measured oscillations using FFT analysis of signal correlations, variance analysis of signals and other comparisons. As an example, the presence of a growing peak around a frequency that doubles the roll natural frequency indicates the possibility that parametric roll is going...

  13. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsul Bahri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on, variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease or old disease will be re-emerged (re-emerging diseases. This paper will discuss the effect of global warming and climate change on animal diseases in Indonesia such as Bluetongue (BT, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis (JE, West Nile (WN, and Rift Valley fever (RVF. The climate changes such as increasing the earth temperature and rainfall will cause extremely increase of vector population for BT, JE, WN and RVF. In addition, animal transportation and bird migration from one country to others or region will cause changing of ecological system and will open the chance to distribute the diseases. Hence, anticipation on those disease outbreaks should be taken by conducting the surveilance and early detection to those diseases. The possibility of entering Nipah disease in Indonesia should be anticipated because the avaibility of Nipah virus and the reservoir host (Pteropus spp and also pigs as amplifier host in the surrounding area. Other diseases such as, leptospirosis, anthrax and avian influenza (H5N1 are also have a wider potential to distributing the disease related to the climate change in Indonesia.

  14. Magnetostatic wave oscillator frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethares, J. C.; Stiglitz, M. R.; Weinberg, I. J.

    1981-03-01

    The frequencies of magnetostatic wave (MSW) oscillators employing three principal modes of propagation, surface (MSSW), forward (MSFVW), and backward (MSBVW) volume waves, have been investigated. Previous (MSW) oscillator papers dealt with MSSW. Oscillators were fabricated using LPE-YIG MSW delay lines in a feedback loop of a 2-4 GHz amplifier. Wide and narrow band transducers were employed. Oscillator frequency as a function of biasing field is in agreement with a theoretical analysis. The analysis predicts frequency in terms of material parameters, biasing field, and transducer geometry. With wide band transducers a comb of frequencies is generated. Narrow band transducers for MSSW and MSFVW select a single mode; and MSBVW selects two modes. Spurious modes, attributed to instrumentation, are more than 20 dB below the main response, and bandwidths are less than 0.005 percent. No other spurious modes are observed. MSW oscillators produce clean electronically tunable signals and appear attractive in frequency agile systems.

  15. Emerging and established global life-style risk factors for cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    Upper aero-digestive tract cancer is a multidimensional problem, international trends showing complex rises and falls in incidence and mortality across the globe, with variation across different cultural and socio-economic groups. This paper seeks some explanations and identifies some research and policy needs. The literature illustrates the multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis. At the cellular level, it is viewed as a multistep process involving multiple mutations and selection for cells with progressively increasing capacity for proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Established and emerging risk factors, in addition to changes in incidence and prevalence of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, were identified. Exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as well as diets inadequate in fresh fruits and vegetables, remain the major risk factors, with persistent infection by particular so-called "high risk" genotypes of human papillomavirus increasingly recognised as also playing an important role in a subset of cases, particularly for the oropharynx. Chronic trauma to oral mucosa from poor restorations and prostheses, in addition to poor oral hygiene with a consequent heavy microbial load in the mouth, are also emerging as significant risk factors. Understanding and quantifying the impact of individual risk factors for these cancers is vital for health decision-making, planning and prevention. National policies and programmes should be designed and implemented to control exposure to environmental risks, by legislation if necessary, and to raise awareness so that people are provided with the information and support they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

  16. The Church as Christ’s broken body responding to the emerging global challenges in a divided world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick R. Hewitt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Public debate about the role of the church within society has gained momentum especially because the contemporary changing global political and economic landscape has resulted in deeply a divided world. People are asking questions about the missional identity and vocation of the church. If the church is the broken body of Christ in the world, what are the ways in which it is expressing that brokenness in practical ways? This vulnerable status necessitates modelling the politics of Jesus that risks putting up resistance against all threats that prevent people from experiencing fullness of life. The contemporary era of global governance is characterised by ‘moral lowlifes’ in political leadership that uses judicial and executive overreach to weaken democracy and empower the wealthy elites. Furthermore, the impact of technology and computation on shaping human relations has produced a consequential decline in human trust and relationships. Therefore, the missional agenda of the church as the broken body of Christ serving a divided world, calls for building life-affirming relationships that overcome dehumanising barriers.

  17. Emerging correlations between measures of population well-being, suicide and homicide: a look at global and Australian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian Ys; Pridmore, Saxby

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was (1) to examine global and Australian data with a view to determining the presence of an inverse relationship between suicide and homicide rates, and (2) to examine global Human Development Index (HDI) values and suicide and homicide rates, with a view to determining any statistical relationship. Suicide and homicide rates and HDI values were available for 102 countries, and suicide and homicide rates were available for the states and territories of Australia. The three data sets had non-normal distributions, and the non-parametric Spearman's ρ was used for correlation statistics with α = 0.05. We found a weak, statistically significant inverse relationship between the suicide and homicide rates of 102 countries (ρ = -0.244, p = 0.014). No relationship was established for the Australian values, however. As anticipated, we found a significant negative correlation between homicide and HDI values. We unexpectedly demonstrated a positive correlation between suicide rates and HDI values. The notion that suicide and homicide have an inverse relationship now has some scientific support; but additional research is warranted to characterise and explain this relationship. The unexpected finding of a positive correlation between suicide rates and HDI values requires further examination.

  18. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  19. U.S. DOE Roundtable and Workshop on Advanced Steel Technologies: Emerging Global Technologies and R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, Joan [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Jamison, Keith [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE Roundtable and Workshop on Advanced Steel Technologies Workshop hosted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) on held on June 23, 2015. Representatives from industry, government, and academia met at the offices of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Washington, DC, to share information on emerging steel technologies, issues impacting technology investment and deployment, gaps in research and development (R&D), and opportunities for greater energy efficiency. The results of the workshop are summarized in this report. They reflect a snapshot of the perspectives and ideas generated by the individuals who attended and not all-inclusive of the steel industry and stakeholder community.

  20. Current and emerging global themes in the bioethics of regenerative medicine: the tangled web of stem cell translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    Probably the most serious problem facing the field of regenerative medicine today is the challenge of effective translation and development of viable stem cell-based therapies. Particular concerns have been raised over the growing market in unproven cell therapies. In this article, I explore recent developments in the stem cell therapy landscape and argue that while the sale of unproven therapies undoubtedly poses ethical concerns, it must be understood as part of a larger problem at the interface between biomedicine, healthcare, publics, policy and the market. Addressing this will require a broader perspective incorporating the shifting relationships between different stakeholder groups, the global politics of research and innovation, and the evolving role of publics and patients with respect to science.

  1. Emerging Competitive Strategies in the Global Luxury Industry in the Perspective of Sustainable Development: the Case of Kering Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta PEZZETTI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, many drivers should motivate luxury companies to engage in more sustainable practices. On the one hand, consumers seek new forms of luxury that shows respect for natural resources and human beings, yet standing by traditional factors such as quality, creativity, originality, craftsmanship and savoirfaire. The recent economic crisis has thrust the consumers towards the search for responsible luxury. In the new economic and competitive scenario, luxury brands would base their identity and image on a set of values through which they should be known and publicly judged by both clients and the market; sustainable development and corporate social responsibility strategies offer a particularly suitable platform to enrich the value-set of luxury brands. In this framework, the luxury industry is undergoing a process of self-analysis and redefinition of competitive strategies in the light of social responsibility and sustainable dimension. In order to create both financial and non-financial value, sustainable development needs to be incorporated in the core strategy of the firm and its core business. In this perspective, the paper provides an analysis of the main drivers that, in the luxury industry, are leading to a growing integration of social responsibility and sustainable development principles in the competitive strategies of luxury firms. In particular, the paper focuses on innovations emerging in the luxury industry, both at strategic and organizational levels, and provides an overview of new emerging innovative business models coherent with the principles of corporate social responsibility and sustainability. The theoretical analysis is supported by presentation of the case of the French Group Kering, which represents a pioneering example in sustainable development applied to competitive strategies and leading brand management practices.

  2. Optimizing clinical operations as part of a global emergency medicine initiative in Kumasi, Ghana: application of Lean manufacturing principals to low-resource health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M; Desmond, Jeffery S; Akanbobnaab, Christopher; Oteng, Rockefeller A; Rominski, Sarah D; Barsan, William G; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-03-01

    Although many global health programs focus on providing clinical care or medical education, improving clinical operations can have a significant effect on patient care delivery, especially in developing health systems without high-level operations management. Lean manufacturing techniques have been effective in decreasing emergency department (ED) length of stay, patient waiting times, numbers of patients leaving without being seen, and door-to-balloon times for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in developed health systems, but use of Lean in low to middle income countries with developing emergency medicine (EM) systems has not been well characterized. To describe the application of Lean manufacturing techniques to improve clinical operations at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana and to identify key lessons learned to aid future global EM initiatives. A 3-week Lean improvement program focused on the hospital admissions process at KATH was completed by a 14-person team in six stages: problem definition, scope of project planning, value stream mapping, root cause analysis, future state planning, and implementation planning. The authors identified eight lessons learned during our use of Lean to optimize the operations of an ED in a global health setting: 1) the Lean process aided in building a partnership with Ghanaian colleagues; 2) obtaining and maintaining senior institutional support is necessary and challenging; 3) addressing power differences among the team to obtain feedback from all team members is critical to successful Lean analysis; 4) choosing a manageable initial project is critical to influence long-term Lean use in a new environment; 5) data intensive Lean tools can be adapted and are effective in a less resourced health system; 6) several Lean tools focused on team problem-solving techniques worked well in a low-resource system without modification; 7) using Lean highlighted that important changes do not require an influx of resources; and

  3. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  4. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kayser, Boris

    2014-04-10

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.

  5. Risk of emergency medical treatment following consumption of cannabis or synthetic cannabinoids in a large global sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstock, Adam; Lynskey, Michael; Borschmann, Rohan; Waldron, Jon

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have become increasingly popular in recent years. Diverse in chemical structure, many have been subjected to legislative regulation, but their availability and use persists. Often marketed to reflect their similar effects to cannabis, their use has been associated with a range of negative health effects. We sought to determine the relative risk of seeking emergency medical treatment (EMT) following use of SCs and natural cannabis. We utilized an anonymous online survey of drug use, obtaining data from 22,289 respondents. We calculated the relative risk of seeking EMT between the two substances using an estimate for days used in the past year. Thirty-seven cannabis users (0.2%) and 21 SC users (1.0%) had sought EMT during the past year following use. The relative risk associated with the use of SCs was 30 (95% CI 17.5-51.2) times higher than that associated with cannabis. Significantly more symptoms (p=0.03) were reported by respondents seeking treatment for SCs than for cannabis. Whilst these findings must be treated with caution, SCs potentially pose a greater risk to users' health than natural forms of cannabis. Regulation is unlikely to remove SCs from the market, so well-informed user-focused health promotion messages need to be crafted to discourage their use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  7. El barrio de la Chueca of Madrid, Spain: an emerging epicenter of the global LGBT civil rights movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Omar; Dodge, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine and deconstruct the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) barrio (community) of Chueca in Madrid, Spain, from political and sociological perspectives. First, we develop a critical framework for understanding the historical, political, social, cultural, and economic changes that took place in Spain after Franco's death in relation to LGBT issues. Ethnographic research was conducted from May to July 2007 in the Spanish cities of Madrid, Barcelona, and Ibiza, and focused primarily on the community of Chueca. A social constructionist perspective was used to examine sociocultural issues in this ethnosexual community through an in-depth study of the dynamics of this barrio. The theoretical framework of intersectionality and the constitutive relations among social identities is exemplified in Chueca. Hence, individuals in Chueca and their intersectionality perspective reveal that their identities influence and shape their beliefs about gender and symbols. We describe how Chueca reflects recent progressive changes in LGBT-related laws and statutes drafted by the federal government and how these have influenced the high level of societal acceptance toward intimate same-sex relationships in Spain. Additionally, we exemplify and present Chueca as an enclave that has been affected by the globalization of the private market, "gay" identity, and enterprise, having a direct effect on cultural norms and social behaviors. Last, we examine the current state of the Chueca community relative to other developing LGBT Latino/a communities in the United States.

  8. Interprofessional Fellowship Training for Emerging Global Health Leaders in Africa to Improve HIV Prevention and Care: The Afya Bora Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousman, Kevin; Polomano, Rosemary C; Seloilwe, Esther; Odero, Theresa; Tarimo, Edith; Mashalla, Yohana J; Voss, Joachim G; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Chapman, Susan A; Gachuno, Onesmus; Manabe, Yukari; Nakanjako, Damalie; Sewankambo, Nelson; Urassa, David; Wasserheit, Judith N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Green, Wendy; Farquhar, Carey

    2016-01-01

    HIV continues to challenge health systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A qualified workforce of transformational leaders is required to strengthen health systems and introduce policy reforms to address the barriers to HIV testing, treatment, and other HIV services. The 1-year Afya Bora Consortium Fellowship in Global Health capitalizes on academic partnerships between African and U.S. universities to provide interprofessional leadership training through classroom, online, and service-oriented learning in 5 countries in Africa. This fellowship program prepares health professionals to design, implement, scale-up, evaluate, and lead health programs that are population-based and focused on prevention and control of HIV and other public health issues of greatest importance to African communities and health service settings. Afya Bora nurse fellows acquire leadership attributes and competencies that are continuously and systematically tested during the entire program. This multinational training platform promotes interprofessional networks and career opportunities for nurses. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Classical oscillator driven by an oscillating chirped force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    The motion of a classical (harmonic) oscillator is studied in the case where the oscillator is driven by a pulsed oscillating force with a frequency varying in time (frequency chirp). The amplitude and phase of the oscillations left after the pulsed force in dependence on the profile and strength of

  10. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic.

  11. The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Veronica; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Popli, Raaj K; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Sawicki, Stanley G; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed

  12. The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a story of partnerships and smart investments to turn the tide of the global AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosby, Eric; Dybul, Mark; Fauci, Anthony S; Fauci, Anthony A; Fu, Joe; Walsh, Thomas; Needle, Richard; Bouey, Paul

    2012-08-15

    The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has played a key leadership role in the global response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. PEPFAR was inspired by the principles of the historic Monterrey Consensus (United Nations. Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, March 18-22, 2002. New York: United Nations; 2002. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/monterrey/MonterreyConsensus.pdf. Accessed April 21, 2012), which changed the underlying conceptual framework for international development, and therefore global health--a shift from paternalism to partnership that begins with country ownership and requires good governance, a results-based approach, and engagement of all sectors of society. PEPFAR began with a focus on the growing emergency of the HIV/AIDS pandemic by rapidly expanding HIV services, building clinical capacity, implementing strategic information systems, and building a coalition of partners to lead the response. Within the first years of implementation, there was a shift to sustainability, including the advent of Partnership Frameworks. The PEPFAR reauthorization in 2008 codified into law, the evolution in policies and programs for the next phase of implementation. In 2011 alone, PEPFAR supported nearly 4 million people on treatment, supported programs that provided more than 1.5 million HIV-positive pregnant women with antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission to their children, and supported HIV testing for more than 40 million people. This article provides an overview of how smart investments and partnerships across sectors and US agencies have helped achieve unprecedented results in increasing HIV/AIDS services and engaging partner countries and organizations in sharing the responsibility for an AIDS-free generation.

  13. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  14. Neutrino anomalies without oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conventional' neutrino oscillations induced by mass-mixing. Several of these require non-zero neutrino masses as well. Author Affiliations. Sandip Pakvasa1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA ...

  15. Neural Oscillators Programming Simplified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McDowell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurological mechanism used for generating rhythmic patterns for functions such as swallowing, walking, and chewing has been modeled computationally by the neural oscillator. It has been widely studied by biologists to model various aspects of organisms and by computer scientists and robotics engineers as a method for controlling and coordinating the gaits of walking robots. Although there has been significant study in this area, it is difficult to find basic guidelines for programming neural oscillators. In this paper, the authors approach neural oscillators from a programmer’s point of view, providing background and examples for developing neural oscillators to generate rhythmic patterns that can be used in biological modeling and robotics applications.

  16. Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Emergent Themes From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Research continues to present tenuous suggestions that social media is well suited to enhance management of chronic disease and improve health outcomes. Various studies have presented qualitative reports of health outcomes from social media use and have examined discourse and communication themes occurring through different social media. However, there is an absence of published studies examining and unpacking the underlying therapeutic mechanisms driving social media’s effects. Objective This paper presents a qualitative analysis thoroughly describing what social media therapeutically affords people living with chronic pain who are self-managing their condition. From this therapeutic affordance perspective, we aim to formulate a preliminary conceptual model aimed at better understanding "how" social media can influence patient outcomes. Methods In total, 218 people with chronic pain (PWCP) completed an online survey, investigating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use. Supplementary to quantitative data collected, participants were also given the opportunity to provide further open commentary regarding their use of social media as part of chronic pain management; 68/218 unique users (31.2%) chose to provide these free-text responses. Through thematic content analysis, 117 free-text responses regarding 10 types of social media were coded. Quotes were extracted and tabulated based on therapeutic affordances that we had previously identified. Inductive analysis was then performed to code defining language and emergent themes central to describing each affordance. Three investigators examined the responses, developed the coding scheme, and applied the coding to the data. Results We extracted 155 quotes from 117 free-text responses. The largest source of quotes came from social network site users (78/155, 50.3%). Analysis of component language used to describe the aforementioned affordances and emergent themes resulted in a final revision

  17. Therapeutic affordances of social media: emergent themes from a global online survey of people with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-12-22

    Research continues to present tenuous suggestions that social media is well suited to enhance management of chronic disease and improve health outcomes. Various studies have presented qualitative reports of health outcomes from social media use and have examined discourse and communication themes occurring through different social media. However, there is an absence of published studies examining and unpacking the underlying therapeutic mechanisms driving social media's effects. This paper presents a qualitative analysis thoroughly describing what social media therapeutically affords people living with chronic pain who are self-managing their condition. From this therapeutic affordance perspective, we aim to formulate a preliminary conceptual model aimed at better understanding "how" social media can influence patient outcomes. In total, 218 people with chronic pain (PWCP) completed an online survey, investigating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use. Supplementary to quantitative data collected, participants were also given the opportunity to provide further open commentary regarding their use of social media as part of chronic pain management; 68/218 unique users (31.2%) chose to provide these free-text responses. Through thematic content analysis, 117 free-text responses regarding 10 types of social media were coded. Quotes were extracted and tabulated based on therapeutic affordances that we had previously identified. Inductive analysis was then performed to code defining language and emergent themes central to describing each affordance. Three investigators examined the responses, developed the coding scheme, and applied the coding to the data. We extracted 155 quotes from 117 free-text responses. The largest source of quotes came from social network site users (78/155, 50.3%). Analysis of component language used to describe the aforementioned affordances and emergent themes resulted in a final revision and renaming of therapeutic affordances

  18. The Complex Emergency Database: a global repository of small-scale surveys on nutrition, health and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Altare

    Full Text Available Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data.

  19. solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sMA region and a large part of the vacuum oscillation region are seen to have been washed away with the inclusion of the sK spectrum data. In the left panel of figure 4 we show the dependence of the probabilities on energy. In the sMA and the VO oscillation regions the probability has a non- monotonic dependence ...

  20. Synchronization of Time-Continuous Chaotic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanchuk, S.; Maistrenko, Yuri; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Considering a system of two coupled identical chaotic oscillators, the paper first establishes the conditions of transverse stability for the fully synchronized chaotic state. Periodic orbit threshold theory is applied to determine the bifurcations through which low-periodic orbits embedded...... in the fully synchronized state lose their transverse stability, and the appearance of globally and locally riddled basins of attraction is discussed, respectively, in terms of the subcritical, supercritical nature of the riddling bifurcations. We show how the introduction of a small parameter mismatch between...... the interacting chaotic oscillators causes a shift of the synchronization manifold. The presence of a coupling asymmetry is found to lead to further modifications of the destabilization process. Finally, the paper considers the problem of partial synchronization in a system of four coupled Rossler oscillators...

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 66: Emerging Trends in the Globalization of Knowledge: The Role of the Technical Report in Aerospace Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli,Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    Economists, management theorists, business strategists, and governments alike recognize knowledge as the single most important resource in today's global economy. Because of its relationship to technological progress and economic growth, many governments have taken a keen interest in knowledge; specifically its production, transfer, and use. This paper focuses on the technical report as a product for disseminating the results of aerospace research and development (R&D) and its use and importance to aerospace engineers and scientists. The emergence of knowledge as an intellectual asset, its relationship to innovation, and its importance in a global economy provides the context for the paper. The relationships between government and knowledge and government and innovation are used to place knowledge within the context of publicly-funded R&D. Data, including the reader preferences of NASA technical reports, are derived from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, a ten-year study of knowledge diffusion in the U.S. aerospace industry.

  2. Self-oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain linear systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy from the environment into the vibration: no external rate needs to be tuned to the resonant frequency. A paper from 1830 by G. B. Airy gives us the opening to introduce self-oscillation as a sort of "perpetual motion" responsible for the human voice. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the more recent swaying of the London Millenium Footbridge. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments, and the heartbeat. We review the criterion that determines whether an arbitrary line...

  3. Optimizing Clinical Operations as part of a Global Emergency Medicine Initiative in Kumasi, Ghana: Application of Lean Manufacturing Principals to Low Resource Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M.; Desmond, Jeffery S.; Akanbobnaab, Christopher; Oteng, Rockefeller A.; Rominski, Sarah; Barsan, William G.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background Although many global health programs focus on providing clinical care or medical education, improving clinical operations can have a significant effect on patient care delivery, especially in developing health systems without high-level operations management. Lean manufacturing techniques have been effective in decreasing emergency department (ED) length of stay, patient waiting times, numbers of patients leaving without being seen, and door-to-balloon times for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in developed health systems; but use of Lean in low to middle income countries with developing emergency medicine systems has not been well characterized. Objectives To describe the application of Lean manufacturing techniques to improve clinical operations at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana and to identify key lessons learned to aid future global EM initiatives. Methods A three-week Lean improvement program focused on the hospital admissions process at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital was completed by a 14-person team in six stages: problem definition, scope of project planning, value stream mapping, root cause analysis, future state planning, and implementation planning. Results The authors identified eight lessons learned during our use of Lean to optimize the operations of an ED in a global health setting: 1) the Lean process aided in building a partnership with Ghanaian colleagues; 2) obtaining and maintaining senior institutional support is necessary and challenging; 3) addressing power differences among the team to obtain feedback from all team members is critical to successful Lean analysis; 4) choosing a manageable initial project is critical to influence long-term Lean use in a new environment; 5) data intensive Lean tools can be adapted and are effective in a less resourced health system; 6) several Lean tools focused on team problem solving techniques worked well in a low resource system without modification; 7) using Lean highlighted that

  4. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  5. Microbiota Diurnal Rhythmicity Programs Host Transcriptome Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, Christoph A; Levy, Maayan; Korem, Tal; Dohnalová, Lenka; Shapiro, Hagit; Jaitin, Diego A; David, Eyal; Winter, Deborah R; Gury-BenAri, Meital; Tatirovsky, Evgeny; Tuganbaev, Timur; Federici, Sara; Zmora, Niv; Zeevi, David; Dori-Bachash, Mally; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Brandis, Alexander; Harmelin, Alon; Shibolet, Oren; Halpern, Zamir; Honda, Kenya; Amit, Ido; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2016-12-01

    The intestinal microbiota undergoes diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that affect metabolic homeostasis, but the mechanisms by which the rhythmic microbiota influences host circadian activity remain elusive. Using integrated multi-omics and imaging approaches, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota features oscillating biogeographical localization and metabolome patterns that determine the rhythmic exposure of the intestinal epithelium to different bacterial species and their metabolites over the course of a day. This diurnal microbial behavior drives, in turn, the global programming of the host circadian transcriptional, epigenetic, and metabolite oscillations. Surprisingly, disruption of homeostatic microbiome rhythmicity not only abrogates normal chromatin and transcriptional oscillations of the host, but also incites genome-wide de novo oscillations in both intestine and liver, thereby impacting diurnal fluctuations of host physiology and disease susceptibility. As such, the rhythmic biogeography and metabolome of the intestinal microbiota regulates the temporal organization and functional outcome of host transcriptional and epigenetic programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiogenic oscillation induced ventilator autotriggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kaloria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic oscillation during mechanical ventilation can auto-trigger the ventilator resembling patient initiated breadth. This gives a false sense of intact respiratory drive and determination brain death, even if other tests are positive, is not appropriate in such a situation. It will prolong the ICU stay and confound the brain-death determination. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man who was brought to the hospital after many hours of critical delay following multiple gun shot injuries. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest while on the way from another hospital. After an emergency laparotomy, patient was shifted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score of E1VTM1 and was mechanically ventilated. Despite absence of brainstem reflexes, the ventilator continued to be triggered on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP mode and the patient maintained normal oxygen saturation and acceptable levels of carbon dioxide. An apnoea test confirmed absent respiratory drive. Ventilatory waveform graph analysis, revealed cardiogenic oscillation as the cause for autotrigerring.

  7. Oscillating spin-2 dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Urban, Federico R.

    2018-01-01

    The negative outcomes of laboratory searches, juxtaposed with cosmological observations, may indicate that dark matter has a gravitational origin. We show that coherent oscillations of a massive spin-2 field emerging from bimetric theory can easily account for the observed dark matter abundance. The framework, based on the only known consistent extension of general relativity to interacting spin-2 fields, is testable in precision measurements of the electric charge variation by means of atomic clocks, molecular systems, dedicated resonant mass detectors, as well as gravity interferometers and axionlike-particle experiments. These searches, therefore, provide a new window into the phenomenology of gravity which complements the results of dedicated tests of gravitation. We also present a multimetric extension of the scenario that straightforwardly implements the clockwork mechanism for gravity, explaining the apparent weakness of this force.

  8. Energy substrates that fuel fast neuronal network oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas V. Galow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast neuronal network oscillations in the gamma-frequency band (30-100 Hz provide a fundamental mechanism of complex neuronal information processing in the hippocampus and neocortex of mammals. Gamma oscillations have been implicated in higher brain functions such as sensory perception, motor activity and memory formation. The oscillations emerge from precise synapse interactions between excitatory principal neurons such as pyramidal cells and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, and they are associated with high energy expenditure. However, both energy substrates and metabolic pathways that are capable to power cortical gamma oscillations have been less defined. Here, we investigated the energy sources fueling persistent gamma oscillations in the CA3 subfield of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures of the rat. This preparation permits superior oxygen supply as well as fast application of glucose, glycolytic metabolites or drugs such as glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor during extracellular recordings of the local field potential. Our findings are: (i gamma oscillations persist in the presence of glucose (10 mmol/L for greater than 60 minutes in slice cultures while (ii lowering glucose levels (2.5 mmol/L significantly reduces the amplitude of the oscillation. (iii Gamma oscillations are absent at low concentration of lactate (2 mmol/L. (iv Gamma oscillations persist at high concentration (20 mmol/L of either lactate or pyruvate, albeit showing significant reductions in the amplitude. (v The breakdown of glycogen significantly delays the decay of gamma oscillations during glucose deprivation. However, when glucose is present, the turnover of glycogen is not essential to sustain gamma oscillations. Our study shows that fast neuronal network oscillations can be fueled by different energy-rich substrates, with glucose being most effective.

  9. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  10. The Managing Emergencies in Paediatric Anaesthesia global rating scale is a reliable tool for simulation-based assessment in pediatric anesthesia crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Tobias C; Ng, Elaine; Power, Daniel; Marsh, Christopher; Tolchard, Stephen; Shadrina, Anna; Bould, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    The use of simulation-based assessments for high-stakes physician examinations remains controversial. The Managing Emergencies in Paediatric Anaesthesia course uses simulation to teach evidence-based management of anesthesia crises to trainee anesthetists in the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. In this study, we investigated the feasibility and reliability of custom-designed scenario-specific performance checklists and a global rating scale (GRS) assessing readiness for independent practice. After research ethics board approval, subjects were videoed managing simulated pediatric anesthesia crises in a single Canadian teaching hospital. Each subject was randomized to two of six different scenarios. All 60 scenarios were subsequently rated by four blinded raters (two in the UK, two in Canada) using the checklists and GRS. The actual and predicted reliability of the tools was calculated for different numbers of raters using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Average measures ICCs ranged from 'substantial' to 'near perfect' (P ≤ 0.001). The reliability of the checklists and the GRS was similar. Single measures ICCs showed more variability than average measures ICC. At least two raters would be required to achieve acceptable reliability. We have established the reliability of a GRS to assess the management of simulated crisis scenarios in pediatric anesthesia, and this tool is feasible within the setting of a research study. The global rating scale allows raters to make a judgement regarding a participant's readiness for independent practice. These tools may be used in the future research examining simulation-based assessment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Non-linear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.

  12. Brownian parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    1994-05-01

    We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).

  13. Friedel oscillations in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, J. A.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry breaking perturbations in an electronically conducting medium are known to produce Friedel oscillations in various physical quantities of an otherwise pristine material. Here we show in a mathematically transparent fashion that Friedel oscillations in graphene have a strong sublattice...... asymmetry. As a result, the presence of impurities and/or defects may impact the distinct graphene sublattices very differently. Furthermore, such an asymmetry can be used to explain the recent observations that nitrogen atoms and dimers are not randomly distributed in graphene but prefer to occupy one...

  14. Surface plasmon oscillations on a quantum plasma half-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We investigate the propagation of surface electrostatic oscillations on a quantum plasma half-space, taking into account the quantum effects. We derive the quantum surface wave frequencies of the system, by means the quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation and applying the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions. Numerical results show in the presence of the slow nonlocal variations, plasmon wave energies of the system are significantly modified and plasmonic oscillations with blue-shifted frequencies emerge.

  15. Self-generated theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutagny, Romain; Jackson, Jesse; Williams, Sylvain

    2009-12-01

    Hippocampal theta rhythm is crucial for spatial memory and is thought to be generated by extrinsic inputs. In contrast, using a complete rat hippocampus in vitro, we found several intrinsic, atropine-resistant theta generators in CA1. These oscillators were organized along the septotemporal axis and arose independently from CA3. Our results suggest that CA1 theta rhythm can emerge from the coupling of multiple autonomous hippocampal theta oscillators.

  16. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  17. Closed-loop transcranial alternating current stimulation of slow oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is an emerging non-invasive tool for modulating brain oscillations. There is evidence that weak oscillatory electrical stimulation during sleep can entrain cortical slow oscillations to improve the memory consolidation in rodents and humans. Using a novel method and a custom built stimulation device, automatic stimulation of slow oscillations in-phase with the endogenous activity in a real-time closed-loop setup is possible. Preliminary data from neuroplasticity experiments show a high detection performance of the proposed method, electrical measurements demonstrate the outstanding quality of the presented stimulation device.

  18. Oscillations of the Boundary Layer and High-frequency QPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed persistent high-frequency oscillations of the boundary layer near an accreting, weakly-magnetized star in global 3D MHD simulations. The tilted dipole magnetic field is not strong enough to open a gap between the star and the disk. Instead, it forms a highly-wrapped azimuthal field near the surface of the star which slows down rotation of the disk matter, while a small tilt of the field excites oscillations of the boundary layer with a frequency below the Keplerian frequency. This mechanism may be responsible for the high-frequency oscillations in accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs and classical T Tauri stars.

  19. A simple violin oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.

  20. Oscillators and operational amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation...

  1. Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kobzarev, I Yu; Okun, Lev Borisovich; Shchepkin, M G

    1980-01-01

    A complete phenomenological description of neutrino oscillations is given. The most general form of the mass matrix of N types of neutrino and of the matrix of neutrino mixing in the left charged current is analyzed. Measuring the parameters of the charged current matrix in oscillatory experiments and in the experimental studies of the beta -decay electron spectra, is discussed. (20 refs).

  2. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  3. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  4. Photonic local oscillator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberk, Robert; Tong, Edward; Hunter, Todd R.; Christensen, Robert; Blundell, Ray

    2006-12-01

    In the receiver lab, we have developed a 200 GHz to 230 GHz local oscillator constructed from mostly commercially available 1550 nm laser communication components. Theoretical and experimental work show that the laser adds negligible phase noise to this photonic local oscillator system and that spectral purity and phase stability are similar to Gunn oscillator based local oscillator output. The optical path consists of a single 1550 nm diode laser, a lithium niobate optical phase modulator, a Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with a free spectral range of 75 GHz, and a 160 GHz to 260 GHz photomixer whose output is connected to a horn antenna. All of the optical devices and connections are polarization maintaining, and the photomixer was designed and fabricated at the CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The electrical path consists of a YIG synthesizer, operating in the frequency range 14-20 GHz, a frequency doubler, and a power amplifier connected to the RF port of the phase modulator. At the SMA on Mauna Kea, we incorporated the photonic LO into one element (Antenna 6) of a five antenna array for test observations of CO J=2-1 made towards the ultracompact HII region G138.295+1.555. Spectral features of comparable width occur on baselines with and without antenna 6, and noise increases with baseline length independent of antenna number. Continuum observations were also made toward the quasar 3c454.3 for a period of about one hour. In summary, the SMA has proven that the photonic local oscillator operates with adequate phase and frequency stability for radio-interferometry.

  5. Identifying neuronal oscillations using rhythmicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, A.M.M.; Ede, F.L. van; Maris, E.G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations are a characteristic feature of neuronal activity and are typically investigated through measures of power and coherence. However, neither of these measures directly reflects the distinctive feature of oscillations: their rhythmicity. Rhythmicity is the extent to which future

  6. Wide-Area Emergency Control in Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    This thesis concerns the development of new emergency control algorithms for electric power transmission systems. Diminishing global resources and climate concerns forces operators to change production away from fossil fuels and towards distributed renewable energy sources. Along with the change...... of synchronous machines affecting each-other through electric power transfers. Today, dedicated controllers are applied to cope with such oscillations. However, faults can affect the behaviour of these controllers, or even separate them. The thesis presents a novel method that – without particular knowledge...

  7. Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular...

  8. Spectral linewidths of Josephson oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Yulin, AV

    2001-01-01

    We show that the linewidth of a Josephson flux-flow oscillator has the same functional dependence on temperature, static, and dynamic resistances as the ones of Josephson single-fluxon oscillators and small Josephson junctions. This suggests a universal formula for the linewidth of Josephson...... oscillators....

  9. Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Koepsell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

  10. Magneto-elastic Oscillations and Magnetar QPOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergioulas, N.; Gabler, M.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Font, J. A.; Müller, E.

    2012-07-01

    The origin of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the giant flares of soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) remains uncertain. Current models explore the idea that long-term quasi-periodic oscillations are trapped at the turning points of the continuum of torsional magneto-elastic oscillations in the magnetar's interior. After reviewing recent work in this field, we describe our latest efforts using two-dimensional, general-relativistic, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations, coupled to evolutions of shear waves in the solid crust, in order to explore the viability of this model when a purely dipolar magnetic field is assumed. We demonstrate the existence of three different regimes (a) B 1015 G, where magneto-elastic oscillations reach the surface and approach the behavior of purely Alfvén QPOs. Our results do not leave much room for a crustal-mode interpretation of observed QPOs in SGR giant flares, in the case of a purely dipolar magnetic field. On the other hand, the observed QPOs could originate from Alfvén-like, global, turning-point QPOs in models with dipolar magnetic field strengths in the narrow range of 5 × 1015 G ≤ B ≤ 1.4 × 1016 G. To agree with estimates for magnetic field strengths in known magnetars, a more complicated magnetic field structure or superfluidity of the neutrons and superconductivity of the protons should be taken into account.

  11. Assessing emergency obstetric care provision in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of the application of global guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aduragbemi Banke-Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of timely and quality emergency obstetric care (EmOC has contributed significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Since 2009, the global guideline, referred to as the ‘handbook’, has been used to monitor availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC. Objective: To assess application and explore experiences of researchers in LMICs in assessing EmOC. Design: Multiple databases of peer-reviewed literature were systematically reviewed on EmOC assessments in LMICs, since 2009. Following set criteria, we included articles, assessed for quality based on a newly developed checklist, and extracted data using a pre-designed extraction tool. We used thematic summaries to condense our findings and mapped patterns that we observed. To analyze experiences and recommendations for improved EmOC assessments, we took a deductive approach for the framework synthesis. Results: Twenty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, with 17 judged as high quality. The highest publication frequency was observed in 2015. Most assessments were conducted in Nigeria and Tanzania (four studies each and Bangladesh and Ghana (three each. Most studies (17 were done at subnational levels with 23 studies using the ‘handbook’ alone, whereas the others combined the ‘handbook’ with other frameworks. Seventeen studies conducted facility-based surveys, whereas others used mixed methods. For different reasons, intrapartum and very early neonatal death rate and proportion of deaths due to indirect causes in EmOC facilities were the least reported indicators. Key emerging themes indicate that data quality for EmOC assessments can be improved, indicators should be refined, a holistic approach is required for EmOC assessments, and assessments should be conducted as routine processes. Conclusions: There is clear justification to review how EmOC assessments are being conducted. Synergy between

  12. Processes limiting the emergence of detectable aerosol indirect effects on tropical warm clouds in global aerosol-climate model and satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Peters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We use data from simulations performed with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM to test the proposition that shipping emissions do not have a statistically significant effect on water clouds over tropical oceans on climate scales put forward in earlier satellite based work. We analyse a total of four sensitivity experiments, three of which employ global shipping emissions and one simulation which only employs shipping emissions in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. To ensure comparability to earlier results from observations, we sample the model data using a method previously applied to satellite data aimed at separating ‘clean’ from ‘polluted’ oceanic regions based on i the location of main shipping routes and ii wind direction at 10 m above sea level. The model simulations run with realistic present-day shipping emissions show changes in the lower tropospheric aerosol population attributable to shipping emissions across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans. However, we find the resulting effect on cloud properties to be non-distinguishable from natural gradients and variability, that is, gradients of cloud properties sampled across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans are very similar among those simulations. Our results therefore compare well to the earlier findings from satellite observations. Substantial changes of the aerosol population and cloud properties only occur when shipping emissions are increased 10-fold. We find that aerosol advection and rapid aerosol removal from the atmosphere play an important role in determining the non-significant response in i column integrated aerosol properties and ii cloud microphysical properties in the realistic simulations. Additionally, high variability and infrequent occurrence of simulated low-level clouds over tropical oceans in ECHAM5-HAM limit the development of aerosol indirect effects because i in-cloud production of sulphate from ship-emitted sulphuric species via

  13. Going Global

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    This study links theories of relationality and institutional change to deepen understanding of professionals’ role in globalization. In previous institutional research, it has been conventional to treat professionals as agents of firms or transnational organizations, and institutional change...... environment. It also broadens the model of agency to include invention and improvisation by individual professionals, as a counterpart to collective strategic action. The argument is based on data from a 16-nation study exploring the emergence of a particular ‘globalized localism’: the transformation...... to specify a new, more detailed model of the ways local practices and ideas develop into global institutions....

  14. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  15. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  16. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  17. Convection and stellar oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarslev, Magnus Johan

    2017-01-01

    of stars. For stars like the sun, energy transport in the outer layers occurs mainly through turbulent convection. Here, pressure mode oscillations are essentially propagating sound waves, whose properties can be altered by interaction with the turbulent motion of the gas. This has always been a problem...... for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...

  18. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...

  19. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  20. Oscillating stagnation point flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, C. E.; Salwen, H.

    1982-01-01

    A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is given for an incompressible stagnation point flow whose magnitude oscillates in time about a constant, non-zero, value (an unsteady Hiemenz flow). Analytic approximations to the solution in the low and high frequency limits are given and compared with the results of numerical integrations. The application of these results to one aspect of the boundary layer receptivity problem is also discussed.

  1. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    ..., such as the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), and the Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI) have attempted to reform their governance arrangements in order to improve transparency, accountability, and responsiveness to countries and citizens? healthcare needs in response to pressu...

  2. Oscillations in the Umbral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynildsen, N.; Maltby, P.; Foley, C. R.; Fredvik, T.; Kjeldseth-Moe, O.

    2004-06-01

    The results of simultaneous observations of oscillations in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona above nine sunspots are presented. The data are obtained through coordinated observing with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory — SOHO and the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer — TRACE. Oscillations are detected above each umbra. The power spectra show one dominant frequency corresponding to a period close to 3 min. We show that the oscillations in the sunspot transition region can be modeled by upwardly propagating acoustic waves. In the corona the oscillations are limited to small regions that often coincide with the endpoints of sunspot coronal loops. Spectral observations show that oscillations in the corona contribute to the observed oscillations in the TRACE 171 Å channel observations. We show that a recent suggestion regarding a connection between sunspot plumes and 3-min oscillations conflicts with the observations.

  3. Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M; Popov, V L; Pohrt, R

    2015-11-09

    If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect "relaxation damping". The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed.

  4. Remote synchronization of amplitudes across an experimental ring of non-linear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minati, Ludovico, E-mail: lminati@ieee.org, E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it, E-mail: lminati@istituto-besta.it [Center for Mind/Brain Science, University of Trento, 38123 Mattarello TN, Italy and Scientific Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, the emergence of remote synchronization in a ring of 32 unidirectionally coupled non-linear oscillators is reported. Each oscillator consists of 3 negative voltage gain stages connected in a loop to which two integrators are superimposed and receives input from its preceding neighbour via a “mixing” stage whose gains form the main system control parameters. Collective behaviour of the network is investigated numerically and experimentally, based on a custom-designed circuit board featuring 32 field-programmable analog arrays. A diverse set of synchronization patterns is observed depending on the control parameters. While phase synchronization ensues globally, albeit imperfectly, for certain control parameter values, amplitudes delineate subsets of non-adjacent but preferentially synchronized nodes; this cannot be trivially explained by synchronization paths along sequences of structurally connected nodes and is therefore interpreted as representing a form of remote synchronization. Complex topology of functional synchronization thus emerges from underlying elementary structural connectivity. In addition to the Kuramoto order parameter and cross-correlation coefficient, other synchronization measures are considered, and preliminary findings suggest that generalized synchronization may identify functional relationships across nodes otherwise not visible. Further work elucidating the mechanism underlying this observation of remote synchronization is necessary, to support which experimental data and board design materials have been made freely downloadable.

  5. Remote synchronization of amplitudes across an experimental ring of non-linear oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the emergence of remote synchronization in a ring of 32 unidirectionally coupled non-linear oscillators is reported. Each oscillator consists of 3 negative voltage gain stages connected in a loop to which two integrators are superimposed and receives input from its preceding neighbour via a "mixing" stage whose gains form the main system control parameters. Collective behaviour of the network is investigated numerically and experimentally, based on a custom-designed circuit board featuring 32 field-programmable analog arrays. A diverse set of synchronization patterns is observed depending on the control parameters. While phase synchronization ensues globally, albeit imperfectly, for certain control parameter values, amplitudes delineate subsets of non-adjacent but preferentially synchronized nodes; this cannot be trivially explained by synchronization paths along sequences of structurally connected nodes and is therefore interpreted as representing a form of remote synchronization. Complex topology of functional synchronization thus emerges from underlying elementary structural connectivity. In addition to the Kuramoto order parameter and cross-correlation coefficient, other synchronization measures are considered, and preliminary findings suggest that generalized synchronization may identify functional relationships across nodes otherwise not visible. Further work elucidating the mechanism underlying this observation of remote synchronization is necessary, to support which experimental data and board design materials have been made freely downloadable.

  6. Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in a Solar Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Li, T.; Zheng, R. S.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations of a filament observed on 2015 May 3. Located next to active region 12335, the sigmoidal filament was observed by the ground-based Hα telescopes from the Global Oscillation Network Group and by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The filament oscillations were most probably triggered by the magnetic reconnection in the filament channel, which is characterized by the bidirectional flows, brightenings in EUV and soft X-ray, and magnetic cancellation in the photosphere. The directions of oscillations have angles of 4°-36° with respect to the filament axis. The whole filament did not oscillate in phase as a rigid body. Meanwhile, the oscillation periods (3100-4400 s) have a spatial dependence, implying that the curvature radii (R) of the magnetic dips are different at different positions. The values of R are estimated to be 69.4-133.9 Mm, and the minimum transverse magnetic field of the dips is estimated to be 15 G. The amplitudes of S5-S8 grew with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 damped with time. The oscillation amplitudes range from a few to ten Mm, and the maximum velocity can reach 30 km s-1. Interestingly, the filament experienced mass drainage southward at a speed of ˜27 km s-1. The oscillations continued after the mass drainage and lasted for more than 11 hr. After the mass drainage, the oscillation phases did not change much. The periods of S5-S8 decreased, while the periods of S9-S14 increased. The amplitudes of S5-S8 damped with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 grew. Most of the damping (growing) ratios are between -9 and 14. We offer a schematic cartoon to explain the complex behaviors of oscillations by introducing thread-thread interaction.

  7. Learning to Plunder: Global Education, Global Inequality and the Global City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Most research and policy discussions of education in the global city have focused on the ways in which globalization and the emergence of global or globalizing cities can create social, economic and educational inequality locally, within the global city itself. Global cities, however, are, by definition, powerful places, where the core…

  8. A Possible Mechanism for Driving Oscillations in Hot Giant Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederick, Ethan; Jackiewicz, Jason, E-mail: dederiej@nmsu.edu, E-mail: jasonj@nmsu.edu [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The κ -mechanism has been successful in explaining the origin of observed oscillations of many types of “classical” pulsating variable stars. Here we examine quantitatively if that same process is prominent enough to excite the potential global oscillations within Jupiter, whose energy flux is powered by gravitational collapse rather than nuclear fusion. Additionally, we examine whether external radiative forcing, i.e., starlight, could be a driver for global oscillations in hot Jupiters orbiting various main-sequence stars at defined orbital semimajor axes. Using planetary models generated by the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics and nonadiabatic oscillation calculations, we confirm that Jovian oscillations cannot be driven via the κ -mechanism. However, we do show that, in hot Jupiters, oscillations can likely be excited via the suppression of radiative cooling due to external radiation given a large enough stellar flux and the absence of a significant oscillatory damping zone within the planet. This trend does not seem to be dependent on the planetary mass. In future observations, we can thus expect that such planets may be pulsating, thereby giving greater insight into the internal structure of these bodies.

  9. Glucose Oscillations Can Activate an Endogenous Oscillator in Pancreatic Islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P McKenna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic islets manage elevations in blood glucose level by secreting insulin into the bloodstream in a pulsatile manner. Pulsatile insulin secretion is governed by islet oscillations such as bursting electrical activity and periodic Ca2+ entry in β-cells. In this report, we demonstrate that although islet oscillations are lost by fixing a glucose stimulus at a high concentration, they may be recovered by subsequently converting the glucose stimulus to a sinusoidal wave. We predict with mathematical modeling that the sinusoidal glucose signal's ability to recover islet oscillations depends on its amplitude and period, and we confirm our predictions by conducting experiments with islets using a microfluidics platform. Our results suggest a mechanism whereby oscillatory blood glucose levels recruit non-oscillating islets to enhance pulsatile insulin output from the pancreas. Our results also provide support for the main hypothesis of the Dual Oscillator Model, that a glycolytic oscillator endogenous to islet β-cells drives pulsatile insulin secretion.

  10. Use of Bibliometric Analysis to Assess the Scientific Productivity and Impact of the Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Program, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Erik J; Valle, Ruben; Chandrasekera, Ruvani M; Soto, Giselle; Burke, Ronald L; Cummings, James F; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R

    2017-05-01

    Scientific publication in academic literature is a key venue in which the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) program disseminates infectious disease surveillance data. Bibliometric analyses are tools to evaluate scientific productivity and impact of published research, yet are not routinely used for disease surveillance. Our objective was to incorporate bibliometric indicators to measure scientific productivity and impact of GEIS-funded infectious disease surveillance, and assess their utility in the management of the GEIS surveillance program. Metrics on GEIS program scientific publications, project funding, and countries of collaborating institutions from project years 2006 to 2012 were abstracted from annual reports and program databases and organized by the six surveillance priority focus areas: respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections, febrile and vector-borne infections, antimicrobial resistance, sexually transmitted infections, and capacity building and outbreak response. Scientific productivity was defined as the number of scientific publications in peer-reviewed literature derived from GEIS-funded projects. Impact was defined as the number of citations of a GEIS-funded publication by other peer-reviewed publications, and the Thomson Reuters 2-year journal impact factor. Indicators were retrieved from the Web of Science and Journal Citation Report. To determine the global network of international collaborations between GEIS partners, countries were organized by the locations of collaborating institutions. Between 2006 and 2012, GEIS distributed approximately US $330 million to support 921 total projects. On average, GEIS funded 132 projects (range 96-160) with $47 million (range $43 million-$53 million), annually. The predominant surveillance focus areas were respiratory infections with 317 (34.4%) projects and $225 million, and febrile and vector-borne infections with 274 (29

  11. Modeling microtubule oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jobs, E.; Wolf, D.E.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of molecular reactions in a macroscopic volume may cause the volume's physical properties to change dynamically and thus reveal much about the reactions. As an example, experimental time series for so-called microtubule oscillations are analyzed in terms of a minimal model...... for this complex polymerization-depolymerization cycle. The model reproduces well the qualitatively different time series that result from different experimental conditions, and illuminates the role and importance of individual processes in the cycle. Simple experiments are suggested that can further test...... and define the model and the polymer's reaction cycle....

  12. From excitability to oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A. Y.; Jacobsen, J. C. B.

    2013-01-01

    One consequence of cell-to-cell communication is the appearance of synchronized behavior, where many cells cooperate to generate new dynamical patterns. We present a simple functional model of vasomotion based on the concept of a two-mode oscillator with dual interactions: via relatively slow...... diffusive coupling that gives rise to wave dynamics and via fast changes in membrane potential that propagate almost instantly over significant distances. The model reproduces the basic calcium dynamics of the vascular smooth muscle cell: calcium waves which upon increased activity of cGMP-sensitive calcium...

  13. Oscillations in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hale, Jack K

    2015-01-01

    By focusing on ordinary differential equations that contain a small parameter, this concise graduate-level introduction to the theory of nonlinear oscillations provides a unified approach to obtaining periodic solutions to nonautonomous and autonomous differential equations. It also indicates key relationships with other related procedures and probes the consequences of the methods of averaging and integral manifolds.Part I of the text features introductory material, including discussions of matrices, linear systems of differential equations, and stability of solutions of nonlinear systems. Pa

  14. Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. The authors propose that this role may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis, specifically, that the increases in theta oscillations and changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments.

  15. Hyperchaos in coupled Colpitts oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenys, Antanas; Tamasevicius, Arunas; Baziliauskas, Antanas

    2003-01-01

    The paper suggests a simple solution of building a hyperchaotic oscillator. Two chaotic Colpitts oscillators, either identical or non-identical ones are coupled by means of two linear resistors R-k. The hyperchaotic output signal v(t) is a linear combination, specifically the mean of the individu...... oscillators. The spectrum of the Lyapunov exponents (LE) have been calculated versus the coefficient k. For weakly coupled oscillators there are two positive LE indicating hyperchaotic behaviour of the overall system.......The paper suggests a simple solution of building a hyperchaotic oscillator. Two chaotic Colpitts oscillators, either identical or non-identical ones are coupled by means of two linear resistors R-k. The hyperchaotic output signal v(t) is a linear combination, specifically the mean of the individual...

  16. Linearization of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, A; Alvarez, M L [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E; Pascual, I [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2009-03-11

    A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the technique.

  17. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Caliga, Seth C; Zozulya, Alex A; Anderson, Dana Z

    2012-01-01

    A triple-well atomtronic transistor combined with forced RF evaporation is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator circuit. The transistor is implemented using a metalized compound glass and silicon substrate. On-chip and external currents produce a cigar-shaped magnetic trap, which is divided into transistor source, gate, and drain regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers projected onto the magnetic trap through a chip window. A resonant laser beam illuminating the drain portion of the atomtronic transistor couples atoms emitted by the gate to the vacuum. The circuit operates by loading the source with cold atoms and utilizing forced evaporation as a power supply that produces a positive chemical potential in the source, which subsequently drives oscillation. High-resolution in-trap absorption imagery reveals gate atoms that have tunneled from the source and establishes that the circuit emits a nominally mono-energetic matterwave with a frequency of 23.5(1.0) kHz by tunneling from the gate, ...

  18. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  19. The Duffing oscillator with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    An analytical solution to the differential equation describing the Duffing oscillator with damping is presented. The damping term of the differential equation and the initial conditions satisfy an algebraic equation, and thus the solution is specific for this type of damping. The nonlinear term....... It is established that the period of oscillation is shorter compared to that of a linearized model but increasing with time and asymptotically approaching the period of oscillation of the linear damped model. An explicit expression for the period of oscillation has been derived, and it is found to be very accurate....

  20. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  1. Chimera states in mechanical oscillator networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Thutupalli, Shashi; Fourrière, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    of whether chimeras are indeed characteristic of natural systems. This calls for a palpable realization of chimera states without any fine-tuning, from which physical mechanisms underlying their emergence can be uncovered. Here, we devise a simple experiment with mechanical oscillators coupled...... in our experiments is controlled by elementary dynamical equations from mechanics that are ubiquitous in many natural and technological systems. The symmetry-breaking mechanism revealed by our experiments may thus be prevalent in systems exhibiting collective behavior, such as power grids, optomechanical...

  2. Bistability in Coupled Oscillators Exhibiting Synchronized Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusola, O. I.; Vincent, U. E.; Njah, A. N.; Olowofela, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    We report some new results associated with the synchronization behavior of two coupled double-well Duffing oscillators (DDOs). Some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of the drive and response DDOs via linear state error feedback control are obtained by means of Lyapunov stability theory. The synchronization is achieved through a bistable state in which a periodic attractor co-exists with a chaotic attractor. Using the linear perturbation analysis, the prevalence of attractors in parameter space and the associated bifurcations are examined. Subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations and abundance of Arnold tongues — a signature of mode locking phenomenon are found.

  3. Plasma-filled rippled wall rectangular backward wave oscillator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The backward wave oscillator is a device designed to efficiently convert the energy of an electron beam into electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequencies [1]. Emerging needs for high power and ... tions in carrying input power inside the slow wave structure and so the resultant power cannot be increased after some ...

  4. Red Giant Oscillations: Stellar Models and Mode Frequency Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jendreieck, A.; Weiss, A.; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2012-01-01

    We present preliminary results on modelling KIC 7693833, the so far most metal-poor red-giant star observed by {\\it Kepler}. From time series spanning several months, global oscillation parameters and individual frequencies were obtained and compared to theoretical calculations. Evolution models ...

  5. MEMS-BASED OSCILLATORS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Karim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper presents an overview of microelectromechanical (MEMS based oscillators. The accuracy and stability of the reference frequency will normally limit the performance of most wireless communication systems. MEMS technology is the technology of choice due to its compatibility to silicon, leading to integration with circuits and lowering power consumption. MEMS based oscillators also provide the potential of a fully integrated transceiver. The most commonly used topology for MEMS based oscillators are pierce oscillator circuit topology and TIA circuit topology. Both topologies result in very competitive output in terms of phase noise and power consumption.  They can be used for either higher or lower Rx. The major difference between both topologies is the number of transistors used. TIA circuit used more number of transistor compare to pierce circuit. Thus design complexity of the TIA is higher. Pierce circuit is simpler, provide straightforward biasing and easier to design. The highly integratable of MEMS-based oscillators have made them much needed in future multiband wireless system. So that future wireless systems are able to function globally without any problem. ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan gambaran keseluruhan mikroelektromekanikal (MEMS berdasarkan pengayun.  Ketepatan dan kestabilan frekuensi rujukan sering membataskan perlaksanaan kebanyakan sistem komunikasi tanpa wayar. Teknologi MEMS merupakan teknologi pilihan memandangkan ia serasi dengan silikon; membolehkan integrasi dengan litar dan penggunaan tenaga yang rendah.  Pengayun berdasarkan MEMS juga  berpotensi sebagai integrasi penuh penghantar-terima. Topologi yang sering digunakan untuk pengayun berdasarkan MEMS adalah topologi litar pengayun pencantas dan topologi litar TIA.  Keputusan bagi kedua-dua topologi adalah amat kompetitif dari segi fasa bunyi dan penggunaan tenaga. Ia boleh digunakan untuk meninggikan atau merendahkan Rx. Perbezaan utama

  6. How Reverse R&D Knowledge Transfer from Foreign Invested R&D in Emerging Markets Can Drive Global Innovation Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Harryson, Sigvald

    2010-01-01

    Although R&D globalization has happened in China, India and other rapid growth regions for many years, it has to our knowledge not yet been studied how it affects reverse knowledge transfer, reverse innovation, and the innovation performance of the MNCs that are driving the R&D globalization...... is that Windtech took a more open collaboration approach towards other local companies – typically R&D Centers of Western leading companies in relevant industries. This open recruiting policy provided the platform for locally created innovations with global innovation impact....

  7. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  8. Financial Globalization and Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Cordella, Tito; Ospino Rojas, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    This paper computes a new financial globalization index for a large sample of countries for 1992-2016. Unlike other measures, the financial globalization index corrects for the heteroscedasticity of global volatility. This leads to a downward adjustment of financial globalization trends for developed, emerging, and frontier markets. The paper also shows that financial globalization reduces...

  9. Hyperchaotic system with unstable oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.

    2000-01-01

    A simple electronic system exhibiting hyperchaotic behaviour is described. The system includes two nonlinearly coupled 2nd order unstable oscillators, each composed of an LC resonance loop and an amplifier. The system is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential...... equations, PSPICE simulations and hardware experiments. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic mode of the oscillations....

  10. The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...

  11. Mechanical Parametric Oscillations and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Usually parametric oscillations are not the topic of general physics courses. Probably it is because the mathematical theory of this phenomenon is relatively complicated, and until quite recently laboratory experiments for students were difficult to implement. However parametric oscillations are good illustrations of the laws of physics and can be…

  12. Augmenting cognition by neuronal oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horschig, J.M.; Zumer, J.; Bahramisharif, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cortical oscillations have been shown to represent fundamental functions of a working brain, e.g., communication, stimulus binding, error monitoring, and inhibition, and are directly linked to behavior. Recent studies intervening with these oscillations have demonstrated effective modulation of both

  13. Tomography on f-oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudinets, I. V.; Man’ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Zaccaria, F.

    2017-11-01

    Symplectic tomographies of classical and quantum states are shortly reviewed. The concept of nonlinear f-oscillators and their properties are recalled. The tomographic probability representations of oscillator coherent states and the problem of entanglement are then discussed. The entanglement of even and odd f-coherent states is evaluated by the linear entropy.

  14. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 35; Issue 3. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars ... Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important ...

  15. Global Health Security

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-21

    Dr. Jordan Tappero, a CDC senior advisor on global health, discusses the state of global health security.  Created: 9/21/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 9/21/2017.

  16. Prospects for Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pascoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the last unknown lepton mixing angle θ 13 has been determined to be relatively large, not too far from its previous upper bound. This opens exciting possibilities for upcoming neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing fundamental questions, among them the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector. In this paper we review the phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, focusing on subleading effects, which will be the key towards these goals. Starting from a discussion of the present determination of three-flavour oscillation parameters, we give an outlook on the potential of near-term oscillation physics as well as on the long-term program towards possible future precision oscillation facilities. We discuss accelerator-driven long-baseline experiments as well as nonaccelerator possibilities from atmospheric and reactor neutrinos.

  17. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  18. The Global Fund and the re-configuration and re-emergence of 'civil society': widening or closing the democratic deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; O'Brien, Oonagh

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the scale and policy influence of civil society in global health governance. The AIDS 'industry' in particular opens up spaces for active mobilisation and participation of non-state actors, which further crystallise with an ever-increasing dominance of global health initiatives. While country evaluations of global initiatives call for a greater participation of 'civil society', the evidence base examining the organisation, nature and operation of 'civil society' and its claims to legitimacy is very thin. Drawing on the case of one of the most visible players in the global response to HIV epidemic, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, this article seeks to highlight the complex micropolitics of its interactions with civil society. It examines the nature of civil society actors involved in the Fund projects and the processes through which they gain credibility. We argue that the imposition of global structures and principles facilitates a reconfiguration of actors around newer forms of expertise and power centres. In this context, the notion of 'civil society' underplays differences and power dynamics between various institutions and conceals the agency of outsiders under the guise of autonomy of the state and people.

  19. Active hydrodynamics of synchronization and ordering in moving oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Basu, Abhik

    2017-08-01

    The nature of emergent collective behaviors of moving interacting physical agents is a long-standing open issue in physical and biological systems alike. This calls for studies on the control of synchronization and the degree of order in a collection of diffusively moving noisy oscillators. We address this by constructing a generic hydrodynamic theory for active phase fluctuations in a collection of a large number of nearly-phase-coherent moving oscillators in two dimensions. Our theory describes the general situation where phase fluctuations and oscillator mobility mutually affect each other. We show that the interplay between the active effects and the mobility of the oscillators leads to a variety of phenomena, ranging from synchronization with long-range, nearly-long-range, and quasi-long-range orders to instabilities and desynchronization with short-range order of the oscillator phases. We highlight the complex dependences of synchronization on the active effects. These should be testable in wide-ranging systems, e.g., oscillating chemical reactions in the presence of different reaction inhibitors and facilitators, live oriented cytoskeletal extracts, and vertebrate segmentation clocks.

  20. Synchronization of moving oscillators in three dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Soumen; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the macroscopic behavior of a dynamical network consisting of a time-evolving wiring of interactions among a group of random walkers. We assume that each walker (agent) has an oscillator and show that depending upon the nature of interaction, synchronization arises where each of the individual oscillators are allowed to move in such a random walk manner in a finite region of three dimensional space. Here, the vision range of each oscillator decides the number of oscillators with which it interacts. The live interaction between the oscillators is of intermediate type (i.e., not local as well as not global) and may or may not be bidirectional. We analytically derive the density dependent threshold of coupling strength for synchronization using linear stability analysis and numerically verify the obtained analytical results. Additionally, we explore the concept of basin stability, a nonlinear measure based on volumes of basin of attractions, to investigate how stable the synchronous state is under large perturbations. The synchronization phenomenon is analyzed taking limit cycle and chaotic oscillators for wide ranges of parameters like interaction strength k between the walkers, speed of movement v, and vision range r.

  1. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  2. Potential dominance of oscillating crescent waves in finite width tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the emergence of previously observed oscillating crescent water wave patterns, created by class II (three-dimensional) instabilities which are in principle not dominant, could in fact be explained as an artifact of a finite width tank, combined with a suppression...... of the class I (Benjamin-Feir) instability. Within this context, we investigate quantitatively the dominance of class II deep water wave instabilities for particular transversal wavenumbers, and it is shown that the regions where non-phase-locked (oscillating) crescent wave patterns are locally dominant...

  3. Violation of smooth observable macroscopic realism in a harmonic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Amir; Gat, Omri

    2009-08-14

    We study the emergence of macrorealism in a harmonic oscillator subject to consecutive measurements of a squeezed action. We demonstrate a breakdown of dynamical realism in a wide parameter range that is maximized in a scaling limit of extreme squeezing, where it is based on measurements of smooth observables, implying that macroscopic realism is not valid in the harmonic oscillator. We propose an indirect experimental test of these predictions with entangled photons by demonstrating that local realism in a composite system implies dynamical realism in a subsystem.

  4. Using Jovian Oscillations to Constrain Interiors and Understanding Why They Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dederick, Ethan; JIVE (Jovian Interiors Velocimetry Experiment) in NM, JOVIAL (Jovian Oscillations through radial Velocimetry ImAging observations at several Longitudes

    2017-10-01

    Planetary oscillations are excellent tools for probing unknown properties about their respective interiors, particularly quantities that pertain to formation theories such as core size. Recently, there have been very suggestive indications of detections of oscillations on Jupiter, and several have been confirmed on Saturn. Saturn is a unique case for seismic exploration as its ring structures act as a global seismograph. The seismic signatures in the rings provide information on the frequency of oscillations, which we can exploit to probe Saturn’s interior. Here we describe a comprehensive approach to detecting and utilizing oscillations to constrain the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn. The aforementioned Saturnian oscillations have already been detected via spiral density structures in the C ring as inferred from Cassini occultation data. Jovian oscillations will be detected in the upcoming years with a global network of Doppler imaging spectrometers established by the JIVE in NM (Jovian Interiors Velocimetry Experiment) and JOVIAL (Jovian Oscillations through radial Velocimetry ImAging observations at several Longitudes) groups. This network of instrumentation is optimized for observing Jovian oscillations including a high duty cycle allowing for limited temporal interruptions and thus high precision frequency data. In addition, unlike most oscillating bodies, we are unaware of the excitation mechanism behind Jovian oscillations. Therefore, we also explore mode excitation mechanisms that can excite Jupiter’s oscillations, primarily moist convection in the atmosphere. We will show under what conditions moist convection can be responsible for mode excitation and what this reveals about thunderstorm density on Jupiter. In regards to Saturn, we apply adapted helioseismic concepts to understand its fundamental mode (f-mode) oscillations and develop the framework for Jupiter for once its mode data becomes available. We will show initial inversion results for Saturn

  5. Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A N; Mosekilde, E

    2002-01-01

    The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular...... feedback. We investigate the intra- and internephron entrainment of the two time scales. In addition to full synchronization, both wavelet analyses of experimental data and numerical simulations reveal a partial entrainment in which neighboring nephrons attain a state of chaotic synchronization...

  6. Collective oscillations in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, A I; Polovin, R V; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy: Collective Oscillations in a Plasma, Volume 7 presents specific topics within the general field of radio waves propagation. This book contains five chapters that address the theory of linear oscillations in a plasma, the spectra of the eigen oscillations, and the mechanism of high-frequency heating. The opening chapters deal with the self-consistent fields; development of initial perturbation; dispersion permittivity tensor of a plasma in a magnetic field; effect of thermal motion of particles on low-frequency resonances; excitation of

  7. Model of stochastic self-oscillation in Gunn diode oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocharov, E.P.; Korostelev, G.N.; Khripunov, M.V.

    1987-07-01

    The applicability of the two-mode nonlinear model of decay stochasticity for explanation of the transition from monochromatic self-oscillation to developed stochasticity in the Gunn diode oscillator is demonstrated. Numerical realizations of the basic regimes corresponding to various cases of consideration of the weak nonlinearity of the falling portion of the current-voltage characteristic are presented. A comparative analysis of calculation results of time realizations and experimentally observed oscillograms of stochastic regimes is performed.

  8. Oscillations in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...

  9. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  10. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  11. Long period oscillations in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorley, N.; Hnat, B.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Inglis, A. R.; Bakunina, I. A.

    2010-04-01

    Long period oscillations of the gyroresonant emission from sunspot atmospheres are studied. Time series data generated from the sequences of images obtained by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph operating at a frequency of 17 GHz for three sunspots have been analysed and are found to contain significant periods in the range of several tens of minutes. Wavelet analysis shows that these periods are persistent throughout the observation periods. The presence of the oscillations is confirmed by several methods (periodogram, wavelets, Fisher randomisation and empirical mode decomposition). Spatial analysis using the techniques of period, power, correlation and time lag mapping reveals regions of enhanced oscillatory power in the umbral regions. Also seen are two regions of coherent oscillation of about 25 pixels in size, that oscillate in anti-phase with each other. Possible interpretation of the observed periodicities is discussed, in terms of the shallow sunspot model and the leakage of the solar g-modes.

  12. Global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vincanne; Novotny, Thomas E; Leslie, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    A variety of shifts emergent with globalization, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in "Global Public Health," "Global Health Sciences," and "Global Health," are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in global health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the globalization of science and pharmaceutical research, and the use of militarized languages of biosecurity to recast public health programs. Using contemporary anthropological and international health literature, we offer a critical yet hopeful exploration of the implications of these shifts for critical inquiry, health, and the health professions.

  13. Building a Synthetic Transcriptional Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz-Schilling, Matthaeus; Kim, Jongmin; Cuba, Christian; Weitz, Maximilian; Franco, Elisa; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2016-01-01

    Reaction circuits mimicking genetic oscillators can be realized with synthetic, switchable DNA genes (so-called genelets), and two enzymes only, an RNA polymerase and a ribonuclease. The oscillatory behavior of the genelets is driven by the periodic production and degradation of RNA effector molecules. Here, we describe the preparation, assembly, and testing of a synthetic, transcriptional two-node negative-feedback oscillator, whose dynamics can be followed in real-time by fluorescence read-out.

  14. An Oscillating Magnet Watt Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmedov, H.

    2015-01-01

    We establish the principles for a new generation of simplified and accurate watt balances in which an oscillating magnet generates Faraday's voltage in a stationary coil. A force measuring system and a mechanism providing vertical movements of the magnet are completely independent in an oscillating magnet watt balance. This remarkable feature allows to establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by a one single experiment. Weak dependence on variations of environment...

  15. Chaotic macroscopic phases in one-dimensional oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Antonio; Pikovsky, Arkady; Ullner, Ekkehard

    2017-06-01

    The connection between the macroscopic description of collective chaos and the underlying microscopic dynamics is thoroughly analysed in mean-field models of one-dimensional oscillators. We investigate to what extent infinitesimal perturbations of the microscopic configurations can provide information also on the stability of the corresponding macroscopic phase. In ensembles of identical one-dimensional dynamical units, it is possible to represent the microscopic configurations so as to make transparent their connection with the macroscopic world. As a result, we find evidence of an intermediate, mesoscopic, range of distances, over which the instability is neither controlled by the microscopic equations nor by the macroscopic ones. We examine a whole series of indicators, ranging from the usual microscopic Lyapunov exponents, to the collective ones, including finite-amplitude exponents. A system of pulse-coupled oscillators is also briefly reviewed as an example of non-identical phase oscillators where collective chaos spontaneously emerges.

  16. Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.

  17. On the Relation between Chemical Oscillations and Self-Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, Erwan; Plateau, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    One proposed scenario for the emergence of biochemical oscillations is that they may have provided the basic mechanism behind cellular self-replication by growth and division. However, alternative scenarios not requiring any chemical oscillation have also been proposed. Each of the various protocell models proposed to support one or another scenario comes with its own set of specific assumptions, which makes it difficult to ascertain whether chemical oscillations are required or not for cellular self-replication. This article compares these two cases within a single whole-cell model framework. This model relies upon a membrane embedding a chemical reaction network (CRN) synthesizing all the cellular constituents, including the membrane, by feeding from an external nutrient. Assuming the osmolarity is kept constant, the system dynamics are governed by a set of nonlinear differential equations coupling the chemical concentrations and the surface-area-to-volume ratio. The resulting asymptotic trajectories are used to determine the cellular shape by minimizing the membrane bending energy (within an approximate predefined family of shapes). While the stationary case can be handled quite generally, the oscillatory one is investigated using a simple oscillating CRN example, which is used to identify features that are expected to hold for any network. It is found that cellular self-replication can be reached with or without chemical oscillations, and that a requirement common to both stationary and oscillatory cases is that a minimum spontaneous curvature of the membrane is required for the cell to divide once its area and volume are both doubled. The oscillatory case can result in a greater variety of cellular shape trajectories but raises additional constraints for cellular division and self-replication: (i) the ratio of doubling time to oscillation period should be an integer, and (ii) if the oscillation amplitude is sufficiently high, then the spontaneous curvature

  18. GLOBAL CRISIS AND ITS EFFECTS IN THE DEVELOPED AND EMERGENT COUNTRIES - “THE BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID” AS AN INNOVATION RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Shyle

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The economists forecast that in the next 5 years the average annual growth of the global economy will be smaller than the average rate in the past 15 years. This reinforce more than ever the problem of the restricted resources management and discovery of the best possible ways to improve and increase the population welfare. It is raised the question: To serve 5 milliard people in the world (with less than 2$ per day is: Moral responsability? High level of intelect? Business opportunity? Is it the time for companies to enter in the Bottom of the Pyramid markets? Is it the Bottom of the Pyramid the source of the innovation? Why are these markets attractive? Keywords: average annual growth, global economy, resources management, markets

  19. Guide to Nongovernmental Organizations for the Military. A primer for the military about private, voluntary, and nongovernmental organizations operating in humanitarian emergencies globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    educa on. NGOs are opera onal in almost every emergency around the world. NGOs generally need external  nancial support as well as technical...in a new sector or region. O en cannot o er substan al credibility with the general public; poten ally limited and stems the board�’s innate...mission or charter; can o en become too removed and lose in uence over NGO o cers and sta . Problema c if poor decision- making becomes common

  20. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-05-10

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes.

  1. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes. PMID:23663485

  2. On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-06-01

    We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  3. Mixed mode and sequential oscillations in the cerium-bromate-4-aminophenol photoreaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Jeffrey G.; Wang Jichang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    Cerium was introduced to the bromate-aminophenol photochemical oscillator to implement coupled autocatalytic feedbacks. Mixed mode and sequential oscillations emerged in the studied system, making it one of the few chemical oscillators known to support consecutive bifurcations in a batch system. The complex reaction behavior showed a strong dependence on the intensity of illumination supplied to the system. Removal of illumination during an oscillatory window affected both the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation but did not fully extinguish them, indicating that the cerium-bromate-4-aminophenol oscillator was photosensitive rather than photo-controlled. A moderate light intensity allowed for a slow evolution of the system, which proved to be critical for the emergence of transient complex oscillations. Variation of individual reaction parameters was carried out, which indicated that the development of complex oscillations occur in a narrow region and a phase diagram in the 4-aminophenol and sulfuric acid plane demonstrated this. Simulations provide strong support that transient complex oscillations observed experimentally arise from the coupling of two autocatalytic cycles.

  4. Mixed mode and sequential oscillations in the cerium-bromate-4-aminophenol photoreaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Jichang

    2013-09-01

    Cerium was introduced to the bromate-aminophenol photochemical oscillator to implement coupled autocatalytic feedbacks. Mixed mode and sequential oscillations emerged in the studied system, making it one of the few chemical oscillators known to support consecutive bifurcations in a batch system. The complex reaction behavior showed a strong dependence on the intensity of illumination supplied to the system. Removal of illumination during an oscillatory window affected both the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation but did not fully extinguish them, indicating that the cerium-bromate-4-aminophenol oscillator was photosensitive rather than photo-controlled. A moderate light intensity allowed for a slow evolution of the system, which proved to be critical for the emergence of transient complex oscillations. Variation of individual reaction parameters was carried out, which indicated that the development of complex oscillations occur in a narrow region and a phase diagram in the 4-aminophenol and sulfuric acid plane demonstrated this. Simulations provide strong support that transient complex oscillations observed experimentally arise from the coupling of two autocatalytic cycles.

  5. A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact cal...... oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.......Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact...... calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch...

  6. On the mechanism of oscillations in neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Barington, Torben; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2010-01-01

    of the external glucose concentration and the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production are 180 degrees out of phase with the oscillations in NAD(P)H. Cytochalasin B blocked the oscillations in shape and size whereas it increased the period of the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. 1- and 2-butanol also blocked...... the oscillations in shape and size, but only 1-butanol inhibited the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. We conjecture that the oscillations are likely to be due to feedback regulations in the signal transduction cascade involving phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). We have tested this using a simple mathematical......We have investigated the regulation of the oscillatory generation of H(2)O(2) and oscillations in shape and size in neutrophils in suspension. The oscillations are independent of cell density and hence do not represent a collective phenomena. Furthermore, the oscillations are independent...

  7. Emergence String and Mass Formulas of Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Assume that hadrons are formed from the emergence string. Usual string should possess two moving states: oscillation and rotation, so we propose corresponding potential and the equation of the emergence string, whose energy spectrum is namely the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. These are some relations between the string and observable experimental data.

  8. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  9. Universal, computer facilitated, steady state oscillator, closed loop analysis theory and some applications to precision oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzen, Benjamin

    1992-01-01

    The theory of oscillator analysis in the immittance domain should be read in conjunction with the additional theory presented here. The combined theory enables the computer simulation of the steady state oscillator. The simulation makes the calculation of the oscillator total steady state performance practical, including noise at all oscillator locations. Some specific precision oscillators are analyzed.

  10. Oscillations in the bistable regime of neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxin, Alex; Compte, Albert

    2016-07-01

    Bistability between attracting fixed points in neuronal networks has been hypothesized to underlie persistent activity observed in several cortical areas during working memory tasks. In network models this kind of bistability arises due to strong recurrent excitation, sufficient to generate a state of high activity created in a saddle-node (SN) bifurcation. On the other hand, canonical network models of excitatory and inhibitory neurons (E-I networks) robustly produce oscillatory states via a Hopf (H) bifurcation due to the E-I loop. This mechanism for generating oscillations has been invoked to explain the emergence of brain rhythms in the β to γ bands. Although both bistability and oscillatory activity have been intensively studied in network models, there has not been much focus on the coincidence of the two. Here we show that when oscillations emerge in E-I networks in the bistable regime, their phenomenology can be explained to a large extent by considering coincident SN and H bifurcations, known as a codimension two Takens-Bogdanov bifurcation. In particular, we find that such oscillations are not composed of a stable limit cycle, but rather are due to noise-driven oscillatory fluctuations. Furthermore, oscillations in the bistable regime can, in principle, have arbitrarily low frequency.

  11. Cosmology and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K.

    2008-06-01

    Exploring cosmological concepts and the emergence of life at astronomical scales offers valuable insight on the human role in global evolution. New dimensions of research await cognitive psychology and consciousness.

  12. Global emergency medicine journal club: a social media discussion about the Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Cutoff Levels To Rule Out Pulmonary Embolism trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Salim R; Swaminathan, Anand; Chan, Teresa; Shaikh, Sam; Lin, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with an educational Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Journal of the American Medical Association publication on the Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Cutoff Levels to Rule Out Pulmonary Embolism (ADJUST-PE) trial by Righini et al. The objective is to describe a 14-day (August 25 to September 7, 2014) worldwide academic dialogue among clinicians in regard to 4 preselected questions about the age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff to detect pulmonary embolism. Five online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and Google Hangout. Comments across the social media platforms were curated for this report, as framed by the 4 preselected questions, and engagement was tracked through various Web analytic tools. Blog and Twitter comments, as well as video expert commentary involving the ADJUST-PE trial, are summarized. The dialogue resulted in 1,169 page views from 391 cities in 52 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 502,485 Twitter impressions, and 159 views of the video interview with experts. A postdiscussion summary on the Journal Jam podcast resulted in 3,962 downloads in its first week of publication during September 16 to 23, 2014. Common themes that arose in the multimodal discussions included the heterogeneity of practices, D-dimer assays, provider knowledge about these assays, and prevalence rates in different areas of the world. This educational approach using social media technologies demonstrates a free, asynchronous means to engage a worldwide audience in scholarly discourse. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. WHO 1st Consultation on the Development of a Global Biodosimetry Laboratories Network for Radiation Emergencies (BioDoseNet). Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of 25 7 of 25 7 of 25; some ranged up to 1000 7 QA and QC compliance 3— ISO 9000/9001; 2— ISO /IEC 17026; 2— ISO 19238; 1— ISO 14001 ; 2—CLIA; 12—cus- tom...were re- viewed. In addition, extensive reliance on the use of the rele- vant International Standards Organization ( ISO ) standards was emphasized. The...to ensure prompt as- sistance in emergencies. International Standards Organization ( ISO ) Dr. Phillipe Voisin, Institut de Radioprotection et Sureté

  14. Origin of Magnetization Auto-Oscillations in Constriction-Based Spin Hall Nano-Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornik, Mykola; Awad, Ahmad A.; Åkerman, Johan

    2018-01-01

    We use micromagnetic simulations to map out and compare the linear and auto-oscillating modes in constriction-based spin Hall nano-oscillators as a function of the applied magnetic field with a varying magnitude and out-of-plane angle. We demonstrate that, for all possible applied field configurations, the auto-oscillations emerge from the localized linear modes of the constriction. For field directions tending towards the plane, these modes are of the so-called edge type, i.e., localized at the opposite edges of the constriction. By contrast, when the magnetization direction approaches the film normal, the modes transform to the so-called bulk type, i.e., localized inside the constriction with substantially increased precession volume, consistent with the redistribution of the magnetic charges from the edges to the top and bottom surfaces of the constriction. In general, the threshold current of the corresponding auto-oscillations increases with the applied field strength and decreases with its out-of-plane angle, consistent with the behavior of the internal field and in good agreement with a macrospin model. A quantitative agreement is then achieved by taking into account the strongly nonuniform character of the system via a mean-field approximation. Both the Oersted (Oe) field and the spin-transfer torque from the drive current increase the localization and decrease the frequency of the observed mode. Furthermore, the antisymmetric Oe field breaks the lateral symmetry, favoring the localized mode at one of the two constriction edges, particularly for large out-of-plane field angles where the threshold current is significantly increased and the edge demagnetization is suppressed.

  15. Examination of Satellite and Model Reanalysis Precipitation with Climate Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, T. F.; Houser, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of satellite and model reanalysis precipitation with climate oscillations. Specifically, we examine and compare the relationship between the Global Precipitation Climate Project (GPCP) with Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application, Version 2 (MERRA-2) in regards to four climate indices: The North Atlantic Oscillation, Southern Oscillation Index, the Southern Annular Mode and Solar Activity. This analysis covers a 35-year observation period from 1980 through 2015. We ask two questions: How is global and regional precipitation changing over the observation period, and how are global and regional variations in precipitation related to global climate variation? We explore and compare global and regional precipitation trends between the two data sets. To do this, we constructed a total of 56 Regions of Interest (ROI). Nineteen of the ROIs were focused on geographic regions including continents, ocean basins, and marginal seas. Twelve ROIs examine hemispheric processes. The remaining 26 regions are derived from spatial-temporal classification analysis of GPCP data over a ten-year period (2001-2010). These regions include the primary wet and dry monsoon regions, regions influenced by western boundary currents, and orography. We investigate and interpret the monthly, seasonal and yearly global and regional response to the selected climate indices. Initial results indicate that no correlation exist between the GPCP data and Merra-2 data. Preliminary qualitative assessment between GCPC and solar activity suggest a possible relationship in intra-annual variability. This work is performed under the State of the Global Water and Energy Cycle (SWEC) project, a NASA-sponsored program in support of NASA's Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS).

  16. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal populations are increasingly confronted with emerging and re-emerging infections and often such infections are exchanged between these populations, e.g. through food. A more effective and uniform approach to the prevention of these microbial threats is essential. The technological......-source systems. There is therefore an obvious need to develop a global system of whole microbial genome databases to aggregate, share, mine and use microbiological genomic data, to address global public health and clinical challenges, and most importantly to identify and diagnose infectious diseases. The global...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...

  17. Burst Oscillation Studies with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2017-08-01

    Type I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes observed from the surfaces of accreting neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries. Oscillations have been observed during the rise and/or decay of some of these X-ray bursts. Those seen during the rise can be well explained by a spreading hot spot model, but large amplitude oscillations in the decay phase remain mysterious because of the absence of a clear-cut source of asymmetry. Here we present the results of our computations of the light curves and amplitudes of oscillations in X-ray burst models that realistically account for both flame spreading and subsequent cooling. For the cooling phase of the burst we use two simple phenomenological models. The first considers asymmetric cooling that can achieve high amplitudes in the tail. The second considers a sustained temperature pattern on the stellar surface that is produced by r-modes propagating in the surface fluid ocean of the star. We will present some simulated burst light curves/spectra using these models and NICER response files, and will show the capabilities of NICER to detect and study burst oscillations. NICER will enable us to study burst oscillations in the energy band below ~3 keV, where there has been no previous measurements of these phenomena.

  18. Emergent organization of oscillator clusters in coupled self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional lattice. In this model, each element has its internal self-regulatory dynamics, whereby at fixed intervals of time the nonlinearity parameter at each site is adjusted by feedback from its past evolution. Additionally, the maps are coupled ...

  19. ALG-2 oscillates in subcellular localization, unitemporally with calcium oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Berchtold, Martin Werner

    2007-01-01

    discovered that the subcellular distribution of a tagged version of ALG-2 could be directed by physiological external stimuli (including ATP, EGF, prostaglandin, histamine), which provoke intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Cellular stimulation led to a redistribution of ALG-2 from the cytosol to a punctate...... localization in an oscillatory fashion unitemporally with Ca2+ oscillations, whereas a Ca2+-binding deficient mutant of ALG-2 did not redistribute. Using tagged ALG-2 as bait we identified its novel target protein Sec31A and based on the partial colocalization of endogenous ALG-2 and Sec31A we propose that ALG...

  20. Restoration of oscillation in network of oscillators in presence of direct and indirect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K. [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India); Bhowmick, Sourav K. [Department of Electronics, Asutosh College, Kolkata-700026 (India); Ghosh, Dibakar, E-mail: diba.ghosh@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India)

    2016-10-23

    The suppression of oscillations in coupled systems may lead to several unwanted situations, which requires a suitable treatment to overcome the suppression. In this paper, we show that the environmental coupling in the presence of direct interaction, which can suppress oscillation even in a network of identical oscillators, can be modified by introducing a feedback factor in the coupling scheme in order to restore the oscillation. We inspect how the introduction of the feedback factor helps to resurrect oscillation from various kinds of death states. We numerically verify the resurrection of oscillations for two paradigmatic limit cycle systems, namely Landau–Stuart and Van der Pol oscillators and also in generic chaotic Lorenz oscillator. We also study the effect of parameter mismatch in the process of restoring oscillation for coupled oscillators. - Highlights: • Amplitude death is observed using direct and indirect coupling. • Revival of oscillation using feedback parameter is discussed. • Restoration of oscillation is observed in limit cycle and chaotic systems.